WorldWideScience

Sample records for steam electric power

  1. LPGC, Levelized Steam Electric Power Generator Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coen, J.J.; Delene, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generation cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor. Costs for plant having either one or two units may be obtained. 2 - Method of solution: LPGC consists of nine individual menu-driven programs controlled by a driver program, MAINPWR. The individual programs are PLANTCAP, for calculating capital investment costs; NUCLOM, for determining operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for nuclear plants; COALOM, for computing O and M costs for coal-fired plants; NFUEL, for calculating levelized fuel costs for nuclear plants; COALCOST, for determining levelized fuel costs for coal-fired plants; FCRATE, for computing the fixed charge rate on the capital investment; LEVEL, for calculating levelized power generation costs; CAPITAL, for determining capitalized cost from overnight cost; and MASSGEN, for generating, deleting, or changing fuel cycle mass balance data for use with NFUEL. LPGC has three modes of operation. In the first, each individual code can be executed independently to determine one aspect of the total

  2. Improvements in steam cycle electric power generating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienvenu, Claude.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to a steam cycle electric energy generating plants of the type comprising a fossil or nuclear fuel boiler for generating steam and a turbo alternator group, the turbine of which is fed by the boiler steam. The improvement is characterized in that use is made of a second energy generating group in which a fluid (e.g. ammoniac) undergoes a condensation cycle the heat source of said cycle being obtained through a direct or indirect heat exchange with a portion of the boiler generated steam whereby it is possible without overloading the turbo-alternator group, to accomodate any increase of the boiler power resulting from the use of another fuel while maintaining a maximum energy output. This can be applied to electric power stations [fr

  3. Environmental codes of practice for steam electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    The Design Phase Code is one of a series of documents being developed for the steam electric power generation industry. This industry includes fossil-fuelled stations (gas, oil and coal-fired boilers), and nuclear-powered stations (CANDU heavy water reactors). In this document, environmental concerns associated with water-related and solid waste activities of steam electric plants are discussed. Design recommendations are presented that will minimize the detrimental environmental effects of once-through cooling water systems, of wastewaters discharged to surface waters and groundwaters, and of solid waste disposal sites. Recommendations are also presented for the design of water-related monitoring systems and programs. Cost estimates associated with the implementation of these recommendations are included. These technical guides for new or modified steam electric stations are the result to consultation with a federal-provincial-industry task force

  4. Steam generator replacement at Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, S.; Dodo, Takashi; Negishi, Kazuo

    1995-01-01

    Eleven nuclear units are in operation at the Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc.. In seven of them, Mihama-1·2·3, Takahama-1·2, and Ohi-1·2, comparatively long duration for tube inspection and repair have been required during late annual outages. KEPCO decided to replace all steam generators in these 7 units with the latest model which was improved upon the past degradation experiences, as a result of comprehensive considerations including public confidence in nuclear power generation, maintenability, and economic efficiency. This report presents the design improvements in new steam generators, replacement techniques, and so on. (author)

  5. Kawasaki steam power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Co. and an example of geothermal power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-01-01

    The first part of this discussion is devoted to a description of the Kawasaki steam power plant, installed by Tokyo Electric Co. to supply electricity to the Keihin industrial area. The output is 700 MW and it possesses a thermal efficiency of 36.9%. The plant is operated automatically by remote control. The latter section describes the status of a geothermal power station in Hakone. It outlines the steam distribution piping, the steam itself, the turbine and vapor/water separation equipment. With regard to technical problems, it is suggested that old wells having weak pressure can be restored by self-cleaning and that further improvement can be brought about by dynamiting the base of the borehole.

  6. CDIO – The steam engine powering the electric grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træholt, Chresten; Holbøll, Joachim; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    In building the new DTU B.Eng programme [1] one of the pilots on the 4’th semester is the Design-build project course in Electric Energy Systems. In this course, which is the last Designbuild course many of the CDIO Syllabus bullets [2] are addressed starting with problem identification and formu......In building the new DTU B.Eng programme [1] one of the pilots on the 4’th semester is the Design-build project course in Electric Energy Systems. In this course, which is the last Designbuild course many of the CDIO Syllabus bullets [2] are addressed starting with problem identification...... and formulation, experimental inquiry and modelling, finally leading to planning and solution. The goal is to acquire the skills that are needed for an engineer within electric power engineering to analyse a given task, define the necessary steps to solve the task, organize him/her self and others and finally...... solve the task with success. The concrete work is built up around a miniaturized electric energy system powered by a steam engine. The system mimics an essential sub-section of a real electric power system. The process is realised with a combination of optional lectures, optional exercises, 3 set...

  7. 78 FR 41907 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Steam Electric Power Generating Point...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 423 [EPA-HQ-OW-2009-0819. FRL-9832-7; EPA-HQ-RCRA-2013-0209] RIN 2040-AF14 Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Steam Electric Power... proposed rule entitled, ``Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Steam Electric Power...

  8. Electric power generating plant having direct-coupled steam and compressed-air cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, M.K.

    1981-01-07

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  9. Electric power generating plant having direct coupled steam and compressed air cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Monte K.

    1982-01-01

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  10. Procedure for estimating nonfuel operation and maintenance costs for large steam-electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, M.L.; Fuller, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    Revised guidelines are presented for estimating annual nonfuel operation and maintenance costs for large steam-electric power plants, specifically light-water-reactor plants and coal-fired plants. Previous guidelines were published in October 1975 in ERDA 76-37, a Procedure for Estimating Nonfuel Operating and Maintenance Costs for Large Steam-Electric Power Plants. Estimates for coal-fired plants include the option of limestone slurry scrubbing for flue gas desulfurization. A computer program, OMCOST, is also presented which covers all plant options

  11. 75 FR 82414 - Carolina Power & Light Company; H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-261; NRC-2010-0062] Carolina Power & Light Company; H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light... authorizes operation of the H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit 2 (HBRSEP). The license provides, among...

  12. 75 FR 11579 - Carolina Power & Light Company H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-261; NRC-2010-0062] Carolina Power & Light Company H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light... of the H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit 2 (HBRSEP). The license provides, among other things...

  13. Commercial Nuclear Steam-Electric Power Plants, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Ferdinand J.

    1974-01-01

    Presents the pros and cons of nuclear power systems. Includes a discussion of the institutional status of the AEC, AEC regulatory record, routine low-level radiation hazards, transport of radioactive materials, storage of wastes, and uranium resources and economics of supply. (GS)

  14. Mechanical problems in turbomachines, steam and gas turbines. Large steam turbine manufacturing requirements to fulfill customer needs for electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazzini, R.

    1975-01-01

    The needs of the customers in large steam turbines for electric power are examined. The choices and decisions made by the utility about the equipments are dealt with after considering the evolution of power demand on the French network. These decisions and choices mainly result from a technical and economic optimization of production equipments: choice of field-proven solutions, trend to lower steam characteristics, trend to higher output of the units (i.e. size effect), spreading out standardization of machines and components (policy of technical as well as technological levels, i.e. mass production effect). Standardization of external characteristics of units of same level of output and even standardization of some main components. The requirements turbine manufacturers have to meet may fall in two categories: on one side: gaining experience and know-how, capability of making high quality experiments, out put capacity, will to hold a high efficiency level; on the other side: meeting the technical requirements related to the contracts. Among these requirements, one can differentiate those dealing with the service expected from the turbine and that resulting in the responsibility limits of the manufacturer and those tending to gain interchangeability, to improve availability of the equipment, to increase safety, and to make operation and maintenance easier [fr

  15. 76 FR 66333 - Carolina Power & Light Company, H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-261; NRC-2011-0247] Carolina Power & Light Company, H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant... Facility Operating License No. DPR-23, issued to Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee), for...

  16. Fish protection at steam-electric power plants: alternative screening devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Since the enactment of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, very few innovations have surfaced that advance the state of intake technology for fish protection at steam-electric power plants. After careful examination of basic hydrology, hydraulics, and ecology of the source water body is completed and after a suitable location for the intake is established, the design process reduces to the development of proper screening techniques and to the provision of a means of preventing resident and migratory species from entering the intake structure. As a result of this design process, three basic fish protection concepts have evolved: fish deterrence, fish collection and removal, and fish diversion. Intake screening devices that protect fish are discussed

  17. 76 FR 77022 - In the Matter of Carolina Power & Light Company, H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... and 72-3] In the Matter of Carolina Power & Light Company, H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2, H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Order Approving Indirect Transfer of Control of Licenses I. Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L, the licensee) is...

  18. 75 FR 8753 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Dusenbury of the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources regarding the environmental... & Light Company, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No... identification of licensing and regulatory actions requiring environmental assessments,'' the NRC prepared an...

  19. Steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.E.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to power plant forced flow boilers operating with water letdown. The letdown water is arranged to deliver heat to partly expanded steam passing through a steam reheater connected between two stages of the prime mover. (U.K.)

  20. An autonomous nuclear power plant with integrated nuclear steam supply system designed for electric power and heat supply in remote areas with difficult access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, L.A.; Grechko, G.I.; Lapin, B.D.; Ulasevich, V.K.; Shishkin, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    The paper contains basic conceptual principles used to develop the technical assignment for an autonomous nuclear power plant with integrated nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) designed to provide heat and electricity for areas which are remote with difficult access. The paper also describes technical procedures and equipment, NPP thermal hydraulic flow chart, steam generator design, safety aspects as well as operational and maintenance procedures. (author)

  1. Evaluation of material integrity on electricity power steam generator cycles (turbine casing) component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histori; Benedicta; Farokhi; S A, Soedardjo; Triyadi, Ari; Natsir, M

    1999-01-01

    The evaluation of material integrity on power steam generator cycles component was done. The test was carried out on casing turbine which is made from Inconel 617. The tested material was taken from t anjung Priok plant . The evaluation was done by metallography analysis using microscope with magnification of 400. From the result, it is shown that the material grains are equiaxed

  2. Impact of a 1,000-foot thermal mixing zone on the steam electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    Thermal discharge requirements for power plants using once-through cooling systems are based on state water quality standards for temperatures that must be met outside of designated mixing zones. This study evaluates the impact of limiting the extent of thermal mixing zones. This study evaluates the impact of limiting the extent of thermal mixing zones to no more than 1,000 feet from the discharge point. Data were collected from 79 steam electric plants. Of the plants currently using once-through cooling systems, 74% could not meet current thermal standards at the edge of a 1,000-foot mixing zone. Of this total, 68% would retrofit cooling towers, and 6% would retrofit diffusers. The estimated nationwide capital cost for retrofitting plants that could not meet current thermal standards at the edge of a 1,000-foot mixing zone is $21.4 billion. Conversion of a plant from once-through cooling to cooling towers or addition of diffusers would result in a lower energy output from that plant. For the affected plants, the total estimated replacement cost would be $370 to $590 million per year. Some power companies would have to construct new generating capacity to meet the increased energy demand. The estimated nationwide cost of this additional capacity would be $1.2 to $4.8 billion. In addition to the direct costs associated with compliance with a 1,000-foot mixing zone limit, other secondary environmental impacts would also occur. Generation of the additional power needed would increase carbon dioxide emissions by an estimated 8.3 million tons per year. In addition, conversion from once-through cooling systems to cooling towers at affected plants would result in increased evaporation of about 2.7 million gallons of water per minute nationwide

  3. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 11: Advanced steam systems. [energy conversion efficiency for electric power plants using steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A parametric analysis was made of three types of advanced steam power plants that use coal in order to have a comparison of the cost of electricity produced by them a wide range of primary performance variables. Increasing the temperature and pressure of the steam above current industry levels resulted in increased energy costs because the cost of capital increased more than the fuel cost decreased. While the three plant types produced comparable energy cost levels, the pressurized fluidized bed boiler plant produced the lowest energy cost by the small margin of 0.69 mills/MJ (2.5 mills/kWh). It is recommended that this plant be designed in greater detail to determine its cost and performance more accurately than was possible in a broad parametric study and to ascertain problem areas which will require development effort. Also considered are pollution control measures such as scrubbers and separates for particulate emissions from stack gases.

  4. Electricity from geothermal steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheatcroft, E L.E.

    1959-01-01

    The development of the power station at Wairakei geothermal field is described. Wairakei is located at the center of New Zealand's volcanic belt, which lies within a major graben which is still undergoing some degree of downfaulting. A considerable number of wells, some exceeding 610 m, have been drilled. Steam and hot water are produced from both deep and shallow wells, which produce at gauge pressures of 1.5 MPa and 0.6 MPa, respectively. The turbines are fed by low, intermediate, and high pressure mains. The intermediate pressure turbine bank was installed as a replacement for a heavy water production facility which had originally been planned for the development. Stage 1 includes a 69 MW plant, and stage 2 will bring the capacity to 150 MW. A third stage, which would bring the output up to 250 MW had been proposed. The second stage involves the installation of more high pressure steam turbines, while the third stage would be powered primarily by hot water flashing. Generation is at 11 kV fed to a two-section 500 MVA board. Each section of the board feeds through a 40 MVA transformer to a pair of 220 V transmission lines which splice into the North Island grid. Other transformers feed 400 V auxiliaries and provide local supply.

  5. 1300MVA steam-turbine generators for Kansai Electric Power's Oi Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, N; Amagasa, N; Ito, H; Yagi, K [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Kobe (Japan). Kobe Works

    1977-06-01

    Mitsubishi Electric has completed two 1300 MVA generators, equipped with 5500kW brushless exciters, that will be the No. 1 and No. 2 generators of the Oi plant. They are among the largest anywhere, and incorporate such technological innovations as water cooling of the stator coil and asymmetrical arrangement of the rotor slots. The article discusses generator specifications and construction, the brushless exciter, and the results of factory tests.

  6. Technical evaluation report on the monitoring of electric power to the reactor-protection system for the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selan, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the monitoring of electric power to the reactor protection system (RPS) at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2. The evaluation is to determine if the proposed design modification will protect the RPS from abnormal voltage and frequency conditions which could be supplied from the power supplies and will meet certain requirements set forth by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed design modifications with time delays verified by GE, will protect the RPS from sustained abnormal voltage and frequency conditions from the supplying sources

  7. Study of the European market for industrial nuclear power plants for the mixed production of electricity and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The opportunity of developing the mixed production of electricity and steam from nuclear power plants in the nine countries of the European Community is studied. Both public distribution and autonomous production are envisaged. An attempt is made to estimate the potentiel market for district heating and for chemical, agricultural and alimentary, textile, paper, car manufacture and wood industries. The reactors considered are LWR reactors of at least 1000MWth. Suggestions are given to overcome the difficulties and constraints that stand in the way of a nuclear solution [fr

  8. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir

  9. Impact on the steam electric power industry of deleting Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act: Capital costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Many power plants discharge large volumes of cooling water. In some cases, the temperature of the discharge exceeds state thermal requirements. Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) allows a thermal discharger to demonstrate that less stringent thermal effluent limitations would still protect aquatic life. About 32% of total US steam electric generating capacity operates under Section 316(a) variances. In 1991, the US Senate proposed legislation that would delete Section 316(a) from the CWA. This study, presented in two companion reports, examines how this legislation would affect the steam electric power industry. This report describes alternatives available to nuclear and coal-fired plants currently operating under variances. Data from 38 plants representing 14 companies are used to estimate the national cost of implementing such alternatives. Although there are other alternatives, most affected plants would be retrofitted with cooling towers. Assuming that all plants currently operating under variances would install cooling towers, the national capital cost estimate for these retrofits ranges from $22.7 billion to $24.4 billion (in 1992 dollars). The second report quantitatively and qualitatively evaluates the energy and environmental impacts of deleting the variance. Little justification has been found for removing the Section 316(a) variance from the CWA

  10. Italian steam power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Rautenkranz, J

    1939-01-01

    A brief history of geothermal power production in Italy is presented. Boric acid has been produced on an industrial scale since 1818. The first electrical power was generated in 1904, and by 1939 the output of geothermal power plants had reached 500 GWh, with major expansion of facilities planned.

  11. Improved HYLIFE-II heat transport system and steam power plant: Impact on performance and cost of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.A.; Lee, Ying T.

    1992-12-01

    The HYLIFE-II conceptual design has evolved and improved continually over the past four years to its present form. This paper describes the latest FY92 versions, Reference Case H1 (nominally 1 GWe net output) and the Enhanced Case HE (nominally 2 GWe net output), which take advantage of improvements in the tritium management system to eliminate the intermediate loop and the intermediate heat exchangers (IHX's). The improvements in the heat transport system and the steam power plant are described and the resulting cost reductions are evaluated. The new estimated cost of electricity (in 1990 dollars) is 6.6 cents/kWh for Reference Case H1 and 4.7 cents/kWh for the Enhanced Case

  12. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 5: Combined gas-steam turbine cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Foster-Pegg, R. W.; Lee, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The energy conversion efficiency of gas-steam turbine cycles was investigated for selected combined cycle power plants. Results indicate that it is possible for combined cycle gas-steam turbine power plants to have efficiencies several point higher than conventional steam plants. Induction of low pressure steam into the steam turbine is shown to improve the plant efficiency. Post firing of the boiler of a high temperature combined cycle plant is found to increase net power but to worsen efficiency. A gas turbine pressure ratio of 12 to 1 was found to be close to optimum at all gas turbine inlet temperatures that were studied. The coal using combined cycle plant with an integrated low-Btu gasifier was calculated to have a plant efficiency of 43.6%, a capitalization of $497/kW, and a cost of electricity of 6.75 mills/MJ (24.3 mills/kwh). This combined cycle plant should be considered for base load power generation.

  13. Alternatives to electrical cogeneration: The direct application of steam engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    Although small to medium sized industrial facilities are aware of electrical cogeneration, often they are too small for it to be economically justifiable. The direct application of steam turbine power to equipment formerly powered by electric motors, can allow them to use steam capacity to reduce electrical demand and consumption, bypassing cogeneration. Cogeneration converts the heat energy of steam into circular mechanical motion and then converts the circular mechanical motion into electricity. Each conversion entails a loss of energy due to friction and other conversion losses. A substantial amount of the generated electricity is then converted back into circular motion with electric motors, again incurring energy losses. Directly applying the mechanical motion of turbines eliminates both the motion-to-electricity (generator) and the electricity-to-motion (motor) conversion losses. Excess steam capacity during the summer is not unusual for facilities that use steam to provide winter heating. Similarly, most of these facilities experience a large electrical demand peak during the cooling season due to the electricity needed to operate centrifugal chillers. Steam capacity via a turbine to power the chillers can allow the boilers to operate at a higher loading while reducing electrical consumption and demand precisely those periods when demand reduction is most needed. In facilities where the steam generating capacity is sufficient, air compressors provide an appropriate year-round application for turbine power. This paper is the result of an on-going project by the Energy Division, State of North Carolina, Department of Economic and Community Development, in conjunction with the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. The objective of this project is to educate the operating engineers and managers of small to medium sized manufacturing facilities on the technical application and economic justification of steam turbine power

  14. Global freshwater thermal emissions from steam-electric power plants with once-through cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raptis, Catherine E.; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of heat are rejected into freshwater bodies from power plants employing once-through cooling systems, often leading to temperature increases that disturb aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this work was to produce a high resolution global picture of power-related freshwater thermal emissions and to analyse the technological, geographical and chronological patterns behind them. The Rankine cycle was systematically solved for ∼2400 generating units with once-through cooling systems, distinguishing between simple and cogenerative cycles, giving the rejected heat as a direct output. With large unit sizes, low efficiencies, and high capacity factors, nuclear power plants reject 3.7 GW heat into freshwater on average, contrasting with 480 MW rejected from coal and gas power plants. Together, nuclear and coal-fuelled power plants from the 1970s and 1980s account for almost 50% of the rejected heat worldwide, offering motivation for their phasing out in the future. Globally, 56% of the emissions are rejected into rivers, pointing to potential areas of high thermal pollution, with the rest entering lakes and reservoirs. The outcome of this work can be used to further investigate the identified thermal emission hotspots, and to calculate regionalized water temperature increase and related impacts in environmental, energy-water nexus studies and beyond. - Highlights: • The thermodynamic cycles of ∼2400 power units with once-through cooling were solved. • Global freshwater heat emissions depend on technology, geography & chronology. • Half the global emissions come from nuclear and coal plants from the 70s & 80s. • Hotspots of freshwater thermal emissions were identified globally. • Global georeferenced emissions are available for use in water temperature models.

  15. Sourcing of Steam and Electricity for Carbon Capture Retrofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, Sarang D; Skerlos, Steven J

    2017-11-07

    This paper compares different steam and electricity sources for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) retrofits of pulverized coal (PC) and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants. Analytical expressions for the thermal efficiency of these power plants are derived under 16 different CCS retrofit scenarios for the purpose of illustrating their environmental and economic characteristics. The scenarios emerge from combinations of steam and electricity sources, fuel used in each source, steam generation equipment and process details, and the extent of CO 2 capture. Comparing these scenarios reveals distinct trade-offs between thermal efficiency, net power output, levelized cost, profit, and net CO 2 reduction. Despite causing the highest loss in useful power output, bleeding steam and extracting electric power from the main power plant to meet the CCS plant's electricity and steam demand maximizes plant efficiency and profit while minimizing emissions and levelized cost when wholesale electricity prices are below 4.5 and 5.2 US¢/kWh for PC-CCS and NGCC-CCS plants, respectively. At prices higher than these higher profits for operating CCS retrofits can be obtained by meeting 100% of the CCS plant's electric power demand using an auxiliary natural gas turbine-based combined heat and power plant.

  16. Waste to Energy Conversion by Stepwise Liquefaction, Gasification and "Clean" Combustion of Pelletized Waste Polyethylene for Electric Power Generation---in a Miniature Steam Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi Anaraki, Saber

    The amounts of waste plastics discarded in developed countries are increasing drastically, and most are not recycled. The small fractions of the post-consumer plastics which are recycled find few new uses as their quality is degraded; they cannot be reused in their original applications. However, the high energy density of plastics, similar to that of premium fuels, combined with the dwindling reserves of fossil fuels make a compelling argument for releasing their internal energy through combustion, converting it to thermal energy and, eventually, to electricity through a heat engine. To minimize the emission of pollutants this energy conversion is done in two steps, first the solid waste plastics undergo pyrolytic gasification and, subsequently, the pyrolyzates (a mixture of hydrocarbons and hydrogen) are blended with air and are burned "cleanly" in a miniature power plant. This plant consists of a steam boiler, a steam engine and an electricity generator.

  17. Digital implementation, simulation and tests in MATLAB of the models of Steam line, the turbines, the pressure regulator of a BWR type nucleo electric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez R, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this phase of the project they were carried out exhaustive tests to the models of the steam lines, turbines and pressure regulator of a BWR type nucleo electric central for to verify that their tendencies and behaviors are it more real possible. For it, it was necessary to also analyze the transfer functions of the different components along the steam line until the power generator. Such models define alone the dominant poles of the system, what is not limitation to reproduce a wide range of anticipated transitoriness of a power station operation. In the same manner, it was integrated and proved the integrated model form with the models of feeding water of the SUN-RAH, simulating the nuclear reactor starting from predetermined entrances of the prospective values of the vessel. Also it was coupled with the graphic interface developed with the libraries DirectX implementing a specific monitoring panel for this system. (Author)

  18. Shiraz solar power plant operation with steam engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaghoubi, M.; Azizian, K.

    2004-01-01

    The present industrial developments and daily growing need of energy, as well as economical and environmental problem caused by fossil fuels consumption, resulted certain constraint for the future demand of energy. During the past two decades great attention has been made to use renewable energy for different sectors. In this regard for the first time in Iran, design and construction of a 250 K W Solar power plant in Shiraz, Iran is being carried out and it will go to operation within next year. The important elements of this power plant is an oil cycle and a steam cycle, and several studies have been done about design and operation of this power plant, both for steady state and transient conditions. For the steam cycle, initially a steam turbine was chosen and due to certain limitation it has been replaced by a steam engine. The steam engine is able to produce electricity with hot or saturated vapor at different pressures and temperatures. In this article, the effects of installing a steam engine and changing its vapor inlet pressure and also the effects of sending hot or saturated vapor to generate electricity are studied. Various cycle performance and daily electricity production are determined. The effects of oil cycle temperature on the collector field efficiency, and daily, monthly and annual amount of electricity production is calculated. Results are compared with the steam cycle output when it contains a steam turbine. It is found that with a steam engine it is possible to produce more annual electricity for certain conditions

  19. Impact on the steam electric power industry of deleting Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act: Energy and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Folga, S.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Many power plants discharge large volumes of cooling water. In some cases, the temperature of the discharge exceeds state thermal requirements. Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) allows a thermal discharger to demonstrate that less stringent thermal effluent limitations would still protect aquatic life. About 32% of the total steam electric generating capacity in the United States operates under Section 316(a) variances. In 1991, the US Senate proposed legislation that would delete Section 316(a) from the CWA. This study, presented in two companion reports, examines how this legislation would affect the steam electric power industry. This report quantitatively and qualitatively evaluates the energy and environmental impacts of deleting the variance. No evidence exists that Section 316(a) variances have caused any widespread environmental problems. Conversion from once-through cooling to cooling towers would result in a loss of plant output of 14.7-23.7 billion kilowatt-hours. The cost to make up the lost energy is estimated at $12.8-$23.7 billion (in 1992 dollars). Conversion to cooling towers would increase emission of pollutants to the atmosphere and water loss through evaporation. The second report describes alternatives available to plants that currently operate under the variance and estimates the national cost of implementing such alternatives. Little justification has been found for removing the 316(a) variance from the CWA

  20. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 7: Metal vapor Rankine topping-steam bottoming cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, P. B.

    1976-01-01

    Adding a metal vapor Rankine topper to a steam cycle was studied as a way to increase the mean temperature at which heat is added to the cycle to raise the efficiency of an electric power plant. Potassium and cesium topping fluids were considered. Pressurized fluidized bed or pressurized (with an integrated low-Btu gasifier) boilers were assumed. Included in the cycles was a pressurizing gas turbine with its associated recuperator, and a gas economizer and feedwater heater. One of the ternary systems studied shows plant efficiency of 42.3% with a plant capitalization of $66.7/kW and a cost of electricity of 8.19 mills/MJ (29.5 mills/kWh).

  1. Steam turbines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyak, Yu.F.

    1978-01-01

    Considered are the peculiarities of the design and operation of steam turbines, condensers and supplementary equipment of steam turbines for nuclear power plants; described are the processes of steam flow in humid-steam turbines, calculation and selection principles of main parameters of heat lines. Designs of the turbines installed at the Charkov turbine plant are described in detail as well as of those developed by leading foreign turbobuilding firms

  2. Quantitative indexes of gas-steam thermo electrical power plants thermodynamical cycles; Indices quantitativos de ciclos termodinamicos de centrais termoeletricas de gas-vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlassov, D.; Vargas, J.V.C. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: vlassov@demec.ufpr.br; jvargas@demec.ufpr.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper analyses various thermal schemes of the world wide most used cycles in gas-steam thermoelectric power plants. The combination of gas turbine cycle with the steam-gas cycle in thermoelectric power plants is performed in several ways, resulting in different thermal schemes, used equipment and operation plant basic characteristics. The thermal scheme of a gas-steam power plant is a determinant factor for the definition of energetic, economic and ecological characteristics. For the comparative analysis various quantitative indexes are presented, as for example: the heat fraction supplied to the gas turbine cycle and the cycle binary rate.

  3. Cycle improvement for nuclear steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestri, G.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A pressure-increasig ejector element is disposed in an extraction line intermediate to a high pressure turbine element and a feedwater heater. The ejector utilizes high pressure fluid from a reheater drain as the motive fluid to increase the pressure at which the extraction steam is introduced into the feedwater heater. The increase in pressure of the extraction steam entering the feedwater heater due to the steam passage through the ejector increases the heat exchange capability of the extraction steam thus increasing the overall steam power plant efficiency

  4. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Susquehanna Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2. Docket Nos. 50-387 and 50-388, Pennsylvania Power and Light Company and Allegheny Electric Cooperative, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    In April 1981, the staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued its Safety Evaluation Report (NUREG-0776) regarding the application of the Pennsylvania Power and Light Company (the licensee) and the Allegheny Electric Cooperative, Inc. (co-licensee) for licenses to operate the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2, located on a site in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. Supplement 1, issued in June 1981, addressed outstanding issues. Supplement 2, issued in September 1981, contains the ACRS Report and responses. Supplement 3, issued in July 1982, contains the resolution to five items previously identified as open and closes them out. On July 17, 1982, License NPF-14 was issued to allow Unit 1 operation at power levels not to exceed 5% of rated power. This supplement discusses the resolution of several license conditions that have been met

  5. Evaluation of material integrity on electricity generator water steam cycles component (Main Steam Pipe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudardjo; Histori; Triyadi, Ari

    1998-01-01

    The evaluation of material integrity on electricity generator component has been done. That component was main steam pipe of Unit II Suralaya Coal Fired Power Plant. evaluation was done by replication technique. The damage was found are two porosity's, from two point samples of six points sample population. Based on cavity evaluation in steels, which proposed by Neubauer and Wedel that porosity's still at class A damage. For class A damage, its means no remedial action would be required until next major scheduled maintenance outage. That porosity's was grouped on isolated cavities and not need ti repair that main steam pipe component less than three year after replication test

  6. Water regime of steam power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesz, Janos

    2011-01-01

    The water regime of water-steam thermal power plants (secondary side of pressurized water reactors (PWR); fossil-fired thermal power plants - referred to as steam power plants) has changed in the past 30 years, due to a shift from water chemistry to water regime approach. The article summarizes measures (that have been realised by chemists of NPP Paks) on which the secondary side of NPP Paks has become a high purity water-steam power plant and by which the water chemistry stress corrosion risk of heat transfer tubes in the VVER-440 steam generators was minimized. The measures can also be applied to the water regime of fossil-fired thermal power plants with super- and subcritical steam pressure. Based on the reliability analogue of PWR steam generators, water regime can be defined as the harmony of construction, material(s) and water chemistry, which needs to be provided in not only the steam generators (boiler) but in each heat exchanger of steam power plant: - Construction determines the processes of flow, heat and mass transfer and their local inequalities; - Material(s) determines the minimal rate of general corrosion and the sensitivity for local corrosion damage; - Water chemistry influences the general corrosion of material(s) and the corrosion products transport, as well as the formation of local corrosion environment. (orig.)

  7. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  8. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO 2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint

  9. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  10. Gas--steam turbine combined cycle power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1978-10-01

    The purpose of this technology evaluation is to provide performance and cost characteristics of the combined gas and steam turbine, cycle system applied to an Integrated Community Energy System (ICES). To date, most of the applications of combined cycles have been for electric power generation only. The basic gas--steam turbine combined cycle consists of: (1) a gas turbine-generator set, (2) a waste-heat recovery boiler in the gas turbine exhaust stream designed to produce steam, and (3) a steam turbine acting as a bottoming cycle. Because modification of the standard steam portion of the combined cycle would be necessary to recover waste heat at a useful temperature (> 212/sup 0/F), some sacrifice in the potential conversion efficiency is necessary at this temperature. The total energy efficiency ((electric power + recovered waste heat) divided by input fuel energy) varies from about 65 to 73% at full load to 34 to 49% at 20% rated electric power output. Two major factors that must be considered when installing a gas--steam turbine combines cycle are: the realiability of the gas turbine portion of the cycle, and the availability of liquid and gas fuels or the feasibility of hooking up with a coal gasification/liquefaction process.

  11. Soviet steam generator technology: fossil fuel and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosengaus, J.

    1987-01-01

    In the Soviet Union, particular operational requirements, coupled with a centralized planning system adopted in the 1920s, have led to a current technology which differs in significant ways from its counterparts elsewhere in the would and particularly in the United States. However, the monograph has a broader value in that it traces the development of steam generators in response to the industrial requirements of a major nation dealing with the global energy situation. Specifically, it shows how Soviet steam generator technology evolved as a result of changing industrial requirements, fuel availability, and national fuel utilization policy. The monograph begins with a brief technical introduction focusing on steam-turbine power plants, and includes a discussion of the Soviet Union's regional power supply (GRES) networks and heat and power plant (TETs) systems. TETs may be described as large central co-generating stations which, in addition to electricity, provide heat in the form of steam and hot water. Plants of this type are a common feature of the USSR today. The adoption of these cogeneration units as a matter of national policy has had a central influence on Soviet steam generator technology which can be traced throughout the monograph. The six chapters contain: a short history of steam generators in the USSR; steam generator design and manufacture in the USSR; boiler and furnace assemblies for fossil fuel-fired power stations; auxiliary components; steam generators in nuclear power plants; and the current status of the Soviet steam generator industry. Chapters have been abstracted separately. A glossary is included containing abbreviations and acronyms of USSR organizations. 26 references

  12. Steam generators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillequin, Jean

    1975-01-01

    The role and the general characteristics of steam generators in nuclear power plants are indicated, and particular types are described according to the coolant nature (carbon dioxide, helium, light water, heavy water, sodium) [fr

  13. Simulation of steam-water and binary geothermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popel', O.S.; Frid, S.E.; Shpil'rajn, Eh.Eh.

    2004-01-01

    The generalized scheme of the geothermal power plant (GeoPP), assuming the possibility of the electric power production in the steam-water turbine or in the turbine on the low-boiling working body, is considered. The GeoPP mathematical model, making it possible to carry out the comparison of the power indices of various GeoPP schemes and analysis of the calculational indices sensitivity of these schemes to the mode parameters change, is presented [ru

  14. Steam generator replacement at the Obrigheim nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickel, E.; Schenk, H.; Huemmler, A.

    1984-01-01

    The Obrigheim Nuclear Power Station (KWO) is equipped with a dual-loop pressurized water reactor of 345 MW electric power; it was built by Siemens in the period 1965 to 1968. By the end of 1983, KWO had produced some 35 billion kWh in 109,000 hours of operation. Repeated leaks in the heater tubes of the two steam generators had occurred since 1971. Both steam generators were replaced in the course of the 1983 annual revision. Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) was commissioned to plant and carry out the replacement work. Despite the leakages the steam generators had been run safely and reliably over a period of 14 years until their replacement. Replacing the steam generators was completed within twelve weeks. In addition to the KWO staff and the supervising crew of KWU, some 400 external fitters were employed on the job at peak work-load periods. For the revision of the whole plant, work on the emergency systems and replacement of the steam generators a maximum number of approx. 900 external fitters were employed in the plant in addition to some 250 members of the plant crew. The exposure dose of the personnel sustained in the course of the steam generator replacement was 690 man-rem, which was clearly below previous estimates. (orig.) [de

  15. Steam generator replacement at Surry Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    The purposes of the steam generator repair program at Surry Power Station were to repair the tube degradation caused by corrosion-related phenomena and to restore the integrity of the steam generators to a level equivalent to new equipment. The repair program consisted of (1) replacing the existing lower-shell assemblies with new ones and (2) adding new moisture separation equipment to the upper-shell assemblies. These tasks required that several pieces of reactor coolant piping, feedwater piping, main steam piping, and the steam generator be cut and refurbished for reinstallation after the new lower shell was in place. The safety implications and other potential effects of the repair program both during the repair work and after the unit was returned to power were part of the design basis of the repair program. The repair program has been completed on Unit 2 without any adverse effects on the health and safety of the general public or to the personnel engaged in the repair work. Before the Unit 1 repair program began, a review of work procedures and field changes for the Unit 2 repair was conducted. Several major changes were made to avoid recurrence of problems and to streamline procedures. Steam generator replacements was completed on June 1, 1981, and the unit is presently in the startup phase of the outrage

  16. Modular steam generator for use in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cella, A.

    1979-01-01

    An improved steam generator for a PWR is described. A turbine generator is driven by the steam output of the steam generator to provide electrical power. The improvement provides vertically assemblable modules which are removably mounted together in sealing relationship. The modules comprising a base module, a tube bundle module removably mountable on the base module in sealing relationship, and an uppermost dryer module removably mountable on the tube bundle module in sealing relationship. Ready access to and removal of the tube bundle module in situ from the nuclear power plant steam generator is facilitated. The dryer module contains moisture separator for drying the generated steam. The base module, upon which the associated weight of the vertically assembled dryer module and tube bundle module are supported, contains the inlet and outlet for the heat exchange fluid. The tube bundle module contains the tube bundle through which the heat exchange fluid flows as well as an inlet for feedwater. The tube sheet serves as a closure flange for the tube bundle module, with the associated weight of the vertically assembled dryer module and tube bundle module on the tube sheet closure flange effectuating the sealing relationship between the base module and the tube bundle module for facilitating closure

  17. Steam generator for use in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cella, A.

    1980-01-01

    An improved steam generator is described for use in a nuclear power plant of the pressurized water type in which a turbine generator is driven by the steam output of the steam generator to provide electrical power therefrom. The improvement comprises providing a vertically movable grid structure vertically extending within the interior of the lower housing portion of the steam generator through which individual tubes comprising a vertically extending tube bundle extend. The tube bundle has a tube sheet at one end thereof supporting the tube bundle for the tubes extending through the tube sheet in flow through communication with a heat exchange fluid inlet. The grid structure defines grid apertures therein through which the individual tubes extend with each of the grid apertures being in surrounding relationship with a portion of an associated one of the tubes. The grid structure is movable for a predetermined vertical extent, such as by hydraulic means, such as a piston, along the tubes for vertically displacing the means defining the grid apertures by a sufficient amount for removing the previously surrounded portion of each of the tubes from the associated grid apertures whereby an enhanced reading of the condition of the tubes at the previously surrounded portion is enabled. The steam generator may comprise vertically assemblable modules which are removably mounted together in sealing relationship, with the modules comprising a base module, a tube bundle module removably mountable on the base module in sealing relationship therewith and an uppermost drier module removably mountable on the tube bundle module in sealing relationship therewith whereby ready access to removal of the tube bundle module in situ from the nuclear power plant steam generator is facilitated

  18. North Anna Power Station - Unit 1: Overview of steam generator replacement project activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettler, M.W.; Bayer, R.K.; Lippard, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The original steam generators at Virginia Electric and Power Company's (Virginia Power) North Anna Power Station (NAPS) Unit 1 have experienced corrosion-related degradation that require periodic inspection and plugging of steam generator tubes to ensure their continued safe and reliable operation. Despite improvements in secondary water chemistry, continued tube degradation in the steam generators necessitated the removal from service of approximately 20.3 percent of the tubes by plugging, (18.6, 17.3, and 25.1 for steam generators A, B, and C, respectively). Additionally, the unit power was limited to 95 % during, its last cycle of operation. Projections of industry and Virginia Power experience indicated the possibility of mid-cycle inspections and reductions in unit power. Therefore, economic considerations led to the decision to repair the steam generators (i.e., replace the steam generator lower assemblies). Three new Model 51F Steam Generator lower assembly units were ordered from Westinghouse. Virginia Power contracted Bechtel Power Corporation to provide the engineering and construction support to repair the Unit 1 steam generators. On January 4, 1993, after an extended coastdown period, North Anna Unit 1 was brought off-line and the 110 day (breaker-to-breaker) Steam Generator Replacement Project (SGRP) outage began. As of this paper, the outage is still in progress

  19. Integration of torrefaction with steam power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakri, B.; Saari, J.; Sermyagina, E.; Vakkilainen, E.

    2013-09-01

    Torrefaction is one of the pretreatment technologies to enhance the fuel characteristics of biomass. The efficient and continuous operation of a torrefaction reactor, in the commercial scale, demands a secure biomass supply, in addition to adequate source of heat. Biorefinery plants or biomass-fuelled steam power plants have the potential to integrate with the torrefaction reactor to exchange heat and mass, using available infrastructure and energy sources. The technical feasibility of this integration is examined in this study. A new model for the torrefaction process is introduced and verified by the available experimental data. The torrefaction model is then integrated in different steam power plants to simulate possible mass and energy exchange between the reactor and the plants. The performance of the integrated plant is investigated for different configurations and the results are compared. (orig.)

  20. Steam turbines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stastny, M.

    1983-01-01

    A three-cylinder 220 MW saturated steam turbine was developed for WWER reactors by the Skoda concern. Twenty four of these turbines are currently in operation, in production or have been ordered. A 1000 MW four-cylinder turbine is being developed. The disign of the turbines has had to overcome difficulties connected with the unfavourable effects of wet steam at extreme power values. Great attention had to be devoted to the aerodynamics of control valves and to the prevention of flow separation areas. The problem of corrosion-erosion in guide wheels and the high pressure section was resolved by the use of ferritic stainless steels. For the low pressure section it was necessary to separate the moisture and to reheat the steam in the separator-reheater. Difficulties caused by the generation of wet steam in the low pressure section by spontaneous condensation were removed. Also limited was the erosion caused by droplets resulting from the disintegration of water films on the trailing edges. (A.K.)

  1. Combined gas and steam power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, D T; Davis, J P

    1977-06-02

    The invention concerns a combination of internal combustion engine and steam turbine, where not only the heat of the hot exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine, but also the heat in the coolant of the internal combustion engine is used for power generation. The working fluid of the steam turbine is an organic fluid of low boiling point. A mixture of 85 mol% of tri-fluoro ethanol and 15 mol% of water is the most suitable fluid. The combustion engine (a Diesel engine is the most suitable), drives a working machine, e.g. a generator. The hot combustion exhaust gases produce evaporation of the working fluid in an HP evaporator. The superheated steam gives up its energy in the HP turbine stage, flows through the feed preheater of the fluid, and is condensed in the condenser. A pump pumps the fluid via control valve to heat the feed preheater of the fluid, from which it returns to the HP evaporator. At the same time evaporated coolant flows into an LP evaporator in counter-flow to the working fluid, condenses, and is returned to the cooling circuit of the combustion engine. The working fluid in the LP evaporator is heated to its boiling point, gives up its energy in the LP stage of the steam turbine is condensed, pumped to the preheater and returns to the LP evaporator. The two rotors of the turbine stages (HP and LP stages) are mounted on the same shaft, which drives a working machine or a generator.

