WorldWideScience

Sample records for steady-state reaction conditions

  1. Chlorine decay under steady and unsteady-state hydraulic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoianov, Ivan; Aisopou, Angeliki

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation framework for the scale-adaptive hydraulic and chlorine decay modelling under steady and unsteady-state flows. Bulk flow and pipe wall reaction coefficients are replaced with steady and unsteady-state reaction coefficients. An unsteady decay coefficient is defined...... which depends upon the absolute value of shear stress and the rate of change of shear stress for quasi-unsteady and unsteady-state flows. A preliminary experimental and analytical investigation was carried out in a water transmission main. The results were used to model monochloramine decay...... and these demonstrate that the dynamic hydraulic conditions have a significant impact on water quality deterioration and the rapid loss of disinfectant residual. © 2013 The Authors....

  2. Identification of alterations in the Jacobian of biochemical reaction networks from steady state covariance data at two conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kügler, Philipp; Yang, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Model building of biochemical reaction networks typically involves experiments in which changes in the behavior due to natural or experimental perturbations are observed. Computational models of reaction networks are also used in a systems biology approach to study how transitions from a healthy to a diseased state result from changes in genetic or environmental conditions. In this paper we consider the nonlinear inverse problem of inferring information about the Jacobian of a Langevin type network model from covariance data of steady state concentrations associated to two different experimental conditions. Under idealized assumptions on the Langevin fluctuation matrices we prove that relative alterations in the network Jacobian can be uniquely identified when comparing the two data sets. Based on this result and the premise that alteration is locally confined to separable parts due to network modularity we suggest a computational approach using hybrid stochastic-deterministic optimization for the detection of perturbations in the network Jacobian using the sparsity promoting effect of [Formula: see text]-penalization. Our approach is illustrated by means of published metabolomic and signaling reaction networks.

  3. Nonequilibrium steady state of biochemical cycle kinetics under non-isothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Ge, Hao

    2018-04-01

    The nonequilibrium steady state of isothermal biochemical cycle kinetics has been extensively studied, but that under non-isothermal conditions has been much less extensively investigated. When the heat exchange between subsystems is slow, the isothermal assumption of the whole system breaks down, as is true for many types of living organisms. Here, starting with a four-state model of molecular transporter across the cell membrane, we generalize the nonequilibrium steady-state theory of isothermal biochemical cycle kinetics to the circumstances with non-uniform temperatures of subsystems in terms of general master equation models. We obtain a new thermodynamic relationship between the chemical reaction rates and thermodynamic potentials in non-isothermal circumstances, based on the overdamped dynamics along the continuous reaction coordinate. We show that the entropy production can vary up to 3% in real cells, even when the temperature difference across the cell membrane is only approximately 1 K. We then decompose the total thermodynamic driving force into its thermal and chemical components and predict that the net flux of molecules transported by the molecular transporter can potentially go against the temperature gradient in the absence of a chemical driving force. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the simple application of the isothermal transition-state rate formula for each chemical reaction in terms of only the reactant’ temperature is not thermodynamically consistent. Therefore, we mathematically derive several revised reaction rate formulas that are not only consistent with the new thermodynamic relationship but also approximate the exact reaction rate better than Kramers’ rate formula under isothermal conditions.

  4. Computer simulation of the steam--graphite reaction under isothermal and steady-state conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Stem, S.C.

    1975-05-01

    A mathematical model was formulated to describe the isothermal, steady-state diffusion and reaction of steam in a graphite matrix. A generalized Langmuir-Hinshelwood equation is used to represent the steam-graphite reaction rate. The model also includes diffusion in the gas phase adjacent to the graphite matrix. A computer program, written to numerically integrate the resulting differential equations, is described. The coupled nonlinear differential equations in the graphite phase are solved using the IBM Continuous System Modeling Program. Classical finite difference techniques are used for the gas-phase calculations. An iterative procedure is required to couple the two sets of calculations. Several sample problems are presented to demonstrate the utility of the model. (U.S.)

  5. Steady-state isotopic transient kinetic analysis investigation of CO-O2 and CO-NO reactions over a commercial automotive catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oukaci, R.; Blackmond, D.G.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr.; Gallaher, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, steady-state isotopic transient kinetic analysis (SSITKA) is used to study two model reactions, CO oxidation and CO-NO reactions, on a typical formulation of a three-way auto-catalyst. Under steady-state conditions, abrupt switches in the isotopic composition of CO ( 12 C 16 O/ 13 C 18 O) were carried out to produce isotopic transients in both labeled reactants and products. Along with the determination of the average surface lifetimes and concentrations of reaction intermediates, an analysis of the transient responses along the carbon reaction pathway indicated that the distribution of active sites for the formation of CO 2 was bimodal for both reactions. Furthermore, relatively few surface sites contributed to the overall reaction rate

  6. Quasi-steady-state voltammetry of rapid electron transfer reactions at the macroscopic substrate of the scanning electrochemical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nioradze, Nikoloz; Kim, Jiyeon; Amemiya, Shigeru

    2011-02-01

    We report on a novel theory and experiment for scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to enable quasi-steady-state voltammetry of rapid electron transfer (ET) reactions at macroscopic substrates. With this powerful approach, the substrate potential is cycled widely across the formal potential of a redox couple while the reactant or product of a substrate reaction is amperometrically detected at the tip in the feedback or substrate generation/tip collection mode, respectively. The plot of tip current versus substrate potential features the retraceable sigmoidal shape of a quasi-steady-state voltammogram although a transient voltammogram is obtained at the macroscopic substrate. Finite element simulations reveal that a short tip-substrate distance and a reversible substrate reaction (except under the tip) are required for quasi-steady-state voltammetry. Advantageously, a pair of quasi-steady-state voltammograms is obtained by employing both operation modes to reliably determine all transport, thermodynamic, and kinetic parameters as confirmed experimentally for rapid ET reactions of ferrocenemethanol and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane at a Pt substrate with ∼0.5 μm-radius Pt tips positioned at 90 nm-1 μm distances. Standard ET rate constants of ∼7 cm/s were obtained for the latter mediator as the largest determined for a substrate reaction by SECM. Various potential applications of quasi-steady-state voltammetry are also proposed.

  7. Realizing steady-state tokamak operation for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, T. C.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous operation of a tokamak for fusion energy has clear engineering advantages but requires conditions beyond those sufficient for a burning plasma. The fusion reactions and external sources must support both the pressure and the current equilibrium without inductive current drive, leading to demands on stability, confinement, current drive, and plasma-wall interactions that exceed those for pulsed tokamaks. These conditions have been met individually, and significant progress has been made in the past decade to realize scenarios where the required conditions are obtained simultaneously. Tokamaks are operated routinely without disruptions near pressure limits, as needed for steady-state operation. Fully noninductive sustainment with more than half of the current from intrinsic currents has been obtained for a resistive time with normalized pressure and confinement approaching those needed for steady-state conditions. One remaining challenge is handling the heat and particle fluxes expected in a steady-state tokamak without compromising the core plasma performance.

  8. Dust remobilization in fusion plasmas under steady state conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S.; de Angeli, M.; De Temmerman, G.; Ripamonti, D.; Riva, G.; I. Bykov,; Shalpegin, A.; Vignitchouk, L.; Brochard, F.; Bystrov, K.; Bardin, S.; Litnovsky, A.

    2016-01-01

    The first combined experimental and theoretical studies of dust remobilization by plasma forces are reported. The main theoretical aspects of remobilization in fusion devices under steady state conditions are analyzed. In particular, the dominant role of adhesive forces is highlighted and generic

  9. Exchange reaction between hydrogen and deuterium. I. Importance of surface reactions in the steady-state mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marteau, C; Gaillard-Cusin, F; James, H [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France). Centre de Recherches sur la Chimie de Combustion et des Hautes Temperatures

    1978-05-01

    Investigation of heterogeneous initiation process of gas phase linear chain reactions is carried out through the study of H/sub 2/-D/sub 2/ exchange reaction. Experimental data under study concern mainly the stationary rate of HD formation and the prestationary proceeding. Steady-state method accounts for the first one of these data; it allows to clearly compare the wall process part to the part played by the homogeneous chain reaction towards HD formation. Activation energy of exchange elementary step between chemisorbed hydrogen (on silica) and gaseous deuterium has been evaluated: Esub(e1)=52+-1 Kcal/mole.

  10. The total quasi-steady-state approximation for complex enzyme reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Gram; Bersani, A. M.; Bersani, E.

    2008-01-01

    ) approximation (or standard quasi-steady-state approximation (sQSSA)), which is valid when the enzyme concentration is sufficiently small. This condition is usually fulfilled for in vitro experiments, but often breaks down in vivo. The total QSSA (tQSSA), which is valid for a broader range of parameters covering...

  11. The steady-state tokamak program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politzer, D.A.; Nevins, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a steady-state tokamak experiment (STE) needed to develop the technology and physics data base required for construction of a steady-state fusion power demonstration reactor in the early 21st century. The STE will provide an integrated facility for the development and demonstration of steady-state and particle handling, low-activation high-heat-flux components and materials, efficient current drive, and continuous plasma performance in steady-state, with reactor-like plasma conditions under severe conditions of heat and particle bombardment of the wall. The STE facility will also be used to develop operation and control scenarios for ITER

  12. An effective rate equation approach to reaction kinetics in small volumes: theory and application to biochemical reactions in nonequilibrium steady-state conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima, R

    2010-07-21

    Chemical master equations provide a mathematical description of stochastic reaction kinetics in well-mixed conditions. They are a valid description over length scales that are larger than the reactive mean free path and thus describe kinetics in compartments of mesoscopic and macroscopic dimensions. The trajectories of the stochastic chemical processes described by the master equation can be ensemble-averaged to obtain the average number density of chemical species, i.e., the true concentration, at any spatial scale of interest. For macroscopic volumes, the true concentration is very well approximated by the solution of the corresponding deterministic and macroscopic rate equations, i.e., the macroscopic concentration. However, this equivalence breaks down for mesoscopic volumes. These deviations are particularly significant for open systems and cannot be calculated via the Fokker-Planck or linear-noise approximations of the master equation. We utilize the system-size expansion including terms of the order of Omega(-1/2) to derive a set of differential equations whose solution approximates the true concentration as given by the master equation. These equations are valid in any open or closed chemical reaction network and at both the mesoscopic and macroscopic scales. In the limit of large volumes, the effective mesoscopic rate equations become precisely equal to the conventional macroscopic rate equations. We compare the three formalisms of effective mesoscopic rate equations, conventional rate equations, and chemical master equations by applying them to several biochemical reaction systems (homodimeric and heterodimeric protein-protein interactions, series of sequential enzyme reactions, and positive feedback loops) in nonequilibrium steady-state conditions. In all cases, we find that the effective mesoscopic rate equations can predict very well the true concentration of a chemical species. This provides a useful method by which one can quickly determine the

  13. Modeling networks of coupled enzymatic reactions using the total quasi-steady state approximation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ciliberto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In metabolic networks, metabolites are usually present in great excess over the enzymes that catalyze their interconversion, and describing the rates of these reactions by using the Michaelis-Menten rate law is perfectly valid. This rate law assumes that the concentration of enzyme-substrate complex (C is much less than the free substrate concentration (S0. However, in protein interaction networks, the enzymes and substrates are all proteins in comparable concentrations, and neglecting C with respect to S0 is not valid. Borghans, DeBoer, and Segel developed an alternative description of enzyme kinetics that is valid when C is comparable to S0. We extend this description, which Borghans et al. call the total quasi-steady state approximation, to networks of coupled enzymatic reactions. First, we analyze an isolated Goldbeter-Koshland switch when enzymes and substrates are present in comparable concentrations. Then, on the basis of a real example of the molecular network governing cell cycle progression, we couple two and three Goldbeter-Koshland switches together to study the effects of feedback in networks of protein kinases and phosphatases. Our analysis shows that the total quasi-steady state approximation provides an excellent kinetic formalism for protein interaction networks, because (1 it unveils the modular structure of the enzymatic reactions, (2 it suggests a simple algorithm to formulate correct kinetic equations, and (3 contrary to classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics, it succeeds in faithfully reproducing the dynamics of the network both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  14. A Data Filter for Identifying Steady-State Operating Points in Engine Flight Data for Condition Monitoring Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that automatically identifies and extracts steady-state engine operating points from engine flight data. It calculates the mean and standard deviation of select parameters contained in the incoming flight data stream. If the standard deviation of the data falls below defined constraints, the engine is assumed to be at a steady-state operating point, and the mean measurement data at that point are archived for subsequent condition monitoring purposes. The fundamental design of the steady-state data filter is completely generic and applicable for any dynamic system. Additional domain-specific logic constraints are applied to reduce data outliers and variance within the collected steady-state data. The filter is designed for on-line real-time processing of streaming data as opposed to post-processing of the data in batch mode. Results of applying the steady-state data filter to recorded helicopter engine flight data are shown, demonstrating its utility for engine condition monitoring applications.

  15. Bifurcation of positive solutions to scalar reaction-diffusion equations with nonlinear boundary condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Shi, Junping

    2018-01-01

    The bifurcation of non-trivial steady state solutions of a scalar reaction-diffusion equation with nonlinear boundary conditions is considered using several new abstract bifurcation theorems. The existence and stability of positive steady state solutions are proved using a unified approach. The general results are applied to a Laplace equation with nonlinear boundary condition and bistable nonlinearity, and an elliptic equation with superlinear nonlinearity and sublinear boundary conditions.

  16. Steady state statistical correlations predict bistability in reaction motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Suchana; Barik, Debashis

    2017-03-28

    Various cellular decision making processes are regulated by bistable switches that take graded input signals and convert them to binary all-or-none responses. Traditionally, a bistable switch generated by a positive feedback loop is characterized either by a hysteretic signal response curve with two distinct signaling thresholds or by characterizing the bimodality of the response distribution in the bistable region. To identify the intrinsic bistability of a feedback regulated network, here we propose that bistability can be determined by correlating higher order moments and cumulants (≥2) of the joint steady state distributions of two components connected in a positive feedback loop. We performed stochastic simulations of four feedback regulated models with intrinsic bistability and we show that for a bistable switch with variation of the signal dose, the steady state variance vs. covariance adopts a signatory cusp-shaped curve. Further, we find that the (n + 1)th order cross-cumulant vs. nth order cross-cumulant adopts a closed loop structure for at least n = 3. We also propose that our method is capable of identifying systems without intrinsic bistability even though the system may show bimodality in the marginal response distribution. The proposed method can be used to analyze single cell protein data measured at steady state from experiments such as flow cytometry.

  17. Pseudo Steady-State Free Precession for MR-Fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assländer, Jakob; Glaser, Steffen J; Hennig, Jürgen

    2017-03-01

    This article discusses the signal behavior in the case the flip angle in steady-state free precession sequences is continuously varied as suggested for MR-fingerprinting sequences. Flip angle variations prevent the establishment of a steady state and introduce instabilities regarding to magnetic field inhomogeneities and intravoxel dephasing. We show how a pseudo steady state can be achieved, which restores the spin echo nature of steady-state free precession. Based on geometrical considerations, relationships between the flip angle, repetition and echo time are derived that suffice to the establishment of a pseudo steady state. The theory is tested with Bloch simulations as well as phantom and in vivo experiments. A typical steady-state free precession passband can be restored with the proposed conditions. The stability of the pseudo steady state is demonstrated by comparing the evolution of the signal of a single isochromat to one resulting from a spin ensemble. As confirmed by experiments, magnetization in a pseudo steady state can be described with fewer degrees of freedom compared to the original fingerprinting and the pseudo steady state results in more reliable parameter maps. The proposed conditions restore the spin-echo-like signal behavior typical for steady-state free precession in fingerprinting sequences, making this approach more robust to B 0 variations. Magn Reson Med 77:1151-1161, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Some Considerations on the Fundamentals of Chemical Kinetics: Steady State, Quasi-Equilibrium, and Transition State Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Benito, Joaquin F.

    2017-01-01

    The elementary reaction sequence A ? I ? Products is the simplest mechanism for which the steady-state and quasi-equilibrium kinetic approximations can be applied. The exact integrated solutions for this chemical system allow inferring the conditions that must fulfill the rate constants for the different approximations to hold. A graphical…

  19. Influence of operating conditions upon the dynamic steady-state performance of a switched reluctance motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiz, J.; Shafagh, E.

    1999-01-01

    In order to obtain more accurate predicted dynamic steady-state performance with shorter computation time, an available mathematical model is modified and presented. Using this modified model, performance of a typical switched reluctance motor under a wide range of variations of operating conditions is obtained and discussed. These include variations of speed, voltage, load and switching angle. The static test characteristics of the motor are carefully measured and measured flux-linkage data are then used to predict the steady-state performance

  20. New Tore Supra steady state operating scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Parlange, F.; van Houtte, D.; Wijnands, T.

    1995-01-01

    This document deals with plasma control in steady state conditions. A new plasma control systems enabling feedback control of global plasma equilibrium parameters has been developed. It also enables to operate plasma discharge in steady state regime. (TEC). 4 refs., 5 figs

  1. Contribution of exogenous substrates to acetyl coenzyme A: Measurement by 13C NMR under non-steady-state conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malloy, C.R.; Jeffrey, F.M.H.; Thompson, J.R.; Sherry, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    A method is presented for the rapid determination of substrate selection in a manner that is not restricted to conditions of metabolic and isotopic steady state. Competition between several substrates can be assessed directly and continuously in a single experiment, allowing the effect of interventions to be studied. It is shown that a single proton-decoupled 13 C NMR spectrum of glutamate provides a direct measure of the contribution of exogenous 13 C-labeled substrates to acetyl-CoA without measurement of oxygen consumption and that steady-state conditions need not apply. Two sets of experiments were performed: one in which a metabolic steady state but a non-steady-state 13 C distribution was achieved and another in which both metabolism and labeling were not at steady state. In the first group, isolated rat hearts were supplied with [1,2- 13 C]acetate, [3- 13 C]lactate, and unlabeled glucose. 13 C NMR spectra of extracts from hearts perfused under identical conditions for 5 or 30 min were compared. In spite of significant differences in the spectra, the measured contributions of acetate, lactate, and unlabeled sources to acetyl-CoA were the same. In the second set of experiments, the same group of labeled substrates was used in a regional ischemia model in isolated rabbit hearts to show regional differences in substrate utilization under both metabolic and isotopic non steady state. The time resolution of these measurements may not be limited by technical contraints but by the rate of carbon flux in the citric acid cycle. Although this technique is demonstrated for the heart, it is applicable to all tissues

  2. Noise-Induced Modulation of the Relaxation Kinetics around a Non-Equilibrium Steady State of Non-Linear Chemical Reaction Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Sbalzarini, Ivo F; González-Segredo, Nélido

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic effects from correlated noise non-trivially modulate the kinetics of non-linear chemical reaction networks. This is especially important in systems where reactions are confined to small volumes and reactants are delivered in bursts. We characterise how the two noise sources confinement and burst modulate the relaxation kinetics of a non-linear reaction network around a non-equilibrium steady state. We find that the lifetimes of species change with burst input and confinement. Confi...

  3. Pre-steady-state kinetics of Escherichia coli aspartate aminotransferase catalyzed reactions and thermodynamic aspects of its substrate specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramitsu, Seiki; Hiromi, Keitaro; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Morino, Yoshimasa; Kagamiyama, Hiroyuki

    1990-01-01

    The four half-transamination reactions [the pyridoxal form of Escherichia coli aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) with aspartate or glutamate and the pyridoxamine form of the enzyme with oxalacetate or 2-oxoglutarate] were followed in a stopped-flow spectrometer by monitoring the absorbance change at either 333 or 358 nm. The reaction progress curves in all cases gave fits to a monophasic exponential process. Kinetic analyses of these reactions showed that each half-reaction is composed of the following three processes: (1) the rapid binding of an amino acid substrate to the pyridoxal form of the enzyme; (2) the rapid binding of the corresponding keto acid to the pyridoxamine form of the enzyme; (3) the rate-determining interconversion between the two complexes. This mechanism was supported by the findings that the equilibrium constants for half- and overall-transamination reactions and the steady-state kinetic constants agreed well with the predicted values on the basis of the above mechanism using pre-steady-state kinetic parameters. The significant primary kinetic isotope effect observed in the reaction with deuterated amino acid suggests that the withdrawal of the α-proton of the substrates is rate determining. The pyridoxal form of E. coli AspAT reacted with a variety of amino acids as substrates. The substrate specificity of the E. coli enzyme was much broader than that of pig isoenzymes, reflecting some subtle but distinct difference in microenvironment accommodating the side chain of the substrate between e. coli and mammalian AspATs

  4. The analysis of the annular fuel performance in steady state condition by using AFPAC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaojun; Ji Songtao; Zhang Yingchao

    2012-01-01

    The fuel performance code AFPAC v1.0 is used to analyze annular fuel's behavior under steady state conditions, including neutronics, thermal hydraulic, rod deformation, fission gas release and rod internal pressure. The calculation results show that: 1) Annular fuel has a good steady irradiation performance at 150% power level as current LWRs' with burnup up to 50 GWd/t, and all parameters, such as temperature, rod internal pressure and rod deformation, are meet the rod design criteria for current fuel of PWRs: 2) Compared to the solid fuel under the same irradiation condition. annular fuel has lower temperature, smaller deformation, lower fission gas release and lower pressure at EOL. From the point of view of steady irradiation performance, the safety of reactors can significantly improved by u sing the annular fuel. (authors)

  5. Steady-State Creep of Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alibai Iskakbayev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental investigation of the steady-state creep process for fine-grained asphalt concrete at a temperature of 20 ± 2 °С and under stress from 0.055 to 0.311 MPa under direct tension and was found to occur at a constant rate. The experimental results also determined the start, the end point, and the duration of the steady-state creep process. The dependence of these factors, in addition to the steady-state creep rate and viscosity of the asphalt concrete on stress is satisfactorily described by a power function. Furthermore, it showed that stress has a great impact on the specific characteristics of asphalt concrete: stress variation by one order causes their variation by 3–4.5 orders. The described relations are formulated for the steady-state of asphalt concrete in a complex stressed condition. The dependence is determined between stress intensity and strain rate intensity.

  6. Tungsten dust remobilization under steady-state and transient plasma conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ratynskaia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Remobilization is one of the most prominent unresolved fusion dust-relevant issues, strongly related to the lifetime of dust in plasma-wetted regions, the survivability of dust on hot plasma-facing surfaces and the formation of dust accumulation sites. A systematic cross-machine study has been initiated to investigate the remobilization of tungsten micron-size dust from tungsten surfaces implementing a newly developed technique based on controlled pre-adhesion by gas dynamics methods. It has been utilized in a number of devices and has provided new insights on remobilization under steady-state and transient conditions. The experiments are interpreted with contact mechanics theory and heat conduction models.

  7. An equation oriented approach to steady state flowsheeting of methanol synthesis loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathikalajahi, J.; Baniadam, M.; Rahimpour, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    An equation-oriented approach was developed for steady state flowsheeting of a commercial methanol plant. The loop consists of fixed bed reactor, flash separator, preheater, coolers, and compressor. For steady sate flowsheeting of the plant mathematical model of reactor and other units are needed. Reactor used in loop is a Lurgi type and its configuration is rather complex. Previously reactor and flash separator are modeled as two important units of plant. The model is based on mass and energy balances in each equipment and utilizing some auxiliary equations such as rate of reaction and thermodynamics model for activity coefficients of liquid. In order to validate the mathematical model for the synthesis loop, some simulation data were performed using operating conditions and characteristics of the commercial plant. The good agreement between the steady state simulation results and the plant data shows the validity of the model

  8. Solution of generalized control system equations at steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilim, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Although a number of reactor systems codes feature generalized control system models, none of the models offer a steady-state solution finder. Indeed, if a transient is to begin from steady-state conditions, the user must provide estimates for the control system initial conditions and run a null transient until the plant converges to steady state. Several such transients may have to be run before values for control system demand signals are found that produce the desired plant steady state. The intent of this paper is (a) to present the control system equations assumed in the SASSYS reactor systems code and to identify the appropriate set of initial conditions, (b) to describe the generalized block diagram approach used to represent these equations, and (c) to describe a solution method and algorithm for computing these initial conditions from the block diagram. The algorithm has been installed in the SASSYS code for use with the code's generalized control system model. The solution finder greatly enhances the effectiveness of the code and the efficiency of the user in running it

  9. Reaction networks as systems for resource allocation: a variational principle for their non-equilibrium steady states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea De Martino

    Full Text Available Within a fully microscopic setting, we derive a variational principle for the non-equilibrium steady states of chemical reaction networks, valid for time-scales over which chemical potentials can be taken to be slowly varying: at stationarity the system minimizes a global function of the reaction fluxes with the form of a Hopfield Hamiltonian with hebbian couplings, that is explicitly seen to correspond to the rate of decay of entropy production over time. Guided by this analogy, we show that reaction networks can be formally re-cast as systems of interacting reactions that optimize the use of the available compounds by competing for substrates, akin to agents competing for a limited resource in an optimal allocation problem. As an illustration, we analyze the scenario that emerges in two simple cases: that of toy (random reaction networks and that of a metabolic network model of the human red blood cell.

  10. Communication: Limitations of the stochastic quasi-steady-state approximation in open biochemical reaction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philipp; Straube, Arthur V.; Grima, Ramon

    2011-11-01

    It is commonly believed that, whenever timescale separation holds, the predictions of reduced chemical master equations obtained using the stochastic quasi-steady-state approximation are in very good agreement with the predictions of the full master equations. We use the linear noise approximation to obtain a simple formula for the relative error between the predictions of the two master equations for the Michaelis-Menten reaction with substrate input. The reduced approach is predicted to overestimate the variance of the substrate concentration fluctuations by as much as 30%. The theoretical results are validated by stochastic simulations using experimental parameter values for enzymes involved in proteolysis, gluconeogenesis, and fermentation.

  11. Development of steady-state scenarios compatible with ITER-like wall conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litaudon, X [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC-Cadarache 13108, St Paul Durance (France); Arnoux, G [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC-Cadarache 13108, St Paul Durance (France); Beurskens, M [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)] (and others)

    2007-12-15

    A key issue for steady-state tokamak operation is to determine the edge conditions that are compatible both with good core confinement and with the power handling and plasma exhaust capabilities of the plasma facing components (PFCs) and divertor systems. A quantitative response to this open question will provide a robust scientific basis for reliable extrapolation of present regimes to an ITER compatible steady-state scenario. In this context, the JET programme addressing steady-state operation is focused on the development of non-inductive, high confinement plasmas with the constraints imposed by the PFCs. A new beryllium main chamber wall and tungsten divertor together with an upgrade of the heating/fuelling capability are currently in preparation at JET. Operation at higher power with this ITER-like wall will impose new constraints on non-inductive scenarios. Recent experiments have focused on the preparation for this new phase of JET operation. In this paper, progress in the development of advanced tokamak (AT) scenarios at JET is reviewed keeping this long-term objective in mind. The approach has consisted of addressing various critical issues separately during the 2006-2007 campaigns with a view to full scenario integration when the JET upgrades are complete. Regimes with internal transport barriers (ITBs) have been developed at q{sub 95} {approx} 5 and high triangularity, {delta} (relevant to the ITER steady-state demonstration) by applying more than 30 MW of additional heating power reaching {beta}{sub N} {approx} 2 at B{sub o} {approx} 3.1 T. Operating at higher {delta} has allowed the edge pedestal and core densities to be increased pushing the ion temperature closer to that of the electrons. Although not yet fully integrated into a performance enhancing ITB scenario, Neon seeding has been successfully explored to increase the radiated power fraction (up to 60%), providing significant reduction of target tile power fluxes (and hence temperatures) and

  12. Exact criteria for uniqueness and multiplicity of an nth order chemical reaction via catastrophe theory approach. [Determines boundaries between unique and multiple steady state conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H C; Calo, J M

    1979-01-01

    A simple, generalized technique for the exact determination of the boundaries between regions of unique and of multiple solutions to certain nonlinear equations was developed by applying catastrophe theory to the mapping of implicit and explicit functions. Its application to an nth order reaction in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) yields exact, explicit expressions for the boundaries between regions of single and multiple steady states, expressed in terms of the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient and activation energy. An exact implicit expression for the boundaries between regions of uniqueness and multiplicity was also derived for an nth order reaction in a catalyst particle with an intraparticle concentration gradient and uniform temperature and is fully demonstrated for the first-order reaction. In addition, explicit criteria were developed by assuming the limits on d ln g/d ln q, where g is the effectiveness factor and q the Thiele modulus, proposed by van den Bosch and Luss.

  13. Computational multiple steady states for enzymatic esterification of ethanol and oleic acid in an isothermal CSTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pang-Yen; Chuang, Guo-Syong; Chao, An-Chong; Li, Hsing-Ya

    2005-05-01

    The capacity of complex biochemical reaction networks (consisting of 11 coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations) to show multiple steady states, was investigated. The system involved esterification of ethanol and oleic acid by lipase in an isothermal continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The Deficiency One Algorithm and the Subnetwork Analysis were applied to determine the steady state multiplicity. A set of rate constants and two corresponding steady states are computed. The phenomena of bistability, hysteresis and bifurcation are discussed. Moreover, the capacity of steady state multiplicity is extended to the family of the studied reaction networks.

  14. Noise-induced modulation of the relaxation kinetics around a non-equilibrium steady state of non-linear chemical reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Sbalzarini, Ivo F; González-Segredo, Nélido

    2011-01-28

    Stochastic effects from correlated noise non-trivially modulate the kinetics of non-linear chemical reaction networks. This is especially important in systems where reactions are confined to small volumes and reactants are delivered in bursts. We characterise how the two noise sources confinement and burst modulate the relaxation kinetics of a non-linear reaction network around a non-equilibrium steady state. We find that the lifetimes of species change with burst input and confinement. Confinement increases the lifetimes of all species that are involved in any non-linear reaction as a reactant. Burst monotonically increases or decreases lifetimes. Competition between burst-induced and confinement-induced modulation may hence lead to a non-monotonic modulation. We quantify lifetime as the integral of the time autocorrelation function (ACF) of concentration fluctuations around a non-equilibrium steady state of the reaction network. Furthermore, we look at the first and second derivatives of the ACF, each of which is affected in opposite ways by burst and confinement. This allows discriminating between these two noise sources. We analytically derive the ACF from the linear Fokker-Planck approximation of the chemical master equation in order to establish a baseline for the burst-induced modulation at low confinement. Effects of higher confinement are then studied using a partial-propensity stochastic simulation algorithm. The results presented here may help understand the mechanisms that deviate stochastic kinetics from its deterministic counterpart. In addition, they may be instrumental when using fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) or fluorescence-correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to measure confinement and burst in systems with known reaction rates, or, alternatively, to correct for the effects of confinement and burst when experimentally measuring reaction rates.

  15. Role of conformational dynamics in kinetics of an enzymatic cycle in a nonequilibrium steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Wei; Xie, X. Sunney; Bagchi, Biman

    2009-08-01

    Enzyme is a dynamic entity with diverse time scales, ranging from picoseconds to seconds or even longer. Here we develop a rate theory for enzyme catalysis that includes conformational dynamics as cycling on a two-dimensional (2D) reaction free energy surface involving an intrinsic reaction coordinate (X) and an enzyme conformational coordinate (Q). The validity of Michaelis-Menten (MM) equation, i.e., substrate concentration dependence of enzymatic velocity, is examined under a nonequilibrium steady state. Under certain conditions, the classic MM equation holds but with generalized microscopic interpretations of kinetic parameters. However, under other conditions, our rate theory predicts either positive (sigmoidal-like) or negative (biphasic-like) kinetic cooperativity due to the modified effective 2D reaction pathway on X-Q surface, which can explain non-MM dependence previously observed on many monomeric enzymes that involve slow or hysteretic conformational transitions. Furthermore, we find that a slow conformational relaxation during product release could retain the enzyme in a favorable configuration, such that enzymatic turnover is dynamically accelerated at high substrate concentrations. The effect of such conformation retainment in a nonequilibrium steady state is evaluated.

  16. Development of synchronous generator saturation model from steady-state operating data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadric, Martin; Despalatovic, Marin; Terzic, Bozo [FESB University of Split, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Split (Croatia)

    2010-11-15

    A new method to estimate and model the saturated synchronous reactances of hydroturbine generators from operating data is presented. For the estimation process, measurements of only the generator steady-state variables are required. First, using a specific procedure, the field to armature turns ratio is estimated from measured steady-state variables at constant power generation and various excitation conditions. Subsequently, for each set of steady-state operating data, saturated synchronous reactances are identified. Fitting surfaces, defined as polynomial functions in two variables, are later used to model these saturated reactances. It is shown that the simpler polynomial functions may be used to model saturation at the steady-state than at the dynamic conditions. The developed steady-state model is validated with measurements performed on the 34 MVA hydroturbine generator. (author)

  17. Diffusion-driven steady states of the Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1988-01-01

    Steady states of a Z-pinch where no electric field is imposed along the pinch axis by external means are investigated. In this case, diffusion-driven states become possible when imposed volume sources of particles and heat drive a radial diffusion velocity that, in its turn, generates the electric plasma current. The particle sources can be from pellet injection or a neutral gas blanket, and the heat sources provided by thermonuclear reactions or auxiliary heating. The present analysis and associated kinetic considerations indicate that steady diffusion-driven operation should become possible for certain classes of plasma profiles, without running into singularity problems at the pinch axis. Such operation leads to higher axial currents in a Z-pinch without an axial magnetic field than in a tokamaklike case under similar plasma conditions. The technical difficulty in realizing a volume distribution of particle sinks introduces certain constraints on the plasma and current profiles. This fact has to be taken into account in a stability analysis. Neoclassical or anomalous diffusion will increase the diffusion velocity of the plasma but is not expected to affect the main physical features of the present results

  18. Noise-induced modulation of the relaxation kinetics around a non-equilibrium steady state of non-linear chemical reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Ramaswamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic effects from correlated noise non-trivially modulate the kinetics of non-linear chemical reaction networks. This is especially important in systems where reactions are confined to small volumes and reactants are delivered in bursts. We characterise how the two noise sources confinement and burst modulate the relaxation kinetics of a non-linear reaction network around a non-equilibrium steady state. We find that the lifetimes of species change with burst input and confinement. Confinement increases the lifetimes of all species that are involved in any non-linear reaction as a reactant. Burst monotonically increases or decreases lifetimes. Competition between burst-induced and confinement-induced modulation may hence lead to a non-monotonic modulation. We quantify lifetime as the integral of the time autocorrelation function (ACF of concentration fluctuations around a non-equilibrium steady state of the reaction network. Furthermore, we look at the first and second derivatives of the ACF, each of which is affected in opposite ways by burst and confinement. This allows discriminating between these two noise sources. We analytically derive the ACF from the linear Fokker-Planck approximation of the chemical master equation in order to establish a baseline for the burst-induced modulation at low confinement. Effects of higher confinement are then studied using a partial-propensity stochastic simulation algorithm. The results presented here may help understand the mechanisms that deviate stochastic kinetics from its deterministic counterpart. In addition, they may be instrumental when using fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM or fluorescence-correlation spectroscopy (FCS to measure confinement and burst in systems with known reaction rates, or, alternatively, to correct for the effects of confinement and burst when experimentally measuring reaction rates.

  19. Selection of steady states in planar Darcy convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsybulin, V.G.; Karasoezen, B.; Ergenc, T.

    2006-01-01

    The planar natural convection of an incompressible fluid in a porous medium is considered. We study the selection of steady states under temperature perturbations on the boundary. A selection map is introduced in order to analyze the selection of a steady state from a continuous family of equilibria which exists under zero boundary conditions. The results of finite-difference modeling for a rectangular enclosure are presented

  20. Comparisons of predicted steady-state levels in rooms with extended- and local-reaction bounding surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Murray; Wareing, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    A combined beam-tracing and transfer-matrix model for predicting steady-state sound-pressure levels in rooms with multilayer bounding surfaces was used to compare the effect of extended- and local-reaction surfaces, and the accuracy of the local-reaction approximation. Three rooms—an office, a corridor and a workshop—with one or more multilayer test surfaces were considered. The test surfaces were a single-glass panel, a double-drywall panel, a carpeted floor, a suspended-acoustical ceiling, a double-steel panel, and glass fibre on a hard backing. Each test surface was modeled as of extended or of local reaction. Sound-pressure levels were predicted and compared to determine the significance of the surface-reaction assumption. The main conclusions were that the difference between modeling a room surface as of extended or of local reaction is not significant when the surface is a single plate or a single layer of material (solid or porous) with a hard backing. The difference is significant when the surface consists of multilayers of solid or porous material and includes a layer of fluid with a large thickness relative to the other layers. The results are partially explained by considering the surface-reflection coefficients at the first-reflection angles.

  1. Steady state and transient critical heat flux examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabados, L.

    1978-02-01

    In steady state conditions within the P.W.R. parameter range the critical heat flux correlations based on local parameters reproduce the experimental data with less deviations than those based on system parameters. The transient experiments were restricted for the case of power transients. A data processing method for critical heat flux measurements has been developed and the applicability of quasi steady state calculation has been verified. (D.P.)

  2. Post-CHF heat transfer during steady-state and transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, K.K.

    1978-06-01

    This review extends previous reviews of steady-state post-CHF literature by Groeneveld, Gardiner, and Fung by including more recent data. A review of the literature on transient post-CHF data is also included by extending the work of Yadigaroglu

  3. Feasibility study for improved steady-state initialization algorithms for the RELAP5 computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsen, M.P.; Peterson, C.E.; Katsma, K.R.

    1993-04-01

    A design for a new steady-state initialization method is presented that represents an improvement over the current method used in RELAP5. Current initialization methods for RELAP5 solve the transient fluidflow balance equations simulating a transient to achieve steady-state conditions. Because the transient solution is used, the initial conditions may change from the desired values requiring the use of controllers and long transient running times to obtain steady-state conditions for system problems. The new initialization method allows the user to fix thermal-hydraulic values in volumes and junctions where the conditions are best known and have the code compute the initial conditions in other areas of the system. The steady-state balance equations and solution methods are presented. The constitutive, component, and specialpurpose models are reviewed with respect to modifications required for the new steady-state initialization method. The requirements for user input are defined and the feasibility of the method is demonstrated with a testbed code by initializing some simple channel problems. The initialization of the sample problems using, the old and the new methods are compared

  4. Diagnosis of Heat Exchanger Tube Failure in Fossil Fuel Boilers Through Estimation of Steady State Operating Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herszage, A.; Toren, M.

    1998-01-01

    Estimation of operating conditions for fossil fuel boiler heat exchangers is often required due to changes in working conditions, design modifications and especially for monitoring performance and failure diagnosis. Regular heat exchangers in fossil fuel boilers are composed of tube banks through which water or steam flow, while hot combustion (flue) gases flow outside the tubes. This work presents a top-down approach to operating conditions estimation based on field measurements. An example for a 350 MW unit superheater is thoroughly discussed. Integral calculations based on measurements for all unit heat exchangers (reheaters, superheaters) were performed first. Based on these calculations a scheme of integral conservation equations (lumped parameter) was then formulated at the single tube level. Steady state temperatures of superheater tube walls were obtained as a main output, and were compared to the maximum allowable operating temperatures of the tubes material. A combined lumped parameter - CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics, FLUENT code) approach constitutes an efficient tool in certain cases. A brief report of such a case is given for another unit superheater. We conclude that steady state evaluations based on both integral and detailed simulations are a valuable monitoring and diagnosis tool for the power generation industry

  5. Superconducting magnets and cryogenics for the steady state superconducting tokamak SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Y.C.

    2000-01-01

    SST-1 is a steady state superconducting tokamak for studying the physics of the plasma processes in tokamak under steady state conditions and to learn technologies related to the steady state operation of the tokamak. SST-1 will have superconducting magnets made from NbTi based conductors operating at 4.5 K temperature. The design of the superconducting magnets and the cryogenic system of SST-1 tokamak are described. (author)

  6. Steady-state heat transfer in an inverted U-tube steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results are presented involving U-tube steam generator tube bundle local heat transfer and fluid conditions during steady-state, full-power operations performed at high temperatures and pressures with conditions typical of a pressurized water reactor (15.0 MPa primary pressure, 600 K hot-leg fluid temperatures, 6.2 MPa secondary pressure). The MOD-2C facility represents the state-of-the-art in measurement of tube local heat transfer data and average tube bundle secondary fluid density at several elevations, which allows an estimate of the axial heat transfer and void distributions during steady-state and transient operations. The method of heat transfer data reduction is presented and the heat flux, secondary convective heat transfer coefficient, and void fraction distributions are quantified for steady-state, full-power operations

  7. Pre-steady state transients in the Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzed reaction: isotope effects and stereospecificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, A.R.; Eccleston, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isolated from Drosophila is unique among alcohol metabolizing enzymes by not requiring metals for catalysis, by showing 4-pro-S (B-sided) hydride transfer stereospecificity, and by possessing a greater catalytic turnover rate for secondary alcohols than for primary alcohols. They have extended their studies on the kinetic mechanism for this enzyme by examining the pre-steady state transients of ternary complex interconversion using stopped-flow fluorescence methods. When enzyme and a 30-fold molar excess of NADH is mixed with excess acetadehyde, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), or cyclohexanone a rapid (> 100 s -1 ) transient is observe before the steady-state. The rates are insensitive to isotope substitution. With the substrate MEK, the rate and amplitude suggests a single turnover of the enzyme. Similar pre-steady state transients are observed when enzyme and a 50-fold molar excess of NAD + is mixed with ethanol, 2-propanol, and cyclohexanol. The rates show a hyperbolic concentration dependence and a deuterium isotope effect. With d 6 -deuteroethanol the transient no longer occurs in the pre-steady state. When the optical isomers of secondary alcohols are used as substrates, transients are observed only in the R-(-) isomers for all chain lengths. With 2-S(+)-heptanol and 2-S(+)-octanol no transients occur

  8. Time Reversibility, Correlation Decay and the Steady State Fluctuation Relation for Dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis J. Evans

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Steady state fluctuation relations for nonequilibrium systems are under intense investigation because of their important practical implications in nanotechnology and biology. However the precise conditions under which they hold need clarification. Using the dissipation function, which is related to the entropy production of linear irreversible thermodynamics, we show time reversibility, ergodic consistency and a recently introduced form of correlation decay, called T-mixing, are sufficient conditions for steady state fluctuation relations to hold. Our results are not restricted to a particular model and show that the steady state fluctuation relation for the dissipation function holds near or far from equilibrium subject to these conditions. The dissipation function thus plays a comparable role in nonequilibrium systems to thermodynamic potentials in equilibrium systems.

  9. The behaviour of water-cooled reactor fuel rods in steady state and transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strupczewski, A.; Marks, P.

    1997-01-01

    In this report, the results of temperature field and filling gas pressure calculations by means of contemporary calculational models for a WWER-440 and WWER-1000 type fuel rod at low and high burnup operating under steady-state conditions are presented. A review of in-core temperature and pressure measurements for various types of LWR fuel is also included. Basing on calculational and collected measured data, the behaviour of fuel cladding during large and small break LOCA, is estimated with special emphasis on their oxidation and failure resistance. (author)

  10. Steady-state oxygen-solubility in niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, K.; Jehn, H.

    1977-01-01

    During annealing of niobium in oxygen in certain temperature and pressure ranges steady states are established between the absorption of molecular oxygen and the evaporation of volatile oxides. The oxygen concentration in the niobium-oxygen α-solid solution is a function of oxygen pressure and temperature and has been redetermined in the ranges 10 -5 - 10 -2 Pa O 2 and 2,070 - 2,470 K. It follows differing from former results the equation csub(o) = 9.1 x 10 -6 x sub(po2) x exp (502000/RT) with csub(o) in at.-ppm, sub(po2) in Pa, T in K, R = 8.31 J x mol -1 x K -1 . The existence of steady states is limited to a temperature range from 1870 to 2470 K and to oxygen concentrations below the solubility limit given by solidus and solvus lines in the T-c diagram. In the experiments high-purity niobium wires with a specific electrical ratio rho (273 K)/rho(4.2 K) > 5,000 have been gassed under isothermal-isobaric conditions until the steady state has been reached. The oxygen concentration has been determined analytically by vacuum fusion extraction with platinum-flux technique as well as by electrical residual resistivity measurements at 4.2 K. (orig.) [de

  11. The effects of intrinsic noise on the behaviour of bistable cell regulatory systems under quasi-steady state conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Roberto; Guerrero, Pilar; Spill, Fabian; Alarcón, Tomás

    2015-08-21

    We analyse the effect of intrinsic fluctuations on the properties of bistable stochastic systems with time scale separation operating under quasi-steady state conditions. We first formulate a stochastic generalisation of the quasi-steady state approximation based on the semi-classical approximation of the partial differential equation for the generating function associated with the chemical master equation. Such approximation proceeds by optimising an action functional whose associated set of Euler-Lagrange (Hamilton) equations provides the most likely fluctuation path. We show that, under appropriate conditions granting time scale separation, the Hamiltonian can be re-scaled so that the set of Hamilton equations splits up into slow and fast variables, whereby the quasi-steady state approximation can be applied. We analyse two particular examples of systems whose mean-field limit has been shown to exhibit bi-stability: an enzyme-catalysed system of two mutually inhibitory proteins and a gene regulatory circuit with self-activation. Our theory establishes that the number of molecules of the conserved species is order parameters whose variation regulates bistable behaviour in the associated systems beyond the predictions of the mean-field theory. This prediction is fully confirmed by direct numerical simulations using the stochastic simulation algorithm. This result allows us to propose strategies whereby, by varying the number of molecules of the three conserved chemical species, cell properties associated to bistable behaviour (phenotype, cell-cycle status, etc.) can be controlled.

  12. The effects of intrinsic noise on the behaviour of bistable cell regulatory systems under quasi-steady state conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Roberto; Alarcón, Tomás de la [Centre de Recerca Matemàtica. Edifici C, Campus de Bellaterra, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Departament de Matemàtiques, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Guerrero, Pilar [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Spill, Fabian [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 44 Cummington Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-08-21

    We analyse the effect of intrinsic fluctuations on the properties of bistable stochastic systems with time scale separation operating under quasi-steady state conditions. We first formulate a stochastic generalisation of the quasi-steady state approximation based on the semi-classical approximation of the partial differential equation for the generating function associated with the chemical master equation. Such approximation proceeds by optimising an action functional whose associated set of Euler-Lagrange (Hamilton) equations provides the most likely fluctuation path. We show that, under appropriate conditions granting time scale separation, the Hamiltonian can be re-scaled so that the set of Hamilton equations splits up into slow and fast variables, whereby the quasi-steady state approximation can be applied. We analyse two particular examples of systems whose mean-field limit has been shown to exhibit bi-stability: an enzyme-catalysed system of two mutually inhibitory proteins and a gene regulatory circuit with self-activation. Our theory establishes that the number of molecules of the conserved species is order parameters whose variation regulates bistable behaviour in the associated systems beyond the predictions of the mean-field theory. This prediction is fully confirmed by direct numerical simulations using the stochastic simulation algorithm. This result allows us to propose strategies whereby, by varying the number of molecules of the three conserved chemical species, cell properties associated to bistable behaviour (phenotype, cell-cycle status, etc.) can be controlled.

  13. FARST: A computer code for the evaluation of FBR fuel rod behavior under steady-state/transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, M.; Sakagami, M.

    1984-01-01

    FARST, a computer code for the evaluation of fuel rod thermal and mechanical behavior under steady-state/transient conditions has been developed. The code characteristics are summarized as follows: (I) FARST evaluates the fuel rod behavior under the transient conditions. The code analyzes thermal and mechanical phenomena within a fuel rod, taking into account the temperature change in coolant surrounding the fuel rod. (II) Permanent strains such as plastic, creep and swelling strains as well as thermoelastic deformations can be analyzed by using the strain increment method. (III) Axial force and contact pressure which act on the fuel stack and cladding are analyzed based on the stick/slip conditions. (IV) FARST used a pellet swelling model which depends on the contact pressure between pellet and cladding, and an empirical pellet relocation model, designated as 'jump relocation model'. The code was successfully applied to analyses of the fuel rod irradiation data from pulse reactor for nuclear safety research in Cadarache (CABRI) and pulse reactor for nuclear safety research in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (NSRR). The code was further applied to stress analysis of a 1000 MW class large FBR plant fuel rod during transient conditions. The steady-state model which was used so far gave the conservative results for cladding stress during overpower transient, but underestimated the results for cladding stress during a rapid temperature decrease of coolant. (orig.)

  14. On the optimization of a steady-state bootstrap-reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polevoy, A.R.; Martynov, A.A.; Medvedev, S.Yu.

    1993-01-01

    A commercial fusion tokamak-reactor may be economically acceptable only for low recirculating power fraction r 0 ≡ P CD /P α BS ≡I BS /I > 0.9 to sustain the steady-state operation mode for high plasma densities > 1.5 10 20 m -3 , fulfilled the divertor conditions. This paper presents the approximate expressions for the optimal set of reactor parameters for r BS /I∼1, based on the self-consistent plasma simulations by 1.5D ASTRA code. The linear MHD stability analysis for ideal n=1 kink and ballooning modes has been carried out to determine the conditions of stabilization for bootstrap steady state tokamak reactor BSSTR configurations. (author) 10 refs., 1 tab

  15. Modeling of the WWER-1000 fuel-rod behavior in steady-state condition with FRAPCONE-3 computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, Marina; Totev, Totju; Stoyanov, Stoyan

    2008-01-01

    It is presented within the paper the results of the modeling and the assessment of the integral code predictions of the WWER fuel-rod behavior in steady-state condition. The assessments in this paper have used the MASSIH and ANS 5.4 subroutine in the code. The modeling and calculations have been performed with FRAPCONE-3 computer code in Argonne National Laboratory, USA

  16. Determination of the in vivo NAD:NADH ratio in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under anaerobic conditions, using alcohol dehydrogenase as sensor reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekers, K M; Heijnen, J J; van Gulik, W M

    2015-08-01

    With the current quantitative metabolomics techniques, only whole-cell concentrations of NAD and NADH can be quantified. These measurements cannot provide information on the in vivo redox state of the cells, which is determined by the ratio of the free forms only. In this work we quantified free NAD:NADH ratios in yeast under anaerobic conditions, using alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the lumped reaction of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase as sensor reactions. We showed that, with an alternative accurate acetaldehyde determination method, based on rapid sampling, instantaneous derivatization with 2,4 diaminophenol hydrazine (DNPH) and quantification with HPLC, the ADH-catalysed oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde can be applied as a relatively fast and simple sensor reaction to quantify the free NAD:NADH ratio under anaerobic conditions. We evaluated the applicability of ADH as a sensor reaction in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, grown in anaerobic glucose-limited chemostats under steady-state and dynamic conditions. The results found in this study showed that the cytosolic redox status (NAD:NADH ratio) of yeast is at least one order of magnitude lower, and is thus much more reduced, under anaerobic conditions compared to aerobic glucose-limited steady-state conditions. The more reduced state of the cytosol under anaerobic conditions has major implications for (central) metabolism. Accurate determination of the free NAD:NADH ratio is therefore of importance for the unravelling of in vivo enzyme kinetics and to judge accurately the thermodynamic reversibility of each redox reaction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Pre-steady-state Kinetics for Hydrolysis of Insoluble Cellulose by Cellobiohydrolase Cel7A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Olsen, Jens Elmerdahl; Præstgaard, Eigil

    2012-01-01

    The transient kinetic behavior of enzyme reactions prior to the establishment of steady state is a major source of mechanistic information, yet this approach has not been utilized for cellulases acting on their natural substrate, insoluble cellulose. Here, we elucidate the pre-steady-state regime...... for the exo-acting cellulase Cel7A using amperometric biosensors and an explicit model for processive hydrolysis of cellulose. This analysis allows the identification of a pseudo-steady-state period and quantification of a processivity number as well as rate constants for the formation of a threaded enzyme...... to unveil fundamental reasons for the distinctive variability in hydrolytic activity found in different cellulase-substrate systems....

  18. An implicit steady-state initialization package for the RELAP5 computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsen, M.P.; Peterson, C.E.; Odar, F.

    1995-08-01

    A direct steady-state initialization (DSSI) method has been developed and implemented in the RELAP5 hydrodynamic analysis program. It provides a means for users to specify a small set of initial conditions which are then propagated through the remainder of the system. The DSSI scheme utilizes the steady-state form of the RELAP5 balance equations for nonequilibrium two-phase flow. It also employs the RELAP5 component models and constitutive model packages for wall-to-phase and interphase momentum and heat exchange. A fully implicit solution of the linearized hydrodynamic equations is implemented. An implicit coupling scheme is used to augment the standard steady-state heat conduction solution for steam generator use. It solves the primary-side tube region energy equations, heat conduction equations, wall heat flux boundary conditions, and overall energy balance equation as a coupled system of equations and improves convergence. The DSSI method for initializing RELAP5 problems to steady-state conditions has been compared with the transient solution scheme using a suite of test problems including; adiabatic single-phase liquid and vapor flow through channels with and without healing and area changes; a heated two-phase test bundle representative of BWR core conditions; and a single-loop PWR model

  19. Conditions for extinction events in chemical reaction networks with discrete state spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Matthew D; Anderson, David F; Craciun, Gheorghe; Brijder, Robert

    2018-05-01

    We study chemical reaction networks with discrete state spaces and present sufficient conditions on the structure of the network that guarantee the system exhibits an extinction event. The conditions we derive involve creating a modified chemical reaction network called a domination-expanded reaction network and then checking properties of this network. Unlike previous results, our analysis allows algorithmic implementation via systems of equalities and inequalities and suggests sequences of reactions which may lead to extinction events. We apply the results to several networks including an EnvZ-OmpR signaling pathway in Escherichia coli.

  20. Cycle kinetics, steady state thermodynamics and motors-a paradigm for living matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Hong

    2005-01-01

    An integration of the stochastic mathematical models for motor proteins with Hill's steady state thermodynamics yields a rather comprehensive theory for molecular motors as open systems in the nonequilibrium steady state. This theory, a natural extension of Gibbs' approach to isothermal molecular systems in equilibrium, is compared with other existing theories with dissipative structures and dynamics. The theory of molecular motors might be considered as an archetype for studying more complex open biological systems such as biochemical reaction networks inside living cells

  1. steadystate performance of induction and transfer state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This paper presents paper presents paper presents the steady the steady the steady–state performance state performance state performance comparison comparison comparison between polyphase induction motor and polyphase between polyphase induction motor and polyphase. TF motor operating in. TF motor ...

  2. Parametric peak stress functions of 90o pipe bends with ovality under steady-state creep conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaghi, A.H.; Hyde, T.H.; Becker, A.A.; Sun, W.

    2009-01-01

    Stress-based life prediction techniques are commonly used to estimate the failure life of pressurised pipe-related components, such as welds and bends, under creep conditions. Previous research has shown that reasonable life predictions can be obtained, based on the steady-state peak stresses, compared with the life predictions obtained from creep damage modelling. In this work, a series of parametric steady-state peak rupture stress functions of right-angled pipe bends with ovality are presented, which are based on the results obtained from finite element (FE) analyses, covering a number of material property and geometry parameters in practical ranges. Methods used to determine the stress functions are described. The FE analyses have been performed using axisymmetric models, subjected to internal pressure only, with a Norton creep law. Typical examples of parametric peak stress curve fitting are shown. In particular, the accuracy of the interpolation and extrapolation abilities of the stress functions is assessed. The results show that in most cases the interpolated and extrapolated peak stresses are accurate to within ±3% and ±5%, respectively.

  3. Evidence for forcing-dependent steady states in a turbulent swirling flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Michel, B; Dubrulle, B; Marié, L; Ravelet, F; Daviaud, F

    2013-12-06

    We study the influence on steady turbulent states of the forcing in a von Karman flow, at constant impeller speed, or at constant torque. We find that the different forcing conditions change the nature of the stability of the steady states and reveal dynamical regimes that bear similarities to low-dimensional systems. We suggest that this forcing dependence may be applicable to other turbulent systems.

  4. Steady-state ozone concentrations in radiation induced noble gas-oxygen discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed-Ali, H.E.; Miley, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of steady-state ozone concentrations in continuous radiation induced noble gas-O/sub 2/ and noble gas-o/sub 2/-SF/sub 6/ mixtures has been accomplished. The discharges were created through the bombardment of the gases with energetic particles from the boron-10 (n,α) lithium-7 nuclear reaction. Three noble gases were studied, He, Ne, and Ar at partial pressures of few hundred Torr. The dose rates studied were in the order of 10/sup 15/ eV . cm/sup -3/ . s/sup -1/. The experimental apparatus and procedure were previously described. The experimentally observed steady-state ozone concentrations in noble gas-O/sub 2/ discharges were about an order of magnitude lower than that observed for oxygen radiolysis at similar dose rates. These results were physically explained by an enhanced role of negative ionic reactions with ozone causing its destruction. In noble gas-O/sub 2/-SF/sub 6/ mixtures, the steady-state ozone concentrations were found to be significantly higher (3-6 times) than that without the SF/sub 6/ addition. This observation was contrary to only a small increase observed after SF/sub 6/ addition to a few hundred Torr oxygen and is explained by an enhanced rate of electron dissociative attachment of ozone in noble gas-O/sub 2/ discharges

  5. Steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of halopropane conversion by a Rhodococcus haloalkane dehalogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, T; Pikkemaat, MG; Kingma, Jacob; Dijk, J; Janssen, DB

    2003-01-01

    Haloalkane dehalogenase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 (DhaA) catalyzes the hydrolysis of carbon-halogen bonds in a wide range of haloalkanes. We examined the steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics of halopropane conversion by DhaA to illuminate mechanistic details of the

  6. Toroidal visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic steady states contain vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.W.; Montgomery, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Poloidal velocity fields seem to be a fundamental feature of resistive toroidal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) steady states. They are a consequence of force balance in toroidal geometry, do not require any kind of instability, and disappear in the open-quotes straight cylinderclose quotes (infinite aspect ratio) limit. If a current density j results from an axisymmetric toroidal electric field that is irrotational inside a torus, it leads to a magnetic field B such that ∇x(jxB) is nonvanishing, so that the Lorentz force cannot be balanced by the gradient of any scalar pressure in the equation of motion. In a steady state, finite poloidal velocity fields and toroidal vorticity must exist. Their calculation is difficult, but explicit solutions can be found in the limit of low Reynolds number. Here, existing calculations are generalized to the more realistic case of no-slip boundary conditions on the velocity field and a circular toroidal cross section. The results of this paper strongly suggest that discussions of confined steady states in toroidal MHD must include flows from the outset. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  7. Multimode optical fibers: steady state mode exciter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M; Sugimura, A; Ikegami, T

    1976-09-01

    The steady state mode power distribution of the multimode graded index fiber was measured. A simple and effective steady state mode exciter was fabricated by an etching technique. Its insertion loss was 0.5 dB for an injection laser. Deviation in transmission characteristics of multimode graded index fibers can be avoided by using the steady state mode exciter.

  8. Quasi-steady State Reduction of Molecular Motor-Based Models of Directed Intermittent Search

    KAUST Repository

    Newby, Jay M.

    2010-02-19

    We present a quasi-steady state reduction of a linear reaction-hyperbolic master equation describing the directed intermittent search for a hidden target by a motor-driven particle moving on a one-dimensional filament track. The particle is injected at one end of the track and randomly switches between stationary search phases and mobile nonsearch phases that are biased in the anterograde direction. There is a finite possibility that the particle fails to find the target due to an absorbing boundary at the other end of the track. Such a scenario is exemplified by the motor-driven transport of vesicular cargo to synaptic targets located on the axon or dendrites of a neuron. The reduced model is described by a scalar Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, which has an additional inhomogeneous decay term that takes into account absorption by the target. The FP equation is used to compute the probability of finding the hidden target (hitting probability) and the corresponding conditional mean first passage time (MFPT) in terms of the effective drift velocity V, diffusivity D, and target absorption rate λ of the random search. The quasi-steady state reduction determines V, D, and λ in terms of the various biophysical parameters of the underlying motor transport model. We first apply our analysis to a simple 3-state model and show that our quasi-steady state reduction yields results that are in excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the full system under physiologically reasonable conditions. We then consider a more complex multiple motor model of bidirectional transport, in which opposing motors compete in a "tug-of-war", and use this to explore how ATP concentration might regulate the delivery of cargo to synaptic targets. © 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  9. Steady State Dynamic Operating Behavior of Universal Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khan Burdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed investigation of the universal motor is developed and used for various dynamic steady state and transient operating conditions of loads. In the investigation, output torque, motor speed, input current, input/output power and efficiency are computed, compared and analyzed for different loads. While this paper discusses the steady-state behavior of the universal motor, another companion paper, ?Transient dynamic behavior of universal motor?, will discuss its transient behavior in detail. A non-linear generalized electric machine model of the motor is considered for the analysis. This study was essential to investigate effect of output load on input current, power, speed and efficiency of the motor during operations. Previously such investigation is not known

  10. Customized Steady-State Constraints for Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization.

  11. steady and dynamic states analysis of induction motor: fea approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    The flux levels at these loading conditions were also monitored. Key words: Three phase Induction Motor, Steady state and Dynamic Response, Flux Levels, FEA, Loading conditions. 1. INTRODUCTION ..... Boston: Computational Mechanics Publications;. New York: ... for Electrical Engineers, Cambridge University. Press ...

  12. Progress and prospect of true steady state operation with RF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquinot Jean

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of fusion confinement experiments in full steady state is a major challenge for the development towards fusion energy. Critical to achieving this goal is the availability of actively cooled plasma facing components and auxiliary systems withstanding the very harsh plasma environment. Equally challenging are physics issues related to achieving plasma conditions and current drive efficiency required by reactor plasmas. RF heating and current drive systems have been key instruments for obtaining the progress made until today towards steady state. They hold all the records of long pulse plasma operation both in tokamaks and in stellarators. Nevertheless much progress remains to be made in particular for integrating all the requirements necessary for maintaining in steady state the density and plasma pressure conditions of a reactor. This is an important stated aim of ITER and of devices equipped with superconducting magnets. After considering the present state of the art, this review will address the key issues which remain to be solved both in physics and technology for reaching this goal. They constitute very active subjects of research which will require much dedicated experimentation in the new generation of superconducting devices which are now in operation or becoming close to it.

  13. Integrated stoichiometric, thermodynamic and kinetic modelling of steady state metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, R M T; Thiele, I; Provan, G; Nasheuer, H P

    2010-06-07

    The quantitative analysis of biochemical reactions and metabolites is at frontier of biological sciences. The recent availability of high-throughput technology data sets in biology has paved the way for new modelling approaches at various levels of complexity including the metabolome of a cell or an organism. Understanding the metabolism of a single cell and multi-cell organism will provide the knowledge for the rational design of growth conditions to produce commercially valuable reagents in biotechnology. Here, we demonstrate how equations representing steady state mass conservation, energy conservation, the second law of thermodynamics, and reversible enzyme kinetics can be formulated as a single system of linear equalities and inequalities, in addition to linear equalities on exponential variables. Even though the feasible set is non-convex, the reformulation is exact and amenable to large-scale numerical analysis, a prerequisite for computationally feasible genome scale modelling. Integrating flux, concentration and kinetic variables in a unified constraint-based formulation is aimed at increasing the quantitative predictive capacity of flux balance analysis. Incorporation of experimental and theoretical bounds on thermodynamic and kinetic variables ensures that the predicted steady state fluxes are both thermodynamically and biochemically feasible. The resulting in silico predictions are tested against fluxomic data for central metabolism in Escherichia coli and compare favourably with in silico prediction by flux balance analysis. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A steady-state continuous flow chamber for the study of daytime and nighttime chemistry under atmospherically relevant NO levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Ortega, John; Huang, Yuanlong; Shertz, Stephen; Tyndall, Geoffrey S.; Orlando, John J.

    2018-05-01

    Experiments performed in laboratory chambers have contributed significantly to the understanding of the fundamental kinetics and mechanisms of the chemical reactions occurring in the atmosphere. Two chemical regimes, classified as high-NO vs. zero-NO conditions, have been extensively studied in previous chamber experiments. Results derived from these two chemical scenarios are widely parameterized in chemical transport models to represent key atmospheric processes in urban and pristine environments. As the anthropogenic NOx emissions in the United States have decreased remarkably in the past few decades, the classic high-NO and zero-NO conditions are no longer applicable to many regions that are constantly impacted by both polluted and background air masses. We present here the development and characterization of the NCAR Atmospheric Simulation Chamber, which is operated in steady-state continuous flow mode for the study of atmospheric chemistry under intermediate NO conditions. This particular chemical regime is characterized by constant sub-ppb levels of NO and can be created in the chamber by precise control of the inflow NO concentration and the ratio of chamber mixing to residence timescales. Over the range of conditions achievable in the chamber, the lifetime of peroxy radicals (RO2), a key intermediate from the atmospheric degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), can be extended to several minutes, and a diverse array of reaction pathways, including unimolecular pathways and bimolecular reactions with NO and HO2, can thus be explored. Characterization experiments under photolytic and dark conditions were performed and, in conjunction with model predictions, provide a basis for interpretation of prevailing atmospheric processes in environments with intertwined biogenic and anthropogenic activities. We demonstrate the proof of concept of the steady-state continuous flow chamber operation through measurements of major first-generation products

  15. steady-state continuous flow chamber for the study of daytime and nighttime chemistry under atmospherically relevant NO levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Experiments performed in laboratory chambers have contributed significantly to the understanding of the fundamental kinetics and mechanisms of the chemical reactions occurring in the atmosphere. Two chemical regimes, classified as high-NO vs. zero-NO conditions, have been extensively studied in previous chamber experiments. Results derived from these two chemical scenarios are widely parameterized in chemical transport models to represent key atmospheric processes in urban and pristine environments. As the anthropogenic NOx emissions in the United States have decreased remarkably in the past few decades, the classic high-NO and zero-NO conditions are no longer applicable to many regions that are constantly impacted by both polluted and background air masses. We present here the development and characterization of the NCAR Atmospheric Simulation Chamber, which is operated in steady-state continuous flow mode for the study of atmospheric chemistry under intermediate NO conditions. This particular chemical regime is characterized by constant sub-ppb levels of NO and can be created in the chamber by precise control of the inflow NO concentration and the ratio of chamber mixing to residence timescales. Over the range of conditions achievable in the chamber, the lifetime of peroxy radicals (RO2, a key intermediate from the atmospheric degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, can be extended to several minutes, and a diverse array of reaction pathways, including unimolecular pathways and bimolecular reactions with NO and HO2, can thus be explored. Characterization experiments under photolytic and dark conditions were performed and, in conjunction with model predictions, provide a basis for interpretation of prevailing atmospheric processes in environments with intertwined biogenic and anthropogenic activities. We demonstrate the proof of concept of the steady-state continuous flow chamber operation through measurements of major first

  16. Frozen reaction fronts in steady flows: A burning-invariant-manifold perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John R.; Li, John; Boyer, Carleen; Solomon, Tom; Mitchell, Kevin A.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of fronts, such as chemical reaction fronts, propagating in two-dimensional fluid flows can be remarkably rich and varied. For time-invariant flows, the front dynamics may simplify, settling in to a steady state in which the reacted domain is static, and the front appears "frozen." Our central result is that these frozen fronts in the two-dimensional fluid are composed of segments of burning invariant manifolds, invariant manifolds of front-element dynamics in x y θ space, where θ is the front orientation. Burning invariant manifolds (BIMs) have been identified previously as important local barriers to front propagation in fluid flows. The relevance of BIMs for frozen fronts rests in their ability, under appropriate conditions, to form global barriers, separating reacted domains from nonreacted domains for all time. The second main result of this paper is an understanding of bifurcations that lead from a nonfrozen state to a frozen state, as well as bifurcations that change the topological structure of the frozen front. Although the primary results of this study apply to general fluid flows, our analysis focuses on a chain of vortices in a channel flow with an imposed wind. For this system, we present both experimental and numerical studies that support the theoretical analysis developed here.

  17. Fabrication and Characterization of Ultrathin-ring Electrodes for Pseudo-steady-state Amperometric Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazumi, Yuki; Hamamoto, Katsumi; Noda, Tatsuo; Shirai, Osamu; Kano, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of ultrathin-ring electrodes with a diameter of 2 mm and a thickness of 100 nm is established. The ultrathin-ring electrodes provide a large density of pseudo-steady-state currents, and realize pseudo-steady-state amperometry under quiescent conditions without a Faraday cage. Under the limiting current conditions, the current response at the ultrathin-ring electrode can be well explained by the theory of the microband electrode response. Cyclic voltammograms at the ultrathin-ring electrode show sigmoidal characteristics with some hysteresis. Numerical simulation reveals that the hysteresis can be ascribed to the time-dependence of pseudo-steady-state current. The performance of amperometry with the ultrathin-ring electrode has been verified in its application to redox enzyme kinetic measurements.

  18. Steady-state heat transfer in an inverted U-tube steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental results are presented involving U-tube steam generator tube bundle local heat transfer and fluid conditions during stead-state, full-power operations performed at high temperatures and pressures with conditions typical of a pressurized water reactor (15.0 MPa primary pressure, 600 K steam generator inlet plenum fluid temperatures, 6.2 MPa secondary pressure). The Semiscale (MOD-2C facility represents the state-of-the-art in measurement of tube local heat transfer data and average tube bundle secondary fluid density at several elevations, which allows an estimate of the axial heat transfer and void distributions during steady-state and transient operations. The method of heat transfer data reduction is presented and the heat flux, secondary convective heat transfer coefficient, and void fraction distributions are quantified for steady-state, full-power operations

  19. Steady-state hydrodynamic instabilities of active liquid crystals: hybrid lattice Boltzmann simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenduzzo, D; Orlandini, E; Cates, M E; Yeomans, J M

    2007-09-01

    We report hybrid lattice Boltzmann (HLB) simulations of the hydrodynamics of an active nematic liquid crystal sandwiched between confining walls with various anchoring conditions. We confirm the existence of a transition between a passive phase and an active phase, in which there is spontaneous flow in the steady state. This transition is attained for sufficiently "extensile" rods, in the case of flow-aligning liquid crystals, and for sufficiently "contractile" ones for flow-tumbling materials. In a quasi-one-dimensional geometry, deep in the active phase of flow-aligning materials, our simulations give evidence of hysteresis and history-dependent steady states, as well as of spontaneous banded flow. Flow-tumbling materials, in contrast, rearrange themselves so that only the two boundary layers flow in steady state. Two-dimensional simulations, with periodic boundary conditions, show additional instabilities, with the spontaneous flow appearing as patterns made up of "convection rolls." These results demonstrate a remarkable richness (including dependence on anchoring conditions) in the steady-state phase behavior of active materials, even in the absence of external forcing; they have no counterpart for passive nematics. Our HLB methodology, which combines lattice Boltzmann for momentum transport with a finite difference scheme for the order parameter dynamics, offers a robust and efficient method for probing the complex hydrodynamic behavior of active nematics.

  20. Basin stability measure of different steady states in coupled oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Sarbendu; Bera, Bidesh K.; Majhi, Soumen; Hens, Chittaranjan; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2017-04-01

    In this report, we investigate the stabilization of saddle fixed points in coupled oscillators where individual oscillators exhibit the saddle fixed points. The coupled oscillators may have two structurally different types of suppressed states, namely amplitude death and oscillation death. The stabilization of saddle equilibrium point refers to the amplitude death state where oscillations are ceased and all the oscillators converge to the single stable steady state via inverse pitchfork bifurcation. Due to multistability features of oscillation death states, linear stability theory fails to analyze the stability of such states analytically, so we quantify all the states by basin stability measurement which is an universal nonlocal nonlinear concept and it interplays with the volume of basins of attractions. We also observe multi-clustered oscillation death states in a random network and measure them using basin stability framework. To explore such phenomena we choose a network of coupled Duffing-Holmes and Lorenz oscillators which are interacting through mean-field coupling. We investigate how basin stability for different steady states depends on mean-field density and coupling strength. We also analytically derive stability conditions for different steady states and confirm by rigorous bifurcation analysis.

  1. Statistical steady states in turbulent droplet condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bec, Jeremie; Krstulovic, Giorgio; Siewert, Christoph

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the general problem of turbulent condensation. Using direct numerical simulations we show that the fluctuations of the supersaturation field offer different conditions for the growth of droplets which evolve in time due to turbulent transport and mixing. This leads to propose a Lagrangian stochastic model consisting of a set of integro-differential equations for the joint evolution of the squared radius and the supersaturation along droplet trajectories. The model has two parameters fixed by the total amount of water and the thermodynamic properties, as well as the Lagrangian integral timescale of the turbulent supersaturation. The model reproduces very well the droplet size distributions obtained from direct numerical simulations and their time evolution. A noticeable result is that, after a stage where the squared radius simply diffuses, the system converges exponentially fast to a statistical steady state independent of the initial conditions. The main mechanism involved in this convergence is a loss of memory induced by a significant number of droplets undergoing a complete evaporation before growing again. The statistical steady state is characterised by an exponential tail in the droplet mass distribution.

  2. Steady State and Transient Analysis of Induction Motor Driving a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of using a digital computer in studying the performance of Induction machine under steady and transient states is presented with computer results which show the transient behaviour of 3-phase machine during balanced and unbalanced conditions. The computer simulation for these operating conditions is ...

  3. Comparing Non-Steady State Emissions under Start-Up and Shut-Down Operating Conditions with Steady State Emissions for Several Industrial Sectors: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwairia Obaid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the emissions of various industrial facilities under start-up, shut-down, and normal operations. The industries that have been investigated include power and/or heat generation, energy-from-waste generation, nuclear power generation, sulphuric acid production, ethylene production, petrochemical production, and waste incineration. The study investigated multiple facilities worldwide for each of these industrial categories. The different potential contaminants characteristic of each industry type have been investigated and the emissions of these contaminants under non-steady state have been compared to the steady state emissions. Where available, trends have been developed to identify the circumstances, i.e., the industrial sector and contaminant, under which the assessment and consideration of emissions from start-up and shut-down events is necessary for each industry. These trends differ by industrial sector and contaminant. For example, the study shows that sulphur dioxide (SO2 emissions should be assessed for the start-up operations of sulphuric acid production plants, but may not need to be assessed for the start-up operations of a conventional power generation facility. The trends developed as part of this research paper will help air permit applicants to effectively allocate their resources when assessing emissions related to non-steady state operations. Additionally, it will ensure that emissions are assessed for the worst-case scenario. This is especially important when emissions under start-up and shut-down operations have the potential to exceed enforceable emission limits. Thus, assessing emissions for the worst-case scenario can help in preventing the emissions from adversely impacting public health and the environment.

  4. Optimal control of transitions between nonequilibrium steady states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick R Zulkowski

    Full Text Available Biological systems fundamentally exist out of equilibrium in order to preserve organized structures and processes. Many changing cellular conditions can be represented as transitions between nonequilibrium steady states, and organisms have an interest in optimizing such transitions. Using the Hatano-Sasa Y-value, we extend a recently developed geometrical framework for determining optimal protocols so that it can be applied to systems driven from nonequilibrium steady states. We calculate and numerically verify optimal protocols for a colloidal particle dragged through solution by a translating optical trap with two controllable parameters. We offer experimental predictions, specifically that optimal protocols are significantly less costly than naive ones. Optimal protocols similar to these may ultimately point to design principles for biological energy transduction systems and guide the design of artificial molecular machines.

  5. Analysis of steady state creep of southeastern New Mexico bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, W.; Wawersik, W.R.; Lauson, H.S.

    1980-03-01

    Steady state creep rates have been obtained from a large suite of existing experimental creep data relating to bedded rock salt from the Salado formation of S.E. New Mexico. Experimental conditions covered an intermediate temperature range from 22 0 C to 200 0 C, and shear stresses from 1000 psi (7 MPa) to 6000 psi (31 MPa). An expression, based on a single diffusion controlled dislocation climb mechanism, has been found to fit the observed dependence of steady state creep rate on shear stress and temperature, yielding an activation energy of 12 kcal/mole (50 kJ/mole) and a stress exponent of 4.9. Multiple regression analysis revealed a dependence on stratigraphy, but no statistically significant dependence on pressure of specimen size. No consistent dilatancy or compaction associated with steady state creep was found, although some individual specimens dilated or compacted during creep. The steady state creep data were found to agree very well with creep data for both bedded and dome salt from a variety of other locations

  6. Estimating steady-state evaporation rates from bare soils under conditions of high water table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, C.D.; Rubin, J.; Van Hylckama, T. E. A.

    1970-01-01

    A procedure that combines meteorological and soil equations of water transfer makes it possible to estimate approximately the steady-state evaporation from bare soils under conditions of high water table. Field data required include soil-water retention curves, water table depth and a record of air temperature, air humidity and wind velocity at one elevation. The procedure takes into account the relevant atmospheric factors and the soil's capability to conduct 'water in liquid and vapor forms. It neglects the effects of thermal transfer (except in the vapor case) and of salt accumulation. Homogeneous as well as layered soils can be treated. Results obtained with the method demonstrate how the soil evaporation rates·depend on potential evaporation, water table depth, vapor transfer and certain soil parameters.

  7. Practical steady-state enzyme kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorsch, Jon R

    2014-01-01

    Enzymes are key components of most biological processes. Characterization of enzymes is therefore frequently required during the study of biological systems. Steady-state kinetics provides a simple and rapid means of assessing the substrate specificity of an enzyme. When combined with site-directed mutagenesis (see Site-Directed Mutagenesis), it can be used to probe the roles of particular amino acids in the enzyme in substrate recognition and catalysis. Effects of interaction partners and posttranslational modifications can also be assessed using steady-state kinetics. This overview explains the general principles of steady-state enzyme kinetics experiments in a practical, rather than theoretical, way. Any biochemistry textbook will have a section on the theory of Michaelis-Menten kinetics, including derivations of the relevant equations. No specific enzymatic assay is described here, although a method for monitoring product formation or substrate consumption over time (an assay) is required to perform the experiments described. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Steady-state metabolite concentrations reflect a balance between maximizing enzyme efficiency and minimizing total metabolite load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naama Tepper

    Full Text Available Steady-state metabolite concentrations in a microorganism typically span several orders of magnitude. The underlying principles governing these concentrations remain poorly understood. Here, we hypothesize that observed variation can be explained in terms of a compromise between factors that favor minimizing metabolite pool sizes (e.g. limited solvent capacity and the need to effectively utilize existing enzymes. The latter requires adequate thermodynamic driving force in metabolic reactions so that forward flux substantially exceeds reverse flux. To test this hypothesis, we developed a method, metabolic tug-of-war (mTOW, which computes steady-state metabolite concentrations in microorganisms on a genome-scale. mTOW is shown to explain up to 55% of the observed variation in measured metabolite concentrations in E. coli and C. acetobutylicum across various growth media. Our approach, based strictly on first thermodynamic principles, is the first method that successfully predicts high-throughput metabolite concentration data in bacteria across conditions.

  9. Recalculating the steady state conditions of the V-1000 zero-power facility at Kurchatov Institute using Monte Carlo and nodal diffusion codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlberg, Ville [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, VTT (Finland)

    2017-09-15

    Continuous-energy Monte Carlo reactor physics code Serpent 2 was used to model the critical steady state conditions measured in V-1000 zero-power critical facility at Kurchatov Institute (KI), Moscow in 1990-1992. The Serpent 2 results were compared to measurements and Serpent 2 was used to generate group constants for reactor dynamics code HEXTRAN. The results of a HEXTRAN calculation of the steady state were compared to Serpent 2. The relative power density distribution of the SERPENT2 calculations compared with the measurements was within the statistical accuracy. The comparison of HEXTRAN and Serpent 2 node-wise relative power density distributions showed an accuracy of ±10%.

  10. The Steady State Calculation for SMART with MIDAS/SMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Hwa; Kim, Dong Ha; Chung, Young Jong; Park, Sun Hee; Cho, Seong Won

    2010-01-01

    KAERI is developing a new concept of reactor that all the main components such as the steam generator, the coolant pumps and the pressurizer are located inside the reactor vessel. Before the severe accident sequences are estimated, it is prerequisite that MIDAS code predicts the steady state conditions properly. But MIDAS code does not include the heat transfer model for the helical tube. Therefore, the heat transfer models for the helical tube from TASS/SMR-S were implemented into MIDAS code. To estimate the validity of the implemented heat transfer correlations for the helical tube and the input data, the steady state was recalculated with MIDAS/SMR based on design level 2 and compared with the design values

  11. Steady-State Performance of Kalman Filter for DPLL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yi; CUI Xiaowei; LU Mingquan; FENG Zhenming

    2009-01-01

    For certain system models, the structure of the Kalman filter is equivalent to a second-order vari-able gain digital phase-locked loop (DPLL). To apply the knowledge of DPLLs to the design of Kalman filters, this paper studies the steady-state performance of Kalman filters for these system models. The results show that the steady-state Kalman gain has the same form as the DPLL gain. An approximate simple form for the steady-state Kalman gain is used to derive an expression for the equivalent loop bandwidth of the Kalman filter as a function of the process and observation noise variances. These results can be used to analyze the steady-state performance of a Kalman filter with DPLL theory or to design a Kalman filter model with the same steady-state performance as a given DPLL.

  12. The non-local Fisher–KPP equation: travelling waves and steady states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berestycki, Henri; Nadin, Grégoire; Perthame, Benoit; Ryzhik, Lenya

    2009-01-01

    We consider the Fisher–KPP equation with a non-local saturation effect defined through an interaction kernel φ(x) and investigate the possible differences with the standard Fisher–KPP equation. Our first concern is the existence of steady states. We prove that if the Fourier transform φ-circumflex(ξ) is positive or if the length σ of the non-local interaction is short enough, then the only steady states are u ≡ 0 and u ≡ 1. Next, we study existence of the travelling waves. We prove that this equation admits travelling wave solutions that connect u = 0 to an unknown positive steady state u ∞ (x), for all speeds c ≥ c * . The travelling wave connects to the standard state u ∞ (x) ≡ 1 under the aforementioned conditions: φ-circumflex(ξ) > 0 or σ is sufficiently small. However, the wave is not monotonic for σ large

  13. Multiple solutions of steady-state Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations with steric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Tai-Chia; Eisenberg, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Experiments measuring currents through single protein channels show unstable currents. Channels switch between ‘open’ or ‘closed’ states in a spontaneous stochastic process called gating. Currents are either (nearly) zero or at a definite level, characteristic of each type of protein, independent of time, once the channel is open. The steady state Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations with steric effects (PNP-steric equations) describe steady current through the open channel quite well, in a wide variety of conditions. Here we study the existence of multiple solutions of steady state PNP-steric equations to see if they themselves, without modification or augmentation, can describe two levels of current. We prove that there are two steady state solutions of PNP-steric equations for (a) three types of ion species (two types of cations and one type of anion) with a positive constant permanent charge, and (b) four types of ion species (two types of cations and their counter-ions) with a constant permanent charge but no sign condition. The excess currents (due to steric effects) associated with these two steady state solutions are derived and expressed as two distinct formulas. Our results indicate that PNP-steric equations may become a useful model to study spontaneous gating of ion channels. Spontaneous gating is thought to involve small structural changes in the channel protein that perhaps produce large changes in the profiles of free energy that determine ion flow. Gating is known to be modulated by external structures. Both can be included in future extensions of our present analysis. (paper)

  14. A fission-fusion hybrid reactor in steady-state L-mode tokamak configuration with natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Mark; Parker, Ronald R.; Forget, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    This work develops a conceptual design for a fusion-fission hybrid reactor operating in steady-state L-mode tokamak configuration with a subcritical natural or depleted uranium pebble bed blanket. A liquid lithium-lead alloy breeds enough tritium to replenish that consumed by the D-T fusion reaction. The fission blanket augments the fusion power such that the fusion core itself need not have a high power gain, thus allowing for fully non-inductive (steady-state) low confinement mode (L-mode) operation at relatively small physical dimensions. A neutron transport Monte Carlo code models the natural uranium fission blanket. Maximizing the fission power gain while breeding sufficient tritium allows for the selection of an optimal set of blanket parameters, which yields a maximum prudent fission power gain of approximately 7. A 0-D tokamak model suffices to analyze approximate tokamak operating conditions. This fission blanket would allow the fusion component of a hybrid reactor with the same dimensions as ITER to operate in steady-state L-mode very comfortably with a fusion power gain of 6.7 and a thermal fusion power of 2.1 GW. Taking this further can determine the approximate minimum scale for a steady-state L-mode tokamak hybrid reactor, which is a major radius of 5.2 m and an aspect ratio of 2.8. This minimum scale device operates barely within the steady-state L-mode realm with a thermal fusion power of 1.7 GW. Basic thermal hydraulic analysis demonstrates that pressurized helium could cool the pebble bed fission blanket with a flow rate below 10 m/s. The Brayton cycle thermal efficiency is 41%. This reactor, dubbed the Steady-state L-mode non-Enriched Uranium Tokamak Hybrid (SLEUTH), with its very fast neutron spectrum, could be superior to pure fission reactors in terms of breeding fissile fuel and transmuting deleterious fission products. It would likely function best as a prolific plutonium breeder, and the plutonium it produces could actually be more

  15. Steady-state ozone concentration in radiation induced noble gas-oxygen discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed-Ali, H.E.; Miley, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of steady-state ozone concentrations in continuous radiation induced noble gas-O 2 and noble gas-O 2 -SF 6 mixtures has been accomplished. The discharges were created through the bombardment of the gases with energetic particles from the boron-10 (n,α) lithium-7 nuclear reaction. Three noble gases were studied, He, Ne, and Ar at partial pressures of few hundred Torr. The dose rates studied were in the order of 10 15 eV.cm -3 .s -1 . The experimental apparatus and proceedure were previously described. The experimentally observed stead-state ozone concentrations in noble gas-O 2 discharges were about an order of magnitude lower than that observed for oxygen radiolysis at similar dose rates. These results were physically explained by an enhanced role of negative ionic reactions with ozone causing its destruction. In noble gas-O 2 -SF 6 mixtures, the steady-state ozone concentrations were found to be significantly higher (3-6 times) than that without the SF 6 addition. This observation was contrary to only a small increase observed after SF 6 addition to a few hundred Torr oxygen and is explained by an enhanced rate of electron dissociative attachment of ozone in noble gas-O 2 discharges

  16. Steady state neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattoo, S.K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Baruah, U.K.; Bisai, N.; Chakbraborty, A.K.; Chakrapani, Ch.; Jana, M.R.; Bajpai, M.; Jaykumar, P.K.; Patel, D.; Patel, G.; Patel, P.J.; Prahlad, V.; Rao, N.V.M.; Rotti, C.; Singh, N.P.; Sridhar, B.

    2000-01-01

    Learning from operational reliability of neutral beam injectors in particular and various heating schemes including RF in general on TFTR, JET, JT-60, it has become clear that neutral beam injectors may find a greater role assigned to them for maintaining the plasma in steady state devices under construction. Many technological solutions, integrated in the present day generation of injectors have given rise to capability of producing multimegawatt power at many tens of kV. They have already operated for integrated time >10 5 S without deterioration in the performance. However, a new generation of injectors for steady state devices have to address to some basic issues. They stem from material erosion under particle bombardment, heat transfer > 10 MW/m 2 , frequent regeneration of cryopanels, inertial power supplies, data acquisition and control of large volume of data. Some of these engineering issues have been addressed to in the proposed neutral beam injector for SST-1 at our institute; the remaining shall have to wait for the inputs of the database generated from the actual experience with steady state injectors. (author)

  17. Experimental Observations of Natural Circulation Flow in the NSTF at Steady-State Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisowski, Darius D.; Farmer, Mitch T.

    2014-01-01

    A ½ scale test facility has been constructed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study the heat removal performance and natural circulation flow patterns in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). Our test facility, the Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF), supports the broader goal of developing an inherently safe and fully passive ex-vessel decay heat removal for advanced reactor designs. The project, initiated in 2010 to support the Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC), Small Modular Reactor (SMR), and Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) programs, has been conducting experimental operations since early 2014. The following paper provides a summary of some primary design features of the 26-m tall test facility along with a description of the data acquisition suite that guides our experimental practices. Specifics of the distributed fiber optic temperature measurements will be discussed, which introduces an unparalleled level of data density that has never before been implemented in a large scale natural circulation test facility. Results from our first test series will then be presented, which provide insight into the thermal hydraulic behavior at steady-state conditions for varying heat flux levels and exhaust chimney configuration states. (author)

  18. Simulations of KSTAR high performance steady state operation scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Yong-Su; Kessel, C.E.; Park, J.M.; Yi, Sumin; Kim, J.Y.; Becoulet, A.; Sips, A.C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of predictive modelling of high performance steady state operation scenarios in KSTAR. Firstly, the capabilities of steady state operation are investigated with time-dependent simulations using a free-boundary plasma equilibrium evolution code coupled with transport calculations. Secondly, the reproducibility of high performance steady state operation scenarios developed in the DIII-D tokamak, of similar size to that of KSTAR, is investigated using the experimental data taken from DIII-D. Finally, the capability of ITER-relevant steady state operation is investigated in KSTAR. It is found that KSTAR is able to establish high performance steady state operation scenarios; β N above 3, H 98 (y, 2) up to 2.0, f BS up to 0.76 and f NI equals 1.0. In this work, a realistic density profile is newly introduced for predictive simulations by employing the scaling law of a density peaking factor. The influence of the current ramp-up scenario and the transport model is discussed with respect to the fusion performance and non-inductive current drive fraction in the transport simulations. As observed in the experiments, both the heating and the plasma current waveforms in the current ramp-up phase produce a strong effect on the q-profile, the fusion performance and also on the non-inductive current drive fraction in the current flattop phase. A criterion in terms of q min is found to establish ITER-relevant steady state operation scenarios. This will provide a guideline for designing the current ramp-up phase in KSTAR. It is observed that the transport model also affects the predictive values of fusion performance as well as the non-inductive current drive fraction. The Weiland transport model predicts the highest fusion performance as well as non-inductive current drive fraction in KSTAR. In contrast, the GLF23 model exhibits the lowest ones. ITER-relevant advanced scenarios cannot be obtained with the GLF23 model in the conditions given in this work

  19. Measurement of non-steady-state free fatty acid turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.D.; Heiling, V.; Miles, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The accuracy of non-steady-state equations for measuring changes in free fatty acid rate of appearance (Ra) is unknown. In the present study, endogenous lipolysis (traced with [ 14 C]-linoleate) was pharmacologically suppressed in six conscious mongrel dogs. A computer-responsive infusion pump was then used to deliver an intravenous oleic acid emulsion in both constant and linear gradient infusion modes. Both non-steady-state equations with various effective volumes of distribution (V) and steady-state equations were used to measure oleate Ra [( 14 C]oleate). Endogenous lipolysis did not change during the experiment. When oleate Ra increased in a linear gradient fashion, only non-steady-state equations with a large (150 ml/kg) V resulted in erroneous values (9% overestimate, P less than 0.05). In contrast, when oleate Ra decreased in a similar fashion, steady-state and standard non-steady-state equations (V = plasma volume = 50 ml/kg) overestimated total oleate Ra (18 and 7%, P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.05, respectively). Overall, non-steady-state equations with an effective V of 90 ml/kg (1.8 x plasma volume) allowed the most accurate estimates of oleate Ra

  20. Mechanism for multiplicity of steady states with distinct cell concentration in continuous culture of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongky, Andrew; Lee, Jongchan; Le, Tung; Mulukutla, Bhanu Chandra; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2015-07-01

    Continuous culture for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins offers the possibility of steady state operations and thus more consistent product quality and increased productivity. Under some conditions, multiplicity of steady states has been observed in continuous cultures of mammalian cells, wherein with the same dilution rate and feed nutrient composition, steady states with very different cell and product concentrations may be reached. At those different steady states, cells may exhibit a high glycolysis flux with high lactate production and low cell concentration, or a low glycolysis flux with low lactate and high cell concentration. These different steady states, with different cell concentration, also have different productivity. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the occurrence of steady state multiplicity and devising a strategy to steer the culture toward the desired steady state is critical. We establish a multi-scale kinetic model that integrates a mechanistic intracellular metabolic model and cell growth model in a continuous bioreactor. We show that steady state multiplicity exists in a range of dilution rate in continuous culture as a result of the bistable behavior in glycolysis. The insights from the model were used to devise strategies to guide the culture to the desired steady state in the multiple steady state region. The model provides a guideline principle in the design of continuous culture processes of mammalian cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. RAP-3A Computer code for thermal and hydraulic calculations in steady state conditions for fuel element clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, C.; Biro, L.; Iftode, I.; Turcu, I.