  2. Thermal electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.

    2001-01-01

    The basic principle of a thermal power plant is to heat up water in the pipe system of a boiler to generate steam, which exits the boiler with high pressure and releases its energy to a tandem-arranged turbine. This energy is transmitted to a generator over a common shaft. The generated electricity is fed into the power supply system. The processed steam is condensed to water by means of a condenser and transferred back into the pipe system of the boiler (feed water circuit). In general the following techniques are applied for the combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels: dry bottom boiler, wet bottom boiler, grate firing, fluidized bed combustion, gasification systems - integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), oil firing technique, gas firing technique. Residues from power plants are generated by the following processes and emission reduction measures: separation of bottom ash or boiler slag in the boiler; separation of fly ash (particulate matter) by means of filters or electric precipitators; desulphurization through lime additive processes, dry sorption or spray absorption processes and lime scrubbing processes; desulphurization according to Wellmann-Lord and to the Walther process; reduction of NO x emissions by selective catalytic reduction (SCR). In this case spent catalyst results as a waste unless it is recycled. No residues are generated by the following measures to reduce NO x emissions: minimization of nitrogen by selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR); adaptations of the firing technology to avoid emissions - primary measures (low-NO x burners, CO reduction). However, this may change the quality of fly ash by increasing unburnt carbon. Combustion of fossil fuels (with the exception of gaseous fuels) and biomass generates large quantities of residues - with coal being the greatest contributor - either from the fuel itself in the form of ashes, or from flue gas cleaning measures. In coal-fired power plants huge amounts of inorganic residues

  3. Cheaper power generation from surplus steam generating capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, K.

    1996-01-01

    Prior to independence most industries had their own captive power generation. Steam was generated in own medium/low pressure boilers and passed through extraction condensing turbines for power generation. Extraction steam was used for process. With cheaper power made available in Nehru era by undertaking large hydro power schemes, captive power generation in industries was almost abandoned except in sugar and large paper factories, which were high consumers of steam. (author)

  4. Fuqing nuclear power of nuclear steam turbine generating unit No.1 at the implementation and feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yuhua; Xiao Bo; He Liu; Huang Min

    2014-01-01

    The article introduces the Fuqing nuclear power of nuclear steam turbine generating unit no.l purpose, range of experience, experiment preparation, implementation, feedback and response. Turn of nuclear steam turbo-generator set flush, using the main reactor coolant pump and regulator of the heat generated by the electric heating element and the total heat capacity in secondary circuit of reactor coolant system (steam generator secondary side) of saturated steam turbine rushed to 1500 RPM, Fuqing nuclear power of nuclear steam turbine generating unit no.1 implementation of the performance of the inspection of steam turbine and its auxiliary system, through the test problems found in the clean up in time, the nuclear steam sweep turn smooth realization has accumulated experience. At the same time, Fuqing nuclear power of nuclear steam turbine generating unit no.1 at turn is half speed steam turbine generator non-nuclear turn at the first, with its smooth realization of other nuclear power steam turbine generator set in the field of non-nuclear turn play a reference role. (authors)

  5. Microfabricated rankine cycle steam turbine for power generation and methods of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechette, Luc (Inventor); Muller, Norbert (Inventor); Lee, Changgu (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, an integrated micro steam turbine power plant on-a-chip has been provided. The integrated micro steam turbine power plant on-a-chip of the present invention comprises a miniature electric power generation system fabricated using silicon microfabrication technology and lithographic patterning. The present invention converts heat to electricity by implementing a thermodynamic power cycle on a chip. The steam turbine power plant on-a-chip generally comprises a turbine, a pump, an electric generator, an evaporator, and a condenser. The turbine is formed by a rotatable, disk-shaped rotor having a plurality of rotor blades disposed thereon and a plurality of stator blades. The plurality of stator blades are interdigitated with the plurality of rotor blades to form the turbine. The generator is driven by the turbine and converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

  6. Cleaning device for steam units in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamuro, Takemi.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent radioactive contamination upon dismantling and inspection of steam units such as a turbine to a building containing such units and the peripheral area. Constitution: A steam generator indirectly heated by steam supplied from steam generating source in a separate system containing no radioactivity is provided to produce cleaning steam. A cleaning steam pipe is connected by way of a stop valve between separation valve of a nuclear power plant steam pipe and a high pressure turbine. Upon cleaning, the separation valve is closed, and steam supplied from the cleaning steam pipe is flown into a condenser. The water thus condensated is returned by way of a feed water heater and a condenser to a water storage tank. (Nakamura, S.)

  7. Composite electric generator equipped with steam generator for heating reactor coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Masaharu; Soman, Yoshindo; Kawanishi, Kohei; Ota, Masato.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention concerns a composite electric generator having coolants, as a heating source, of a PWR type reactor or a thermonuclear reactor. An electric generator driving gas turbine is disposed, and a superheater using a high temperature exhaust gas of the gas turbine as a heating source is disposed, and main steams are superheated by the superheater to elevate the temperature at the inlet of the turbine. This can increase the electric generation capacity as well as increase the electric generation efficiency. In addition, since the humidity in the vicinity of the exit of the steam turbine is reduced, occurrence of loss and erosion can be suppressed. When cooling water of the thermonuclear reactor is used, the electric power generated by the electric generator driven by the gas turbine can be used upon start of the thermonuclear reactor, and it is not necessary to dispose a large scaled special power source in the vicinity, which is efficient. (N.H.)

  8. Steam turbines for nuclear power stations in Czechoslovakia and their use for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1989-01-01

    The first generation of nuclear power stations in Czechoslavakia is equipped with 440 MW e pressurized water reactors. Each reactor supplies two 220 MW, 3000 rpm condensing type turbosets operating with saturated steam. After the completion of heating water piping systems, all of the 24 units of 220 MW in Czechoslovak nuclear power stations will be operated as dual purpose units, delivering both electricity and heat. At the present time, second-generation nuclear power stations, with 1000 MW e PWRs, are being built. Each such plant is equipped with one 1000 MW full-speed saturated steam turbine. The turbine is so designed as to permit the extraction of steam corresponding to the following quantities of heat: 893 MJ/s with three-stage water heating (150/60 0 C); and 570 MJ/s with two-stage water heating (120/60 0 C). The steam is taken from uncontrolled steam extraction points. (author)

  9. Nuclear steam turbines for power production in combination with heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frilund, B.; Knudsen, K.

    1977-01-01

    The general operating conditions for nuclear steam turbines in district heating system are briefly outlined. The turbine plant can consist of essentially the same types of machines as in conventional district heating systems. Some possible arrangements of back-pressure turbines, back-pressure turbines with condensing tails, or condensing turbines with heat extraction are considered for nuclear power and heat stations. Principles of control for hot water temperature and electrical output are described. Optimization of the plant, considering parallel variations during the year between heat load, cooling water temperature, and required outgoing temperature is discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Design of a partial inter-tube lancing system actuated by hydraulic power for type F model steam generator in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. T.; Jeong, W. T.

    2008-01-01

    The sludge grown up in steam generators of nuclear power plants shortens the life-cycle of steam generators and reduces the output of power plants. So KHNP(Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power), the only nuclear power utility in Korea, removes it periodically using a steam generator lancing system during the outage of plants for an overhaul. KEPRI(Korea Electric Power Research Institute) has developed lancing systems with high pressured water nozzle for steam generators of nuclear power plants since 2001. In this paper, the design of a partial inter-tube lancing system for model F type steam generators will be described. The system is actuated without a DC motor inner steam generators because the motors in a steam generator make a trouble from high intensity of radioactivity as a break down

  11. Technical and economic studies of small reactors for supply of electricity and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiewak, I.; Klepper, O.H.; Fuller, L.C.

    1977-02-01

    Several years ago conventional opinion held that nuclear power plants must be very large to be competitive with fossil fuels. This situation has changed markedly in most countries within recent years, as oil and gas supplies have become more scarce and costly. Studies have been carried out for several nuclear steam supply systems in the small and intermediate size range. Detail studies are reported of the Consolidated Nuclear Steam Generator (CNSG), a 365 MW(th) pressurized water reactor being developed by Babcock and Wilcox, as applied to industrial energy needs. Both conventional and barge-mounted nuclear steam supply systems are considered. Conceptual studies have been started of pressurized and boiling water reactors in the range of 1000 MW(th), which are envisioned for utility operation for supply of electric power and steam. Design studies of a 500 MW(th) high temperature reactor are also reported. The small reactors are expected to have higher unit costs than the large commercial plants, but to have compensating advantages in higher plant availability, shorter construction schedule, and greater siting flexibility. Studies are also reported of power cycle parameters and cost allocations for extraction of steam from steam turbine plants. This steam could be used for industrial energy, district heating, or desalination

  12. Technical and economic studies of small reactors for supply of electricity and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiewak, I.; Klepper, O.H.; Fuller, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Several years ago conventional opinion held that nuclear power plants must be very large to be competitive with fossil fuels. This situation has changed markedly in most countries within recent years, as oil and gas supplies have become more scarce and costly. Studies have been carried out of several nuclear steam supply systems in the small and intermediate size range. Detail studies are reported of the Consolidated Nuclear Steam Generator (CNSG), a 313 MW(t) pressurized water reactor being developed by Babcock and Wilcox, as applied to industrial energy needs. Both conventional and barge-mounted nuclear steam supply systems are considered. Conceptual studies have been started of pressurized and boiling water reactors in the range of 1000 MW(t), which are envisioned for utility operation for supply of electric power and steam. Design studies of a 500 MW(t) high temperature reactor are also reported. The small reactors are expected to have higher unit costs than the large commercial plants, but to have compensating advantages in higher plant availability, shorter construction schedule and greater siting flexibility. Studies are also reported of power cycle parameters and cost allocations for extraction of steam from steam turbine plants. This steam could be used for industrial energy, district heating or desalination

  13. Technical and economic studies of small reactors for supply of electricity and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiewak, I.; Klepper, O.H.; Fuller, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Several years ago conventional opinion held that nuclear power plants must be very large to be competitive with fossil fuels. This situation has changed markedly in most countries within recent years, as oil and gas supplies have become more scarce and costly. Studies have been carried out of several nuclear steam supply systems in the small and intermediate size range. Detail studies are reported of the Consolidated Nuclear Steam Generator (CNSG), a 313MW(th) pressurized water reactor being developed by Babcock and Wilcox, as applied to industrial energy needs. Both conventional and barge-mounted nuclear steam supply systems are considered. Conceptual studies have been started of pressurized and boiling water reactors in the range of 1000MW(th), which are envisioned for utility operation for supply of electric power and steam. Design studies of a 500MW(th) high temperature reactor are also reported. The small reactors are expected to have higher unit costs than the large commercial plants, but to have compensating advantages in higher plant availability, shorter construction schedule and greater siting flexibility. Studies are also reported of power cycle parameters and cost allocations for extraction of steam from steam turbine plants. This steam could be used for industrial energy, district heating or desalination. (author)

  14. HTGR power plant hot reheat steam pressure control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braytenbah, A.S.; Jaegtnes, K.O.

    1975-01-01

    A control system for a high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) power plant is disclosed wherein such plant includes a plurality of steam generators. Dual turbine-generators are connected to the common steam headers, a high pressure element of each turbine receiving steam from the main steam header, and an intermediate-low pressure element of each turbine receiving steam from the hot reheat header. Associated with each high pressure element is a bypass line connected between the main steam header and a cold reheat header, which is commonly connected to the high pressure element exhausts. A control system governs the flow of steam through the first and second bypass lines to provide for a desired minimum steam flow through the steam generator reheater sections at times when the total steam flow through the turbines is less than such minimum, and to regulate the hot reheat header steam pressure to improve control of the auxiliary steam turbines and thereby improve control of the reactor coolant gas flow, particularly following a turbine trip. (U.S.)

  15. Repowering options for steam power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, H.; Gopalarathinam, R.

    1992-01-01

    Repowering an existing steam power plant with a gas turbine offers an attractive alternative to a new plant or life extension, especially for unit sizes smaller than 300 MWe. Gas turbine repowering improves thermal efficiency and substantially increases the plant output. Based on recent repowering studies and projects, this paper examines gas turbine repowering options for 100 MWe, 200 MWe and 300 MWe units originally designed for coal firing and currently firing either coal or natural gas. Also discussed is the option for a phased future conversion of the repowered unit to fire coal-derived gas, should there be a fluctuation in the price or availability of natural gas. A modular coal gasification plant designed to shorten the conversion time is presented. Repowering options, performance, costs, and availability impacts are discussed for selected cases

  16. SO2 pollution of heavy oil-fired steam power plants in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari, S.; Shahhoseini, O.; Sohrabi-Kashani, A.; Davari, S.; Sahabi, H.; Rezaeian, A.

    2012-01-01

    Steam power plants using heavy oil provided about 17.4%, equivalent to 35.49 TWh, of electricity in Iran in 2007. However, having 1.55–3.5 weight percentage of sulfur, heavy oil produces SO 2 pollutant. Utilization of Flue Gas Desulfurization systems (FGD) in Iran's steam power plants is not common and thereby, this pollutant is dispersed in the atmosphere easily. In 2007, the average emission factor of SO 2 pollutant for steam power plants was 15.27 g/kWh, which means regarding the amount of electricity generated by steam power plants using heavy oil, 541,000 Mg of this pollutant was produced. In this study, mass distribution of SO 2 in terms of Mg/yr is considered and dispersion of this pollutant in each of the 16 steam power plants under study is modeled using Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling System (ADMS). Details of this study are demonstrated using Geographical Information System (GIS) software, ArcGIS. Finally, the average emission factor of SO 2 and the emission of it in Iran's steam power plants as well as SO 2 emission reduction programs of this country are compared with their alternatives in Turkey and China.

  17. Steam turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuzumi, Naoaki.

    1994-01-01

    In a steam turbine cycle, steams exhausted from the turbine are extracted, and they are connected to a steam sucking pipe of a steam injector, and a discharge pipe of the steam injector is connected to an inlet of a water turbine. High pressure discharge water is obtained from low pressure steams by utilizing a pressurizing performance of the steam injector and the water turbine is rotated by the high pressure water to generate electric power. This recover and reutilize discharged heat of the steam turbine effectively, thereby enabling to improve heat efficiency of the steam turbine cycle. (T.M.)

  18. Postfact phenomena of the wet-steam flow electrization in turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarelin, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    Physical processes occurring in a turbine with natural electrization of a humidity-steam flow and their effect on efficiency and reliability of the turbine operation has been considered. Causes of the electrical potential occurrence on a rotor shaft are analyzed. The wet steam's electrization exposure on the electrical potential that is one of the major factors of bearings' electroerosion has been demonstrated on the full-scale installation. Hydrogen formation in wheelspace of the turbine as a result of electrochemical processes and electric field exposure of the space charge has been considered. Hydrogen concentration dependence on a volume charge density in the steam flow has been determined. It is stated that the processes occurring behind the final stage of wet-steam turbines are similar to the ones in elaerosol ectrostatic generators. It has been demonstrated that this phenomenon causes the flow's temporal inhibition and starts pulsations. These factors' impact on power loss of the turbine has been evaluated and recommendations for their elimination have been offered. It has been determined that motions of charged drops can cause self-maintained discharges inside of the flow and between the flow and grounded surfaces that are accompanied by electromagnetic radiation of the wide spectrum. The integrated studies have shown that physical phenomena occurring due to natural electrization negatively affect efficiency and reliability of the turbine operation. Practical recommendations allowing one to minimize the negative effects of the flow natural electrization process have been offered.

  19. Steam Turbine Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, R.; Hawk, J.; Schwant, R.; Saha, D.; Totemeier, T.; Goodstine, S.; McNally, M.; Allen, D. B.; Purgert, Robert

    2009-06-30

    The Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Turbine Materials Development Program is sponsored and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office, through grants to Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO), a non-profit organization contracted to manage and direct the project. The program is co-funded by the General Electric Company, Alstom Power, Siemens Power Generation (formerly Siemens Westinghouse), and the Electric Power Research Institute, each organization having subcontracted with EIO and contributing teams of personnel to perform the requisite research. The program is focused on identifying, evaluating, and qualifying advanced alloys for utilization in coal-fired power plants that need to withstand steam turbine operating conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). For these conditions, components exposed to the highest temperatures and stresses will need to be constructed from nickel-based alloys with higher elevated temperature strength than the highchromium ferritic steels currently used in today's high-temperature steam turbines. In addition to the strength requirements, these alloys must also be weldable and resistant to environmental effects such as steam oxidation and solid particle erosion. In the present project, candidate materials with the required creep strength at desired temperatures have been identified. Coatings that can resist oxidation and solid particle erosion have also been identified. The ability to perform dissimilar welds between nickel base alloys and ferritic steels have been demonstrated, and the properties of the welds have been evaluated. Results of this three-year study that was completed in 2009 are described in this final report. Additional work is being planned and will commence in 2009. The specific objectives of the future studies will include conducting more detailed evaluations of the weld-ability, mechanical properties and repair-ability of the selected candidate alloys for rotors

  20. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  1. Shipboard electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Mukund R

    2011-01-01

    Shipboard Electrical Power Systems addresses new developments in this growing field. Focused on the trend toward electrification to power commercial shipping, naval, and passenger vessels, this book helps new or experienced engineers master cutting-edge methods for power system design, control, protection, and economic use of power. Provides Basic Transferable Skills for Managing Electrical Power on Ships or on LandThis groundbreaking book is the first volume of its kind to illustrate optimization of all aspects of shipboard electrical power systems. Applying author Mukund Patel's rare combina

  2. Electric power annual, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at the national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policy-makers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. ''The Industry at a Glance'' section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance; a review of key statistics for the year; and projections for various aspects of the electric power industry through 2010. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; and electric power transactions. In addition, appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter

  3. Driving with electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursin, M.; Hoeckel, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at the chances offered to the electricity supply industry by the increasing use of battery-driven vehicles - and the advantages thus offered to the environment. The use of the vehicles' batteries to form a distributed electricity storage scheme is discussed. The authors comment that, although electrically-driven vehicles consume more power, the total primary energy consumption and pollutant emissions will be reduced. The actual electricity consumption of electric vehicles and the source of this power are examined. Power saved by the reduced use of electrical heating systems and boilers could, according to the authors, be used to charge the batteries of electric vehicles. The use of these batteries as a storage system to help regulate electricity supplies is discussed and the steps to be taken for the implementation of such a system are listed

  4. Automation of steam generator services at public service electric & gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruickshank, H.; Wray, J.; Scull, D. [Public Service Electric & Gas, Hancock`s Bridge, NJ (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Public Service Electric & Gas takes an aggressive approach to pursuing new exposure reduction techniques. Evaluation of historic outage exposure shows that over the last eight refueling outages, primary steam generator work has averaged sixty-six (66) person-rem, or, approximately tewenty-five percent (25%) of the general outage exposure at Salem Station. This maintenance evolution represents the largest percentage of exposure for any single activity. Because of this, primary steam generator work represents an excellent opportunity for the development of significant exposure reduction techniques. A study of primary steam generator maintenance activities demonstrated that seventy-five percent (75%) of radiation exposure was due to work activities of the primary steam generator platform, and that development of automated methods for performing these activities was worth pursuing. Existing robotics systems were examined and it was found that a new approach would have to be developed. This resulted in a joint research and development project between Westinghouse and Public Service Electric & Gas to develop an automated system of accomplishing the Health Physics functions on the primary steam generator platform. R.O.M.M.R.S. (Remotely Operated Managed Maintenance Robotics System) was the result of this venture.

  5. Electric power development in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudenko, Y.N.

    1993-01-01

    The generation of electric power in the USSR is based on the Unified Electric Power System (UEPS) whose network cover most of the habitable territory of the country. Therefore, the development of the UEPS governs the overall evolution of the electric power generation in the country. At present, eleven out of thirteen joint electric power systems, which supply electricity to most of the USSR, are operating within the UEPS. The total electric power generation in the country reached 1728 billion kWh in 1990, of which the UEPS supplied approximately 90%. About 70% of installed capacity of the UEPS is fossil-fuelled power plants, about 12 % is nuclear power plants, and about 18% is hydroelectric power plants. The system-forming grid of the UEPS is made up of transmission lines of 220, 330, 500 and 750 kV. The on-line supervisory control of the UEPS is achieved by four-level automated system of dispatch control (UEPS, joint electric power systems, regional electric power systems, electric power plants, substations,electric grid regions). The development and extension of the UEPS in the USSR ensure higher reliability and quality of electric power supply to end-users, combined with higher efficiency. The principal problem facing the UEPS are as follows: the need to ensure environmental protection and efficiency of the steam power plants; to improve the safety and efficiency of nuclear power plants. The solution to these problems will define the conditions of the UEPS development, as well as electric power systems of other countries, at least for the coming two decades. This paper characterizes the peculiarities of the UEPS development over the last 20 years, including the installed capacity structure and the system-forming electric power grid. Special attention is paid to the environmental problems related to functioning and development of the UEPS and to the means of their solution. (author)

  6. Electric power annual 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  7. Power plant and system for accelerating a cross compound turbine in such plant, especially one having an HTGR steam supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegtnes, K.O.; Braytenbah, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    An electric power plant having a cross compound steam turbine and a steam source that includes a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor is described. The steam turbine includes high and intermediate-pressure portions which drive a first generating means, and a low-pressure portion which drives a second generating means. The steam source supplies superheat steam to the high-pressure turbine portion, and an associated bypass permits the superheat steam to flow from the source to the exhaust of the high-pressure portion. The intermediate and low-pressure portions use reheat steam; an associated bypass permits reheat steam to flow from the source to the low-pressure exhaust. An auxiliary turbine driven by steam exhausted from the high-pressure portion and its bypass drives a gas blower to propel the coolant gas through the reactor. While the bypass flow of reheat steam is varied to maintain an elevated pressure of reheat steam upon its discharge from the source, both the first and second generating means and their associated turbines are accelerated initially by admitting steam to the intermediate and low-pressure portions. The electrical speed of the second generating means is equalized with that of the first generating means, whereupon the generating means are connected and acceleration proceeds under control of the flow through the high-pressure portion. 29 claims, 2 figures

  8. Steam Turbine Control Valve Stiction Effect on Power System Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, B.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important problems in power system dynamic stability is low frequency oscillations. This kind of oscillation has significant effects on the stability and security of the power system. In some previous papers, a fact was introduced that a steam pressure continuous fluctuation in turbine steam inlet pipeline may lead to a kind of low frequency oscillation of power systems. Generally, in a power generation plant, steam turbine system composes of some main components, i.e. a boiler or steam generator, stop valves, control valves and turbines that are connected by piping. In the conventional system, the turbine system is composed with a lot of stop and control valves. The steam is provided by a boiler or steam generator. In an abnormal case, the stop valve shuts of the steal flow to the turbine. The steam flow to the turbine is regulated by controlling the control valves. The control valves are provided to regulate the flow of steam to the turbine for starting, increasing or decreasing the power, and also maintaining speed control with the turbine governor system. Unfortunately, the control valve has inherent static friction (stiction) nonlinearity characteristics. Industrial surveys indicated that about 20-30% of all control loops oscillate due to valve problem caused by this nonlinear characteristic. In this paper, steam turbine control valve stiction effect on power system oscillation is presented. To analyze the stiction characteristic effect, firstly a model of control valve and its stiction characteristic are derived by using Newton's laws. A complete tandem steam prime mover, including a speed governing system, a four-stage steam turbine, and a shaft with up to for masses is adopted to analyze the performance of the steam turbine. The governor system consists of some important parts, i.e. a proportional controller, speed relay, control valve with its stiction characteristic, and stem lift position of control valve controller. The steam turbine has

  9. Electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinske, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Apart from discussing some principles of power industry the present text deals with the different ways of electric power generation. Both the conventional methods of energy conversion in heating and water power stations and the facilities for utilizing regenerative energy sources (sun, wind, ground heat, tidal power) are considered. The script represents the essentials of the lecture of the same name which is offered to the students of the special subject 'electric power engineering' at the Fachhochschule Hamburg. It does not require any special preliminary knowledge except for the general principles of electrical engineering. It is addressing students of electrical engineering who have passed their preliminary examination at technical colleges and universities. Moreover, it shall also be of use for engineers who want to obtain a quick survey of the structure and the operating characteristics of the extremely different technical methods of power generation. (orig.) [de

  10. Development and validation of advanced oxidation protective coatings for super critical steam power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, M.B.; Scheefer, M. [Alstom Power Ltd., Rugby (United Kingdom); Agueero, A. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA) (Spain); Allcock, B. [Monitor Coatings Ltd. (United Kingdom); Norton, B. [Indestructible Paints Ltd. (United Kingdom); Tsipas, D.N. [Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece); Durham, R. [FZ Juelich (Germany); Xiang, Z. [Northumbria Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Increasing the efficiency of coal-fired power plant by increasing steam temperatures and pressures brings benefits in terms of cheaper electricity and reduced emissions, particularly CO{sub 2}. In recent years the development of advanced 9%Cr ferritic steels with improved creep strength has enabled power plant operation at temperatures in excess of 600 C, such that these materials are being exploited to construct a new generation of advanced coalfired plant. However, the move to higher temperatures and pressures creates an extremely hostile oxidising environment. To enable the full potential of the new steels to be achieved, it is vital that protective coatings are developed, validated under high temperature steam and applied to candidate components from the steam path. This paper reviews recent work conducted within the Framework V project ''Coatings for Supercritical Steam Cycles'' (SUPERCOAT) to develop and demonstrate advanced slurry and thermal spray coatings capable of providing steam oxidation protection at temperatures in excess of 620 C and up to 300 bar. The programme of work has demonstrated the feasibility of applying a number of candidate coatings to steam turbine power plant components and has generated long-term steam oxidation rate and failure data that underpin the design and application work packages needed to develop and establish this technology for new and retrofit plant. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of Hybrid Power Plants using Biomass, Photovoltaics and Steam Electrolysis for Hydrogen and Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Sanz, J.

    2014-12-01

    Steam electrolysis is a promising process of large-scale centralized hydrogen production, while it is also considered an excellent option for the efficient use of renewable solar and geothermal energy resources. This work studies the operation of an intermediate temperature steam electrolyzer (ITSE) and its incorporation into hybrid power plants that include biomass combustion and photovoltaic panels (PV). The plants generate both electricity and hydrogen. The reference -biomass- power plant and four variations of a hybrid biomass-PV incorporating the reference biomass plant and the ITSE are simulated and evaluated using exergetic analysis. The variations of the hybrid power plants are associated with (1) the air recirculation from the electrolyzer to the biomass power plant, (2) the elimination of the sweep gas of the electrolyzer, (3) the replacement of two electric heaters with gas/gas heat exchangers, and (4) the replacement two heat exchangers of the reference electrolyzer unit with one heat exchanger that uses steam from the biomass power plant. In all cases, 60% of the electricity required in the electrolyzer is covered by the biomass plant and 40% by the photovoltaic panels. When comparing the hybrid plants with the reference biomass power plant that has identical operation and structure as that incorporated in the hybrid plants, we observe an efficiency decrease that varies depending on the scenario. The efficiency decrease stems mainly from the low effectiveness of the photovoltaic panels (14.4%). When comparing the hybrid scenarios, we see that the elimination of the sweep gas decreases the power consumption due to the elimination of the compressor used to cover the pressure losses of the filter, the heat exchangers and the electrolyzer. Nevertheless, if the sweep gas is used to preheat the air entering the boiler of the biomass power plant, the efficiency of the plant increases. When replacing the electric heaters with gas-gas heat exchangers, the

  12. Electric power annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The 1991 edition has been enhanced to include statistics on electric utility demand-side management and nonutility supply. ''The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance'' section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms

  13. Electric Power Monthly, June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The Electric Power Monthly contains information from three data sources: the Form EIA-759, 'Monthly Power Plant Report'; the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Form 423, 'Monthly Report of Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Plants ; and the Form EIA-826, M onthly Electric Sales and Revenue Report with State Distributions'. The Form EIA-759 collects data from all operators of electric utility generating plants (except those having plants solely on standby), approximately 800 of the more than 3,200 electric utilities in the United States. To reduce the reporting burden for utilities, the FERC Form 423 and Form EIA-826 data are based on samples, which cover less than 100 percent of all central station generating utilities. The FERC Form 423 collects data from steam-electric power generating plants with a combined installed nameplate capacity of 50 megawatts or larger (approximately 230 electric utilities). The 50-megawatt threshold was established by FERC. The Form EIA-826 collects sales and revenue data in the residential, commercial, industrial, and other sectors of the economy. Other sales data collected include public street and highway lighting, other sales to public authorities, sales to railroads and railways, and interdepartmental sales. Respondents to the Form EIA-826 were statistically chosen and include approximately 225 privately and publicly owned electric utilities from a universe of more than 3,200 utilities. The sample selection for the Form EIA-826 is evaluated annually. Currently, the Form EIA-826 data account for approximately 83 percent

  14. Electric power substations engineering

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, John D

    2012-01-01

    The use of electric power substations in generation, transmission, and distribution remains one of the most challenging and exciting areas of electric power engineering. Recent technological developments have had a tremendous impact on all aspects of substation design and operation. With 80% of its chapters completely revised and two brand-new chapters on energy storage and Smart Grids, Electric Power Substations Engineering, Third Edition provides an extensive updated overview of substations, serving as a reference and guide for both industry and academia. Contributors have written each chapt

  15. Synergetic mechanism of methanol–steam reforming reaction in a catalytic reactor with electric discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taegyu; Jo, Sungkwon; Song, Young-Hoon; Lee, Dae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Methanol–steam reforming was performed on Cu catalysts under an electric discharge. • Discharge had a synergetic effect on the catalytic reaction for methanol conversion. • Discharge lowered the temperature for catalyst activation or light off. • Discharge controlled the yield and selectivity of species in a reforming process. • Adsorption triggered by a discharge was a possible mechanism for a synergetic effect. - Abstract: Methanol–steam reforming was performed on Cu/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 catalysts under an electric discharge. The discharge occurred between the electrodes where the catalysts were packed. The electric discharge was characterized by the discharge voltage and electric power to generate the discharge. The existence of a discharge had a synergetic effect on the catalytic reaction for methanol conversion. The electric discharge provided modified reaction paths resulting in a lower temperature for catalyst activation or light off. The discharge partially controlled the yield and selectivity of species in a reforming process. The aspect of control was examined in view of the reaction kinetics. The possible mechanisms for the synergetic effect between the catalytic reaction and electric discharge on methanol–steam reforming were addressed. A discrete reaction path, particularly adsorption triggered by an electric discharge, was suggested to be the most likely mechanism for the synergetic effect. These results are expected to provide a guide for understanding the plasma–catalyst hybrid reaction

  16. Dual turbine power plant and a reheat steam bypass flow control system for use therein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braytenbah, A.S.; Jaegtnes, K.O.

    1977-01-01

    An electric power plant having dual turbine-generators connected to a steam source that includes a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor is described. Each turbine comprises a high pressure portion operated by superheat steam and an intermediate-low pressure portion operated by reheat steam; a bypass line is connected across each turbine portion to permit a desired minimum flow of steam from the source at times when the combined flow of steam through the turbine is less than the minimum. Coolant gas is propelled through the reactor by a circulator which is driven by an auxiliary turbine which uses steam exhausted from the high pressure portions and their bypass lines. The pressure of the reheat steam is controlled by a single proportional-plus-integral controller which governs the steam flow through the bypass lines associated with the intermediate-low pressure portions. At times when the controller is not in use its output signal is limited to a value that permits an unbiased response when pressure control is resumed, as in event of a turbine trip. 25 claims, 2 figures

  17. A condenser for very high power steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardey, Robert.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to a condenser for very high power steam turbines under the masonry-block supporting the low-pressure stages of the turbine, that condenser comprises two horizontal aligned water-tube bundles passing through the steam-exhaust sleeves of the low-pressure stages, on both sides of a common inlet water box. The invention can be applied in particular to the 1000-2000 MW turbines of light water nuclear power stations [fr

  18. Effect of Low Pressure End Conditions on Steam Power Plant Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Syed Haider

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of the electricity produced throughout the world today is from steam power plants and improving the performance of power plants is crucial to minimize the greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption. Energy efficiency of a thermal power plant strongly depends on its boiler-condenser operating conditions. The low pressure end conditions of a condenser have influence on the power output, steam consumption and efficiency of a plant. Hence, the objective this paper is to study the effect of the low pressure end conditions on a steam power plant performance. For the study each component was modelled thermodynamically. Simulation was done and the results showed that performance of the condenser is highly a function of its pressure which in turn depends on the flow rate and temperature of the cooling water. Furthermore, when the condenser pressure increases both net power output and plant efficiency decrease whereas the steam consumption increases. The results can be used to run a steam power cycle at optimum conditions.

  19. Evaluation of Waterford Steam Electric Station Unit 3 technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, D.E.; Bruske, S.J.

    1985-09-01

    This document was prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assist them in determining whether the Waterford Steam Electric Station Unit 3 Technical Specifications (T/S), which govern plant systems configurations and operations, are in conformance with the requirements of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as amended, and the requirements of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) as supplemented. A comparative audit of the FSAR as amended, and the SER as supplemented was performed with the Waterford T/S. Several discrepancies were identified and subsequently resolved by the cognizant NRC reviewer. Pending completion of the resolutions noted in Part 3 of this report, the Waterford Steam Electric Station Unit 3 T/S, to the extent reviewed, are in conformance with the FSAR and SER

  20. Review of the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattison, M.B.; Davis, P.R.; Satterwhite, D.G.; Gilmore, W.E.; Gregg, R.E.

    1989-11-01

    A review of the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant probabilistic risk Assessment was conducted with the objective of confirming the safety perspectives brought to light by the probabilistic risk assessment. The scope of the review included the entire Level I probabilistic risk assessment including external events. This is consistent with the scope of the probabilistic risk assessment. The review included an assessment of the assumptions, methods, models, and data used in the study. 47 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs

  1. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Susquehanna Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2. Docket Nos. 50-387 and 50-388, Pennsylvania Power and Light Company, Allegheny Electric Cooperative, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    Information is presented concerning site characteristics; design criteria for systems and components; reactor thermal and hydraulic characteristics; reactor coolant pressure boundary; engineered safety features; instrumentation and control; electrical power systems; auxiliary systems; conduct of operations; quality assurance; and TMI-2 requirements

  2. Electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Weedy, B M; Jenkins, N; Ekanayake, J B; Strbac, G

    2012-01-01

    The definitive textbook for Power Systems students, providing a grounding in essential power system theory while also focusing on practical power engineering applications. Electric Power Systems has been an essential book in power systems engineering for over thirty years. Bringing the content firmly up-to-date whilst still retaining the flavour of Weedy's extremely popular original, this Fifth Edition has been revised by experts Nick Jenkins, Janaka Ekanayake and Goran Strbac. This wide-ranging text still covers all of the fundamental power systems subjects but is now e

  3. Electric power distribution handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Short, Thomas Allen

    2014-01-01

    Of the ""big three"" components of electrical infrastructure, distribution typically gets the least attention. In fact, a thorough, up-to-date treatment of the subject hasn't been published in years, yet deregulation and technical changes have increased the need for better information. Filling this void, the Electric Power Distribution Handbook delivers comprehensive, cutting-edge coverage of the electrical aspects of power distribution systems. The first few chapters of this pragmatic guidebook focus on equipment-oriented information and applications such as choosing transformer connections,

  4. Technical Feasible Study for Future Solar Thermal Steam Power Station in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohari, Z. H.; Atira, N. N.; Jali, M. H.; Sulaima, M. F.; Izzuddin, T. A.; Baharom, M. F.

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposed renewable energy which is potential to be used in Malaysia in generating electricity to innovate and improve current operating systems. Thermal and water act as the resources to replace limited fossil fuels such as coal which is still widely used in energy production nowadays. Thermal is also known as the heat energy while the water absorbs energy from the thermal to produce steam energy. By combining both of the sources, it is known as thermal steam renewable energy. The targeted area to build this power station has constant high temperature and low humidity which can maximize the efficiency of generating power.

  5. Thermal performance test for steam turbine of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu Yubing; Xu Zongfu; Wang Shiyong

    2014-01-01

    Through study of steam turbine thermal performance test of CPR1000 nuclear power plant, we solve the enthalpy calculation problems of the steam turbine in wet steam zone using heat balance method which can help to figure out the real overall heat balance diagram for the first time, and we develop a useful software for thermal heat balance calculation. Ling'ao phase II as an example, this paper includes test instrument layout, system isolation, risk control, data acquisition, wetness measurement, heat balance calculation, etc. (authors)

  6. Steam table routines for the simulation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, C.A.; Mutafelija, B.A.; Rapp, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The dynamic simulation of nuclear power generating stations requires evaluation of a large number of steam and water properties at every integration time step. Some of the interpolation/approximation methods presently used are described with particular emphasis on the use of the bilinear transfinite interpolation method. The fundamental requirements for the steam table routines are outlined and different approaches are compared. The superiority of the bilinear transfinite interpolation method is discussed. The use of the steam table functions in real-time simulation is of particular interest

  7. Thermo hydrodynamical analyses of steam generator of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petelin, S.; Gregoric, M.

    1984-01-01

    SMUP computer code for stationary model of a U-tube steam generator of a PWR nuclear power plant was developed. feed water flow can enter through main and auxiliary path. The computer code is based on the one dimensional mathematical model. Among the results that give an insight into physical processes along the tubes of steam generator are distribution of temperatures, water qualities, heat transfer rates. Parametric analysis permits conclusion on advantage of each design solution regarding heat transfer effects and safety of steam generator. (author)

  8. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  9. Linear Dynamics Model for Steam Cooled Fast Power Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmer, H

    1968-04-15

    A linear analytical dynamic model is developed for steam cooled fast power reactors. All main components of such a plant are investigated on a general though relatively simple basis. The model is distributed in those parts concerning the core but lumped as to the external plant components. Coolant is considered as compressible and treated by the actual steam law. Combined use of analogue and digital computer seems most attractive.

  10. Swiss electrical power association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Milestones of electrical power development in Switzerland during 1982 are quoted. An energy balance is shown for the utilisation of 864,630 terajoules of primary energy. This is related to global data on per capita power consumption. In the electricity generation section, annual load factors are given for the four nuclear stations. A brief review is made of hydro potential and monthly export/import figures for power to other countries (mostly export, especially in summer). Total electrical power output grew about 1.3% in the last year. Recent transmission line developments are noted, mostly 2x380kV, and including a link with Austria. In the financial section, consumer price indices are quoted for liquid and solid fuel, gas and electricity since 1966. Under administration, details are listed of the main and about 18 supporting Committees and working groups with special functions (e.g. tariffs, electrical vehicles). Public relations have included nuclear power press conferences, a mobile video unit, information leaflets for the media and a teaching seminar. (G.C.)

  11. Steam supply and power cogeneration at Yanshan Petrochemical Co., Ltd.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, a project was studied for the improvement of cogeneration facilities with steam supply of 600t/h and electric output of 55MW at Beijing Yanshan Petrochemical Co., China. In Plan A, fuel is changed from heavy oil to natural gas, and two heavy oil boilers are replaced with two gas turbines and two exhaust heat recovery steam generators for steam supply of 241t/h per unit and electric output of 136.9MW per unit. In Plan B, the boilers are replaced with three gas turbines and three exhaust heat recovery steam generators for steam supply of 210t/h per unit and electric output of 79.5MW per unit. The initial investment is 700 million yuan {+-} 100 million yuan in Plan A, and 500 million yuan {+-} 100 million yuan in Plan B. The generating cost is 0.403 yuan/kWh in Plan A, and 0.455 yuan/kWh in Plan B. It was concluded that without Plan A, the project will not be economically successful. In Plan A, the energy conservation will be 887,847 toe/y heavy oil equivalent, which increases productivity. Further, the amount of greenhouse effect gas emissions will be 2,747,187 t-CO2/y. (NEDO)

  12. Power plant and system for accelerating a cross compound turbine in such plant, especially one having an HTGR steam supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegtnes, K.O.; Braytenbah, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, a power plant includes a steam source to generate superheat and reheat steam which flows through a turbine-generator and an associated bypass system. A high-pressure and an intermediate-pressure turbine portion drive a first electrical generating means, and a low-pressure turbine portion drives a second electrical generating means. A first flow of superheat steam flows through the high-pressure portion, while a second flow of reheat steam flows through the intermediate and low-pressure portions in succession. Provision is made for bypassing steam around the turbine portions; in particular, one bypass means permits a flow of superheat steam from the steam source to the exhaust of the high-pressure portion, and another bypass means allows reheated steam to pass from the source to the exhaust of the low-pressure portion. The first and second steam flows are governed independently. While one of such flows is varied for purposes of controlling the rotational speed of the first generating means according to a desired speed, the other flow is varied to regulate a power plant variable at its desired level. (author)

  13. 1000 MW steam turbine for Temelin nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1992-01-01

    Before the end 1991 the delivery was completed of the main parts (3 low-pressure sections and 1 high-pressure section, all of double-flow design) of the first full-speed (3000 r.p.m.) 1000 MW steam turbine for saturated admission steam for the Temelin nuclear power plant. Description of the turbine design and of new technologies and tools used in the manufacture are given. Basic technical parameters of the steam turbine are as follows: maximum output of steam generators 6060 th -1 ; maximum steam flow into turbine 5494.7 th -1 ; output of turbo-set 1024 MW; steam conditions before the turbine inlet: pressure 5.8 MPa, temperature 273.3 degC, steam wetness 0.5%; nominal temperature of cooling water 21 degC; temperature of feed water 220.8 degC; maximum consumption of heat from turbine for heating at 3-stage heating of heating water 60/150 degC. (Z.S.) 7 figs., 2 refs

  14. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  15. Electrical power cable engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thue, William A

    2011-01-01

    Fully updated, Electrical Power Cable Engineering, Third Edition again concentrates on the remarkably complex design, application, and preparation methods required to terminate and splice cables. This latest addition to the CRC Press Power Engineering series covers cutting-edge methods for design, manufacture, installation, operation, and maintenance of reliable power cable systems. It is based largely on feedback from experienced university lecturers who have taught courses on these very concepts.The book emphasizes methods to optimize vital design and installation of power cables used in the

  16. New electric power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzoli, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    In a trend analysis of methods of energy production and use, this paper cites forecasted significant gains in efficiency through the use of combined cycles for heat and power production, and rapidly falling costs of solar and wind power plants. A technical/economic feasibility analysis is then performed on the future use of electric vehicles in Italy. Here, the paper cites the possible benefits in terms of energy conservation and air pollution abatement. A review is made of current progress in research efforts aimed at reducing electric battery sizing, weight and recharging constraints

  17. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2001-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1999 and 2000. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (CLS)

  18. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M. K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2002-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 2000 and 2001. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (SM)

  19. Comprehensive investigation of process characteristics for oxy-steam combustion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Bo; Zhao, Haibo; Zou, Chun; Zheng, Chuguang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxy-steam combustion exhibits better performance than oxy-CO 2 combustion. • Cost of electricity in oxy-steam combustion is 6.62% less than oxy-CO 2 combustion. • The increase of oxygen concentration in oxidant can improve its system performance. • The decrease of excess oxygen coefficient can be helpful for its system performance. • Integration with solar technology can enhance its thermodynamic performance. - Abstract: Oxy-steam combustion, as an alternative option of oxy-fuel combustion technology, is considered as a promising CO 2 capture technology for restraining CO 2 emissions from power plants. To attain its comprehensive process characteristics, process simulation, thermodynamic assessment, and sensitivity analysis for oxy-steam combustion pulverized-coal-fired power plants are investigated whilst its corresponding CO 2 /O 2 recycled combustion (oxy-CO 2 combustion) power plant is served as the base case for comparison. Techno-economic evaluation and integration with solar parabolic trough collectors are also discussed to justify its economic feasibility and improve its thermodynamic performance further, respectively. It is found that oxy-steam combustion exhibits better performance than oxy-CO 2 combustion on both thermodynamic and economic aspects, in which the cost of electricity decreases about 6.62% whilst the net efficiency and exergy efficiency increase about 0.90 and 1.01 percentage points, respectively. The increment of oxygen concentration in oxidant (20–45 mol.%) and decrease of excess oxygen coefficient (1.01–1.09) in a certain range are favorable for improving oxy-steam combustion system performance. Moreover, its thermodynamic performance can be improved when considering solar parabolic trough collectors for heating recycled water, even though its cost of electricity increases about 2 $/(MW h)

  20. Strain measurements of nuclear power plant steam generator antiseismic supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulichevsky, R.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear power plants steam generators have different types of structural supports. One of these types are the antiseismic supports, which are intended to be under stress only if a seismic event takes place. Nevertheless, the antiseismic supports lugs, that are welded to the steam generator vessel, are subjected to thermal fatigue because of the temperature cycles related with the shut down and start up operations performed during the life of the nuclear power plant. In order to evaluate the stresses that the lugs are subjected to, several strain gages were welded on two supports lugs, positioned at two heights of one of the Embalse nuclear power plant steam generators. In this paper, the instrumentation used and the strain measurements obtained during two start up operations are presented. The influence of the plant start up operation parameters on the lugs strain evolution is also analyzed. (author) [es

  1. Studies and solutions of steam turbines for nuclear heating power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1979-01-01

    The possibilities of combined generation of heat and electric power and special features of the corresponding equipment for WWER type reactors are considered. Condensing steam turbines with bled steam points and the constructional solution of bled points are presented for heating the network water to 110 0 C, 120 0 C, and 160 0 C, respectively. The dimensions of the low pressure final stage of the turbine are given. Problems concerning condensing and bleeding turbines and combination types of back-pressure and condensing turbines as well as solutions to the design of 250 MW and 500 MW turbines are discussed

  2. Steam generator and condenser design of WWER-1000 type of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare Shahneh, Abolghasem.