    1975-10-01

    The RAP-3A computer code is designed for calculating the main steady state thermo-hydraulic parameters of multirod fuel clusters with liquid metal cooling. The programme provides a double accuracy computation of temperatures and axial enthalpy distributions of pressure losses and axial heat flux distributions in fuel clusters before boiling conditions occur. Physical and mathematical models as well as a sample problem are presented. The code is written in FORTRAN-4 language and is running on a IBM-370/135 computer

  2. Vibration analysis of primary inlet pipe line during steady state and transient conditions of Pakistan research reactor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayazuddin, S.K.; Qureshi, A.A.; Hayat, T.

    1997-11-01

    The Primary Water Inlet Pipeline (PW-IPL) is of stainless steel conveying demineralized water from hold-up tank to the reactor pool of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1). The section of the pipeline from heat exchangers to the valve pit is hanger supported in the pump room and the rest of the section from valve pit to the reactor pool is embedded. The PW-IPL is subjected to steady state and transient vibrations. The reactor pumps, which drive the coolant through various circuits mainly contribute the steady state vibrations, while transient vibrations arise due to instant closure of the check valve (water hammer). The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code provides data about the acceptable limits of stresses related to the primary static stress due to steady state vibrations. However, due to complexity in the pipe structure, stresses related to the transient vibrations are neglected in the code. In this report attempt has been made to analyzed both steady state and transient vibrations of PW-IPL of PARR-1. Since, both the steady state and transient vibrations affect the hanger-supported section of the PW-IPL, therefore, it was selected for vibration test measurements. In the analysis vibration data was compared with the allowable limits and estimations of maximum pressure build-up, eflection, natural frequency, tensile and shear load on hanger support, and the ratio of maximum combine stress to the allowable load were made. (author)

  3. On the theoretical–numerical study of the ITER Upper Port Plug structure hydraulic behaviour under steady state and draining and drying transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maio, P.A.; Paradiso, D.; Dell’Orco, G.; Pitcher, C.S.; Kalish, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► UPP TS hydraulic behaviour has been investigated under steady state and D and D transient conditions. ► A thermal–hydraulic system code has been adopted and a UPP TS model has been set-up and validated against results of steady state CFD analyses. ► The TS steady state hydraulic characteristic functions have been derived for two coolant flow paths showing that right plate inlet one is the most promising. ► Draining simulations indicate that the 4 MPa injection pressure is high enough to drain almost completely the circuit in a reasonable time (∼6 s). ► Results indicate that right plate inlet flow path allows the TS complete draining, eliminating the need for the drying procedure. - Abstract: The ITER diagnostic Upper Port Plug (UPP) is a water-cooled stainless steel structure aimed to integrate within vacuum vessel the plasma diagnostic systems, shielding them from neutron and photon irradiation. Due to the very intense heat loads expected, a proper cooling circuit has been designed to ensure an adequate UPP cooling with an acceptable thermal rise and an unduly high pumping power and to perform its draining and drying procedure by injection of pressurized nitrogen. A theoretical research activity has been launched at the Department of Nuclear Engineering of the University of Palermo aiming to investigate the hydraulic behaviour of the UPP Trapezoid Section cooling circuit under steady state conditions and during its draining and drying transient procedure. The research activity has been performed following a theoretical–computational approach and adopting the RELAP5 thermal–hydraulic system code. The Trapezoid Section cooling circuit characteristic functions have been derived under steady state conditions at various coolant temperatures for both the coolant flow paths at the present under consideration for this circuit. The distributions of coolant mass flow rates along the channels of the cooling circuit have been calculated too

  4. Steady State Investigations of DPF Soot Burn Rates and DPF Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Rasmus Lage; Ivarsson, Anders; Schramm, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    and soot mass concentrations are used as model boundary conditions. An in-house developed raw exhaust gas sampling technique is used to measure the soot concentration upstream the DPF which is also needed to find the DPF soot burn rate. The soot concentration is measured basically by filtering the soot...... characteristics are used to fit model constants of soot and filter properties. Measured DPF gas conversions and soot burn rates are used to fit model activation energies of four DPF regeneration reactions using O2 and NO2 as reactants. Modeled DPF pressure drops and soot burn rates are compared to the steady...... state DPF experiments in the temperature range between 260 and 480 °C. The model widely reproduces the experimental results. Especially the exponential soot burn rate versus temperature is accurately reproduced by the model....

  5. Diffusion in coronas around clinopyroxene: modelling with local equilibrium and steady state, and a non-steady-state modification to account for zoned actinolite-hornblende

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, J. R.; Birdi, J. J.; Emmett, T. F.

    1992-01-01

    Retrograde coronas of Caledonian age, between clinopyroxene and plagioclase in the Jotun Nappe Complex, Norway, illustrate the effects of diffusion kinetics on mineral distributions among layers and on the compositions of hornblende-actinolite. One corona type comprises a symplectite of epidote + quartz adjacent to plagioclase, and a less well-organized intergrowth of amphibole + quartz replacing clinopyroxene. The observed mineral proportions imply an open-system reaction, but the similarity of Al/Si ratios in reactant plagioclase and product symplectite indicates approximate conservation of Al2O3 and SiO2. The largest inferred open-system flux is a loss of CaO, mostly derived from consumption of clinopyroxene. The approximate layer structure, Pl|Ep + Qtz|Hbl + Qtz|Act±Hbl + Qtz|Cpx, is modelled using the theory of steady-state diffusion-controlled growth with local equilibrium. To obtain a solution, it is necessary to use a reactant plagioclase composition which takes into account aluminous (epidote) inclusions. The results indicate that, in terms of Onsager diffusion coefficients L ii , Ca is more mobile than AL ( L CaCa/ L AlAl≳3.) (where ≳ means greater than or approximately equal to). This behaviour of Ca is comparable with that of Mg in previously studied coronas around olivine. Si is non-diffusing in the present modelling, because of silica saturation. Oxidation of some Fe2+ to Fe3+ occurs within the corona. Mg diffuses towards its source (clinopyroxene) to maintain local equilibrium. Other coronas consist of two layers, hornblende adjacent to plagioclase and zoned amphibole + quartz adjacent to clinopyroxene. In the zoned layer, actinolitic hornblende forms relict patches, separated from quartz blebs by more aluminous hornblende. A preliminary steady-state, local-equilibrium model of grain-boundary diffusion explains the formation of low-Al and high-Al layers as due to Al immobility. Zoning and replacement are qualitatively explained in terms of

  6. On the precision of quasi steady state assumptions in stochastic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Animesh; Adams, Rhys; Castellani, Gastone C.; Shouval, Harel Z.

    2012-07-01

    Many biochemical networks have complex multidimensional dynamics and there is a long history of methods that have been used for dimensionality reduction for such reaction networks. Usually a deterministic mass action approach is used; however, in small volumes, there are significant fluctuations from the mean which the mass action approach cannot capture. In such cases stochastic simulation methods should be used. In this paper, we evaluate the applicability of one such dimensionality reduction method, the quasi-steady state approximation (QSSA) [L. Menten and M. Michaelis, "Die kinetik der invertinwirkung," Biochem. Z 49, 333369 (1913)] for dimensionality reduction in case of stochastic dynamics. First, the applicability of QSSA approach is evaluated for a canonical system of enzyme reactions. Application of QSSA to such a reaction system in a deterministic setting leads to Michaelis-Menten reduced kinetics which can be used to derive the equilibrium concentrations of the reaction species. In the case of stochastic simulations, however, the steady state is characterized by fluctuations around the mean equilibrium concentration. Our analysis shows that a QSSA based approach for dimensionality reduction captures well the mean of the distribution as obtained from a full dimensional simulation but fails to accurately capture the distribution around that mean. Moreover, the QSSA approximation is not unique. We have then extended the analysis to a simple bistable biochemical network model proposed to account for the stability of synaptic efficacies; the substrate of learning and memory [J. E. Lisman, "A mechanism of memory storage insensitive to molecular turnover: A bistable autophosphorylating kinase," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82, 3055-3057 (1985)], 10.1073/pnas.82.9.3055. Our analysis shows that a QSSA based dimensionality reduction method results in errors as big as two orders of magnitude in predicting the residence times in the two stable states.

  7. Pre-steady-state kinetic studies of redox reactions catalysed by Bacillus subtilis ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase with NADP(+)/NADPH and ferredoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Daisuke; Soeta, Takahiro; Sakurai, Hidehiro; Sétif, Pierre; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    Ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase ([EC1.18.1.2], FNR) from Bacillus subtilis (BsFNR) is a homodimeric flavoprotein sharing structural homology with bacterial NADPH-thioredoxin reductase. Pre-steady-state kinetics of the reactions of BsFNR with NADP(+), NADPH, NADPD (deuterated form) and B. subtilis ferredoxin (BsFd) using stopped-flow spectrophotometry were studied. Mixing BsFNR with NADP(+) and NADPH yielded two types of charge-transfer (CT) complexes, oxidized FNR (FNR(ox))-NADPH and reduced FNR (FNR(red))-NADP(+), both having CT absorption bands centered at approximately 600n m. After mixing BsFNR(ox) with about a 10-fold molar excess of NADPH (forward reaction), BsFNR was almost completely reduced at equilibrium. When BsFNR(red) was mixed with NADP(+), the amount of BsFNR(ox) increased with increasing NADP(+) concentration, but BsFNR(red) remained as the major species at equilibrium even with about 50-fold molar excess NADP(+). In both directions, the hydride-transfer was the rate-determining step, where the forward direction rate constant (~500 s(-1)) was much higher than the reverse one (reaction. The characteristics of the BsFNR reactions with NADP(+)/NADPH were compared with those of other types of FNRs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tailored parameter optimization methods for ordinary differential equation models with steady-state constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Anna; Raeth, Sebastian; Theis, Fabian J; Hausser, Angelika; Hasenauer, Jan

    2016-08-22

    Ordinary differential equation (ODE) models are widely used to describe (bio-)chemical and biological processes. To enhance the predictive power of these models, their unknown parameters are estimated from experimental data. These experimental data are mostly collected in perturbation experiments, in which the processes are pushed out of steady state by applying a stimulus. The information that the initial condition is a steady state of the unperturbed process provides valuable information, as it restricts the dynamics of the process and thereby the parameters. However, implementing steady-state constraints in the optimization often results in convergence problems. In this manuscript, we propose two new methods for solving optimization problems with steady-state constraints. The first method exploits ideas from optimization algorithms on manifolds and introduces a retraction operator, essentially reducing the dimension of the optimization problem. The second method is based on the continuous analogue of the optimization problem. This continuous analogue is an ODE whose equilibrium points are the optima of the constrained optimization problem. This equivalence enables the use of adaptive numerical methods for solving optimization problems with steady-state constraints. Both methods are tailored to the problem structure and exploit the local geometry of the steady-state manifold and its stability properties. A parameterization of the steady-state manifold is not required. The efficiency and reliability of the proposed methods is evaluated using one toy example and two applications. The first application example uses published data while the second uses a novel dataset for Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. The proposed methods demonstrated better convergence properties than state-of-the-art methods employed in systems and computational biology. Furthermore, the average computation time per converged start is significantly lower. In addition to the theoretical results, the

  9. Synthesis of [Zn-Al-CO 3] layered double hydroxides by a coprecipitation method under steady-state conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Z.; Evans, D. G.; Duan, X.; Vial, C.; Ghanbaja, J.; Prevot, V.; de Roy, M.; Forano, C.

    2005-09-01

    A continuous co-precipitation method under steady-state conditions has been investigated for the preparation of nanometer-size layered double hydroxide (LDH) particles using Zn 2Al(OH) 6(CO 3) 0.5·2H 2O as a prototype. The objective was to shorten the preparation time by working without an aging step, using a short and controlled residence time in order to maintain a constant supersaturation level in the reactor and constant particle properties in the exit stream over time. The effects of varying the operating conditions on the structural and textural properties of the LDHs have been studied, including total cation concentration, solvent, residence time, pH and intercalation anion. The products have been characterized using ICP, XRD, FTIR, BET, SEM and TEM. The LDHs prepared by the continuous coprecipitation method have a poorer crystallinity and lower crystallite sizes than those synthesized by the conventional batch method. The results have shown that increasing either cation concentration or the fraction of monoethylene glycol (MEG) in MEG/H 2O mixtures up to 80% (v/v) affect salt solubility and supersaturation, which gives rise to smaller crystallites, larger surface areas and more amorphous compounds. This increase is however limited by the precipitation of zinc and aluminum hydroxides occurring around a total cation concentration of 3.0×10 -1 M in pure water and 3.0×10 -2 M in H 2O/EtOH mixtures. Crystallite size increases with residence time, suggesting a precipitation process controlled by growth. Finally, the continuous coprecipitation method under steady-state conditions has been shown to be a promising alternative to the traditional coprecipitation technique in either pure water or mixed H 2O/MEG solvents.

  10. MARS input data for steady-state calculation of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Sik; Euh, D. J.; Choi, K. Y.; Kwon, T. S.; Jeong, J. J.; Baek, W. P.

    2004-12-01

    An integral effect test loop for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), the ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), is under construction by Thermal-Hydraulics Safety Research Division in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). This report includes calculation sheets of the input for the best-estimate system analysis code, the MARS code, based on the ongoing design features of ATLAS. The ATLAS facility has been designed to have the length scale of 1/2 and area scale of 1/144 compared with the reference plant, APR1400. The contents of this report are divided into three parts: (1) core and reactor vessel, (2) steam generator and steam line, and (3) primary piping, pressurizer and reactor coolant pump. The steady-state analysis for the ATLAS facility will be performed based on these calculation sheets, and its results will be applied to the detailed design of ATLAS. Additionally, the calculation results will contribute to getting optimum test conditions and preliminary operational test conditions for the steady-state and transient experiments

  11. Effects of pellet-to-cladding gap design parameters on the reliability of high burnup PWR fuel rods under steady state and transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tas, Fatma Burcu; Ergun, Sule

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Fuel performance of a typical Pressurized Water Reactor rod is analyzed. • Steady state fuel rod behavior is examined to see the effects of pellet to cladding gap thickness and gap gas pressure. • Transient fuel rod behavior is examined to see the effects of pellet to cladding gap thickness and gap gas pressure. • The optimum pellet to cladding gap thickness and gap gas pressure values of the simulated fuel are determined. • The effects of pellet to cladding gap design parameters on nuclear fuel reliability are examined. - Abstract: As an important improvement in the light water nuclear reactor operations, the nuclear fuel burnup rate is increased in recent decades and this increase causes heavier duty for the nuclear fuel. Since the high burnup fuel is exposed to very high thermal and mechanical stresses and since it operates in an environment with high radiation for about 18 month cycles, it carries the risk of losing its integrity. In this study; it is aimed to determine the effects of pellet–cladding gap thickness and gap pressure on reliability of high burnup nuclear fuel in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) under steady state operation conditions and suggest optimum values for the examined parameters only and validate these suggestions for a transient condition. In the presented study, fuel performance was analyzed by examining the effects of pellet–cladding gap thickness and gap pressure on the integrity of high burnup fuels. This work is carried out for a typical Westinghouse type PWR fuel. The steady state conditions were modeled and simulated with FRAPCON-3.4a steady state fuel performance code and the FRAPTRAN-1.4 fuel transient code was used to calculate transient fuel behavior. The analysis included the changes in the important nuclear fuel design limitations such as the centerline temperature, cladding stress, strain and oxidation with the change in pellet–cladding gap thickness and initial pellet–cladding gap gas

  12. Fission gas behaviour in UO2 under steady state and transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, H.

    1980-01-01

    Fission gas behaviour in UO 2 is determined by the limited capacity of the fuel to retain fission gas. This capacity depends primarily on temperature, but also on fission rate, pressure loading, and fuel microstructure. Under steady state irradiation conditions fission gas behaviour can be described qualitatively as follows: At the beginning of the irradiation most of the fission gas remains in the grains in irradiation-induced solution. With increasing gas content in the grains the gas transport to the grain boundaries increases, too. The fission gas release from the grain boundaries occurs primarily by interlinkage of inter-granular bubbles. The fission gas release without noticeable fuel swelling during the short-term heating in the LOCA tests and the powdering of the high burnup UO 2 in the annealing tests can only be accounted for by formation of inter-granular separations, which are caused by the fission gas accumulated in the grain boundaries. Besides this short-term effect there are diffusion-controlled long-term effects, such as growth and coalescence of bubbles and formation of inter-connected porosity, which result in time-dependent fission gas release and fuel swelling

  13. Implications of steady-state operation on divertor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevier, D.L.; Reis, E.E.; Baxi, C.B.; Silke, G.W.; Wong, C.P.C.; Hill, D.N.

    1996-01-01

    As fusion experiments progress towards long pulse or steady state operation, plasma facing components are undergoing a significant change in their design. This change represents the transition from inertially cooled pulsed systems to steady state designs of significant power handling capacity. A limited number of Plasma Facing Component (PFC) systems are in operation or planning to address this steady state challenge at low heat flux. However in most divertor designs components are required to operate at heat fluxes at 5 MW/m 2 or above. The need for data in this area has resulted in a significant amount of thermal/hydraulic and thermal fatigue testing being done on prototypical elements. Short pulse design solutions are not adequate for longer pulse experiments and the areas of thermal design, structural design, material selection, maintainability, and lifetime prediction are undergoing significant changes. A prudent engineering approach will guide us through the transitional phase of divertor design to steady-state power plant components. This paper reviews the design implications in this transition to steady state machines and the status of the community efforts to meet evolving design requirements. 54 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium as an ohmic steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.; Monticello, D.A.; Strauss, H.; Manickam, J.

    1985-07-01

    A stable three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium can be obtained numerically by a time-dependent relaxation method using small values of dissipation. The final state is an ohmic steady state which approaches an ohmic equilibrium in the limit of small dissipation coefficients. We describe a method to speed up the relaxation process and a method to implement the B vector . del p = 0 condition. These methods are applied to obtain three-dimensional heliac equilibria using the reduced heliac equations

  15. On the Kaolinite Floc Size at the Steady State of Flocculation in a Turbulent Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongfan; Wang, Hongrui; Yu, Jingshan; Dou, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The flocculation of cohesive fine-grained sediment plays an important role in the transport characteristics of pollutants and nutrients absorbed on the surface of sediment in estuarine and coastal waters through the complex processes of sediment transport, deposition, resuspension and consolidation. Many laboratory experiments have been carried out to investigate the influence of different flow shear conditions on the floc size at the steady state of flocculation in the shear flow. Most of these experiments reported that the floc size decreases with increasing shear stresses and used a power law to express this dependence. In this study, we performed a Couette-flow experiment to measure the size of the kaolinite floc through sampling observation and an image analysis system at the steady state of flocculation under six flow shear conditions. The results show that the negative correlation of the floc size on the flow shear occurs only at high shear conditions, whereas at low shear conditions, the floc size increases with increasing turbulent shear stresses regardless of electrolyte conditions. Increasing electrolyte conditions and the initial particle concentration could lead to a larger steady-state floc size.

  16. Development of a method for calculating steady-state equipment sensible heat ratio of direct expansion air conditioning units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Liang; Chan, M.Y.; Deng Shiming

    2008-01-01

    A complete set of calculation method for steady-state equipment sensible heat ratio (SHR) for a direct expansion (DX) cooling coil has been developed and reported. The method was based on the fundamentals of energy conservation and heat and mass transfer taking place in the DX cooling coil, and was experimentally validated using an experimental DX A/C rig. With the method developed, the effect of refrigerant evaporating temperature at fixed inlet air conditions on equipment SHR has been theoretically analyzed. The validated method can be useful in further studying the inherent operating characteristics of a DX air conditioning (A/C) unit and in developing suitable control strategies for achieving higher energy efficiency and better indoor thermal environment

  17. Determining "small parameters" for quasi-steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeke, Alexandra; Walcher, Sebastian; Zerz, Eva

    2015-08-01

    For a parameter-dependent system of ordinary differential equations we present a systematic approach to the determination of parameter values near which singular perturbation scenarios (in the sense of Tikhonov and Fenichel) arise. We call these special values Tikhonov-Fenichel parameter values. The principal application we intend is to equations that describe chemical reactions, in the context of quasi-steady state (or partial equilibrium) settings. Such equations have rational (or even polynomial) right-hand side. We determine the structure of the set of Tikhonov-Fenichel parameter values as a semi-algebraic set, and present an algorithmic approach to their explicit determination, using Groebner bases. Examples and applications (which include the irreversible and reversible Michaelis-Menten systems) illustrate that the approach is rather easy to implement.

  18. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps in steady-state conditions (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen). The goal of this investigation was to examine the long-term performance of complete LED lamps relative to benchmark halogen and CFL lamps—in this case, A lamps emitting approximately 800 lumens operated continuously at a relatively high ambient temperature of 45°C.

  19. Steady-State Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    illustrate the “equation oriented” approach as well as the “sequential modular” approach to solving complex flowsheets for steady state applications. The applications include the Williams-Otto plant, the hydrodealkylation (HDA) of toluene, conversion of ethylene to ethanol and a bio-ethanol process....

  20. Analysis on the steady-state coherent synchrotron radiation with strong shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, R.; Bohn, C.L.; Bisognano, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    There are several papers concerning shielding of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by a Gaussian line charge on a circular orbit centered between two parallel conducting plates. Previous asymptotic analyses in the frequency domain show that shielded steady-state CSR mainly arises from harmonics in the bunch frequency exceeding the threshold harmonic for satisfying the boundary conditions at the plates. In this paper the authors extend the frequency-domain analysis into the regime of strong shielding, in which the threshold harmonic exceeds the characteristic frequency of the bunch. The result is then compared to the shielded steady-state CSR power obtained using image charges

  1. Determination of kinetic parameters of Fe sup 3+ reduction mediated by a polyaniline film using steady-state and impedance methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deslouis, C. (LP15 du CNRS, Physique des Liquides et Electrochimie, Lab. de l' Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (FR)); Musiani, M.M.; Pagura, C.; Tribollet, C. (Inst. di Polarografia de Elettrochimica Preparativa del CNR, Corso Stati Uniti, 4, 35020 Camin, Padova (IT))

    1991-09-01

    This paper discusses the Fe{sup 3+} reduction reaction studied at Pt and polyaniline rotating disk electrodes by steady-state and impedance methods with the aim of testing the possibility of achieving the charge transfer resistance (R{sub ts}) of a redox reaction mediated by a conducting polymer film by ac impedance R{sub ts} was obtained as a function of electrode potential and rotation rate by nonlinear least squares fitting of a previously developed kinetic equation to the experimental data. These R{sub ts} values were combined with steady-state ones to calculate b{sub c} and k{sup 0}.

  2. Pellet injectors for steady state plasma fuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinyar, I.; Geraud, A.; Yamada, H.; Lukin, A.; Sakamoto, R.; Skoblikov, S.; Umov, A.; Oda, Y.; Gros, G.; Krasilnikov, I.; Reznichenko, P.; Panchenko, V.

    2005-01-01

    Successful steady state operation of a fusion reactor should be supported by repetitive pellet injection of solidified hydrogen isotopes in order to produce high performance plasmas. This paper presents pneumatic pellet injectors and its implementation for long discharge on the LHD and TORE SUPRA, and a new centrifuge pellet injector test results. All injectors are fitted with screw extruders well suited for steady state operation

  3. The Non-Equilibrium Statistical Distribution Function for Electrons and Holes in Semiconductor Heterostructures in Steady-State Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Jόzwikowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work is to determine a statistical non-equilibrium distribution function for the electron and holes in semiconductor heterostructures in steady-state conditions. Based on the postulates of local equilibrium, as well as on the integral form of the weighted Gyarmati’s variational principle in the force representation, using an alternative method, we have derived general expressions, which have the form of the Fermi–Dirac distribution function with four additional components. The physical interpretation of these components has been carried out in this paper. Some numerical results of a non-equilibrium distribution function for an electron in HgCdTe structures are also presented.

  4. Dissipative dark matter halos: The steady state solution. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, R.

    2018-05-01

    Within the mirror dark matter model and dissipative dark matter models in general, halos around galaxies with active star formation (including spirals and gas-rich dwarfs) are dynamical: they expand and contract in response to heating and cooling processes. Ordinary type II supernovae (SNe) can provide the dominant heat source, which is possible if kinetic mixing interaction exists with strength ɛ ˜10-9- 10-10 . Dissipative dark matter halos can be modeled as a fluid governed by Euler's equations. Around sufficiently isolated and unperturbed galaxies the halo can relax to a steady state configuration, where heating and cooling rates locally balance and hydrostatic equilibrium prevails. These steady state conditions can be solved to derive the physical properties, including the halo density and temperature profiles, for model galaxies. Here, we consider idealized spherically symmetric galaxies within the mirror dark particle model, as in our earlier paper [Phys. Rev. D 97, 043012 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevD.97.043012], but we assume that the local halo heating in the SN vicinity dominates over radiative sources. With this assumption, physically interesting steady state solutions arise which we compute for a representative range of model galaxies. The end result is a rather simple description of the dark matter halo around idealized spherically symmetric systems, characterized in principle by only one parameter, with physical properties that closely resemble the empirical properties of disk galaxies.

  5. Steady state compact toroidal plasma production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William C.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.

  6. 40 CFR 1039.505 - How do I test engines using steady-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing? 1039.505 Section 1039.505 Protection of Environment... duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing? This section describes how to test engines under steady-state conditions. In some cases, we allow you to choose the appropriate steady-state duty cycle for an...

  7. Stochastic pumping of non-equilibrium steady-states: how molecules adapt to a fluctuating environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astumian, R D

    2018-01-11

    In the absence of input energy, a chemical reaction in a closed system ineluctably relaxes toward an equilibrium state governed by a Boltzmann distribution. The addition of a catalyst to the system provides a way for more rapid equilibration toward this distribution, but the catalyst can never, in and of itself, drive the system away from equilibrium. In the presence of external fluctuations, however, a macromolecular catalyst (e.g., an enzyme) can absorb energy and drive the formation of a steady state between reactant and product that is not determined solely by their relative energies. Due to the ubiquity of non-equilibrium steady states in living systems, the development of a theory for the effects of external fluctuations on chemical systems has been a longstanding focus of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The theory of stochastic pumping has provided insight into how a non-equilibrium steady-state can be formed and maintained in the presence of dissipation and kinetic asymmetry. This effort has been greatly enhanced by a confluence of experimental and theoretical work on synthetic molecular machines designed explicitly to harness external energy to drive non-equilibrium transport and self-assembly.

  8. Steady-state solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppin, S. S. L.; Huppert, Herbert E.; Worster, M. Grae

    We report on a series of experiments in which a Hele-Shaw cell containing aqueous solutions of NH4Cl was translated at prescribed rates through a steady temperature gradient. The salt formed the primary solid phase of a mushy layer as the solution solidified, with the salt-depleted residual fluid driving buoyancy-driven convection and the development of chimneys in the mushy layer. Depending on the operating conditions, several morphological transitions occurred. A regime diagram is presented quantifying these transitions as a function of freezing rate and the initial concentration of the solution. In general, for a given concentration, increasing the freezing rate caused the steady-state system to change from a convecting mushy layer with chimneys to a non-convecting mushy layer below a relatively quiescent liquid, and then to a much thinner mushy layer separated from the liquid by a region of active secondary nucleation. At higher initial concentrations the second of these states did not occur. At lower concentrations, but still above the eutectic, the mushy layer disappeared. A simple mathematical model of the system is developed which compares well with the experimental measurements of the intermediate, non-convecting state and serves as a benchmark against which to understand some of the effects of convection. Movies are available with the online version of the paper.

  9. Steady-state modeling of reactive distillation columns - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i1.9535

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Steffen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for the solution of the mathematical model featuring reactive distillation process in steady-state columns is analyzed. It has been presumed that each stage’s outlet streams in the model were in phase equilibrium conditions and that chemical kinetics was described by a reaction rate model. Within the context of the developed algorithm a procedure to solve a set of equations in a sequential form and a methodology to produce the initial estimates was defined. Broyden’s method was employed to solve the equations that model the chemical reactions. Algorithm was evaluated by study cases of 2-pentene metathesis and MTBE synthesis. The simulation results were close to results available in the literature and the proposed algorithm proved to be efficient since in both cases the convergence towards a solution was found.

  10. Waste dissolution with chemical reaction, diffusion and advection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambre, P.L.; Kang, C.H.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    This paper extends the mass-transfer analysis to include the effect of advective transport in predicting the steady-state dissolution rate, with a chemical-reaction-rate boundary condition at the surface of a waste form of arbitrary shape. This new theory provides an analytic means of predicting the ground-water velocities at which dissolution rate in a geologic environment will be governed entirely to the chemical reaction rate. As an illustration, we consider the steady-state potential flow of ground water in porous rock surrounding a spherical waste solid. 3 refs., 2 figs

  11. Steady State Shift Damage Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekjær, Claus; Bull, Thomas; Markvart, Morten Kusk

    2017-01-01

    The steady state shift damage localization (S3DL) method localizes structural deterioration, manifested as either a mass or stiffness perturbation, by interrogating the damage-induced change in the steady state vibration response with damage patterns cast from a theoretical model. Damage is, thus...... the required accuracy when examining complex structures, an extensive amount of degrees of freedom (DOF) must often be utilized. Since the interrogation matrix for each damage pattern depends on the size of the system matrices constituting the FE-model, the computational time quickly becomes of first......-order importance. The present paper investigates two sub-structuring approaches, in which the idea is to employ Craig-Bampton super-elements to reduce the amount of interrogation distributions while still providing an acceptable localization resolution. The first approach operates on a strict super-element level...

  12. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO FORMATION OF CONDITIONS OF TRANSITION TO STEADY DEVELOPMENT OF THE CREDIT ORGANIZATIONS OF REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Pechonik

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Formation of conditions of transition to steady development of the credit organizations assumes presence of scientific toolkit which should have methodological character and represent a set of scientific receptions, methods and principles of research to which definition given clause is devoted. The executed research has shown, that the logic and the scheme of the scientific analysis of processes of maintenance with bank service of economic system of region and formation of conditions of steady development of regional bank system should: to be based on statistical methods with use of system of national accounts in addition with the SWOT-analysis of bank system; formation of conditions of transition to steady development to be spent in a complex and comprehensively; management of process of transition to steady development of bank system should be carried out at active state participation within the limits of creation socially focused according to plan-market economy. At the given approach formation of conditions of transition of regional bank system on steady development, in our opinion, becomes possible.

  13. Quantum thermodynamics of nanoscale steady states far from equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Nobuhiko

    2018-04-01

    We develop an exact quantum thermodynamic description for a noninteracting nanoscale steady state that couples strongly with multiple reservoirs. We demonstrate that there exists a steady-state extension of the thermodynamic function that correctly accounts for the multiterminal Landauer-Büttiker formula of quantum transport of charge, energy, or heat via the nonequilibrium thermodynamic relations. Its explicit form is obtained for a single bosonic or fermionic level in the wide-band limit, and corresponding thermodynamic forces (affinities) are identified. Nonlinear generalization of the Onsager reciprocity relations are derived. We suggest that the steady-state thermodynamic function is also capable of characterizing the heat current fluctuations of the critical transport where the thermal fluctuations dominate. Also, the suggested nonequilibrium steady-state thermodynamic relations seemingly persist for a spin-degenerate single level with local interaction.

  14. Steady states in conformal theories

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    A novel conjecture regarding the steady state behavior of conformal field theories placed between two heat baths will be presented. Some verification of the conjecture will be provided in the context of fluid dynamics and holography.

  15. Three-stage steady-state model for biomass gasification in a dual circulating fluidized-bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thanh D.B.; Ngo, Son Ich; Lim, Young-Il; Lee, Jeong Woo; Lee, Uen-Do; Song, Byung-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Steam gasification of woodchips is examined in dual circulating fluidized-bed (DFB). ► We develop a three-stage model (TSM) for process performance evaluation. ► Effect of gasification temperature and steam to fuel ratio is investigated. ► Several effective operating conditions are found by parametric study. - Abstract: A three-stage steady state model (TSM) was developed for biomass steam gasification in a dual circulating fluidized-bed (DFB) to calculate the composition of producer gas, carbon conversion, heat recovery, cost efficiency, and heat demand needed for the endothermic gasification reactions. The model was divided into three stages including biomass pyrolysis, char–gas reactions, and gas–phase reaction. At each stage, an empirical equation was estimated from experimental data. It was assumed that both unconverted char and additional fuel were completely combusted at 950 °C in the combustor (riser) and the heat required for gasification reactions was provided by the bed material (silica sand). The model was validated with experimental data taken from the literature. The parametric study of the gasification temperature (T) and the steam to fuel ratio (γ) was then carried out to evaluate performance criteria of a 1.8 MW DFB gasifier using woodchips as a feedstock for the electric power generation. Effective operating conditions of the DFB gasifier were proposed by means of the contour of the solid circulation ratio, the heat recovery, the additional fuel ratio and the cost efficiency with respect to T and γ.

  16. A second dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (Type A) of the human pathogen Enterococcus faecalis: expression, purification, and steady-state kinetic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkeviciene, J; Jiang, W; Locke, G; Kopcho, L M; Rogers, M J; Copeland, R A

    2000-05-01

    We report the identification, expression, and characterization of a second Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODase A) from the human pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. The enzyme consists of a polypeptide chain of 322 amino acids that shares 68% identity with the cognate type A enzyme from the bacterium Lactococcus lactis. E. faecalis DHODase A catalyzed the oxidation of l-dihydroorotate while reducing a number of substrates, including fumarate, coenzyme Q(0), and menadione. The steady-state kinetic mechanism has been determined with menadione as an oxidizing substrate at pH 7.5. Initial velocity and product inhibition data suggest that the enzyme follows a two-site nonclassical ping-pong kinetic mechanism. The absorbance of the active site FMN cofactor is quenched in a concentration-dependent manner by titration with orotate and barbituric acid, two competitive inhibitors with respect to dihydroorotate. In contrast, titration of the enzyme with menadione had no effect on FMN absorbance, consistent with nonoverlapping binding sites for dihyroorotate and menadione, as suggested from the kinetic mechanism. The reductive half-reaction has been shown to be only partially rate limiting, and an attempt to evaluate the slow step in the overall reaction has been made by simulating orotate production under steady-state conditions. Our data indicate that the oxidative half-reaction is a rate-limiting segment, while orotate, most likely, retains significant affinity for the reduced enzyme, as suggested by the product inhibition pattern. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. A novel multivariate STeady-state index during general ANesthesia (STAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ana; de Almeida, Fernando Gomes; Amorim, Pedro; Nunes, Catarina S

    2017-08-01

    The assessment of the adequacy of general anesthesia for surgery, namely the nociception/anti-nociception balance, has received wide attention from the scientific community. Monitoring systems based on the frontal EEG/EMG, or autonomic state reactions (e.g. heart rate and blood pressure) have been developed aiming to objectively assess this balance. In this study a new multivariate indicator of patients' steady-state during anesthesia (STAN) is proposed, based on wavelet analysis of signals linked to noxious activation. A clinical protocol was designed to analyze precise noxious stimuli (laryngoscopy/intubation, tetanic, and incision), under three different analgesic doses; patients were randomized to receive either remifentanil 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0 ng/ml. ECG, PPG, BP, BIS, EMG and [Formula: see text] were continuously recorded. ECG, PPG and BP were processed to extract beat-to-beat information, and [Formula: see text] curve used to estimate the respiration rate. A combined steady-state index based on wavelet analysis of these variables, was applied and compared between the three study groups and stimuli (Wilcoxon signed ranks, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests). Following institutional approval and signing the informed consent thirty four patients were enrolled in this study (3 excluded due to signal loss during data collection). The BIS index of the EEG, frontal EMG, heart rate, BP, and PPG wave amplitude changed in response to different noxious stimuli. Laryngoscopy/intubation was the stimulus with the more pronounced response [Formula: see text]. These variables were used in the construction of the combined index STAN; STAN responded adequately to noxious stimuli, with a more pronounced response to laryngoscopy/intubation (18.5-43.1 %, [Formula: see text]), and the attenuation provided by the analgesic, detecting steady-state periods in the different physiological signals analyzed (approximately 50 % of the total study time). A new multivariate approach for

  18. Differences between automatically detected and steady-state fractional flow reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härle, Tobias; Meyer, Sven; Vahldiek, Felix; Elsässer, Albrecht

    2016-02-01

    Measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR) has become a standard diagnostic tool in the catheterization laboratory. FFR evaluation studies were based on pressure recordings during steady-state maximum hyperemia. Commercially available computer systems detect the lowest Pd/Pa ratio automatically, which might not always be measured during steady-state hyperemia. We sought to compare the automatically detected FFR and true steady-state FFR. Pressure measurement traces of 105 coronary lesions from 77 patients with intermediate coronary lesions or multivessel disease were reviewed. In all patients, hyperemia had been achieved by intravenous adenosine administration using a dosage of 140 µg/kg/min. In 42 lesions (40%) automatically detected FFR was lower than true steady-state FFR. Mean bias was 0.009 (standard deviation 0.015, limits of agreement -0.02, 0.037). In 4 lesions (3.8%) both methods lead to different treatment recommendations, in all 4 cases instantaneous wave-free ratio confirmed steady-state FFR. Automatically detected FFR was slightly lower than steady-state FFR in more than one-third of cases. Consequently, interpretation of automatically detected FFR values closely below the cutoff value requires special attention.

  19. Erratum to: Study on Chloride Ion Penetration Resistance of Rubberized Concrete Under Steady State Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Noor Nurazuwa

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of crumb rubber, CR as fine aggregate in the concrete to enhance concrete durability against chloride ion diffusion was studied. Chloride ion diffusion in rubberized concrete was tested by migration test under steady state condition. Concrete specimen with water-to-cement ratio of 0.50 was prepared to study the CR effectiveness in comparison with lower water-to-cement ratio. In addition, 10% silica fume, SF was added to provide denser concrete and to understand its effectiveness against chloride ion diffusion. Results showed that chloride transport characteristics were improved by the increasing amount of CR in all mixed due to the fact that CR has the ability to repel water. Meanwhile, rubberized concrete with w/c = 0.35 gave better resistance against chloride ion penetration compared to w/c = 0.50. This was much improved with combination of CR and SF.

  20. Stochastic theory of nonequilibrium steady states and its applications. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuejuan; Qian Hong; Qian Min

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of equilibrium and nonequilibrium steady states are introduced in the present review as mathematical concepts associated with stationary Markov processes. For both discrete stochastic systems with master equations and continuous diffusion processes with Fokker–Planck equations, the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) is characterized in terms of several key notions which are originated from nonequilibrium physics: time irreversibility, breakdown of detailed balance, free energy dissipation, and positive entropy production rate. After presenting this NESS theory in pedagogically accessible mathematical terms that require only a minimal amount of prerequisites in nonlinear differential equations and the theory of probability, it is applied, in Part I, to two widely studied problems: the stochastic resonance (also known as coherent resonance) and molecular motors (also known as Brownian ratchet). Although both areas have advanced rapidly on their own with a vast amount of literature, the theory of NESS provides them with a unifying mathematical foundation. Part II of this review contains applications of the NESS theory to processes from cellular biochemistry, ranging from enzyme catalyzed reactions, kinetic proofreading, to zeroth-order ultrasensitivity.

  1. Steady State versus Pulsed Tokamak DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orsitto, F.P., E-mail: francesco.orsitto@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA Unita Tecnica Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Todd, T. [CCFE/Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: The present report deals with a Review of problems for a Steady state(SS) DEMO, related argument is treated about the models and the present status of comparison between the characteristics of DEMO pulsed versus a Steady state device.The studied SS DEMO Models (SLIM CS, PPCS model C EU-DEMO, ARIES-RS) are analyzed from the point of view of the similarity scaling laws and critical issues for a steady state DEMO. A comparison between steady state and pulsed DEMO is therefore carried out: in this context a new set of parameters for a pulsed (6 - 8 hours pulse) DEMO is determined working below the density limit, peak temperature of 20 keV, and requiring a modest improvement in the confinement factor(H{sub IPBy2} = 1.1) with respect to the H-mode. Both parameters density and confinement parameter are lower than the DEMO models presently considered. The concept of partially non-inductive pulsed DEMO is introduced since a pulsed DEMO needs heating and current drive tools for plasma stability and burn control. The change of the main parameter design for a DEMO working at high plasma peak temperatures T{sub e} {approx} 35 keV is analyzed: in this range the reactivity increases linearly with temperature, and a device with smaller major radius (R = 7.5 m) is compatible with high temperature. Increasing temperature is beneficial for current drive efficiency and heat load on divertor, being the synchrotron radiation one of the relevant components of the plasma emission at high temperatures and current drive efficiency increases with temperature. Technology and engineering problems are examined including efficiency and availability R&D issues for a high temperature DEMO. Fatigue and creep-fatigue effects of pulsed operations on pulsed DEMO components are considered in outline to define the R&D needed for DEMO development. (author)

  2. LANSCE steady state unperturbed thermal neutron fluxes at 100 μA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    The ''maximum'' unperturbed, steady state thermal neutron flux for LANSCE is calculated to be 2 /times/ 10 13 n/cm 2 -s for 100 μA of 800-MeV protons. This LANSCE neutron flux is a comparable entity to a steady state reactor thermal neutron flux. LANSCE perturbed steady state thermal neutron fluxes have also been calculated. Because LANSCE is a pulsed neutron source, much higher ''peak'' (in time) neutron fluxes can be generated than at a steady state reactor source. 5 refs., 5 figs

  3. Calculation analysis on steady state natural circulation characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei; Nie Changhua; Huang Yanping

    2005-01-01

    The calculation results of single-phase steady state natural circulation characteristics by using Retran02 code have been presented, good agreement is achieved between the verified calculation result and the experimental data which were conducted at a test facility. Based on the calculation model, some sensibility analyses were made and much deeper understanding for single-phase steady state natural circulation characteristics was obtained. (author)

  4. Steady-state entanglement activation in optomechanical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Alessandro; Ciccarello, Francesco; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2014-02-01

    Quantum discord, and related indicators, are raising a relentless interest as a novel paradigm of nonclassical correlations beyond entanglement. Here, we discover a discord-activated mechanism yielding steady-state entanglement production in a realistic continuous-variable setup. This comprises two coupled optomechanical cavities, where the optical modes (OMs) communicate through a fiber. We first use a simplified model to highlight the creation of steady-state discord between the OMs. We show next that such discord improves the level of stationary optomechanical entanglement attainable in the system, making it more robust against temperature and thermal noise.

  5. Theoretical analysis of steady state operating forces in control valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj Hubballi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The controlling components, such as valves are used to regulate controlled fluid power. It is not always possible to calculate valve forces accurately, and with some types of valves even the existence of certain types of forces cannot be predicted with certainty. In many cases, however, the analysis can be made fairly completely and accurately. The assumption of steady state conditions is valid for the valve alone, but transient effects in the rest of the system may be large. These effects are particularly important with regard to the instability of valves, where the system may react on the valve in such a way as to make it squeal or oscillate, sometimes with large amplitude. The origin of the steady state flow force understood from a brief qualitative explanation. The following paper will summarize much of what is known about valve forces in the spool type controlling element.