    1995-03-01

    Design process of steam generator and condenser at Russian nuclear power plant type WWER-1000 is identified. The four chapter of the books are organized as nuclear power plant, types of steam generators specially horizontal steam generator, process of steam generator design and the description of condenser and its process design

  3. How to compute the power of a steam turbine with condensation, knowing the steam quality of saturated steam in the turbine discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Albarran, Manuel Jaime; Krever, Marcos Paulo Souza [Braskem, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    To compute the power and the thermodynamic performance in a steam turbine with condensation, it is necessary to know the quality of the steam in the turbine discharge and, information of process variables that permit to identifying with high precision the enthalpy of saturated steam. This paper proposes to install an operational device that will expand the steam from high pressure point on the shell turbine to atmosphere, both points with measures of pressure and temperature. Arranging these values on the Mollier chart, it can be know the steam quality value and with this data one can compute the enthalpy value of saturated steam. With the support of this small instrument and using the ASME correlations to determine the equilibrium temperature and knowing the discharge pressure in the inlet of surface condenser, the absolute enthalpy of the steam discharge can be computed with high precision and used to determine the power and thermodynamic efficiency of the turbine. (author)

  4. NSTX Electrical Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Ilic; E. Baker; R. Hatcher; S. Ramakrishnan; et al

    1999-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been designed and installed in the existing facilities at Princeton Plasma Physic Laboratory (PPPL). Most of the hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, and power systems originally used for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used with suitable modifications to reflect NSTX needs. The design of the NSTX electrical power system was tailored to suit the available infrastructure and electrical equipment on site. Components were analyzed to verify their suitability for use in NSTX. The total number of circuits and the location of the NSTX device drove the major changes in the Power system hardware. The NSTX has eleven (11) circuits to be fed as compared to the basic three power loops for TFTR. This required changes in cabling to insure that each cable tray system has the positive and negative leg of cables in the same tray. Also additional power cabling had to be installed to the new location. The hardware had to b e modified to address the need for eleven power loops. Power converters had to be reconnected and controlled in anti-parallel mode for the Ohmic heating and two of the Poloidal Field circuits. The circuit for the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) System had to be carefully developed to meet this special application. Additional Protection devices were designed and installed for the magnet coils and the CHI. The thrust was to making the changes in the most cost-effective manner without compromising technical requirements. This paper describes the changes and addition to the Electrical Power System components for the NSTX magnet systems

  5. Steam generator life cycle management: Ontario Power Generation (OPG) experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruska, C.C.

    2002-01-01

    A systematic managed process for steam generators has been implemented at Ontario Power Generation (OPG) nuclear stations for the past several years. One of the key requirements of this managed process is to have in place long range Steam Generator Life Cycle Management (SG LCM) plans for each unit. The primary goal of these plans is to maximize the value of the nuclear facility through safe and reliable steam generator operation over the expected life of the units. The SG LCM plans integrate and schedule all steam generator actions such as inspection, operation, maintenance, modifications, repairs, assessments, R and D, performance monitoring and feedback. This paper discusses OPG steam generator life cycle management experience to date, including successes, failures and how lessons learned have been re-applied. The discussion includes relevant examples from each of the operating stations: Pickering B and Darlington. It also includes some of the experience and lessons learned from the activities carried out to refurbish the steam generators at Pickering A after several years in long term lay-up. The paper is structured along the various degradation modes that have been observed to date at these sites, including monitoring and mitigating actions taken and future plans. (author)

  6. Integration of the steam cycle and CO2 capture process in a decarbonization power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Gang; Hu, Yue; Tang, Baoqiang; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Wenyi

    2014-01-01

    A new integrated system with power generation and CO 2 capture to achieve higher techno-economic performance is proposed in this study. In the new system, three measures are adopted to recover the surplus energy from the CO 2 capture process. The three measures are as follows: (1) using a portion of low-pressure steam instead of high-pressure extracted steam by installing the steam ejector, (2) mixing a portion of flash-off water with the extracted steam to utilize the superheat degree of the extracted steam, and (3) recycling the low-temperature waste heat from the CO 2 capture process to heat the condensed water. As a result, the power output of the new integrated system is 107.61 MW higher than that of a decarbonization power plant without integration. The efficiency penalty of CO 2 capture is expected to decrease by 4.91%-points. The increase in investment produced by the new system is 3.25 M$, which is only 0.88% more than the total investment of a decarbonization power plant without integration. Lastly, the cost of electricity and CO 2 avoided is 15.14% and 33.1% lower than that of a decarbonization power generation without integration, respectively. The promising results obtained in this study provide a new approach for large-scale CO 2 removal with low energy penalty and economic cost. - Highlights: • Energy equilibrium in CO 2 capture process is deeply analyzed in this paper. • System integration is conducted in a coal-fired power plant with CO 2 capture. • The steam ejector is introduced to utilize the waste energy from CO 2 capture process. • Thermodynamic, exergy and techno-economic analyses are quantitatively conducted. • Energy-saving effects are found in the new system with minimal investment

  7. Impact of steam generator start-up limitations on the performance of a parabolic trough solar power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferruzza, Davide; Topel, Monika; Laumert, Björn

    2018-01-01

    typically start-up and shut down every day, so in order to maximize their profitability, it is necessary to increase their flexibility in transient operation and to initiate power generation as rapidly as possible. Two of the key components are the steam generator and steam turbine and the rates at which...... they can reach operational speed are limited by thermo-mechanical constraints. This paper presents an analysis of the effects of the thermal stress limitations of the steam generator and steam turbine on the power plant start-up, and quantifies their impact on the economy of the system. A dynamic model......-driven and peak-load. The results indicate that for steam generator hot start-ups, a 1.5% increase in peak-load electricity production would be achieved by doubling the maximum allowable heating rate of the evaporator. No useful increase would be achieved by increasing the rates beyond a limit of 7–8 K...

  8. Aluminum-Enhanced Underwater Electrical Discharges for Steam Explosion Triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOGELAND, STEVE R.; NELSON, LLOYD S.; ROTH, THOMAS CHRISTOPHER

    1999-01-01

    For a number of years, we have been initiating steam explosions of single drops of molten materials with pressure and flow (bubble growth) transients generated by discharging a capacitor bank through gold bridgewires placed underwater. Recent experimental and theoretical advances in the field of steam explosions, however, have made it important to substantially increase these relatively mild transients in water without using high explosives, if possible. To do this with the same capacitor bank, we have discharged similar energies through tiny strips of aluminum foil submerged in water. By replacing the gold wires with the aluminum strips, we were able to add the energy of the aluminum-water combustion to that normally deposited electrically by the bridgewire explosion in water. The chemical enhancement of the explosive characteristics of the discharges was substantial: when the same electrical energies were discharged through the aluminum strips, peak pressures increased as much as 12-fold and maximum bubble volumes as much as 5-fold above those generated with the gold wires. For given weights of aluminum, the magnitudes of both parameters appeared to exceed those produced by the underwater explosion of equivalent weights of high explosives

  9. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groening, B.; Koch, M.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    1995-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1988 and 1989. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. The statistics for December 1994 comprise 2328 wind turbines

  10. Power Plants, Steam and Gas Turbines WebQuest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Carlos; Rey, Guillermo D.; Sánchez, Ángel; Cancela, Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    A WebQuest is an Internet-based and inquiry-oriented learning activity. The aim of this work is to outline the creation of a WebQuest entitled "Power Generation Plants: Steam and Gas Turbines." This is one of the topics covered in the course "Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer," which is offered in the second year of Mechanical…

  11. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  12. Variable structure unit vector control of electric power generation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A variable structure Automatic Generation Control (VSAGC) scheme is proposed in this paper for the control of a single area power system model dominated by steam powered electric generating plants. Unlike existing, VSAGC scheme where the selection of the control function is based on a trial and error procedure, the ...

  13. Optimisation of a Kalina cycle for a central receiver solar thermal power plant with direct steam generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Central receiver solar thermal power plants are regarded as one of the promising ways to generate electricity in near future. They offer the possibility of using high temperatures and pressures to achieve high efficiencies with standard power cycles. A direct steam generation approach can be used...

  14. Detailed partial load investigation of a thermal energy storage concept for solar thermal power plants with direct steam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, M.; Hübner, S.; Johnson, M.

    2016-05-01

    Direct steam generation enables the implementation of a higher steam temperature for parabolic trough concentrated solar power plants. This leads to much better cycle efficiencies and lower electricity generating costs. For a flexible and more economic operation of such a power plant, it is necessary to develop thermal energy storage systems for the extension of the production time of the power plant. In the case of steam as the heat transfer fluid, it is important to use a storage material that uses latent heat for the storage process. This leads to a minimum of exergy losses during the storage process. In the case of a concentrating solar power plant, superheated steam is needed during the discharging process. This steam cannot be superheated by the latent heat storage system. Therefore, a sensible molten salt storage system is used for this task. In contrast to the state-of-the-art thermal energy storages within the concentrating solar power area of application, a storage system for a direct steam generation plant consists of a latent and a sensible storage part. Thus far, no partial load behaviors of sensible and latent heat storage systems have been analyzed in detail. In this work, an optimized fin structure was developed in order to minimize the costs of the latent heat storage. A complete system simulation of the power plant process, including the solar field, power block and sensible and latent heat energy storage calculates the interaction between the solar field, the power block and the thermal energy storage system.

  15. Suitability of a combined steam gas power plant in connection with a plant for production of gaseous fuel with a low heating value for the generation of electric power in the middle range of the load characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alich, J.A. Jr.; Dickenson, R.L.; Korens, N.

    1975-01-01

    The report deals with the summary of the basic considerations concerning the gasification of oil and coal to produce electrical power. The application requirements in the middle region of the load diagram are discussed. A survey on the suitability of corresponding gasification equipment as well as methods for such a production of energy are described. The profitableness of an electroenergy-producing medium in the combined cycle with a gas having low heating value for the operation in this load diagram region is compared with other methods. (orig./LH) [de

  16. Digital implementation, simulation and tests in MATLAB of the models of Steam line, the turbines, the pressure regulator of a BWR type nucleo electric power plant; Implementacion digital, simulacion y pruebas en MATLAB de los modelos de la linea de vapor, las turbinas y el regulador de presion de una central Nucleoelectrica tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, A [UNAM, Laboratorio de Analisis de Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, DEPFI, Campus Morelos, en IMTA Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this phase of the project they were carried out exhaustive tests to the models of the steam lines, turbines and pressure regulator of a BWR type nucleo electric central for to verify that their tendencies and behaviors are it more real possible. For it, it was necessary to also analyze the transfer functions of the different components along the steam line until the power generator. Such models define alone the dominant poles of the system, what is not limitation to reproduce a wide range of anticipated transitoriness of a power station operation. In the same manner, it was integrated and proved the integrated model form with the models of feeding water of the SUN-RAH, simulating the nuclear reactor starting from predetermined entrances of the prospective values of the vessel. Also it was coupled with the graphic interface developed with the libraries DirectX implementing a specific monitoring panel for this system. (Author)

  17. Electric power: the liberalization effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, J.

    1999-01-01

    Nine months after the beginning of the deregulation of electric power markets in Europe, the first effects are being felt: fall of prices, amalgamation of electric power companies, development of new technologies and unemployment. (O.M.)

  18. Electric power conservation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollanda, J.B. de

    1989-01-01

    The Brazilian Electric Power Conservation Program (PROCEL) is discussed. The main objective of this program is the optimization of electric power use, including consideration about prices, technology development and legislation. (M.V.M.)

  19. 3D model of steam generator of nuclear power plant Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravnikar, I.; Petelin, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation D4 steam generator design was analyzed from a thermal-hydraulic point of view using the 3D PHOENICS computer code. Void fraction, velocity and enthalpy distributions were obtained in the U-tube riser. The boundary conditions of primary side were provided by SMUP 1D code. The calculations were carried out for present operating conditions of nuclear power plant Krsko. (author)

  20. Electric power industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zisheng Jiang [Ministry of Electric Power, Beijing (China). Bureau of Electric Power Machinery

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the status of the electric power in China, highlighting the following aspects: recent achievement, electricity increased sharing in the total energy consumption, technical economic indexes, nuclear power, renewable energy sources, rural electrification, transmission and power network, transmission lines and substations, present status and development trends for power network, regulation of power system dispatching, power system communication. The document also presents the future developing plan, approaching the outlook and strategy, development targets of the electric power industry and the administrative system reforming of the electric power industry.

  1. 1000 MW steam turbine for nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1987-01-01

    Skoda Works started the manufacture of the 1000 MW steam turbine for the Temelin nuclear power plant. The turbine will use saturated steam at 3,000 r.p.m. It will allow steam supply to heat water for district heating, this of an output of 893 MW for a three-stage water heating at a temperature of 150/60 degC or of 570 MW for a two-stage heating at a temperature of 120/60 degC. The turbine features one high-pressure and three identical low-pressure stages. The pressure gradient between the high-pressure and the low-pressure parts was optimized as concerns the thermal efficiency of the cycle and the thermodynamic efficiency of the low-pressure part. A value of 0.79 MPa was selected corresponding to the maximum flow rate of the steam entering the turbine. This is 5,495 t/h, the admission steam parameters are 273.3 degC and 5.8 MPa. The feed water temperature is 220.9 degC. It is expected that throughout the life of the turbine, there will be 300 cold starts, 1,000 starts following shutdown for 55 to 88 hours, and 600 starts following shutdown for 8 hours. (Z.M.). 8 figs., 1 ref

  2. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs

  3. Electric power in Canada 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs.

  4. Results of Steam-Water-Oxygen Treatment of the Inside of Heating Surfaces in Heat-Recovery Steam Generators of the PGU-800 Power Unit at the Perm' District Thermal Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovechkina, O. V.; Zhuravlev, L. S.; Drozdov, A. A.; Solomeina, S. V.

    2018-05-01

    Prestarting, postinstallation steam-water-oxygen treatment (SWOT) of the natural circulation/steam reheat heat-recovery steam generators (HRSG) manufactured by OAO Krasny Kotelshchik was performed at the PGU-800 power unit of the Perm District Thermal Power Station (GRES). Prior to SWOT, steam-oxygen cleaning, passivation, and preservation of gas condensate heaters (GCH) of HRSGs were performed for 10 h using 1.3MPa/260°C/70 t/h external steam. After that, test specimens were cut out that demonstrated high strength of the passivating film. SWOT of the inside of the heating surfaces was carried out during no-load operation of the gas turbine unit with an exhaust temperature of 280-300°C at the HRSG inlet. The steam turbine was shutdown, and the generated steam was discharged into the atmosphere. Oxygen was metered into the discharge pipeline of the electricity-driven feed pumps and downcomers of the evaporators. The behavior of the concentration by weight of iron compounds and the results of investigation of cutout specimens by the drop or potentiometric method indicate that the steam-water-oxygen process makes it possible to remove corrosion products and reduce the time required to put a boiler into operation. Unlike other processes, SWOT does not require metal-intensive cleaning systems, temporary metering stations, and structures for collection of the waste solution.

  5. TOPEX electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, P. R. K.; Roufberg, Lew; Costogue, Ernest

    1991-01-01

    The TOPEX mission requirements which impact the power requirements and analyses are presented. A description of the electrical power system (EPS), including energy management and battery charging methods that were conceived and developed to meet the identified satellite requirements, is included. Analysis of the TOPEX EPS confirms that all of its electrical performance and reliability requirements have been met. The TOPEX EPS employs the flight-proven modular power system (MPS) which is part of the Multimission Modular Spacecraft and provides high reliability, abbreviated development effort and schedule, and low cost. An energy balance equation, unique to TOPEX, has been derived to confirm that the batteries will be completely recharged following each eclipse, under worst-case conditions. TOPEX uses three NASA Standard 50AH Ni-Cd batteries, each with 22 cells in series. The MPS contains battery charge control and protection based on measurements of battery currents, voltages, temperatures, and computed depth-of-discharge. In case of impending battery depletion, the MPS automatically implements load shedding.

  6. Solid waste processing experience at Susquehanna Steam Electric Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.W.; Granus, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the first year's operation at the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station (SSES) with respect to the Westinghouse Hittman Nuclear Incorporated (Hittman) mobile solidification system and the dry activated waste generation, handling and processing. Experiences pertinent to the mobile solidification system are reviewed with emphasis on the integration of the system into the plant, problems associated with unexpected waste properties and the myriad of operating procedures that had to be prepared. The processing history for 1983 is reviewed in terms of the volume of waste, including solidified wastes, dewatered wastes an DAW. Factors that must be considered in evaluating processing alternatives, i.e., dewatering vs. solidification; steel liners vs. HICs, are discussed. Actions taken by Hittman and SSES to maximize the processing economics are also discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided to the utility considering implementing mobile solification services to ensure a smooth and timely integration of services into the plant

  7. Electric power generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    An electric power generator of the type employing a nuclear heat source and a thermoelectric converter is described wherein a transparent thermal insulating medium is provided inside an encapsulating enclosure to thermally insulate the heat source and thermoelectric generator. The heat source, the thermoelectric converter, and the enclosure are provided with facing surfaces which are heat-reflective to a substantial degree to inhibit radiation of heat through the medium of the encapsulating enclosure. Multiple reflective foils may be spaced within the medium as necessary to inhibit natural convection of heat and/or further inhibit radiation

  8. Electric power substations engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of substations, from the initial concept to design, automation, operation, and physical and cyber security. Written by members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Power Engineering Society (PES) Substations Committee, each section provides a tutorial and includes references for further reading and study. The authors use photographs and graphics to help the reader understand the material. Exploring the most recent technological developments regarding industry practice and standards, the book provides an extensive overview of substations th

  9. Design features of Advanced Power Reactor (APR) 1400 steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tae-Jung; Park, Jun-Soo; Kim, Moo-Yong

    2004-01-01

    Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR 1400) which is to achieve the improvement of the safety and economical efficiency has been developed by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) with the support from industries and research institutes. The steam generator for APR 1400 is an evolutionary type from System 80 + , which is the recirculating U-tube heat exchanger with integral economizer. Compared to the System 80 + steam generator, it is focused on the improved design features, operating and design conditions of APR 1400 steam generator. Especially, from the operation experience of Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) steam generator, the lessons-learned measures are incorporated to prevent the tube wear caused by flow-induced vibration (FIV). The concepts for the preventive design features against FIV are categorized to two fields; flow distribution and dynamic response characteristics. From the standpoint of flow distribution characteristics, the egg-crate flow distribution plate (EFDP) is installed to prevent the local excessive flow loaded on the most susceptible tube to wear. The parametric study is performed to select the optimum design with the efficient mitigation of local excessive flow. ATHOS3 Mod-01 is used and partly modified to analyze the flow field of the APR 1400 steam generator. In addition, the upper tube bundle support is designed to eliminate the presence of tube with a low natural frequency. Based on the improved upper tube bundle support, the modal analysis is performed and compared with that of System 80 + . Using the results of flow distribution and modal analysis, the two mechanisms of flow-induced vibration are investigated; fluid-elastic instability (FEI) and random turbulence excitation (RTE). (authors)

  10. Accurate calibration of steam turbine speed control system and its influence on primary regulation at electric grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrazabal Bohorquez, Washington Orlando; Barbosa, Joao Roberto [Technological Institute of Aeronautics (ITA/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Center for Reference on Gas Turbine and Energy], E-mail: barbosa@ita.br

    2010-07-01

    In an interconnected electric system there are two very important parameters: the field voltage and the frequency system. The frequency system is very important for the primary regulation of the electric grid. Each turbomachine actuating as generator interconnected to the grid has an automatic speed regulator to keep the rotational speed and mechanical power of the prime machine operating at the set conditions and stable frequency. The electric grid is a dynamical system and in every moment the power units are exposed to several types of disturbances, which cause unbalance of the mechanical power developed by prime machine and the consumed electric power at the grid. The steam turbine speed control system controls the turbine speed to support the electric grid primary frequency at the same time it controls the frequency of the prime machine. Using a mathematical model for the speed control system, the transfer functions were calculated, as well as the proportionality constants of each element of the steam turbine automatic speed regulator. Among other parameters, the droop characteristic of steam turbine and the dynamic characteristics of the automatic speed regulator elements were calculated. Another important result was the determination of the behavior of the speed control when disturbances occur with the improvement of the calibration precision of the control system. (author)

  11. Station power supply by residual steam of Fugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Y.; Kato, H.; Hattori, S. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1981-09-01

    In the advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'', when the sudden decrease of load more than 40% occurs due to the failure of power system, the turbine regulating valve is rapidly shut, and the reactor is brought to scrum. However, the operation of turbo-generators is continued with the residual steam in the reactor, and the power for inside the station is supplied for 30 sec by the limiting timer, then the power-generating plant is automatically stopped. The reasons why such design was adopted are to reduce manual operation at the time of emergency, to continue water supply for cooling the reactor and to maintain the water level in the steam drum, and to reduce steam release from the safety valve and the turbine bypass valve. The output-load unbalance relay prevents the everspeed of the turbo-generator when load decreased suddenly, but when the failure of power system is such that recovers automatically in course of time, it does not work. The calculation for estimating the dynamic characteristics at the time of the sole operation within the station is carried out by the analysis code FATRAC. The input conditions for the calculation and the results are reported. Also the dynamic characteristics were actually tested to confirm the set value of the limiting timer and the safe working of turbine and generator trips. The estimated and tested results were almost in agreement.

  12. Plant for the delivery of long-distance steam combined with a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    It is proposed that long-distance steam should not be directly discharged in order to avoid each posibility of spreading radioactively contaminated steam. As a heat transmitter, a surface heat exchanger should be chosen, the heating steam of the nuclear power station heating pressurized water whose pressure is higher then that of the heating steam. Long-distance steam generation then results from expanding the pressurized water. The plant is described in detail. (UWI) [de

  13. Saturated steam turbines for power reactors of WWER-type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czwiertnia, K.

    1978-01-01

    The publication deals with design problems of large turbines for saturated steam and with problem of output limitations of single shaft normal speed units. The possibility of unification of conventional and nuclear turbines, which creates the economic basis for production of both types of turbines by one manufacturer based on standarized elements and assemblies is underlined. As separate problems the distribution of nuclear district heating power systems are considered. The choice of heat diagram for district heating saturated steam turbines, the advantages of different diagrams and evaluaton for further development are presented. On this basis a program of unified turbines both condensing and district heating type suitable for Soviet reactors of WWER-440 and WWER-1000 type for planned development of nuclear power in Poland is proposed. (author)

  14. Turbine steam path replacement at the Grafenrheinfeld Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weschenfelder, K.D.; Oeynhausen, H.; Bergmann, D.; Hosbein, P.; Termuehlen, H.

    1994-01-01

    In the last few years, replacement of old vintage steam turbine flow path components has been well established as a valid approach to improve thermal performance of aged turbines. In nuclear power plants, performance improvement is generally achieved only by design improvements since performance deterioration of old units is minor or nonexistent. With fossil units operating over decades loss in performance is an additional factor which can be taken into account. Such loss of performance can be caused by deposits, solid particle erosion, loss of shaft and inter-stage seal strips, etc. Improvement of performance is typically guaranteed as output increases for operation at full load. This value can be evaluated as a direct gain in unit capacity without fuel or steam supply increase. Since fuel intake does not change, the relative improvement of the net plant heat rate or efficiency is equal to the relative increase in output. The heat rate improvement is achieved not only at full load but for the entire load range. Such heat rate improvement not only moves a plant up on the load dispatch list increasing its capacity factor, but also extensive fuel savings can pay off for the investment cost of new steam path components. Another important factor is that quite often older turbine designs show a deterioration of their reliability and need costly repairs. With new flow path components an aged steam turbine starts a new useful life

  15. Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Efficiency Evaluation with High-Efficiency Steam Injector System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Goto; Shuichi, Ohmori; Michitsugu, Mori

    2006-01-01

    It is possible to establish simplified system with reduced space and total equipment weight using high-efficiency Steam Injectors (SI) instead of low-pressure feedwater heaters in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The SI works as a heat exchanger through direct contact between feedwater from condensers and extracted steam from turbines. It can get higher pressure than supplied steam pressure. The maintenance and reliability are still higher than the feedwater ones because SI has no movable parts. This paper describes the analysis of the heat balance, plant efficiency and the operation of this Innovative-Simplified NPP with high-efficiency SI. The plant efficiency and operation are compared with the electric power of 1100 MWe-class BWR system and the Innovative-Simplified BWR system with SI. The SI model is adapted into the heat balance simulator with a simplified model. The results show that plant efficiencies of the Innovated-Simplified BWR system are almost equal to original BWR ones. The present research is one of the projects that are carried out by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Toshiba Corporation, and six Universities in Japan, funded from the Institute of Applied Energy (IAE) of Japan as the national public research-funded program. (authors)

  16. Economic impact of latent heat thermal energy storage systems within direct steam generating solar thermal power plants with parabolic troughs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.; Johnson, M.; Hübner, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of a latent heat thermal energy storage system into a solar direct steam generation power cycle. • Parametric study of solar field and storage size for determination of the optimal layout. • Evaluation of storage impact on the economic performance of the solar thermal power plant. • Economic comparison of new direct steam generation plant layout with state-of-the-art oil plant layout. - Abstract: One possible way to further reduce levelized costs of electricity of concentrated solar thermal energy is to directly use water/steam as the primary heat transfer fluid within a concentrated collector field. This so-called direct steam generation offers the opportunity of higher operating temperatures and better exergy efficiency. A technical challenge of the direct steam generation technology compared to oil-driven power cycles is a competitive storage technology for heat transfer fluids with a phase change. Latent heat thermal energy storages are suitable for storing heat at a constant temperature and can be used for direct steam generation power plants. The calculation of the economic impact of an economically optimized thermal energy storage system, based on a latent heat thermal energy storage system with phase change material, is the main focus of the presented work. To reach that goal, a thermal energy storage system for a direct steam generation power plant with parabolic troughs in the solar field was thermally designed to determine the boundary conditions. This paper discusses the economic impact of the designed thermal energy storage system based on the levelized costs of electricity results, provided via a wide parametric study. A state-of-the-art power cycle with a primary and a secondary heat transfer fluid and a two-tank thermal energy storage is used as a benchmark technology for electricity generation with solar thermal energy. The benchmark and direct steam generation systems are compared to each other, based respectively

  17. Automatic system for redistributing feedwater in a steam generator of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuoto, J.S.; Crotzer, M.E.; Lang, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for automatically redistributing a steam generator secondary tube system after a burst in the secondary tubing. This applies to a given steam generator in a system having several steam generators partially sharing a common tube system, and employs a pressure control generating an electrical signal which is compared with given values [fr

  18. Generation of electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hursen, T.F.; Kolenik, S.A.; Purdy, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-to-electricity converter is disclosed which includes a radioactive heat source and a thermoelectric element of relatively short overall length capable of delivering a low voltage of the order of a few tenths of a volt. Such a thermoelectric element operates at a higher efficiency than longer higher-voltage elements; for example, elements producing 6 volts. In the generation of required power, the thermoelectric element drives a solid-state converter which is controlled by input current rather than input voltage and operates efficiently for a high signal-plus-noise to signal ratio of current. The solid-state converter has the voltage gain necessary to deliver the required voltage at the low input of the thermoelectric element

  19. Steampunk: Full Steam Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    Steam-powered machines, anachronistic technology, clockwork automatons, gas-filled airships, tentacled monsters, fob watches, and top hats--these are all elements of steampunk. Steampunk is both speculative fiction that imagines technology evolved from steam-powered cogs and gears--instead of from electricity and computers--and a movement that…

  20. Design and field operation of 1175 MW steam turbine for Ohi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Yoshio; Nakagami, Yasuo; Fujii, Hisashi; Shibanai, Hirooki.

    1980-01-01

    Two 1175 MW steam turbine and generator units have been successfully in commercial operation since March 1979 and December 1979 respectively at Ohi Nuclear Power Station of the Kansai Electric Power Company. Those units, the largest in their respective outputs in Japan, have also such remarkable design features as two-stage reheat, nozzle governing turbine, water cooled generator stator and turbine-driven feedwater pumps. This paper covers design features and some topics of various pre-operational tests of the above-mentioned units. (author)

  1. Design and field operation of 1175 MW steam turbine for Ohi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Y.; Nakagami, Y.; Fujii, H.; Shibanai, H.

    1980-01-01

    Two 1,175 MW steam turbine and generator units have been successfully in commercial operation since March 1979 and December 1979 respectively at Ohi Nuclear Power Station of the Kansai Electric Power Company. Those units, the largest in their respective outputs in Japan, have also such remarkable design features as two-stage reheat, nozzle governing turbine, water cooled generator stator and turbine-driven feedwater pumps. This paper covers design features and some topics of various pre-operational tests of the above-mentioned units. (author)

  2. Possibilities for retrofitting of the existing thermal electric power plants using solar power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matjanov, Erkinjon K.; Abduganieva, Farogat A.; Aminov, Zarif Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Total installed electric power output of the existing thermal electric power plants in Uzbekistan is reaches 12 GW. Thermal electric power plants, working on organic fuel, produce around 88 % of the electricity in the country. The emission coefficient of CO 2 gases is 620 gram/kwph. Average electric efficiency of the thermal electric power plants is 32.1 %. The mentioned above data certifies, that the existing thermal electric power plants of Uzbekistan are physically and morally aged and they need to be retrofitted. Retrofitting of the existing thermal electric power plants can be done by several ways such as via including gas turbine toppings, by using solar technologies, etc. Solar thermal power is a relatively new technology which has already shown its enormous promise. With few environmental impacts and a massive resource, it offers a comparable opportunity to the sunniest Uzbekistan. Solar thermal power uses direct sunlight, so it must be sited in regions with high direct solar radiation. In many regions, one square km of land is enough to generate as much as 100-120 GWh of electricity per year using the solar thermal technology. This is equivalent to the annual production of a 50 MW conventional coal or gas-fired mid-load power plant. Solar thermal power plants can be designed for solar-only or for hybrid operation. Producing electricity from the energy in the sun's rays is a straightforward process: direct solar radiation can be concentrated and collected by a range of Concentrating Solar Power technologies to provide medium- to high temperature heat. This heat is then used to operate a conventional power cycle, for example through a steam turbine or a Stirling engine. Solar heat collected during the day can also be stored in liquid or solid media such as molten salts, ceramics, concrete or, in the future, phase-changing salt mixtures. At night, it can be extracted from the storage medium thereby continuing turbine operation. Currently, the

  3. Electric Power Monthly, March 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and state level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data are presented on generation, fuel consumption, stockpiles, costs, sales, and unusual occurrences. Fuels considered are: coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydroelectric power. 4 figs., 48 tabs

  4. Electric power in Canada 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1993 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Appended information is presented on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 23 figs., 95 tabs

  5. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1991 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Appended information is presented on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 26 figs., 90 tabs

  6. Electric power in Canada 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1993 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Information is appended on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 26 figs., 90 tabs

  7. ASTRID power conversion system: Assessment on steam and gas options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffont, Guy; Cachon, Lionel; Jourdain, Vincent; Fauque, Jean Marie

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: ◆ Two power conversion systems have been investigated for the ASTRID prototype. ◆ Steam PCS: • Most mature system based on a well-developed turbomachinery technology. • High plant efficiency. • Studies on steam generators designs and leak detection systems in progress with the aim of reducing the risk of large SWRs and of limiting its consequences. • Design and licensing safety assessment of a SFR must deal with the Sodium Water Air reaction (SWAR). ◆ Gas PCS: • Strong advantage as it inherently eliminates the SWR and SWAR risks. • Very innovative option: major breakthroughs but feasibility and viability not yet demonstrated. • Remaining technological challenges but no showstopper indentified. • General architecture: investigations in progress to improve performances, operability and maintainability

  8. MINAC radiography performed on susquehanna Steam Electric Station Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bognet, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Ten welds were volumetrically examined with a manual and automated ultrasonic (UT) system during a Susquehanna Steam Electric Station (SES) Unit 1 preservice inspection. The automated system had been recently developed and several problems were encountered in this first field application. The ten welds examined had a Sweepolet-to-Risor weld configuration, which further complicated the examination effort. This weld configuration has corrosion-resistant cladding applied to the outside and inside circumference and, as a result of an installation/removal/reinstallation sequence during plant construction, is often referred to as the double weld. After several attempts to obtain interpretable UT data failed (e.g., repeatable data), the examination effort was terminated. PP and L opted to pursue using the Miniature Linear Accelerator (MINAC) to perform radiographic examination. The results were referenced in the Susquehanna SES Unit 1 outage summary report and submitted to the NRC. The total effort was viewed as a complete success with no impact to the overall outage duration. All welds previously attempted by automated and manual UT were successfully examined using the MINAC

  9. Nuclear steam power plant cycle performance calculations supported by power plant monitoring and results computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettes, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    The paper discusses the real time performance calculations for the turbine cycle and reactor and steam generators of a nuclear power plant. Program accepts plant measurements and calculates performance and efficiency of each part of the cycle: reactor and steam generators, turbines, feedwater heaters, condenser, circulating water system, feed pump turbines, cooling towers. Presently, the calculations involve: 500 inputs, 2400 separate calculations, 500 steam properties subroutine calls, 200 support function accesses, 1500 output valves. The program operates in a real time system at regular intervals

  10. Dancing with STEAM: Creative Movement Generates Electricity for Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson Steele, Jamie; Fulton, Lori; Fanning, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The integration of science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM) serves to develop creative thinking and twenty-first-century skills in the classroom (Maeda 2012). Learning through STEAM promotes novelty, innovation, ingenuity, and task-specific purposefulness to solve real-world problems--all aspects that define creativity. Lisa…

  11. Electric power production contra electricity savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Grohnheit, P.E.; Soerensen, H.

    1991-01-01

    The expansion of electricity-producing plants has, in Denmark until now, taken place in accordance with the demand for electricity. Recently, it has been suggested that the cost of the further development of such systems is greater than the cost of instigating and carrying out energy conservation efforts. The aim of the project was to evaluate the consequences for power producing plants of a reduction of the electricity consumption of end-users. A method for the analysis of the costs involved in the system and operation of power plants contra the costs that are involved in saving electricity is presented. In developing a model of this kind, consideration is given to the interplay of the individual saving project and the existing or future electricity supply. Thus it can be evaluated to what extent it would be advisable to substitute investments in the development of the capacity of the power plants with investments in the reduction of electricity consumption by the end users. This model is described in considerable detail. It will be tested in representative situations and locations throughout the Nordic countries. (AB) 17 refs

  12. Electric power balance sheet 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2012: strong seasonal contrast of power consumption, rise of the renewable energies contribution in meeting the electricity demand, slight decay of the nuclear and thermal power generation, decrease of the export balance and change in trades structure, adaptation of RTE's network to the evolutions of the energy system

  13. Electric power system / emergency power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    One factor of reliability of reactor safety systems is the integrity of the power supply. The purpose of this paper is a review and a discussion of the safety objectives required for the planning, licensing, manufacture and erection of electrical power systems and components. The safety aspects and the technical background of the systems for - the electric auxiliary power supply system and - the emergency power supply system are outlined. These requirements result specially from the safety standards which are the framework for the studies of safety analysis. The overall and specific requirements for the electrical power supply of the safety systems are demonstrated on a 1300 MW standard nuclear power station with a pressurized water reactor. (orig.)

  14. Thermal power blocks with ultra-super-critical steam parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aličić Merim M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New generation of thermal power plants are required to have increased utilization rates, in addition to reduced emissions of pollutants, in order to reach optimal solutions, from both technical and economic point of view. One way to achieve greater utilization efficiency is operation of the plant at super critical (SC or ultra super critical steam parameters (USC. However, achieving high parameters depends on use of new materials, which have better properties at high temperatures and pressures, use of new welding technologies and by solving the problem of corrosion. The paper gives an overview of some of the plants with these parameters.

  15. Electric power balance sheet 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2013: stabilisation of the electricity consumption in France, high level of hydropower generation, fast evolution of the European power network, electricity markets in a transition situation, adaptation of RTE's network to the evolutions of the energy system

  16. Performance analysis of an integrated gas-, steam- and organic fluid-cycle thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oko, C.O.C.; Njoku, I.H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the performance analysis of an existing combined cycle power plant augmented with a waste heat fired organic Rankine cycle power plant for extra power generation. This was achieved by performing energy and exergy analysis of the integrated gas-, steam- and organic fluid-cycle thermal power plant (IPP). Heat source for the subcritical organic Rankine cycle (ORC) was the exhaust flue gases from the heat recovery steam generators of a 650 MW natural gas fired combined cycle power plant. The results showed that extra 12.4 MW of electricity was generated from the attached ORC unit using HFE7100 as working fluid. To select ORC working fluid, ten isentropic fluids were screened and HFE7100 produced the highest net power output and cycle efficiency. Exergy and energy efficiencies of the IPP improved by 1.95% and 1.93%, respectively. The rate of exergy destruction in the existing combined cycle plant was highest in the combustion chamber, 59%, whereas in the ORC, the highest rate of exergy destruction occurred in the evaporator, 62%. Simulations showed exergy efficiency of the IPP decreased with increasing ambient temperature. Exit stack flue gas temperature reduced from 126 °C in the combined cycle power plant to 100 °C in the integrated power plant. - Highlights: • Combined cycle plant retrofitted with ORC produced extra 12.4 MW electric power. • ORC is powered with low temperature flue gas from an existing combined cycle plant. • Exergy destruction rate in integrated plant(IPP) is less than in combined plant. • Exit stack temperature of the IPP has less environmental thermal pollution. • Exergy and energy efficiencies of the IPP improved by 1.95% and 1.93%, respectively.

  17. The electric power engineering handbook electric power transformer engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Harlow, James H

    2012-01-01

    Electric Power Transformer Engineering, Third Edition expounds the latest information and developments to engineers who are familiar with basic principles and applications, perhaps including a hands-on working knowledge of power transformers. Targeting all from the merely curious to seasoned professionals and acknowledged experts, its content is structured to enable readers to easily access essential material in order to appreciate the many facets of an electric power transformer.Topically structured in three parts, the book: * Illustrates for electrical engineers the relevant theories and pri

  18. Combined heat and power plants with parallel tandem steam turbines; Smaaskalig kraftvaerme med parallellkopplade tandemturbiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinwall, Pontus; Norstroem, Urban; Pettersson, Camilla; Oesterlin, Erik

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the technical and economical conditions for a concept with parallel coupled tandem turbines in small scale combined heat and power plants fired with bio-fuel and waste. Performance and heat production costs at varying electricity prices for the concept with two smaller tandem coupled steam turbines has been compared to the traditional concept with one single multi-staged turbine. Three different types of plants have been investigated: - Bio fuelled CHP plant with thermal capacity of 15 MW{sub th}; - Waste fired CHP plant with thermal capacity of 20 MW{sub th}; - Bio fuelled CHP plant with thermal capacity of 25 MW{sub th}. The simple steam turbines (Curtis turbines) used in the tandem arrangement has an isentropic efficiency of about 49 to 53% compared to the multi-staged steam turbines with isentropic efficiency in the range of 59% to 81%. The lower isentropic efficiency for the single staged turbines is to some extent compensated at partial load when one of the two turbines can be shut down leading to better operational conditions for the one still in operation. For concepts with saturated steam at partial load below 50% the tandem arrangements presents higher electricity efficiency than the conventional single turbine alternative. The difference in annual production of electricity is therefore less than the difference in isentropic efficiency for the two concepts. Production of electricity is between 2% and 42% lower for the tandem arrangements in this study. Investment costs for the turbine island has been calculated for the two turbine concepts and when the costs for turbines, generator, power transmission, condensing system, piping system, buildings, assembling, commissioning and engineering has been added the sum is about the same for the two concepts. For the bio-fuelled plant with thermal capacity of 15 MW{sub th} the turbine island amount to about 10-12 MSEK and about 13-15 MSEK for the waste fired plant with a thermal capacity of 20 MW

  19. Dynamic underground stripping: steam and electric heating for in situ decontamination of soils and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.; Newmark, Robin L.; Udell, Kent; Buetnner, Harley M.; Aines, Roger D.

    1995-01-01

    A dynamic underground stripping process removes localized underground volatile organic compounds from heterogeneous soils and rock in a relatively short time. This method uses steam injection and electrical resistance heating to heat the contaminated underground area to increase the vapor pressure of the contaminants, thus speeding the process of contaminant removal and making the removal more complete. The injected steam passes through the more permeable sediments, distilling the organic contaminants, which are pumped to the surface. Large electrical currents are also applied to the contaminated area, which heat the impermeable subsurface layers that the steam has not penetrated. The condensed and vaporized contaminants are withdrawn by liquid pumping and vacuum extraction. The steam injection and electrical heating steps are repeated as necessary. Geophysical imaging methods can be used to map the boundary between the hot, dry, contamination-free underground zone and the cool, damp surrounding areas to help monitor the dynamic stripping process.

  20. Thermal analysis of heat and power plant with high temperature reactor and intermediate steam cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fic Adam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal analysis of a heat and power plant with a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor is presented. The main aim of the considered system is to supply a technological process with the heat at suitably high temperature level. The considered unit is also used to produce electricity. The high temperature helium cooled nuclear reactor is the primary heat source in the system, which consists of: the reactor cooling cycle, the steam cycle and the gas heat pump cycle. Helium used as a carrier in the first cycle (classic Brayton cycle, which includes the reactor, delivers heat in a steam generator to produce superheated steam with required parameters of the intermediate cycle. The intermediate cycle is provided to transport energy from the reactor installation to the process installation requiring a high temperature heat. The distance between reactor and the process installation is assumed short and negligable, or alternatively equal to 1 km in the analysis. The system is also equipped with a high temperature argon heat pump to obtain the temperature level of a heat carrier required by a high temperature process. Thus, the steam of the intermediate cycle supplies a lower heat exchanger of the heat pump, a process heat exchanger at the medium temperature level and a classical steam turbine system (Rankine cycle. The main purpose of the research was to evaluate the effectiveness of the system considered and to assess whether such a three cycle cogeneration system is reasonable. Multivariant calculations have been carried out employing the developed mathematical model. The results have been presented in a form of the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of the system as a function of the temperature drop in the high temperature process heat exchanger and the reactor pressure.

  1. Power-generation method using combined gas and steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C; Radtke, K; Keller, H J

    1997-03-20

    The invention concerns a method of power generation using a so-called COGAS (combined gas and steam) turbine installation, the aim being to improve the method with regard to the initial costs and energy consumption so that power can be generated as cheaply as possible. This is achieved by virtue of the fact that air taken from the surrounding atmosphere is splint into an essentially oxygen-containing stream and an essentially nitrogen-containing stream and the two streams fed further at approximately atmospheric pressure. The essentially nitrogen-containing stream is mixed with an air stream to form a mixed nitrogen/air stream and the mixed-gas stream thus produced is brought to combustion chamber pressure in the compressor of the gas turbine, the combustion of the combustion gases in the combustion chamber of the gas turbine being carried out with the greater part of this compressed mixed-gas stream. (author) figs.

  2. Electric power monthly, April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-07

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  3. Electric power monthly, May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  4. Electrical power systems for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudici, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Electrical power system options for Mars Manned Modules and Mars Surface Bases were evaluated for both near-term and advanced performance potential. The power system options investigated for the Mission Modules include photovoltaics, solar thermal, nuclear reactor, and isotope power systems. Options discussed for Mars Bases include the above options with the addition of a brief discussion of open loop energy conversion of Mars resources, including utilization of wind, subsurface thermal gradients, and super oxides. Electrical power requirements for Mission Modules were estimated for three basic approaches: as a function of crew size; as a function of electric propulsion; and as a function of transmission of power from an orbiter to the surface of Mars via laser or radio frequency. Mars Base power requirements were assumed to be determined by production facilities that make resources available for follow-on missions leading to the establishment of a permanently manned Base. Requirements include the production of buffer gas and propellant production plants.

  5. Autonomously managed electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    The electric power systems for future spacecraft such as the Space Station will necessarily be more sophisticated and will exhibit more nearly autonomous operation than earlier spacecraft. These new power systems will be more reliable and flexible than their predecessors offering greater utility to the users. Automation approaches implemented on various power system breadboards are investigated. These breadboards include the Hubble Space Telescope power system test bed, the Common Module Power Management and Distribution system breadboard, the Autonomusly Managed Power System (AMPS) breadboard, and the 20 kilohertz power system breadboard. Particular attention is given to the AMPS breadboard. Future plans for these breadboards including the employment of artificial intelligence techniques are addressed.

  6. A Study on the Air Vent Valve of the Hydraulic Servo Actuator for Steam Control of Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Lee, Jong Jik

    2016-01-01

    To produce adequate electricity in nuclear and thermal power plants, an optimal amount of steam should be supplied to a generator connected to high- and low-pressure steam turbines. A turbine output control device, which is a special steam valve employed to supply or interrupt the steam to the turbine, is operated using a hydraulic servo actuator. In power plants, the performance of servo actuators is degraded by the air generated from the hydraulic system, or causes frequent failures owing to an increase in the wear of the seal. This is due to the seal being burnt as generated heat using the produced compressed air. Some power plants have exhausted air using a fixed orifice, and thus they encounter power loss due to mass flow exhaust. Failures are generated in hydraulic pumps, electric motors, and valves, which are frequently operated. In this study, we perform modeling and analysis of the load-sensing air-exhaust valves, which can be passed through very fine flow under normal use conditions, and exhaust mass flow air at the beginning stage as with existing fixed orifices. Then, we propose a method to prevent failures due to the compressed air, and to ensure the control accuracy of hydraulic servo actuators.

  7. A Study on the Air Vent Valve of the Hydraulic Servo Actuator for Steam Control of Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To produce adequate electricity in nuclear and thermal power plants, an optimal amount of steam should be supplied to a generator connected to high- and low-pressure steam turbines. A turbine output control device, which is a special steam valve employed to supply or interrupt the steam to the turbine, is operated using a hydraulic servo actuator. In power plants, the performance of servo actuators is degraded by the air generated from the hydraulic system, or causes frequent failures owing to an increase in the wear of the seal. This is due to the seal being burnt as generated heat using the produced compressed air. Some power plants have exhausted air using a fixed orifice, and thus they encounter power loss due to mass flow exhaust. Failures are generated in hydraulic pumps, electric motors, and valves, which are frequently operated. In this study, we perform modeling and analysis of the load-sensing air-exhaust valves, which can be passed through very fine flow under normal use conditions, and exhaust mass flow air at the beginning stage as with existing fixed orifices. Then, we propose a method to prevent failures due to the compressed air, and to ensure the control accuracy of hydraulic servo actuators.

  8. Intermediate heat exchanger and steam generator designs for the HYLIFE-II fusion power plant using molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.T.; Hoffman, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The HYLIFE-II fusion power plant employs the molten salt, Flibe, for the liquid jets which form the self-healing 'first wall' of the reactor. The molten salt, sodium fluoroborate then transports the heat from the IHX's to the steam generators. The design and optimization of the IHX's and the steam generators for use with molten salts has been done as part of the HYLIFE-II conceptual design study. The results of this study are described, and reference designs of these large heat exchangers are selected to minimize the cost of electricity while satisfying other important constraints

  9. Electric Power Regulation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landa, J V [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The history of the electrical power sector in Mexico, the prominent role that government plays in the generation, transformation, distribution and supply of electrical power, and the implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for this sector were summarized. The slow pace of the Mexican electricity sector in achieving cost efficiency through pricing policy was criticized, and the issue of regulation versus deregulation of the electricity sector was examined in the context of NAFTA, emphasizing the contradiction between the idea of international trade and a highly regulated industry. Revisions of the original constitutional article to exclude electrical power generation from governmental control and to allow market mechanisms and competition to lower costs and increase efficiency was recommended.It was considered a pre-condition to a stable balance between competition and energy efficient environmentally friendly practices.

  10. Drying system for steam generators, particularly for steam generators of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavalerie, Claude; Borrel, Christian.

    1982-01-01

    A drying system is described which allows for modular construction and which provides a significant available exchange area in a reduced volume. All the drying elements are identical and are distributed according to a ternay circular symmetry and are placed radially and associated to steam guiding facilities which alternately provide around the axis of revolution an output volume of dry steam from one element and an input volume of wet steam in the following element [fr

  11. Studying heat integration options for steam-gas power plants retrofitted with CO2 post-combustion capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carapellucci, Roberto; Giordano, Lorena; Vaccarelli, Maura

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generation from fossil fuels has become a focal point of energy and climate change policies due to its central role in modern economics and its leading contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is regarded by the International Energy Agency as an essential part of the technology portfolio for carbon mitigation, as it can significantly reduce CO 2 emissions while ensuring electricity generation from fossil fuel power plants. This paper studies the retrofit of natural gas combined cycles (NGCCs) with an amine-based post-combustion carbon capture system. NGCCs with differently rated capacities were analysed under the assumptions that the heat requirement of the capture system was provided via a steam extraction upstream of the low-pressure steam turbine or by an auxiliary unit that was able to reduce the power plant derating related to the energy needs of the CCS system. Different types of auxiliary units were investigated based on power plant size, including a gas turbine cogeneration plant and a supplementary firing unit or boiler fed by natural gas or biomass. Energy and economic analyses were performed in order to evaluate the impact of type and layout of retrofit option on energy, environmental and economic performance of NGCCs with the CCS system. - Highlights: • Steam-gas power plants with an amine-based CO 2 capture unit are examined. • The study concerns three combined cycles with different capacity and plant layout. • Several options to fulfil the heat requirement of the CCS system are explored. • Steam extraction significantly reduces the capacity of steam-gas power plant. • An auxiliary combined heat and power unit allows to reduce power plant derating

  12. Electric power in Canada, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This annual review surveys Canadian electrical power production and consumption, exports and imports, and developments in the fields of energy policy, electric space heating, and alternate energy sources. Total Canadian capacity at Dec. 31 1982 was 84 777 MW, 6 280 MW from nuclear sources. Of 1 469 MW capacity added during 1982, 680 MW were nuclear. The demand for electricity dropped to 344 083 GWh in 1982 from 346 333 GWh in 1981

  13. Electric power in Canada, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (82 tabs., 23 figs.)

  14. Electric power in Canada, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (78 tabs., 27 figs.)

  15. Investigations to the potential of the high temperature reactor for steam power processes with highest steam conditions and comparison with according conventional power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondry, M.

    1988-04-01

    Already in the fifties conventional power plants with high parameters of the live steam were built to improve the total efficiency. The power plant with the highest steam conditions in the Federal Republic of Germany has 300 bar pressure and 600deg C temperature. Because of high material costs and other problems power plants with such high conditions were not continued to be built. Standard conditions of today's power plants are in the order of 180-250 bar pressure and 535deg C temperature. As the high temperature reactor is partly built up in another way than a conventional power plant, the results regarding the high steam parameters are not transferable. Possibilities for the technical realization of determined HTR-specific components are introduced and discussed. Then different HTR-power plants with steam conditions up to 350 bar pressure and 650deg C temperature are projected. Economical considerations show that an HTR with higher steam parameters brings financial profits. Further efficiency increase, which is possible by the high steam conditions, is shortly presented. The work ends with a technical and economical comparison of corresponding conventional power plants. (orig./UA) [de

  16. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  17. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  18. Simulation of main steam and feedwater system of full scope simulator for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoyu

    1996-01-01

    The simulation of main steam and feedwater system is the most important and maximal part in secondary circuit model, including all of main steam and feedwater's thermal-hydraulic properties, except heat-exchange of secondary side of steam generator. It simulates main steam header, steam power in each stage of turbine, moisture separator-reheater, deaerator, condenser, high pressure and low pressure heater, auxiliary feedwater and main steam bypass in full scope

  19. LCA-LCCA of oil fired steam turbine power plant in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R.; Tso, C.P.; Osman, Ramli; Ho, H.K.

    2004-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to quantify the non-renewable energy use and global warming potential in electricity generation from a typical oil fired steam turbine plant in Singapore. As the conventional LCA does not include any cost analysis, which is a major criterion in decision making, the cost of power generation is estimated using a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) tool. It is estimated that the hidden processes consumed about 9% additional energy on top of the fuel embedded energy, while the hidden GHG emission is about 12%. A correlation is established to estimate the life cycle energy use and GHG emissions directly from the power plant net efficiency. The study methodology, results and the empirical relations are presented, together with a brief overview of the Singapore power sector. It also highlights the need for consideration of the reserves availability in the pricing mechanism and how such cost indices could be developed based on the LCA-LCCA

  20. LCA-LCCA of oil fired steam turbine power plant in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R.; Tso, C.P.; Osman, Ramli; Ho, H.K.

    2004-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to quantify the non-renewable energy use and global warming potential in electricity generation from a typical oil fired steam turbine plant in Singapore. As the conventional LCA does not include any cost analysis, which is a major criterion in decision making, the cost of power generation is estimated using a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) tool. It is estimated that the hidden processes consumed about 9% additional energy on top of the fuel embedded energy, while the hidden GHG emission is about 12%. A correlation is established to estimate the life cycle energy use and GHG emissions directly from the power plant net efficiency. The study methodology, results and the empirical relations are presented, together with a brief overview of the Singapore power sector. It also highlights the need for consideration of the reserves availability in the pricing mechanism and how such cost indices could be developed based on the LCA-LCCA. (Author)

  1. The electric power engineering handbook power systems

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Power Systems, Third Edition (part of the five-volume set, The Electric Power Engineering Handbook) covers all aspects of power system protection, dynamics, stability, operation, and control. Under the editorial guidance of L.L. Grigsby, a respected and accomplished authority in power engineering, and section editors Andrew Hanson, Pritindra Chowdhuri, Gerry Sheble, and Mark Nelms, this carefully crafted reference includes substantial new and revised contributions from worldwide leaders in the field. This content provides convenient access to overviews and detailed information on a diverse arr

  2. Electric power monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  3. Electric power monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  4. Electric power monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  5. Electric power monthly, November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended

  6. Strategic elements of steam cycle chemistry control practices at TXU's Comanche Peak steam electric station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellers, B.; Stevens, J.; Nichols, G.

    2002-01-01

    Early industry experience defined the critical importance of Chemistry Control Practices to maintaining long-term performance of PWR steam generators. These lessons provided the impetus for a number of innovations and alternate practices at Comanche Peak. For example, advanced amine investigations and implementation of results provided record low iron transport and deposition. The benefits of the surface-active properties of dimethyl-amine exceeded initial expectations. Operation of pre-coat polishers and steam generator blowdown demineralizers in the amine cycle enabled optimization of amine concentrations and stable pH control. The strategy for coordinated control of oxygen and hydrazine dosing complemented the advanced amine program for protective oxide stabilization. Additionally, a proactive chemical cleaning was performed on Unit 1 to prevent degradations from general fouling of steam generator tube-tube support plate (TSP) and top-of-tubesheet (TTS) crevices. This paper shares the results of these innovations and practices. Also, the bases, theory, and philosophy supporting the strategic elements of program will be presented. (authors)

  7. Electric power monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Statistics by company and plant are published on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  8. Electric power monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the U.S., Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. This April 1994 issue contains 1993 year-end data and data through January 1994.

  9. Electric power monthly, April 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data are given for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, statistics at the company and plant level are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 6 figs., 57 tabs

  10. Study of steam, helium and supercritical CO2 turbine power generations in prototype fusion power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Shintaro; Muto, Yasushi; Kato, Yasuyoshi; Nishio, Satoshi; Hayashi, Takumi; Nomoto, Yasunobu

    2008-01-01

    Power generation systems such as steam turbine cycle, helium turbine cycle and supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ) turbine cycle are examined for the prototype nuclear fusion reactor. Their achievable cycle thermal efficiencies are revealed to be 40%, 34% and 42% levels for the heat source outlet coolant temperature of 480degC, respectively, if no other restriction is imposed. In the current technology, however, low temperature divertor heat source is included. In this actual case, the steam turbine system and the S-CO 2 turbine system were compared in the light of cycle efficiency and plant cost. The values of cycle efficiency were 37.7% and 36.4% for the steam cycle and S-CO 2 cycle, respectively. The construction cost was estimated by means of component volume. The volume became 16,590 m 3 and 7240 m 3 for the steam turbine system and S-CO 2 turbine system, respectively. In addition, separation of permeated tritium from the coolant is much easier in S-CO 2 than in H 2 O. Therefore, the S-CO 2 turbine system is recommended to the fusion reactor system than the steam turbine system. (author)

  11. Power Plants, Steam and Gas Turbines WebQuest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ulloa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A WebQuest is an Internet-based and inquiry-oriented learning activity. The aim of this work is to outline the creation of a WebQuest entitled “Power Generation Plants: Steam and Gas Turbines.” This is one of the topics covered in the course “Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer,” which is offered in the second year of Mechanical Engineering at the Defense University Center at the Naval Academy in Vigo, Spain. While participating in the activity, students will be divided into groups of no more than 10 for seminars. The groups will create PowerPoint presentations that include all of the analyzed aspects. The topics to be discussed during the workshop on power plant turbines are the: (1 principles of operation; (2 processes involved; (3 advantages and disadvantages; (4 efficiency; (5 combined cycle; and (6 transversal competences, such as teamwork, oral and written presentations, and analysis and synthesis of information. This paper presents the use of Google Sites as a guide to the WebQuest so that students can access all information online, including instructions, summaries, resources, and information on qualifications.

  12. Ecotaxes and their impact in the cost of steam and electric energy generated by a steam turbine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, Gisela

    2006-01-01

    Ecotaxes allow the internalization of costs that are considered externalities associated with polluting industrial process emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, ecotaxes internalize polluting emissions negative impacts that are added to electricity and steam generated costs of a steam turbine and heat recovery systems from a utilities refinery plant. Steam costs were calculated by means of an exergy analysis tool and Aspen Plus simulation models. Ecotaxes were calculated for specific substances emitted in the refinery flue gases, based on a toxicity and pollution scale. Ecotaxes were generated from a model that includes damages produced to biotic and abiotic resources and considers the relative position of those substances in a toxicity and pollution scale. These ecotaxes were internalized by an exergoeconomic analysis resulting in an increase in the cost per kWh produced. This kind of ecotax is not applied in Mexico. The values of ecotaxes used in the cost determination are referred to the values currently applied by some European countries to nitrogen oxides emissions. (author)

  13. Recruiting, Training, Retaining, and Promoting the Workforce of the Future at Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunseri, M.

    1999-01-01

    TXU Electric expects to encounter a relatively high turnover in the workforce in the coming years. To prepare for this challenge and to maintain a high level of performance, a number of approaches are being implemented. These approaches involve recruiting experienced personnel, recruiting and developing local nonexperienced personnel, and developing current employees. Through these approaches, TXU Electric expects to maintain a high-quality workforce for the continued support of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station

  14. How EPRI [Electric Power Research Institute] helps utilities save money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A number of case studies are presented which illustrate how the work of the Electric Power Research Institute in the USA has enabled nuclear utilities to save money. The areas covered by the examples are: steam generator tube repair; streamlining of reliability centred maintenance; cost effective instrumentation and control maintenance; reducing the frequency of instrument calibration; optimising the engineering change process; detecting and reducing fuel failure; extending the qualified life of equipment. (U.K.)

  15. Electric boilers for nuclear power plant in Liebstadt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A type of electric boiler, two of which are to be supplied to the Liebstadt nuclear power plant by Sulzer, is described. They are to be used for start-up and as reserve for the normal steam supply. The mode of operation is that feed water is sprayed into a high tension electrode such that the falling water conducts the current to the earthed electrode. This type of boiler presents advantages in space requrements and enviromental factors. (JIW)

  16. Electric boilers for nuclear power plant in Liebstadt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-29

    A type of electric boiler, two of which are to be supplied to the Liebstadt nuclear power plant by Sulzer, is described. They are to be used for start-up and as reserve for the normal steam supply. The mode of operation is that feedwater is sprayed into a high tension electrode such that the falling water conducts the current to the earthed electrode. This type of boiler presents advantages in space requrements and enviromental factors.

  17. Prospects for Martensitic 12 % Cr Steels for Advanced Steam Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, John

    2016-01-01

    and FB2 are now used in power plants up to 600–620 °C steam temperature. For higher steam temperatures up to 650 °C steels with 11–12 % Cr are needed for better resistance against steam oxidation. However, fine V and Nb based nitrides may transform to coarse Z-phase [Cr(V,Nb)N] nitrides in steels...

  18. Steam generator tube failures: experience with water-cooled nuclear power reactors during 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1978-02-01

    A survey was conducted of experience with steam generator tubes at nuclear power stations during 1976. Failures were reported at 25 out of 68 water-cooled reactors. The causes of these failures and the repair and inspection procedures designed to cope with them are summarized. Examination of the data indicates that corrosion was the major cause of steam generator tube failures. Improvements are needed in steam generator design, condenser integrity and secondary water chemistry control. (author)

  19. Design and performance of General Electric boiling water reactor main steam line isolation valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, D.A.; van Zylstra, E.H.

    1976-08-01

    An extensive test program has been completed by the General Electric Company in cooperation with the Commonwealth Edison Company on the basic design type of large main steam line isolation valves used on General Electric Boiling Water Reactors. Based on a total of 40 tests under simulated accident conditions covering a wide range of mass flows, mixture qualities, and closing times, it was concluded that the commercially available valves of this basic type will close completely and reliably as required. Analytical methods to predict transient effects in the steam line and valve after postulated breaks were refined and confirmed by the test program

  20. Energy and economic optimization of a membrane-based oxyfuel steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarko, Yevgeniy

    2015-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage is one technological option for reducing CO 2 emissions. The oxyfuel process is based on the combustion of fossil fuels in an oxygen-flue gas atmosphere with the subsequent concentration of CO 2 . The oxygen is produced by cryogenic air separation with an energy demand of 245 kWh el /t O2 . The application of ceramic membranes has the potential to reduce the specific energy demand of oxygen supply with consistently high-purity oxygen. This work focuses on - determining the efficiency of an advanced oxyfuel steam power plant that can be constructed today using membranes for oxygen production, - investigating and quantifying the potential for energy optimizing the overall process by changing its flow structure, - assessing the feasibility of individual optimization options based on their investment costs under market conditions. For this work, a method developed by Forschungszentrum Juelich and patented on 25 April 2012 under EP 2214806 is used. The Oxy-Vac-Juel concept is integrated into the oxyfuel steam power plant with simple process management using standardized power plant components. The net efficiency of the base power plant is 36.6 percentage points for an oxygen separation degree of 60 %. This corresponds to a net power loss of 9.3 percentage points compared to the reference power plant without CO 2 capture. The specific electricity demand of this oxygen supply method is 176 kWh el /t O2 . To increase the efficiency, the flow structure of the base power plant is optimized using industrially available components from power plant and process engineering. The 22 analyzed optimization options consist of design optimization of the gas separation process, the modification of the flue gas recirculation and the plant-internal waste heat utilization. The energetic advantage over the base power plant, depending on the optimization option, ranges from 0.05 - 1.00 percentage points. For each optimization option, the size and cost of the power

  1. Electrical power systems for distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, T.A.; Huval, S.J. [Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}Distributed Generation{close_quotes} has become the {open_quotes}buzz{close_quotes} word of an electric utility industry facing deregulation. Many industrial facilities utilize equipment in distributed installations to serve the needs of a thermal host through the capture of exhaust energy in a heat recovery steam generator. The electrical power generated is then sold as a {open_quotes}side benefit{close_quotes} to the cost-effective supply of high quality thermal energy. Distributed generation is desirable for many different reasons, each with unique characteristics of the product. Many years of experience in the distributed generation market has helped Stewart & Stevenson to define a range of product features that are crucial to most any application. The following paper will highlight a few of these applications. The paper will also examine the range of products currently available and in development. Finally, we will survey the additional services offered by Stewart & Stevenson to meet the needs of a rapidly changing power generation industry.

  2. Corrosion aspects in steam generators of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visoni, E.; Santos Pinto, M. dos

    1988-01-01

    Steam generators of pressurized water reactors (PWR), transfer heat from a primary coolant system to a secondary coolant system. Primary coolant water is heated in the core and passes through the steam generator that transfer heat to the secondary coolant water. However, the steam generator is dead for ionic impurities, corrosion products and fabrication/maintenence residues. These impurities concentrate between crevice and cracks. Many types of degradation mechanisms affect the tubes. The tubes are dented, craked, ovalized, wasted, etc. This paper describes the main corrosion problems in steam generators and includes the corrective actions to considered to reduce or eliminate these corrosion problems. (author) [pt

  3. Electric Power Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-12

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost in fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 12 refs., 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  4. Highlights of Electric Power Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Reform and Development of Electric Power Management Before 1978, China's electric power industry,managed by the Central Government, was a vertically monopoly sector. Along with China's reformation of economy structure started in 1978, electric power industry has step on its road of restructuring and deregulation. Up to now administration of China's electric power industry underwent following reciprocative changes:

  5. Skylab technology electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woosley, A. P.; Smith, O. B.; Nassen, H. S.

    1974-01-01

    The solar array/battery power systems for the Skylab vehicle were designed to operate in a solar inertial pointing mode to provide power continuously to the Skylab. Questions of power management are considered, taking into account difficulties caused by the reduction in power system performance due to the effects of structural failure occurring during the launching process. The performance of the solar array of the Apollo Telescope Mount Power System is discussed along with the Orbital Workshop solar array performance and the Airlock Module power conditioning group performance. A list is presented of a number of items which have been identified during mission monitoring and are recommended for electrical power system concepts, designs, and operation for future spacecraft.

  6. Electric Power annual 1996: Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document presents a summary of electric power industry statistics. Data are included on electric utility retail sales of electricity, revenues, environmental information, power transactions, emissions, and demand-side management.

  7. How is Electricity Generated from Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajnef, D.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power is a proven, safe and clean source of power generation. A nuclear power plant is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor. As is typical in all conventional thermal power stations the heat is used to generate steam which drives a steam turbine: the energy released from continuous fission of the atoms of the fuel is harnessed as heat in either a gas or water, and is used to produce steam. Nuclear Reactors are classified by several methods. It can be classified by type of nuclear reaction, by the moderator material, by coolant or by generation. There are several components common to most types of reactors: fuel, moderator, control rods, coolant, and containment. Nuclear reactor technology has been under continuous development since the first commercial exploitation of civil nuclear power in the 1950s. We can mention seven key reactor attributes that illuminate the essential differences between the various generations of reactors: cost effectiveness, safety, security and non-proliferation, fuel cycle, grid appropriateness and Economics. Today there are about 437 nuclear power reactors that are used to generate electricity in about 30 countries around the world. (author)

  8. Arabelle: The most powerful steam turbine in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarque, F.; Deloroix, V.

    1998-01-01

    On the 30th of August 1996 at the CHOOZ power station in the Ardennes, the first 1,500 MW turbine was started up under nuclear steam and connected to the grid. It will reach full power in the spring of 1997, followed shortly afterwards by a second identical machine. This turbine, known as ARABELLE, is currently the most powerful in the world, with a single line rotating at 1,500 rpm. It has been entirely designed, manufactured and installed by the teams of GEC ALSTHOM, within the framework of the Electricite de France N4 PWR program. It represents a new type of nuclear turbine, the fruit of much research and development work which started in the 1980s. It benefits from GEC ALSTHOM's considerable experience in the field of nuclear turbines: 143 machines with a total power output of 100,000 MW and more than ten million hours of operation. It should be remembered that the first 1,000 MW unit for a PWR plant was connected at Fessenheim in 1977, and since then the different EDF plants have been equipped with 58 GEC ALSTHOM turbines, ranging from 1,000 MW to 1,350 MW, this providing the company with a vast amount of information. The process which led to a new design for ARABELLE was based on: Feedback of service experience from previous machines; this provides precious learning material with a view to improving the performance of operating equipment. Research and development work resulting in significant technical advances which could then be integrated into the design of a new generation of turbines. Taking account of the major concerns of the customer-user: Electricite de France (EDF): Improved reliability and operating availability, increased efficiency, reduced investment and maintenance costs

  9. Energy, electricity and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, P.; Naudet, G.

    2008-01-01

    After an introduction recalling what energy is, the first part of this book presents the present day energy production and consumption and details more particularly the electricity 'vector' which is an almost perfect form of energy despite the fact that it is not a primary energy source: it must be generated from another energy source and no large scale storage of this energy is possible. The second part of the book is devoted to nuclear energy principles and to the related technologies. Content: 1 - What does energy mean?: the occurrence of the energy concept, the classical notion of energy, energy notion in modern physics, energy transformations, energy conservation, irreversibility of energy transformations, data and units used in the energy domain; 2 - energy production and consumption: energy systems, energy counting, reserves and potentialities of energy resources, production of primary energies, transport and storage of primary energies, energy consumption, energy saving, energy markets and prices, energy indicators; 3 - electric power: specificity of electricity and the electric system, power networks, power generation, electricity storage, power consumption and demand, power generation economics, electricity prices and market; 4 - physical principles of nuclear energy: nuclei structure and binding energy, radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear reactions used in energy generation, basics of fission reactors physics; 5 - nuclear techniques: historical overview, main reactor types used today, perspectives; 6 - fuel cycle: general considerations, uranium mining, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, back-end of the cycle, plutonium recycle in water cooled reactors; 7 - health and environmental aspects of nuclear energy: effects on ionizing radiations, basics of radiation protection, environmental impacts of nuclear energy, the nuclear wastes problem, specific risks; 8 - conclusion; 9 - appendixes (units, physics constants etc..)

  10. Electrical power system WP-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nored, Donald L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (EPS) WP-40 are presented. Topics covered include: key EPS technical requirements; photovoltaic power module systems; solar array assembly; blanket containment box and box positioning subassemblies; solar cell; bypass diode assembly; Kapton with atomic oxygen resistant coating; sequential shunt unit; gimbal assembly; energy storage subsystem; thermal control subsystem; direct current switching unit; integrated equipment assembly; PV cargo element; PMAD system; and PMC and AC architecture.

  11. Large steam turbines for nuclear power stations. Output growth prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riollet, G.; Widmer, M.; Tessier, J.

    1975-01-01

    The rapid growth of the output of nuclear reactors, even if temporary settlement occurs, leads the manufacturer to evaluate, at a given time, technological limitations encountered. The problems dealing with the main components of turbines: steam path, rotors and stators steam valves, controle devices, shafts and bearings, are reviewed [fr

  12. Steam generators under construction for the SNR-300 power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essebaggers, J

    1975-07-01

    The prototype straight tube and the helical coil-steam generator has been designed and fabricated of which the straight tube steam generator has been successfully tested for over 3000 hours at prototypical conditions and is presently being dismantled for detailed examination of critical designed features. The prototype helical coil steam generator is presently under testing in the 50 MWt test facility at TNO-Hengelo with approximately 500 hours of operation at full load conditions. In an earlier presentation the design and fabrication of the prototype steam generators have been presented, while for this presentation the production units for SNR-300 will be discussed. Some preliminary information will be presented at this meeting of the dismantling operations of the prototype straight tube steam generator. (author)

  13. Steam generators under construction for the SNR-300 power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essebaggers, J.

    1975-01-01

    The prototype straight tube and the helical coil-steam generator has been designed and fabricated of which the straight tube steam generator has been successfully tested for over 3000 hours at prototypical conditions and is presently being dismantled for detailed examination of critical designed features. The prototype helical coil steam generator is presently under testing in the 50 MWt test facility at TNO-Hengelo with approximately 500 hours of operation at full load conditions. In an earlier presentation the design and fabrication of the prototype steam generators have been presented, while for this presentation the production units for SNR-300 will be discussed. Some preliminary information will be presented at this meeting of the dismantling operations of the prototype straight tube steam generator. (author)

  14. Thermal circuit and supercritical steam generator of the BGR-300 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, B.P.; Godik, I.B.; Komarov, N.F.; Kurochnkin, Yu.P.

    1979-01-01

    Secondary coolant circuit and a steam generator for supercritical steam parameters of the BGR-300 reactor plant are described. The BGR-300 plant with a 300 MW(e) high-temperature gas-cooled fast reactor is developed as a pilot commercial plant. It is shown that the use of a supercritical pressure steam increases the thermal efficiency of the plant and descreases thermal releases to the environment, permits to use home-made commercial turbine plants of large unit power. The proposed supercritical pressure steam generator has considerable advantages from the viewpoint of heat transfer and hydrodynamical processes

  15. Integrated gasification and Cu-Cl cycle for trigeneration of hydrogen, steam and electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghahosseini, S; Dincer, I; Naterer, G F [University of Ontario, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Institute of Technology

    2011-02-15

    This paper develops and analyzes an integrated process model of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and a thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle for trigeneration of hydrogen, steam and electricity. The process model is developed with Aspen HYSYS software. By using oxygen instead of air for the gasification process, where oxygen is provided by the integrated Cu-Cl cycle, it is found that the hydrogen content of produced syngas increases by about 20%, due to improvement of the gasification combustion efficiency and reduction of syngas NOx emissions. Moreover, about 60% of external heat required for the integrated Cu-Cl cycle can be provided by the IGCC plant, with minor modifications of the steam cycle, and a slight decrease of IGCC overall efficiency. Integration of gasification and thermochemical hydrogen production can provide significant improvements in the overall hydrogen, steam and electricity output, when compared against the processes each operating separately and independently of each other.

  16. Electric power distribution. Elektrische Energieverteilung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, H; Frohne, H; Vaske, P

    1982-01-01

    The first chapter on electric power supply networks discusses transmitting media, their characteristic values, and the dimensioning of electric lines and networks; cables are given particular attention. High-voltage d.c. transmission and reactive power compensation are discussed. The next chapter describes the calculation of short-circuits and earth leakages for various neutral circuits on the basis of symmetric components. The newly introduced mesh current method for complex calculation of electric networks makes use of the potential of pocket computers. Chapter 3 discusses protective devices, i.e. earth systems and electronic protection. The next two chapters describe switch gear and power plants, including recent technical changes. The final chapter, which discusses the electric power industry, has been rewritten and extended. Methods of calculation, e.g. annual cost and cash value, are applied to transmitting media and plants. There is an extensive appendix with characteristic values of cables and overhead lines, graphical symbols, distinguishing signs of wiring diagrams, a bibliography of books, DIN standards, VDE specifications, and formulas.

  17. Power Electronics and Electric Machines Facilities | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL Facilities Power Electronics and Electric Machines Facilities NREL's power electronics and electric machines thermal management experimentation facilities feature a wide range of four researchers in discussion around a piece of laboratory equipment. Power electronics researchers

  18. Electric power statistics from independence to establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This paper reports power statistics from independence to establishment pf KEPIC. It has the lists of electricity industry, electric equipment on the whole country power equipment at the independence and development of power facility, power generation about merit of power plants, demand according to types and use, power loss, charge for electric power distribution, power generation and generating cost, financial lists on income measurement and financing, meteorological phenomena and amount of rainfall electric power development, international statistics on major countries power generation and compare power rates with general price.

  19. Electric power monthly, January 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels

  20. Electric power monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-16

    The Electric Power Monthly (EMP) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  1. Electric power monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-26

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  2. Electric power monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-20

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  3. Steam turbines for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trassl, W.

    1988-01-01

    Approximately 75% of the electrical energy produced in the world is generated in power plants with steam turbines (fossil and nuclear). Although gas turbines are increasingly applied in combined cycle power plants, not much will change in this matter in the future. As far as the steam parameters and the maximum unit output are concerned, a certain consolidation was noted during the past decades. The standard of development and mathematical penetration of the various steam turbine components is very high today and is applied in the entire field: For saturated steam turbines in nuclear power plants and for steam turbines without reheat, with reheat and with double reheat in fossil-fired power plants and for steam turbines with and without reheat in combined cycle power plants. (orig.) [de

  4. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-382)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    Supplement 10 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by Louisiana Power and Light Company for a license to operate the Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3 (Docket No. 50-382), located in St. Charles Parish, Louisiana, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this supplement is to update the Safety Evaluation Report by providing the staff's evaluation of information submitted by the licensee since the Safety Evaluation Report and its nine previous supplements were issued

  5. Assessment of the once-through cooling alternative for central steam-electric generating stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paddock, R. A.; Ditmars, J. D.

    1978-12-01

    The efficacy of the disposal of waste heat from steam-electric power generation by means of once-through cooling systems was examined in the context of the physical aspects of water quality standards and guidelines for thermal discharges. Typical thermal standards for each of the four classes of water bodies (rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters) were identified. The mixing and dilution characteristics of various discharge modes ranging from simple, shoreline surface discharges to long, submerged multiport diffusers were examined in terms of the results of prototype measurements, analytical model predictions, and physical model studies. General guidelines were produced that indicate, for a given plant capacity, a given type of receiving water body, and a given discharge mode, the likelihood that once-through cooling can be effected within the restrictions of typical thermal standards. In general, it was found that shoreline surface discharges would not be adequate for large power plants (greater than or equal to 500 MW) at estuarine and marine coastal sites, would be marginally adequate at lake sites, and would be acceptable only at river sites with large currents and river discharges. Submerged multiport diffusers were found to provide the greatest likelihood of meeting thermal standards in all receiving water environments.

  6. Lessons learned while implementing a safety parameter display system at the Comanche Peak steam electric station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagar, B.

    1987-01-01

    With the completion of site Verification and Validation tests, the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) will be fully operational at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station. Implementation of the SPDS, which began in 1982, included: modifying generic Safety Assessment System Software; developing site-specific displays and features; installing and integrating system equipment into the plant; modifying station heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems to provide necessary cooling; installing an additional uninterruptible power supply system to provide necessary power; and training station personnel in the operation and use of the system. Lessons learned during this project can be discussed in terms of an ideal SPDS implementation project. Such a project would design and implement an SPDS for a plant that is already under construction or operating, and would progress through a sequence of activities that includes: (1) developing and documenting the system design bases, and including all major design influences; (2) developing a database description and system functional specifications to clarify specific system requirements; (3) developing detailed system hardware and software design specifications to fully describe the system, and to enable identification of necessary site design changes early in the project; (4) implementing the system design; (5) configuring and extensively testing the system prior to routine system operation; and (6) tuning the system after the completion of system installation. The ideal project would include future system users in design development and system testing, and would use Verification and Validation techniques throughout the project to ensure that each sequential step is appropriate and correct

  7. Assessment of the once-through cooling alternative for central steam-electric generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paddock, R.A.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1978-12-01

    The efficacy of the disposal of waste heat from steam-electric power generation by means of once-through cooling systems was examined in the context of the physical aspects of water quality standards and guidelines for thermal discharges. Typical thermal standards for each of the four classes of water bodies (rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters) were identified. The mixing and dilution characteristics of various discharge modes ranging from simple, shoreline surface discharges to long, submerged multiport diffusers were examined in terms of the results of prototype measurements, analytical model predictions, and physical model studies. General guidelines were produced that indicate, for a given plant capacity, a given type of receiving water body, and a given discharge mode, the likelihood that once-through cooling can be effected within the restrictions of typical thermal standards. In general, it was found that shoreline surface discharges would not be adequate for large power plants (greater than or equal to 500 MW) at estuarine and marine coastal sites, would be marginally adequate at lake sites, and would be acceptable only at river sites with large currents and river discharges. Submerged multiport diffusers were found to provide the greatest likelihood of meeting thermal standards in all receiving water environments

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of heat recovery steam generator in combined cycle power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Naradasu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined cycle power plants play an important role in the present energy sector. The main challenge in designing a combined cycle power plant is proper utilization of gas turbine exhaust heat in the steam cycle in order to achieve optimum steam turbine output. Most of the combined cycle developers focused on the gas turbine output and neglected the role of the heat recovery steam generator which strongly affects the overall performance of the combined cycle power plant. The present paper is aimed at optimal utilization of the flue gas recovery heat with different heat recovery steam generator configurations of single pressure and dual pressure. The combined cycle efficiency with different heat recovery steam generator configurations have been analyzed parametrically by using first law and second law of thermodynamics. It is observed that in the dual cycle high pressure steam turbine pressure must be high and low pressure steam turbine pressure must be low for better heat recovery from heat recovery steam generator.

  9. Electric power annual 1995. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This document summarizes pertinent statistics on various aspects of the U.S. electric power industry for the year and includes a graphic presentation. Data is included on electric utility retail sales and revenues, financial statistics, environmental statistics of electric utilities, demand-side management, electric power transactions, and non-utility power producers.

  10. Electric power monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels. Data on quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels lag data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the US, Census division, and State level tables. However, for purposes of comparison, plant-level data are presented for the earlier month.