  6. Infinite slope stability under steady unsaturated seepage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2008-01-01

    We present a generalized framework for the stability of infinite slopes under steady unsaturated seepage conditions. The analytical framework allows the water table to be located at any depth below the ground surface and variation of soil suction and moisture content above the water table under steady infiltration conditions. The framework also explicitly considers the effect of weathering and porosity increase near the ground surface on changes in the friction angle of the soil. The factor of safety is conceptualized as a function of the depth within the vadose zone and can be reduced to the classical analytical solution for subaerial infinite slopes in the saturated zone. Slope stability analyses with hypothetical sandy and silty soils are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the framework. These analyses indicate that for hillslopes of both sandy and silty soils, failure can occur above the water table under steady infiltration conditions, which is consistent with some field observations that cannot be predicted by the classical infinite slope theory. A case study of shallow slope failures of sandy colluvium on steep coastal hillslopes near Seattle, Washington, is presented to examine the predictive utility of the proposed framework.

  7. The technology and science of steady-state operation in magnetically confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becoulet, A; Hoang, G T

    2008-01-01

    The steady-state operation of magnetically confined fusion plasmas is considered as one of the 'grand challenges' of future decades, if not the ultimate goal of the research and development activities towards a new source of energy. Reaching such a goal requires the high-level integration of both science and technology aspects of magnetic fusion into self-consistent plasma regimes in fusion-grade devices. On the physics side, the first constraint addresses the magnetic confinement itself which must be made persistent. This means to either rely on intrinsically steady-state configurations, like the stellarator one, or turn the inductively driven tokamak configuration into a fully non-inductive one, through a mix of additional current sources. The low efficiency of the external current drive methods and the necessity to minimize the re-circulating power claim for a current mix strongly weighted by the internal 'pressure driven' bootstrap current, itself strongly sensitive to the heat and particle transport properties of the plasma. A virtuous circle may form as the heat and particle transport properties are themselves sensitive to the current profile conditions. Note that several other factors, e.g. plasma rotation profile, magneto-hydro-dynamics activity, also influence the equilibrium state. In the present tokamak devices, several examples of such 'advanced tokamak' physics research demonstrate the feasibility of steady-state regimes, though with a number of open questions still under investigation. The modelling activity also progresses quite fast in this domain and supports understanding and extrapolation. This high level of physics sophistication of the plasma scenario however needs to be combined with steady-state technological constraints. The technology constraints for steady-state operation are basically twofold: the specific technologies required to reach the steady-state plasma conditions and the generic technologies linked to the long pulse operation of a

  8. Dynamic fluid connectivity during steady-state multiphase flow in a sandstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Catriona A; Menke, Hannah; Andrew, Matthew; Blunt, Martin J; Krevor, Samuel

    2017-08-01

    The current conceptual picture of steady-state multiphase Darcy flow in porous media is that the fluid phases organize into separate flow pathways with stable interfaces. Here we demonstrate a previously unobserved type of steady-state flow behavior, which we term "dynamic connectivity," using fast pore-scale X-ray imaging. We image the flow of N 2 and brine through a permeable sandstone at subsurface reservoir conditions, and low capillary numbers, and at constant fluid saturation. At any instant, the network of pores filled with the nonwetting phase is not necessarily connected. Flow occurs along pathways that periodically reconnect, like cars controlled by traffic lights. This behavior is consistent with an energy balance, where some of the energy of the injected fluids is sporadically converted to create new interfaces.

  9. Numerical method for three dimensional steady-state two-phase flow calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, P.; Toumi, I.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the numerical scheme which was developed for the FLICA-4 computer code to calculate three dimensional steady state two phase flows. This computer code is devoted to steady state and transient thermal hydraulics analysis of nuclear reactor cores 1,3 . The first section briefly describes the FLICA-4 flow modelling. Then in order to introduce the numerical method for steady state computations, some details are given about the implicit numerical scheme based upon an approximate Riemann solver which was developed for calculation of flow transients. The third section deals with the numerical method for steady state computations, which is derived from this previous general scheme and its optimization. We give some numerical results for steady state calculations and comparisons on required CPU time and memory for various meshing and linear system solvers

  10. Steady State Stokes Flow Interpolation for Fluid Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatacharya, Haimasree; Nielsen, Michael Bang; Bridson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    — suffer from a common problem. They fail to capture the rotational components of the velocity field, although extrapolation in the normal direction does consider the tangential component. We address this problem by casting the interpolation as a steady state Stokes flow. This type of flow captures......Fluid control methods often require surface velocities interpolated throughout the interior of a shape to use the velocity as a feedback force or as a boundary condition. Prior methods for interpolation in computer graphics — velocity extrapolation in the normal direction and potential flow...

  11. The Markov process admits a consistent steady-state thermodynamic formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liangrong; Zhu, Yi; Hong, Liu

    2018-01-01

    The search for a unified formulation for describing various non-equilibrium processes is a central task of modern non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In this paper, a novel steady-state thermodynamic formalism was established for general Markov processes described by the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. Furthermore, corresponding formalisms of steady-state thermodynamics for the master equation and Fokker-Planck equation could be rigorously derived in mathematics. To be concrete, we proved that (1) in the limit of continuous time, the steady-state thermodynamic formalism for the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation fully agrees with that for the master equation; (2) a similar one-to-one correspondence could be established rigorously between the master equation and Fokker-Planck equation in the limit of large system size; (3) when a Markov process is restrained to one-step jump, the steady-state thermodynamic formalism for the Fokker-Planck equation with discrete state variables also goes to that for master equations, as the discretization step gets smaller and smaller. Our analysis indicated that general Markov processes admit a unified and self-consistent non-equilibrium steady-state thermodynamic formalism, regardless of underlying detailed models.

  12. Fast Prediction Method for Steady-State Heat Convection

    KAUST Repository

    Wáng, Yì

    2012-03-14

    A reduced model by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and Galerkin projection methods for steady-state heat convection is established on a nonuniform grid. It was verified by thousands of examples that the results are in good agreement with the results obtained from the finite volume method. This model can also predict the cases where model parameters far exceed the sample scope. Moreover, the calculation time needed by the model is much shorter than that needed for the finite volume method. Thus, the nonuniform POD-Galerkin projection method exhibits high accuracy, good suitability, and fast computation. It has universal significance for accurate and fast prediction. Also, the methodology can be applied to more complex modeling in chemical engineering and technology, such as reaction and turbulence. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Contour analysis of steady state tokamak reactor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devoto, R.S.; Fenstermacher, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    A new method of analysis for presenting the possible operating space for steady state, non-ignited tokamak reactors is proposed. The method uses contours of reactor performance and plasma characteristics, fusion power gain, wall neutron flux, current drive power, etc., plotted on a two-dimensional grid, the axes of which are the plasma current I p and the normalized beta, β n = β/(I p /aB 0 ), to show possible operating points. These steady state operating contour plots are called SOPCONS. This technique is illustrated in an application to a design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) with neutral beam, lower hybrid and bootstrap current drive. The utility of the SOPCON plots for pointing out some of the non-intuitive considerations in steady state reactor design is shown. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  14. Minimal gain marching schemes: searching for unstable steady-states with unsteady solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S. Teixeira, Renan; S. de B. Alves, Leonardo

    2017-12-01

    Reference solutions are important in several applications. They are used as base states in linear stability analyses as well as initial conditions and reference states for sponge zones in numerical simulations, just to name a few examples. Their accuracy is also paramount in both fields, leading to more reliable analyses and efficient simulations, respectively. Hence, steady-states usually make the best reference solutions. Unfortunately, standard marching schemes utilized for accurate unsteady simulations almost never reach steady-states of unstable flows. Steady governing equations could be solved instead, by employing Newton-type methods often coupled with continuation techniques. However, such iterative approaches do require large computational resources and very good initial guesses to converge. These difficulties motivated the development of a technique known as selective frequency damping (SFD) (Åkervik et al. in Phys Fluids 18(6):068102, 2006). It adds a source term to the unsteady governing equations that filters out the unstable frequencies, allowing a steady-state to be reached. This approach does not require a good initial condition and works well for self-excited flows, where a single nonzero excitation frequency is selected by either absolute or global instability mechanisms. On the other hand, it seems unable to damp stationary disturbances. Furthermore, flows with a broad unstable frequency spectrum might require the use of multiple filters, which delays convergence significantly. Both scenarios appear in convectively, absolutely or globally unstable flows. An alternative approach is proposed in the present paper. It modifies the coefficients of a marching scheme in such a way that makes the absolute value of its linear gain smaller than one within the required unstable frequency spectra, allowing the respective disturbance amplitudes to decay given enough time. These ideas are applied here to implicit multi-step schemes. A few chosen test cases

  15. Study of dynamics of glucose-glucose oxidase-ferricyanide reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, A.; Schreiberová, L.; Schreiber, I.

    2011-12-01

    This work is focused on dynamics of the glucose-glucose oxidase-ferricyanide enzymatic reaction with or without sodium hydroxide in a continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and in a batch reactor. This reaction exhibits pH-variations having autocatalytic character and is reported to provide nonlinear dynamic behavior (bistability, excitability). The dynamical behavior of the reaction was examined within a wide range of inlet parameters. The main inlet parameters were the ratio of concentrations of sodium hydroxide and ferricyanide and the flow rate. In a batch reactor we observed an autocatalytic drop of pH from slightly basic to medium acidic values. In a CSTR our aim was to find bistability in the presence of sodium hydroxide. However, only a basic steady state was found. In order to reach an acidic steady state, we investigated the system in the absence of sodium hydroxide. Under these conditions the transition from the basic to the acidic steady state was observed when inlet glucose concentration was increased.

  16. Nanoscale steady-state temperature gradients within polymer nanocomposites undergoing continuous-wave photothermal heating from gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Somsubhra; Wu, Wei-Chen; Tracy, Joseph B; Clarke, Laura I; Bochinski, Jason R

    2017-08-17

    Anisotropically-shaped metal nanoparticles act as nanoscale heaters via excitation of a localized surface plasmon resonance, utilizing a photothermal effect which converts the optical energy into local heat. Steady-state temperatures within a polymer matrix embedded with gold nanorods undergoing photothermal heating using continuous-wave excitation are measured in the immediate spatial vicinity of the nanoparticle (referred to as the local temperature) from observing the rate of physical rotation of the asymmetric nanoparticles within the locally created polymer melt. Average temperatures across the entire (mostly solid) sample (referred to as the global temperature) are simultaneously observed using a fluorescence method from randomly dispersed molecular emitters. Comparing these two independent measurements in films having varying concentrations of nanorods reveals the interplay between the local and global temperatures, clearly demonstrating the capability of these material samples to sustain large steady-state spatial temperature gradients when experiencing continuous-wave excitation photothermal heating. These results are discussed quantitatively. Illustrative imaging studies of nanofibers under photothermal heating also support the presence of a large temperature gradient. Photothermal heating in this manner has potential utility in creating unique thermal processing conditions for outcomes such as driving chemical reactions, inducing crystallinity changes, or enhancing degradation processes in a manner unachievable by conventional heating methods.

  17. VALIDITY OF EXCESS ENTROPY PRODUCTION CRITERION OF THERMODYNAMIC STABILITY FOR NONEQUILIBRIUM STEADY STATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金平

    1991-01-01

    The relation between the excess entropy production criterion of thermodynamic stabilityfor nonequilibrium states and kinetic linear stability principle is discussed. It is shown thatthe condition required by the excess entropy production criterion generally is sufficient, butnot necessary to judge the system stability. The condition required by the excess entropyproduction criterion is stronger than that of the linear stability principle. Only when theproduct matrix between the linearized matrix of kinetic equations and matrix of quadraticform of second-order excess entropy is symmetric, is the condition required by the excessentropy production criterion that the steady steate is asymptotically stable (δ_xP>0) necessaryand sufficient. The counterexample given by Fox to prove that the excess entropy, (δ~2S)ss,is not a Liapunov function is incorrect. Contradictory to his conclusion, the counterexampleis just a positive one that proves that the excess entropy is a Liapunov function. Moreover,the excess entropy production criterion is not limited by symmetric conditions of the linear-ized matrix of kinetic equations. The excess entropy around nonequilibrium steady states,(δ~2S)ss, is a Liapunov function of thermodynamic system.

  18. Sulfur isotopic and proteomic profiles of sulfate reducers grown under differential steady-states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, W.; Venceslau, S.; Waldbauer, J.; Smith, D. A.; Boidi, F. J.; Bradley, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reducers (MSR) drive the Earth's biogeochemical sulfur cycle. At the heart of this energy metabolism is a cascade of redox transformations coupling organic carbon and/or hydrogen oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of sulfate to sulfide. The product sulfide is depleted in the heavier isotopes of sulfur, relative to the reactant sulfate, consistent with a normal kinetic isotope effect. However, the magnitude of the net fractionation during MSR can range over a range of 70 permil, consistent with a multi-step set of reactions. This range in MSR fractionation has been shown to mainly depend on: i) the cell-specific sulfate reduction rate (csSRR), and ii) the ambient sulfate concentration. However, the fractionation under identical conditions differs among strains (Bradley et al. 2016. Geobio), and so must also be mediated by strain-specific processes, such as the nature and quantity of individual proteins involved in sulfate reduction, electron transport, and growth. In recent work we have examined the influence of electron donor, electron acceptor, and co-limitation under controlled steady-state culture conditions in order better inform models of MSR isotope fractionation, and the physiological and isotopic response to differential environmental forcings (e.g. Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS). Recent models of the fractionation response to MSR rate (c.f. Bradley 2016; Wing & Halevy, 2016) make specific predictions for the responses of the cellular metabolome and proteome. Here we compare the steady-state S-isotopic fractionation and proteome of `fast' versus `slow' grown D. vulgaris, using replicate chemostats under electron donor limitation. We observe clear and statistically robust changes in some key central MSR and C-metabolism enzymes, though a host of the critical energy-transfer enzymes show no statistically discernable change. We discuss these results in light of recent theoretical advances and their relevance to modern and ancient

  19. Modeling of the blood rheology in steady-state shear flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolidis, Alex J.; Beris, Antony N.

    2014-01-01

    We undertake here a systematic study of the rheology of blood in steady-state shear flows. As blood is a complex fluid, the first question that we try to answer is whether, even in steady-state shear flows, we can model it as a rheologically simple fluid, i.e., we can describe its behavior through a constitutive model that involves only local kinematic quantities. Having answered that question positively, we then probe as to which non-Newtonian model best fits available shear stress vs shear-rate literature data. We show that under physiological conditions blood is typically viscoplastic, i.e., it exhibits a yield stress that acts as a minimum threshold for flow. We further show that the Casson model emerges naturally as the best approximation, at least for low and moderate shear-rates. We then develop systematically a parametric dependence of the rheological parameters entering the Casson model on key physiological quantities, such as the red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit). For the yield stress, we base our description on its critical, percolation-originated nature. Thus, we first determine onset conditions, i.e., the critical threshold value that the hematocrit has to have in order for yield stress to appear. It is shown that this is a function of the concentration of a key red blood cell binding protein, fibrinogen. Then, we establish a parametric dependence as a function of the fibrinogen and the square of the difference of the hematocrit from its critical onset value. Similarly, we provide an expression for the Casson viscosity, in terms of the hematocrit and the temperature. A successful validation of the proposed formula is performed against additional experimental literature data. The proposed expression is anticipated to be useful not only for steady-state blood flow modeling but also as providing the starting point for transient shear, or more general flow modeling

  20. Malonic acid concentration as a control parameter in the kinetic analysis of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction under batch conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagojević, Slavica M; Anić, Slobodan R; Cupić, Zeljko D; Pejić, Natasa D; Kolar-Anić, Ljiljana Z

    2008-11-28

    The influence of the initial malonic acid concentration [MA]0 (8.00 x 10(-3) sulfuric acid (1.00 mol dm(-3)) and cerium sulfate (2.50 x 10(-3) mol dm(-3)) on the dynamics and the kinetics of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reactions was examined under batch conditions at 30.0 degrees C. The kinetics of the BZ reaction was analyzed by the earlier proposed method convenient for the examinations of the oscillatory reactions. In the defined region of parameters where oscillograms with only large-amplitude relaxation oscillations appeared, the pseudo-first order of the overall malonic acid decomposition with a corresponding rate constant of 2.14 x 10(-2) min(-1) was established. The numerical results on the dynamics and kinetics of the BZ reaction, carried out by the known skeleton model including the Br2O species, were in good agreement with the experimental ones. The already found saddle node infinite period (SNIPER) bifurcation point in transition from a stable quasi-steady state to periodic orbits and vice versa is confirmed by both experimental and numerical investigations of the system under consideration. Namely, the large-amplitude relaxation oscillations with increasing periods between oscillations in approaching the bifurcation points at the beginning and the end of the oscillatory domain, together with excitability of the stable quasi-steady states in their vicinity are obtained.

  1. Steady-state spheromak reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    After summarizing the essential elements of a gun-sustained spheromak, the potential for a steady-state is explored by means of a comprehensive physics/engineering/costing model. A range of cost-optimized reactor design points is presented, and the sensitivity of cost to key physics, engineering, and operational variables is reported

  2. Steady-state pulses and superradiance in short-wavelength, swept-gain amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifacio, R.; Hopf, F.A.; Meystre, P.; Scully, M.O.

    1975-01-01

    The steady-state behavior of amplifiers in which the excitation is swept at the speed of light is discussed in the semiclassical approximation. In the present work the case where the decay time of the population is comparable to that of the polarization is examined. Pulse propagation is shown to obey a generalized sine-Gordon equation which contains the effects of atomic relaxations. The analytical expression of the steady-state pulses (SSP) gives two threshold conditions. In the region of limited gain the SSP is a broad pulse with small area which can be obtained by small signal theory. In the second region of high gain the SSP is the superradiant π pulse. Its pulse power is not limited as in usual superradiant theory because, as is shown, for a swept excitation the cooperation-length limit does not exist

  3. Steady state of tapped granular polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlevaro, Carlos M; Pugnaloni, Luis A

    2011-01-01

    The steady state packing fraction of a tapped granular bed is studied for different grain shapes via a discrete element method. Grains are monosized regular polygons, from triangles to icosagons. Comparisons with disc packings show that the steady state packing fraction as a function of the tapping intensity presents the same general trends in polygon packings. However, better packing fractions are obtained, as expected, for shapes that can tessellate the plane (triangles, squares and hexagons). In addition, we find a sharp transition for packings of polygons with more than 13 vertices signaled by a discontinuity in the packing fraction at a particular tapping intensity. Density fluctuations for most shapes are consistent with recent experimental findings in disc packing; however, a peculiar behavior is found for triangles and squares

  4. Steady-state propagation of interface corner crack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veluri, Badrinath; Jensen, Henrik Myhre

    2013-01-01

    Steady-state propagation of interface cracks close to three-dimensional corners has been analyzed. Attention was focused on modeling the shape of the interface crack front and calculating the critical stress for steady-state propagation of the crack. The crack propagation was investigated...... on the finite element method with iterative adjustment of the crack front to estimate the critical delamination stresses as a function of the fracture criterion and corner angles. The implication of the results on the delamination is discussed in terms of crack front profiles and the critical stresses...... for propagation and the angle of intersection of the crack front with the free edge....

  5. Steady-state leaching of tritiated water from silica gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, H.A.; Hou, Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion.......Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion....

  6. Quasi steady-state aerodynamic model development for race vehicle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrfeld-Halterman, J. A.; Uddin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a procedure to develop a high fidelity quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for use in race car vehicle dynamic simulations. Developed to fit quasi steady-state wind tunnel data, the aerodynamic model is regressed against three independent variables: front ground clearance, rear ride height, and yaw angle. An initial dual range model is presented and then further refined to reduce the model complexity while maintaining a high level of predictive accuracy. The model complexity reduction decreases the required amount of wind tunnel data thereby reducing wind tunnel testing time and cost. The quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for the pitch moment degree of freedom is systematically developed in this paper. This same procedure can be extended to the other five aerodynamic degrees of freedom to develop a complete six degree of freedom quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for any vehicle.

  7. Steady-state capabilities for hydroturbines with OpenFOAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, M.; Beaudoin, M.; Giroux, A. M.

    2010-08-01

    The availability of a high quality Open Source CFD simulation platform like OpenFOAM offers new R&D opportunities by providing direct access to models and solver implementation details. Efforts have been made by Hydro-Québec to adapt OpenFOAM to hydroturbines for the development of steady-state capabilities. The paper describes the developments that have been made to implement new turbomachinery related capabilities: Multiple Frame of Reference solver, domain coupling interfaces (GGI, cyclicGGI and mixing plane) and specialized boundary conditions. Practical use of the new turbomachinery capabilities are demonstrated for the analysis of a 195-MW Francis hydroturbine.

  8. Steady-state capabilities for hydroturbines with OpenFOAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, M; Beaudoin, M; Giroux, A M, E-mail: page.maryse@ireq.c [Hydro-Quebec, Institut de recherche 1800 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S1 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    The availability of a high quality Open Source CFD simulation platform like OpenFOAM offers new R and D opportunities by providing direct access to models and solver implementation details. Efforts have been made by Hydro-Quebec to adapt OpenFOAM to hydroturbines for the development of steady-state capabilities. The paper describes the developments that have been made to implement new turbomachinery related capabilities: Multiple Frame of Reference solver, domain coupling interfaces (GGI, cyclicGGI and mixing plane) and specialized boundary conditions. Practical use of the new turbomachinery capabilities are demonstrated for the analysis of a 195-MW Francis hydroturbine.

  9. Steady-state capabilities for hydroturbines with OpenFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, M; Beaudoin, M; Giroux, A M

    2010-01-01

    The availability of a high quality Open Source CFD simulation platform like OpenFOAM offers new R and D opportunities by providing direct access to models and solver implementation details. Efforts have been made by Hydro-Quebec to adapt OpenFOAM to hydroturbines for the development of steady-state capabilities. The paper describes the developments that have been made to implement new turbomachinery related capabilities: Multiple Frame of Reference solver, domain coupling interfaces (GGI, cyclicGGI and mixing plane) and specialized boundary conditions. Practical use of the new turbomachinery capabilities are demonstrated for the analysis of a 195-MW Francis hydroturbine.

  10. Steady State Advanced Tokamak (SSAT): The mission and the machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.; Goldston, R.; Nevins, B.; Neilson, H.; Shannon, T.; Montgomery, B.

    1992-03-01

    Extending the tokamak concept to the steady state regime and pursuing advances in tokamak physics are important and complementary steps for the magnetic fusion energy program. The required transition away from inductive current drive will provide exciting opportunities for advances in tokamak physics, as well as important impetus to drive advances in fusion technology. Recognizing this, the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee and the US National Energy Strategy identified the development of steady state tokamak physics and technology, and improvements in the tokamak concept, as vital elements in the magnetic fusion energy development plan. Both called for the construction of a steady state tokamak facility to address these plan elements. Advances in physics that produce better confinement and higher pressure limits are required for a similar unit size reactor. Regimes with largely self-driven plasma current are required to permit a steady-state tokamak reactor with acceptable recirculating power. Reliable techniques of disruption control will be needed to achieve the availability goals of an economic reactor. Thus the central role of this new tokamak facility is to point the way to a more attractive demonstration reactor (DEMO) than the present data base would support. To meet the challenges, we propose a new ''Steady State Advanced Tokamak'' (SSAT) facility that would develop and demonstrate optimized steady state tokamak operating mode. While other tokamaks in the world program employ superconducting toroidal field coils, SSAT would be the first major tokamak to operate with a fully superconducting coil set in the elongated, divertor geometry planned for ITER and DEMO

  11. Assessing Quasi-Steady State in Evaporation of Sessile Drops by Diffusion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cameron; Nguyen, Hoa; Kelly-Zion, Peter; Pursell, Chris

    2017-11-01

    The vapor distributions surrounding sessile drops of methanol are modeled as the solutions of the steady-state and transient diffusion equations using Matlab's PDE Toolbox. The goal is to determine how quickly the transient diffusive transport reaches its quasi-steady state as the droplet geometry is varied between a Weber's disc, a real droplet shape, and a spherical cap with matching thickness or contact angle. We assume that the only transport mechanism at work is diffusion. Quasi-steady state is defined using several metrics, such as differences between the transient and steady-state solutions, and change in the transient solution over time. Knowing the vapor distribution, the gradient is computed to evaluate the diffusive flux. The flux is integrated along the surface of a control volume surrounding the drop to obtain the net rate of diffusion out of the volume. Based on the differences between the transient and steady-state diffusive fluxes at the discrete points along the control-volume surface, the time to reach quasi-steady state evaporation is determined and is consistent with other proposed measurements. By varying the dimensions of the control volume, we can also assess what regimes have equivalent or different quasi-steady states for different droplet geometries. Petroleum Research Fund.

  12. Methods of computing steady-state voltage stability margins of power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Joe Hong; Ghiocel, Scott Gordon

    2018-03-20

    In steady-state voltage stability analysis, as load increases toward a maximum, conventional Newton-Raphson power flow Jacobian matrix becomes increasingly ill-conditioned so power flow fails to converge before reaching maximum loading. A method to directly eliminate this singularity reformulates the power flow problem by introducing an AQ bus with specified bus angle and reactive power consumption of a load bus. For steady-state voltage stability analysis, the angle separation between the swing bus and AQ bus can be varied to control power transfer to the load, rather than specifying the load power itself. For an AQ bus, the power flow formulation is only made up of a reactive power equation, thus reducing the size of the Jacobian matrix by one. This reduced Jacobian matrix is nonsingular at the critical voltage point, eliminating a major difficulty in voltage stability analysis for power system operations.

  13. Evaluating steady-state soil thickness by coupling uranium series and 10Be cosmogenic radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Veerle; Schoonejans, Jerome; Opfergelt, Sophie; Granet, Matthieu; Christl, Marcus; Chabaux, Francois

    2017-04-01

    Within the Critical Zone, the development of the regolith mantle is controlled by the downwards propagation of the weathering front into the bedrock and denudation at the surface of the regolith by mass movements, water and wind erosion. When the removal of surface material is approximately balanced by the soil production, the soil system is assumed to be in steady-state. The steady state soil thickness (or so-called SSST) can be considered as a dynamic equilibrium of the system, where the thickness of the soil mantle stays relatively constant over time. In this study, we present and compare analytical data from two independent isotopic techniques: in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides and U-series disequilibria to constrain soil development under semi-arid climatic conditions. The Spanish Betic Cordillera (Southeast Spain) was selected for this study, as it offers us a unique opportunity to analyze soil thickness steady-state conditions for thin soils of semiarid environments. Three soil profiles were sampled across the Betic Ranges, at the ridge crest of zero-order catchments with distinct topographic relief, hillslope gradient and 10Be-derived denudation rate. The magnitude of soil production rates determined based on U-series isotopes (238U, 234U, 230Th and 226Ra) is in the same order of magnitude as the 10Be-derived denudation rates, suggesting steady state soil thickness in two out of three sampling sites. The results suggest that coupling U-series isotopes with in-situ produced radionuclides can provide new insights in the rates of soil development; and also illustrate the potential frontiers in applying U-series disequilibria to track soil production in rapidly eroding landscapes characterized by thin weathering depths.

  14. Steady-State Clozapine and Norclozapine Pharmacokinetics in Maori and European Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes, David B; Glue, Paul; Gale, Christopher; Lam, Frederic; Hung, Cheung-Tak; Hung, Noelyn

    2018-01-01

    Clozapine is the most effective drug for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but its use is limited by toxicity. Because ethnicity has been reported to affect clozapine metabolism, we compared its steady state pharmacokinetics in New Zealand Maori and European patients. Clozapine and norclozapine steady state bioavailability was assessed over 24h under fasting and fed conditions in 12 Maori and 16 European patients treated for chronic psychotic illnesses with stable once-daily clozapine doses. Plasma clozapine and norclozapine concentrations were assessed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry; pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using standard non-compartmental methods, and compared using unpaired t-tests. Mean pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC, C max and C min ) for clozapine and norclozapine were virtually identical in Maori and European subjects, under both fed and fasted conditions. Clozapine bioavailability does not vary between Maori and European patients, and thus does not need to be considered in prescribing decisions. Additional studies are needed to identify if there are differences between Maori and European populations for drugs metabolized by other enzyme pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of non-steady irradiation conditions on fusion materials performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, H.; Fukumoto, K.; Nagumo, T.; Nita, N.

    2001-01-01

    During startup of fusion reactors, materials are exposed to neutron irradiation under non-steady temperature condition. Since the temperature of irradiation has decisive effects on the microstructural evolution, the non-steady temperature will have important consequences in the performance of fusion reactor materials. In the present study, a series of vanadium based alloys have been irradiated with neutrons in a temperature cycling condition. It has been found from this study that cavity number density is much greater in temperature cycled specimens than in steady temperature irradiation. Keeping the upper temperature constant, cavity number density is greater for smaller difference between the upper and the lower temperature. It follows that relatively small temperature excursions may have rather significant effects on the fusion material performance in service. (author)

  16. A Model to Predict the Steady-State Concentration of Hydroxyl Radicals in the Surface Layer of Natural Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minero, C.; Lauri, V.; Maurino, V.; Pelizzetti, E.; Vione, D.

    2007-01-01

    A model was developed to predict the steady-state [·OH] in the surface layer of natural waters as a function of nitrate, inorganic carbon (IC) and dissolved organic matter (DOM). The parameter values were studied in the range detected in shallow high-mountain lakes, to which the model results are most relevant. Calculations indicate that [·OH] increases with increasing nitrate and decreasing IC, and conditions are also identified where [·OH] is directly proportional, inversely proportional or independent of DOM. Based on the model results it is possible to predict the half-life time, due to reaction with ·OH, of given dissolved compounds, including organic pollutants, from the water composition data

  17. Analysis of steady state and transient two-phase flows in downwardly inclined lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    A study of steady-state and transient two-phase flows in downwardly inclined lines is described. Steady-state flow patterns maps are presented using Freon-113 as the working fluid to provide new high density vapors. These flow maps with high density vapor serve to significantly extend the investigations of steady-state downward two-phase flow patterns. Physical models developed which successfully predicted the onset or location of various flow pattern transitions. A new simplified criterion that would be useful to designers and experimenters is offered for the onset of dispersed flow. A new empirical holdup correlation and a new bubble diameter/flow rate correlation are also proposed. Flow transients in vertical downward lines were studied to investigate the possible formation of intermediate or spurious flow patterns that would not be seen at steady-state conditions. Void fraction behavior during the transients was modeled by using the dynamic slip equation from the transient analysis code RETRAN. Physical models of interfacial area were developed and compared with models and data from literature. There was satisfactory agreement between the models of the present study and the literature models and data. The concentration parameter of the drift flux model was evaluated for vertical downward flow. These new values of the flow dependent parameter were different from those previously proposed in the literature for use in upward flows, and made the drift flux model suitable for use in upward or downward flow lines

  18. Steady state theta pinch concept for slow formation of FRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, K.

    1987-05-01

    A steady state high beta plasma flow through a channel along the magnetic field increasing downstream can be regarded as a ''steady state theta pinch'', because if we see the plasma riding on the flow we should observe very similar process taking place in a theta pinch. Anticipating to produce an FRC without using very high voltage technics such as the ones required in a conventional theta pinch, we have studied after the analogy a ''steady state reversed field theta pinch'' which is brought about by steady head-on collision of counter plasma streams along the channel as ejected from two identical co-axial plasma sources mounted at the both ends of the apparatus. The ideal Poisson and shock adiabatic flow models are employed for the analysis of the steady colliding process. It is demonstrated that an FRC involving large numbers of particles is produced only by the weak shock mode which is achieved in case energetic plasma flow is decelerated almost to be stagnated through Poisson adiabatic process before the streams are collided. (author)

  19. Operating conditions of steam generators for LMFBR's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratzel, W

    1975-07-01

    Operating conditions considered to be appropriate for a LMFBR steam generator are discussed on the example of the SNR 300. The areas covered are steady state and transient conditions, upset and emergency temperature transients, and requirements due to sodium-water reactions. (author)

  20. Operating conditions of steam generators for LMFBR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratzel, W.

    1975-01-01

    Operating conditions considered to be appropriate for a LMFBR steam generator are discussed on the example of the SNR 300. The areas covered are steady state and transient conditions, upset and emergency temperature transients, and requirements due to sodium-water reactions. (author)

  1. A new perspective on steady-state cosmology: from Einstein to Hoyle

    OpenAIRE

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; Mitton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported the discovery of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted a 'steady-state' model of the universe, i.e., a cosmic model in which the expanding universe remains essentially unchanged due to a continuous formation of matter from empty space. The manuscript was apparently written in early 1931, many years before the steady-state models of Fred Hoyle, Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold. We compare Einstein’s steady-state cosmology with that of Hoyle, Bondi...

  2. Maximum Entropy Production Is Not a Steady State Attractor for 2D Fluid Convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Bartlett

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple authors have claimed that the natural convection of a fluid is a process that exhibits maximum entropy production (MEP. However, almost all such investigations were limited to fixed temperature boundary conditions (BCs. It was found that under those conditions, the system tends to maximize its heat flux, and hence it was concluded that the MEP state is a dynamical attractor. However, since entropy production varies with heat flux and difference of inverse temperature, it is essential that any complete investigation of entropy production allows for variations in heat flux and temperature difference. Only then can we legitimately assess whether the MEP state is the most attractive. Our previous work made use of negative feedback BCs to explore this possibility. We found that the steady state of the system was far from the MEP state. For any system, entropy production can only be maximized subject to a finite set of physical and material constraints. In the case of our previous work, it was possible that the adopted set of fluid parameters were constraining the system in such a way that it was entirely prevented from reaching the MEP state. Hence, in the present work, we used a different set of boundary parameters, such that the steady states of the system were in the local vicinity of the MEP state. If MEP was indeed an attractor, relaxing those constraints of our previous work should have caused a discrete perturbation to the surface of steady state heat flux values near the value corresponding to MEP. We found no such perturbation, and hence no discernible attraction to the MEP state. Furthermore, systems with fixed flux BCs actually minimize their entropy production (relative to the alternative stable state, that of pure diffusive heat transport. This leads us to conclude that the principle of MEP is not an accurate indicator of which stable steady state a convective system will adopt. However, for all BCs considered, the quotient of

  3. The quasi-steady state of all-vanadium redox flow batteries: A scale analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.K.; Vynnycky, M.; Ling, C.Y.; Birgersson, E.; Han, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a transient 2D model for a VRFB (conservation of species and charge); • Carry out scale analysis of the species conservation equation; • Derive the condition characterizing the quasi-steadiness of VRFB operation; • Verify it by comparing charge-discharge curve with transient simulations. - Abstract: In general, mathematical models for all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB) that seek to capture the transport phenomena are transient in nature. In this paper, we carry out scale analysis of VRFB operation and derive the conditions when it can be assumed to be quasi-steady state in nature, i.e., time-dependence only through a boundary condition. We find that it is true for typical tank volume and flow rate employed for VRFBs. The proposed analysis is generic and can also be employed for other types of redox flow batteries

  4. Transient and steady-state currents in epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillermin, Christophe; Rain, Pascal; Rowe, Stephen W

    2006-01-01

    Charging and discharging currents have been measured in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin with and without silica fillers, below and above its glass transition temperature T g = 65 deg. C. Both transient and steady-state current densities have been analysed. The average applied fields ranged from 3 to 35 kV mm -1 with a sample thickness of 0.5 mm. Above T g , transient currents suggested a phenomenon of charge injection forming trapped space charges even at low fields. Steady-state currents confirmed that the behaviour was not Ohmic and suggested Schottky-type injection. Below T g , the current is not controlled by the metal-dielectric interface but by the conduction in the volume: the current is Ohmic at low fields and both transient and steady-state currents suggest a phenomenon of space-charge limited currents at high fields. The field threshold is similar in the filler-free and the filled resin. Values in the range 12-17 kV mm -1 have been measured

  5. Transient and steady-state currents in epoxy resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillermin, Christophe [Schneider Electric Industries S.A.S., 37 quai Paul-Louis Merlin, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rain, Pascal [Laboratoire d' Electrostatique et de Materiaux Dielectriques (LEMD), CNRS, 25 avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rowe, Stephen W [Schneider Electric Industries S.A.S., 37 quai Paul-Louis Merlin, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2006-02-07

    Charging and discharging currents have been measured in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin with and without silica fillers, below and above its glass transition temperature T{sub g} = 65 deg. C. Both transient and steady-state current densities have been analysed. The average applied fields ranged from 3 to 35 kV mm{sup -1} with a sample thickness of 0.5 mm. Above T{sub g}, transient currents suggested a phenomenon of charge injection forming trapped space charges even at low fields. Steady-state currents confirmed that the behaviour was not Ohmic and suggested Schottky-type injection. Below T{sub g}, the current is not controlled by the metal-dielectric interface but by the conduction in the volume: the current is Ohmic at low fields and both transient and steady-state currents suggest a phenomenon of space-charge limited currents at high fields. The field threshold is similar in the filler-free and the filled resin. Values in the range 12-17 kV mm{sup -1} have been measured.

  6. Steady-state optimization of ore-dressing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The ore-dressing plant consists of the steps of grinding and flotation. Its optimization is based on steady state simulation of the mass balances with a plant model. The model data are obtained by tracer tests and analysis. An evaluation of performance of the plant has to observe the recovery of the valuable mineral, the throughput of the system and the grade of the concentrate which are outputs of the flotation plant. Simulation with the flotation plant model yields that combination of values of controllable inputs to flotation which corresponds to an optimal operation of the conditioning an flotation system, for a specified feed and its fractional composition. Simulations for other feeds and compositions advise how they should be chosen, for a better overall performance. (author)

  7. Efficient steady-state solver for hierarchical quantum master equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hou-Dao; Qiao, Qin; Xu, Rui-Xue; Zheng, Xiao; Yan, YiJing

    2017-07-01

    Steady states play pivotal roles in many equilibrium and non-equilibrium open system studies. Their accurate evaluations call for exact theories with rigorous treatment of system-bath interactions. Therein, the hierarchical equations-of-motion (HEOM) formalism is a nonperturbative and non-Markovian quantum dissipation theory, which can faithfully describe the dissipative dynamics and nonlinear response of open systems. Nevertheless, solving the steady states of open quantum systems via HEOM is often a challenging task, due to the vast number of dynamical quantities involved. In this work, we propose a self-consistent iteration approach that quickly solves the HEOM steady states. We demonstrate its high efficiency with accurate and fast evaluations of low-temperature thermal equilibrium of a model Fenna-Matthews-Olson pigment-protein complex. Numerically exact evaluation of thermal equilibrium Rényi entropies and stationary emission line shapes is presented with detailed discussion.

  8. Rheological behavior of semi-solid 7075 aluminum alloy at steady state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yageng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The further application of semi-solid processing lies in the in-depth fundamental study like rheological behavior. In this research, the apparent viscosity of the semi-solid slurry of 7075 alloy was measured using a Couette type viscometer. The effects of solid fraction and shearing rate on the apparent viscosity of this alloy were investigated under different processing conditions. It can be seen that the apparent viscosity increases with an increase in the solid fraction from 10% to 50% (temperature 620 篊 to 630 篊 at steady state. When the solid fraction was fixed, the apparent viscosity can be decreased by altering the shearing rate from 61.235 s-1 to 489.88 s-1 at steady state. An empirical equation that shows the effects of solid fraction and shearing rate on the apparent viscosity is fitted. The microstructure of quenched samples was examined to understand the alloy抯 rheological behavior.

  9. Effects of governing parameters on steady-state inter-wrapper flow in an LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Shoichi

    2001-01-01

    Hydraulic experiments were performed using a 1/8th scale rectangular model, based on a Japanese demonstration fast breeder reactor design, in order to study fundamental characteristics of interwrapper flows occurring under steady state conditions in an LMFBR. The steady state interwrapper flow of which direction was downward in the center region and upward in the peripheral region of a core barrel was observed because of the radial static pressure gradient in the upper part of the core barrel, produced by a core blockage effect resulting from an above core structure with a perforated skirt. Thermal stratification phenomena were moreover observed in the interwrapper region, created by the hot steady state interwrapper flow from an upper plenum and the cold leakage flow through the separated plate of the core barrel. The thermal interface was generated in higher part of the core barrel when the core blockage effect was smaller and Richardson number and the leakage flow rate ratio were larger. Significant temperature fluctuations occurred in the peripheral region of the core barrel, when the difference between the interface elevations in the center and peripheral regions of the core barrel was enough large. (author)

  10. Steady state flow evaluations for passive auxiliary feedwater system of APR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongha; Kim, Jaeyul; Seong, Hoje; Kang, Kyoungho

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces a methodology to evaluate steady state flow of APR+ Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS). The PAFS is being developed as a safety grade passive system to completely replace the existing active Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS). Natural circulation cooling can be generally classified into the single-phase, two-phase, and boiling-condensation modes. The PAF is designed to be operated in a boiling-condensation natural circulation mode. The steady-state flow rate should be equal to the steady-state boiling/condensation rate determined by the steady-state energy and momentum balances in the PAFS. The determined steady-state flow rate can be used in the design optimization for the natural circulation loop of the PAFS through the steady-state momentum balance. Since the retarding force, which is to be balanced by the driving force in the natural circulation system design depends on the reliable evaluation of the success of a natural circulation system design depends on the reliable evaluation of the pressure loss coefficients. In PAFS, the core decay heat is released by natural circulation flow between the S G secondary side and the Passive Condensation Heat Exchanger (PCHX) that is immersed in the Passive Condensation Cooling Tank (PCCT). The PCCT is located on the top of Auxiliary building The driving force is determined by the difference between the S/G (heat Source) secondary water level and condensation liquid (heat sink) level. It will overcome retarding force at flowrate in the system, which is determined by vaporization and condensation of the steam which is generated at the S/G by the latent heat in system. In this study, the theoretical method to estimate the steady state flow rate in boiling-condensation natural circulation system is developed and compared with test results

  11. Modeling the UO2 ex-AUC pellet process and predicting the fuel rod temperature distribution under steady-state operating condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen Trong; Thuan, Le Ba; Thanh, Tran Chi; Nhuan, Hoang; Khoai, Do Van; Tung, Nguyen Van; Lee, Jin-Young; Jyothi, Rajesh Kumar

    2018-06-01

    Modeling uranium dioxide pellet process from ammonium uranyl carbonate - derived uranium dioxide powder (UO2 ex-AUC powder) and predicting fuel rod temperature distribution were reported in the paper. Response surface methodology (RSM) and FRAPCON-4.0 code were used to model the process and to predict the fuel rod temperature under steady-state operating condition. Fuel rod design of AP-1000 designed by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in these the pellet fabrication parameters are from the study, were input data for the code. The predictive data were suggested the relationship between the fabrication parameters of UO2 pellets and their temperature image in nuclear reactor.

  12. Einstein's steady-state theory: an abandoned model of the cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; McCann, Brendan; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon

    2014-09-01

    We present a translation and analysis of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted to construct a `steady-state' model of the universe. The manuscript, which appears to have been written in early 1931, demonstrates that Einstein once explored a cosmic model in which the mean density of matter in an expanding universe is maintained constant by the continuous formation of matter from empty space. This model is very different to previously known Einsteinian models of the cosmos (both static and dynamic) but anticipates the later steady-state cosmology of Hoyle, Bondi and Gold in some ways. We find that Einstein's steady-state model contains a fundamental flaw and suggest that it was abandoned for this reason. We also suggest that he declined to explore a more sophisticated version because he found such theories rather contrived. The manuscript is of historical interest because it reveals that Einstein debated between steady-state and evolving models of the cosmos decades before a similar debate took place in the cosmological community.

  13. Characterization of the Inlet Port Flow under Steady-State Conditions Using PIV and POD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed El-Adawy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study demonstrates an experimental investigation of the tumble flow structures using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV under steady-state conditions considering the central vertical tumble plane. The experiments were carried out on a four-valve, pent-roof Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI engine head at different valve lifts and with a pressure difference of 150 mmH2O across the intake valves. Furthermore, the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD analytical technique was applied to PIV-measured velocity vector maps to characterize the flow structures at various valve lifts, and hence the different rig tumble values. The results show that at low valve lifts (1 to 5 mm, 48.9 to 46.6% of the flow energy is concentrated in the large (mode 1 eddies with only 8.4 to 11.46% in mode 2 and 7.2 to 7.5 in mode 3. At high valve lifts, it can be clearly seen that some of the energy in the large eddies of mode 1 is transferred to the smaller flow structures of modes 2 and 3. This can be clearly seen at valve lift 10 mm where the values of the flow energy were 40.6%, 17.3%, and 8.0% for modes 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

  14. History independence of steady state in simultaneous two-phase flow through two-dimensional porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpelding, Marion; Sinha, Santanu; Tallakstad, Ken Tore; Hansen, Alex; Flekkøy, Eirik Grude; Måløy, Knut Jørgen

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that the transient behavior during drainage or imbibition in multiphase flow in porous media strongly depends on the history and initial condition of the system. However, when the steady-state regime is reached and both drainage and imbibition take place at the pore level, the influence of the evolution history and initial preparation is an open question. Here, we present an extensive experimental and numerical work investigating the history dependence of simultaneous steady-state two-phase flow through porous media. Our experimental system consists of a Hele-Shaw cell filled with glass beads which we model numerically by a network of disordered pores transporting two immiscible fluids. From measurements of global pressure evolution, histograms of saturation, and cluster-size distributions, we find that when both phases are flowing through the porous medium, the steady state does not depend on the initial preparation of the system or on the way it has been reached.

  15. Asymptotic stability of a coupled advection-diffusion-reaction system arising in bioreactor processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Crespo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present an asymptotic analysis of a coupled system of two advection-diffusion-reaction equations with Danckwerts boundary conditions, which models the interaction between a microbial population (e.g., bacteria, called biomass, and a diluted organic contaminant (e.g., nitrates, called substrate, in a continuous flow bioreactor. This system exhibits, under suitable conditions, two stable equilibrium states: one steady state in which the biomass becomes extinct and no reaction is produced, called washout, and another steady state, which corresponds to the partial elimination of the substrate. We use the linearization method to give sufficient conditions for the linear asymptotic stability of the two stable equilibrium configurations. Finally, we compare our asymptotic analysis with the usual asymptotic analysis associated to the continuous bioreactor when it is modeled with ordinary differential equations.

  16. Modelling 3H and 14C transfer to farm animals and their products under steady state conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D.; Melintescu, A.; Beresford, N.A.; Crout, N.M.J.; Peterson, R.; Takeda, H.

    2007-01-01

    The radionuclides 14 C and 3 H may both be released from nuclear facilities. These radionuclides are unusual, in that they are isotopes of macro-elements which form the basis of animal tissues, feed and, in the case of 3 H, water. There are few published values describing the transfer of 3 H and 14 C from feed to animal derived food products under steady state conditions. Approaches are described which enable the prediction of 14 C and 3 H transfer parameter values from readily available information on the stable H or C concentration of animal feeds, tissues and milk, water turnover rates, and feed intakes and digestibilities. We recommend that the concentration ratio between feed and animal product activity concentrations be used as it is less variable than the transfer coefficient (ratio between radionuclide activity concentration in animal milk or tissue to the daily intake of a radionuclide)

  17. Structural evaluation of FHX for PGSFR at steady state condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nak-Hyun; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, S. K. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Liquid sodium flows inside the heat transfer tubes and atmospheric air flows over the finned tubes. The configuration and overall shape of the unit are shown in Figure 1. The unit is placed in the upper region of the reactor building and has function of dumping the system heat load into the final heat sink, i.e., the atmosphere. Heat is transmitted from the primary cold sodium pool into the ADHRS sodium loop via DHX (Decay Heat Exchanger), and a direct heat exchange occurs between the tube-side sodium and the shell-side air through the FHX tube wall. Cold atmospheric air is introduced into the air inlet duct at the lower part of the unit by using an electrically operated air blower or by the natural circulation force. Air flows across the finned tube bank rising upward direction to make uniform air flow with perfect mixing across the tubes. The finned tube bundle is placed inside a well-insulated casing. The air heated at the tube bank region is collected at the top of the unit and then is discharged through the air stack above the unit. Although a blower supplies atmospheric cooling air into the FHX unit, a tall air stack of 30 m in height is also provided to secure natural draft head of natural circulation air flow against a loss of power supply. The structural analysis of a FHX are carried out and its structural integrity under the given service levels is evaluated per ASME Code rule. The design loads according to design condition and normal operating steady condition are classified and stresses calculated from stress analyses are linearized and summarized in their stress components.

  18. Experimental evaluation of improved dual temperature hydrogen isotopic exchange reaction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Yamato; Uchida, Shunsuke

    1984-01-01

    A proposed dual temperature hydrogen isotopic exchange reaction system between water and hydrogen gas is evaluated experimentally. The proposed system is composed of low temperature co-current reactors for reaction between water mists and hydrogen gas and high temperature co-current reactors for reaction between water vapor and hydrogen gas. Thus, operation is possible under atmospheric pressure with high reaction efficiency. Using the pilot test system which is composed of ten low temperature (30 0 C) reaction units and ten high temperature (200 0 C) reaction units, an experimental separation of deuterium from light water is carried out. The enrichment factor under steady state conditions, its dependency on operating time, and the reaction period necessary to obtain the steady state enrichment factor are determined experimentally and compared with calculations. It is shown that separation ability in a multistage reaction system can be estimated by numerical calculation using actual reaction efficiency in a unit reactor. (author)

  19. Steady-state models in electrophoresis: from isotachophoresis to capillary zone electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Although all electrophoretic techniques are closely allied and controlled by the same rules, we often distinguish between steady-state and dynamic models in the modeling of electrophoretic processes, whereby steady-state models are applied for isotachophoresis (ITP) and dynamic models are applied

  20. Theoretical research of helium pulsating heat pipe under steady state conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, D; Liu, H M; Li, L F; Huang, R J; Wang, W

    2015-01-01

    As a new-type heat pipe, pulsating heat pipe (PHP) has several outstanding features, such as great heat transport ability, strong adjustability, small size and simple construction. PHP is a complex two-phase flow system associated with many physical subjects and parameters, which utilizes the pressure and temperature changes in volume expansion and contraction during phase changes to excite the pulsation motion of liquid plugs and vapor bubbles in the capillary tube between the evaporator and the condenser. At present time, some experimental investigation of helium PHP have been done. However, theoretical research of helium PHP is rare. In this paper, the physical and mathematical models of operating mechanism for helium PHP under steady state are established based on the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. Several important parameters are correlated and solved, including the liquid filling ratio, flow velocity, heat power, temperature, etc. Based on the results, the operational driving force and flow resistances of helium PHP are analysed, and the flow and heat transfer is further studied. (paper)

  1. Theoretical research of helium pulsating heat pipe under steady state conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D.; Liu, H. M.; Li, L. F.; Huang, R. J.; Wang, W.

    2015-12-01

    As a new-type heat pipe, pulsating heat pipe (PHP) has several outstanding features, such as great heat transport ability, strong adjustability, small size and simple construction. PHP is a complex two-phase flow system associated with many physical subjects and parameters, which utilizes the pressure and temperature changes in volume expansion and contraction during phase changes to excite the pulsation motion of liquid plugs and vapor bubbles in the capillary tube between the evaporator and the condenser. At present time, some experimental investigation of helium PHP have been done. However, theoretical research of helium PHP is rare. In this paper, the physical and mathematical models of operating mechanism for helium PHP under steady state are established based on the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. Several important parameters are correlated and solved, including the liquid filling ratio, flow velocity, heat power, temperature, etc. Based on the results, the operational driving force and flow resistances of helium PHP are analysed, and the flow and heat transfer is further studied.

  2. X-Ray Spectral Analysis of the Steady States of GRS1915+105

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Charith S.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Steiner, James F.; Vrtilek, Saeqa D.; Varnière, Peggy; Rodriguez, Jerome; Pooley, Guy

    2016-05-01

    We report on the X-ray spectral behavior within the steady states of GRS1915+105. Our work is based on the full data set of the source obtained using the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and 15 GHz radio data obtained using the Ryle Telescope. The steady observations within the X-ray data set naturally separated into two regions in the color-color diagram and we refer to these regions as steady-soft and steady-hard. GRS1915+105 displays significant curvature in the coronal component in both the soft and hard data within the RXTE/PCA bandpass. A majority of the steady-soft observations displays a roughly constant inner disk radius ({R}{{in}}), while the steady-hard observations display an evolving disk truncation which is correlated to the mass accretion rate through the disk. The disk flux and coronal flux are strongly correlated in steady-hard observations and very weakly correlated in the steady-soft observations. Within the steady-hard observations, we observe two particular circumstances when there are correlations between the coronal X-ray flux and the radio flux with log slopes η ˜ 0.68+/- 0.35 and η ˜ 1.12+/- 0.13. They are consistent with the upper and lower tracks of Gallo et al. (2012), respectively. A comparison of the model parameters to the state definitions shows that almost all of the steady-soft observations match the criteria of either a thermal or steep power-law state, while a large portion of the steady-hard observations match the hard-state criteria when the disk fraction constraint is neglected.

  3. Quantum-classical correspondence in steady states of nonadiabatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Mikiya; Yamashita, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    We first present nonadiabatic path integral which is exact formulation of quantum dynamics in nonadiabatic systems. Then, by applying the stationary phase approximations to the nonadiabatic path integral, a semiclassical quantization condition, i.e., quantum-classical correspondence, for steady states of nonadiabatic systems is presented as a nonadiabatic trace formula. The present quantum-classical correspondence indicates that a set of primitive hopping periodic orbits, which are invariant under time evolution in the phase space of the slow degree of freedom, should be quantized. The semiclassical quantization is then applied to a simple nonadiabatic model and accurately reproduces exact quantum energy levels

  4. Steady state heat transfer of helium cooled cable bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, A.

    1982-01-01

    In the present study nucleate and film boiling heat transfer characteristics of horizontal conductor bundles are investigated at steady state conditions. The effect of gaps between wires, number of wires, wire position, wire size and bundle orientation on the departure from nucleate boiling and transition to film boiling is studied. For gaps close to the bubble departure diameter, the critical heat flux can approach up to 90% of the single wire value. Consequently, the maximum stable current for a given bundle can be significantly increased above the single conductor value for the same cross-sectional area. (author)

  5. Restitution slope is principally determined by steady-state action potential duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattock, Michael J; Park, Kyung Chan; Yang, Hsiang-Yu; Lee, Angela W C; Niederer, Steven; MacLeod, Kenneth T; Winter, James

    2017-06-01

    The steepness of the action potential duration (APD) restitution curve and local tissue refractoriness are both thought to play important roles in arrhythmogenesis. Despite this, there has been little recognition of the apparent association between steady-state APD and the slope of the restitution curve. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that restitution slope is determined by APD and to examine the relationship between restitution slope, refractoriness and susceptibility to VF. Experiments were conducted in isolated hearts and ventricular myocytes from adult guinea pigs and rabbits. Restitution curves were measured under control conditions and following intervention to prolong (clofilium, veratridine, bretylium, low [Ca]e, chronic transverse aortic constriction) or shorten (catecholamines, rapid pacing) ventricular APD. Despite markedly differing mechanisms of action, all interventions that prolonged the action potential led to a steepening of the restitution curve (and vice versa). Normalizing the restitution curve as a % of steady-state APD abolished the difference in restitution curves with all interventions. Effects on restitution were preserved when APD was modulated by current injection in myocytes pre-treated with the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM - to abolish the intracellular calcium transient. The non-linear relation between APD and the rate of repolarization of the action potential is shown to underpin the common influence of APD on the slope of the restitution curve. Susceptibility to VF was found to parallel changes in APD/refractoriness, rather than restitution slope. Steady-state APD is the principal determinant of the slope of the ventricular electrical restitution curve. In the absence of post-repolarization refractoriness, factors that prolong the action potential would be expected to steepen the restitution curve. However, concomitant changes in tissue refractoriness act to reduce susceptibility to sustained VF. Dependence on

  6. Physical design of MW-class steady-state spherical tokamak, QUEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, K.; Sato, K.N.; Zushi, H.; Nakamura, K.; Sakamoto, M.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Higashizono, Y.; Yoshida, N.; Takase, Y.; Ejiri, A.; Ogawa, Y.; Ono, Y.; Yoshida, Z.; Mitarai, O.; Maekawa, T.; Kishimoto, Y.; Ishiguro, M.; Yoshinaga, T.; Igami, H.; Hirooka, Y.; Komori, A.; Motojima, O.; Sudo, S.; Yamada, H.; Ando, A.; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Matsukawa, Makoto; Ishida, A.; Ohno, N.; Peng, M.

    2008-10-01

    QUEST (R=0.68 m, a=0.4 m) focuses on the steady state operation of the spherical tokamak (ST) by controlled PWI and electron Bernstain wave (EBW) current drive (CD). The QUEST project will be developed along two phases, phase I: steady state operation with plasma current, I p =20-30 kA on open divertor configuration and phase II: steady state operation with I p = 100 kA and β of 10% in short pulse on closed divertor configuration. Feasibility of the missions on QUEST was investigated and the suitable machine size of QUEST was decided based on the physical view of plasma parameters. Electron Bernstein wave (EBW) current drive are planned to establish the maintenance of plasma current in steady state. Mode conversion efficiency to EBW was calculated and the conversion of 95% will be expected. A new type antenna for QUEST has been fabricated to excite EBW effectively. The situation of heat and particle handling is challenging, and W and high temperature wall is adopted. The start-up scenario of plasma current was investigated based on the driven current by energetic electron and the most favorable magnetic configuration for start-up is proposed. (author)

  7. Seeing the talker's face supports executive processing of speech in steady state noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sushmit; Lunner, Thomas; Stenfelt, Stefan; Rönnberg, Jerker; Rudner, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Listening to speech in noise depletes cognitive resources, affecting speech processing. The present study investigated how remaining resources or cognitive spare capacity (CSC) can be deployed by young adults with normal hearing. We administered a test of CSC (CSCT; Mishra et al., 2013) along with a battery of established cognitive tests to 20 participants with normal hearing. In the CSCT, lists of two-digit numbers were presented with and without visual cues in quiet, as well as in steady-state and speech-like noise at a high intelligibility level. In low load conditions, two numbers were recalled according to instructions inducing executive processing (updating, inhibition) and in high load conditions the participants were additionally instructed to recall one extra number, which was the always the first item in the list. In line with previous findings, results showed that CSC was sensitive to memory load and executive function but generally not related to working memory capacity (WMC). Furthermore, CSCT scores in quiet were lowered by visual cues, probably due to distraction. In steady-state noise, the presence of visual cues improved CSCT scores, probably by enabling better encoding. Contrary to our expectation, CSCT performance was disrupted more in steady-state than speech-like noise, although only without visual cues, possibly because selective attention could be used to ignore the speech-like background and provide an enriched representation of target items in working memory similar to that obtained in quiet. This interpretation is supported by a consistent association between CSCT scores and updating skills.

  8. Performance simulation of the JPL solar-powered distiller. Part 1: Quasi-steady-state conditions. [for cooling microwave equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, C. S.; Lansing, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    A 37.85 cu m (10,000 gallons) per year (nominal) passive solar powered water distillation system was installed and is operational in the Venus Deep Space Station. The system replaced an old, electrically powered water distiller. The distilled water produced with its high electrical resistivity is used to cool the sensitive microwave equipment. A detailed thermal model was developed to simulate the performance of the distiller and study its sensitivity under varying environment and load conditions. The quasi-steady state portion of the model is presented together with the formulas for heat and mass transfer coefficients used. Initial results indicated that a daily water evaporation efficiency of 30% can be achieved. A comparison made between a full day performance simulation and the actual field measurements gave good agreement between theory and experiment, which verified the model.

  9. Active ideal sedimentation: exact two-dimensional steady states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Sophie; Schmidt, Matthias

    2018-02-28

    We consider an ideal gas of active Brownian particles that undergo self-propelled motion and both translational and rotational diffusion under the influence of gravity. We solve analytically the corresponding Smoluchowski equation in two space dimensions for steady states. The resulting one-body density is given as a series, where each term is a product of an orientation-dependent Mathieu function and a height-dependent exponential. A lower hard wall is implemented as a no-flux boundary condition. Numerical evaluation of the suitably truncated analytical solution shows the formation of two different spatial regimes upon increasing Peclet number. These regimes differ in their mean particle orientation and in their variation of the orientation-averaged density with height.

  10. Molecular control of steady-state dendritic cell maturation and immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Gianna Elena; Ma, Averil

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized sentinels responsible for coordinating adaptive immunity. This function is dependent upon coupled sensitivity to environmental signs of inflammation and infection to cellular maturation-the programmed alteration of DC phenotype and function to enhance immune cell activation. Although DCs are thus well equipped to respond to pathogens, maturation triggers are not unique to infection. Given that immune cells are exquisitely sensitive to the biological functions of DCs, we now appreciate that multiple layers of suppression are required to restrict the environmental sensitivity, cellular maturation, and even life span of DCs to prevent aberrant immune activation during the steady state. At the same time, steady-state DCs are not quiescent but rather perform key functions that support homeostasis of numerous cell types. Here we review these functions and molecular mechanisms of suppression that control steady-state DC maturation. Corruption of these steady-state operatives has diverse immunological consequences and pinpoints DCs as potent drivers of autoimmune and inflammatory disease.

  11. TRANSIENT AND STEADY STATE STUDY OF PURE AND MIXED REFRIGERANTS IN A RESIDENTIAL HEAT PUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the transient and steady state performance of a residential air-conditioning/heat pump (AC/HP) operating with different refrigerants. (NOTE: The project was motivated by environmental concerns related to...

  12. Dark Entangled Steady States of Interacting Rydberg Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasari, Durga; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    their short-lived excited states lead to rapid, dissipative formation of an entangled steady state. We show that for a wide range of physical parameters, this entangled state is formed on a time scale given by the strengths of coherent Raman and Rabi fields applied to the atoms, while it is only weakly...

  13. Lipid mobilization from human abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue is independent of sex during steady-state exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Jens; Gjeraa, Kirsten; Enevoldsen, Lotte Hahn

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate whether there are sex differences of significant biological importance in the human abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism when studied by Fick's Principle during rest and exercise in steady-state conditions. The net mobilization of fatty acids...... intensity, and for another 60 min during post-exercise recovery. The results show that there are not significant sex differences with respect to the steady-state fatty acid and glycerol mobilizations neither during resting condition nor during exercise....... and glycerol from the abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue was measured by arterio-venous catheterizations and simultaneous measurements of adipose tissue blood flow with the local Xe-clearance technique in 16 healthy, young normal weight men and women during rest, during 1 h of exercise at moderate...

  14. Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Doyon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonzero Drude peak. Using the Lieb–Robinson bound, we derive, under a certain regularity condition, a lower bound for the non-equilibrium steady-state current determined by equilibrium averages. This shows and quantifies the presence of ballistic transport far from equilibrium. The inequality suggests the definition of “nonlinear sound velocities”, which specialize to the sound velocity near equilibrium in non-integrable models, and “generalized sound velocities”, which encode generalized Gibbs thermalization in integrable models. These are bounded by the Lieb–Robinson velocity. The inequality also gives rise to a bound on the energy current noise in the case of pure energy transport. We show that the inequality is satisfied in many models where exact results are available, and that it is saturated at one-dimensional criticality.

  15. Modeling steady state and transient fission gas behaviour with the Karlsruhe code LAKU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, L.

    1984-08-01

    The programme LAKU models the behaviour of gaseous fission products in reactor fuel under steady state and transient conditions, including molten fuel. A presentation of the full model is given, starting with gas behaviour in the grains and on grain faces and including the treatment of release from porosity. The results of some recent calculations are presented. (orig.) [de

  16. A design of steady state fusion burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Hatori, Tadatsugu; Itoh, Kimitaka; Ikuta, Takashi; Kodama, Yuji.

    1975-01-01

    We present a brief design of a steady state fusion burner in which a continuous burning of nuclear fuel may be achieved with output power of a gigawatt. The laser fusion is proposed to ignite the fuel. (auth.)

  17. Steady State Analysis of LCLC Resonant Converter with Capacitive Output Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Shafiyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mathematical analysis and modeling of a 4th order LCLC resonant converter with capacitive output filter in steady-state condition. Due to the nonlinearity of the LCLC resonant circuit with capacitive output filter, the conventional modeling procedure cannot thoroughly describe the behavior of the converter. In this paper, a mathematical model is proposed that can accommodate the absence of the output inductor and predict the converter performance for a wide range of operating conditions. A 2.25KW prototype converter is provided to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed model. Experimental results show that the proposed model can precisely predict the behavior of the converter for a wide range of operating conditions.

  18. Quasi-steady state natural convection in a tilted porous layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robillard, L.; Vasseur, P. (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada))

    1992-12-01

    Natural convection in an inclined porous layer heated or cooled on one side, when its other walls are insulated, has several important engineering applications. These include solar power collection, regenerative heat exchangers, and high performance insulation for buildings and cold storage. Although the problem is basically an unsteady state one, it is known that if the heating (or cooling) process is maintained for a sufficiently long time, a quasi-steady state is approached. Quasi-steady state laminar natural convection in an inclined porous layer is studied analytically and numerically. On the basis of the Darcy-Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations, the problem is solved analytically in the limit of a thin porous layer heated on one side by a heat flux while the other boundaries are maintained adiabatic. For quasi-steady state, the flow and temperature fields overall heat transfer rates are obtained in terms of the controlling parameters and the onset of convection in a bottom heated horizantal system is predicted. It is also demonstrated for the case of a bottom-heated layer that for sufficiently small inclinations, multiple unicellular quasi-steady states exist, some of which are unstable. A numerical study of the same phenomenon, obtained by solving the complete set of governing equations, is conducted. Good agreement is found between the analytical predictions and the numerical simulation. 22 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Improved Dyson series expansion for steady-state quantum transport beyond the weak coupling limit: Divergences and resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thingna, Juzar; Zhou, Hangbo; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    We present a general theory to calculate the steady-state heat and electronic currents for nonlinear systems using a perturbative expansion in the system-bath coupling. We explicitly demonstrate that using the truncated Dyson-series leads to divergences in the steady-state limit, thus making it impossible to be used for actual applications. In order to resolve the divergences, we propose a unique choice of initial condition for the reduced density matrix, which removes the divergences at each order. Our approach not only allows us to use the truncated Dyson-series, with a reasonable choice of initial condition, but also gives the expected result that the steady-state solutions should be independent of initial preparations. Using our improved Dyson series we evaluate the heat and electronic currents up to fourth-order in system-bath coupling, a considerable improvement over the standard quantum master equation techniques. We then numerically corroborate our theory for archetypal settings of linear systems using the exact nonequilibrium Green's function approach. Finally, to demonstrate the advantage of our approach, we deal with the nonlinear spin-boson model to evaluate heat current up to fourth-order and find signatures of cotunnelling process

  20. On Steady-State Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Press: London. Marks FD, Black PG, Montgomery MT, Burpee RW. 2008. Structure of the eye and eyewall of Hurricane Hugo (1989). Mon. Weather Rev. 136: 1237... hurricanes ; tropical cyclones; typhoons; steady-state Received 18 April 2013; Revised 25 November 2013; Accepted 29 December 2013; Published online in Wiley...the concept of the ‘mature stage’ of a hurricane vortex. The definition of the ‘mature stage’ is commonly based on the time period in which the maximum

  1. STEADY-STATE RELATIVISTIC STELLAR DYNAMICS AROUND A MASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar-Or, Ben; Alexander, Tal [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, P.O. Box 26, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2016-04-01

    A massive black hole (MBH) consumes stars whose orbits evolve into the small phase-space volume of unstable orbits, the “loss cone,” which take them into the MBH, or close enough to interact strongly with it. The resulting phenomena, e.g., tidal heating and disruption, binary capture and hyper-velocity star ejection, gravitational wave (GW) emission by inspiraling compact remnants, or hydrodynamical interactions with an accretion disk, can produce observable signatures and thereby reveal the MBH, affect its mass and spin evolution, test strong gravity, and probe stars and gas near the MBH. These continuous stellar loss and resupply processes shape the central stellar distribution. We investigate relativistic stellar dynamics near the loss cone of a non-spinning MBH in steady state, analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations of the diffusion of the orbital parameters. These take into account Newtonian mass precession due to enclosed stellar mass, in-plane precession due to general relativity, dissipation by GW, uncorrelated two-body relaxation, correlated resonant relaxation (RR), and adiabatic invariance due to secular precession, using a rigorously derived description of correlated post-Newtonian dynamics in the diffusion limit. We argue that general maximal entropy considerations strongly constrain the orbital diffusion in steady state, irrespective of the relaxation mechanism. We identify the exact phase-space separatrix between plunges and inspirals, and predict their steady-state rates. We derive the dependence of the rates on the mass of the MBH, show that the contribution of RR in steady state is small, and discuss special cases where unquenched RR in restricted volumes of phase-space may affect the steady state substantially.

  2. Instabilities in fluid layers and in reaction-diffusion systems: Steady states, time-periodic solutions, non-periodic attractors, and related convective and otherwise non-linear phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Velarde, M

    1977-07-01

    Thermo convective instabilities in horizontal fluid layers are discussed with emphasis on the Rayleigh-Bernard model problem. Steady solutions and time-dependent phenomena (relaxation oscillations and transition to turbulence) are studied within the nonlinear Boussinesq-Oberbeck approximation. Homogeneous steady solutions, limit cycles, and inhomogeneous (ordered) spatial structures are also studied in simple reaction-diffusion systems. Lastly, the non-periodic attractor that appears at large Rayleigh numbers in the truncated Boussinesq-Oberbeck model of Lorenz, is constructed, and a discussion of turbulent behavior is given. (Author) 105 refs.

  3. Instabilities in fluid layers and in reaction-diffusion systems: Steady states, time-periodic solutions, non-periodic attractors, and related convective and otherwise non-linear phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Velarde, M.

    1977-01-01

    Thermoconvective instabilities in horizontal fluid layers are discussed with emphasis on the Rayleigh-Benard model problem. Steady solutions and time-dependent phenomena (relaxation oscillations and transition to turbulence) are studied within the nonlinear Boussinesq-Oberbeck approximation. Homogeneous steady solutions, limit cycles, and inhomogeneous (ordered) spatial structures are also studied in simple reaction-diffusion systems. Lastly, the non-periodic attractor that appears at large Rayleigh numbers in the truncated Boussinesq-Oberbeck model of Lorenz, is constructed, and a discussion of turbulent behavior is given. (author) [es

  4. Instabilities in fluid layers and in reaction-diffusion systems: Steady states, time-periodic solutions, non-periodic attractors, and related convective and otherwise non-linear phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Velarde, M.

    1977-01-01

    Thermo convective instabilities in horizontal fluid layers are discussed with emphasis on the Rayleigh-Bernard model problem. Steady solutions and time-dependent phenomena (relaxation oscillations and transition to turbulence) are studied within the nonlinear Boussinesq-Oberbeck approximation. Homogeneous steady solutions, limit cycles, and inhomogeneous (ordered) spatial structures are also studied in simple reaction-diffusion systems. Lastly, the non-periodic attractor that appears at large Rayleigh numbers in the truncated Boussinesq-Oberbeck model of Lorenz, is constructed, and a discussion of turbulent behavior is given. (Author) 105 refs

  5. Experimental validation of a thermodynamic boiler model under steady state and dynamic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlon, Elisa; Verma, Vijay Kumar; Schwarz, Markus; Golicza, Laszlo; Prada, Alessandro; Baratieri, Marco; Haslinger, Walter; Schmidl, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Laboratory tests on two commercially available pellet boilers. • Steady state and a dynamic load cycle tests. • Pellet boiler model calibration based on data registered in stationary operation. • Boiler model validation with reference to both stationary and dynamic operation. • Validated model suitable for coupled simulation of building and heating system. - Abstract: Nowadays dynamic building simulation is an essential tool for the design of heating systems for residential buildings. The simulation of buildings heated by biomass systems, first of all needs detailed boiler models, capable of simulating the boiler both as a stand-alone appliance and as a system component. This paper presents the calibration and validation of a boiler model by means of laboratory tests. The chosen model, i.e. TRNSYS “Type 869”, has been validated for two commercially available pellet boilers of 6 and 12 kW nominal capacities. Two test methods have been applied: the first is a steady state test at nominal load and the second is a load cycle test including stationary operation at different loads as well as transient operation. The load cycle test is representative of the boiler operation in the field and characterises the boiler’s stationary and dynamic behaviour. The model had been calibrated based on laboratory data registered during stationary operation at different loads and afterwards it was validated by simulating both the stationary and the dynamic tests. Selected parameters for the validation were the heat transfer rates to water and the water temperature profiles inside the boiler and at the boiler outlet. Modelling results showed better agreement with experimental data during stationary operation rather than during dynamic operation. Heat transfer rates to water were predicted with a maximum deviation of 10% during the stationary operation, and a maximum deviation of 30% during the dynamic load cycle. However, for both operational regimes the

  6. Heat transfer in turbocharger turbines under steady, pulsating and transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, R.D.; Vagg, C.R.M.; Chalet, D.; Chesse, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Compare turbine heat transfer correlations from different studies. • Compare heat transfer for a same turbine on-engine and on gas-stand. • Analyse heat transfer under steady and transient operating conditions. • Gas stand heat transfer correlations are transferrable to engine conditions. • Heat flows can be reversed compared to steady conditions during transients. - Abstract: Heat transfer is significant in turbochargers and a number of mathematical models have been proposed to account for the heat transfer, however these have predominantly been validated under steady flow conditions. A variable geometry turbocharger from a 2.2 L Diesel engine was studied, both on gas stand and on-engine, under steady and transient conditions. The results showed that heat transfer accounts for at least 20% of total enthalpy change in the turbine and significantly more at lower mechanical powers. A convective heat transfer correlation was derived from experimental measurements to account for heat transfer between the gases and the turbine housing and proved consistent with those published from other researchers. This relationship was subsequently shown to be consistent between engine and gas stand operation: using this correlation in a 1D gas dynamics simulation reduced the turbine outlet temperature error from 33 °C to 3 °C. Using the model under transient conditions highlighted the effect of housing thermal inertia. The peak transient heat flow was strongly linked to the dynamics of the turbine inlet temperature: for all increases, the peak heat flow was higher than under thermally stable conditions due to colder housing. For all decreases in gas temperature, the peak heat flow was lower and for temperature drops of more than 100 °C the heat flow was reversed during the transient

  7. Effect of non-condensable gas on steady-state operation of a loop thermosyphon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jiang; Lin, Guiping; Bai, Lizhan; Miao, Jianyin; Zhang, Hongxing; Wang, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Non-condensable gas (NCG) generated inside two-phase heat transfer devices can adversely affect the thermal performance and limit the lifetime of such devices. In this work, extensive experimental investigation of the effect of NCG on the steady-state operation of an ammonia-stainless steel loop thermosyphon was conducted. In the experiments, nitrogen was injected into the loop thermosyphon as NCG, and the thermal performance of the loop thermosyphon was tested at different NCG inventories, heat loads applied to the evaporator and condenser cooling conditions, i.e. natural air cooling or circulating ethanol cooling. Experimental results reveal that NCG elevates the steady-state operating temperature of the evaporator, especially when the loop thermosyphon is operating in the low temperature range; meanwhile, the more NCG exists in the loop thermosyphon, the higher the operating temperature of the evaporator, and the lower the reservoir temperature. In addition, the existence of NCG results in the decrease of the overall thermal conductance of the loop thermosyphon, and the overall thermal conductance under the ethanol cooling condition may be even lower than that under the air cooling condition when the heat load is smaller than a certain value. Finally, the experimental results are theoretically analysed and explained. (authors)

  8. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1039 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Duty Cycles II Appendix... Appendix II to Part 1039—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply for constant-speed engines: (1) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing: D2 mode number Engine speed...

  9. Stochastic simulation of enzyme-catalyzed reactions with disparate timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Debashis; Paul, Mark R; Baumann, William T; Cao, Yang; Tyson, John J

    2008-10-01

    Many physiological characteristics of living cells are regulated by protein interaction networks. Because the total numbers of these protein species can be small, molecular noise can have significant effects on the dynamical properties of a regulatory network. Computing these stochastic effects is made difficult by the large timescale separations typical of protein interactions (e.g., complex formation may occur in fractions of a second, whereas catalytic conversions may take minutes). Exact stochastic simulation may be very inefficient under these circumstances, and methods for speeding up the simulation without sacrificing accuracy have been widely studied. We show that the "total quasi-steady-state approximation" for enzyme-catalyzed reactions provides a useful framework for efficient and accurate stochastic simulations. The method is applied to three examples: a simple enzyme-catalyzed reaction where enzyme and substrate have comparable abundances, a Goldbeter-Koshland switch, where a kinase and phosphatase regulate the phosphorylation state of a common substrate, and coupled Goldbeter-Koshland switches that exhibit bistability. Simulations based on the total quasi-steady-state approximation accurately capture the steady-state probability distributions of all components of these reaction networks. In many respects, the approximation also faithfully reproduces time-dependent aspects of the fluctuations. The method is accurate even under conditions of poor timescale separation.

  10. Transient and steady-state selection in the striatal microcircuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eTomkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the basal ganglia have been widely studied and implicated in signal processing and action selection, little information is known about the active role the striatal microcircuit plays in action selection in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. To address this knowledge gap we use a large scale three dimensional spiking model of the striatum, combined with a rate coded model of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, to asses the computational role the striatum plays in action selection. We identify a robust transient phenomena generated by the striatal microcircuit, which temporarily enhances the difference between two competing cortical inputs. We show that this transient is sufficient to modulate decision making in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit. We also find that the transient selection originates from a novel adaptation effect in single striatal projection neurons, which is amenable to experimental testing. Finally, we compared transient selection with models implementing classical steady-state selection. We challenged both forms of model to account for recent reports of paradoxically enhanced response selection in Huntington's Disease patients. We found that steady-state selection was uniformly impaired under all simulated Huntington's conditions, but transient selection was enhanced given a sufficient Huntington's-like increase in NMDA receptor sensitivity. Thus our models provide an intriguing hypothesis for the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical cognitive improvements in manifest Huntington's patients.

  11. Analysis of the steady state hydraulic behaviour of the ITER blanket cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maio, P.A., E-mail: pietroalessandro.dimaio@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Dell’Orco, G.; Furmanek, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Garitta, S. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Merola, M.; Mitteau, R.; Raffray, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Spagnuolo, G.A.; Vallone, E. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Nominal steady state hydraulic behaviour of ITER blanket standard sector cooling system has been investigated. • Numerical simulations have been run adopting a qualified thermal-hydraulic system code. • Hydraulic characteristic functions and coolant mass flow rates, velocities and pressure drops have been assessed. • Most of the considered circuits are able to effectively cool blanket modules, meeting ITER requirements. - Abstract: The blanket system is the ITER reactor component devoted to providing a physical boundary for plasma transients and contributing to thermal and nuclear shielding of vacuum vessel, magnets and external components. It is expected to be subjected to significant heat loads under nominal conditions and its cooling system has to ensure an adequate cooling, preventing any risk of critical heat flux occurrence while complying with pressure drop limits. At the University of Palermo a study has been performed, in cooperation with the ITER Organization, to investigate the steady state hydraulic behaviour of the ITER blanket standard sector cooling system. A theoretical–computational approach based on the finite volume method has been followed, adopting the RELAP5 system code. Finite volume models of the most critical blanket cooling circuits have been set-up, realistically simulating the coolant flow domain. The steady state hydraulic behaviour of each cooling circuit has been investigated, determining its hydraulic characteristic function and assessing the spatial distribution of coolant mass flow rates, velocities and pressure drops under reference nominal conditions. Results obtained have indicated that the investigated cooling circuits are able to provide an effective cooling to blanket modules, generally meeting ITER requirements in term of pressure drop and velocity distribution, except for a couple of circuits that are being revised.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1042 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Duty Cycles II Appendix..., App. II Appendix II to Part 1042—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply as specified in § 1042.505(b)(1): (1) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing: E3 mode No...

  13. NASA Lewis Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Ye; Tower, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed the LERCHP code. The PC-based LERCHP code can be used to predict the steady-state performance of heat pipes, including the determination of operating temperature and operating limits which might be encountered under specified conditions. The code contains a vapor flow algorithm which incorporates vapor compressibility and axially varying heat input. For the liquid flow in the wick, Darcy s formula is employed. Thermal boundary conditions and geometric structures can be defined through an interactive input interface. A variety of fluid and material options as well as user defined options can be chosen for the working fluid, wick, and pipe materials. This report documents the current effort at GRC to update the LERCHP code for operating in a Microsoft Windows (Microsoft Corporation) environment. A detailed analysis of the model is presented. The programming architecture for the numerical calculations is explained and flowcharts of the key subroutines are given

  14. A steady-state axisymmetric toroidal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, K.

    1984-01-01

    Conditions for achieving a steady state in an axisymmetric toroidal system are studied with emphasis on a very-high-beta field-reversed configuration. The analysis is carried out for the electromotive force produced by the Ohkawa current that is induced by neutral-beam injection. It turns out that, since the perpendicular component of the current j-vectorsub(perpendicular) to the magnetic field can be generated automatically by the diamagnetic effect, only the parallel component j-vectorsub(parallel) must be driven by the electromotive force. The drive of j-vectorsub(parallel) generates shear in the field line so that the pure toroidal field on the magnetic axis is rotated towards the plasma boundary and matched to the external field lines. This matching condition determines the necessary amount of injection beam current and power. It is demonstrated that a very-high-beta field-reversed configuration requires only a small amount of current-driving beam power because almost all the toroidal current except that close to the magnetic axis is carried by the diamagnetic current due to high beta. A low-beta tokamak, on the other hand, needs very high current-driving power since most of the toroidal current is composed of j-vectorsub(parallel) which must be driven by the beam. (author)

  15. Emergence of advance waves in a steady-state universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobart, R.H.

    1979-10-01

    In standard Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics advanced waves from any source are absolutely canceled by the advanced waves from the absorber responding to that source. The present work shows this cancellation fails over cosmic distances in a steady-state universe. A test of the view proposed earlier, in a paper which assumed failure of cancellation ad hoc, that zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field are such emergent advanced waves, is posed. The view entails anomalous slowing of spontaneous transition rates at longer emission wavelengths; available data go against this, furnishing additional argument against the suspect assumption that the universe is steady-state.

  16. Emergence of advance waves in a steady-state universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    In standard Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics advanced waves from any source are absolutely canceled by the advanced waves from the absorber responding to that source. The present work shows this cancellation fails over cosmic distances in a steady-state universe. A test of the view proposed earlier, in a paper which assumed failure of cancellation ad hoc, that zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field are such emergent advanced waves, is posed. The view entails anomalous slowing of spontaneous transition rates at longer emission wavelengths; available data go against this, furnishing additional argument against the suspect assumption that the universe is steady-state

  17. Novel Fluorometric Method for the Determination of Production Rate and Steady-State Concentration of Photochemically Generated Superoxide Radical in Seawater Using 3',6'-(Diphenylphosphinyl)fluorescein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anifowose, Adebanjo Jacob; Takeda, Kazuhiko; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2015-12-15

    Superoxide radical (O2(•-)) is an important reactive oxygen species in seawater. Measurements of its production rates and steady-state concentrations generated by photochemical processes have been a Herculean task over the years. In this study, a probe - 3'6'-(diphenylphosphinyl)fluorescein (PF-1) - was used to trap photochemically generated O2(•-) in seawater, thereby yielding fluorescein. The fluorescein produced was measured by an isocratic fluorescence HPLC at excitation/emission wavelengths of 490/513 nm, respectively. The reaction rate constant of PF-1 with O2(•-) (kPF-1) was pH-dependent: (3.2-23.5) × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1) at pHTOT 7.65-8.50. By applying appropriate equations, both the production rate and the steady-state concentration of O2(•-) generated by photochemical reactions in the seawater were quantified. Under the optimized experimental conditions, fluorescein standards (3-50 nM) exhibited linearity in the seawater by HPLC. The photoformation of fluorescein, due to the reaction of PF-1 with the O2(•-) photochemically produced in the seawater, was linear within the 20 min irradiation. The detection limit of the fluorescein photoformation rate was 0.03 pM s(-1), defined as 3σ of the lowest standard fluorescein concentration per 20 min irradiation. Using this value, the yield of fluorescein, and the fraction of O2(•-) that reacted with PF-1 in the seawater, the detection limit of the O2(•-) photoformation rate was 1.78 pM s(-1). Superoxide measurements using the proposed method were relatively unaffected by the potential interfering species in seawater. Application of the proposed method to ten (10) seawater samples from the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, resulted in measured O2(•-) photoformation rates of 3.1-8.5 nM s(-1), with steady-state concentrations ranging (0.06-0.3) × 10(-10) M. The method is simple, requires no technical sample preparation, and can be used to analyze a large number of samples.

  18. Seeing the talker’s face supports executive processing of speech in steady state noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmit eMishra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Listening to speech in noise depletes cognitive resources, affecting speech processing. The present study investigated how remaining resources or cognitive spare capacity (CSC can be deployed by young adults with normal hearing. We administered a test of CSC (CSCT, Mishra et al., 2013 along with a battery of established cognitive tests to 20 participants with normal hearing. In the CSCT, lists of two-digit numbers were presented with and without visual cues in quiet, as well as in steady-state and speech-like noise at a high intelligibility level. In low load conditions, two numbers were recalled according to instructions inducing executive processing (updating, inhibition and in high load conditions the participants were additionally instructed to recall one extra number, which was the always the first item in the list. In line with previous findings, results showed that CSC was sensitive to memory load and executive function but generally not related to working memory capacity. Furthermore, CSCT scores in quiet were lowered by visual cues, probably due to distraction. In steady-state noise, the presence of visual cues improved CSCT scores, probably by enabling better encoding. Contrary to our expectation, CSCT performance was disrupted more in steady-state than speech-like noise, although only without visual cues, possibly because selective attention could be used to ignore the speech-like background and provide an enriched representation of target items in working memory similar to that obtained in quiet. This interpretation is supported by a consistent association between CSCT scores and updating skills.

  19. Seeing the talker’s face supports executive processing of speech in steady state noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sushmit; Lunner, Thomas; Stenfelt, Stefan; Rönnberg, Jerker; Rudner, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Listening to speech in noise depletes cognitive resources, affecting speech processing. The present study investigated how remaining resources or cognitive spare capacity (CSC) can be deployed by young adults with normal hearing. We administered a test of CSC (CSCT; Mishra et al., 2013) along with a battery of established cognitive tests to 20 participants with normal hearing. In the CSCT, lists of two-digit numbers were presented with and without visual cues in quiet, as well as in steady-state and speech-like noise at a high intelligibility level. In low load conditions, two numbers were recalled according to instructions inducing executive processing (updating, inhibition) and in high load conditions the participants were additionally instructed to recall one extra number, which was the always the first item in the list. In line with previous findings, results showed that CSC was sensitive to memory load and executive function but generally not related to working memory capacity (WMC). Furthermore, CSCT scores in quiet were lowered by visual cues, probably due to distraction. In steady-state noise, the presence of visual cues improved CSCT scores, probably by enabling better encoding. Contrary to our expectation, CSCT performance was disrupted more in steady-state than speech-like noise, although only without visual cues, possibly because selective attention could be used to ignore the speech-like background and provide an enriched representation of target items in working memory similar to that obtained in quiet. This interpretation is supported by a consistent association between CSCT scores and updating skills. PMID:24324411

  20. Equilibrium coverage of OHad in correlation with platinum catalyzed fuel cell reactions in HClO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Yujia; Arenz, Matthias; Wiberg, Gustav Karl Henrik

    2015-01-01

    We employ a recently developed stripping protocol to examine the equilibrium coverage of oxygenated species and their influence on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). In particular we aim to distinguish between dynamic and steady state conditions...

  1. Do's and don'ts in Fourier analysis of steady-state potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, M; Meigen, T

    1999-01-01

    Fourier analysis is a powerful tool in signal analysis that can be very fruitfully applied to steady-state evoked potentials (flicker ERG, pattern ERG, VEP, etc.). However, there are some inherent assumptions in the underlying discrete Fourier transform (DFT) that are not necessarily fulfilled in typical electrophysiological recording and analysis conditions. Furthermore, engineering software-packages may be ill-suited and/or may not fully exploit the information of steady-state recordings. Specifically: * In the case of steady-state stimulation we know more about the stimulus than in standard textbook situations (exact frequency, phase stability), so 'windowing' and calculation of the 'periodogram' are not necessary. * It is mandatory to choose an integer relationship between sampling rate and frame rate when employing a raster-based CRT stimulator. * The analysis interval must comprise an exact integer number (e.g., 10) of stimulus periods. * The choice of the number of stimulus periods per analysis interval needs a wise compromise: A high number increases the frequency resolution, but makes artifact removal difficult; a low number 'spills' noise into the response frequency. * There is no need to feel tied to a power-of-two number of data points as required by standard FFT, 'resampling' is an easy and efficient alternative. * Proper estimates of noise-corrected Fourier magnitude and statistical significance can be calculated that take into account the non-linear superposition of signal and noise. These aspects are developed in an intuitive approach with examples using both simulations and recordings. Proper use of Fourier analysis of our electrophysiological records will reduce recording time and/or increase the reliability of physiologic or pathologic interpretations.

  2. Fouling behavior and performance of microfiltration membranes for whey treatment in steady and unsteady-state conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rezaei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Whey pretreatment for protein purification is one of the main applications of cross-flow microfiltration before an ultrafiltration process. In this paper, the effects of the operating pressure and crossflow velocity on the membrane performance and the individual resistances in microfiltration of whey for both unsteady and steady-state conditions were investigated for two 0.45 µm mean pore size polymeric membranes, Polyethersulfone (PES and Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF. A laboratory-scale microfiltration setup with a flat rectangular module was used. The Reynolds number and operating pressure showed positive and negative effects on the amount of all resistances, respectively. The dominant effect of the concentration polarization and cake resistances was demonstrated by using a "Resistance-in-Series" model for unsteadystate investigations, which could vary during the filtration time. An empirical model revealed a linear relationship between the Reynolds number and permeate flux and a second-order polynomial relationship between the transmembrane pressure and the permeate flux. This empirical correlation, implemented for the limited range of MF operating parameters tested in this article for whey protein, was validated with experimental data and showed good agreement between calculated and experimental data.