  11. Solar thermal electric power generation - an attractive option for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A

    1999-01-01

    Solar Thermal Energy is being successfully used for production of electricity in few developed countries for more than 10 years. In solar Electric Generating Systems high temperature is generated by concentrating solar energy on black absorber pipe in evacuated glass tubes. This heat is absorbed and transported with the help of high temperature oil in to highly insulated heat exchanger storage tanks. They are subsequently used to produce steam that generates power through steam turbines as in standard thermal power plants. Various components involved in Solar thermal field have been developed at the Solar Systems Laboratory of College of EME, NUST Rawalpindi. It is considered as a cost effective alternate for power generation. The research has been partially sponsored by Ministry of Science and Technology under its Public Sector Development Program (PSDP) in (1996-1998). Parabolic mirror design, fabrication, polishing, installation, solar tracking, absorber pipe, glass tubes, steam generation al have been developed. This paper will cover the details of indigenous technological break through made in this direction. (author)

  12. Research on simulation of supercritical steam turbine system in large thermal power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongyang

    2018-04-01

    In order to improve the stability and safety of supercritical steam turbine system operation in large thermal power station, the body of the steam turbine is modeled in this paper. And in accordance with the hierarchical modeling idea, the steam turbine body model, condensing system model, deaeration system model and regenerative system model are combined to build a simulation model of steam turbine system according to the connection relationship of each subsystem of steam turbine. Finally, the correctness of the model is verified by design and operation data of the 600MW supercritical unit. The results show that the maximum simulation error of the model is 2.15%, which meets the requirements of the engineering. This research provides a platform for the research on the variable operating conditions of the turbine system, and lays a foundation for the construction of the whole plant model of the thermal power plant.

  13. Business venture-analysis case study relating to the manufacture of gas turbines for the generation of utility electric power. Volume II. Private sector and public sector venture studies. Final report. [Use of coal gasifier with combined gas and steam system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davison, W.R.

    1978-05-05

    Increasing national attention is being directed toward the search for clean, efficient, and reliable energy-conversion systems, capable of using abundant indigenous fuels such as coal, for generation of utility electric power. A prime candidate in this area is the combined gas and steam (COGAS) system employing a high-temperature gas turbine with a steam-turbine bottoming cycle, fed by a coal gasifier. This program demonstrates the use of a logical and consistent venture-analysis methodology which could also be applied to investigate other high-technology, energy-conversion systems that have yet to reach a state of commercialization but which are of significant interest to the U.S. Government. The venture analysis was performed by using a computer to model the development, production, sales, and in-service development phases of programs necessary to introduce new gas turbines in COGAS systems. The simulations were produced in terms of estimated cash flows, rates of returns, and risks which a manufacturer would experience. Similar simulations were used to estimate public-sector benefits resulting from the lower cost of power and improved environment gained from the use of COGAS systems rather than conventional systems. The study shows that substantial social benefits could be realized and private investment would be made by the gas-turbine manufacturers if an infusion of external funds were made during key portions of the gas-turbine development program. It is shown that there is substantial precedent for such public assistance to make possible economic and environmental benefits that otherwise would not be possible. 42 references.

  14. Electric power and gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    These two days organized by EFE in Paris, dealt with the european market of the gas and the electrical power. The first day developed the actual situation and the tendencies. The french market deregulation, the possibility of a united market and the energy transportation sector are discussed. The second day dealt with the new commercial technologies, the convergence of Gas and Electricity and the competing in a change world, the opportunities of the NTIC (new technologies of the information and communication). (A.L.B.)

  15. Manned spacecraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, William E.; Nored, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief history of the development of electrical power systems from the earliest manned space flights illustrates a natural trend toward a growth of electrical power requirements and operational lifetimes with each succeeding space program. A review of the design philosophy and development experience associated with the Space Shuttle Orbiter electrical power system is presented, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. A discussion of prototype, verification, and qualification hardware is included, and several design improvements following the first Orbiter flight are described. The problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches used to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained are stressed. Major technology barriers and their solutions are discussed, and a brief Orbiter flight experience summary of early Space Shuttle missions is included. A description of projected Space Station power requirements and candidate system concepts which could satisfy these anticipated needs is presented. Significant challenges different from Space Shuttle, innovative concepts and ideas, and station growth considerations are discussed. The Phase B Advanced Development hardware program is summarized and a status of Phase B preliminary tradeoff studies is presented.

  16. Energy and Environment. Electric power stock exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazioli, R.; Antonioli, B.; Beccarello, M.; Da Rin, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper are reported the structural characteristics of electric power stock exchange in the processes liberalization of european electric markets. International experience are also considered [it

  17. Start-up support for New Brunswick Electric's Point Lepreau nuclear steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.; Leroux, A.

    1983-05-01

    The start-up of the 600 MW Point Lepreau reactor provided the opportunity for direct involvement in the important low and medium power start-up phase which was of particular interest because this was a first-of-a-kind reactor type incorporating a new steam generator design. Support included test assistance and test results interpretation for the thermal hydraulic performance of the steam generators and in particular, investigation of water level response to operating pressure, power and feed flow. This work resulted in both a greatly improved understanding of transient characteristics and in a number of beneficial refinements in the control methods

  18. Electric Power Monthly, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-13

    The EPM is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 40 tabs.

  19. Steam turbine generators for Sizewell 'B' nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, J.A.; Muscroft, J.

    1990-01-01

    The thermodynamic cycle of the modern 3000 r/min steam turbine as applied at Sizewell 'B' is presented. Review is made of the factors affecting thermal efficiency including the special nature of the wet steam cycle and the use of moisture separation and steam reheating. Consideration is given to the optimization of the machine and cycle parameters, including particular attention to reheating and to the provision of feedheating, in order to achieve a high overall level of performance. A modular design approach has made available a family of machines suitable for the output range 600-1300 MW. The constructional features of the 630 MW Sizewell 'B' turbine generators from this range are described in detail. The importance of service experience with wet steam turbines and its influence on the design of modern turbines for pressurized water reactor (PWR) applications is discussed. (author)

  20. Draft environmental statement related to steam generator repair at H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant Unit No. 2, (Docket No. 50-261)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The staff has considered the environmental impacts and economic costs of the proposed steam generator repair at the H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant Unit No. 2 along with reasonable alternatives to the proposed action. The staff has concluded that the proposed repair will not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and that there are no preferable alternatives to the proposed action. Furthermore, any impacts from the repair program are outweighted by its benefits

  1. Fault tolerant control for steam generators in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Zhihong; Shi Xiaocheng; Xia Guoqing; Fu Mingyu

    2010-01-01

    Based on the nonlinear system with stochastic noise, a bank of extended Kalman filters is used to estimate the state of sensors. It can real-time detect and isolate the single sensor fault, and reconstruct the sensor output to keep steam generator water level stable. The simulation results show that the methodology of employing a bank of extended Kalman filters for steam generator fault tolerant control design is feasible. (authors)

  2. Hydrogen-oxygen steam generator applications for increasing the efficiency, maneuverability and reliability of power production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Borzenko, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    The comparative feasibility study of the energy storage technologies showed good applicability of hydrogen-oxygen steam generators (HOSG) based energy storage systems with large-scale hydrogen production. The developed scheme solutions for the use of HOSGs for thermal power (TPP) and nuclear power plants (NPP), and the feasibility analysis that have been carried out have shown that their use makes it possible to increase the maneuverability of steam turbines and provide backup power supply in the event of failure of the main steam generating equipment. The main design solutions for the integration of hydrogen-oxygen steam generators into the main power equipment of TPPs and NPPs, as well as their optimal operation modes, are considered.

  3. Consequences of reduced production of electricity in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Power Administration has assessed the possibilities of expanding electric power sources other than nuclear power plants for the years 1980 and 1985. Reports on costs in the form of loss of capital and increased operating costs involved in the dismantling of nuclear power plants are made in Supplement 1. The economics division of the Finance Department, starting with a long-range study model of the Swedish economy, has calculated the consequences of a cutback in electric power up to 1980 for Sweden's economy and employment in that year. The consequences of reduction of electricity supplies up to 1985 are summarized in Supplement 2 in this report. It is concluded that in order to be able to manage the problem of supplying electricity by 1985, it will be necessary to increase oil power above what was assumed in the energy policy program. There will have to be new oil-based power as well. According to the Power Administration, oil-power facilities can be expanded to varying degrees, depending upon when the decision is made. The Power Administration's calculations show that 125 TWh is possible in 1985 without nuclear power only if a decision for discontinuation is made in the fall of 1976. This is based on very optimistic assumptions about the time of execution of a program for oil-steam operation, and also on the assumption that extreme measures will be initiated to force expansion of both district-heating distribution and power + heat facilities. Oil consumption for production of electricity in such an electric power system would be about 9 million m 3 , which is about 5 times more than at present and about one-third of the present total consumption of petroleum products in Sweden

  4. Possibilities of the metallurgical base in the manufacture of tubes for nuclear power plant steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prnka, T.; Walder, V.; Dolenek, J.

    Current possibilities are briefly summarized of metallurgy in the manufacture of high-quality tubes for nuclear power plant steam generators, mainly for fast reactor power plants. Discussed are steel making possibilities, semi-finished product and tube forming with special regard to 2.25Cr1MoNiNb steel problems, heat treatment, finishing, and testing. Necessary equipment and technology for the production of steam generator tubes are less common in the existing practice and are demanding on investment; their introduction, however, is inevitable for securing quality production of steam generator tubes. (Kr)

  5. Variable electricity and steam from salt, helium and sodium cooled base-load reactors with gas turbines and heat storage - 15115

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.; McDaniel, P.; Zohuri, B.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in utility natural-gas-fired air-Brayton combed cycle technology is creating the option of coupling salt-, helium-, and sodium-cooled nuclear reactors to Nuclear air-Brayton Combined Cycle (NACC) power systems. NACC may enable a zero-carbon electricity grid and improve nuclear power economics by enabling variable electricity output with base-load nuclear reactor operations. Variable electricity output enables selling more electricity at times of high prices that increases plant revenue. Peak power is achieved using stored heat or auxiliary fuel (natural gas, bio-fuels, hydrogen). A typical NACC cycle includes air compression, heating compressed air using nuclear heat and a heat exchanger, sending air through a turbine to produce electricity, reheating compressed air, sending air through a second turbine, and exhausting to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). In the HRSG, warm air produces steam that is used to produce added electricity. For peak power production, auxiliary heat (natural gas, stored heat) is added before the air enters the second turbine to raise air temperatures and power output. Like all combined cycle plants, water cooling requirements are dramatically reduced relative to other power cycles because much of the heat rejection is in the form of hot air. (authors)

  6. Dryout occurrence in a helically coiled steam generator for nuclear power application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santini L.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dryout phenomena have been experimentally investigated in a helically coiled steam generator tube. The experiences carried out in the present work are part of a wide experimental program devoted to the study of a GEN III+ innovative nuclear power plant [1].The experimental facility consists in an electrically heated AISI 316L stainless steel coiled tube. The tube is 32 meters long, 12.53 mm of inner diameter, with a coil diameter of 1m and a pitch of 0.79 m, resulting in a total height of the steam generator of 8 meters. The thermo-hydraulics conditions for dryout investigations covered a spectrum of mass fluxes between 199 and 810 kg/m2s, the pressures ranges from 10.7 to 60.7 bar, heat fluxes between 43.6 to 209.3 kW/m2.Very high first qualities dryout, between 0.72 and 0.92, were found in the range of explored conditions, comparison of our results with literature available correlations shows the difficulty in predicting high qualities dryout in helical coils., immediately following the heading. The text should be set to 1.15 line spacing. The abstract should be centred across the page, indented 15 mm from the left and right page margins and justified. It should not normally exceed 200 words.

  7. Integration between direct steam generation in linear solar collectors and supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Coco Enríquez, Luis; Muñoz Antón, Javier; Martínez-Val Peñalosa, José María

    2015-01-01

    Direct Steam Generation in Parabolic Troughs or Linear Fresnel solar collectors is a technology under development since beginning of nineties (1990's) for replacing thermal oils and molten salts as heat transfer fluids in concentrated solar power plants, avoiding environmental impacts. In parallel to the direct steam generation technology development, supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton power cycles are maturing as an alternative to traditional Rankine cycles for increasing net plant efficie...

  8. Radioisotope Sources of Electric Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-09-20

    u) watt/cm-3 O) specific activity f) curia/watt (curie/a) a) half-life c) specific power output h) years (capacity) 1) days d) watt/p Polonium - 210 ...AD/A-001 210 RADIOISOTOPE SOURCES OF ELECTRIC POWER G. M. Fradkin, et al Army Foreign Science and Technology Center Charlottesville, Virginia 20...narticularlv for nurninn and irocess~ino of wastg.Sheatinc food , conversion of liruld oxtoner to des, and also for removal of imnurities and reula:tion

  9. Steam generator assessment for sustainable power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, Andreas; Fandrich, Joerg; Ramminger, Ute; Montaner-Garcia, Violeta

    2012-09-01

    Water and steam serve in the water-steam cycle as the energy transport and work media. These fluids shall not affect, through corrosion processes on the construction materials and their consequences, undisturbed plant operation. The main objectives of the steam water cycle chemistry consequently are: - The metal release rates of the structural materials shall be minimal - The probability of selective / localized forms of corrosion shall be minimal. - The deposition of corrosion products on heat transfer surfaces shall be minimized. - The formation of aggressive media, particularly local aggressive environments under deposits, shall be avoided. These objectives are especially important for the steam generators (SGs) because their condition is a key factor for plant performance, high plant availability, life time extension and is important to NPP safety. The major opponent to that is corrosion and fouling of the heating tubes. Effective ways of counteracting all degradation problems and thus of improving the SG performance are to keep SGs in clean conditions or if necessary to plan cleaning measures such as mechanical tube sheet lancing or chemical cleaning. Based on more than 40 years of experience in steam-water cycle water chemistry treatment AREVA developed an overall methodology assessing the steam generator cleanliness condition by evaluating all available operational and inspection data together. In order to gain a complete picture all relevant water chemistry data (e.g. corrosion product mass balances, impurity ingress), inspection data (e.g. visual inspections and tube sheet lancing results) and thermal performance data (e.g. heat transfer calculations) are evaluated, structured and indexed using the AREVA Fouling Index Tool Box. This Fouling Index Tool Box is more than a database or statistical approach for assessment of plant chemistry data. Furthermore the AREVA's approach combines manufacturer's experience with plant data and operates with an

  10. Electric power globalization and reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares Neto, Jose Lino

    1999-01-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to define the economic and political forces of the electric power sector regulation restructuring

  11. Power Sales to Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-02-01

    The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of

  12. Three Dimensional Visualization for the Steam Injection into Water Pool using Electrical Resistance Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khambampati, Anil Kumar; Lee, Jeong Seong; Kim, Sin; Kim, Kyung Youn

    2010-01-01

    The direct injection of steam into a water pool is a method of heat transfer used in many process industries. The amount of research in this area however is limited to the nuclear industry, with applications relating to reactor cooling systems. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT), a low cost, non-invasive and which has high temporal resolution characteristics, can be used as a visualization tool for the resistivity distribution for the steam injection into water pool such as IRWST. In this paper, three dimensional resistivity distribution of the process is obtained through ERT using iterative Gauss-Newton method. Numerical experiments are performed by assuming different resistive objects in the water pool. Numerical results show that ERT is successful in estimating the resistivity distribution for the injection of steam in the water pool

  13. Technological investigations and efficiency analysis of a steam heat exchange condenser: Conceptual design of a hybrid steam condenser

    OpenAIRE

    Kapooria, R K; Kumar, S; Kasana, K S

    2008-01-01

    Most of the electricity being produced throughout the world today is from steam power plants. At the same time, many other competent means of generating electricity have been developed viz. electricity from natural gas, MHD generators, biogas, solar cells, etc. But steam power plants will continue to be competent because of the use of water as the main working fluid which is abundantly available and is also reusable. The condenser remains among one of the key components of a steam power plant...

  14. TEP Power Partners Project [Tucson Electric Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-06

    The Arizona Governor’s Office of Energy Policy, in partnership with Tucson Electric Power (TEP), Tendril, and Next Phase Energy (NPE), formed the TEP Power Partners pilot project to demonstrate how residential customers could access their energy usage data and third party applications using data obtained from an Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) network. The project applied for and was awarded a Smart Grid Data Access grant through the U.S. Department of Energy. The project participants’ goal for Phase I is to actively engage 1,700 residential customers to demonstrate sustained participation, reduction in energy usage (kWh) and cost ($), and measure related aspects of customer satisfaction. This Demonstration report presents a summary of the findings, effectiveness, and customer satisfaction with the 15-month TEP Power Partners pilot project. The objective of the program is to provide residential customers with energy consumption data from AMR metering and empower these participants to better manage their electricity use. The pilot recruitment goals included migrating 700 existing customers from the completed Power Partners Demand Response Load Control Project (DRLC), and enrolling 1,000 new participants. Upon conclusion of the project on November 19, 2013; 1,390 Home Area Networks (HANs) were registered; 797 new participants installed a HAN; Survey respondents’ are satisfied with the program and found value with a variety of specific program components; Survey respondents report feeling greater control over their energy usage and report taking energy savings actions in their homes after participating in the program; On average, 43 % of the participants returned to the web portal monthly and 15% returned weekly; and An impact evaluation was completed by Opinion Dynamics and found average participant savings for the treatment period1 to be 2.3% of their household use during this period.2 In total, the program saved 163 MWh in the treatment period of 2013.

  15. Green power: electricity's blue box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, M.

    2002-01-01

    The concept of green power is taking hold, and the speaker briefly outlined the various options available at the moment, such as low impact hydro, wind, solar, and biomass. The electrical generation mix will be affected as a result of the provision of alternate power sources of energy to the community. It is possible for members of the community to make a well-informed choice as the eco-logo is the official certification of green products and power. Wind turbine interference with bird migration represents one of the main concerns attributed to wind power along with the generation of noise. The speaker indicated that the turbines are mostly located away from migration routes and that they turn very slowly, therefore not likely to cause a noise pollution problem for the public. The higher cost associated with green power causes a problem when compared with the cost or more traditional energy generation methods. Until they become more competitive, green power alternatives only fill a niche market. Ontario Power Generation is determined to assist the community with a move toward green energy in the future, especially given its position as an industry leader. refs., figs

  16. Specific safety aspects of the water-steam cycle important to nuclear power plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, C.G.

    1986-01-01

    The water-steam cycle in a nuclear power plant is similar to that used in conventional power plants. Some systems and components are required for the safe nuclear power plant operation and therefore are designed according to the safety criteria, rules and regulations applied in nuclear installations. The aim of this report is to present the safety characteristics of the water-steam cycle of a nuclear power plant with pressurized water reactor, as applied for the design of the nuclear power plants Angra 2 and Angra 3. (Author) [pt

  17. The future of electric power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    In this interview with a prominent expert of the electric power industry, problems of assuring electricity supply, the economics of nuclear electricity generation, the supply structure, and cogeneration are discussed. (UA) [de

  18. Power processing for electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, R. C.; Herron, B. G.; Gant, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    The potential of achieving up to 30 per cent more spacecraft payload or 50 per cent more useful operating life by the use of electric propulsion in place of conventional cold gas or hydrazine systems in science, communications, and earth applications spacecraft is a compelling reason to consider the inclusion of electric thruster systems in new spacecraft design. The propulsion requirements of such spacecraft dictate a wide range of thruster power levels and operational lifetimes, which must be matched by lightweight, efficient, and reliable thruster power processing systems. This paper will present electron bombardment ion thruster requirements; review the performance characteristics of present power processing systems; discuss design philosophies and alternatives in areas such as inverter type, arc protection, and control methods; and project future performance potentials for meeting goals in the areas of power processor weight (10 kg/kW), efficiency (approaching 92 per cent), reliability (0.96 for 15,000 hr), and thermal control capability (0.3 to 5 AU).

  19. The french electric power evaluation 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document takes stock on the french electric power situation for the year 2005. It provides information on the consumption the trade, the production, the french market and the RTE (Electric power transport network) infrastructure. (A.L.B.)

  20. Probabilistic Fault Diagnosis in Electrical Power Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrical power systems play a critical role in spacecraft and aircraft. This paper discusses our development of a diagnostic capability for an electrical power...

  1. Worldwide assessment of steam-generator problems in pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, H.H.; Lu, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    Objective is to assess the reliability of steam generators of pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants in the United States and abroad. The assessment is based on operation experience of both domestic and foreign PWR plants. The approach taken is to collect and review papers and reports available from the literature as well as information obtained by contacting research institutes both here and abroad. This report presents the results of the assessment. It contains a general background of PWR plant operations, plant types, and materials used in PWR plants. A review of the worldwide distribution of PWR plants is also given. The report describes in detail the degradation problems discovered in PWR steam generators: their causes, their impacts on the performance of steam generators, and the actions to mitigate and avoid them. One chapter is devoted to operating experience of PWR steam generators in foreign countries. Another discusses the improvements in future steam generator design

  2. Development of High-Powered Steam Turbines by OAO NPO Central Research and Design Institute for Boilers and Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Kovalev, I. A.

    2018-01-01

    The article provides an overview of the developments by OAO NPO TsKTI aimed at improvement of components and assemblies of new-generation turbine plants for ultra-supercritical steam parameters to be installed at the power-generating facilities in service. The list of the assemblies under development includes cylinder shells, the cylinder's flow paths and rotors, seals, bearings, and rotor cooling systems. The authors consider variants of the shafting-cylinder configurations for which advanced high-pressure and intermediate-pressure cylinders with reactive blading and low-pressure cylinders of conventional design and with counter-current steam flows are proposed and high-pressure rotors, which can increase the economic efficiency and reduce the overall turbine plant dimensions. Materials intended for the equipment components that operate at high temperatures and a steam cooling technique that allows the use of cheaper steel grades owing to the reduction in the metal's working temperature are proposed. A new promising material for the bearing surfaces is described that enables the operation at higher unit pressures. The material was tested on a full-scale test bench at OAO NPO TsKTI and a turbine in operation. Ways of controlling the erosion of the blades in the moisture-steam turbine compartments by the steam heating of the hollow guide blades are considered. To ensure the dynamic stability of the shafting, shroud and diaphragm seals that prevent the development of the destabilizing circulatory forces of the steam flow were devised and trialed. Advanced instrumentation and software are proposed to monitor the condition of the blading and thermal stresses under transient conditions, to diagnose the vibration processes, and to archive the obtained data. Attention is paid to the normalization of the electromagnetic state of the plant in order to prevent the electrolytic erosion of the plant components. The instrumentation intended for monitoring the relevant electric

  3. Volume reduction of filter media at Susquehanna steam and electric station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boris, G.F.; Hettinger, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the joint efforts between Pennsylvania Power ampersand Light (PPQL) and Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG) to reduce the volume of waste shipped to the burial site by the Susquehanna Steam and Electric Station (SSES) and the resulting savings realized as a result. The filter media used at SSES for its radwaste filters is composed of a mix of anion and cation powered resins, powered carbon, diatomaceous earth and a fibrous overlay. Due to the nature of this waste stream, dewatering was difficult using systems previously available in the industry. Thus, processing was accomplished by decanting (to concentrate the waste) and solidification. In the continuing effort to dewater wastes of this nature, SEG developed a new fabric filter dewatering system (RDU). To investigate its potential use in large containers, this dewatering system was installed in drum-size high integrity containers and used to test its dewatering capabilities on actual SSES waste. Promising results from these tests warranted a full-scale test. This proved successful and implementation of this processing scheme was immediate. Cost savings were substantial in transportation, burial and processing costs as well as personnel exposure. Also, additional waste volume reduction was found due to the volume reduction capability of the dewatering system (equivalent volume of new filter media approximately 1.2 times that of dewatered product volume). Additional savings resulted from SSES's continuing effort to minimize radwaste generation. Combined, these have reduced the number of shipments of filter media in 1989 to sixty percent of the number made in 1988 and have reduced costs by approximately fifty percent. 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Design of large steam turbines for PWR power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, G.; Muscroft, J.

    1983-01-01

    The thermodynamic cycle requirements for use with pressurized water reactors are reviewed and the manner in which thermal efficiency is maximised is outlined. The special nature of the wet steam cycle associated with turbines for this type of reactor is discussed. Machine and cycle parameters are optimised to achieve high thermal efficiency, particular attention being given to arrangements for water separation and steam reheating and to provisions for feedwater heating. Principles and details of mechanical design are considered for a range of both full-speed turbines running at 3000 rpm on 50 Hz systems and half-speed turbines running at 1800 rpm on 60 Hz systems. The importance of service experience with nuclear wet steam turbines and its relevance to the design of modern turbines for pressurized water reactor applications is discussed. (author)

  5. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA

    2011-12-06

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  6. Water separator for a steam turbine for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.; Hubble, W.S.; Woods, K.K.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a water separator for the condensation of humidity from steam of the inertia type, which has an improved flow distribution and can therefore be built for large dimensions. This is achieved by variation of the dimensions of the components of the liquid separator, particularly by the configuration of the drain trough, and by the fixing of suitable impact sheets, which produce turbulence and distribute the wet steam evenly over the separator elements. There is a detailed representation with drawings. (UW) [de

  7. Power Electronics and Electric Machines Publications | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL and Electric Machines Publications Power Electronics and Electric Machines Publications NREL and its partners have produced many papers and presentations related to power electronics and from power electronics and electric machines research are available to the public. Photo by Pat Corkery

  8. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors (2) analysis of heat balance of innovative-simplified nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, S.; Ohmori, S.; Mori, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is possible to establish simplified system with reduced space and total equipment weight using high-efficiency Steam Injector (SI) instead of low-pressure feedwater heaters in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP)(1)-(6). The SI works as a heat exchanger through direct contact between feedwater from the condensers and extracted steam from the turbines. It can get a higher pressure than supplied steam pressure, so it can reduce the feedwater pumps. The maintenance and reliability are still higher because SI has no movable parts. This paper describes the analysis of the heat balance and plant efficiency of this Innovative- Simplified NPP with high-efficiency SI. The plant efficiency is compared with the electric power of 1100MWe-class BWR system and the Innovative- Simplified BWR system with SI. The SI model is adapted into the heat balance simulator with a simplified model. The results show plant efficiencies of the Innovated-Simplified BWR system are almost equal to the original BWR one. The present research is one of the projects that are carried out by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Toshiba Corporation, and six Universities in Japan, funded from the Institute of Applied Energy (IAE) of Japan as the national public research-funded program. (authors)

  9. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors. (2) Analysis of heat balance of innovative-simplified nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Shoji; Ohmori, Shuichi; Mori, Mitchitsugu

    2004-01-01

    It is possible to established simplified systems and reduced space and equipments using high-efficiency Steam Injector (SI) instead of low-pressure feed water heaters in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The SI works as a heat exchanger through direct contact between feedwater from condenser and extracted steam from turbine. It can get a higher pressure than supplied steam pressure, so it can reduce the feedwater pumps. The maintenance and reliability are still higher because SI has no movable parts. This paper describes the analysis of the heat balance and plant efficiency of this Innovative-Simplified NPP with high-efficiency SI. The plant efficiency is compared with the electric power of 1100MWe class original BWR system and the Innovative-Simplified BWR system with SI. The SI model is adapted into the heat balance simulator with a simplified model. The results show plant efficiencies of the Innovated-Simplified BWR system are almost equal to the original BWR one. The present research is one of the projects that are carried out by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Toshiba Corporation, and six Universities in Japan, funded from the Institute of Applied Energy (IAE) of Japan as the national public research-funded program. (author)

  10. Experience of electric power conservation in COELBA (Bahia Electric Company)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, A.C.F.

    1990-01-01

    The electric power crisis of Brazilian north-east in 1987 imposes the Bahia Electric Company-COELBA to management a electric power conservation. The institutional, organizational and operational aspects are presented, including the tariff system, the market, the consumption and the relation with public. (author)

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of Producing Electricity in Thailand: A Case Study of Natural Gas Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usapein Parnuwat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impacts from natural gas power plant in Thailand was investigated in this study. The objective was to identify the hotspot of environmental impact from electricity production and the allocation of emissions from power plant was studied. All stressors to environment were collected for annual natural gas power plant operation. The allocation of environmental load between electricity and steam was done by WRI/WBCSD method. Based on the annual power plant operation, the highest of environmental impact was fuel combustion, followed by natural gas extraction, and chemical reagent. After allocation, the result found that 1 kWh of electricity generated 0.425 kgCO2eq and 1 ton of steam generated 225 kgCO2eq. When compared based on 1GJ of energy product, the result showed that the environmental impact of electricity is higher than steam product. To improve the environmental performance, it should be focused on the fuel combustion, for example, increasing the efficiency of gas turbine, and using low sulphur content of natural gas. This result can be used as guideline for stakeholder who engage with the environmental impact from power plant; furthermore, it can be useful for policy maker to understand the allocation method between electricity and steam products.

  12. Energy efficiency analysis of steam ejector and electric vacuum pump for a turbine condenser air extraction system based on supervised machine learning modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strušnik, Dušan; Marčič, Milan; Golob, Marjan; Hribernik, Aleš; Živić, Marija; Avsec, Jurij

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Steam ejector pump and electric liquid ring vacuum pump are analysed and modelled. • A supervised machine learning models by using real process data are applied. • The equation of ejector pumped mass flow from steam turbine condenser was solved. • The loss of specific energy capable of work in a SEPS or LRVP component was analysed. • The economic efficiency analysis per different coal heating values was made. - Abstract: This paper compares the vapour ejector and electric vacuum pump power consumptions with machine learning algorithms by using real process data and presents some novelty guideline for the selection of an appropriate condenser vacuum pump system of a steam turbine power plant. The machine learning algorithms are made by using the supervised machine learning methods such as artificial neural network model and local linear neuro-fuzzy models. The proposed non-linear models are designed by using a wide range of real process operation data sets from the CHP system in the thermal power plant. The novelty guideline for the selection of an appropriate condenser vacuum pumps system is expressed in the comparative analysis of the energy consumption and use of specific energy capable of work. Furthermore, the novelty is expressed in the economic efficiency analysis of the investment taking into consideration the operating costs of the vacuum pump systems and may serve as basic guidelines for the selection of an appropriate condenser vacuum pump system of a steam turbine.

  13. Fluid distribution network and steam generators and method for nuclear power plant training simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alliston, W.H.; Johnson, S.J.; Mutafelija, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a training simulator for the real-time dynamic operation of a nuclear power plant which utilizes apparatus that includes control consoles having manual and automatic devices corresponding to simulated plant components and indicating devices for monitoring physical values in the simulated plant. A digital computer configuration is connected to the control consoles to calculate the dynamic real-time simulated operation of the plant in accordance with the simulated plant components to provide output data including data for operating the control console indicating devices. In the method and system for simulating a fluid distribution network of the power plant, such as that which includes, for example, a main steam system which distributes steam from steam generators to high pressure turbine steam reheaters, steam dump valves, and feedwater heaters, the simultaneous solution of linearized non-linear algebraic equations is used to calculate all the flows throughout the simulated system. A plurality of parallel connected steam generators that supply steam to the system are simulated individually, and include the simulation of shrink-swell characteristics

  14. Nuclear power plant and apparatus for superheating steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schluderberg, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    The invention consists of an apparatus for superheating steam, the apparatus comprising a horizontally disposed generally cylindrical elongate shell, inlet means in the shell for receiving steam, outlet means in the shell for discharching the steam, and a bundle of inclined tubes positioned in the flow path of the steam, each of the tubes having a length which is less than the diameter of the shell and opening into and extending in an upward direction from an outlet header to an inlet header, the inlet header beeing connected to a source of vapor, and the outlet header beeing connected to a condensate drain, characterised in that the test bundle comprises two banks of the tubes, the angle at which each of the tubes of one of the banks extends relative to a vertical longitudinal centerplane, the tubes of one of the banks terminate at and open into the inlet header, and the tubes of the other banks terminate at an open into another inlet header

  15. Safety analysis program for steam generators replacement and power uprate at Tihange 2 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delhaye, X.; Charlier, A.; Damas, Ph.; Druenne, H.; Mandy, C.; Parmentier, F.; Pirson, J.; Zhang, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Belgian Tihange 2 nuclear power plant went into commercial operation in 1983 producing a thermal power of 2785 MW. Since the commissioning of the plant the steam generators U-tubes have been affected by primary stress corrosion cracking. In order to avoid further degradation of the performance and an increase in repair costs, Electrabel, the owner of the plant, decided in 1997 to replace the 3 steam generators. This decision was supported by the feasibility study performed by Tractebel Energy Engineering which demonstrated that an increase of 10% of the initial power together with a fuel cycle length of 18 months was achieved. Tractebel Energy Engineering was entrusted by Electrabel as the owner's engineer to manage the project. This paper presents the role of Tractebel Energy Engineering in this project and the safety analysis program necessary to justify the new operation point and the fuel cycle extension to 18 months re-analysis of FSAR chapter 15 accidents and verification of the capacity of the safety and auxiliary systems. The FSAR chapter 15 accidents were reanalyzed jointly by Framatome and Tractebel Energy Engineering while the systems verifications were carried out by Tractebel Energy Engineering. (author)

  16. Economic analysis of process steam and electricity generation by a 200 MW NHR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Li; Wang Yongqing

    2000-01-01

    New applications for low temperature nuclear heating reactors should be developed using economic analysis. This paper compares and analyzes the economics of the generation 1.5 MPa process steam and electricity by a 200 MW nuclear heating reactor (NHR-200) for industrial development. The project is very attractive economically with an internal rate of return of 19.61%, a net present worth (discount rate 10%) of 765 million yuan RMB and a capital recovery or payback period of about 5 years after construction is completed. Compared with only using the NHR-200 for in winter heating, the economic of process steam and electricity generation by NHR-200 are much better. In addition, the NHR-200 will significantly improve environmental pollution in cities and reduce the transport of coal from north to south in China

  17. Water chemistry and corrosion in water-steam circuits of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardent, R.; Menet, O.

    1981-01-01

    The water and steam circuits of steam generators in pressurized-water nuclear power plants are described together with the mechanism of denting, and the corrosion of spacer plates that leads to cracks in tubes by constriction. The different chemical specifications applicable to the water of the secondary circuit of the generators in normal operation and on first commissioning are listed. The results obtained and the measurements of chemical values taken in operation on the water in the secondary circuits of steam generators at Fessenheim and Bugey are presented [fr

  18. Design of a steam generator for PWR power plants and steady state simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    A procedure and a computer code for the thermal design of a steam generator for PWR power plants is developed. A vertical integral steam generator with inverted U-tubes and natural circulation of the secondary side is selected for modelling. Primary fluid velocity and recirculation ratio are varied to obtain the preliminary dimensions. Further, adjustments are made through iteractive solution of the equations of conservation of mass, energy and momentum. An agreement is found between design calculations for steam generators of different capacities and existing designs. (Author) [pt

  19. Electric Power Research in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This book of contents are a study of desalination by Kim, Young Bu, a study on efficiency test for nuclear power security by Jo, Sung Je; Ann, Nam Sung; Kim, Ho Gi, augmentation of EMS and RYU by Jung, Tae Hoe; Shin, Young Chuel, research on application for electric cars by Yu, Ann Gue, practical use oft robot for nuclear industry by Woo, He Gone; Shin, Hen Beom, a study on the characteristics of coolant structure in generator by Choi, Beng Hwan; Song, Young Chel; Kim, Jong Hark, and research of penetration rate of appliances by Park, Hong Ho; Kim, Beng Cheal; Kim, Dong Hwen.

  20. Technical Specifications, Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Unit 1 (Docket No. 50-445)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Technical Specifications for Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Unit 1 were prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. They set forth the limits, operating conditions, and other requirements applicable to a nuclear reactor facility, as set forth in Section 50.36 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 50, for the protection of the health and safety of the public

  1. Electric power annual 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policy-makers, analysts, and the general public with data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Volume 1 -- with a focus on US electric utilities -- contains final 1997 data on net generation and fossil fuel consumption, stocks, receipts, and cost; preliminary 1997 data on generating unit capability, and retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold (based on a monthly sample: Form EIA-826, ``Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Report with State Distributions``). Additionally, information on net generation from renewable energy sources and on the associated generating capability is included in Volume 1 of the EPA.

  2. Steam condensation process in a power production cycle and heat exchanger for it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondeur, Gerard; Andro, Jean; Marjollet, Jacques; Pouderoux, Pierre.

    1982-01-01

    Steam condensation process in a power production cycle by expansion in turbines, characterized by the fact that this condensation is performed by the vaporization of a coolant with a vaporization temperature at atmospheric pressure lower than that of water, and that the vaporized coolant fluid is expanded in a turbine and then condensed by heat exchange with cold water being heated, while the liquefied coolant is recompressed and used for heat exchange with the steam to be condensed [fr

  3. Energetic and exergetic analysis of a steam turbine power plant in an existing phosphoric acid factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafdhi, Fathia; Khir, Tahar; Ben Yahyia, Ali; Ben Brahim, Ammar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The operating mode of the factory and the power supply streams are presented. • Energetic Analysis of steam turbine power plant of an existing phosphoric acid factory. • Exergetic Analysis of each component of steam turbine power plant and the different heat recovery system. • Energy, exergy efficiency and irreversibility rates for the main components are determined. • The effect of the operating parameters on the plant performance are analyzed. - Abstract: An energetic and exergetic analysis is conducted on a Steam Turbine Power Plant of an existing Phosphoric Acid Factory. The heat recovery systems used in the different parts of the plant are also considered in the study. Mass, energy and exergy balances are established on the main compounds of the plant. A numerical code is established using EES software to perform the calculations required for the thermal and exergy plant analysis considering real variation ranges of the main operating parameters such as pressure, temperature and mass flow rate. The effects of theses parameters on the system performances are investigated. The main sources of irreversibility are the melters, followed by the heat exchangers, the steam turbine generator and the pumps. The maximum energy efficiency is obtained for the blower followed by the heat exchangers, the deaerator and the steam turbine generator. The exergy efficiency obtained for the heat exchanger, the steam turbine generator, the deaerator and the blower are 88%, 74%, 72% and 66% respectively. The effects of High Pressure steam temperature and pressure on the steam turbine generator energy and exergy efficiencies are investigated.

  4. Production of Fischer–Tropsch fuels and electricity from bituminous coal based on steam hydrogasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiaoming; Norbeck, Joseph M.; Park, Chan S.

    2012-01-01

    A new thermochemical process for (Fischer–Tropsch) FT fuels and electricity coproduction based on steam hydrogasification is addressed and evaluated in this study. The core parts include (Steam Hydrogasification Reactor) SHR, (Steam Methane Reformer) SMR and (Fisher–Tropsch Reactor) FTR. A key feature of SHR is the enhanced conversion of carbon into methane at high steam environment with hydrogen and no need for catalyst or the use of oxygen. Facilities utilizing bituminous coal for coproduction of FT fuels and electricity with carbon dioxide sequestration are designed in detail. Cases with design capacity of either 400 or 4000 TPD (Tonne Per Day) (dry basis) are investigated with process modeling and cost estimation. A cash flow analysis is performed to determine the fuels (Production Cost) PC. The analysis shows that the 400 TPD case due to a FT fuels PC of 5.99 $/gallon diesel equivalent results in a plant design that is totally uneconomic. The 4000 TPD plant design is expected to produce 7143 bbl/day FT liquids with PC of 2.02 $/gallon and 2.27 $/gallon diesel equivalent at overall carbon capture ratio of 65% and 90%, respectively. Prospective commercial economics benefits with increasing plant size and improvements from large-scale demonstration efforts on steam hydrogasification. -- Highlights: ► We develop a new thermochemical method for synthetic fuels production. ► Detailed plant design and process modeling for the Coal-to-Liquid facilities are performed. ► Economic analysis has been carried out in determining the fuel production cost and IRR. ► The fuels produced in this study can compete with petroleum when crude oil price is 100 $/bbl. ► Further economic benefit comes with plant scale-up and process commercial demonstration efforts.

  5. Safety evaluation report related to steam generator repair at H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2. Docket No. 50-261

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    A Safety Evaluation Report was prepared for the H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant Unit No. 2 by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. This report considers the safety aspects of the proposed steam generator repair at H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant Unit No. 2. The report focuses on the occupational radiation exposure associated with the proposed repair program. It concludes that there is reasonable assurance that the health and safety on the public will not be endangered by the conduct of the proposed action, such activities will be conducted in compliance with the Commission's regulations, and the issuance of this amendment will not be inimical to the common defense and security or the health and safety of the public

  6. Dual turbine power plant and method of operating such plant, especially one having an HTGR steam supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braytenbah, A.S.; Jaegtnes, K.O.

    1977-01-01

    A power plant including dual steam turbine-generators connected to pass superheat and reheat steam from a steam generator which derives heat from the coolant gas of a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor is described. Associated with each turbine is a bypass line to conduct superheat steam in parallel with a high pressure turbine portion, and a bypass line to conduct superheat steam in parallel with a lower pressure turbine portion. Auxiliary steam turbines pass a portion of the steam flow to the reheater of the steam generator and drive gas blowers which circulate the coolant gas through the reactor and the steam source. Apparatus and method are disclosed for loading or unloading a turbine-generator while the other produces a steady power output. During such loading or unloading, the steam flows through the turbine portions are coordinated with the steam flows through the bypass lines for protection of the steam generator, and the pressure of reheated steam is regulated for improved performance of the gas blowers. 33 claims, 5 figures

  7. Introduction to electrical power and power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Mukund R

    2012-01-01

    Power Generation, Distribution, and Utilization AC Power Fundamentals Common Aspects of Power Equipments AC Generator AC and DC Motors Transformer Power Cable Power Distribution Fault Current Analysis System ProtectionEconomic Use of PowerElectrochemical BatteryPower Electronics and Motor Drives Power Electronics Devices DC-DC Converters AC-DC-AC Converters Variable-Frequency Drives Quality of Power Power Converter CoolingAppendixIndex

  8. Wildlife and electric power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Goodwin, J.G.; Hunt, J.R.; Fletcher, John L.; Busnel, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of miles of transmission lines have been introduced into our natural environment. These lines and their corridors can be damaging or beneficial to wildlife communities depending on how they are designed, where they are placed, and when they are constructed and maintained. With the current trend toward UHV systems, new problems (associated with additional increments in audible noise, electric and magnetic force fields, etc.) must be addressed. We recommend the following areas for careful study: (1) the response of wilderness species to transmission lines and line construction and maintenance activities (2) the magnitude of bird collision and electrocution mortality, (3) the response of power corridor and power tower in habiting wildlife to laboratory and field doses of electro-chemical oxidants, corona noise, electric and magnetic fields, etc., (4) the productivity of tower inhabiting birds compared with nearby non-tower nesters, and (5) the influence of powerline corridors on mammalian and avian migration patterns. It is our hope that the questions identified in this study will help stimulate further research so that we can maximize wildlife benefits and minimize wildlife detriments.

  9. Investigation and evaluation of erosion-corrosion status of the secondary side steam-water system at Paks Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, J.; Patek, G.; Pinter, T.; Baracska Varju, I.; Doma, A.; Kovacs, A.; Nemeth, P.; Tilky, P. [Paks Nuclear Power Plant Ltd (Hungary); Osz, J. [Budapest Univ. of Science and Economy (Hungary)

    2009-07-01

    There were four identical VVER-440 type units installed at Paks Nuclear Power Plant with 440 MW electrical capacity of each, between 1982 and 1987. Based on inherent reserve capacity of these units, the operational and maintenance experiences and examples of power upgrading abroad it was decided to increase the power of our units in a stepwise way. Presently, this upgrading project is close to finalization resulting in 500 MW electrical capacity of each unit. To realize the planned electrical power increase it was necessary to increase the primary and secondary heat power, which requested the increase of mass flow, temperature and pressure of secondary coolant flowing through the steam generators. According to the preliminary expert evaluations these increased parameters would not cause such an increase in humidity of steam leaving the turbine houses that could adversely impair our long term power upgrading plans. The steam humidity was determined on our units and the values did not even exceed the original design values. In spite of these preliminary investigations, significant accumulation of erosion-corrosion products at different places of secondary circuit was found and erosion damages of some secondary side equipment were discovered as a probable consequence of power upgrading. An extensive evaluation programme has been started involving experts and institutes of material testing, chemistry and hydrodynamics. Results and details of that work are given in our presentation. (authors)

  10. Design of large steam turbines for PWR power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, G.

    1984-01-01

    The authors review the thermodynamic cycle requirements for use with pressurized-water reactors, outline the way thermal efficiency is maximized, and discuss the special nature of the wet-steam cycle associated with turbines for this type of reactor. Machine and cycle parameters are optimized to achieve high thermal efficiency, particular attention being given to arrangements for water separation and steam reheating and to provisions for feedwater heating. Principles and details of mechanical design are considered for a range both of full-speed turbines running at 3000 rev/min on 50 Hz systems and of half-speed turbines running at 1800 rev/min on 60 Hz systems. The importance of service experience with nuclear wet-stream turbines, and its relevance to the design of modern turbines for PWR applications, is discussed. (author)

  11. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-382). Supplement No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    Supplement 7 to the Safety Evaluation Report for Louisiana Power and Light's application for a license to operate Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3 (Docket No. 50-382), located in St. Charles Parish, Louisiana, has been jointly prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and the Region IV Office of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement provides the results to date of the staff's evaluation of approximately 350 allegations and concerns of poor construction practices at the Waterford 3 facility

  12. The development of control systems for high power steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathey, M.

    1983-01-01

    The functional and technological aspects of developments in the field of control systems for steam turbines over the last twenty years are analyzed. These developments have now culminated in very sophisticated systems which closely link electronics to high pressure hydraulic technology. A detailed description of these systeme high-lighting the high technical level of the control methods and the flexibility and reliability in service of turbines controlled in this way is given [fr

  13. The electric power engineering handbook electric power generation, transmission, and distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Grigsby, Leonard L

    2012-01-01

    Featuring contributions from worldwide leaders in the field, the carefully crafted Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution, Third Edition (part of the five-volume set, The Electric Power Engineering Handbook) provides convenient access to detailed information on a diverse array of power engineering topics. Updates to nearly every chapter keep this book at the forefront of developments in modern power systems, reflecting international standards, practices, and technologies. Topics covered include: * Electric Power Generation: Nonconventional Methods * Electric Power Generation

  14. To Estimation of Efficient Usage of Organic Fuel in the Cycle of Steam Power Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendencies of power engineering development in the world were shown in this article. There were carried out the thermodynamic Analysis of efficient usage of different types of fuel. This article shows the obtained result, which reflects that low-calorie fuel (from the point of thermodynamics is more efficient to use at steam power stations then high-energy fuel.

  15. Fast-Valving of Large Steam Turbine Units as a Means of Power System Security Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Sobczak; Robert Rink; Rafał Kuczyński; Robert Trębski

    2014-01-01

    Fast-valving assists in maintaining system stability following a severe transmission system fault by reducing the turbine mechanical power. Fast-valving consists in rapid closing and opening of steam valves in an adequate manner to reduce the generator accelerating power following the recognition of a severe fault. FV can be an effective and economical method of meeting the performance requirements of a power system in the presence of an increase in wind and solar generation in the power syst...

  16. Exergy Analysis of a Subcritical Reheat Steam Power Plant with Regression Modeling and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHIB ALI RAJPER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, exergy analysis of a 210 MW SPP (Steam Power Plant is performed. Firstly, the plant is modeled and validated, followed by a parametric study to show the effects of various operating parameters on the performance parameters. The net power output, energy efficiency, and exergy efficiency are taken as the performance parameters, while the condenser pressure, main steam pressure, bled steam pressures, main steam temperature, and reheat steam temperature isnominated as the operating parameters. Moreover, multiple polynomial regression models are developed to correlate each performance parameter with the operating parameters. The performance is then optimizedby using Direct-searchmethod. According to the results, the net power output, energy efficiency, and exergy efficiency are calculated as 186.5 MW, 31.37 and 30.41%, respectively under normal operating conditions as a base case. The condenser is a major contributor towards the energy loss, followed by the boiler, whereas the highest irreversibilities occur in the boiler and turbine. According to the parametric study, variation in the operating parameters greatly influences the performance parameters. The regression models have appeared to be a good estimator of the performance parameters. The optimum net power output, energy efficiency and exergy efficiency are obtained as 227.6 MW, 37.4 and 36.4, respectively, which have been calculated along with optimal values of selected operating parameters.

  17. Compact portable electric power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, D.N.; Holcomb, D.E.; Munro, J.K.; Oakes, L.C.; Matson, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    This report provides an overview of recent advances in portable electric power source (PEPS) technology and an assessment of emerging PEPS technologies that may meet US Special Operations Command`s (SOCOM) needs in the next 1--2- and 3--5-year time frames. The assessment was performed through a literature search and interviews with experts in various laboratories and companies. Nineteen PEPS technologies were reviewed and characterized as (1) PEPSs that meet SOCOM requirements; (2) PEPSs that could fulfill requirements for special field conditions and locations; (3) potentially high-payoff sources that require additional R and D; and (4) sources unlikely to meet present SOCOM requirements. 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Substituting oil by electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, H.

    1981-01-01

    Parting from the development of primary energy use the author refers to the latest investigations and results presented on the 1980 World Energy Conference and with special regard to oil points out the threatening exhaustion of fossil energy resources. Maintaining the economic structure of the Federal Republic of Germany implies an orientation away from oil. Due to its flexible application technology and quasi-inexhaustible energy resources electric power may substantially contribute to oil substitution which as a matter of fact is of particular interest in connection with the heat market. Coal alone cannot substitute both oil and nuclear energy. Thus, the above postulates the use of the latter. Leaving nuclear energy inactive today will effect an increase in the demand for oil the negative consequences of which would weight heavily upon the anyhow unbalanced import/export ratio of the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  19. Electric power system applications of optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Momoh, James A

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Structure of a Generic Electric Power System  Power System Models  Power System Control Power System Security Assessment  Power System Optimization as a Function of Time  Review of Optimization Techniques Applicable to Power Systems Electric Power System Models  Complex Power Concepts Three-Phase Systems Per Unit Representation  Synchronous Machine Modeling Reactive Capability Limits Prime Movers and Governing Systems  Automatic Gain Control Transmission Subsystems  Y-Bus Incorporating the Transformer Effect  Load Models  Available Transfer Capability  Illustrative Examples  Power

  20. On economic efficiency of nuclear power unit life extension using steam-gas topping plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Y.N.; Lisitsa, F.D.; Smirnov, V.G.

    2001-01-01

    The different options for life extension of the operating nuclear power units have been analyzed in the report with regard for their economic efficiency. A particular attention is given to the option envisaging the reduction of reactor power output and its subsequent compensation with a steam-gas topping plant. Steam generated at its heat-recovery boilers is proposed to be used for the additional loading of the nuclear plant turbine so as to reach its nominal output. It would be demonstrated that the implementation of this option allows to reduce total costs in the period of power plant life extension by 24-29% as compared with the alternative use of the replacing steam-gas unit and the saved resources could be directed, for instance, for decommissioning of a reactor facility. (authors)

  1. Heat treatment of large-sized welded rotors of steam turbines for atomic power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutasov, R F; Mukhina, M P; Tustanovskii, A S

    1977-01-01

    The heat treatment of a welded rotor of grade 25Kh2NMFA steel for steam turbines of nuclear power plants was considered. A following heat treatment schedule was suggested: charging the rotor in to a furnace at 100-150 deg C, heating to 200-250 deg C and holding for 12 hrs; slow heating (10 deg C/h) to 400-450 deg C and holding for 12 hrs; slow heating to 630-640 deg C and holding for 50 hrs, cooling at a rate of 5 deg C/h down to 100 deg C, holding for 20 hrs and cooling with the furnace open. The proposed heat treatment schedule of a duration of 356 hrs ensures a temperature gradient throughout the cross section and the length of the rotor of not more than +-5 deg C, least deviations of geometric dimensions and makes possible machining finish to within 0-0.02 mm. Described are the particularities of the design of a roll-out hearth electric chamber furnace, measuring 13000x5500x5000 mm and built for the purpose of carrying out said heat treatment. The power rating of the furnace is 2850 kW.

  2. ORCENT-2, Full Load Steam Turbine Cycle Thermodynamics for LWR Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ORCENT-2 performs heat and mass balance calculations at valves-wide-open design conditions, maximum guaranteed rating conditions, and an approximation of part-load conditions for steam turbine cycles supplied with throttle steam, characteristic of contemporary light-water reactors. The program handles both condensing and back-pressure turbine exhaust arrangements. Turbine performance calculations are based on the General Electric Company method for 1800-rpm large steam turbine- generators operating with light-water-cooled nuclear reactors. Output includes all information normally shown on a turbine-cycle heat balance diagram. 2 - Method of solution: The turbine performance calculations follow the procedures outlined in General Electric report GET-6020. ORCENT-2 utilizes the 1967 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) formulations and procedures for calculating the properties of steam, adapted for ORNL use by D.W. Altom. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of: 12 feed-water heaters, 5 moisture removal stages in the low-pressure turbine section. ORCENT-2 is limited to 1800-rpm tandem-compound turbine-generators with single- or double-flow high pressure sections and one, two, or three double-flow low-pressure turbine sections. Steam supply for LWR cycles should be between 900 and 1100 psia and slightly wet to 100 degrees F of initial superheat. Generator rating should be greater than 100 MVA

  3. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  4. Vehicle-to-Grid Power in Danish Electric Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy systems is often constrained by the variable nature of their output. This demands for the services of storing the electricity generated from most of the renewable energy sources. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power could use the inherent energy storage of electric...... vehicles and its quick response time to balance and stabilize a power system with fluctuating power. This paper outlines the use of battery electric vehicles in supporting large-scale integration of renewable energy in the Danish electric power systems. The reserve power requirements for a high renewable...... energy penetration could be met by an amount of V2G based electric vehicles less than 10% of the total vehicle need in Denmark. The participation of electric vehicle in ancillary services would earn significant revenues to the vehicle owner. The power balancing services of electric vehicles...

  5. Ocean thermal gradient as a generator of electricity. OTEC power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrique, Luna-Gomez Victor; Angel, Alatorre-Mendieta Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) is a power plant that uses the thermal gradient of the sea water between the surface and a depth of about 700 meters. It works by supplying the heat to a steam machine, for evaporation, with sea water from the surface and cold, to condense the steam, with deep sea water. The energy generated by the power plant OTEC can be transferred to the electric power grid, another use is to desalinate seawater. During the twentieth century in some countries experimental power plants to produce electricity or obtaining drinking water they were installed. On the Mexico's coast itself this thermal gradient, as it is located in tropical seas it occurs, so it has possibilities of installing OTEC power plant type. In this paper one type OTEC power plant operation is represented in most of its components.

  6. Electric power annual 1997. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Power Annual 1997, Volume 2 contains annual summary statistics at national, regional, and state levels for the electric power industry, including information on both electric utilities and nonutility power producers. Included are data for electric utility retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; power transactions; and demand-side management. Also included are data for US nonutility power producers on installed capacity; gross generation; emissions; and supply and disposition of energy. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. 15 figs., 62 tabs.

  7. Electrical power technology for robotic planetary rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, C. P.; Shirbacheh, M.; Bents, D. J.; Bozek, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Power technologies which will enable a range of robotic rover vehicle missions by the end of the 1990s and beyond are discussed. The electrical power system is the most critical system for reliability and life, since all other on board functions (mobility, navigation, command and data, communications, and the scientific payload instruments) require electrical power. The following are discussed: power generation, energy storage, power management and distribution, and thermal management.

  8. Optimization for set-points and robust model predictive control for steam generator in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osgouee, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text: Nuclear power plants will be needed for future energy demands, which are expected to grow at different rates around the world. Lower operating cost is one of the major benefits of nuclear power plants over fossil power plants. Also, the plant availability is a key factor to economic index of a nuclear power plant. The opportunities for building new nuclear power plants around the world will depend on the need for clean energy with zero, or minimal emissions to support healthy communities, supply reliable energy with stable prices, and issues related to global warming and climate change. Compared to other types of power plants, nuclear power plants are preferred for their numerous advantages, including low operating costs, emission free operation with no smog, no acid rain, and no effect on global warming. Economic feasibility of a nuclear power plant requires for smooth and uninterrupted plant operation during electrical power demand variations. The steam generator (SG) in a nuclear power plant plays an important role in cooling of the reactor, balancing energy between reactor and turbine and producing steam for the turbine-generators. SG acts as an additional safety barrier between the nuclear reactor and the outside world also. As a result, control of the water inventory in the SG is very important to ensure continuous cooling of the nuclear reactor core, plant protection and at the same time, to prevent the SG tubes and turbine blades failure. A review of past nuclear power plant operation experiences indicates that unplanned reactor trips due to steam generator level (SGL) control have been significant contributors to plant unavailability. During low power operation, the level control is complicated by the thermal reverse effects known as 'shrink and swell'. Manual operator intervention to the SGL control system at low reactor power and to the unit upset conditions has been identified as an operator response in most nuclear power plants. In spite of

  9. Electric power: Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnetzer, H.

    1994-01-01

    When, at the turn of the century, public electric power supply facilities were created and in 1908, the electric power stations of the Swiss canton of Zurich (EKZ) were built, only a third of the communities in the Zurich area could boast about being the consumers of this new energy. But what did the first electrically powered devices and machines look like? This, and more, is presented in the ''electric power house'' in Burenwisen Glattfelden in the canton of Zurich. Besides a Kaplan turbine and a sample of the most interesting devices from the past and the present, the focus of the exhibition is on the presentation of the new and old sources of light. The EKZ are pleased to be able to present their ''electric power house'' to the public, providing a broad range of information on energy-related questions and the development of electric power supply. (orig.) [de

  10. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors. (6) Operating characteristics of center water jet type supersonic steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Yujiro; Abe, Yutaka; Iwaki, Chikako; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Mori, Michitsugu; Ohmori, Shuichi

    2004-01-01

    One of the most interesting devices for next generation reactor systems aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility is the steam injector which is a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery. One of the applications of the steam injector is the passive water injection system to inject the coolant water into the core. The system can be started up merely by injecting the steam without any outer power supply. Since the steam injector is a simple, compact and passive device for water injection, if the steam injector is applied to the actual reactor, it is expected to make the system simple and to reduce the construction cost. Although non-condensable gases are well known for reducing heat transfer between water and steam, the effect of the non-condensable gas on the condensation of supersonic steam on high-speed water jet has not been cleared. The present paper reports about the experimental apparatus, measurement instrument and experimental results of observing the phenomenon inside the test section supplying water and steam to the test by using both the high-speed camera and the video camera and measuring the temperature and the pressure distribution n the test section. (author)

  11. Electric power's new competitive marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornick, R.; Zeppieri, J.; Rudden, K.

    1993-01-01

    Currently, competition is limited primarily to power generation, the sale of wholesale bulk power, and fuel substitution at the point of end use. However, within the next several years, the rivalry will focus on large, energy-intensive industrial and large commercial customers. Driven by the disparity in rates among neighboring and regional utilities, large users are expected to lobby aggressively for retail wheeling and access to new supplies. New competitors will provide customers with additional supply options, forcing traditional utilities to offer better prices and or service. Competition at the point of end use also will increase as the natural gas industry develops new end-use technologies, gas utilities compete more aggressively, and some state regulatory commissions promote fuel switching as part of integrated resource planning (IRP) and demand-side management (DSM). However, as long as electric utilities are subject to cost-based rate of return regulation within price-sensitive markets, they will be a competitive disadvantage. The paper discusses the following: competitive risks by market segment, wholesale markets, industrial markets, commercial markets, residential markets, and franchise markets

  12. The main features of control and operation of steam turbines at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czinkoczky, B.

    1981-01-01

    The output and speed control of steam turbines at nuclear power plants as well as the combination of both controls are reviewed and evaluated. At the same time the tasks of unit control at nuclear power plants, the control of steady main steam pressure and medium pressure of primary circuit, further the connection of reactor and turbine controls and the self-controlling properties of pressurized water reactor are dealt with. Hydraulic and electro-hydraulic speed control, the connection of cach-up dampers and speed control and the application of electro-hydraulic signal converters are discussed. The accomplishment of protection is also described. (author)

  13. The economic aspect of transition to power units with supercritical steam parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.R. Kotler

    2007-09-15

    Information on the development and use of power units for supercritical and ultrasupercritical steam parameters in the United States, as well as in Europe and Japan, is presented. It is shown that increasing the parameters of steam reduces not only the fuel consumption, but also the specific emissions of toxic and greenhouse gases. Results of a calculation carried out at the EPRI (the United States) are presented, which show that it is advisable to construct power units for supercritical parameters only at certain (sufficiently high) price of the fuel being fired.

  14. Long term steam oxidation of TP 347H FG in power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Anette Nørgaard; Korcakova, Leona; Hald, John

    2005-01-01

    The long term oxidation behaviour of TP 347H FG at ultra supercritical steam conditions was assessed by exposing the steel in test superheater loops in a Danish coal-fired power plant. The steamside oxide layer was investigated with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive Xray diffract......The long term oxidation behaviour of TP 347H FG at ultra supercritical steam conditions was assessed by exposing the steel in test superheater loops in a Danish coal-fired power plant. The steamside oxide layer was investigated with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive Xray...

  15. CHOOSING THE POWER OF TRACTION ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    OpenAIRE

    O. Smirnov; A. Borisenko

    2017-01-01

    Recommendations on choosing the power of the electric motor, depending on the weight of the vehicle, its speed and the run distance in the «only electricity» mode are developed. Based on mathematical modeling and a number of field tests of electric vehicles, a three-dimensional dependance of the power on the weight and the speed set is built and conclusions are presented.

  16. CHOOSING THE POWER OF TRACTION ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Smirnov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on choosing the power of the electric motor, depending on the weight of the vehicle, its speed and the run distance in the «only electricity» mode are developed. Based on mathematical modeling and a number of field tests of electric vehicles, a three-dimensional dependance of the power on the weight and the speed set is built and conclusions are presented.

  17. Electric power annual 1995. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the general public with data that may be used in understanding U.S. electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy. In the private sector, the majority of the users of the Electric Power Annual are researchers and analysts and, ultimately, individuals with policy- and decisionmaking responsibilities in electric utility companies. Financial and investment institutions, economic development organizations interested in new power plant construction, special interest groups, lobbyists, electric power associations, and the news media will find data in the Electric Power Annual useful. In the public sector, users include analysts, researchers, statisticians, and other professionals with regulatory, policy, and program responsibilities for Federal, State, and local governments. The Congress and other legislative bodies may also be interested in general trends related to electricity at State and national levels. Much of the data in these reports can be used in analytic studies to evaluate new legislation. Public service commissions and other special government groups share an interest in State-level statistics. These groups can also compare the statistics for their States with those of other jurisdictions

  18. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  19. Reference costs of the electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This study periodically realized by the DGEMP aims to compare the competitiveness of the different channels of electric power production, for different utilization conditions. The first part ''reference costs of the 2003 electric power production'' examines the prices of the electric power produced by different channels in particular in the framework of the industrial implementing in 2015. The nuclear and thermal power plants are concerned. The second part is devoted to the decentralized production channels (wind energy, photovoltaic, cogeneration heat-electricity) is under construction and will be presented next year. (A.L.B.)

  20. Electric vehicle system for charging and supplying electrical power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui Jia

    2010-06-08

    A power system that provides power between an energy storage device, an external charging-source/load, an onboard electrical power generator, and a vehicle drive shaft. The power system has at least one energy storage device electrically connected across a dc bus, at least one filter capacitor leg having at least one filter capacitor electrically connected across the dc bus, at least one power inverter/converter electrically connected across the dc bus, and at least one multiphase motor/generator having stator windings electrically connected at one end to form a neutral point and electrically connected on the other end to one of the power inverter/converters. A charging-sourcing selection socket is electrically connected to the neutral points and the external charging-source/load. At least one electronics controller is electrically connected to the charging-sourcing selection socket and at least one power inverter/converter. The switch legs in each of the inverter/converters selected by the charging-source/load socket collectively function as a single switch leg. The motor/generators function as an inductor.

  1. Fast-Valving of Large Steam Turbine Units as a Means of Power System Security Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Sobczak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fast-valving assists in maintaining system stability following a severe transmission system fault by reducing the turbine mechanical power. Fast-valving consists in rapid closing and opening of steam valves in an adequate manner to reduce the generator accelerating power following the recognition of a severe fault. FV can be an effective and economical method of meeting the performance requirements of a power system in the presence of an increase in wind and solar generation in the power system, newly connected large thermal units and delaying of building new transmission lines. The principle of fast-valving and advantages of applying this technique in large steam turbine units was presented in the paper. Effectiveness of fast-valving in enhancing the stability of the Polish Power Grid was analyzed. The feasibility study of fast-valving application in the 560 MW unit in Kozienice Power Station (EW SA was discussed.

  2. Materials, manufacture and testing of pressurized components of high-power steam power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blind, D.; Foehl, J.; Issler, L.; Schellhammer, W.; Sturm, D.; Kussmaul, K.; Heinrich, D.; Meyer, H.J.; Prestel, W.

    1981-01-01

    This is the first German review of materials, production and testing of pressure components of high-capacity steam power plants. The authors have been working in this field for years; their special subject has been the availability and reliability of pressure vessels, in particular in nuclear engineering. Fundamentals are presented as well as the findings obtained at the state Materials Testing Institute in Stuttgart. The material is presented in a well-structured classification; the most recent international findings, especially of the USA, are presented. This is possible due to the close cooperation between the Stuttgart institute and a number of US research institutes. The new subject of fracture mechanics is treated in some detail; its fundamentals are discussed from the American point of view while German considerations - in particular of the Reactor Safety Commission - are taken into account in the field of applications. (orig.) [de

  3. Steam-treated wood pellets: Environmental and financial implications relative to fossil fuels and conventional pellets for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKechnie, Jon; Saville, Brad; MacLean, Heather L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Steam-treated pellets can greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions relative to coal. • Cost advantage is seen relative to conventional pellets. • Higher pellet cost is more than balanced by reduced retrofit capital requirements. • Low capacity factors further favour steam-treated pellets over conventional pellets. - Abstract: Steam-treated pellets can help to address technical barriers that limit the uptake of pellets as a fuel for electricity generation, but there is limited understanding of the cost and environmental impacts of their production and use. This study investigates life cycle environmental (greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutant emissions) and financial implications of electricity generation from steam-treated pellets, including fuel cycle activities (biomass supply, pellet production, and combustion) and retrofit infrastructure to enable 100% pellet firing at a generating station that previously used coal. Models are informed by operating experience of pellet manufacturers and generating stations utilising coal, steam-treated and conventional pellets. Results are compared with conventional pellets and fossil fuels in a case study of electricity generation in northwestern Ontario, Canada. Steam-treated pellet production has similar GHG impacts to conventional pellets as their higher biomass feedstock requirement is balanced by reduced process electricity consumption. GHG reductions of more than 90% relative to coal and ∼85% relative to natural gas (excluding retrofit infrastructure) could be obtained with both pellet options. Pellets can also reduce fuel cycle air pollutant emissions relative to coal by 30% (NOx), 97% (SOx), and 75% (PM 10 ). Lesser retrofit requirements for steam-treated pellets more than compensate for marginally higher pellet production costs, resulting in lower electricity production cost compared to conventional pellets ($0.14/kW h vs. $0.16/kW h). Impacts of retrofit infrastructure become increasingly

  4. Theoretical and experimental study of a reactive steam jet in molten sodium. Application to the wastage of steam generators of FBR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestrat, Patrice.

    1982-11-01

    This study aims to analyze and explain the structure of a reactive jet of water steam in liquid sodium, as from a ligh pressure tank and an orifice of very small section. The prior understanding of this reactive jet makes it possible to explain certain results of erosion-corrosion (Wastage) that can occur in the steam generators of breader reactor power stations. This study gave rise to an experimental simulation (plane jet of water steam on a bed of sodium), as well as to suggesting a reactive jet model according to the principle of an ''immersed Na-H 2 O diffusion flame'' [fr

  5. Maximizing electrical power supply using FACTS devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Karsten; Bent, Russell; Pan, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Modern society critically depends on the services electric power provides. Power systems rely on a network of power lines and transformers to deliver power from sources of power (generators) to the consumers (loads). However, when power lines fail (for example, through lightning or natural disasters) or when the system is heavily used, the network is often unable to fulfill all of the demand for power. While systems are vulnerable to these failures, increasingly, sophisticated control devices...

  6. Methods for Estimation of Market Power in Electric Power Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcik, M.; Oleinikova, I.; Junghans, G.; Kolcun, M.

    2012-01-01

    The article is related to a topical issue of the newly-arisen market power phenomenon in the electric power industry. The authors point out to the importance of effective instruments and methods for credible estimation of the market power on liberalized electricity market as well as the forms and consequences of market power abuse. The fundamental principles and methods of the market power estimation are given along with the most common relevant indicators. Furthermore, in the work a proposal for determination of the relevant market place taking into account the specific features of power system and a theoretical example of estimating the residual supply index (RSI) in the electricity market are given.

  7. On the reliability of steam generator performance at nuclear power plants with WWER type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styrikovich, M.A.; Margulova, T.Kh.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of ensuring reliable operation of steam generators in a nuclear power plant with a water-cooled, water-moderated reactor (WWER) was studied. At a nuclear power plant with a vertical steam generator (specifically, a Westinghouse product) the steam generator tubes were found to have been penetrated. Shutdown was due to corrosion disintegration of the austenitic stainless steel, type 18/8, used as pipe material for the heater surface. The corrosion was the result of the action of chlorine ions concentrated in the moisture contained in the iron oxide films deposited in low parts of the tube bundle, directly at the tube plate. Blowing through did not ensure complete removal of the film, and in some cases the construction features of the steam generator made removal of the film practically impossible. Replacement of type 18/8 stainless steel by other construction material, e.g., Inconel, did not give good results. To ensure reliable operation of vertical steam generators in domestic practice, the generators are designed without a low tube plate (a variant diagram of the vertical steam generator of such construction for the water-cooled, water-moderated reactor 1000 is presented). When low tube plates are used the film deposition is intolerable. For organization of a non-film regime a complex treatment of the feed water is used, in which the amount of complexion is calculated from the stoichmetric ratios with the composition of the feed water. It is noted that, if 100% condensate purification is used with complexon processing of the feed water to the generator, we can calculate the surface of the steam-generator heater without considering the outer placement on the tubes. In this the cost of the steam generator and all the nuclear power plants with WWER type reactors is decreased even with installation of a 100% condensate purification. It is concluded that only simultaneous solution of construction and water-regime problems will ensure relaible operation of

  8. Performance Comparison on Repowering of a Steam Power Plant with Gas Turbines and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Repowering is a process for transforming an old power plant for greater capacity and/or higher efficiency. As a consequence, the repowered plant is characterized by higher power output and less specific CO2 emissions. Usually, repowering is performed by adding one or more gas turbines into an exi......Repowering is a process for transforming an old power plant for greater capacity and/or higher efficiency. As a consequence, the repowered plant is characterized by higher power output and less specific CO2 emissions. Usually, repowering is performed by adding one or more gas turbines...... into an existing steam cycle which was built decades ago. Thus, traditional repowering results in combined cycles (CC). High temperature fuel cells (such as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)) could also be used as a topping cycle, achieving even higher global plant efficiency and even lower specific CO2 emissions....... Decreasing the operating temperature in a SOFC allows the use of less complex materials and construction methods, consequently reducing plant and the electricity costs. A lower working temperature makes it also suitable for topping an existing steam cycle, instead of gas turbines. This is also the target...

  9. Gas-steam combined cycles for power generation: Current state-of-the-art and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchi, E.; Chiesa, P.; Consonni, S.; Lozza, G.

    1992-01-01

    The first part of this paper points out the many factors which, after years of stagnation in the electric power industry, are giving rise to a true revolution in power generation engineering: the passing from closed cycles, using steam as the working fluid and energy sources external to the power cycle, to the use of open cycles, in which the primary energy source, in the form of a fuel, is directly immersed in the working fluid of the engine. Attention is given to the advantages in terms of energy and cost savings, greater flexibility in energy policy options and pollution abatement which are now being afforded through the use of gas turbines with combined gas-steam cycles. The second part of the paper deals with an assessment of the current state-of-the-art of the technology relative to these innovative power systems. The assessment is followed by a review of foreseen developments in combined cycle system design, choice of construction materials, type of cooling systems, operating temperatures and performance capabilities

  10. Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

  11. Power exchange game in the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyykko, S.; Partanen, J.; Viljainen, S.; Lassila, J.; Honkapuro, S.; Tahvanainen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Since it is not economically reasonable to build parallel electricity networks, in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark, electricity distribution is protected by monopoly. However, electricity production and selling have been opened up to competition by connecting the transmission networks of these countries together, and it is possible to produce electricity where it is cheapest. A common electricity power market, called Nord Pool, has been created where electricity can be bought, sold or used as an exchange product. In order to help students understand the operation of electricity markets and the use of different electricity exchange products, the Department of Electrical Engineering at Lappeenranta University developed a scheme in which the theory can be used in practice. In the scheme, students are given the responsibility to manage the electricity markets of power companies in order analyze, plan and make decisions, which are skills required on the open power markets. The paper provided an introduction to the electricity markets in Nordic countries and discussed Nord Pool and its products. Information about education at the Department of Electrical Engineering at Lappeenranta University of Technology was also presented. The paper also provided details of the power exchange scheme on the electricity markets. 6 refs., 17 figs

  12. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Susquehanna Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-387 and 50-388). Suppl.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    In April 1981, the staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued its Safety Evaluation Report (NUREG-0776) regarding the application of the Pennsylvania Power and Light Company (the applicant and/or licensee) and the Allegheny Electric Cooperative, Inc. (co-applicant) for licenses to operate the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2, located on a site in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. This supplement to NUREG-0776 addresses the remaining issues that required resolution before licensing operation of Unit 2 and closes them out

  13. Comparing the steam and electric heat tracing solutions for petrochemical or refining facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Joseph G.; McQueen, Greg [Tyco Thermal Controls, Belgie (Belgium)

    2012-07-01

    In this era of energy conservation and cost reduction, the ability to effectively select the optimal solution to meet the heat management system needs of petrochemical or refining facilities is becoming increasingly important. Depending on the type and location of the plant, a heat management system (HMS) can comprise a significant portion of the overall capital expenditure, as well as the ongoing operating and maintenance costs. Several important heat management system design decisions affect the financial operations of a facility, including the selection of the heat tracing technology, the utility distribution scheme, and the insulation system criteria, among others. However, most of these decisions are made early in the project life-cycle without thorough analysis of the various options available. From a high level perspective, numerous heat trace media should be considered, including electric, steam, tempered water, and glycol. These systems also have different impacts on piping systems within the plant battery limits (ISBL) and transfer lines outside of the battery limits (OSBL). This paper takes a careful look at two of the predominant heat tracing technologies - electric heat tracing and steam tracing - and compares these within the larger framework of the heat management system, and relative to petrochemical or refining facilities within the general Brazil geography. In the broader context, a heat management system is defined as the heat tracing technology itself, the utility distribution associated with that technology, the control and monitoring scheme associated with that technology, and the insulation system. We will evaluate the capital expenditure cost, operating expenditure cost, and overall reliability of the electric and steam tracing mediums in both the ISBL and OSBL environments within this broader context. (author)

  14. Burnout power in once-through tubular steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campolunghi, F.; Cumo, M.; Ferrari, G.; Leo, R.; Vaccaro, G.

    1974-01-01

    The present experimental research provides experimental data in a design field where existing burnout correlations are usually extrapolated outside their validity range. Low surface heat fluxes and very long geometries typical of L.M.F.B.R. sodium heated steam generators require full scale water tests. 218 burnout qualities at pressures ranging from 60 to 160 kg/cm 2 and specific mass flowrates from 110 to 260 g/cm 2 s were measured and tested against the most known burnout correlations. Physically it appears that burnout quality is substantially independent from the flowrate, while a sharp subdivision with pressure suggests that for 60 less than p less than 90 kg/cm 2 and 110 less than p less than 160 kg/cm 2 two different burnout mechanisms may set up. (U.S.)

  15. Assessing the impact of primary measures for NOx reduction on the thermal power plant steam boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupar, Goran; Tucaković, Dragan; Živanović, Titoslav; Belošević, Srdjan

    2015-01-01

    The European normatives prescribe content of 200 mg/Nm 3 NO x for pulverized coal combusting power plants. In order to reduce content of NO x in Serbian thermal power plant (TPP) 'Kostolac B' it's necessary to implement particular measures until 2016. The mathematical model of lignite combustion in the steam boiler furnace is defined and applied to analyze the possibility of implementing certain primary measures for reducing nitrogen oxides and their effects on the steam boiler operation. This model includes processes in the coal-fired furnace and defines radiating reactive two-phase turbulent flow. The model of turbulent flow also contains sub-model of fuel and thermal NO x formation and destruction. This complex mathematical model is related to thermal and aerodynamic calculations of the steam boiler within a unified calculation system in order to analyze the steam boiler overall work. This system provides calculations with a number of influential parameters. The steam boiler calculations for unit 1 (350 MWe) of TPP 'Kostolac B' are implemented for existing and modified combustion system in order to achieve effective, reliable and ecological facility work. The paper presents the influence analysis of large number of parameters on the steam boiler operation with an accepted concept of primary measures. Presented system of calculations is verified against measurements in TPP 'Kostolac B'. - Highlights: • Modern steam boilers need to operate according to ecological standards. • Possibility of applying some of the primary measures of NO x reduction. • Conventional calculations have no possibility to estimate sub-stoichiometric combustion. • Develop a new method of connecting the calculations. • Analysis shows the most favorable operation boiler regime (efficiency and ecology)

  16. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  17. Model and control scheme for recirculation mode direct steam generation parabolic trough solar power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Su; Liu, Deyou; Chen, Xingying; Chu, Yinghao; Xu, Chang; Liu, Qunming; Zhou, Ling

    2017-01-01

    steam generation Technology for Electricity Production and experimental data obtained from the DIrect Solar Steam project.

  18. Design and construction features of steam generators at a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, A.K.; Gupta, K.N.; Bapat, C.N.; Sharma, V.K.

    1996-01-01

    The Indian nuclear power programme is based on Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) using natural uranium as fuel and heavy water as reactor coolant as well as moderator. The nuclear heat is generated in the fuel located in the pressure tubes. Pressurised heavy water in the primary heat transport (PHT) system is circulated through the tubes which picks up the heat from the fuel and transfers it to ordinary water in steam generators (SGs) to produce steam. The steam is used for providing power to the turbine. The steam generator is a critical equipment in the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a nuclear reactor. SG tube surface area constitute about 80% of total primary circuit surface area. A typical value in a 220 MWe reactor is 9000 m 2 which can release considerable amount of corrosion products unless very low corrosion rates are achieved by proper design, material selection and water chemistry control. Design and construction features of SGs are given. 1 tab

  19. Electric power monthly, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-20

    This report for March 1995, presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  20. Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24764

  1. Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg.

  2. Manufacture of the 300 MW steam generator and pressure stabilizer for Qinshan Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Yi; Miao Deming.

    1989-01-01

    A brief description of the manufacturing process of the steam generator and pressure stabilizer for 300 MWe Qinshan Nuclear Power Station in Shanghai Boiler Works is presented, with special emphasis on fabrication facilities, test procedures and technological evaluations during the manufaturing process-imcluding deep driling of tubesheets, welding of tubes to tube-sheets and tube rolling tests

  3. Steam-generator tube failures: world experience in water-cooled nuclear power reactors in 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, M.G.

    1976-01-01

    Steam-generator tube failures were reported at 25 of 59 water-cooled nuclear power reactors surveyed in 1974, compared to 11 of 49 in 1973. A summary is presented of these failures, most of which, where the cause is known, were the result of corrosion. Water chemistry control, inspection and repair procedures, and failure rates are discussed

  4. Comparison of Steam Oxidation of 18%Cr Steels from Various Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Hald, John

    2015-01-01

    Lean austenitic steels such as the 18%Cr TP347H have been utilized in many power plants in Denmark. Steam oxidation has been investigated for both coarse-grained and fine-grained versions of TP347H. Oxidation for coarsegrained steels follows a parabolic rate however this is not always the case fo...

  5. Electric cars as mobile power storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, B.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the use of electric cars as a means of optimising the use of renewable energy sources. Charging the cars' batteries during periods when cheap electricity prices prevail and then using excess capacity to supply the mains with electricity during periods of peak demand is discussed. The possible use of wind for power generation is discussed and a system proposed by a leading supplier of electrical apparatus and systems is examined. Two examples of electric cars and associated power chains are looked at and tests in everyday practice are described

  6. Assessment of System Behavior and Actions Under Loss of Electric Power For CANDU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, San Ha; Moon, Bok Ja; Kim, Seoung Rae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    For the analysis, the CANDU-6 plant in Korea is considered and only the passive components are operable. The other systems are assumed to be at failed condition due to the loss of electric power. At this accident, only the inventories remained in the primary heat transport system (PHTS) and steam generator can be used for the decay heat removal. Due to the transfer of decay heat, the inventory of steam generator secondary side is discharged to the air through passive operation of main steam safety valves (MSSVs). After the steam generators are dried, the PHTS is over-pressurized and the coolant is discharged to fuelling machine vault through passive operation of degasser condenser tank relief valves (DCRVs). Under this situation, the maintenance of the integrity of PHTS is important for the protection of radionuclides release to the environment. Thus, deterministic analysis using CATHENA code is carried out for the simulation of the accident and the appropriate operator action is considered. The loss of electric power results in the depletion of steam generator inventory which is necessary for the decay heat removal. If only the passive system is credited, the PT can be failed after the steam generator is depleted. For the prevention of the PT failure, the feedwater should be supplied to the steam generator before 4,800s after the accident. The feedwater can be supplied using water in dousing tank if the steam generators are depressurized. The decay heat from the core is removed through natural circulation if the feedwater can be supplied continuously.

  7. Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with 50% Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Foosnæs, Anders; Xu, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    will be an important balancing measure to enable the Danish government’s energy strategy, which implies 50% wind power penetration in the electric power system. An EV will be a storage device for smoothing power fluctuations from renewable resources especially wind power and provide valuable system services...... for a reliable power system operation. Cost-benefit analysis shows that intelligent bidirectional charging – vehicle to grid (V2G) – provides a socio-economic profit of 150 million Euro/year in the Danish electric power system in 2025 assuming that 15% of the Danish road transport need is supplied by electricity....... This paper analyse the potential for using EVs in Denmark and identify the benefits of the electric power system with high wind power generation by intelligent charging of the EVs. Based on the analysis important technology gabs are identified, and the corresponding research and development initiatives...

  8. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  9. French electric power balance sheet 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, Thierry; Riere, Alexia

    2011-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2010: increase of RTE's investments and safety expenses for adapting the grid to the new electricity industry stakes and to meteorological hazards, decrease of power cuts frequency, rise of the French power consumption, strong increase of winter consumption peaks, increase of the French power generation, increase of the positive trade balance. New RTE's infrastructures, electricity quality data, and the evolution of market mechanisms are presented in appendixes

  10. Electric power supply in China. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Heng

    1987-01-01

    Professor Chen, visiting professor at the RWTH Aachen, gave several lectures dealing with his country, the electric power supply in China and with special research activities of Chinese scientists. This article is based on two of his lectures, and will be published in two parts, the first of which provides a brief description of China, an overview on electric power supply, and a brief description of the large power plants and large electrical subsystems. The second part will deal with operation planning, extension planning as well as with research and development in the field of electric energy supply. (orig.) [de

  11. Common issues concerning electric power and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    EDF and GDF, the French government owned electric power and gas utilities have jointly decided to improve their employment and employee situation with the hiring of 11000 to 15000 young people for a 3-year period and the reduction of the working hours. A european disagreement is to be judged concerning electric power and gas import and export monopolies in several european countries

  12. Distributed control of deregulated electrical power networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    A prerequisite for reliable operation of electrical power networks is that supply and demand are balanced at all time, as efficient ways for storing large amounts of electrical energy are scarce. Balancing is challenging, however, due to the power system's dimensions and complexity, the low

  13. Th european market of the electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the CRE (commission of the Electric power Control) progress report concerning the first july 2000 to the 30 june 2001. Three main subjects are discussed, illustrated by economic data and graphs: the electric power european market, the french market control and the CRE. A special interest is given to the deregulation of the market and its consequences. (A.L.B.)

  14. Microelectronics in power electronics and electrical drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    From October, 1214, 1982 at Darmstadt (FRG) a meeting took place on ''Microelectronics in power electronics and Electrical Drives''. This volume contains the papers of the 65 lectures, held at the symposium. For each of the 10 papers dealing with problems on electric-powered vehicles a separate subject analysis has been carried out.

  15. A review of test results on parabolic dish solar thermal power modules with dish-mounted Rankine engines and for production of process steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Leonard D.