  3. Design of Infusion Schemes for Neuroreceptor Imaging: Application to [11C]Flumazenil-PET Steady-State Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at developing a simulation system that predicts the optimal study design for attaining tracer steady-state conditions in brain and blood rapidly. Tracer kinetics was determined from bolus studies and used to construct the system. Subsequently, the system was used to design inputs for bolus infusion (BI or programmed infusion (PI experiments. Steady-state quantitative measurements can be made with one short scan and venous blood samples. The GABAA receptor ligand [C11]Flumazenil (FMZ was chosen for this purpose, as it lacks a suitable reference region. Methods. Five bolus [C11]FMZ-PET scans were conducted, based on which population-based PI and BI schemes were designed and tested in five additional healthy subjects. The design of a PI was assisted by an offline feedback controller. Results. The system could reproduce the measurements in blood and brain. With PI, [C11]FMZ steady state was attained within 40 min, which was 8 min earlier than the optimal BI (B/I ratio = 55 min. Conclusions. The system can design both BI and PI schemes to attain steady state rapidly. For example, subjects can be [C11]FMZ-PET scanned after 40 min of tracer infusion for 40 min with venous sampling and a straight-forward quantification. This simulation toolbox is available for other PET-tracers.

  4. Simple Technique for Tracking Chloride Penetration in Concrete Based on the Crack Shape and Width under Steady-State Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Hyeok Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloride attack is considered one of the most threatening deterioration mechanisms in concrete. Any cracks or other imperfections on the surface open up additional routes for chloride intrusion. This paper develops existing anisotropic (1-D and isotropic (2-D models for chloride diffusion in concrete with cracks by considering the crack shape and roughness. In order to verify the proposed model, concrete samples with crack widths from 0.0 to 0.4 mm were prepared and the chloride diffusion coefficients under steady-state conditions evaluated. The proposed model for a wedge-shaped model with roughness reduced chloride diffusion and provided more reasonable results than previous models based on rectangular shaped cracks with no roughness, which have tended to overestimate the effect. Our results revealed that including roughness in the model produced a 10%–20% reduction in chloride diffusion.

  5. Limitations of steady state solutions to a two-state model of population oscillations and hole burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, M. G.; Deng, L.; Jiang, K. J.

    2006-01-01

    We consider a two-state system driven by an on-resonance, continuous wave pump laser and a much weaker pulsed probe laser that is slightly detuned from the pump laser frequency (usually this detuning is about ω p -ω P =Δ≅1 kHz). The upper state population is assumed to be slowly decaying, but the off-diagonal element of the density matrix decays rapidly due to homogeneous broadening. This model has been solved by others in rare-earth-element-doped fibers and crystals in a usual steady state approximation for slow optical wave propagation. We show that in general the usual steady state approximation does not apply unless either Δτ>>1 or (2S+1)γ 2 τ>>1 where γ 2 is the decay rate of the excited state population, τ is the pulse length of the probe field, and 2S is the saturation parameter. Both conditions, however, are not satisfied in many population-oscillation- and corresponding group-velocity-reduction-related studies. Our theory and corresponding numerical simulations have indicated that for probe pulses that are much shorter than the lifetime of the upper state, there is no analytical theory for the amplitude, pulse shape, and group velocity of the probe field. In addition, there is no reason to assume that the group velocity remains small when γ 2 τ<<1 and there is no reason to believe that many pulse length decays can be obtained for such short pulses

  6. A method for estimation of elasticities in metabolic networks using steady state and dynamic metabolomics data and linlog kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Gulik Walter M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dynamic modeling of metabolic reaction networks under in vivo conditions is a crucial step in order to obtain a better understanding of the (disfunctioning of living cells. So far dynamic metabolic models generally have been based on mechanistic rate equations which often contain so many parameters that their identifiability from experimental data forms a serious problem. Recently, approximative rate equations, based on the linear logarithmic (linlog format have been proposed as a suitable alternative with fewer parameters. Results In this paper we present a method for estimation of the kinetic model parameters, which are equal to the elasticities defined in Metabolic Control Analysis, from metabolite data obtained from dynamic as well as steady state perturbations, using the linlog kinetic format. Additionally, we address the question of parameter identifiability from dynamic perturbation data in the presence of noise. The method is illustrated using metabolite data generated with a dynamic model of the glycolytic pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on mechanistic rate equations. Elasticities are estimated from the generated data, which define the complete linlog kinetic model of the glycolysis. The effect of data noise on the accuracy of the estimated elasticities is presented. Finally, identifiable subset of parameters is determined using information on the standard deviations of the estimated elasticities through Monte Carlo (MC simulations. Conclusion The parameter estimation within the linlog kinetic framework as presented here allows the determination of the elasticities directly from experimental data from typical dynamic and/or steady state experiments. These elasticities allow the reconstruction of the full kinetic model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the determination of the control coefficients. MC simulations revealed that certain elasticities are potentially unidentifiable from dynamic data only

  7. Theoretical investigation on the steady-state natural circulation characteristics of a new type of pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou Junli; Qiu Suizheng; Su Guanghui; Jia Dounan

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical investigation on the steady-state natural circulation characteristics of a new type of pressurized water reactor. Through numerically solving the one-dimensional steady-state single-phase conservative equations for the primary circuit and the steady-state two-phase drift-flux conservative equations for the secondary side of the steam generator, the natural circulation characteristics were studied. On the basis of the preliminary calculation analysis, it was found that natural circulation mass flow rate was proportional to the exponential function of the power and that the value of the exponent is related to the operating conditions of the secondary side of the steam generator. The higher the outlet pressure of the secondary side of the steam generator, the higher the primary natural circulation mass flow rate. The larger height difference between the core center and the steam generator center is favorable for the heat removal capacity of the natural circulation. (authors)

  8. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU TA

    2009-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  9. Steady-state Operational Characteristics of Ghana Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steady state operational characteristics of the 30 kW tank-in-pool type reactor named Ghana Research Reactor-1 were investigated after a successful on-site zero power critical experiments. The steadystate operational character-istics determined were the thermal neutron fluxes, maximum period of operation at nominal ...

  10. Steady state and time-resolved spectroscopic investigations on the photoreactions involved within the electronically excited electron acceptor 9-cyanoanthracene in presence of benzotriazole and benzimidazole donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Sudeshna; Bardhan, Munmun; Ganguly, Tapan

    2010-01-01

    The electrochemical, 'steady-state' and 'time-resolved' spectroscopic investigations were made on the well-known electron acceptor 9-cyanoanthracene (CNA) when interacted with the electron donors benzotriazole (BZT) and benzimidazole (BMI) molecules. Though electrochemical measurements indicate the thermodynamical possibility of occurrences of photoinduced electron transfer reactions within these reacting systems in the lowest excited singlet state (S 1 ) of the acceptor CNA but the steady-state and time-resolved measurements clearly demonstrate only the triplet-initiated charge separation reactions. It was reported earlier that in the cases of disubstituted indole molecules the occurrences of photoinduced electron transfer reactions were apparent both in the excited singlet and triplet states of the acceptor 9-cyanoanthracene, but the similarly structured present donor molecules benzotriazole (and benzimidazole) behave differently from indoles. The weak ground state complex formations within the presently studied reacting systems appear to be responsible for the observed static quenching phenomena as evidenced from the time-resolved fluorescence studies. Time-resolved spectroscopic investigations demonstrate the formation of the ground state of the reacting components (donor and acceptor) through recombination of triplet ion-pairs via formations of contact neutral radical produced by H-abstraction mechanism.

  11. Constructive interference in steady-state/FIESTA-C clinical applications in neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkami, Makarand

    2011-01-01

    Full text: High spatial resolution is one of the major problems in neuroimaging, par ticularly in cranial and spinal nerve imaging. Constructive interference in steady-state/fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition with phase cycling is a robust sequence in imaging the cranial and spinal nerve patholo gies. This pictorial review is a concise article about the applications of this sequence in neuroimaging with clinical examples.

  12. The steady state solutions of radiatively driven stellar winds for a non-Sobolev, pure absorption model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poe, C.H.; Owocki, S.P.; Castor, J.I.

    1990-01-01

    The steady state solution topology for absorption line-driven flows is investigated for the condition that the Sobolev approximation is not used to compute the line force. The solution topology near the sonic point is of the nodal type with two positive slope solutions. The shallower of these slopes applies to reasonable lower boundary conditions and realistic ion thermal speed v(th) and to the Sobolev limit of zero of the usual Castor, Abbott, and Klein model. At finite v(th), this solution consists of a family of very similar solutions converging on the sonic point. It is concluded that a non-Sobolev, absorption line-driven flow with a realistic values of v(th) has no uniquely defined steady state. To the extent that a pure absorption model of the outflow of stellar winds is applicable, radiatively driven winds should be intrinsically variable. 34 refs

  13. Experimental Study and steady state stability analysis of CLL-T Series Parallel Resonant Converter with Fuzzy controller using State Space Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Nagarajan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Closed Loop CLL-T (capacitor inductor inductor Series Parallel Resonant Converter (SPRC has been simulated and the performance is analysised. A three element CLL-T SPRC working under load independent operation (voltage type and current type load is presented in this paper. The Steady state Stability Analysis of CLL-T SPRC has been developed using State Space technique and the regulation of output voltage is done by using Fuzzy controller. The simulation study indicates the superiority of fuzzy control over the conventional control methods. The proposed approach is expected to provide better voltage regulation for dynamic load conditions. A prototype 300 W, 100 kHz converter is designed and built to experimentally demonstrate, dynamic and steady state performance for the CLL-T SPRC are compared from the simulation studies.

  14. Current drive efficiency requirements for an attractive steady-state reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonon, G

    1994-12-31

    The expected values of the figure of merit and the electrical efficiency of various non-inductive current drive methods are considered. The main experimental results achieved today with neutral beams and radiofrequency systems are summarized. Taking into account the simplified energy flow diagram of a steady state reactor, the figure of merit and the electrical efficiency values which are necessary in order to envisage an attractive steady-state reactor are determined. These values are compared to the theoretical predictions. (author). 16 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Current drive efficiency requirements for an attractive steady-state reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonon, G.

    1994-01-01

    The expected values of the figure of merit and the electrical efficiency of various non-inductive current drive methods are considered. The main experimental results achieved today with neutral beams and radiofrequency systems are summarized. Taking into account the simplified energy flow diagram of a steady state reactor, the figure of merit and the electrical efficiency values which are necessary in order to envisage an attractive steady-state reactor are determined. These values are compared to the theoretical predictions. (author). 16 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Burn cycle requirements comparison of pulsed and steady-state tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.

    1983-12-01

    Burn cycle parameters and energy transfer system requirements were analyzed for an 8-m commercial tokamak reactor using four types of cycles: conventional, hybrid, internal transformer, and steady state. Not surprisingly, steady state is the best burn mode if it can be achieved. The hybrid cycle is a promising alternative to the conventional. In contrast, the internal transformer cycle does not appear attractive for the size tokamak in question

  17. DNA Polymerase Fidelity: Comparing Direct Competition of Right and Wrong dNTP Substrates with Steady State and Presteady State Kinetics†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Jeffrey G.; Oertell, Keriann; Petruska, John; Goodman, Myron F.

    2009-01-01

    DNA polymerase fidelity is defined as the ratio of right (R) to wrong (W) nucleotide incorporations when dRTP and dWTP substrates compete at equal concentrations for primer extension at the same site in the polymerase-primer-template DNA complex. Typically, R incorporation is favored over W by 103 – 105, even in the absence of 3′-exonuclease proofreading. Straightforward in principal, a direct competition fidelity measurement is difficult to perform in practice because detection of a small amount of W is masked by a large amount of R. As an alternative, enzyme kinetics measurements to evaluate kcat/Km for R and W in separate reactions are widely used to measure polymerase fidelity indirectly, based on a steady-state derivation by Fersht. A systematic comparison between direct competition and kinetics has not been made until now. By separating R and W products using electrophoresis, we have successfully made accurate fidelity measurements for directly competing R and W dNTP substrates for 9 of the 12 natural base mispairs. We compare our direct competition results with steady state and presteady state kinetic measurements of fidelity at the same template site, using the proofreading-deficient mutant of Klenow Fragment (KF−) DNA polymerase. All the data are in quantitative agreement. PMID:20000359

  18. 40 CFR 1033.515 - Discrete-mode steady-state emission tests of locomotives and locomotive engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrete-mode steady-state emission... Procedures § 1033.515 Discrete-mode steady-state emission tests of locomotives and locomotive engines. This... a warm-up followed by a sequence of nominally steady-state discrete test modes, as described in...

  19. Influence of longitudinal position on the evolution of steady-state signal in cardiac cine balanced steady-state free precession imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Tyler J; Stromp, Tori A; Leung, Steve W; Vandsburger, Moriel H

    2017-11-01

    Emerging quantitative cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) techniques use cine balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) to measure myocardial signal intensity and probe underlying physiological parameters. This correlation assumes that steady-state is maintained uniformly throughout the heart in space and time. To determine the effects of longitudinal cardiac motion and initial slice position on signal deviation in cine bSSFP imaging by comparing two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) acquisitions. Nine healthy volunteers completed cardiac MRI on a 1.5-T scanner. Short axis images were taken at six slice locations using both 2D and 3D cine bSSFP. 3D acquisitions spanned two slices above and below selected slice locations. Changes in myocardial signal intensity were measured across the cardiac cycle and compared to longitudinal shortening. For 2D cine bSSFP, 46% ± 9% of all frames and 84% ± 13% of end-diastolic frames remained within 10% of initial signal intensity. For 3D cine bSSFP the proportions increased to 87% ± 8% and 97% ± 5%. There was no correlation between longitudinal shortening and peak changes in myocardial signal. The initial slice position significantly impacted peak changes in signal intensity for 2D sequences ( P  cine bSSFP that is only restored at the center of a 3D excitation volume. During diastole, a transient steady-state is established similar to that achieved with 3D cine bSSFP regardless of slice location.

  20. Steady-state spheromak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    A major effort is being made in the national program to make the operation of axisymmetric, toroidal confinement systems steady state by the application of expensive rf current drive. Described here is a method by which such a confinement system, the spheromak, can be refluxed indefinitely through the application of dc power. As a step towards dc sustainment we have operated the present CTX source in the slow source mode with a longer power application time (approx. 0.1 ms) and successfully generated long-lived spheromaks. If the erosion of the electrodes can be controlled as well as it is with MPD arcs then dc operation should be very clean. If only a small fraction (approx. 10% for an experiment) of the poloidal flux of the spheromak connects to the source then the dc sustainment can be very efficient. The amount of connecting flux that is necessary for sustainment needs to be determined experimentally

  1. Steady-State and Transient Analysis for Design Validation of SMART-ITL Secondary System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Eunkoo; Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Sung Uk; Jeon, Byong-Guk; Yang, Jin-Hwa; Yi, Sung-Jae; Park, Hyun-Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    SMART can prevent large-break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) inherently. SMART-ITL is an experimental simulation facility designed to perform integral effect tests for the SMART plant. In terms of the secondary system of SMART-ITL, the design has been simplified from that of reference plant by replacing several components, such as expansion device and condenser, with an appropriate device to be functional as the alternatives. In this paper, in order to understand the operational characteristics as well as design concept, the secondary system of SMRAT-ITL is analyzed in steady-state and transient aspects, and the results are compared with relevant experimental results. This study focuses on the understanding of thermal-hydraulic behavior of SMART-ITL secondary system, which is simplified from that of reference plant. To identify the behaviors of the secondary system, the steady-state and transient analysis were conducted based on experimental results. In steady-state analysis, the results clearly showed that the system pressure is related to the temperature of condensation tank which varies depending on mixture enthalpy. In transient analysis, the dynamic behavior during heat-up process has been investigated. The results reveal that we can reasonably assume the fluid filled in TK-CD-01 be in a saturated condition. The results showed that the design of SMART-ITL secondary system is appropriate, and the system is being properly operated to match the design intent.

  2. Steady-state deformation of some lithium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeppel, R.B.; Routbort, J.L.; Billone, M.C.; Applegate, D.S.; Buchmann, E.; Londschien, B.

    1987-05-01

    The stress-strain behavior of Li 2 O, LiAlO 2 and Li 2 ZrO 3 polycrystals, with densities varying from 0.70 to 0.95 of the theoretical, has been measured in constant-crosshead-speed compression tests at temperatures of 700 to 1000 0 C with strain rates ranging from about 10 -6 to 10 -4 s -1 . A steady-state stress, σ/sub s/, for which the work-hardening rate becomes zero, was achieved. These results, therefore, yield information equivalent to that obtained from creep experiments. Limited data on LiAlO 2 and Li 2 ZrO 3 were obtained. Nevertheless, under comparable conditions the lithium aluminate and zirconate were considerably stronger than the Li 2 O. This finding may be related to differences in crystal structure. It is, however, likely that in operation as a function breeder blanket material, the oxide will swell whereas the aluminate and the zirconate will crack. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. Transient and steady-state auditory gamma-band responses in first-degree relatives of people with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas Donald C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stimulus-related γ-band oscillations, which may be related to perceptual binding, are reduced in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The purpose of this study was to examine auditory transient and steady-state γ-band findings in first-degree relatives of people with ASD to assess the potential familiality of these findings in ASD. Methods Magnetoencephalography (MEG recordings in 21 parents who had a child with an autism spectrum disorder (pASD and 20 healthy adult control subjects (HC were obtained. Gamma-band phase locking factor (PLF, and evoked and induced power to 32, 40 and 48 Hz amplitude-modulated sounds were measured for transient and steady-state responses. Participants were also tested on a number of behavioral and cognitive assessments related to the broad autism phenotype (BAP. Results Reliable group differences were seen primarily for steady-state responses. In the left hemisphere, pASD subjects exhibited lower phase-locked steady-state power in all three conditions. Total γ-band power, including the non-phase-locked component, was also reduced in the pASD group. In addition, pASD subjects had significantly lower PLF than the HC group. Correlations were seen between MEG measures and BAP measures. Conclusions The reduction in steady-state γ-band responses in the pASD group is consistent with previous results for children with ASD. Steady-state responses may be more sensitive than transient responses to phase-locking errors in ASD. Together with the lower PLF and phase-locked power in first-degree relatives, correlations between γ-band measures and behavioral measures relevant to the BAP highlight the potential of γ-band deficits as a potential new autism endophenotype.

  4. Steady-state creep of discontinuous fibre composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker Pedersen, O.

    1975-07-01

    A review is given of the relevant literature on creep of composites, including a presentation of existing models for the steady-state creep of composites containing aligned discontinuous fibres where creep of the matrix and fibres is assumed to follow a power law. A model is suggested for predicting the composite creep law from a matrix creep law given in a general form, in the case where the fibres do not creep. The composite creep law predicted by this model is compared with those predicted by previous models, when these are extended to comprise a general matrix creep law. Experimentally, pure copper and composites consisting of aligned discontinuous tungsten fibres in a copper matrix were creep tested at a temperature of 500 deg C. The results indicate a relatively low stress sensitivity of the steady-state creep-rate for pure copper and relatively high stress sensitivity for the composites. This may be explained by the creep models based upon a general matrix creep law. A quantitative prediction shows promising agreement with the present experimental results. (author)

  5. Understanding void fraction in steady state and dynamic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chexal, B.; Maulbetsch, J.; Harrison, J.; Petersen, C.; Jensen, P.; Horowitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Understanding void fraction behavior in steady-state and dynamic environments is important to accurately predict the thermal-hydraulic behavior of two-phase or two-component systems. The Chexal-Lellouche (C-L) void fraction mode described herein covers the full range of pressures, flows, void fractions, and fluid types (steam-water, air-water, and refrigerants). A drift flux model formulation is used which covers the complete range of concurrent and countercurrent flows. The (1996) model revises the earlier C-L void fraction correlation, improves the capability of the model in countercurrent flow based on the incorporation of additional data, and improves the characteristics of the correlation that are important in transient programs. The model has been qualified with data from a number of steady state two-phase and two-component tests, and has been incorporated into the transient analysis code RELAP5 and RETRAN-3D and evaluated with a variety of transient and steady state tests. A 'plug-in' module for the void fraction correlation has been developed and implemented in RELAP5 and RETRAN-3D. The module is available as source code for inclusion into other thermal-hydraulic programs and can be used in any program that utilizes the same interface variables

  6. Experimental calibration and validation of sewer/surface flow exchange equations in steady and unsteady flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinato, Matteo; Martins, Ricardo; Kesserwani, Georges; Leandro, Jorge; Djordjević, Slobodan; Shucksmith, James

    2017-09-01

    The linkage between sewer pipe flow and floodplain flow is recognised to induce an important source of uncertainty within two-dimensional (2D) urban flood models. This uncertainty is often attributed to the use of empirical hydraulic formulae (the one-dimensional (1D) weir and orifice steady flow equations) to achieve data-connectivity at the linking interface, which require the determination of discharge coefficients. Because of the paucity of high resolution localised data for this type of flows, the current understanding and quantification of a suitable range for those discharge coefficients is somewhat lacking. To fulfil this gap, this work presents the results acquired from an instrumented physical model designed to study the interaction between a pipe network flow and a floodplain flow. The full range of sewer-to-surface and surface-to-sewer flow conditions at the exchange zone are experimentally analysed in both steady and unsteady flow regimes. Steady state measured discharges are first analysed considering the relationship between the energy heads from the sewer flow and the floodplain flow; these results show that existing weir and orifice formulae are valid for describing the flow exchange for the present physical model, and yield new calibrated discharge coefficients for each of the flow conditions. The measured exchange discharges are also integrated (as a source term) within a 2D numerical flood model (a finite volume solver to the 2D Shallow Water Equations (SWE)), which is shown to reproduce the observed coefficients. This calibrated numerical model is then used to simulate a series of unsteady flow tests reproduced within the experimental facility. Results show that the numerical model overestimated the values of mean surcharge flow rate. This suggests the occurrence of additional head losses in unsteady conditions which are not currently accounted for within flood models calibrated in steady flow conditions.

  7. Extracting Steady State Components from Synchrophasor Data Using Kalman Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Mahmood

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Data from phasor measurement units (PMUs may be exploited to provide steady state information to the applications which require it. As PMU measurements may contain errors and missing data, the paper presents the application of a Kalman Filter technique for real-time data processing. PMU data captures the power system’s response at different time-scales, which are generated by different types of power system events; the presented Kalman Filter methods have been applied to extract the steady state components of PMU measurements that can be fed to steady state applications. Two KF-based methods have been proposed, i.e., a windowing-based KF method and “the modified KF”. Both methods are capable of reducing noise, compensating for missing data and filtering outliers from input PMU signals. A comparison of proposed methods has been carried out using the PMU data generated from a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL experimental setup. In addition, a performance analysis of the proposed methods is performed using an evaluation metric.

  8. Steady-state and time-dependent modelling of parallel transport in the scrape-off layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havlickova, E.; Fundamenski, W.; Naulin, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The one-dimensional fluid code SOLF1D has been used for modelling of plasma transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) along magnetic field lines, both in steady state and under transient conditions that arise due to plasma turbulence. The presented work summarizes results of SOLF1D with attention...... given to transient parallel transport which reveals two distinct time scales due to the transport mechanisms of convection and diffusion. Time-dependent modelling combined with the effect of ballooning shows propagation of particles along the magnetic field line with Mach number up to M ≈ 1...... temperature calculated in SOLF1D is compared with the approximative model used in the turbulence code ESEL both for steady-state and turbulent SOL. Dynamics of the parallel transport are investigated for a simple transient event simulating the propagation of particles and energy to the targets from a blob...

  9. Steady state characteristics of acclimated hydrogenotrophic methanogens on inorganic substrate in continuous chemostat reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Olga Y; Kitamura, Y; Intabon, K; Satake, T

    2008-09-01

    A Monod model has been used to describe the steady state characteristics of the acclimated mesophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogens in experimental chemostat reactors. The bacteria were fed with mineral salts and specific trace metals and a H(2)/CO(2) supply was used as a single limited substrate. Under steady state conditions, the growth yield (Y(CH4)) reached 11.66 g cells per mmol of H(2)/CO(2) consumed. The daily cells generation average was 5.67 x 10(11), 5.25 x 10(11), 4.2 x 10(11) and 2.1 x 10(11) cells/l-culture for the dilutions 0.071/d, 0.083/d, 0.1/d and 0.125/d, respectively. The maximum specific growth rate (mu(max)) and the Monod half-saturation coefficient (K(S)) were 0.15/d and 0.82 g/L, respectively. Using these results, the reactor performance was simulated. During the steady state, the simulation predicts the dependence of the H(2)/CO(2) concentration (S) and the cell concentration (X) on the dilution rate. The model fitted the experimental data well and was able to yield a maximum methanogenic activity of 0.24 L CH(4)/g VSS.d. The dilution rate was estimated to be 0.1/d. At the dilution rate of 0.14/d, the exponential cells washout was achieved.

  10. Analysis of physical properties controlling steady-state infiltration rates on tropical savannah soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.

    1993-10-01

    A knowledge of physical properties influencing the steady-state infiltration rates (ic) of soils is needed for the hydrologic modelling of the infiltration process. In this study evidence is provided to show that effective porosity (Pe) (i.e. the proportion of macro pore spaces with equivalent radius of > 15 μm) and dry bulk density are the most important soil physical properties controlling the steady-state infiltration rates on a tropical savannah with varying land use histories. At a macro porosity value of ≤ 5.0% the steady-state infiltration rate is zero. Total porosity and the proportion of water-retaining pores explained only a small fraction of the variation in this property. Steady-state infiltration rates can also be estimated from either the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) by the equation, i c = 31.1 + 1.06 (Ks), (R 2 = 0.8104, p ≤ 0.001) or the soil water transmissivity (A) by the equation, i c = 30.0 + 29.9(A), (R 2 = 0.8228, ρ ≤ 0.001). The Philip two-parameter model under predicted steady-state infiltration rates generally. Considering the ease of determination and reliability it is suggested that effective porosity be used to estimate the steady-state infiltration rates of these other soils with similar characteristics. The model is, i c 388.7(Pe) - 10.8(R 2 = 0.7265, p ≤ 0.001) where i c is in (cm/hr) and Pe in (cm 3 /cm 3 ). (author). 20 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  11. Full transmission modes and steady states in defect gratings,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.; Sopaheluwakan, A.; Andonowati, A.; de Ridder, R.M; Altena, G; Geuzebroek, D.H.; Dekker, R

    2003-01-01

    For a symmetric grating structure with a defect, we show that a fully transmitted defect mode in the band gap can be obtained as a superposition of two steady states: an amplified and an attenuated defect state. Without scanning the whole band gap by transmission calculations, this simplifies the

  12. Bioaccumulation factors and the steady state assumption for cesium isotopes in aquatic foodwebs near nuclear facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, D J

    2013-07-01

    Steady state approaches, such as transfer coefficients or bioaccumulation factors, are commonly used to model the bioaccumulation of (137)Cs in aquatic foodwebs from routine operations and releases from nuclear generating stations and other nuclear facilities. Routine releases from nuclear generating stations and facilities, however, often consist of pulses as liquid waste is stored, analyzed to ensure regulatory compliance and then released. The effect of repeated pulse releases on the steady state assumption inherent in the bioaccumulation factor approach has not been evaluated. In this study, I examine the steady state assumption for aquatic biota by analyzing data for two cesium isotopes in the same biota, one isotope in steady state (stable (133)Cs) from geologic sources and the other released in pulses ((137)Cs) from reactor operations. I also compare (137)Cs bioaccumulation factors for similar upstream populations from the same system exposed solely to weapon test (137)Cs, and assumed to be in steady state. The steady state assumption appears to be valid for small organisms at lower trophic levels (zooplankton, rainbow smelt and 0+ yellow perch) but not for older and larger fish at higher trophic levels (walleye). Attempts to account for previous exposure and retention through a biokinetics approach had a similar effect on steady state, upstream and non-steady state, downstream populations of walleye, but were ineffective in explaining the more or less constant deviation between fish with steady state exposures and non-steady state exposures of about 2-fold for all age classes of walleye. These results suggest that for large, piscivorous fish, repeated exposure to short duration, pulse releases leads to much higher (137)Cs BAFs than expected from (133)Cs BAFs for the same fish or (137)Cs BAFs for similar populations in the same system not impacted by reactor releases. These results suggest that the steady state approach should be used with caution in any

  13. Investigations on the photoreactions of phenothiazine and phenoxazine in presence of 9-cyanoanthracene by using steady state and time resolved spectroscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Munmun; Mandal, Paulami; Tzeng, Wen-Bih; Ganguly, Tapan

    2010-09-01

    By using electrochemical, steady state and time resolved (fluorescence lifetime and transient absorption) spectroscopic techniques, detailed investigations were made to reveal the mechanisms of charge separation or forward electron transfer reactions within the electron donor phenothiazine (PTZH) or phenoxazine (PXZH) and well known electron acceptor 9-cyanoanthracene (CNA). The transient absorption spectra suggest that the charge separated species formed in the excited singlet state resulted from intermolecular photoinduced electron transfer reactions within the donor PTZH (or PXZH) and CNA acceptor relaxes to the corresponding triplet state. Though alternative mechanisms of via formations of contact neutral radical by H-transfer reaction have been proposed but the observed results obtained from the time resolved measurements indicate that the regeneration of ground state reactants is primarily responsible due to direct recombination of triplet contact ion-pair (CIP) or solvent-separated ion-pair (SSIP).

  14. Regimes of radiative and nonradiative transitions in transport through an electronic system in a photon cavity reaching a steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Vidar; Jonsson, Thorsteinn H.; Bernodusson, Maria Laura; Abdullah, Nzar Rauf; Sitek, Anna; Goan, Hsi-Sheng; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    We analyze how a multilevel many-electron system in a photon cavity approaches the steady state when coupled to external leads. When a plunger gate is used to lower cavity photon dressed one- and two-electron states below the bias window defined by the external leads, we can identify one regime with nonradiative transitions dominating the electron transport, and another regime with radiative transitions. Both transitions trap the electrons in the states below the bias bringing the system into a steady state. The order of the two regimes and their relative strength depends on the location of the bias window in the energy spectrum of the system and the initial conditions.

  15. Photosynthetic complex LH2 – Absorption and steady state fluorescence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapletal, David; Heřman, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, much effort is devoted to the study of photosynthesis which could be the basis for an ideal energy source in the future. To be able to create such an energy source – an artificial photosynthetic complex, the first step is a detailed understanding of the function of photosynthetic complexes in living organisms. Photosynthesis starts with the absorption of a solar photon by one of the LH (light-harvesting) pigment–protein complexes and transferring the excitation energy to the reaction center where a charge separation is initiated. The geometric structure of some LH complexes is known in great detail, e.g. for the LH2 complexes of purple bacteria. For understanding of photosynthesis first stage efficiency, it is necessary to study especially optical properties of LH complexes. In this paper we present simulated absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra for ring molecular system within full Hamiltonian model. Such system can model bacteriochlorophyll ring of peripheral light-harvesting complex LH2 from purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila (Rhodoblastus acidophilus). Dynamic disorder (coupling with phonon bath) simultaneously with uncorrelated static disorder (transfer integral fluctuations) is used in our present simulations. We compare and discuss our new results with our previously published ones and of course with experimental data. - Highlights: • We model absorption and steady state fluorescence spectra for B850 ring from LH2. • Fluctuations of environment is modelled by static and dynamic disorder. • Full Hamiltonian model is compared with the nearest neighbour approximation one. • Simulated fluorescence spectrum is compared with experimental data

  16. Steady states of a diode with counterstreaming electron and positron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ender, A. Ya.; Kuznetsov, V. I., E-mail: victor.kuznetsov@mail.ioffe.ru; Gruzdev, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    Steady states of a plasma layer with counterstreaming beams of oppositely charged particles moving without collisions in a self-consistent electric field are analyzed. The study is aimed at clarifying the mechanism of generation and reconstruction of pulsar radiation. Such a layer also models the processes occurring in Knudsen plasma diodes with counterstreaming electron and ion beams. The steady-state solutions are exhaustively classified. The existence of several solutions at the same external parameters is established.

  17. Isotope partitioning for NAD-malic enzyme from Ascaris suum confirms a steady-state random kinetic mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.; Harris, B.G.; Cook, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Isotope partitioning studies beginning with E-[ 14 C]NAD, E-[ 14 C] malate, E-[ 14 C] NAD-Mg 2+ , and E-Mg-[ 14 C]malate suggest a steady-state random mechanism for the NAD-malic enzyme. Isotope trapping beginning with E-[ 14 C]NAD and with varying concentrations of Mg 2+ and malate in the chase solution indicates that Mg 2+ is added in rapid equilibrium and must be added prior to malate for productive ternary complex formation. Equal percentage trapping from E-[ 14 C]NAD-Mg and E-Mg-[ 14 C] malate indicates the mechanism is steady-state random with equal off-rates for NAD and malate from E-NAD-Mg-malate. The off-rates for both do not change significantly in the ternary E-Mg-malate and E-NAD-Mg complexes, nor does the off-rate change for NAD from E-NAD. No trapping of malate was obtained from E-[ 14 C] malate, suggesting that this complex is nonproductive. A quantitative analysis of the data allows an estimation of values for a number of the rate constants along the reaction pathway

  18. Efficient decoding with steady-state Kalman filter in neural interface systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Wasim Q; Truccolo, Wilson; Brown, Emery N; Hochberg, Leigh R

    2011-02-01

    The Kalman filter is commonly used in neural interface systems to decode neural activity and estimate the desired movement kinematics. We analyze a low-complexity Kalman filter implementation in which the filter gain is approximated by its steady-state form, computed offline before real-time decoding commences. We evaluate its performance using human motor cortical spike train data obtained from an intracortical recording array as part of an ongoing pilot clinical trial. We demonstrate that the standard Kalman filter gain converges to within 95% of the steady-state filter gain in 1.5±0.5 s (mean ±s.d.). The difference in the intended movement velocity decoded by the two filters vanishes within 5 s, with a correlation coefficient of 0.99 between the two decoded velocities over the session length. We also find that the steady-state Kalman filter reduces the computational load (algorithm execution time) for decoding the firing rates of 25±3 single units by a factor of 7.0±0.9. We expect that the gain in computational efficiency will be much higher in systems with larger neural ensembles. The steady-state filter can thus provide substantial runtime efficiency at little cost in terms of estimation accuracy. This far more efficient neural decoding approach will facilitate the practical implementation of future large-dimensional, multisignal neural interface systems.

  19. The quasi-steady state of the valley wind system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg eSchmidli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quasi-steady-state limit of the diurnal valley wind system is investigated overidealized three-dimensional topography. Although this limit is rarely attained inreality due to ever-changing forcings, the investigation of this limit canprovide valuable insight, in particular on the mass and heat fluxes associatedwith the along-valley wind. We derive a scaling relation for the quasi-steady-state along-valleymass flux as a function of valley geometry, valley size, atmospheric stratification,and surface sensible heat flux forcing. The scaling relation is tested by comparisonwith the mass flux diagnosed from numerical simulations of the valleywind system. Good agreement is found. The results also provide insight into the relationbetween surface friction and the strength of the along-valley pressure gradient.

  20. The Completion of Non-Steady-State Queue Model on The Queue System in Dr. Yap Eye Hospital Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmi Manggala Putri, Arum; Subekti, Retno; Binatari, Nikenasih

    2017-06-01

    Dr Yap Eye Hospital Yogyakarta is one of the most popular reference eye hospitals in Yogyakarta. There are so many patients coming from other cities and many of them are BPJS (Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial, Social Security Administrative Bodies) patients. Therefore, it causes numerous BPJS patients were in long queue at counter C of the registration section so that it needs to be analysed using queue system. Queue system analysis aims to give queue model overview and determine its effectiveness measure. The data collecting technique used in this research are by interview and observation. After getting the arrival data and the service data of BPJS patients per 5 minutes, the next steps are investigating steady-state condition, examining the Poisson distribution, determining queue models, and counting the effectiveness measure. Based on the result of data observation on Tuesday, February 16th, 2016, it shows that the queue system at counter C has (M/M/1):(GD/∞/∞) queue model. The analysis result in counter C shows that the queue system is a non-steady-state condition. Three ways to cope a non-steady-state problem on queue system are proposed in this research such as bounding the capacity of queue system, adding the servers, and doing Monte Carlo simulation. The queue system in counter C will reach steady-state if the capacity of patients is not more than 52 BPJS patients or adding one more server. By using Monte Carlo simulation, it shows that the effectiveness measure of the average waiting time for BPJS patients in counter C is 36 minutes 65 seconds. In addition, the average queue length of BPJS patients is 11 patients.

  1. Theoretical studying the stability of steady-state regime of a channel with a coolant condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savikhin, O.G.

    1987-01-01

    Based on the boiling channel stability theory, the channel steady-state stability with the coolant condensation is studied. Condensable coolants are used in the NPP steam-separator superheaters as well as in cryogenic technique. Under certain conditions the coolant flow rate and temperature fluctuations may be excited in the parallel channel system with coolant condensation, which produce a sufficient effect on the heat exchange equipment operation reliability. To describe unsteady processes of heat and mass transfer in the channel, a homogeneous two-phase flow one dimensional model is used. The results obtained allow one to make a conclusion concerning the effect of some parameters on condensing channel steady-state regime stability: reduction of inlet and outlet unheated communication length, pressure drop increase at the outlet plate and its reduction at the inlet one lead to the increase of stability margin

  2. A Review of Fusion and Tokamak Research Towards Steady-State Operation: A JAEA Contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Kikuchi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Providing a historical overview of 50 years of fusion research, a review of the fundamentals and concepts of fusion and research efforts towards the implementation of a steady state tokamak reactor is presented. In 1990, a steady-state tokamak reactor (SSTR best utilizing the bootstrap current was developed. Since then, significant efforts have been made in major tokamaks, including JT-60U, exploring advanced regimes relevant to the steady state operation of tokamaks. In this paper, the fundamentals of fusion and plasma confinement, and the concepts and research on current drive and MHD stability of advanced tokamaks towards realization of a steady-state tokamak reactor are reviewed, with an emphasis on the contributions of the JAEA. Finally, a view of fusion energy utilization in the 21st century is introduced.

  3. Finite element modelling of creep process - steady state stresses and strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedmak Aleksandar S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element modelling of steady state creep process has been described. Using an analogy of visco-plastic problem with a described procedure, the finite element method has been used to calculate steady state stresses and strains in 2D problems. An example of application of such a procedure have been presented, using real life problem - cylindrical pipe with longitudinal crack at high temperature, under internal pressure, and estimating its residual life, based on the C*integral evaluation.

  4. Thermodynamics of random reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jakob; Kleidon, Axel; Dittrich, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Reaction networks are useful for analyzing reaction systems occurring in chemistry, systems biology, or Earth system science. Despite the importance of thermodynamic disequilibrium for many of those systems, the general thermodynamic properties of reaction networks are poorly understood. To circumvent the problem of sparse thermodynamic data, we generate artificial reaction networks and investigate their non-equilibrium steady state for various boundary fluxes. We generate linear and nonlinear networks using four different complex network models (Erdős-Rényi, Barabási-Albert, Watts-Strogatz, Pan-Sinha) and compare their topological properties with real reaction networks. For similar boundary conditions the steady state flow through the linear networks is about one order of magnitude higher than the flow through comparable nonlinear networks. In all networks, the flow decreases with the distance between the inflow and outflow boundary species, with Watts-Strogatz networks showing a significantly smaller slope compared to the three other network types. The distribution of entropy production of the individual reactions inside the network follows a power law in the intermediate region with an exponent of circa -1.5 for linear and -1.66 for nonlinear networks. An elevated entropy production rate is found in reactions associated with weakly connected species. This effect is stronger in nonlinear networks than in the linear ones. Increasing the flow through the nonlinear networks also increases the number of cycles and leads to a narrower distribution of chemical potentials. We conclude that the relation between distribution of dissipation, network topology and strength of disequilibrium is nontrivial and can be studied systematically by artificial reaction networks.

  5. Impact of typical steady-state conditions and transient conditions on flow ripple and its test accuracy for axial piston pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Hu, Min; Zhang, Junhui

    2015-09-01

    The current research about the flow ripple of axial piston pump mainly focuses on the effect of the structure of parts on the flow ripple. Therein, the structure of parts are usually designed and optimized at rated working conditions. However, the pump usually has to work in large-scale and time-variant working conditions. Therefore, the flow ripple characteristics of pump and analysis for its test accuracy with respect to variant steady-state conditions and transient conditions in a wide range of operating parameters are focused in this paper. First, a simulation model has been constructed, which takes the kinematics of oil film within friction pairs into account for higher accuracy. Afterwards, a test bed which adopts Secondary Source Method is built to verify the model. The simulation and tests results show that the angular position of the piston, corresponding to the position where the peak flow ripple is produced, varies with the different pressure. The pulsating amplitude and pulsation rate of flow ripple increase with the rise of pressure and the variation rate of pressure. For the pump working at a constant speed, the flow pulsation rate decreases dramatically with the increasing speed when the speed is less than 27.78% of the maximum speed, subsequently presents a small decrease tendency with the speed further increasing. With the rise of the variation rate of speed, the pulsating amplitude and pulsation rate of flow ripple increase. As the swash plate angle augments, the pulsating amplitude of flow ripple increases, nevertheless the flow pulsation rate decreases. In contrast with the effect of the variation of pressure, the test accuracy of flow ripple is more sensitive to the variation of speed. It makes the test accuracy above 96.20% available for the pulsating amplitude of pressure deviating within a range of ±6% from the mean pressure. However, with a variation of speed deviating within a range of ±2% from the mean speed, the attainable test

  6. Reaction Acceleration in Thin Films with Continuous Product Deposition for Organic Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhenwei; Wleklinski, Michael; Ferreira, Christina; Cooks, R Graham

    2017-08-01

    Thin film formats are used to study the Claisen-Schmidt base-catalyzed condensation of 6-hydroxy-1-indanone with substituted benzaldehydes and to compare the reaction acceleration relative to the bulk. Relative acceleration factors initially exceeded 10 3 and were on the order of 10 2 at steady state, although the confined volume reaction was not electrostatically driven. Substituent effects were muted compared to those in the corresponding bulk and microdroplet reactions and it is concluded that the rate-limiting step at steady state is reagent transport to the interface. Conditions were found that allowed product deposition from the thin film to occur continuously as the reaction mixture was added and as the solvent evaporated. Yields of 74 % and production rates of 98 mg h -1 were reached in a very simple experimental system that could be multiplexed to greater scales. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Coupled MCNP - SAS-SFR calculations for sodium fast reactor core at steady-state - 15460

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, A.; Travleev, A.; Pfrang, W.; Sanchez, V.

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of core parameters at steady state is the first step when studying core accident transient behaviour. At this step thermal hydraulics (TH) and core geometry parameters are calculated corresponding to initial operating conditions. In this study we present the coupling of the SAS-SFR code to the Monte-Carlo neutron transport code MCNP at steady state together with application to the European Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR). The SAS-SFR code employs a multi-channel core representation where each channel represents subassemblies with similar power, thermal-hydraulics and pin mechanics conditions. For every axial node of every channel the individual geometry and material compositions parameters are calculated in accord with power and cooling conditions. This requires supplying the SAS-SFR-code with nodal power values which should be calculated by neutron physics code with given realistic core parameters. In the conventional approach the neutron physics model employs some core averaged TH and geometry data (fuel temperature, coolant density, core axial and radial expansion). In this study we organize a new approach coupling the MCNP neutron physics models and the SAS-SFR models, so that calculations of power can be improved by using distributed core parameters (TH and geometry) taken from SAS-SFR. The MCNP code is capable to describe cores with distributed TH parameters and even to model non-uniform axial expansion of fuel subassemblies. In this way, core TH and geometrical data calculated by SAS-SFR are taken into account accurately in the neutronics model. The coupling implementation is done by data exchange between two codes with help of processing routines managed by driver routine. Currently it is model-specific and realized for the ESFR 'Reference Oxide' core. The Beginning-Of-Life core state is considered with 10 channel representation for fuel subassemblies. For this model several sets of coupled calculations are performed, in which different

  8. Comparison of radon diffusion coefficients measured by transient-diffusion and steady-state laboratory methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalwarf, D.R.; Nielson, K.K.; Rich, D.C.; Rogers, V.C.

    1982-11-01

    A method was developed and used to determine radon diffusion coefficients in compacted soils by transient-diffusion measurements. A relative standard deviation of 12% was observed in repeated measurements with a dry soil by the transient-diffusion method, and a 40% uncertainty was determined for moistures exceeding 50% of saturation. Excellent agreement was also obtained between values of the diffusion coefficient for radon in air, as measured by the transient-diffusion method, and those in the published literature. Good agreement was also obtained with diffusion coefficients measured by a steady-state method on the same soils. The agreement was best at low moistures, averaging less than ten percent difference, but differences of up to a factor of two were observed at high moistures. The comparison of the transient-diffusion and steady-state methods at low moistures provides an excellent verification of the theoretical validity and technical accuracy of these approaches, which are based on completely independent experimental conditions, measurement methods and mathematical interpretations

  9. 40 CFR 86.1363-2007 - Steady-state testing with a discrete-mode cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-state testing with a discrete-mode cycle. 86.1363-2007 Section 86.1363-2007 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1363-2007 Steady-state testing with a discrete-mode cycle. This section...