    1988-11-01

    This paper presents results of development testing of various solar thermal parabolic dish modules and assemblies. Most of the tests were at modules and assemblies that used a dish-mounted, organic Rankine cycle turbine for production of electric power. Some tests were also run on equipment for production of process steam or for production of electricity using dish-mounted reciprocating steam engines. These tests indicate that early modules achieve efficiencies of about 18 percent in converting sunlight to electricity (excluding the inverter but including parasitics). A number of malfunctions occurred. The performance measurements, as well as the malfunctions and other operating experience, provided information that should be of value in developing systems with improved performance and reduced maintenance.

  16. Review of the coal-fired, over-supercritical and ultra-supercritical steam power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanovskii, A. G.; Shvarts, A. L.; Somova, E. V.; Verbovetskii, E. Kh.; Avrutskii, G. D.; Ermakova, S. V.; Kalugin, R. N.; Lazarev, M. V.

    2017-02-01

    The article presents a review of developments of modern high-capacity coal-fired over-supercritical (OSC) and ultra-supercritical (USC) steam power plants and their implementation. The basic engineering solutions are reported that ensure the reliability, economic performance, and low atmospheric pollution levels. The net efficiency of the power plants is increased by optimizing the heat balance, improving the primary and auxiliary equipment, and, which is the main thing, by increasing the throttle conditions. As a result of the enhanced efficiency, emissions of hazardous substances into the atmosphere, including carbon dioxide, the "greenhouse" gas, are reduced. To date, the exhaust steam conditions in the world power industry are p 0 ≈ 30 MPa and t 0 = 610/620°C. The efficiency of such power plants reaches 47%. The OSC plants are being operated in Germany, Denmark, Japan, China, and Korea; pilot plants are being developed in Russia. Currently, a project of a power plant for the ultra-supercritical steam conditions p 0 ≈ 35 MPa and t 0 = 700/720°C with efficiency of approximately 50% is being studied in the EU within the framework of the Thermie AD700 program, project AD 700PF. Investigations in this field have also been launched in the United States, Japan, and China. Engineering solutions are also being sought in Russia by the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Research Institute (VTI) and the Moscow Power Engineering Institute. The stated steam parameter level necessitates application of new materials, namely, nickel-base alloys. Taking into consideration high costs of nickel-base alloys and the absence in Russia of technologies for their production and manufacture of products from these materials for steam-turbine power plants, the development of power plants for steam parameters of 32 MPa and 650/650°C should be considered to be the first stage in creating the USC plants as, to achieve the above parameters, no expensive alloys are require. To develop and

  17. Some economic aspects of steam generator replacements in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebegner, J.

    1995-01-01

    The steam generator replacements performed over last decade (about 25 replacements until now), indicate trends towards improved techniques, shorter schedules and reduced total exposure and total costs. The goal of this paper is to give a worldwide review of SG replacement experience with accent on the economic aspect of the SG replacement. The main information about carried out replacements will be presented: cost, schedules, exposures, SG supplier and type, date of replacement, etc. Furthermore, the paper will contain the list of planned steam generator replacements in Europe, Japan and US future replacement plans. Finally, some of NPPs will be described whose initial nominal power has been increased along with SG replacement. (author)

  18. Optimized Application of MSR and Steam Turbine Retrofits in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossland, Robert; McCoach, John [ALSTOM Power, Willans Works, Newbold Road, Rugby, Warwickshire CV21 2NH (United Kingdom); Gagelin, Jean-Philippe [ALSTOM Power Heat Exchange, 19-21 avenue Morane-Saulnier, BP 65, 78143 Velizy Cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    The benefit to a nuclear power plant from a steam turbine retrofit has often been clearly demonstrated in recent years but, for light water nuclear plants, the Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) are also of prime importance. This paper describes how refurbishment of these crucial components can only provide full potential performance benefit when made in conjunction with a steam turbine retrofit (although in practice these activities are frequently separated). Examples are given to show how combined application is best handled within a single organization to ensure optimized integration into the thermal cycle. (authors)

  19. Optimized Application of MSR and Steam Turbine Retrofits in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, Robert; McCoach, John; Gagelin, Jean-Philippe

    2004-01-01

    The benefit to a nuclear power plant from a steam turbine retrofit has often been clearly demonstrated in recent years but, for light water nuclear plants, the Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) are also of prime importance. This paper describes how refurbishment of these crucial components can only provide full potential performance benefit when made in conjunction with a steam turbine retrofit (although in practice these activities are frequently separated). Examples are given to show how combined application is best handled within a single organization to ensure optimized integration into the thermal cycle. (authors)

  20. A connection of the steam generator feedwater section of WWER type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Sadilek, J.

    1989-01-01

    In the feedwater piping of each steam generator, a plate for additional water pressure reduction is inserted before the first closing valve. During a steady water flow, the plate gives rise to a constant hydraulic resistance, bringing about steady reduction of the feedwater pressure; this also contributes to a stabilization of the feedwater flow rate into the steam generator. The control valve thus is stressed by minimal hydrodynamic forces. In this manner its load is decreased, its vibrations are damped, and the frequency of failures - and thereby the frequency of the nuclear power plant unit outages -is reduced. (J.P.). 1 fig

  1. Some causes of vibrations recorded by in-service diagnostic systems in steam generators of units 1 and 2 of Dukovany nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadilek, J.; Matal, O.

    1989-01-01

    A brief description is presented of the design of the steam generators of the first and second units of the Dukovany nuclear power plant. Attention is also given to the feed water systems and the diagnostic systems. The causes are analyzed of the irregularly occurring vibrations in the steam generators in service. It is demonstrated that the source of the vibrations transmitted to the steam generators are the valves in the feeding tract. The vibrations are induced by dynamic forces from the feed water. Reducing the water pressure at the delivery of the electric feed pumps by reducing the size of the rotor, etc., does not remove all vibrations. It is therefore recommended that valves be ins+alled with better regulating characteristics. (Z.M.). 6 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs

  2. Electric Power Research in 1988 No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This book deals with eight fields of electric power, which are study on the high level of confidence of electronic control system with micro computers in a field of generator, study on the emergency scenarios of radiation in nuclear power plant in a field of nuclear energy, research for improvement of record and calculation of SCADA system in a field of supply of electric power, study on the utilization and survey of domestic Bio-mass in a field of energy, and study on the digital communications net for electric power in a field of communication.

  3. Disposal of Steam Generators from Decommissioning of PWR Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walberg, Mirko; Viermann, Joerg; Beverungen, Martin; Kemp, Lutz; Lindstroem, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Amongst other materials remarkable amounts of radioactively contaminated or activated scrap are generated from the dismantling of Nuclear Power Plants. These scrap materials include contaminated pipework, fittings, pumps, the reactor pressure vessel and other large components, most of them are heat exchangers. Taking into account all commercial and technical aspects an external processing and subsequent recycling of the material might be an advantageous option for many of these components. The disposal of steam generators makes up an especially challenging task because of their measures, their weight and compared to other heat exchangers high radioactive inventory. Based on its experiences from many years of disposal of smaller components of NPP still in operation or under decommissioning GNS and Studsvik Nuclear developed a concept for disposal of steam generators, also involving experiences made in Sweden. The concept comprises transport preparations and necessary supporting documents, the complete logistics chain, steam generator treatment and the processing of arising residues and materials not suitable for recycling. The first components to be prepared, shipped and treated according to this concept were four steam generators from the decommissioning of the German NPP Stade which were removed from the plant and shipped to the processing facility during the third quarter of 2007. Although the plant had undergone a full system decontamination, due to the remaining contamination in a number of plugged tubes the steam generators had to be qualified as industrial packages, type 2 (IP-2 packages), and according to a special requirement of the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection a license for a shipment under special arrangement had to be applied for. The presentation gives an overview of the calculations and evidences required within the course of the IP-2 qualification, additional requirements of the competent authorities during the licensing procedure as

  4. French electric power balance sheet 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, Thierry; Riere, Alexia

    2010-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2009: key figures of the French electricity consumption, lowering of the French power generation, decrease of trade balance at borders but still positive, continuation of RTE's investments for the improvement of the grid performance. New RTE's infrastructures, electricity quality data, and the evolution of market mechanisms are presented in appendixes

  5. Steam turbine controls and their integration into power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kure-Jensen, J.; Hanisch, R.

    1989-01-01

    The main functions of a modern steam turbine control system are: speed and acceleration control during start-up; initialization of generator excitation; synchronization and application of load; pressure control of various forms: inlet, extraction backpressure, etc.; unloading and securing of the turbine; sequencing of the above functions under constraint of thermal stress overspeed protection during load rejection and emergencies; protection against serious hazards, e.g., loss of oil pressure, high bearing vibration; and testing of valves and vitally important protection functions. It is characteristic of the first group of functions that they must be performed with high control bandwidth, or very high reliability, or both, to ensure long-term satisfactory service of the turbine. It is for these reasons that GE has, from the very beginning of the technology, designed and provided the controls and protection for its units, starting with mechanical and hydraulic devices and progressing to analog electrohydraulic systems introduced in the 1960s, and now continuing with all-digital electrohydraulic systems

  6. Liberation of electric power and nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    In Japan, as the Rule on Electric Business was revised after an interval of 35 years in 1995, and a competitive bid on new electric source was adopted after 1996 fiscal year, investigation on further competition introduction to electric power market was begun by establishment of the Basic Group of the Electric Business Council in 1997. By a report proposed on January, 1999 by the Group, the Rule was revised again on March, 1999 to start a partial liberation or retail of the electric power from March, 2000. From a viewpoint of energy security and for solution of global environmental problem in Japan it has been decided to positively promote nuclear power in future. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate how the competition introduction affects to development of nuclear power generation and what is a market liberation model capable of harmonizing with the development on liberation of electric power market. Here was elucidated on effect of the introduction on previous and future nuclear power generation, after introducing new aspects of nuclear power problems and investigating characteristic points and investment risks specific to the nuclear power generation. And, by investigating some possibilities to development of nuclear power generation under liberation models of each market, an implication was shown on how to be future liberation on electric power market in Japan. (G.K.)

  7. Import of electric power increased by 19 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The import of electric power increased by 19% in 1999. Due to the decrease in the electric power export the net import of electric power increased even more. Electric power import from Sweden was 6000 GWh, import from Russia 5200 GWh and import from Norway 100 GWh. The electric power export in 1999 was only 200 GWh. The generation of nuclear power increased 5% and the consumption of wood-based fuels by 3%. The increase in nuclear power generation is based on increment of the power output capacities of the power plants. The consumption of peat decreased by 12% and the production of hydroelectric power by 15%. The decrement of the peat consumption is based on the changes in energy taxation. The production of hydroelectric power decreased to the normal level after the rainy year 1998. Oil consumption remained nearly the same as in 1998 even though the national product increased in 1999 by 3.5%. The wind power generation was doubled in 1999. The share of it is still only about 0.01% of the total energy consumption. Carbon dioxide emissions from coal and peat, decreased by 1.0 million tons, down to 56 million tons. The present emissions are now only about 2 million tons higher than during the reference year 1990. The emissions have decreased by 5 million tons since 1996 when they were at their highest

  8. ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Maniyar

    2004-06-22

    The purpose of this revision of the System Description Document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical power system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience are design engineers. This type of SDD leads and follows the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. This SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system are obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway, 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher level requirements documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), the fire hazards analyses, and the preclosure safety analysis. The above mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD includes several appendices with supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists; and Appendix C is a list of system procedures.

  9. International trade with electric power

    OpenAIRE

    Årdal, Frode

    2009-01-01

    In 2003 the European Commission introduced the Directive 2003/54/EC and Regulation 1228/2003/EC which increased the focus on the liberalization of the European electricity market. The international electricity trade has increased and created new challenges related to cross-border transmission and compensation mechanisms. The focus of the report has been to discuss the development of the electricity market in Europe, and the status of international exchange. The report also discusses the con...

  10. Electric Power monthly, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  11. Electric power monthly, May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and Stage agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities in Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  12. Chemistry, materials and related problems in steam generators of power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, P.K.

    2000-01-01

    The operational reliability and availability of power plants are considerably influenced by chemical factors. Researches all over the world indicate that several difficulties in power plants can be traced to off-normal or abnormal water chemistry conditions. Whatever the source of energy, be it fossil fuel or nuclear fuel, the ultimate aim is steam generation to drive a turbine. It is, therefore, natural that problems of water chemistry and material compatibility are similar in thermal and nuclear power stations. The present paper discusses various types of problems in the form of corrosion damages, taking place in the boiler-turbine cycles and describes different types of boiler feed water/boiler water treatments that have been in use both in nuclear and thermal power stations. Current positions in relation to requirements of boiler feed water, boiler water and steam quality have been described

  13. The electric power sector in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingimarsson, J.

    1992-01-01

    In Iceland the government must give permission for the building of a power station etc. but in practise the power plant administrators determine the tariffs. The structure of electric power supply mirrors a strong engagement on the part of the state and the local authorities. Almost all the power plants and distribution systems are state owned or owned by both the state and the local authorities, and so constitute a monopoly, producing 93% of the total amount of electricity supply. Government policy in this field, the Icelandic electric power distribution system and the setting of electricity prices are briefly described. It is claimed that there would be economical advantages in restructuring the distribution network and that the government favours an increase in possibilities for competition and making legislative changes. This will mean that in the future the market will play a more important role and that power plant administrators must review their duties regarding consumer satisfaction, tariffs etc. (AB)

  14. Design and development of steam generators for the AGR power stations at Heysham II/Torness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charcharos, A N; Jones, A G [National Nuclear Corp. Ltd., Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1984-07-01

    The current AGR steam generator design is a development of the successful once-through units supplied for the Oldbury Magnox and Hinkley/Hunterston AGR power stations. These units have demonstrated proven control and reliability in service. In this paper the factors which have dictated the design and layout of the latest AGR steam generators are described and reference made to the latest high temperature design techniques that have been employed. Details of development work to support the design and establish the performance characteristics over the range of plant operating conditions are also given. To comply with current UK safety standards, the AGR steam generators and associated plant are designed to accommodate seismic loadings. In addition, provision is made for an independent heat removal system for post reactor trip operations. (author)

  15. An afterburner-powered methane/steam reformer for a solid oxide fuel cells application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdzierz, Marcin; Chalusiak, Maciej; Kimijima, Shinji; Szmyd, Janusz S.; Brus, Grzegorz

    2018-04-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems can be fueled by natural gas when the reforming reaction is conducted in a stack. Due to its maturity and safety, indirect internal reforming is usually used. A strong endothermic methane/steam reforming process needs a large amount of heat, and it is convenient to provide thermal energy by burning the remainders of fuel from a cell. In this work, the mathematical model of afterburner-powered methane/steam reformer is proposed. To analyze the effect of a fuel composition on SOFC performance, the zero-dimensional model of a fuel cell connected with a reformer is formulated. It is shown that the highest efficiency of a solid oxide fuel cell is achieved when the steam-to-methane ratio at the reforming reactor inlet is high.

  16. Design and development of steam generators for the AGR power stations at Heysham II/Torness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charcharos, A.N.; Jones, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    The current AGR steam generator design is a development of the successful once-through units supplied for the Oldbury Magnox and Hinkley/Hunterston AGR power stations. These units have demonstrated proven control and reliability in service. In this paper the factors which have dictated the design and layout of the latest AGR steam generators are described and reference made to the latest high temperature design techniques that have been employed. Details of development work to support the design and establish the performance characteristics over the range of plant operating conditions are also given. To comply with current UK safety standards, the AGR steam generators and associated plant are designed to accommodate seismic loadings. In addition, provision is made for an independent heat removal system for post reactor trip operations. (author)

  17. Reactive Power Management in Electric Power Systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Ferranti effect) would limit the power transfer and the transmission range in the absence of any compensation measures. Journal of EAEA, Vol 14, 1997. In this paper, the management of the reactive power is explored with the aim of improving the quality and the reliability of the supply in the EELPA's interconnected system ...

  18. Quality electricity lines of external power systems electric traction DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Petrov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies that compare and analyze the numerical values of some key indicators quality electricity in the lines of the external power supply system the electric traction DC. As a supplement are additional and fundamental values of energy losses in them.

  19. Particle Swarm Optimization to the U-tube steam generator in the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Wesam Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We establish stability mathematical model of steam generator and reactor core. • We propose a new Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. • The algorithm can overcome premature phenomenon and has a high search precision. • Optimal weight of steam generator is 15.1% less than the original. • Sensitivity analysis and optimal design provide reference for steam generator design. - Abstract: This paper, proposed an improved Particle Swarm Optimization approach for optimize a U-tube steam generator mathematical model. The UTSG is one of the most important component related to safety of most of the pressurized water reactor. The purpose of this article is to present an approach to optimization in which every target is considered as a separate objective to be optimized. Multi-objective optimization is a powerful tool for resolving conflicting objectives in engineering design and numerous other fields. One approach to solve multi-objective optimization problems is the non-dominated sorting Particle Swarm Optimization. PSO was applied in regarding the choice of the time intervals for the periodic testing of the model of the steam generator

  20. Particle Swarm Optimization to the U-tube steam generator in the nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Wesam Zakaria, E-mail: mimi9_m@yahoo.com

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We establish stability mathematical model of steam generator and reactor core. • We propose a new Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. • The algorithm can overcome premature phenomenon and has a high search precision. • Optimal weight of steam generator is 15.1% less than the original. • Sensitivity analysis and optimal design provide reference for steam generator design. - Abstract: This paper, proposed an improved Particle Swarm Optimization approach for optimize a U-tube steam generator mathematical model. The UTSG is one of the most important component related to safety of most of the pressurized water reactor. The purpose of this article is to present an approach to optimization in which every target is considered as a separate objective to be optimized. Multi-objective optimization is a powerful tool for resolving conflicting objectives in engineering design and numerous other fields. One approach to solve multi-objective optimization problems is the non-dominated sorting Particle Swarm Optimization. PSO was applied in regarding the choice of the time intervals for the periodic testing of the model of the steam generator.

  1. Piping hydrodynamic loads for a PWR power up-rate with steam generator replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julie M Jarvis; Allen T Vieira; James M Gilmer

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Pipe break hydrodynamic loads are calculated for various systems in a PWR for a Power Up-rate (PUR) with a Steam Generator Replacement (SGR). PUR with SGR can change the system pressures, mass flowrates and pipe routing/configuration. These changes can alter the steam generator piping steam/water hammer loads. This paper discusses the need to benchmark against the original design basis, the use of different modeling techniques, and lessons learned. Benchmarking for licensing in the United States is vital in consideration of 10CFR50.59 and other licensing and safety issues. RELAP5 and its force post-processor R5FORCE are used to model the transient loads for various piping systems such as main feedwater and blowdown systems. Other modeling applications, including the Bechtel GAFT program, are used to evaluate loadings in the main steam piping. Forces are calculated for main steam turbine stop valve closure, feedwater pipe breaks and subsequent check valve slam, and blowdown isolation valve closure. These PUR/SGR forces are compared with the original design basis forces. Modeling techniques discussed include proper valve closure modeling, sonic velocity changes due to pipe material changes, and two phase flow effects. Lessons learned based on analyses done for several PWR PUR with SGR are presented. Lessons learned from these analyses include choosing the optimal replacement piping size and routing to improve system performance without resulting in excessive piping loads. (authors)

  2. Improving the taxation regime for electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjermeros, Morten; Ilstad, Kristine

    2003-01-01

    In Norway, the present taxation regime for electric power is very complex. The power companies are currently charged with ordinary tax on profits, tax on economic rent, tax on natural resources and land tax. In addition there are the rules about licence fees, yield of power due to concession conditions, and reversion. The Norwegian Electricity Industry Association (EBL), assisted by a firm of lawyers, has proposed an improvement over the current taxation regime

  3. Electrical Power Budget for FCC-ee

    CERN Document Server

    Aull, S.; Bozzini, D.; Brunner, O.; Burnet, J.-P.; Butterworth, A.; Calaga, R.; Jensen, E.; Mertens, V.; Milanese, A.; Nonis, M.; Oide, K.; Schwerg, N.; Tavian, L.; Wenninger, J.; Zimmermann, F.; Rinolfi, L; Blondel, A.; Koratzinos, M.; Gorgi Zadeh, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a first rough estimate for the electrical power consumption of the FCC-ee lepton collider. This electrical power is dominated by the RF system, which provides the motivation for the ongoing R&D on highly efficient RF power sources. Other contributions come from the warm arc magnets, the cryogenics systems, cooling, ventilation, general services, the particle-physics detectors, and the injector complex.

  4. Exergetic analysis of a steam power plant using coal and rice straw in a co-firing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, Alvaro; Miyake, Raphael Guardini; Bazzo, Edson [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], e-mails: arestrep@labcet.ufsc.br, miyake@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia S.A., Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil). U.O. Usina Termeletrica Jorge Lacerda C.], e-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an exergetic analysis concerning an existing 50 M We steam power plant, which operates with pulverized coal from Santa Catarina- Brazil. In this power plant, a co-firing rice straw is proposed, replacing up to 10% of the pulverized coal in energy basis required for the boiler. Rice straw has been widely regarded as an important source for bio-ethanol, animal feedstock and organic chemicals. The use of rice straw as energy source for electricity generation in a co-firing process with low rank coal represents a new application as well as a new challenge to overcome. Considering both scenarios, the change in the second law efficiency, exergy destruction, influence of the auxiliary equipment and the greenhouse gases emissions such as CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} were considered for analysis. (author)

  5. IMPACT OF THE COLD END OPERATING CONDITIONS ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF THE STEAM POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Laković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional steam power plant working under the Rankine Cycle and the steam condenser as a heat sink and the steam boiler as a heat source have the same importance for the power plant operating process. Energy efficiency of the coal fired power plant strongly depends on its turbine-condenser system operation mode. For the given thermal power plant configuration, cooling water temperature or/and flow rate change generate alterations in the condenser pressure. Those changes have great influence on the energy efficiency of the plant. This paper focuses on the influence of the cooling water temperature and flow rate on the condenser performance, and thus on the specific heat rate of the coal fired plant and its energy efficiency. Reference plant is working under turbine-follow mode with an open cycle cooling system. Analysis is done using thermodynamic theory, in order to define heat load dependence on the cooling water temperature and flow rate. Having these correlations, for given cooling water temperature it is possible to determine optimal flow rate of the cooling water in order to achieve an optimal condensing pressure, and thus, optimal energy efficiency of the plant. Obtained results could be used as useful guidelines in improving existing power plants performances and also in design of the new power plants.

  6. Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. New business models......Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic...... and control management architectures, as well as the communication infrastructure required to integrate electric vehicles as active demand are presented. Finally, regulatory issues of integrating electric vehicles into modern power systems are addressed. Inspired by two courses held under the EES...

  7. Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic...... software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. New business models...... and control management architectures, as well as the communication infrastructure required to integrate electric vehicles as active demand are presented. Finally, regulatory issues of integrating electric vehicles into modern power systems are addressed. Inspired by two courses held under the EES...

  8. Oxygen transport membrane reactor based method and system for generating electric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Chakravarti, Shrikar; Li, Juan

    2017-02-07

    A carbon capture enabled system and method for generating electric power and/or fuel from methane containing sources using oxygen transport membranes by first converting the methane containing feed gas into a high pressure synthesis gas. Then, in one configuration the synthesis gas is combusted in oxy-combustion mode in oxygen transport membranes based boiler reactor operating at a pressure at least twice that of ambient pressure and the heat generated heats steam in thermally coupled steam generation tubes within the boiler reactor; the steam is expanded in steam turbine to generate power; and the carbon dioxide rich effluent leaving the boiler reactor is processed to isolate carbon. In another configuration the synthesis gas is further treated in a gas conditioning system configured for carbon capture in a pre-combustion mode using water gas shift reactors and acid gas removal units to produce hydrogen or hydrogen-rich fuel gas that fuels an integrated gas turbine and steam turbine system to generate power. The disclosed method and system can also be adapted to integrate with coal gasification systems to produce power from both coal and methane containing sources with greater than 90% carbon isolation.

  9. Electricity for Road Transport, Flexible Power Systems and Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Ravn, Hans; Meibom, Peter

    The aim of the project is to analyse the potential synergistic interplay that may arise between the power sector and the transport sector, if parts of the road transport energy needs are based on electricity via the utilisation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles....... The project focuses on the technical elements in the chain that comprises: 1: The electric vehicle status, potentials and expected development. Electric batteries are in focus in this part of the analysis. 2: Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle interacting with a local grid. 3: Analysis of grid-vehicle...

  10. Study of aircraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The formulation of a philosophy for devising a reliable, efficient, lightweight, and cost effective electrical power system for advanced, large transport aircraft in the 1980 to 1985 time period is discussed. The determination and recommendation for improvements in subsystems and components are also considered. All aspects of the aircraft electrical power system including generation, conversion, distribution, and utilization equipment were considered. Significant research and technology problem areas associated with the development of future power systems are identified. The design categories involved are: (1) safety-reliability, (2) power type, voltage, frequency, quality, and efficiency, (3) power control, and (4) selection of utilization equipment.

  11. Electric power. Enron establishes in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The US Enron group and the Italian Enel group have decided to create a joint-venture for the production of electric power in Italy. Their activities will be based on the transformation of existing classical thermal power plants into natural gas fueled combined cycle power plants. The total capacity of the converted power plants will be of 5000 MW. Enron should invest about 3 billions of US Dollars in this project and will be in a privileged position when the Italian electric power market will be open to competition in 1999. Short paper. (J.S.)

  12. An options model for electric power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Kanchan; Ramesh, V.C.

    1997-01-01

    The international electric utility industry is undergoing a radical transformation from an essentially regulated and monopolistic industry to an industry made uncertain with impending deregulation and the advent of competitive forces. This paper investigates the development of an options market for bulk power trading in a market setup while considering power system planning and operational constraints and/or requirements. In so doing it considers the different market based financial derivative instruments while can be used to trade electrical power in bulk and examines how established tools such as Optimal Power Flow (OPF) may be applied in helping to develop a price for bulk power transactions under a market based setup. (Author)

  13. Optimal control applications in electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, G S; Soliman, S A

    1987-01-01

    Significant advances in the field of optimal control have been made over the past few decades. These advances have been well documented in numerous fine publications, and have motivated a number of innovations in electric power system engineering, but they have not yet been collected in book form. Our purpose in writing this book is to provide a description of some of the applications of optimal control techniques to practical power system problems. The book is designed for advanced undergraduate courses in electric power systems, as well as graduate courses in electrical engineering, applied mathematics, and industrial engineering. It is also intended as a self-study aid for practicing personnel involved in the planning and operation of electric power systems for utilities, manufacturers, and consulting and government regulatory agencies. The book consists of seven chapters. It begins with an introductory chapter that briefly reviews the history of optimal control and its power system applications and also p...

  14. Slovak Electric, plc, Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant in 1998 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Operation and electric power generation; (2) Nuclear and radiation safety; (3) Maintenance and scheduled refuelling out-gages; (4) Investment and WWER units upgrading; (5) Power Plants Personnel; (6) Public relations

  15. Condition monitoring of steam turbo generators of captive power plant at HWP (Manuguru) through vibration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnareddy, G.; Chandramouli, M.; Gupta, R.V.

    2002-01-01

    Turbo Generator is a critical equipment in steam based power plant circuit. Any failure causes loss of production and hence as applicable to Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru, it results in loss of heavy water production as the captive power plant at Manuguru is solely designed to supply steam and power to Main Plant, which is meant for production of heavy water. Thereby condition monitoring is very much essential and required as part of predictive maintenance program for the turbo generators which are in continuous operation. This paper focuses on identification of the turbo generator system through vibration spectrum, characterising and differentiating the fault mechanisms, trending the faults through changes in vibration spectrums and orbit plots and subsequently planning for corrective actions/measures after evaluating the changes in machine conditions

  16. Steam injection : analysis of a typical application.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, F.M.; Lange, de H.C.

    1996-01-01

    A cardboard factory requires steam and electricity, which are produced in its own powerplant. Conventional cogeneration systems cannot cope with the large fluctuations in steam demand, inherent to the cardboard production process, while power demand remains almost constant. For this reason, two

  17. Nuclear energy products except the electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Technically the fission reactors, on service or under construction, can produce other products than the electric power. Meanwhile, these applications are known since the beginning of the reactors exploitation, they never have been developed industrially. This report examines the necessary technical characteristics for using the nuclear systems on non electric power applications with an economical efficiency. What are the markets for these products? What are the strategical challenges to favor the development of non electric power applications of the nuclear energy? (A.L.B.)

  18. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today's electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry's transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment

  19. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today`s electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry`s transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment.

  20. Nuclear power's effects on electric rate making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.S.; Lancaster, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Government and the electric utility industry are re-evaluating nuclear power's contribution to the total U.S. energy supplies. This article addresses how the recently increased nuclear plant construction and operation costs are translated into the prices that consumers pay for electricity. The electric rates that consumers pay must reflect the costs of producing electricity, as well as the costs of transmission, distribution, metering, and billing. The use of nuclear power for electric production is anticipated to grow rapidly so as to meet a larger portion of our country's electricity needs through the end of the century; so nuclear power costs are expected to be an even larger portion of the total electricity price. There are certain rate-making issues that are actively being discussed in public forums and before state and Federal regulatory bodies. These issues are not unique to nuclear power, but take on added significance when nuclear power is used by utilities to produce electricity because of the technology required and because of the type, timing, and magnitude of the costs involved. These are: (1) inclusion of construction work in progress in the rate base; (2) fuel adjustment clauses and treatment of nuclear fuel cycle costs; (3) treatment of certain taxes under the rate-making method called normalization or deferral accounting (sometimes referred to as ''phantom taxes''); and (4) rate treatment for particular nuclear expense items reflecting costs of delays, plant cancellations, and operational slowdowns

  1. The electrical system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firman Silitonga; Gunarwan Prayitno

    2009-01-01

    In these system, electrical power system is supplied from two-offsite transmission system respective main transformer and house service transformer; and reserve transformer. The electrical load in these system consist of safety electrical system and non-safety electrical system, The safety electrical and non safety electrical systems consist of four 6,9 kV AC medium voltage bus and 480 V AC low voltage bus system. The DC power system consist of four safety 125 V DC power system and the two non-safety 125 DC power systems. The equipment in these electrical system is main turbine-generator; GTG safety; GTG alternate; uninterrupted power supply (UPS) and battery system. To protect electrical equipment and building to direct stroke and non direct stroke disturbances is installed netral grounding system and lightning protection and protection the personnel to touch-voltage is installed equipment grounding system and station grounding. The lightning arrester system is connected to station station grounding system. (author)

  2. Innovation in electric power technologies in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohfusa, Takahiro; Hayasaka, Eiji; Ino, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    This is a report of the title by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc, Tohoku Electric Power and other nine enterprises in Japan. The outline is as follows. Tokyo Electric Power Company stated pipe thinning by the hot water based two-phase flow testing device, development of technologies for corrosion protection of nuclear reactor using titanium oxide, evaluation of fatigue damage by EBSD, and study of duty on the nuclear power plant. Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) stated the mechanism of decrease in exposure dose of the primary coolant system by zinc infusion, outline of Air Operated Valve Intelligent Diagnostic Analysis System (AVIDAS) and the grand packing system, development of SAPLS, the automatic search program of fuel position for design of PWR related core, development of compact containment water reactor (CCR) and FBR cycle system, investigation of the chain destruction of active fault under consideration of dynamic interaction of active faults and decommissioning of Tokai Nuclear Power Plant. Electric Power Development Company reported construction of the Oma Nuclear Power Plant, a future nuclear plant in Oma, Aomori. The reactor will be capable of using 100% MOX fuel core (MOX-ABWR). The operation will start November 2014. (S.Y.)

  3. An Optimum Solution for Electric Power Theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Hussain Memon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Electric power theft is a problem that continues to plague power sector across the whole country. Every year, the electricity companies face the line losses at an average 20-30% and according to power ministry estimation WAPDA companies lose more than Rs. 125 billion. Significantly, it is enough to destroy the entire power sector of country. According to sources 20% losses means the masses would have to pay extra 20% in terms of electricity tariffs. In other words, the innocent consumers pay the bills of those who steal electricity. For all that, no any permanent solution for this major issue has ever been proposed. We propose an applicable and optimum solution for this impassable problem. In our research, we propose an Electric power theft solution based on three stages; Transmission stage, Distribution stage, and User stage. Without synchronization among all, the complete solution can not be achieved. The proposed solution is simulated on NI (National Instruments Circuit Design Suite Multisim v.10.0. Our research work is an implicit and a workable approach towards the Electric power theft, as for conditions in Pakistan, which is bearing the brunt of power crises already

  4. Electric power annual 1989. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-17

    This publication presents a summary of electric utility statistics at the national, regional and state levels. The Industry At A Glance'' section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance; a review of key statistics for the year; and projections for various aspects of the electric power industry through 2010. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; electricity sales, revenue and average revenue per kilowatthour sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; and electric power transactions. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. 24 figs., 57 tabs.

  5. Development project HTR-electricity-generating plant, concept design of an advanced high-temperature reactor steam cycle plant with spherical fuel elements (HTR-K)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    The report gives a survey of the principal work which was necessary to define the design criteria, to determine the main design data, and to design the principal reactor components for a large steam cycle plant. It is the objective of the development project to establish a concept design of an edvanced steam cycle plant with a pebble bed reactor to permit a comparison with the direct-cycle-plant and to reach a decision on the concept of a future high-temperature nuclear power plant. It is tried to establish a largerly uniform basic concept of the nuclear heat-generating systems for the electricity-generating and the process heat plant. (orig.) [de

  6. MODEL OF CHANNEL AIRBORN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Demchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to math modeling of channel of alternate current airborne electrical power-supply system. Considered to modeling of synchronous generator that runs on three-phase static load.

  7. Exomars 2016 Mission Electrical Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciancetta Ezio

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines the Exomars 2016 Electrical Power System (EPS design, providing a description of the major design drivers and resulting configuration, with a view to highlight aspects that could be considered for future designs.

  8. The future of fission-electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morowski, J.V.

    1983-06-01

    Future worldwide electricity supply needs dictate the necessity of maintaining a sound capability for electricity and electric power generating facilities, including nuclear, as viable export commodities. A survey of fission-power plant types and the status of worldwide nuclear electric power illustrates the primary emphasis on LWR's and HWR's as two leading types in the export market. This survey examines the factors affecting the market prospects for the next five to fifteen years and provides a discussion on some possible improvements to current market circumstances. A comparative description is provided for some of the types of LWR and CANDU characteristics such as quantities, schedules, constructability factors, and equipment and system. Important factors in the selection process for future nuclear power plants are discussed. Some factors included are seismic design requirements; plant design description and possible site layout; plant protection, control and instrumentation; thermal cycle design and arrangement; and special construction and rigging requirements

  9. Research on spacecraft electrical power conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    The history of spacecraft electrical power conversion in literature, research and practice is reviewed. It is noted that the design techniques, analyses and understanding which were developed make today's contribution to power computers and communication installations. New applications which require more power, improved dynamic response, greater reliability, and lower cost are outlined. The switching mode approach in electronic power conditioning is discussed. Technical aspects of the research are summarized.

  10. The electric power industry in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleo, J.N.; Anthoine, K.; Vallon, D.; Baleo, V.

    2003-03-01

    As more than 99% of the electric power in Norway come from the hydro energy, the climatic conditions influence the energy prices. Since 1996 and because of an increasing consumption, the country needs to import electric power from Sweden, Denmark, Finland and for a little part Russia. This report evaluates the today situation, the distribution and production sources, the regulations, the Government policy and the research programs concerning the ''classical energy sources'' and the renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  11. Wireless power transfer for electric vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Mude, Kishore Naik

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) systems transfer electric energy from a source to a load without any wired connection. WPTs are attractive for many industrial applications because of their advantages compared to the wired counterpart, such as no exposed wires, ease of charging, and fearless transmission of power in adverse environmental conditions. Adoption of WPTs to charge the on-board batteries of an electric vehicle (EV) has got attention from some companies, and efforts are being made for ...

  12. Switching conditions in the electric power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukushi, M.; Hirasawa, K.; Kurosawa, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that a circuit breaker must be capable of making, carrying, and interrupting the current under both normal and abnormal conditions, especially in the case of a short-circuit fault. Before installing a circuit breaker, it is necessary to estimate the maximum short-circuit current that can occur in the electric power system and then select a circuit breaker that can interrupt and make the estimated current. Many types of short-circuit faults occur in electric power systems

  13. Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2. Annual operating report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Net electrical energy generated by Unit 1 was 30,399 MWH with the generator on line 334.5 hrs. Unit 2 generated 2,481,014 MWH with the generator on line 4,915.53 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, shutdowns and power reductions, maintenance, power generation, modifications, changes to operational procedures, radiation exposures, and leak rate testing

  14. Simulation of a Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) of a PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis Martins Junior, L.L. dos.

    1980-01-01

    The following work intends to perform the digital simulation, of the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) of a PWR nuclear power plant for control systems design and analysis purposes. There are mathematical models for the reactor, the steam generator, the pressurizer and for transport lags of the coolant in the primary circuit. Nevertheless no one control system has been considered to permit any user the inclusion in the more convenient way of the desired control systems' models. The characteristics of the system in consideration are fundamentally equal to the ones of Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Plant, Unit I (Angra I) obtained in the Final Safety Analysis Report at Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. (author)

  15. Steam generator materials and secondary side water chemistry in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudelli, M.D.

    1979-04-01

    The main purpose of this work is to summarize the European and North American experiences regarding the materials used for the construction of the steam generators and their relative corrosion resistance considering the water chemestry control method. Reasons underlying decision for the adoption of Incoloy 800 as the material for the secondary steam generator system for Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant (Atucha Reactor) and Embalse de Rio III Nuclear Power Plant (Cordoba Reactor) are pointed out. Backup information taken into consideration for the decision of utilizing the All Volatil Treatment for the water chemistry control of the Cordoba Reactor is detailed. Also all the reasonswhich justify to continue with the congruent fosfatic method for the Atucha Reactor are analyzed. Some investigation objectives which would eventually permit the revision of the decisions taken on these subjects are proposed. (E.A.C.) [es

  16. Experience with and techniques of diagnosing power plant steam turbines without dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drapal, A.; Kopecek, K.

    1987-01-01

    Within the framework of vibration diagnostics of steam turbines at the Dukovany nuclear power plant the following factors were monitored: the summation signal of vibrations (usually the path of vibration movement), the time course of the vibration and the phase angle. In non-steady states also run-in and run-out curves, the absolute vibration of bearing stands and the relative vibration of the rotor are monitored. The method has so far not allowed to diagnose failures of antifriction bearings, loose parts, some gear box defects, the development of cracks in vanes, radial cracks in the disk, etc. Briefly characterized is the portable equipment which is available at the Dukovany nuclear power plant for vibration diagnostics of steam turbines. Suggestions are made for completing the system for monitoring service life, operation economics, the diagnosis of control circuits, etc. (Z.M.)

  17. Hydrogen and acoustic detection in steam generators of Super Phenix power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, N.; Le Bris, A.; Berthier, P.

    1986-05-01

    During the isothermal tests of Super-Phenix, two types of measurements were made on the steam generators with regard to the detection of water leaks into the sodium: - the first measurements enabled us to determine the characteristics (sensitivity, response time) of the hydrogen detectors that are already operational for the filling with water and the power operation of the steam generators. They also provided the basis for developing a prototype system for detecting very small water leaks (microleak phase). The other measurements concern the qualification tests of acoustic detectors which have been fitted for the first time to a major industrial installation. The results obtained are very satisfactory but final validation of the acoustic method will only occur after the full-power tests [fr

  18. Elevated-constant pH control assessment at TXU's Comanche peak steam electric station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellers, B.; Perkins, D.; Bosma, J.; Deshon, J.

    2002-01-01

    Industry experience with axial offset anomaly (AOA) has raised the importance of crud management strategies. Elevated-constant pH control is recognized as one potential solution. Additionally, minimizing radiation fields remains a high industry goal which is supported by this strategy. An investigation of industry experience and experimental data has supported a strategy of constant at-temperature pH of 7.4, requiring as much as 6-ppm lithium at the beginning-of-cycle (BOC). This approach, in a modern high temperature plant with high boron requirements, necessitated a careful assessment of potential risk for increased susceptibility to corrosion for both fuel cladding and RCS structural materials. This paper presents results of the assessment for Comanche peak steam electric station (CPSES) and plans for a demonstration of this practice. (author)

  19. Large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system (LASEPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    1992-01-01

    NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center is creating a large high voltage electrical power system testbed called LASEPS. This testbed is being developed to simulate an end-to-end power system from power generation and source to loads. When the system is completed it will have several power configurations, which will include several battery configurations. These configurations are: two 120 V batteries, one or two 150 V batteries, and one 250 to 270 V battery. This breadboard encompasses varying levels of autonomy from remote power converters to conventional software control to expert system control of the power system elements. In this paper, the construction and provisions of this breadboard are discussed.

  20. Electrical power systems for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    Major challenges in power system development are described. Evolutionary growth, operational lifetime, and other design requirements are discussed. A pictorial view of weight-optimized power system applications shows which systems are best for missions of various lengths and required power level. Following definition of the major elements of the electrical power system, an overview of element options and a brief technology assessment are presented. Selected trade-study results show end-to-end system efficiencies, required photovoltaic power capability as a function of energy storage system efficiency, and comparisons with other systems such as a solar dynamic power system.

  1. Thermal expansion measurement of turbine and main steam piping by using strain gages in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Sang Soo; Chung, Jae Won; Bong, Suk Kun; Jun, Dong Ki; Kim, Yun Suk

    2000-01-01

    One of the domestic co-generation plants have undergone excessive vibration problems of turbine attributed to external force for years. The root cause of turbine vibration may be shaft alignment problem which sometimes is changed by thermal expansion and external force, even if turbine technicians perfectly performed it. To evaluate the alignment condition from plant start-up to full load, a strain measurement of turbine and main steam piping subjected to thermal loading is monitored by using strain gages. The strain gages are bonded on both bearing housing adjusting bolts and pipe stoppers which installed in the x-direction of left-side main steam piping near the turbine inlet in order to monitor closely the effect of turbine under thermal deformation of turbine casing and main steam piping during plant full load. Also in situ load of constant support hangers in main steam piping system is measured by strain gages and its results are used to rebalance the hanger rod load. Consequently, the experimental stress analysis by using strain gages turns out to be very useful tool to diagnose the trouble and failures of not only to stationary components but to rotating machinery in power plants

  2. Development of a water separator for steam drying in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kall, H.

    1979-01-01

    In the wet steam of nuclear power plants with light water cooling the content of liquid phase before entering the high- and low-pressure turbine or at the inlet of the reheater connected in between is limited to a few parts per thousand. For the mechanical drying necessary to maintain this moisture limit there is suited the socalled lamellar separator, in which the vertical laminae, arranged one beside the other, confine a great number of separating ducts, bended in periodically changing sequence, through which wet steam is flowing. In the development of such a lamellar separator with internal drain channels described in this paper the droplet motion in the carrier gas stream and the discharge of the separated liquid is treated independently from each other. The mathematical and experimental study of the first-mentioned partial process leads to its complete description in a dimensionless separation diagram. During the subsequent discharge of the primarily separated droplet fluid there may be torn off droplets by the steam flow and carried away from the separator.The limit for the draining capacity reached with the occurrence of this phenomenon was determined in preliminary experiments with air and water and in experiments with wet steam carried out close to operating conditions. (orig.) 891 GL/orig. 892 RRD [de

  3. A high-power millimeter wave driven steam gun for pellet injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yasuyuki

    1997-01-01

    A concept of steam gun is proposed for using in two-stage pneumatic hydrogen isotope pellet injectors. The steam gun is driven by megawatt-level high-power millimeter waves (∼100 GHz) supplied by gyrotrons. A small amount of water is injected into its pump tube. The water is instantaneously heated by the millimeter waves and vaporized. Generated high-pressure steam accelerates a piston for compressing light gas to drive a frozen pellet. Discussions in this paper concentrate on the piston acceleration. Results show that 1 MW millimeter waves accelerate the 25 g piston to velocities of ∼200 m/s in a 1 m-long pump tube. The piston acceleration characteristics are not improved in comparison to light gas guns with first valves. The steam gun concept, however, avoids the use of a large amount of high-pressure gas for piston accelerations. In future fusion reactors, gyrotrons used during preionization and start-up phase would be available for producing required millimeter waves. (author)

  4. Steam-generator tube performance: world experience with water-cooled nuclear power reactors during 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of steam-generator tubes in water-cooled nuclear power reactors during 1978 is reviewed. Tube failures occurred at 31 of the 86 reactors surveyed. The causes of these failures and the procedures designed to deal with them are described. The number of tubes plugged has decreased dramatically in 1978 compared to the previous year. This is attributed to the diligent application of techniques developed through in-plant experience and research and development programs over the past several years

  5. Natural draft dry-type cooling tower for steam power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasser, G.

    1976-01-01

    The task to build natural-draught dry cooling towers for large steam power plants as simple, compact, and economical as possible may be achieved by a combination of known features with the aid of the present application: the condenser elements built as piles of corrugated plates are arranged in the form of a truncated pyramid widened towards the top. For the cooling-air flow inlet openings for hot gas supplied from the lower part of the dome are provided. (UWI) [de

  6. Steam generator tube failures: world experience in water-cooled nuclear power reactors in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, M.G.

    1976-11-01

    Steam generator tube failures were reported in 22 out of 62 water-cooled nuclear power plants surveyed in 1975. This was less than in 1974, and the number of the tubes affected was noticeably less. This report summarizes these failures, most of which were due to corrosion. Secondary-water chemistry control, procedures for inspection and repair, tube materials, and failure rates are discussed. (author)

  7. Steam generator tube performance: experience with water-cooled nuclear power reactors during 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathania, R.S.; Tatone, O.S.

    1979-02-01

    The performance of steam generator tubes in water-cooled nuclear power reactors has been reviewed for 1977. Failures were reported in 34 of the 79 reactors surveyed. Causes of these failures and inspection and repair procedures designed to deal with them are presented. Although corrosion remained the leading cause of tube failures, specific mechanisms have been identified and methods of dealing with them developed. These methods are being applied and should lead to a reduction of corrosion failures in future. (author)

  8. The BPX electrical power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttar, D.; Bronnev, G.; Fromm, N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX) which when operating at a toroidal field of 8.1 tesla and a plasma current of 10.6 megamps, requires peak power of 1235 megawatts and total pulse energy of over 21 gigajoules. These requirements are twice and over four times the corresponding figures for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), respectively. The design of the BPX power system has evolved, along with the tokamak, over a period of several years and has included studies of several alternative approaches. The reapplication of the existing TFTR power and energy facilities has been basic to all approaches. Among the new sources of pulse power and energy that have been considered are: direct utility grid pulsing, new flywheel units, and lead-acid storage batteries. The toroidal field power requirements are the greatest of the BPX subsystems and, fortunately, are sufficiently free of dynamics to allow the consideration of all approaches. Additional design challenges were presented by the multiplicity of plasma control scenarios incorporated in the BPX physics planning and the power response demanded of the plasma position control system

  9. Specific properties of the electrical equipment in the nuclear steam supply system; Specificnosti elektricne opreme u primarnom djelu nuklearne elektrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smiljanic, D [Rade Koncar Institut, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)

    1979-07-01

    The paper presents description of reactor coolant pump motor in the primary coolant loop. The motor is treated as a representative of all electrical equipment in the nuclear steam supply system that has to meet all the requirements concerning reliability, minimum maintenance, radiation, seismic etc. (author)

  10. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-382). Supplement No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    Supplement 8 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by Louisiana Power and Light Company for a license to operate the Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3 (Docket No. 50-382), located in St. Charles Parish, Louisiana, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this supplement is to update the Safety Evaluation Report by providing the staff's evaluation of information submitted by the applicant since the Safety Evaluation Report and its seven previous supplements were issued

  11. Safety-evaluation report related to the operation of Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit No. 3. Docket No. 50-382

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    Supplement 5 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by Louisiana Power and Light Company for a license to operate the Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3 (Docket No. 50-382), located in St. Charles Parish, Louisiana has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this supplement is to update the Safety Evaluation Report by providing the staff's evaluation of information submitted by the applicant since the Safety Evaluation Report and its four previous Supplements were issued

  12. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-382). Suppl.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    Supplement 6 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by Louisiana Power and Light Company for a license to operate the Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3 (Docket No. 50-382), located in St. Charles Parish, Louisiana, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this supplement is to update the Safety Evaluation Report by providing the staff's evaluation of information submitted by the applicant since the Safety Evaluation Report and its five previous supplements were issued

  13. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-382). Supplement 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    Supplement 9 to the Safety Evaluation Report for Louisiana Power and Light's application for a license to operate Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3 (Docket No. 50-382), located in St. Charles Parish, Louisiana, has been jointly prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and the Region IV Office of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement provides the results of the staff's completion of its evaluation of approximately 350 allegations and concerns of poor construction practices at the Waterford 3 facility

  14. Electrical power system integrated thermal/electrical system simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper adds thermal properties to previously developed electrical Saber templates and incorporates these templates into a functional Electrical Power Subsystem (EPS) simulation. These combined electrical and thermal templates enable the complete and realistic simulation of a vehicle EPS on-orbit. Applications include on-orbit energy balance determinations for system load changes, initial array and battery EPS sizing for new EPS development, and array and battery technology trade studies. This effort proves the versatility of the Saber simulation program in handling varied and complex simulations accurately and in a reasonable amount of computer time. 9 refs

  15. Propulsion element requirements using electrical power system unscheduled power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Frank; Hodge, Kathy

    1989-01-01

    The suitability of using the electrical energy from the Space Station's Electrical Power System (EPS) during the periods of peak solar insolation which is currently not specifically allocated (unscheduled power) to produce propulsion propellants, gaseous hydrogen, and oxygen by electrolyzing water is investigated. Reboost propellant requirements are emphasized, but the results are more generally relevant because the balance of recurring propellant requirements are an order of magnitude smaller and the nonrecurring requirements are not significant on an average basis.

  16. A flowsheet model of a coal-fired MHD/steam combined electricity generating cycle, using the access computer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, J.E.; Eldershaw, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    This document forms the final report on a study of a coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)/steam electric power generation system carried out by British Coal Corporation for the Commission of the European Communities. The study objective was to provide mass and energy balances and overall plant efficiency predictions for MHD to assist the Commission in their evaluation of advanced power generation technologies. In early 1990 the British Coal Corporation completed a study for the Commission in which a computer flowsheet modelling package was used to predict the performance of a conceptual air blown MHD plant. Since that study was carried out increasing emphasis has been placed on the possible need to reduce CO 2 emissions to counter the so-called greenhouse effect. Air blown MHD could greatly reduce CO 2 emissions per KWh by virtue of its high thermal efficiency. However, if even greater reductions in CO 2 emissions were required the CO 2 produced by coal combustion may have to be disposed of, for example into the deep ocean or underground caverns. To achieve this at minimum cost a concentrated CO 2 flue gas would be required. This could be achieved in an MHD plant by using a mixture of high purity oxygen and recycled CO 2 flue gas in the combustor. To assess this plant concept the European Commission awarded British Coal a contract to produce performance predictions using the access computer program

  17. Effects of electric current upon catalytic steam reforming of biomass gasification tar model compounds to syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Jun; Lu, Qiang; Dong, Changqing; Du, Xiaoze; Dahlquist, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ECR technique was proposed to convert biomass gasification tar model compounds. • Electric current enhanced the reforming efficiency remarkably. • The highest toluene conversion reached 99.9%. • Ni–CeO 2 /γ-Al 2 O 3 exhibited good stability during the ECR performance. - Abstract: Electrochemical catalytic reforming (ECR) technique, known as electric current enhanced catalytic reforming technique, was proposed to convert the biomass gasification tar into syngas. In this study, Ni–CeO 2 /γ-Al 2 O 3 catalyst was prepared, and toluene was employed as the major feedstock for ECR experiments using a fixed-bed lab-scale setup where thermal electrons could be generated and provided to the catalyst. Several factors, including the electric current intensity, reaction temperature and steam/carbon (S/C) ratio, were investigated to reveal their effects on the conversion of toluene as well as the composition of the gas products. Moreover, toluene, two other tar model compounds (benzene and 1-methylnaphthalene) and real tar (tar-containing wastewater) were subjected to the long period catalytic stability tests. All the used catalysts were analyzed to determine their carbon contents. The results indicated that the presence of electric current enhanced the catalytic performance remarkably. The toluene conversion reached 99.9% under the electric current of 4 A, catalytic temperature of 800 °C and S/C ratio of 3. Stable conversion performances of benzene, 1-methylnaphthalene and tar-containing wastewater were also observed in the ECR process. H 2 and CO were the major gas products, while CO 2 and CH 4 were the minor ones. Due to the promising capability, the ECR technique deserves further investigation and application for efficient tar conversion

  18. General conditions for electric power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    If it is uncertain whether future power bills will be paid fully, it is admissible to take an action claiming a declaration which states that the electricity rate payment boycotter has no right to non-payment nor a right to withhold payment towards the electricity supply utility, and that the electricity supply utility has the right to stop energy supply because of reduced electricity rate payments effected and/or announced, and to denounce the contract without observing any term of notice. If the electricity buyer reduces a power bill to be paid without any legal grounds, the electricity supply utility has the right to stop power supplies and to denounce the power supply contract without observing any term of notice. The freedom of thought and the freedom of opinion must not be expressed by reducing power bills to be paid. Basic rights discontinue to be effective as soon as a contract or law is broken. A weighing of protected interests is not effected if the exercise of a basic law is unlawful. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Electric power generation the changing dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Tagare, D M

    2011-01-01

    "This book offers an analytical overview of established electric generation processes, along with the present status & improvements for meeting the strains of reconstruction. These old methods are hydro-electric, thermal & nuclear power production. The book covers climatic constraints; their affects and how they are shaping thermal production. The book also covers the main renewable energy sources, wind and PV cells and the hybrids arising out of these. It covers distributed generation which already has a large presence is now being joined by wind & PV energies. It covers their accommodation in the present system. It introduces energy stores for electricity; when they burst upon the scene in full strength are expected to revolutionize electricity production. In all the subjects covered, there are references to power marketing & how it is shaping production. There will also be a reference chapter on how the power market works"--Provided by publisher.

  20. Basic recognition on safety of nuclear electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Keiji

    1995-01-01

    The safety of nuclear electric power generation is not to inflict radiation damage on public. Natural radiation is about 1 mSv every year. As far as the core melting on large scale does not occur, there is not the possibility of exerting serious radiation effect to public. The way of thinking on ensuring the safety is defense in depth. The first protection is the prevention of abnormality, the second protection is the prevention of accidents, and the third protection is the relaxation of effect. As design base accidents, the loss of coolant accident due to the breakdown of inlet pipings of reactors and the breaking of fine tubes in steam generators are included. The suitability of location is evaluated. As the large scale accidents of nuclear power stations in the past, Chernobyl accident and Three Mile Island accident are explained. The features of the countermeasures to the accident in Mihama No. 2 plant are described. The countermeasures to severe accidents, namely accident management and general preventive maintenance are explained. The background of the nonconfidence feeling to nuclear electric power generation and the importance of opening information to public are shown. (K.I.)

  1. Electricity for road transport, flexible power systems and wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Ravn, H.; Meibom, P. (and others)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of the project is to analyse the potential synergistic interplay that may arise between the power sector and the transport sector, if parts of the road transport energy needs are based on electricity via the utilisation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles. The project focuses on the technical elements in the chain that comprises: 1: The electric vehicle status, potentials and expected development. Electric batteries are in focus in this part of the analysis. 2: Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle interacting with a local grid. 3: Analysis of grid-vehicle connection systems including technical regulation options and analysis of needs for standardisation. 4: Setting up scenarios covering potential developments for utilizing electric drive trains in road transport. Period: Up to year 2030. 5: Analysis of capacity constraints in the electricity grid (transmission and distribution) as consequence of increasing electricity demand, and new flexible consumption patterns from segments in the transport sector, and as consequence of increasing capacity on wind power in the system. 6: Setting up and analysis of combined scenarios covering both the heat and power system and the transport sector. (Author)

  2. Slovak Electric, plc, Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In this popular scientific brochure a brief description of construction scheme of Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant is presented. Electricity generation in a nuclear power plant is described. Instrumentation and control system as well as nuclear safety principles applied on the NPP are presented

  3. Appraisal and financing of electric power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    This paper starts with the origin, nature and functions of the World Bank Group, reviews the past lending, describes the criteria used by the Bank in its power project appraisals, discusses the Bank's views on nuclear power, and concludes with a look at the probable future sources of financing of electrical expansion in the less developed countries. (orig./UA) [de

  4. Slovak Electric, plc, Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this popular scientific brochure a brief description of history construction of Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant is presented. The chart of electricity generation in WWER 440/V-213 nuclear power plant is described. Operation and safety improvements at Mochovce NPP as well as environment protection are presented. Basic data of Mochovce NPP are included

  5. Educational Electrical Appliance Power Meter and Logger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, John

    2013-01-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power…

  6. Values in the electric power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayre, K. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    A basic conclusion established by the seven essays presented is that nowhere within the complex decision-making process of the electric power industry is there any provision for systematically considering the curtailment of consumption as a serious alternative to continued expansion of power production. Six recommendations are summarized for concrete steps toward remedying this deficiency as a result of examining the essays. Continued expansion of power generation could result in desirable consequences of economic growth, jobs, ready transportation, and many consumer conveniences; undesirable consequences are: increasing air and water pollution, further depletion of nonrenewable resources, and increased dependence on foreign sources of energy. The papers are: A Cybernetic Analysis of Certain Energy Consumption Patterns, by Kenneth Sayre; Social and Environmental Value in Power Plant Licensing: A Study in the Regulation of Nuclear Power by Vaughn McKim; Legal and Economic Aspects of the Electric Utility's ''Mandate to Serve'', by Charles Murdock; Economies of Scale in the Electric Power Industry, by Kenneth Jameson; Dynamics of Growth in the U.S. Electric Power Industry, by Ellen Maher; Utilitarianism and Cost-Benefit Analysis: An Essay on the Relevance of Moral Philosophy to Bureaucratic Theory, by Alasdair MacIntyre; and An Ethical Analysis of Power Company Decision-Making, by Kenneth Goodpaster and Kenneth Sayre. (MCW)

  7. Recirculating steam generator operation at very low power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcblat, A.

    2001-01-01

    The behaviour of recirculating SG's at very low power has been thoroughly investigated by laboratory and on-site tests as well as numerical simulations. A special experimental program dedicated to recirculation threshold determination has been performed on the Freon SG mock-up CLOTAIRE. These laboratory data are completed with transients of feedwater injections at hot stand-by on two instrumented SG's, one boiler type SG and one economizer type SG. The phenomena are different on both types. In boiler SG's, the SG behaves like a U-tube and recirculation stops around 2% load at stand-by temperature and water level. In economizer SG's, the presence of 2 separate down-comers and a divider plate inside the tube bundle allows a recirculation loop by-passing the separators. The mixing of saturated and cold water induced by this loop limits down-comer cooling and thus alleviates the thermal load on the tube sheet. These tests were used to validate the SG transient analysis 1-D code ANETH. (author)

  8. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986 and be replaced in January 1987 by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue the emphasis on reliability and life extension that was carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems, such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation (NDE). These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and solve small problems before they become large problems

  9. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986, and be replaced in January 1987, by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue to emphasize reliability and life extension, which were carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation. These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and to solve small problems before they become large problems

  10. Corrosion control in electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrett, B.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that corrosion of components in power plants costs the US electric power utility industry billions of dollars each year. Through the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) research and development, several approaches have been developed to reduce these huge costs. They include improved materials selection procedures, coatings, cathodic protection, inhibitors, removal of aggressive species from the environment, and on-line corrosion monitoring. In addition, as part of an on-going technology transfer effort, EPRI is developing databases and expert systems that will help utilities obtain corrosion information and guide them in materials selection and failure analysis

  11. Electric power: liberalization in half-measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, P.

    1996-01-01

    The European directive about the electric power liberalization concerns only big consumers. These manufacturers have privileged relations with E.D.F. for long years with a very attractive price for the kilowatt hour. The change should not be very important, only more transparency in accounts and change in tariffs of power transmission: for example, a small electric power producer will be authorized to contest the buying price that E.D.F. imposes to him to transport the energy he produces. (N.C.)

  12. Limits to the Recognizability of Flaws in Non-Destructive Testing Steam-Generator Tubes for Nuclear-Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlmann, A.; Adamsky, F.-J.

    1965-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany there are nuclear reactors under construction with steam generators inside the reactor pressure-vessel. As a result design repairs of steam- generator tubes are very difficult and cause large shut-down times of the nuclear-power plant. It is known that numerous troubles in operating conventional power plants are results of steam-generator tube damages. Because of the high total costs of these reactors it. is necessary to construct the steam generators especially in such a manner that the load factor of the power plant is as high as possible. The Technischer Überwachungs-Verein Rheinland was charged to supervise and to test fabrication and construction of the steam generators to see that this part of the plant was as free of defects as possible. The experience gained during this work is of interest for manufacture and construction of steam generators for nuclear-power plants in general. This paper deals with the efficiency limits of non-destructive testing steam-generator tubes. The following tests performed will be discussed in detail: (a) Automatic ultrasonic testing of the straight tubes in the production facility; (b) Combined ultrasonic and radiographic testing of the bent tubes and tube weldings; (c) Other non-destructive tests. (author) [fr

  13. Fundamentals of electric power conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umans, S.D.

    1992-12-01

    Its rugged nature and straightforward design make the induction motor the most commonly used type of electric motor. This motor ranges in size fro the fractional-horsepower, single-phase motors found in household appliances to polyphase motors rated at thousands of horsepower for industrial applications. Volume 1 of this report describes the function of induction motors, their characteristics, and induction motor testing. Volume 2 describes the characteristics of high-efficiency induction motors, with emphasis on the techniques used to obtain high efficiency. This two-volume report is written in nontechnical language and is intended for readers who require background from applications, marketing, motor planning, or managerial perspective

  14. The electric power engineering handbook power system stability and control

    CERN Document Server

    Grisby, Leonard L

    2012-01-01

    With contributions from worldwide leaders in the field, Power System Stability and Control, Third Edition (part of the five-volume set, The Electric Power Engineering Handbook) updates coverage of recent developments and rapid technological growth in essential aspects of power systems. Edited by L.L. Grigsby, a respected and accomplished authority in power engineering, and section editors Miroslav Begovic, Prabha Kundur, and Bruce Wollenberg, this reference presents substantially new and revised content. Topics covered include: * Power System Protection * Power System Dynamics and Stability *

  15. Proceedings: Power Plant Electric Auxiliary Systems Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The EPRI Power Plant Electric Auxiliary Systems Workshop, held April 24--25, 1991, in Princeton, New Jersey, brought together utilities, architect/engineers, and equipment suppliers to discuss common problems with power plant auxiliary systems. Workshop participants presented papers on monitoring, identifying, and solving problems with auxiliary systems. Panel discussions focused on improving systems and existing and future plants. The solutions presented to common auxiliary system problems focused on practical ideas that can enhance plant availability, reduce maintenance costs, and simplify the engineering process. The 13 papers in these proceedings include: Tutorials on auxiliary electrical systems and motors; descriptions of evaluations, software development, and new technologies used recently by electric utilities; an analysis of historical performance losses caused by power plant auxiliary systems; innovative design concepts for improving auxiliary system performance in future power plants

  16. Steam Generator control in Nuclear Power Plants by water mass inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Wei [North Carolina State University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Box 7909, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States); Doster, J. Michael [North Carolina State University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Box 7909, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States)], E-mail: doster@eos.ncsu.edu; Mayo, Charles W. [North Carolina State University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Box 7909, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Control of water mass inventory in Nuclear Steam Generators is important to insure sufficient cooling of the nuclear reactor. Since downcomer water level is measurable, and a reasonable indication of water mass inventory near steady-state, conventional feedwater control system designs attempt to maintain downcomer water level within a relatively narrow operational band. However, downcomer water level can temporarily react in a reverse manner to water mass inventory changes, commonly known as shrink and swell effects. These complications are accentuated during start-up or low power conditions. As a result, automatic or manual control of water level is difficult and can lead to high reactor trip rates. This paper introduces a new feedwater control strategy for Nuclear Steam Generators. The new method directly controls water mass inventory instead of downcomer water level, eliminating complications from shrink and swell all together. However, water mass inventory is not measurable, requiring an online estimator to provide a mass inventory signal based on measurable plant parameters. Since the thermal-hydraulic response of a Steam Generator is highly nonlinear, a linear state-observer is not feasible. In addition, difficulties in obtaining flow regime and density information within the Steam Generator make an estimator based on analytical methods impractical at this time. This work employs a water mass estimator based on feedforward neural networks. By properly choosing and training the neural network, mass signals can be obtained which are suitable for stable, closed-loop water mass inventory control. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that water mass control can significantly improve the operation and safety of Nuclear Steam Generators.

  17. Steam Generator control in Nuclear Power Plants by water mass inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Wei; Doster, J. Michael; Mayo, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    Control of water mass inventory in Nuclear Steam Generators is important to insure sufficient cooling of the nuclear reactor. Since downcomer water level is measurable, and a reasonable indication of water mass inventory near steady-state, conventional feedwater control system designs attempt to maintain downcomer water level within a relatively narrow operational band. However, downcomer water level can temporarily react in a reverse manner to water mass inventory changes, commonly known as shrink and swell effects. These complications are accentuated during start-up or low power conditions. As a result, automatic or manual control of water level is difficult and can lead to high reactor trip rates. This paper introduces a new feedwater control strategy for Nuclear Steam Generators. The new method directly controls water mass inventory instead of downcomer water level, eliminating complications from shrink and swell all together. However, water mass inventory is not measurable, requiring an online estimator to provide a mass inventory signal based on measurable plant parameters. Since the thermal-hydraulic response of a Steam Generator is highly nonlinear, a linear state-observer is not feasible. In addition, difficulties in obtaining flow regime and density information within the Steam Generator make an estimator based on analytical methods impractical at this time. This work employs a water mass estimator based on feedforward neural networks. By properly choosing and training the neural network, mass signals can be obtained which are suitable for stable, closed-loop water mass inventory control. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that water mass control can significantly improve the operation and safety of Nuclear Steam Generators

  18. Advanced steam power plant concepts with optimized life-cycle costs: A new approach for maximum customer benefit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiter, C.

    1998-07-01

    The use of coal power generation applications is currently enjoying a renaissance. New highly efficient and cost-effective plant concepts together with environmental protection technologies are the main factors in this development. In addition, coal is available on the world market at attractive prices and in many places it is more readily available than gas. At the economical leading edge, standard power plant concepts have been developed to meet the requirements of emerging power markets. These concepts incorporate the high technological state-of-the-art and are designed to achieve lowest life-cycle costs. Low capital cost, fuel costs and operating costs in combination with shortest lead times are the main assets that make these plants attractive especially for IPPs and Developers. Other aspects of these comprehensive concepts include turnkey construction and the willingness to participate in BOO/BOT projects. One of the various examples of such a concept, the 2 x 610-MW Paiton Private Power Project Phase II in Indonesia, is described in this paper. At the technological leading edge, Siemens has always made a major contribution and was pacemaker for new developments in steam power plant technology. Modern coal-fired steam power plants use computer-optimized process and plant design as well as advanced materials, and achieve efficiencies exceeding 45%. One excellent example of this high technology is the world's largest lignite-fired steam power plant Schwarze Pumpe in Germany, which is equipped with two 800 MW Siemens steam turbine generators with supercritical steam parameters. The world's largest 50-Hz single-shaft turbine generator with supercritical steam parameters rated at 1025 MW for the Niederaussem lignite-fired steam power plant in Germany is a further example of the sophisticated Siemens steam turbine technology and sets a new benchmark in this field.

  19. Steam drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, R.

    1978-01-01

    Steam drums are described that are suitable for use in steam generating heavy water reactor power stations. They receive a steam/water mixture via riser headers from the reactor core and provide by means of separators and driers steam with typically 0.5% moisture content for driving turbines. The drums are constructed as prestressed concrete pressure vessels in which the failure of one or a few of the prestressing elements does not significantly affect the overall strength of the structure. The concrete also acts as a radiation shield. (U.K.)

  20. The use of engineering features and schematic solutions of propulsion nuclear steam supply systems for floating nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achkasov, A.N.; Grechko, G.I.; Pepa, V.N.; Shishkin, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years many countries and the international community represented by the IAEA have shown a notable interest in designing small and medium size nuclear power plants intended for electricity and heat generation for remote areas. These power plants can be also used for desalination purposes. As these nuclear plants are planned for use in areas without a well-developed power grid, the design shall account for their transportation to the site in complete preparedness for operation. Since the late 80s, the Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE) has carried out active efforts in designing reactor facilities for floating nuclear power plants. This work relies on the long-term experience of RDIPE engineers in designing the propulsion NSSS. Advantages can be gained from the specific engineering solutions that are already applied in the design of propulsion Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) or from development of new designs based on the proven technologies. Successful implementation of the experience has been made easier owing to rather similar design requirements prescribed to ship-mounted NSSS and floating NPP. The common design targets are, in particular, minimization of mass and dimensions, resistance to such external impacts as rolling, heel and trim, operability in case of running aground or collision with other ships, etc. (author)

  1. Selling steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, M.J.; Goodwin, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses the importance of steam sales contract is in financing cogeneration facilities. The topics of the article include the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act provisions and how they affect the marketing of steam from qualifying facilities, the independent power producers market shift, and qualifying facility's benefits

  2. Hydro-electric power - potential and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on efficiency improvement in electric power production by matching the different characteristics for thermal power and hydropower. The paper introduces secondary hydropower defined as available power stored as hydro-energy in water reservoirs as a key element to achieve this goal. The iron-locked connection between GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and power consumption is discussed. As it also is a general understanding that GDP has to increase to accommodate the world's growing population, the unavoidable conclusion is that more power is to be produced. 3 figs

  3. Hydro-electric power - potential and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amundsen, T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper focuses on efficiency improvement in electric power production by matching the different characteristics for thermal power and hydropower. The paper introduces secondary hydropower defined as available power stored as hydro-energy in water reservoirs as a key element to achieve this goal. The iron-locked connection between GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and power consumption is discussed. As it also is a general understanding that GDP has to increase to accommodate the world`s growing population, the unavoidable conclusion is that more power is to be produced. 3 figs.

  4. Nuclear power in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Economic deregulation in the power sector raises new challenges for the prospects of nuclear power. A key issue is to assess whether nuclear power can be competitive in a de-regulated electricity market. Other important considerations include safety, nuclear liability and insurance, the nuclear power infrastructure, and health and environmental protection. This study, conducted by a group of experts from twelve OECD Member countries and three international organisations, provides a review and analysis of these issues, as related to both existing and future nuclear power plants. It will be of particular interest to energy analysts, as well as to policy makers in the nuclear and government sectors. (author)

  5. Commissioning and maintenance experience on mechanical equipment in steam generators of captive power plant at HWP, Manuguru (Paper No. 5.3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, R.; Sinha, Ashok; Mohan Rao, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Heavy Water Project (Manuguru) is having a captive power plant to cater to the demands of steam and power for the main plant. During the commissioning and initial run of the steam generators and their auxiliaries, teething/initial problems were encountered in nearly all the equipment of the steam generators. This paper briefly describes some of the major problems faced during the commissioning of the steam generators. (author). 4 figs

  6. Methods of formation of efficiency indexes of electric power sources integration in regional electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marder, L.I.; Myzin, A.I.

    1993-01-01

    A methodic approach to the grounding of the integration process efficiency within the Unified electric power system is given together with the selection of a rational areal structure and concentration of power-generating source capacities. Formation of an economic functional according to alternative scenavies including the cost components taking account of the regional interests is considered. A method for estimation and distribution of the effect from electric power production integration in the power systems under new economic conditions is proposed

  7. Modelling and simulation of the steam line, the high and low pressure turbines and the pressure regulator for the SUN-RAH nucleo electric university simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez R, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the following article the development of a simulator that allows to represent the dynamics of the following systems: steam line, nozzle, vapor separator, reheater, high pressure turbine, low pressure turbine, power generator and the pressure regulator of a nucleo electric power station. We start from the supposition that this plant will be modeled from a nuclear reactor type BWR (Boiling Water Reactor), using models of reduced order that represent the more important dynamic variables of the physical processes that happen along the steam line until the one generator. To be able to carry out the simulation in real time the Mat lab mathematical modeling software is used, as well as the specific simulation tool Simulink. It is necessary to point out that the platform on which the one is executed the simulator is the Windows operating system, to allow the intuitive use that only this operating system offers. The above-mentioned obeys to that the objective of the simulator it is to help the user to understand some of the dynamic phenomena that are present in the systems of a nuclear plant, and to provide a tool of analysis and measurement of variables to predict the desirable behavior of the same ones. The model of a pressure controller for the steam lines, the high pressure turbine and the low pressure turbine is also presented that it will be the one in charge of regulating the demand of the system according to the characteristics and critic restrictions of safety and control, assigned according to those wanted parameters of performance of this system inside the nucleo electric plant. This simulator is totally well defined and it is part of the University student nucleo electric simulator with Boiling Water Reactor (SUN-RAH), an integral project and of greater capacity. (Author)

  8. Studying the effects of combining internal and external heat recovery on techno-economic performances of gas–steam power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carapellucci, Roberto; Giordano, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of gas-cycle regeneration on steam–gas power plants are investigated. • Power plant performances are evaluated varying gas turbine operative parameters. • The power plant operational flexibility is assessed through an off-design analysis. • Gas-cycle regeneration improves energy and economic performance parameters. • Power increase due to regenerator by-pass depends on steam section design. - Abstract: Thermodynamic regeneration is regarded as a conventional technique to enhance the efficiency of gas turbines, by means of an internal recovery of waste heat from exhaust gases. In combined cycle power plants (CCGTs), only external heat recovery is usually applied, in order to achieve the highest steam cycle power. Combining internal and external recovery, while decreasing the power plant rated capacity, has the potential to boost the efficiency of CCGTs. This paper aims to examine the effects of thermodynamic regeneration on steam–gas power plants from the energy and economic point of view. First, a dual pressure combined cycle based on a regenerative gas turbine is designed using GateCycle software and effects on energy and economic performances are evaluated varying gas turbine operating parameters. Then, an off-design simulation of different CCGT configurations is carried out, in order to evaluate the power increase achieved by-passing the regenerator and its effects on efficiency and cost of electricity. The study has shown that the improvement of energy and economic performances of regenerative CCGTs is more and more pronounced with the increase of turbine inlet temperature (TIT). Additionally, regeneration enhances the power plant operational flexibility, allowing to obtain a 30% power increase with respect to the design value, if the regenerator is fully by-passed and the bottoming steam cycle is designed to manage the increased flue gas temperature.

  9. The Japanese and Italian power station markets: prospects for steam coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S D

    1989-02-01

    The world market for steam coal seems likely to fall far short of the expectations of 1980. Two markets which appeared to offer considerable scope for expansion, the Italian and Japanese power station markets, are examined and the factors behind their disappointing performance analysed. The reasons behind the lack of investments in new power stations differ. Difficulties in obtaining sites and financial problems are most important in Italy, whilst environmental restrictions and the attractions of competing technologies dominate in Japan. It is concluded that these factors will not weaken significantly in the next decade and coal's prospects in these two markets are correspondingly restricted. 20 refs., 20 tabs.

  10. Powering China: Reforming the electric power industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Chong Xu

    2002-01-01

    The book reports on the rapidly changing face of the electricity business in China. Reforms by the central government and the need for more and more electric power have pushed the electricity sector from a central planned economy to a markets-based system. The international ramifications of China's reform programme are discussed. The author describes electricity industry reform in other countries including the USA and UK. The author points out that in China after 1998 there was a move to recentralise control but by then it was too late to reverse the reforms. The problems of tariff policies, pricing, and sources of new investments, including from foreign countries, are discussed. The final section of the book deals with problems arising from the need for massive retrenchment of power-section workers, cross-subsidies, and triangular debts. The book is said to provide a sound description of the political economy of power reform in China without getting bogged down in economic modelling

  11. Monitoring and analyzing features of electrical power quality system performance

    OpenAIRE

    Genci Sharko; Nike Shanku

    2010-01-01

    Power quality is a set of boundaries that allows electrical systems to function in their intended manner without significant loss of performance or life. The term is used to describe electric power that drives an electrical load and the load's ability to function properly with that electric power. Without the proper quality of the power, an electrical device may malfunction, fail prematurely or not operate at all. There are many reasons why the electric power can be of poor quality and many m...

  12. A centennial book of Korea electric power corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This book gives description of KEPC with power and life such as lighting, electric power, electric heat and communication, introduction of electric civilization, establishment and manage of Hansung electric company on opening of electric train, regulation of the train, opening of lamp business, construction of Yongsan generator, the Japanese invasion with trouble of supplying electricity, control over power business and development of water power generation, division of Korea and Korea war on damage out of Korea war and rebuild, development and growth on establishment of Korea electric power, establishment of Korea electric power by private and water power development project, stability and development, and challenge for future.

  13. Duke Power Company - McGuire Nuclear Station: steam-generator hideout return and cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    McGuire Nuclear Station steam generator hideout return and cleanup are discussed. Hideout return data are presented for Unit 1 shutdowns that occurred on November 23, 1984, and April 19, 1985, and a Unit 2 shutdown on January 25, 1985. The data are presented as the concentrations of various species as a function of time after power reduction and primary water temperature. The steam generator blowdown as a function of time after power reduction is also presented. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, aluminum, iron, and copper cations, and chloride, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and nitrite anions were monitored during the each shutdown. Silica was also measured in the two 1985 shutdowns. The return of sulfate, phosphate, calcium and magnesium showed retrograde solubility. Silica concentrations showed an increase as the temperature decreased to about 450 to 500 0 F and then they decreased as the temperature decreased. McGuire has a holf point at 300 at 350 0 F to clean up the steam generator secondary water. The return of sulfates should occur within 4 to 6 hours. The blowdown is maximized to reduce the secondary water impurity concentrations. Cleanup continues until the sulfate concentration is reduced to below 100 ppb. At that point cooldown is continued

  14. Improvement of chemical control in the water-steam cycle of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajakovic-Ognjanovic, Vladana N.; Zivojinovic, Dragana Z.; Grgur, Branimir N.; Rajakovic, Ljubinka V.

    2011-01-01

    A more effective chemical control in the water-steam cycle (WSC) of thermal power plants (TPP) is proposed in this paper. Minimization of corrosion effects by the production of ultra pure water and its strict control is the basis of all the investigated processes. The research involved the analysis of water samples in the WSC through key water quality parameters and by the most convenient analytical tools. The necessity for the stricter chemical control is demonstrated through a concrete example of the TPP Nikola Tesla, Serbia. After a thorough analysis of the chemical control system of the WSC, diagnostic and control parameters were chosen for continuous systematic measurements. Sodium and chloride ions were recognized as the ions which indicate the corrosion potential of the water and give insight into the proper production and maintenance of water within the WSC. Chemical transformations of crucial corrosion elements, iron and silica, were considered and related to their quantitative values. - Research highlights: → The more effective chemical control in the water-steam cycle of thermal power plant Nikola Tesla, Serbia. → In chemical control the diagnostic and control parameters were optimized and introduced for the systematic measurements in the water-steam cycle. → Sodium and chloride ions were recognized as ions which indicate corrosion potential of water and give insight to proper function of production and maintenance of water within water-team cycle. → Chemical transformations of crucial corrosion elements, iron and silica are considered and related with their quantitative values.

  15. Fourteenth electric power survey of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    Fourteenth Electric Power Supply Committee was set up by the Government of India in February 1989 to review the demand projections for electric power, in detail, keeping in view the Eight Plan proposals and to project the perspective demand for (electric) power upto the year 2009-10. Partial End-use method was adopted for forecasting the power demands over a short term period. For estimating the power requirements on a long-term basis, the trend in overall requirements in a state system formed the basis of projections. The long term forecast covering the period 1995-96 to 2009-10 was made by extrapolating the overall requirement of electricity for various states and Union Territories with 1994-95 as the base year. The data were collected from various State Electricity Boards, Public utilities, concerned departments of State Governments and various Ministries and Departments of the Government of India and were computerised. The data base was used to develop a number of scenarios and to make projections. (M.G.B.)

  16. 30 CFR 77.500 - Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric power circuits and electric equipment... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.500 Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization. Power circuits and electric equipment shall be deenergized before work is done on...

  17. Proceedings of the CNRA/CSNI workshop on steam generator tube integrity in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diercks, D.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The objective of the workshop was to provide a working forum for the exchange of information by contributing experts on current issues related to PWR steam generator tube integrity. One hundred persons from 15 countries attended the workshop, including 36 from regulatory and nuclear policy agencies, 28 from research and development laboratories, 18 from nuclear vendors and consulting firms, and 18 from electrical utilities. The workshop opened with a plenary session; the first part of the session covered international steam generator regulatory practices and issues, featuring speakers from regulatory bodies in Belgium, France, Japan, Spain, and the US. In Part 2 of the plenary session, comprehensive technical overviews on steam generator tubing degradation, inspection, and integrity were presented by authorities in these fields from the US, France, and Belgium. Parallel working sessions on the second and third days of the workshop then developed findings and recommendations in the areas of (1) tubing degradation, (2) tubing inspection, (3) tubing integrity, (4) preventative and corrective measures, and (5) operational aspects and risk analysis. On the final day of the workshop, the working-session facilitators presented summaries of their sessions to the workshop attendees. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Proceedings of the CNRA/CSNI workshop on steam generator tube integrity in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    The objective of the workshop was to provide a working forum for the exchange of information by contributing experts on current issues related to PWR steam generator tube integrity. One hundred persons from 15 countries attended the workshop, including 36 from regulatory and nuclear policy agencies, 28 from research and development laboratories, 18 from nuclear vendors and consulting firms, and 18 from electrical utilities. The workshop opened with a plenary session; the first part of the session covered international steam generator regulatory practices and issues, featuring speakers from regulatory bodies in Belgium, France, Japan, Spain, and the US. In Part 2 of the plenary session, comprehensive technical overviews on steam generator tubing degradation, inspection, and integrity were presented by authorities in these fields from the US, France, and Belgium. Parallel working sessions on the second and third days of the workshop then developed findings and recommendations in the areas of (1) tubing degradation, (2) tubing inspection, (3) tubing integrity, (4) preventative and corrective measures, and (5) operational aspects and risk analysis. On the final day of the workshop, the working-session facilitators presented summaries of their sessions to the workshop attendees. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  19. Stress corrosion cracking of steam generator tube and primary pipe in PWR type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weiguo; Gao Fengqin; Zhou Hongyi

    1993-01-01

    The behavior of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is studied by slow strain rate test (SSRT), constant load test (CLT) and low frequency cyclic loading test (LFCLT). The purpose of these tests is to get the test data for evaluating the integrity of pressurized boundary of pipes in Qinshan and Guangdong nuclear power plants. Tested materials are 316 nuclear grade stainless steel (SS) for primary pipes in welded heat affected zone (WHAZ) and steam generator tubes, such as Incoloy-800, Inconel-600, Inconel-690 and 321 SS which are used for steam generator in PWR. The effects of material metallurgy, shot-peening treatment, tensile load, strain rate, cyclic load and water chemistry on the behavior of SCC are investigated

  20. Computer code to simulate transients in a steam generator of PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.M. da.

    1979-01-01

    A digital computer code KIBE was developed to simulate the transient behavior of a Steam Generator used in Pressurized Water Reactor Power PLants. The equations of Conservation of mass, energy and momentum were numerically integrated by an implicit method progressively in the several axial sections into which the Steam Generator was divided. Forced convection heat transfer was assumed on the primary side, while on the secondary side all the different modes of heat transfer were permitted and deternined from the various correlations. The stability of the stationary state was verified by its reproducibility during the integration of the conservation equation without any pertubation. Transient behavior resulting from pertubations in the flow and the internal energy (temperature) at the inlet of the primary side were simulated. The results obtained exhibited satisfactory behaviour. (author) [pt