  10. Parametric study of the primary and secondary systems of the CAREM-25 reactor on steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpert, Silvia; Vazquez, Luis

    2000-01-01

    In the CAREM-25 reactor the primary coolant flows by natural convection that's why the flow is established when the balance between the buoyancy force and friction pressure drop through circuit is obtained. This paper presents a parametric study on primary and secondary systems of the reactor on steady state, for different values of some thermohydraulics parameters: safety factor on friction loss pressure calculations (f), steam generator heat transfer area (A T ) and primary pressure (P P ). The ESCAREM 2.08 thermohydraulic code, which calculates the primary system behavior for steady state conditions, was used for this study. The conclusions of this study are: -) There was a variation of the 15% on the primary coolant flow when the safety factor was changed a 50 %; -) The primary and secondary systems conditions do not change when the power is less than 100 MW; -) Between 100 and 110 MW the decrease of the heat transfer area produces an important change on the secondary systems conditions: the outlet steam generator temperature decrease and there is an important rice in the flow; -) The primary pressure could decrease up to 11.4 MPa without violating turbine requirements. (author)

  11. Herd-Level Modeling and Steady-State Livestock Productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... an outline of the scope for applications and addresses the prospects for refinement and model extensions. The algorithms for use in development of steady state derivations include transition of matrices in a Markov Chain approach, continuous differential equations and actuarial approach built on life and fecundity tables.

  12. Principle of Entropy Maximization for Nonequilibrium Steady States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this contribution is to find out to what extent the principle of entropy maximization, which serves as a basis for the equilibrium thermodynamics, may be generalized onto non-equilibrium steady states. We prove a theorem that, in the system of thermodynamic coordinates, where entropy...

  13. Steady-state operation of spheromaks by inductive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janos, A.

    1984-04-01

    A method to maintain a steady-state spheromak configuration inductively using the S-1 Spheromak device is described. The S-1 Spheromak formation apparatus can be utilized to inject magnetic helicity continuously (C.W., not pulsed or D.C.) into the spheromak configuration after equilibrium is achieved in the linked mode of operation. Oscillation of both poloidal- and toroidal-field currents in the flux core (psi-phi Pumping), with proper phasing, injects a net time-averaged helicity into the plasma. Steady-state maintenance relies on flux conversion, which has been earlier identified. Relevant experimental data from the operation of S-1 are described. Helicity flow has been measured and the proposed injection scheme simulated. In a reasonable time practical voltages and frequencies can inject an amount of helicity comparable to that in the initial plasma. Plasma currents can be maintained or increased. This pumping technique is similar to F-THETA Pumping of a Reversed-Field-Pinch but is applied to this inverse-pinch formation

  14. ATC calculation with steady-state security constraints using Benders decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, M.; Yan, Z.; Ni, Y.; Wu, F.; Li, W.; Liu, H.

    2003-01-01

    Available transfer capability (ATC) is an important indicator of the usable amount of transmission capacity accessible by assorted parties for commercial trading, ATC calculation is nontrivial when steady-state security constraints are included. In hie paper, Benders decomposition method is proposed to partition the AC problem with steady-state security constraints into a base case master problem and a series of subproblems relevant to various contingencies to include their impacts on ATC. The mathematical model is formulated and the two solution schemes are presented. Computer testing on the 4-bus system and IEEE 30-bus system shows the effectiveness of the proposed method and the solution schemes. (Author)

  15. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and a fluctuation theorem for individual reaction steps in a chemical reaction network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Krishnendu; Das, Biswajit; Banerjee, Kinshuk; Gangopadhyay, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    We have introduced an approach to nonequilibrium thermodynamics of an open chemical reaction network in terms of the propensities of the individual elementary reactions and the corresponding reverse reactions. The method is a microscopic formulation of the dissipation function in terms of the relative entropy or Kullback-Leibler distance which is based on the analogy of phase space trajectory with the path of elementary reactions in a network of chemical process. We have introduced here a fluctuation theorem valid for each opposite pair of elementary reactions which is useful in determining the contribution of each sub-reaction on the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of overall reaction. The methodology is applied to an oligomeric enzyme kinetics at a chemiostatic condition that leads the reaction to a nonequilibrium steady state for which we have estimated how each step of the reaction is energy driven or entropy driven to contribute to the overall reaction. (paper)

  16. Model-based derivation, analysis and control of unstable microaerobic steady-states--considering Rhodospirillum rubrum as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carius, Lisa; Rumschinski, Philipp; Faulwasser, Timm; Flockerzi, Dietrich; Grammel, Hartmut; Findeisen, Rolf

    2014-04-01

    Microaerobic (oxygen-limited) conditions are critical for inducing many important microbial processes in industrial or environmental applications. At very low oxygen concentrations, however, the process performance often suffers from technical limitations. Available dissolved oxygen measurement techniques are not sensitive enough and thus control techniques, that can reliable handle these conditions, are lacking. Recently, we proposed a microaerobic process control strategy, which overcomes these restrictions and allows to assess different degrees of oxygen limitation in bioreactor batch cultivations. Here, we focus on the design of a control strategy for the automation of oxygen-limited continuous cultures using the microaerobic formation of photosynthetic membranes (PM) in Rhodospirillum rubrum as model phenomenon. We draw upon R. rubrum since the considered phenomenon depends on the optimal availability of mixed-carbon sources, hence on boundary conditions which make the process performance challenging. Empirically assessing these specific microaerobic conditions is scarcely practicable as such a process reacts highly sensitive to changes in the substrate composition and the oxygen availability in the culture broth. Therefore, we propose a model-based process control strategy which allows to stabilize steady-states of cultures grown under these conditions. As designing the appropriate strategy requires a detailed knowledge of the system behavior, we begin by deriving and validating an unstructured process model. This model is used to optimize the experimental conditions, and identify properties of the system which are critical for process performance. The derived model facilitates the good process performance via the proposed optimal control strategy. In summary the presented model-based control strategy allows to access and maintain microaerobic steady-states of interest and to precisely and efficiently transfer the culture from one stable microaerobic steady-state

  17. How should we understand non-equilibrium many-body steady states?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrebi, Mohammad; Gorshkov, Alexey

    : Many-body systems with both coherent dynamics and dissipation constitute a rich class of models which are nevertheless much less explored than their dissipationless counterparts. The advent of numerous experimental platforms that simulate such dynamics poses an immediate challenge to systematically understand and classify these models. In particular, nontrivial many-body states emerge as steady states under non-equilibrium dynamics. In this talk, I use a field-theoretic approach based on the Keldysh formalism to study nonequilibrium phases and phase transitions in such models. I show that an effective temperature generically emerges as a result of dissipation, and the universal behavior including the dynamics near the steady state is described by a thermodynamic universality class. In the end, I will also discuss possibilities that go beyond the paradigm of an effective thermodynamic behavior.

  18. Steady state minority carrier lifetime and defect level occupation in thin film CdTe solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Zimeng; Delahoy, Alan E.; Su, Zhaoqian; Chin, Ken K.

    2014-01-01

    A model consisting of Shockley Read Hall (SRH) recombination under steady state conditions of constant photon injection is proposed in this work to study the steady state minority carrier lifetime in CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells. The SRH recombination rate versus optical injection level is analytically approximated in the junction and neutral regions. In the neutral region, it is found that the recombination rate through certain defect levels has one constant value under lower optical injection conditions and another constant value under higher optical injection conditions with the transition occurring at a critical optical injection level. By simultaneously solving the equations of charge neutrality, charge conservation and SRH recombination in the neutral region, it is found that the compensation of doping and the reduction of minority carrier lifetime by donors in the p-type semiconductor can each be remedied by optical injection. It is also demonstrated that this optical-dependent SRH recombination is significant in large bandgap thin films. The measured minority carrier diffusion length in a CdS/CdTe solar cells, as determined from the steady-state photo-generated carrier collection efficiency, shows the predicted transition of minority carrier lifetime versus optical injection level. A numerical fitting of the indirectly-measured minority carrier lifetime by assuming the minority carrier mobility gives a non-intuitive picture of the p–n junction with a low free hole concentration but a narrow depletion region width. - Highlights: • Minority carrier lifetimes under different optical injections are solved. • Simplifications of Shockley–Read–Hall recombination equation are discussed. • The compensation of donor can be remedied with optical injection. • The recombination efficiency of donor can be remedied with optical injection. • The minority carrier lifetime transition under illumination was experimentally observed

  19. Cerebral vasomotor reactivity: steady-state versus transient changes in carbon dioxide tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, R Matthew; Lucas, Rebekah A I; Zhu, Yong-Sheng; Crandall, Craig G; Zhang, Rong

    2014-11-01

    Cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVMR) to changes in arterial carbon dioxide tension (P aCO 2) is assessed during steady-state or transient changes in P aCO 2. This study tested the following two hypotheses: (i) that CVMR during steady-state changes differs from that during transient changes in P aCO 2; and (ii) that CVMR during rebreathing-induced hypercapnia would be blunted when preceded by a period of hyperventilation. For each hypothesis, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (P ET , CO 2) middle cerebral artery blood velocity (CBFV), cerebrovascular conductance index (CVCI; CBFV/mean arterial pressure) and CVMR (slope of the linear regression between changes in CBFV and CVCI versus P ET , CO 2) were assessed in eight individuals. To address the first hypothesis, measurements were made during the following two conditions (randomized): (i) steady-state increases in P ET , CO 2 of 5 and 10 Torr above baseline; and (ii) rebreathing-induced transient breath-by-breath increases in P ET , CO 2. The linear regression for CBFV versus P ET , CO 2 (P = 0.65) and CVCI versus P ET , CO 2 (P = 0.44) was similar between methods; however, individual variability in CBFV or CVCI responses existed among subjects. To address the second hypothesis, the same measurements were made during the following two conditions (randomized): (i) immediately following a brief period of hypocapnia induced by hyperventilation for 1 min followed by rebreathing; and (ii) during rebreathing only. The slope of the linear regression for CBFV versus P ET , CO 2 (P < 0.01) and CVCI versus P ET , CO 2 (P < 0.01) was reduced during hyperventilation plus rebreathing relative to rebreathing only. These results indicate that cerebral vasomotor reactivity to changes in P aCO 2 is similar regardless of the employed methodology to induce changes in P aCO 2 and that hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia attenuates the cerebral vasodilatory responses during a subsequent period of rebreathing

  20. A quaternionic map for the steady states of the Heisenberg spin-chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Mitaxi P., E-mail: mitaxi.mehta@ahduni.edu.in [IICT, Ahmedabad University, Opp. IIM, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad (India); Dutta, Souvik; Tiwari, Shubhanshu [BITS-Pilani, K.K. Birla Goa campus, Goa (India)

    2014-01-17

    We show that the steady states of the classical Heisenberg XXX spin-chain in an external magnetic field can be found by iterations of a quaternionic map. A restricted model, e.g., the xy spin-chain is known to have spatially chaotic steady states and the phase space occupied by these chaotic states is known to go through discrete changes as the field strength is varied. The same phenomenon is studied for the xxx spin-chain. It is seen that in this model the phase space volume varies smoothly with the external field.

  1. A quaternionic map for the steady states of the Heisenberg spin-chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Mitaxi P.; Dutta, Souvik; Tiwari, Shubhanshu

    2014-01-01

    We show that the steady states of the classical Heisenberg XXX spin-chain in an external magnetic field can be found by iterations of a quaternionic map. A restricted model, e.g., the xy spin-chain is known to have spatially chaotic steady states and the phase space occupied by these chaotic states is known to go through discrete changes as the field strength is varied. The same phenomenon is studied for the xxx spin-chain. It is seen that in this model the phase space volume varies smoothly with the external field.

  2. Steady state analysis of Boolean molecular network models via model reduction and computational algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliz-Cuba, Alan; Aguilar, Boris; Hinkelmann, Franziska; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2014-06-26

    A key problem in the analysis of mathematical models of molecular networks is the determination of their steady states. The present paper addresses this problem for Boolean network models, an increasingly popular modeling paradigm for networks lacking detailed kinetic information. For small models, the problem can be solved by exhaustive enumeration of all state transitions. But for larger models this is not feasible, since the size of the phase space grows exponentially with the dimension of the network. The dimension of published models is growing to over 100, so that efficient methods for steady state determination are essential. Several methods have been proposed for large networks, some of them heuristic. While these methods represent a substantial improvement in scalability over exhaustive enumeration, the problem for large networks is still unsolved in general. This paper presents an algorithm that consists of two main parts. The first is a graph theoretic reduction of the wiring diagram of the network, while preserving all information about steady states. The second part formulates the determination of all steady states of a Boolean network as a problem of finding all solutions to a system of polynomial equations over the finite number system with two elements. This problem can be solved with existing computer algebra software. This algorithm compares favorably with several existing algorithms for steady state determination. One advantage is that it is not heuristic or reliant on sampling, but rather determines algorithmically and exactly all steady states of a Boolean network. The code for the algorithm, as well as the test suite of benchmark networks, is available upon request from the corresponding author. The algorithm presented in this paper reliably determines all steady states of sparse Boolean networks with up to 1000 nodes. The algorithm is effective at analyzing virtually all published models even those of moderate connectivity. The problem for

  3. Applications of an implicit HLLC-based Godunov solver for steady state hypersonic problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, R.A.; Sharman, B.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been considerable activity developing research vehicles for studying hypersonic propulsion. Successful launches of the Australian Hyshot and the US Hyper-X vehicles have added a significant amount of flight test data to a field that had previously been limited to numerical simulation. A number of approaches have been proposed for hypersonics propulsion, including attached detonation wave, supersonics combustion, and shock induced combustion. Due to the high cost of developing flight hardware, CFD simulations will continue to be a key tool for investigating the feasibility of these concepts. Capturing the interactions of the vehicle body with the boundary layer and chemical reactions pushes the limits of available modelling tools and computer hardware. Explicit formulations are extremely slow in converging to a steady state; therefore, the use of implicit methods are warranted. An implicit LLC-based Godunov solver has been developed at Martec in collaboration with DRDC Valcartier to solve hypersonic problems with a minimum of CPU time and RAM storage. The solver, Chinook Implicit, is based upon the implicit formulation adopted by Batten et. al. The solver is based on a point implicit Gauss-Seidel method for unstructured grids, and includes fully implicit boundary conditions. Preliminary results for small and large scale inviscid hypersonics problems will be presented. (author)

  4. The behaviour of water-cooled reactor fuel rods in steady state and transient conditions; Zachowanie sie pretow paliwowych reaktorow chlodzonych woda w stanach ustalonych i nieustalonych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strupczewski, A.; Marks, P. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    In this report, the results of temperature field and filling gas pressure calculations by means of contemporary calculational models for a WWER-440 and WWER-1000 type fuel rod at low and high burnup operating under steady-state conditions are presented. A review of in-core temperature and pressure measurements for various types of LWR fuel is also included. Basing on calculational and collected measured data, the behaviour of fuel cladding during large and small break LOCA, is estimated with special emphasis on their oxidation and failure resistance. (author) 38 refs, 40 figs, 15 tabs

  5. Steady state ion acceleration by a circularly polarized laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaomei; Shen Baifei; Cang Yu; Li Xuemei; Jin Zhangying; Wang Fengchao

    2007-01-01

    The steady state ion acceleration at the front of a cold solid target by a circularly polarized flat-top laser pulse is studied with one-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. A model that ions are reflected by a steady laser-driven piston is used by comparing with the electrostatic shock acceleration. A stable profile with a double-flat-top structure in phase space forms after ions enter the undisturbed region of the target with a constant velocity

  6. A Novel Chronic Opioid Monitoring Tool to Assess Prescription Drug Steady State Levels in Oral Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaparin, Naum; Mehta, Neel; Kunkel, Frank; Stripp, Richard; Borg, Damon; Kolb, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Interpretation limitations of urine drug testing and the invasiveness of blood toxicology have motivated the desire for the development of simpler methods to assess biologically active drug levels on an individualized patient basis. Oral fluid is a matrix well-suited for the challenge because collections are based on simple noninvasive procedures and drug concentrations better correlate to blood drug levels as oral fluid is a filtrate of the blood. Well-established pharmacokinetic models were utilized to generate oral fluid steady state concentration ranges to assess the interpretive value of the alternative matrix to monitor steady state plasma oxycodone levels. Paired oral fluid and plasma samples were collected from patients chronically prescribed oxycodone and quantitatively analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Steady state plasma concentration ranges were calculated for each donor and converted to an equivalent range in oral fluid. Measured plasma and oral fluid oxycodone concentrations were compared with respective matrix-matched steady state ranges, using each plasma steady state classification as the control. A high degree of correlation was observed between matrices when classifying donors according to expected steady state oxycodone concentration. Agreement between plasma and oral fluid steady state classifications was observed in 75.6% of paired samples. This study supports novel application of basic pharmacokinetic knowledge to the pain management industry, simplifying and improving individualized drug monitoring and risk assessment through the use of oral fluid drug testing. Many benefits of established therapeutic drug monitoring in plasma can be realized in oral fluid for patients chronically prescribed oxycodone at steady state. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Poiseuille flow of soft glasses in narrow channels: from quiescence to steady state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Pinaki; Horbach, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    Using numerical simulations, the onset of Poiseuille flow in a confined soft glass is investigated. Starting from the quiescent state, steady flow sets in at a time scale which increases with a decrease in applied forcing. At this onset time scale, a rapid transition occurs via the simultaneous fluidization of regions having different local stresses. In the absence of steady flow at long times, creep is observed even in regions where the local stress is larger than the bulk yielding threshold. Finally, we show that the time scale to attain steady flow depends strongly on the history of the initial state.

  8. Strontium and caesium transport in unsaturated soil from Chernobyl Pilot Site under steady flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szenknect, St.

    2003-10-01

    This work is devoted to the quantification and the identification of the predominant processes involved in strontium and caesium transport in unsaturated soil from Chernobyl Pilot Site under steady flow conditions. The transport and fate of radionuclides in the subsurface is affected by various physical and chemical processes including advective and diffusive transport as well as chemical and biological transformations. Laboratory experiments and the use of a multiple tracer approach allow to isolate the contributions of each elementary process and to control the physico-chemical conditions in the system. To be more representative of the field conditions, we decided to perform column miscible displacement experiments. We perform batch and flow-through reactor experiments to characterize the radionuclides sorption mechanisms. Miscible displacement experiments within homogeneous columns and modeling allow to characterize the hydrodynamic properties of the soil and to describe the radionuclides behaviour under dynamic conditions at different water contents. We show that the water content of porous media affect the transport behaviour of inert and strongly sorbing radionuclides. Our results demonstrate that a parametrized transport model that was calibrated under completely saturated conditions was not able to describe the advective-dispersive transport of reactive solutes under unsaturated steady state conditions. Under our experimental conditions, there is no effect of a decrease of the mean water content on the sorption model parameters, but the transport parameters are modified. We established for the studied soil the relation between hydrodynamic dispersion and water content and the relation between pore water velocity and water content. (author)

  9. Artificial neural network modelling for organic and total nitrogen removal of aerobic granulation under steady-state condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, H; Pishgar, R; Tay, J H

    2018-04-27

    Aerobic granulation is a recent technology with high level of complexity and sensitivity to environmental and operational conditions. Artificial neural networks (ANNs), computational tools capable of describing complex non-linear systems, are the best fit to simulate aerobic granular bioreactors. In this study, two feedforward backpropagation ANN models were developed to predict chemical oxygen demand (Model I) and total nitrogen removal efficiencies (Model II) of aerobic granulation technology under steady-state condition. Fundamentals of ANN models and the steps to create them were briefly reviewed. The models were respectively fed with 205 and 136 data points collected from laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale studies on aerobic granulation technology reported in the literature. Initially, 60%, 20%, and 20%, and 80%, 10%, and 10% of the points in the corresponding datasets were randomly chosen and used for training, testing, and validation of Model I, and Model II, respectively. Overall coefficient of determination (R 2 ) value and mean squared error (MSE) of the two models were initially 0.49 and 15.5, and 0.37 and 408, respectively. To improve the model performance, two data division methods were used. While one method is generic and potentially applicable to other fields, the other can only be applied to modelling the performance of aerobic granular reactors. R 2 value and MSE were improved to 0.90 and 2.54, and 0.81 and 121.56, respectively, after applying the new data division methods. The results demonstrated that ANN-based models were capable simulation approach to predict a complicated process like aerobic granulation.

  10. Computational analysis of the behaviour of nuclear fuel under steady state, transient and accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    Accident analysis is an important tool for ensuring the adequacy and efficiency of the provision in the defence in depth concept to cope with challenges to plant safety. Accident analysis is the milestone of the demonstration that the plant is capable of meeting any prescribed limits for radioactive releases and any other acceptable limits for the safe operation of the plant. It is used, by designers, utilities and regulators, in a number of applications such as: (a) licensing of new plants, (b) modification of existing plants, (c) analysis of operational events, (d) development, improvement or justification of the plant operational limits and conditions, and (e) safety cases. According to the defence in depth concept, the fuel rod cladding constitutes the first containment barrier of the fission products. Therefore, related safety objectives and associated criteria are defined, in order to ensure, at least for normal operation and anticipated transients, the integrity of the cladding, and for accident conditions, acceptable radiological consequences with regard to the postulated frequency of the accident, as usually identified in the safety analysis reports. Therefore, computational analysis of fuel behaviour under steady state, transient and accident conditions constitutes a major link of the safety case in order to justify the design and the safety of the fuel assemblies, as far as all relevant phenomena are correctly addressed and modelled. This publication complements the IAEA Safety Report on Accident Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants (Safety Report Series No. 23) that provides practical guidance for establishing a set of conceptual and formal methods and practices for performing accident analysis. Computational analysis of the behaviour of nuclear fuel under transient and accident conditions, including normal operation (e.g. power ramp rates) is developed in this publication. For design basis accidents, depending on the type of influence on a fuel element

  11. Steady-state bifurcations of the three-dimensional Kolmogorov problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Min Chen

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the spatially periodic incompressible fluid motion in $mathbb R^3$ excited by the external force $k^2(sin kz, 0,0$ with $kgeq 2$ an integer. This driving force gives rise to the existence of the unidirectional basic steady flow $u_0=(sin kz,0, 0$ for any Reynolds number. It is shown in Theorem 1.1 that there exist a number of critical Reynolds numbers such that $u_0$ bifurcates into either 4 or 8 or 16 different steady states, when the Reynolds number increases across each of such numbers.

  12. Existence and instability of steady states for a triangular cross-diffusion system: A computer-assisted proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breden, Maxime; Castelli, Roberto

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present and apply a computer-assisted method to study steady states of a triangular cross-diffusion system. Our approach consist in an a posteriori validation procedure, that is based on using a fixed point argument around a numerically computed solution, in the spirit of the Newton-Kantorovich theorem. It allows to prove the existence of various non homogeneous steady states for different parameter values. In some situations, we obtain as many as 13 coexisting steady states. We also apply the a posteriori validation procedure to study the linear stability of the obtained steady states, proving that many of them are in fact unstable.

  13. An empirically based steady state friction law and implications for fault stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnuolo, E; Nielsen, S; Violay, M; Di Toro, G

    2016-04-16

    Empirically based rate-and-state friction laws (RSFLs) have been proposed to model the dependence of friction forces with slip and time. The relevance of the RSFL for earthquake mechanics is that few constitutive parameters define critical conditions for fault stability (i.e., critical stiffness and frictional fault behavior). However, the RSFLs were determined from experiments conducted at subseismic slip rates ( V   0.1 m/s) remains questionable on the basis of the experimental evidence of (1) large dynamic weakening and (2) activation of particular fault lubrication processes at seismic slip rates. Here we propose a modified RSFL (MFL) based on the review of a large published and unpublished data set of rock friction experiments performed with different testing machines. The MFL, valid at steady state conditions from subseismic to seismic slip rates (0.1 µm/s fault frictional stability with implications for slip event styles and relevance for models of seismic rupture nucleation, propagation, and arrest.

  14. Thermodynamics of random reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Fischer

    Full Text Available Reaction networks are useful for analyzing reaction systems occurring in chemistry, systems biology, or Earth system science. Despite the importance of thermodynamic disequilibrium for many of those systems, the general thermodynamic properties of reaction networks are poorly understood. To circumvent the problem of sparse thermodynamic data, we generate artificial reaction networks and investigate their non-equilibrium steady state for various boundary fluxes. We generate linear and nonlinear networks using four different complex network models (Erdős-Rényi, Barabási-Albert, Watts-Strogatz, Pan-Sinha and compare their topological properties with real reaction networks. For similar boundary conditions the steady state flow through the linear networks is about one order of magnitude higher than the flow through comparable nonlinear networks. In all networks, the flow decreases with the distance between the inflow and outflow boundary species, with Watts-Strogatz networks showing a significantly smaller slope compared to the three other network types. The distribution of entropy production of the individual reactions inside the network follows a power law in the intermediate region with an exponent of circa -1.5 for linear and -1.66 for nonlinear networks. An elevated entropy production rate is found in reactions associated with weakly connected species. This effect is stronger in nonlinear networks than in the linear ones. Increasing the flow through the nonlinear networks also increases the number of cycles and leads to a narrower distribution of chemical potentials. We conclude that the relation between distribution of dissipation, network topology and strength of disequilibrium is nontrivial and can be studied systematically by artificial reaction networks.

  15. An accelerator based steady state neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, R.J.; Johnson, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Using high current, c.w. linear accelerator technology, a spallation neutron source can achieve much higher average intensities than existing or proposed pulsed spallation sources. With about 100 mA of 300 MeV protons or deuterons, the Accelerator Based Neutron Research Facility (ABNR) would initially achieve the 10 16 n/cm 2 .s thermal flux goal of the advanced steady state neutron source, and upgrading could provide higher steady state fluxes. The relatively low ion energy compared to other spallation sources has an important impact on R and D requirements as well as capital cost, for which a range of $300-450M is estimated by comparison to other accelerator-based neutron source facilities. The source is similar to a reactor source in most respects. It has some higher energy neutrons but fewer gamma rays, and the moderator region is free of many of the design constraints of a reactor, which helps to implement sources for various neutron energy spectra, many beam tubes, etc. With the development of multi-beam concept and the basis for currents greater than 100 mA that is assumed in the R and D plan, the ABNR would serve many additional uses, such as fusion materials development, production of proton-rich isotopes, and other energy and defense program needs

  16. Effect of the reaction medium on the properties of solid catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boreskov, G.K.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of the reaction medium on the properties of solid catalysts, such as bulk or supported metals, alloys, or metal oxides, include variations in surface composition, structure, and catalytic properties due to catalyst interaction with the reactants. This interaction leads to the establishment of a steady state, which is determined by the composition of the reaction medium and temperature, but is independent of the initial state of the catalyst. This steady state for a catalyst of a given chemical composition is characterized by an approximately constant specific activity in most chemical reactions, which is almost independent of the preparation method, surface area, or crystal size of the catalyst. The structurally sensitive reactions, which occur only on limited segments of catalyst surface characterized by specific structures, are the exception. The effects of the variations in catalytic properties caused by the reaction medium on the steady-state and nonsteady-state reaction kinetics are also discussed based on the results obtained for oxidative dehydrogenation of 1-butene over an iron/antimony oxide catalyst.

  17. BLIMP1 Is Required for Postnatal Epidermal Homeostasis but Does Not Define a Sebaceous Gland Progenitor under Steady-State Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Kretzschmar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available B-lymphocyte-induced nuclear maturation protein 1 (BLIMP1 was previously reported to define a sebaceous gland (SG progenitor population in the epidermis. However, the recent identification of multiple stem cell populations in the hair follicle junctional zone has led us to re-evaluate its function. We show, in agreement with previous studies, that BLIMP1 is expressed by postmitotic, terminally differentiated epidermal cells within the SG, interfollicular epidermis, and hair follicle. Epidermal overexpression of c-Myc results in loss of BLIMP1+ cells, an effect modulated by androgen signaling. Epidermal-specific deletion of Blimp1 causes multiple differentiation defects in the epidermis in addition to SG enlargement. In culture, BLIMP1+ sebocytes have no greater clonogenic potential than BLIMP1− sebocytes. Finally, lineage-tracing experiments reveal that, under steady-state conditions, BLIMP1-expressing cells do not divide. Thus, rather than defining a sebocyte progenitor population, BLIMP1 functions in terminally differentiated cells to maintain homeostasis in multiple epidermal compartments.

  18. A highly efficient autothermal microchannel reactor for ammonia decomposition: Analysis of hydrogen production in transient and steady-state regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Nicolaas; Chiuta, Steven; Bessarabov, Dmitri G.

    2018-05-01

    The experimental evaluation of an autothermal microchannel reactor for H2 production from NH3 decomposition is described. The reactor design incorporates an autothermal approach, with added NH3 oxidation, for coupled heat supply to the endothermic decomposition reaction. An alternating catalytic plate arrangement is used to accomplish this thermal coupling in a cocurrent flow strategy. Detailed analysis of the transient operating regime associated with reactor start-up and steady-state results is presented. The effects of operating parameters on reactor performance are investigated, specifically, the NH3 decomposition flow rate, NH3 oxidation flow rate, and fuel-oxygen equivalence ratio. Overall, the reactor exhibits rapid response time during start-up; within 60 min, H2 production is approximately 95% of steady-state values. The recommended operating point for steady-state H2 production corresponds to an NH3 decomposition flow rate of 6 NL min-1, NH3 oxidation flow rate of 4 NL min-1, and fuel-oxygen equivalence ratio of 1.4. Under these flows, NH3 conversion of 99.8% and H2 equivalent fuel cell power output of 0.71 kWe is achieved. The reactor shows good heat utilization with a thermal efficiency of 75.9%. An efficient autothermal reactor design is therefore demonstrated, which may be upscaled to a multi-kW H2 production system for commercial implementation.

  19. Reliable and Efficient Procedure for Steady-State Analysis of Nonautonomous and Autonomous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dobes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of contemporary design tools do not still contain steady-state algorithms, especially for the autonomous systems. This is mainly caused by insufficient accuracy of the algorithm for numerical integration, but also by unreliable steady-state algorithms themselves. Therefore, in the paper, a very stable and efficient procedure for the numerical integration of nonlinear differential-algebraic systems is defined first. Afterwards, two improved methods are defined for finding the steady state, which use this integration algorithm in their iteration loops. The first is based on the idea of extrapolation, and the second utilizes nonstandard time-domain sensitivity analysis. The two steady-state algorithms are compared by analyses of a rectifier and a C-class amplifier, and the extrapolation algorithm is primarily selected as a more reliable alternative. Finally, the method based on the extrapolation naturally cooperating with the algorithm for solving the differential-algebraic systems is thoroughly tested on various electronic circuits: Van der Pol and Colpitts oscillators, fragment of a large bipolar logical circuit, feedback and distributed microwave oscillators, and power amplifier. The results confirm that the extrapolation method is faster than a classical plain numerical integration, especially for larger circuits with complicated transients.

  20. Photogeochemical reactions of manganese under anoxic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Yee, N.; Piotrowiak, P.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2017-12-01

    Photogeochemistry describes reactions involving light and naturally occurring chemical species. These reactions often involve a photo-induced electron transfer that does not occur in the absence of light. Although photogeochemical reactions have been known for decades, they are often ignored in geochemical models. In particular, reactions caused by UV radiation during an ozone free early Earth could have influenced the available oxidation states of manganese. Manganese is one of the most abundant transition metals in the crust and is important in both biology and geology. For example, the presence of manganese (VI) oxides in the geologic record has been used as a proxy for oxygenic photosynthesis; however, we suggest that the high oxidation state of Mn can be produced abiotically by photochemical reactions. Aqueous solutions of manganese (II) as well as suspensions of rhodochrosite (MnCO3) were irradiated under anoxic condition using a 450 W mercury lamp and custom built quartz reaction vessels. The photoreaction of the homogeneous solution of Mn(II) produced H2 gas and akhtenskite (ɛ-MnO2) as the solid product . This product is different than the previously identified birnessite. The irradiation of rhodochrosite suspensions also produced H2 gas and resulted in both a spectral shift as well as morphology changes of the mineral particles in the SEM images. These reactions offer alternative, abiotic pathways for the formation of manganese oxides.

  1. Modelling non-steady-state isotope enrichment of leaf water in a gas-exchange cuvette environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin; Simonin, Kevin A; Loucos, Karen E; Barbour, Margaret M

    2015-12-01

    The combined use of a gas-exchange system and laser-based isotope measurement is a tool of growing interest in plant ecophysiological studies, owing to its relevance for assessing isotopic variability in leaf water and/or transpiration under non-steady-state (NSS) conditions. However, the current Farquhar & Cernusak (F&C) NSS leaf water model, originally developed for open-field scenarios, is unsuited for use in a gas-exchange cuvette environment where isotope composition of water vapour (δv ) is intrinsically linked to that of transpiration (δE ). Here, we modified the F&C model to make it directly compatible with the δv -δE dynamic characteristic of a typical cuvette setting. The resultant new model suggests a role of 'net-flux' (rather than 'gross-flux' as suggested by the original F&C model)-based leaf water turnover rate in controlling the time constant (τ) for the approach to steady sate. The validity of the new model was subsequently confirmed in a cuvette experiment involving cotton leaves, for which we demonstrated close agreement between τ values predicted from the model and those measured from NSS variations in isotope enrichment of transpiration. Hence, we recommend that our new model be incorporated into future isotope studies involving a cuvette condition where the transpiration flux directly influences δv . There is an increasing popularity among plant ecophysiologists to use a gas-exchange system coupled to laser-based isotope measurement for investigating non-steady state (NSS) isotopic variability in leaf water (and/or transpiration); however, the current Farquhar & Cernusak (F&C) NSS leaf water model is unsuited for use in a gas-exchange cuvette environment due to its implicit assumption of isotope composition of water vapor (δv ) being constant and independent of that of transpiration (δE ). In the present study, we modified the F&C model to make it compatible with the dynamic relationship between δv and δE as is typically associated

  2. Selection of Steady-State Process Simulation Software to Optimize Treatment of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, T. T.; Barnes, C. M.; Lauerhass, L.; Taylor, D. D.

    2001-01-01

    The process used for selecting a steady-state process simulator under conditions of high uncertainty and limited time is described. Multiple waste forms, treatment ambiguity, and the uniqueness of both the waste chemistries and alternative treatment technologies result in a large set of potential technical requirements that no commercial simulator can totally satisfy. The aim of the selection process was two-fold. First, determine the steady-state simulation software that best, albeit not completely, satisfies the requirements envelope. And second, determine if the best is good enough to justify the cost. Twelve simulators were investigated with varying degrees of scrutiny. The candidate list was narrowed to three final contenders: ASPEN Plus 10.2, PRO/II 5.11, and CHEMCAD 5.1.0. It was concluded from ''road tests'' that ASPEN Plus appears to satisfy the project's technical requirements the best and is worth acquiring. The final software decisions provide flexibility: they involve annual rather than multi-year licensing, and they include periodic re-assessment

  3. Selection of Steady-State Process Simulation Software to Optimize Treatment of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Barnes, Charles Marshall; Lauerhass, Lance; Taylor, Dean Dalton

    2001-06-01

    The process used for selecting a steady-state process simulator under conditions of high uncertainty and limited time is described. Multiple waste forms, treatment ambiguity, and the uniqueness of both the waste chemistries and alternative treatment technologies result in a large set of potential technical requirements that no commercial simulator can totally satisfy. The aim of the selection process was two-fold. First, determine the steady-state simulation software that best, albeit not completely, satisfies the requirements envelope. And second, determine if the best is good enough to justify the cost. Twelve simulators were investigated with varying degrees of scrutiny. The candidate list was narrowed to three final contenders: ASPEN Plus 10.2, PRO/II 5.11, and CHEMCAD 5.1.0. It was concluded from "road tests" that ASPEN Plus appears to satisfy the project's technical requirements the best and is worth acquiring. The final software decisions provide flexibility: they involve annual rather than multi-year licensing, and they include periodic re-assessment.

  4. Linear analysis near a steady-state of biochemical networks: control analysis, correlation metrics and circuit theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Hong

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Several approaches, including metabolic control analysis (MCA, flux balance analysis (FBA, correlation metric construction (CMC, and biochemical circuit theory (BCT, have been developed for the quantitative analysis of complex biochemical networks. Here, we present a comprehensive theory of linear analysis for nonequilibrium steady-state (NESS biochemical reaction networks that unites these disparate approaches in a common mathematical framework and thermodynamic basis. Results: In this theory a number of relationships between key matrices are introduced: the matrix A obtained in the standard, linear-dynamic-stability analysis of the steady-state can be decomposed as A = SRT where R and S are directly related to the elasticity-coefficient matrix for the fluxes and chemical potentials in MCA, respectively; the control-coefficients for the fluxes and chemical potentials can be written in terms of RT BS and ST BS respectively where matrix B is the inverse of A; the matrix S is precisely the stoichiometric matrix in FBA; and the matrix eAt plays a central role in CMC. Conclusion: One key finding that emerges from this analysis is that the well-known summation theorems in MCA take different forms depending on whether metabolic steady-state is maintained by flux injection or concentration clamping. We demonstrate that if rate-limiting steps exist in a biochemical pathway, they are the steps with smallest biochemical conductances and largest flux control-coefficients. We hypothesize that biochemical networks for cellular signaling have a different strategy for minimizing energy waste and being efficient than do biochemical networks for biosynthesis. We also discuss the intimate relationship between MCA and biochemical systems analysis (BSA.

  5. Combined Steady-State and Dynamic Heat Exchanger Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal; Bader, Paul N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a heat-transfer experiment that combines steady-state analysis and dynamic control. A process-water stream is circulated through two tube-in-shell heat exchangers in series. In the first, the process water is heated by steam. In the second, it is cooled by cooling water. The equipment is pilot-plant size: heat-transfer areas…

  6. Steady-state equations of even flux and scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verwaerde, D.

    1985-11-01

    Some mathematical properties of steady-state equation of even flux are shown in variational formalism. This theoretical frame allows to study the existence of a solution and its asymptotical behavior in opaque media (i.e. the relation with scattering equation). At last it allows to qualify the convergence velocity of resolution iterative processes used practically [fr

  7. A steady state thermal duct model derived by fin-theory approach and applied on an unglazed solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovic, B.; Hallberg, D.; Akander, J. [Building Materials Technology, KTH Research School, Centre for Built Environment, University of Gaevle, SE-801 76 Gaevle (Sweden)

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents the thermal modelling of an unglazed solar collector (USC) flat panel, with the aim of producing a detailed yet swift thermal steady-state model. The model is analytical, one-dimensional (1D) and derived by a fin-theory approach. It represents the thermal performance of an arbitrary duct with applied boundary conditions equal to those of a flat panel collector. The derived model is meant to be used for efficient optimisation and design of USC flat panels (or similar applications), as well as detailed thermal analysis of temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations at steady-state conditions; without requiring a large amount of computational power and time. Detailed surface temperatures are necessary features for durability studies of the surface coating, hence the effect of coating degradation on USC and system performance. The model accuracy and proficiency has been benchmarked against a detailed three-dimensional Finite Difference Model (3D FDM) and two simpler 1D analytical models. Results from the benchmarking test show that the fin-theory model has excellent capabilities of calculating energy performances and fluid temperature profiles, as well as detailed material temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations (at steady-state conditions), while still being suitable for component analysis in junction to system simulations as the model is analytical. The accuracy of the model is high in comparison to the 3D FDM (the prime benchmark), as long as the fin-theory assumption prevails (no 'or negligible' temperature gradient in the fin perpendicularly to the fin length). Comparison with the other models also shows that when the USC duct material has a high thermal conductivity, the cross-sectional material temperature adopts an isothermal state (for the assessed USC duct geometry), which makes the 1D isothermal model valid. When the USC duct material has a low thermal conductivity, the heat transfer

  8. Hydrodynamics of stratified epithelium: Steady state and linearized dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Wei-Ting; Chen, Hsuan-Yi

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical model for stratified epithelium is presented. The viscoelastic properties of the tissue are assumed to be dependent on the spatial distribution of proliferative and differentiated cells. Based on this assumption, a hydrodynamic description of tissue dynamics at the long-wavelength, long-time limit is developed, and the analysis reveals important insights into the dynamics of an epithelium close to its steady state. When the proliferative cells occupy a thin region close to the basal membrane, the relaxation rate towards the steady state is enhanced by cell division and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, when the region where proliferative cells reside becomes sufficiently thick, a flow induced by cell apoptosis close to the apical surface enhances small perturbations. This destabilizing mechanism is general for continuous self-renewal multilayered tissues; it could be related to the origin of certain tissue morphology, tumor growth, and the development pattern.

  9. Steady-state thermal hydraulic analysis and flow channel blockage accident analysis of JRR-3 silicide core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminaga, Masanori

    1997-03-01

    JRR-3 is a light water moderated and cooled, beryllium and heavy water reflected pool type research reactor using low enriched uranium (LEU) plate-type fuels. Its thermal power is 20 MW. The core conversion program from uranium-aluminum (UAl x -Al) dispersion type fuel (aluminide fuel) to uranium-silicon-aluminum (U 3 Si 2 -Al) dispersion type fuel (silicide fuel) is currently conducted at the JRR-3. This report describes about the steady-state thermal hydraulic analysis results and the flow channel blockage accident analysis result. In JRR-3, there are two operation mode. One is high power operation mode up to 20 MW, under forced convection cooling using the primary and the secondary cooling systems. The other is low power operation mode up to 200 kW, under natural circulation cooling between the reactor core and the reactor pool without the primary and the secondary cooling systems. For the analysis of the flow channel blockage accident, COOLOD code was used. On the other hand, steady-state thermal hydraulic analysis for both of the high power operation mode under forced convection cooling and low power operation under natural convection cooling, COOLOD-N2 code was used. From steady-state thermal hydraulic analysis results of both forced and natural convection cooling, fuel temperature, minimum DNBR etc. meet the design criteria and JRR-3 LEU silicide core has enough safety margin under normal operation conditions. Furthermore, flow channel blockage accident analysis results show that one channel flow blockage accident meet the safety criteria for accident conditions which have been established for JRR-3 LEU silicide core. (author)

  10. Theory of minimum dissipation of energy for the steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.K.

    1992-02-01

    The magnetic configuration of an inductively driven steady-state plasma bounded by a surface (or two adjacent surfaces) on which B·n = 0 is force-free: ∇xB = 2αB, where α is a constant, in time and in space. α is the ratio of the Poynting flux to the magnetic helicity flux at the boundary. It is also the ratio of the dissipative rates of the magnetic energy to the magnetic helicity in the plasma. The spatial extent of the configuration is noninfinitesimal. This global constraint is a result of the requirement that, for a steady-state plasma, the rate of change of the vector potential, ∂A/∂t, is constant in time and uniform in space

  11. On the relationship of steady states of continuous and discrete models arising from biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliz-Cuba, Alan; Arthur, Joseph; Hochstetler, Laura; Klomps, Victoria; Korpi, Erikka

    2012-12-01

    For many biological systems that have been modeled using continuous and discrete models, it has been shown that such models have similar dynamical properties. In this paper, we prove that this happens in more general cases. We show that under some conditions there is a bijection between the steady states of continuous and discrete models arising from biological systems. Our results also provide a novel method to analyze certain classes of nonlinear models using discrete mathematics.

  12. Exact steady state manifold of a boundary driven spin-1 Lai–Sutherland chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilievski, Enej; Prosen, Tomaž

    2014-01-01

    We present an explicit construction of a family of steady state density matrices for an open integrable spin-1 chain with bilinear and biquadratic interactions, also known as the Lai–Sutherland model, driven far from equilibrium by means of two oppositely polarizing Markovian dissipation channels localized at the boundary. The steady state solution exhibits n+1 fold degeneracy, for a chain of length n, due to existence of (strong) Liouvillian U(1) symmetry. The latter can be exploited to introduce a chemical potential and define a grand canonical nonequilibrium steady state ensemble. The matrix product form of the solution entails an infinitely-dimensional representation of a non-trivial Lie algebra (semidirect product of sl 2 and a non-nilpotent radical) and hints to a novel Yang–Baxter integrability structure

  13. Exact steady state manifold of a boundary driven spin-1 Lai–Sutherland chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilievski, Enej; Prosen, Tomaž

    2014-05-15

    We present an explicit construction of a family of steady state density matrices for an open integrable spin-1 chain with bilinear and biquadratic interactions, also known as the Lai–Sutherland model, driven far from equilibrium by means of two oppositely polarizing Markovian dissipation channels localized at the boundary. The steady state solution exhibits n+1 fold degeneracy, for a chain of length n, due to existence of (strong) Liouvillian U(1) symmetry. The latter can be exploited to introduce a chemical potential and define a grand canonical nonequilibrium steady state ensemble. The matrix product form of the solution entails an infinitely-dimensional representation of a non-trivial Lie algebra (semidirect product of sl{sub 2} and a non-nilpotent radical) and hints to a novel Yang–Baxter integrability structure.

  14. Integration of steady-state and temporal gene expression data for the inference of gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi Kan; Hurley, Daniel G; Schnell, Santiago; Print, Cristin G; Crampin, Edmund J

    2013-01-01

    We develop a new regression algorithm, cMIKANA, for inference of gene regulatory networks from combinations of steady-state and time-series gene expression data. Using simulated gene expression datasets to assess the accuracy of reconstructing gene regulatory networks, we show that steady-state and time-series data sets can successfully be combined to identify gene regulatory interactions using the new algorithm. Inferring gene networks from combined data sets was found to be advantageous when using noisy measurements collected with either lower sampling rates or a limited number of experimental replicates. We illustrate our method by applying it to a microarray gene expression dataset from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) which combines time series data from treatment with growth factor TNF and steady state data from siRNA knockdown treatments. Our results suggest that the combination of steady-state and time-series datasets may provide better prediction of RNA-to-RNA interactions, and may also reveal biological features that cannot be identified from dynamic or steady state information alone. Finally, we consider the experimental design of genomics experiments for gene regulatory network inference and show that network inference can be improved by incorporating steady-state measurements with time-series data.

  15. Parameter identification technique for uncertain chaotic systems using state feedback and steady-state analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Ashraf A

    2008-03-01

    A technique is introduced for identifying uncertain and/or unknown parameters of chaotic dynamical systems via using simple state feedback. The proposed technique is based on bringing the system into a stable steady state and then solving for the unknown parameters using a simple algebraic method that requires access to the complete or partial states of the system depending on the dynamical model of the chaotic system. The choice of the state feedback is optimized in terms of practicality and causality via employing a single feedback signal and tuning the feedback gain to ensure both stability and identifiability. The case when only a single scalar time series of one of the states is available is also considered and it is demonstrated that a synchronization-based state observer can be augmented to the state feedback to address this problem. A detailed case study using the Lorenz system is used to exemplify the suggested technique. In addition, both the Rössler and Chua systems are examined as possible candidates for utilizing the proposed methodology when partial identification of the unknown parameters is considered. Finally, the dependence of the proposed technique on the structure of the chaotic dynamical model and the operating conditions is discussed and its advantages and limitations are highlighted via comparing it with other methods reported in the literature.

  16. The amplitude and phase precision of 40 Hz auditory steady-state response depend on the level of arousal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griskova, Inga; Mørup, Morten; Parnas, Josef

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, in healthy subjects, the modulation of amplitude and phase precision of the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) to 40 Hz stimulation in two resting conditions varying in the level of arousal. Previously, ASSR measures have shown to be affected......-negative multi-way factorization (NMWF) (Morup et al. in J Neurosci Methods 161:361-368, 2007). The estimates of these measures were subjected to statistical analysis. The amplitude and phase precision of the ASSR were significantly larger during the low arousal state compared to the high arousal condition...

  17. Algorithm for determining two-periodic steady-states in AC machines directly in time domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobczyk Tadeusz J.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an algorithm for finding steady states in AC machines for the cases of their two-periodic nature. The algorithm enables to specify the steady-state solution identified directly in time domain despite of the fact that two-periodic waveforms are not repeated in any finite time interval. The basis for such an algorithm is a discrete differential operator that specifies the temporary values of the derivative of the two-periodic function in the selected set of points on the basis of the values of that function in the same set of points. It allows to develop algebraic equations defining the steady state solution reached in a chosen point set for the nonlinear differential equations describing the AC machines when electrical and mechanical equations should be solved together. That set of those values allows determining the steady state solution at any time instant up to infinity. The algorithm described in this paper is competitive with respect to the one known in literature an approach based on the harmonic balance method operated in frequency domain.

  18. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XVI. Kinetic Relationships of the Intermediates in Steady State Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, A. A.; Kawaguchi, S.; Hayes, P.; Calvin, M.

    1952-06-05

    A kinetic study of the accumulation of C{sup 14} in the intermediates of steady state photosynthesis in C{sup 14}O{sub 2} provides information regarding the sequence of reactions involved. The work described applied the radio-chromatographic technique for analysis of the labeled early products. The simultaneous carboxylation reaction resulting in malic acid as well as phosphoglycerate is demonstrated in experiments at high light intensity. A comparison of radioactivities in a number of phosphorylated sugars as a function of time reveals concurrent synthesis of fructose and sedoheptulose phosphates followed by that of ribulose phosphates and later by that of glucose phosphates. The possibility that the cleavage of C{sub 4} compounds to C{sub 2} carbon dioxide acceptors may involve C{sub 7} and C{sub 5} sugars and evidence for this mechanism is presented.

  19. The steady-state modeling and optimization of a refrigeration system for high heat flux removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Rongliang; Zhang Tiejun; Catano, Juan; Wen, John T.; Michna, Gregory J.; Peles, Yoav; Jensen, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Steady-state modeling and optimization of a refrigeration system for high heat flux removal, such as electronics cooling, is studied. The refrigeration cycle proposed consists of multiple evaporators, liquid accumulator, compressor, condenser and expansion valves. To obtain more efficient heat transfer and higher critical heat flux (CHF), the evaporators operate with two-phase flow only. This unique operating condition necessitates the inclusion of a liquid accumulator with integrated heater for the safe operation of the compressor. Due to the projected incorporation of microchannels into the system to enhance the heat transfer in heat sinks, the momentum balance equation, rarely seen in previous vapor compression cycle heat exchangers modeling efforts, is utilized in addition to the mass and energy balance equations to capture the expected significant microchannel pressure drop witnessed in previous experimental investigations. Using the steady-state model developed, a parametric study is performed to study the effect of various external inputs on the system performance. The Pareto optimization is applied to find the optimal system operating conditions for given heat loads such that the system coefficient of performance (COP) is optimized while satisfying the CHF and other system operation constraints. Initial validation efforts show the good agreement between the experimental data and model predictions.

  20. Steady-state entanglement and thermalization of coupled qubits in two common heat baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Zhen; Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we study the steady-state entanglement and thermalization of two coupled qubits embedded in two common baths with different temperatures. The common bath is relevant when the two qubits are difficult to be isolated to only contact with their local baths. With the quantum master equation constructed in the eigenstate representation of the coupled qubits, we have demonstrated the variations of steady-state entanglement with respect to various parameters of the qubits' system in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium cases of the baths. The coupling strength and energy detuning of the qubits as well as the temperature gradient of the baths are found to be beneficial to the enhancement of the entanglement. We note a dark state of the qubits that is free from time-evolution and its initial population can greatly influence the steady-state entanglement. By virtues of effective temperatures, we also study the thermalization of the coupled qubits and their variations with energy detuning.

  1. Slow and deep respiration suppresses steady-state sympathetic nerve activity in patients with chronic heart failure: from modeling to clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Daisuke; Asanoi, Hidetsugu; Takagawa, Junya; Ishise, Hisanari; Ueno, Hiroshi; Oda, Yoshitaka; Goso, Yukiko; Joho, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2014-10-15

    Influences of slow and deep respiration on steady-state sympathetic nerve activity remain controversial in humans and could vary depending on disease conditions and basal sympathetic nerve activity. To elucidate the respiratory modulation of steady-state sympathetic nerve activity, we modeled the dynamic nature of the relationship between lung inflation and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in 11 heart failure patients with exaggerated sympathetic outflow at rest. An autoregressive exogenous input model was utilized to simulate entire responses of MSNA to variable respiratory patterns. In another 18 patients, we determined the influence of increasing tidal volume and slowing respiratory frequency on MSNA; 10 patients underwent a 15-min device-guided slow respiration and the remaining 8 had no respiratory modification. The model predicted that a 1-liter, step increase of lung volume decreased MSNA dynamically; its nadir (-33 ± 22%) occurred at 2.4 s; and steady-state decrease (-15 ± 5%), at 6 s. Actually, in patients with the device-guided slow and deep respiration, respiratory frequency effectively fell from 16.4 ± 3.9 to 6.7 ± 2.8/min (P state MSNA was decreased by 31% (P state MSNA. Thus slow and deep respiration suppresses steady-state sympathetic nerve activity in patients with high levels of resting sympathetic tone as in heart failure. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Test Results for a Non-toxic, Dual Thrust Reaction Control Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Turpin, Alicia A.

    2005-01-01

    A non-toxic, dual thrust reaction control engine (RCE) was successfully tested over a broad range of operating conditions at the Aerojet Sacramento facility. The RCE utilized LOX/Ethanol propellants; and was tested in steady state and pulsing modes at 25-lbf thrust (vernier) and at 870-lbf thrust (primary). Steady state vernier tests vaned chamber pressure (Pc) from 0.78 to 5.96 psia, and mixture ratio (MR) from 0.73 to 1.82, while primary steady state tests vaned Pc from 103 to 179 psia and MR from 1.33 to 1.76. Pulsing tests explored EPW from 0.080 to 10 seconds and DC from 5 to 50 percent at both thrust levels. Vernier testing accumulated a total of 6,670 seconds of firing time, and 7,215 pulses, and primary testing accumulated a total of 2,060 seconds of firing time and 3,646 pulses.

  3. A displacement based FE formulation for steady state problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis a new displacement based formulation is developed for elasto-plastic deformations in steady state problems. In this formulation the displacements are the primary variables, which is in contrast to the more common formulations in terms of the velocities as the primary variables. In a

  4. Importance sampling large deviations in nonequilibrium steady states. I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T.

    2018-03-01

    Large deviation functions contain information on the stability and response of systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states and in such a way are similar to free energies for systems at equilibrium. As with equilibrium free energies, evaluating large deviation functions numerically for all but the simplest systems is difficult because by construction they depend on exponentially rare events. In this first paper of a series, we evaluate different trajectory-based sampling methods capable of computing large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We illustrate some convergence criteria and best practices using a number of different models, including a biased Brownian walker, a driven lattice gas, and a model of self-assembly. We show how two popular methods for sampling trajectory ensembles, transition path sampling and diffusion Monte Carlo, suffer from exponentially diverging correlations in trajectory space as a function of the bias parameter when estimating large deviation functions. Improving the efficiencies of these algorithms requires introducing guiding functions for the trajectories.

  5. Importance sampling large deviations in nonequilibrium steady states. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T

    2018-03-28

    Large deviation functions contain information on the stability and response of systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states and in such a way are similar to free energies for systems at equilibrium. As with equilibrium free energies, evaluating large deviation functions numerically for all but the simplest systems is difficult because by construction they depend on exponentially rare events. In this first paper of a series, we evaluate different trajectory-based sampling methods capable of computing large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We illustrate some convergence criteria and best practices using a number of different models, including a biased Brownian walker, a driven lattice gas, and a model of self-assembly. We show how two popular methods for sampling trajectory ensembles, transition path sampling and diffusion Monte Carlo, suffer from exponentially diverging correlations in trajectory space as a function of the bias parameter when estimating large deviation functions. Improving the efficiencies of these algorithms requires introducing guiding functions for the trajectories.

  6. NASA Glenn Steady-State Heat Pipe Code GLENHP: Compilation for 64- and 32-Bit Windows Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Leonard K.; Geng, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    A new version of the NASA Glenn Steady State Heat Pipe Code, designated "GLENHP," is introduced here. This represents an update to the disk operating system (DOS) version LERCHP reported in NASA/TM-2000-209807. The new code operates on 32- and 64-bit Windows-based platforms from within the 32-bit command prompt window. An additional evaporator boundary condition and other features are provided.

  7. Adaptive solution of some steady-state fluid-structure interaction problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etienne, S.; Pelletier, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a general integrated and coupled formulation for modeling the steady-state interaction of a viscous incompressible flow with an elastic structure undergoing large displacements (geometric non-linearities). This constitutes an initial step towards developing a sensitivity analysis formulation for this class of problems. The formulation uses velocity and pressures as unknowns in a flow domain and displacements in the structural components. An interface formulation is presented that leads to clear and simple finite element implementation of the equilibrium conditions at the fluid-solid interface. Issues of error estimation and mesh adaptation are discussed. The adaptive formulation is verified on a problem with a closed form solution. It is then applied to a sample case for which the structure undergoes large displacements induced by the flow. (author)

  8. Steady state thermal-hydraulic analyses of the MITICA cooling circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaupa, M., E-mail: matteo.zaupa@igi.cnr.it [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 2, Padova 35122 (Italy); Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy); Sartori, E.; Dalla Palma, M.; Fellin, F.; Marcuzzi, D.; Pavei, M.; Rizzolo, A. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advancement is the full scale prototype of the heating and current drive neutral beam injectors for ITER, to be built at Consorzio RFX (Padova). The engineering design of its components is challenging: the total heat loads they will be subjected to (expected between 2 and 19 MW), the high heat fluxes (up to 20 MW/m{sup 2}), and the beam pulse duration up to 1 h, set demanding requirements for reliable active cooling circuits. In support of the design, the thermo-hydraulic behavior of each cooling circuit under steady state condition has been investigated by using one-dimensional models. The final results, obtained considering a number of optimizations for the cooling circuits, show that all the requirements in terms of flow rate, temperature, and pressure drop are properly fulfilled.

  9. Chaotic and steady state behaviour of a nonlinear controlled gyro subjected to harmonic disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Polo, Manuel F.; Perez Molina, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Chaotic and steady state motions of a nonlinear controlled gimbals suspension gyro used to stabilize an external body are studied in this paper. The equations of the gyro without nonlinear control are deduced from the Euler-Lagrange equations by using the nutation theory. The equations of the system show that a cyclic variable appears. Its elimination allows us to find an auxiliary nonlinear system from which it is possible to deduce a nonlinear control law in order to obtain a desired equilibrium point. From the analysis of the nonlinear control law it is possible to show that due to both harmonic disturbances in the platform of the gyro and in the body to stabilize, regular and chaotic motions can appear. The chaotic motion is researched by means of chaos maps, bifurcation diagrams, sensitivity to initial conditions, Lyapunov exponents and Fourier spectrum density. The transition from chaotic to steady state motion by eliminating the harmonic disturbances from the modification of the initial nonlinear control law is also researched. Next, the paper shows how to use the chaotic motion in order to obtain small input signals so that the desired equilibrium state of the gyro can be reached. The developed methodology and its compared performance are evaluated through analytical methods and numerical simulations

  10. Chaotic and steady state behaviour of a nonlinear controlled gyro subjected to harmonic disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Polo, Manuel F. [Department of Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Campus de San Vicente, 03071 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: manolo@dfists.ua.es; Perez Molina, Manuel [Facultad de Ciencias Matematicas, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, C/Boyero 12-1A, Alicante 03007 (Spain)]. E-mail: ma_perez_m@hotmail.com

    2007-07-15

    Chaotic and steady state motions of a nonlinear controlled gimbals suspension gyro used to stabilize an external body are studied in this paper. The equations of the gyro without nonlinear control are deduced from the Euler-Lagrange equations by using the nutation theory. The equations of the system show that a cyclic variable appears. Its elimination allows us to find an auxiliary nonlinear system from which it is possible to deduce a nonlinear control law in order to obtain a desired equilibrium point. From the analysis of the nonlinear control law it is possible to show that due to both harmonic disturbances in the platform of the gyro and in the body to stabilize, regular and chaotic motions can appear. The chaotic motion is researched by means of chaos maps, bifurcation diagrams, sensitivity to initial conditions, Lyapunov exponents and Fourier spectrum density. The transition from chaotic to steady state motion by eliminating the harmonic disturbances from the modification of the initial nonlinear control law is also researched. Next, the paper shows how to use the chaotic motion in order to obtain small input signals so that the desired equilibrium state of the gyro can be reached. The developed methodology and its compared performance are evaluated through analytical methods and numerical simulations.

  11. Characterizing multistationarity regimes in biochemical reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Otero-Muras

    Full Text Available Switch like responses appear as common strategies in the regulation of cellular systems. Here we present a method to characterize bistable regimes in biochemical reaction networks that can be of use to both direct and reverse engineering of biological switches. In the design of a synthetic biological switch, it is important to study the capability for bistability of the underlying biochemical network structure. Chemical Reaction Network Theory (CRNT may help at this level to decide whether a given network has the capacity for multiple positive equilibria, based on their structural properties. However, in order to build a working switch, we also need to ensure that the bistability property is robust, by studying the conditions leading to the existence of two different steady states. In the reverse engineering of biological switches, knowledge collected about the bistable regimes of the underlying potential model structures can contribute at the model identification stage to a drastic reduction of the feasible region in the parameter space of search. In this work, we make use and extend previous results of the CRNT, aiming not only to discriminate whether a biochemical reaction network can exhibit multiple steady states, but also to determine the regions within the whole space of parameters capable of producing multistationarity. To that purpose we present and justify a condition on the parameters of biochemical networks for the appearance of multistationarity, and propose an efficient and reliable computational method to check its satisfaction through the parameter space.

  12. NCEL: two dimensional finite element code for steady-state temperature distribution in seven rod-bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrehor, M.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with an application of the finite element method to the heat transfer study in seven-pin models of LMFBR fuel subassembly. The developed code NCEL solves two-dimensional steady state heat conduction equation in the whole subassembly model cross-section and enebles to perform the analysis of thermal behaviour in both normal and accidental operational conditions as eccentricity of the central rod or full or partial (porous) blockage of some part of the cross-flow area. The heat removal is simulated by heat sinks in coolant under conditions of subchannels slug flow approximation

  13. Steady-state operation requirements of tokamak fusion reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobloch, A.F.

    1991-06-01

    In the last two decades tokamak conceptual reactor design studies have been deriving benefit from progressing plasma physics experiments, more depth in theory and increasing detail in technology and engineering. Recent full-scale reactor extrapolations such as the US ARIES-I and the EC Reference Reactor study provide information on rather advanced concepts that are called for when economic boundary conditions are imposed. The ITER international reactor design activity concentrated on defining the next step after the JET generation of experiments. For steady-state operation as required for any future commercial tokamak fusion power plants it is essential to have non-inductive current drive. The current drive power and other internal power requirements specific to magnetic confinement fusion have to be kept as low as possible in order to attain a competitive overall power conversion efficiency. A high plasma Q is primarily dependent on a high current drive efficiency. Since such conditions have not yet been attained in practice, the present situation and the degree of further development required are characterized. Such development and an appropriately designed next-step tokamak reactor make the gradual realization of high-Q operation appear feasible. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of pulsed three-dimensional CEST acquisition schemes at 7 tesla : steady state versus pseudosteady state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khlebnikov, Vitaly; Geades, Nicolas; Klomp, DWJ; Hoogduin, Hans; Gowland, Penny; Mougin, Olivier

    PURPOSE: To compare two pulsed, volumetric chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) acquisition schemes: steady state (SS) and pseudosteady state (PS) for the same brain coverage, spatial/spectral resolution and scan time. METHODS: Both schemes were optimized for maximum sensitivity to amide

  15. Steady-state and dynamic models for particle engulfment during solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yutao; Yeckel, Andrew; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2016-06-01

    Steady-state and dynamic models are developed to study the physical mechanisms that determine the pushing or engulfment of a solid particle at a moving solid-liquid interface. The mathematical model formulation rigorously accounts for energy and momentum conservation, while faithfully representing the interfacial phenomena affecting solidification phase change and particle motion. A numerical solution approach is developed using the Galerkin finite element method and elliptic mesh generation in an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian implementation, thus allowing for a rigorous representation of forces and dynamics previously inaccessible by approaches using analytical approximations. We demonstrate that this model accurately computes the solidification interface shape while simultaneously resolving thin fluid layers around the particle that arise from premelting during particle engulfment. We reinterpret the significance of premelting via the definition an unambiguous critical velocity for engulfment from steady-state analysis and bifurcation theory. We also explore the complicated transient behaviors that underlie the steady states of this system and posit the significance of dynamical behavior on engulfment events for many systems. We critically examine the onset of engulfment by comparing our computational predictions to those obtained using the analytical model of Rempel and Worster [29]. We assert that, while the accurate calculation of van der Waals repulsive forces remains an open issue, the computational model developed here provides a clear benefit over prior models for computing particle drag forces and other phenomena needed for the faithful simulation of particle engulfment.

  16. Tore-Supra infrared thermography system, a real steady-state diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilhem, D.; Bondil, J.L.; Bertrand, B.; Desgranges, C.; Lipa, M.; Messina, P.; Missirlian, M.; Portafaix, C.; Reichle, R.; Roche, H.; Saille, A.

    2005-01-01

    Tore-Supra Tokamak (I p = 1.5 MA, B t = 4 T) has been constructed with a steady-state magnetic field using super-conducting magnets and water-cooled plasma facing components (PFCs) for high-performance long pulse plasma discharges. When not actively cooled, plasma facing components can only accumulate a limited amount of energy since the temperature increases continuously during the discharge until radiation cooling equals the incoming heat flux. Such an environment is found in the JET Tokamak [JET Team, IAEA-CN-60/A1-3, Seville, 1994] and on TRIAM [M. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, S. Kawasaki, A. Iyomasa, S.V. Kulkarni, M. Hasegawa, E. Jotaki, H. Zushi, K. Nakamura, K. Hanada, S. Itoh, Static and dynamic properties of wall recycling in TRIAM-1M, J. Nucl. Mater. 313-316 (2003) 519-523] [Y. Kamada, et al., Nucl. Fusion 3 (1999) 1845]. In Tore-Supra, the surface temperature of the actively cooled plasma facing components reach steady state within a second. We present here the Tore-Supra thermographic system, made of seven endoscope bodies equipped so far with eight infrared (IR) cameras. It has to be noted that this diagnostic is the first diagnostic to be actively cooled, as required for steady state. The main purpose of such a diagnostic is to prevent the plasma to damage the actively cooled plasma facing components (ACPFCs), which consist of the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL), 7 m 2 , and of five radio-frequency antennae, 1.5 m 2 each

  17. Steady electric fields and currents elementary electromagnetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Kilmister, C W

    2013-01-01

    Steady Electric Fields and Currents, Volume 1 is an introductory text to electromagnetism and potential theory. This book starts with the fields associated with stationary charges and unravels the stationary condition to allow consideration of the flow of steady currents in closed circuits. The opening chapter discusses the experimental results that require mathematical explanation and discussion, particularly those referring to phenomena that question the validity of the simple Newtonian concepts of space and time. The subsequent chapters consider steady-state fields, electrostatics, dielectr

  18. Comparison of Steady-State SVC Models in Load Flow Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares in a load flow calculation three existing steady-state models of static var compensator (SVC), i.e. the generator-fixed susceptance model, the total susceptance model and the firing angle model. The comparison is made in terms of the voltage at the SVC regulated bus, equivalent...... SVC susceptance at the fundamental frequency and the load flow convergence rate both when SVC is operating within and on the limits. The latter two models give inaccurate results of the equivalent SVC susceptance as compared to the generator model due to the assumption of constant voltage when the SVC...... is operating within the limits. This may underestimate or overestimate the SVC regulating capability. Two modified models are proposed to improve the SVC regulated voltage according to its steady-state characteristic. The simulation results of the two modified models show the improved accuracy...

  19. Rapid mixing and short storage timescale in the magma dynamics of a steady-state volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, Chiara Maria; Braschi, Eleonora; Francalanci, Lorella; Casalini, Martina; Tommasini, Simone

    2018-06-01

    Steady-state volcanic activity implies equilibrium between the rate of magma replenishment and eruption of compositionally homogeneous magmas, lasting for tens to thousands of years in an open conduit system. The Present-day activity of Stromboli volcano (Aeolian Islands, Southern Italy) has long been recognised as typical of a steady-state volcano, with a shallow magmatic reservoir (highly porphyritic or hp-magma) continuously refilled by more mafic magma (with low phenocryst content or lp-magma) at a constant rate and accompanied by mixing, crystallisation and eruption. Our aim is to clarify the timescale and dynamics of the plumbing system at the establishment of the Present-day steady-state activity (volcanoes.

  20. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of highly rarefied neutron gas under creative and destructive reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayasaka, Hideo

    1978-01-01

    The thermodynamic structures of non-equilibrium steady states of a highly rarefied neutron gas in various media are considered in terms of the irreversible processes due to creative and destructive reactions of neutrons with nuclei of these media and to neutrons supplied from external sources. The respective subsystems of the stationary neutron gas are regarded as imperfect equilibrium systems in the presence of the medium and the external neutron sources, and are treated like different species in a mixture. The entropy production due to neutron-nuclear reactions has a minimum value at the steady state. The distribution function of such a neutron gas is determined from the extremum condition in which entropy does not change, and is expressed as a shifted Boltzmann distribution specified by the respective values of the generalized chemical potential for each energy level. (author)

  1. The steady-state mosaic of disturbance and succession across an old-growth Central Amazon forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Negron-Juarez, Robinson I; Marra, Daniel Magnabosco; Di Vittorio, Alan; Tews, Joerg; Roberts, Dar; Ribeiro, Gabriel H P M; Trumbore, Susan E; Higuchi, Niro

    2013-03-05

    Old-growth forest ecosystems comprise a mosaic of patches in different successional stages, with the fraction of the landscape in any particular state relatively constant over large temporal and spatial scales. The size distribution and return frequency of disturbance events, and subsequent recovery processes, determine to a large extent the spatial scale over which this old-growth steady state develops. Here, we characterize this mosaic for a Central Amazon forest by integrating field plot data, remote sensing disturbance probability distribution functions, and individual-based simulation modeling. Results demonstrate that a steady state of patches of varying successional age occurs over a relatively large spatial scale, with important implications for detecting temporal trends on plots that sample a small fraction of the landscape. Long highly significant stochastic runs averaging 1.0 Mg biomass⋅ha(-1)⋅y(-1) were often punctuated by episodic disturbance events, resulting in a sawtooth time series of hectare-scale tree biomass. To maximize the detection of temporal trends for this Central Amazon site (e.g., driven by CO2 fertilization), plots larger than 10 ha would provide the greatest sensitivity. A model-based analysis of fractional mortality across all gap sizes demonstrated that 9.1-16.9% of tree mortality was missing from plot-based approaches, underscoring the need to combine plot and remote-sensing methods for estimating net landscape carbon balance. Old-growth tropical forests can exhibit complex large-scale structure driven by disturbance and recovery cycles, with ecosystem and community attributes of hectare-scale plots exhibiting continuous dynamic departures from a steady-state condition.

  2. Prokaryotic diversity and dynamics in a full-scale municipal solid waste anaerobic reactor from start-up to steady-state conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinali-Rezende, Juliana; Colturato, Luís F D B; Colturato, Thiago D B; Chartone-Souza, Edmar; Nascimento, Andréa M A; Sanz, José L

    2012-09-01

    The prokaryotic diversity of an anaerobic reactor for the treatment of municipal solid waste was investigated over the course of 2 years with the use of 16S rDNA-targeted molecular approaches. The fermentative Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes predominated, and Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Tenericutes and the candidate division WWE1 were also identified. Methane production was dominated by the hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales (Methanoculleus sp.) and their syntrophic association with acetate-utilizing and propionate-oxidizing bacteria. qPCR demonstrated the predominance of the hydrogenotrophic over aceticlastic Methanosarcinaceae (Methanosarcina sp. and Methanimicrococcus sp.), and Methanosaetaceae (Methanosaeta sp.) were measured in low numbers in the reactor. According to the FISH and CARD-FISH analyses, Bacteria and Archaea accounted for 85% and 15% of the cells, respectively. Different cell counts for these domains were obtained by qPCR versus FISH analyses. The use of several molecular tools increases our knowledge of the prokaryotic community dynamics from start-up to steady-state conditions in a full-scale MSW reactor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A steady-state fluid model of the coaxial plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herziger, G.; Krompholz, H.; Schneider, W.; Schoenbach, K.

    1979-01-01

    The plasma layer in a coaxial plasma gun is considered as a shock front driven by expanding magnetic fields. Analytical steady-state solutions of the fluid equations yield the plasma properties, allowing the scaling of plasma focus devices. (Auth.)

  4. Selection of Steady-State Process Simulation Software to Optimize Treatment of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, T. T.; Barnes, C. M.; Lauerhass, L.; Taylor, D. D.

    2001-06-01

    The process used for selecting a steady-state process simulator under conditions of high uncertainty and limited time is described. Multiple waste forms, treatment ambiguity, and the uniqueness of both the waste chemistries and alternative treatment technologies result in a large set of potential technical requirements that no commercial simulator can totally satisfy. The aim of the selection process was two-fold. First, determine the steady-state simulation software that best, albeit not completely, satisfies the requirements envelope. And second, determine if the best is good enough to justify the cost. Twelve simulators were investigated with varying degrees of scrutiny. The candidate list was narrowed to three final contenders: ASPEN Plus 10.2, PRO/II 5.11, and CHEMCAD 5.1.0. It was concluded from ''road tests'' that ASPEN Plus appears to satisfy the project's technical requirements the best and is worth acquiring. The final software decisions provide flexibility: they involve annual rather than multi-year licensing, and they include periodic re-assessment.

  5. Cardiac macrophage biology in the steady-state heart, the aging heart, and following myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yonggang; Mouton, Alan J.; Lindsey, Merry L.

    2018-01-01

    Macrophages play critical roles in homeostatic maintenance of the myocardium under normal conditions and in tissue repair after injury. In the steady-state heart, resident cardiac macrophages remove senescent and dying cells and facilitate electrical conduction. In the aging heart, the shift in macrophage phenotype to a proinflammatory subtype leads to inflammaging. Following myocardial infarction (MI), macrophages recruited to the infarct produce both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators (cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases, and growth factors), phagocytize dead cells, and promote angiogenesis and scar formation. These diverse properties are attributed to distinct macrophage subtypes and polarization status. Infarct macrophages exhibit a proinflammatory M1 phenotype early and become polarized toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype later post- MI. Although this classification system is oversimplified and needs to be refined to accommodate the multiple different macrophage subtypes that have been recently identified, general concepts on macrophage roles are independent of subtype classification. This review summarizes current knowledge about cardiac macrophage origins, roles, and phenotypes in the steady state, with aging, and after MI, as well as highlights outstanding areas of investigation. PMID:29106912

  6. Development of repetitive railgun pellet accelerator and steady-state pellet supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Azuma, K.; Kasai, S.; Hasegawa, K.

    1995-01-01

    A railgun system for repetitive high-speed pellet acceleration and steady-state pellet supply system has been developed and investigated. Using a 2m-long railgun system, the hydrogen pellet was accelerated to 2.6km/sec by the supplied energy of 1.7kJ. It is expected that the hydrogen pellet can be accelerated to 3km/sec using the present pneumatic pellet accelerator and a 2m-long augment railgun. Screw-driven hydrogen-isotope filament extruding system has been fabricated and will be tested to examine its applicability to the steady-state extrusion of the solid hydrogen-isotope filament

  7. Development of repetitive railgun pellet accelerator and steady-state pellet supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Azuma, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Kasai, S.; Hasegawa, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    A railgun system for repetitive high-speed pellet acceleration and steady-state pellet supply system has been developed and investigated. Using a 2m-long railgun system, the hydrogen pellet was accelerated to 2.6km/sec by the supplied energy of 1.7kJ. It is expected that the hydrogen pellet can be accelerated to 3km/sec using the present pneumatic pellet accelerator and a 2m-long augment railgun. Screw-driven hydrogen-isotope filament extruding system has been fabricated and will be tested to examine its applicability to the steady-state extrusion of the solid hydrogen-isotope filament.

  8. Local wettability reversal during steady-state two-phase flow in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Santanu; Grøva, Morten; Ødegården, Torgeir Bryge; Skjetne, Erik; Hansen, Alex

    2011-09-01

    We study the effect of local wettability reversal on remobilizing immobile fluid clusters in steady-state two-phase flow in porous media. We consider a two-dimensional network model for a porous medium and introduce a wettability alteration mechanism. A qualitative change in the steady-state flow patterns, destabilizing the percolating and trapped clusters, is observed as the system wettability is varied. When capillary forces are strong, a finite wettability alteration is necessary to move the system from a single-phase to a two-phase flow regime. When both phases are mobile, we find a linear relationship between fractional flow and wettability alteration.

  9. Coagulation profile of children with sickle cell anemia in steady state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sickle cell anemia is associated with a hypercoagulable state that may lead to alterations in a coagulation profile. Measurements of coagulation factors are known to have some predictive value for clinical outcome. Objectives: To determine the coagulation profile of children with SCA in steady state and crisis ...

  10. Determination of the Steady State Leakage Current in Structures with Ferroelectric Ceramic Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgornyi, Yu. V.; Vorotilov, K. A.; Sigov, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    Steady state leakage currents have been investigated in capacitor structures with ferroelectric solgel films of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) formed on silicon substrates with a lower Pt electrode. It is established that Pt/PZT/Hg structures, regardless of the PZT film thickness, are characterized by the presence of a rectifying contact similar to p-n junction. The steady state leakage current in the forward direction increases with a decrease in the film thickness and is determined by the ferroelectric bulk conductivity.

  11. Long-term ammonia removal in a coconut fiber-packed biofilter: analysis of N fractionation and reactor performance under steady-state and transient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquerizo, Guillermo; Maestre, Juan P; Machado, Vinicius C; Gamisans, Xavier; Gabriel, David

    2009-05-01

    A comprehensive study of long-term ammonia removal in a biofilter packed with coconut fiber is presented under both steady-state and transient conditions. Low and high ammonia loads were applied to the reactor by varying the inlet ammonia concentration from 90 to 260 ppm(v) and gas contact times ranging from 20 to 36 s. Gas samples and leachate measurements were periodically analyzed and used for characterizing biofilter performance in terms of removal efficiency (RE) and elimination capacity (EC). Also, N fractions in the leachate were quantified to both identify the experimental rates of nitritation and nitratation and to determine the N leachate distribution. Results showed stratification in the biofilter activity and, thus, most of the NH(3) removal was performed in the lower part of the reactor. An average EC of 0.5 kg N-NH(3)m(-3)d(-1) was obtained for the whole reactor with a maximum local average EC of 1.7 kg N-NH(3)m(-3)d(-1). Leachate analyses showed that a ratio of 1:1 of ammonium and nitrate ions in the leachate was obtained throughout steady-state operation at low ammonia loads with similar values for nitritation and nitratation rates. Low nitratation rates during high ammonia load periods occurred because large amounts of ammonium and nitrite accumulated in the packed bed, thus causing inhibition episodes on nitrite-oxidizing bacteria due to free ammonia accumulation. Mass balances showed that 50% of the ammonia fed to the reactor was oxidized to either nitrite or nitrate and the rest was recovered as ammonium indicating that sorption processes play a fundamental role in the treatment of ammonia by biofiltration.

  12. Paracetamol decreases steady-state exposure to lamotrigine by induction of glucuronidation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gastrup, Sandra; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Fruekilde, Palle Bach Nielsen

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Patients receiving lamotrigine therapy frequently use paracetamol concomitantly. While one study suggests a possible, clinically relevant drug-drug interaction, practical recommendations of the concomitant use are inconsistent. We performed a systematic pharmacokinetic study in healthy...... volunteers to quantify the effect of 4-day treatment of paracetamol on the metabolism of steady-state lamotrigine. METHODS: Twelve healthy, male volunteers participated in an open-label, sequential interaction study. Lamotrigine was titrated to steady state (100 mg daily) over 36 days, and blood and urine...... sampling was performed in a non-randomised order with and without paracetamol (1 g four times daily). The primary endpoint was change in steady-state area under the plasma concentration-time curve of lamotrigine. Secondary endpoints were changes in total apparent oral clearance, renal clearance...

  13. Distraction task rather than focal attention modulates gamma activity associated with auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griskova-Bulanova, Inga; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Dapsys, Kastytis

    2011-01-01

    To explore the modulation of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) by experimental tasks, differing in attentional focus and arousal level.......To explore the modulation of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) by experimental tasks, differing in attentional focus and arousal level....

  14. Steady state solution of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovnev, A.; Trimper, S.

    2010-01-01

    The exact steady state solution of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations (PNP) is given in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. A more tractable approximate solution is derived which can be used to compare the results with experimental observations in binary electrolytes. The breakdown of the PNP for high concentration and high applied voltage is discussed.

  15. Spatial variability of steady-state infiltration into a two-layer soil system on burned hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, D.A.; Moody, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Rainfall-runoff simulations were conducted to estimate the characteristics of the steady-state infiltration rate into 1-m2 north- and south-facing hillslope plots burned by a wildfire in October 2003. Soil profiles in the plots consisted of a two-layer system composed of an ash on top of sandy mineral soil. Multiple rainfall rates (18.4-51.2 mm h-1) were used during 14 short-duration (30 min) and 2 long-duration simulations (2-4 h). Steady state was reached in 7-26 min. Observed spatially-averaged steady-state infiltration rates ranged from 18.2 to 23.8 mm h-1 for north-facing and from 17.9 to 36.0 mm h-1 for south-facing plots. Three different theoretical spatial distribution models of steady-state infiltration rate were fit to the measurements of rainfall rate and steady-state discharge to provided estimates of the spatial average (19.2-22.2 mm h-1) and the coefficient of variation (0.11-0.40) of infiltration rates, overland flow contributing area (74-90% of the plot area), and infiltration threshold (19.0-26 mm h-1). Tensiometer measurements indicated a downward moving pressure wave and suggest that infiltration-excess overland flow is the runoff process on these burned hillslope with a two-layer system. Moreover, the results indicate that the ash layer is wettable, may restrict water flow into the underlying layer, and increase the infiltration threshold; whereas, the underlying mineral soil, though coarser, limits the infiltration rate. These results of the spatial variability of steady-state infiltration can be used to develop physically-based rainfall-runoff models for burned areas with a two-layer soil system. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Advanced control scenario of high-performance steady-state operation for JT-60 superconducting tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, H.; Kurita, G.; Matsukawa, M.; Urata, K.; Sakurai, S.; Tsuchiya, K.; Morioka, A.; Miura, Y.M.; Kizu, K.; Kamada, Y.; Sakasai, A.; Ishida, S.

    2004-01-01

    Plasma control on high-β N steady-state operation for JT-60 superconducting modification is discussed. Accessibility to high-β N exceeding the free-boundary limit is investigated with the stabilising wall of reduced-activated ferritic steel and the active feedback control of the in-vessel non-axisymmetric field coils. Taking the merit of superconducting magnet, advanced plasma control for steady-state high performance operation could be expected. (authors)

  17. TRUMP, Steady-State and Transient 1-D, 2-D and 3-D Potential Flow, Temperature Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elrod, D.C.; Turner, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: TRUMP solves a general non- linear parabolic partial differential equation describing flow in various kinds of potential fields, such as fields of temperature, pressure, or electricity and magnetism; simultaneously, it will solve two additional equations representing, in thermal problems, heat production by decomposition of two reactants having rate constants with a general Arrhenius temperature dependence. Steady- state and transient flow in one, two, or three dimensions are considered in geometrical configurations having simple or complex shapes and structures. Problem parameters may vary with spatial position, time, or primary dependent variables--temperature, pressure, or field strength. Initial conditions may vary with spatial position, and among the criteria that may be specified for ending a problem are upper and lower limits on the size of the primary dependent variable, upper limits on the problem time or on the number of time-steps or on the computer time, and attainment of steady state. 2 - Method of solution: Solutions may be obtained by use of explicit- or implicit-difference equations, or by an optimized combination of both. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program currently provides for maxima of: 40 materials, 5 reactants, 105 surface conditions, 20 boundary nodes, 16 entries per tabulated function (table-length)

  18. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of pravastatin in children with familial hypercholesterolaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Heleen E.; Wiegman, Albert; Koopmans, Richard P.; Bakker, Henk D.; Kastelein, John J. P.; van Boxtel, Chris J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine pharmacokinetic data for pravastatin in children, since current data are insufficient in this age group. Subjects and methods: A 2-week, multiple-dose, steady-state pharmacokinetic study was carried out with pravastatin 20mg daily in 24 children with familial

  19. Optimising performance in steady state for a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Kinnaert, Michel; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh

    2012-01-01

    Using a supermarket refrigeration system as an illustrative example, the paper postulates that by appropriately utilising knowledge of plant operation, the plant wide performance can be optimised based on a small set of variables. Focusing on steady state operations, the total system performance...

  20. Iterative Observer-based Estimation Algorithms for Steady-State Elliptic Partial Differential Equation Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Majeed, Muhammad Usman

    2017-07-19

    Steady-state elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) are frequently used to model a diverse range of physical phenomena. The source and boundary data estimation problems for such PDE systems are of prime interest in various engineering disciplines including biomedical engineering, mechanics of materials and earth sciences. Almost all existing solution strategies for such problems can be broadly classified as optimization-based techniques, which are computationally heavy especially when the problems are formulated on higher dimensional space domains. However, in this dissertation, feedback based state estimation algorithms, known as state observers, are developed to solve such steady-state problems using one of the space variables as time-like. In this regard, first, an iterative observer algorithm is developed that sweeps over regular-shaped domains and solves boundary estimation problems for steady-state Laplace equation. It is well-known that source and boundary estimation problems for the elliptic PDEs are highly sensitive to noise in the data. For this, an optimal iterative observer algorithm, which is a robust counterpart of the iterative observer, is presented to tackle the ill-posedness due to noise. The iterative observer algorithm and the optimal iterative algorithm are then used to solve source localization and estimation problems for Poisson equation for noise-free and noisy data cases respectively. Next, a divide and conquer approach is developed for three-dimensional domains with two congruent parallel surfaces to solve the boundary and the source data estimation problems for the steady-state Laplace and Poisson kind of systems respectively. Theoretical results are shown using a functional analysis framework, and consistent numerical simulation results are presented for several test cases using finite difference discretization schemes.

  1. Progress towards Steady State on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.A.; Kessel, C.; Menard, J.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    In order to reduce recirculating power fraction to acceptable levels, the spherical torus concept relies on the simultaneous achievement of high toroidal β and high bootstrap fraction in steady state. In the last year, as a result of plasma control system improvements, the achievable plasma elongation on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been raised from κ ∼ 2.1 to κ ∼ 2.6--approximately a 25% increase. This increase in elongation has lead to a doubling increase in the toroidal β for long-pulse discharges. The increase in β is associated with an increase in plasma current at nearly fixed poloidal β, which enables higher β t with nearly constant bootstrap fraction. As a result, for the first time in a spherical torus, a discharge with a plasma current of 1 MA has been sustained for 1 second. Data is presented from NSTX correlating the increase in performance with increased plasma shaping capability. In addition to improved shaping, H-modes induced during the current ramp phase of the plasma discharge have been used to reduce flux consumption during and to delay the onset of MHD instabilities. A modeled integrated scenario, which has 100% non-inductive current drive with very high toroidal β, will also be presented. The NSTX poloidal field coils are currently being modified to produce the plasma shape which is required for this scenario, which requires high triangularity ((delta) ∼ 0.8) at elevated elongation (κ ∼ 2.5). The other main requirement for steady state on NSTX is the ability to drive a fraction of the total plasma current with radio-frequency waves. The results of High Harmonic Fast Wave heating and current drive studies as well as electron Bernstein Wave emission studies will be presented

  2. BUSH: A computer code for calculating steady state heat transfer in LWR rod bundles under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    The computer code BUSH has been developed for the calculation of steady state heat transfer in a rod bundle. For a given power, flow and geometry it can calculate the temperatures in the rods, coolant and shroud assuming that at any axial level each rod can be described by one temperature and the coolant fluid is also radially uniform at this level. Heat transfer by convection and radiation are handled and the geometry is flexible enough to model nearly all types of envisaged shroud design for the SUPERSARA test series. The modular way in which BUSH has been written makes it suitable for future development, either within the present BUSH framework or as part of a more advanced code

  3. Is steady-state capitalism viable? A review of the issues and an answer in the affirmative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Philip

    2011-02-01

    Most ecological economists believe that the transition to a steady-state economy is necessary to ensure ecological sustainability and to maximize a nation's economic welfare. While some observers agree with the necessity of the steady-state economy, they are nonetheless critical of the suggestion made by ecological economists-in particular, Herman Daly-that a steady-state economy is compatible with a capitalist system. First, they believe that steady-state capitalism is based on the untenable assumption that growth is an optional rather than in-built element of capitalism. Second, they argue that capitalist notions of efficient resource allocation are too restrictive to facilitate the transition to an "ecological" or steady-state economy. I believe these observers are outright wrong with their first criticism and, because they misunderstand Daly's vision of a steady-state economy, are misplaced with their second criticism. The nature of a capitalist system depends upon the institutional framework that supports and shapes it. Hence, a capitalist system can exist in a wide variety of forms. Unfortunately, many observers fail to recognize that the current "growth imperative" is the result of capitalist systems everywhere being institutionally designed to grow. They need not be designed this way to survive and thrive. Indeed, because continued growth is both existentially undesirable and ecologically unsustainable, redesigning capitalist systems through the introduction of Daly-like institutions would prove to be capitalism's savior. What's more, it would constitute humankind's best hope of achieving sustainable development. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Dissipative structure of mechanically stimulated reaction; Kikaiteki reiki hanno ni okeru san`itsu kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hida, M. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-20

    Recently various studies have been conducted concerning the state changes of materials obtained through mechanical alloying (MA) or mechano-chemical (MC) processing. What is noticeable is the quasi-steady state of almost all the materials obtained through various processes including MA and MC, and that the super cooling, supersaturating and high residue distortion realized under unbalanced conditions have not been clarified. In other words, the tracing capability to the external binding conditions is low. In this report, the appearance of the high temperature phase and high pressure phase obtained through MA or MC processing, the forming of amorphous, the mesomerism of the amorphous materials, the interesting phenomena generated by combination between the mechanical disturbance and chemical reactions were discussed with concrete examples, and a steady dissipative organization theory was approached from the viewpoint of dissipative structure development which is equal to the forming process of the quasi-steady phase. 34 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Method for controlling start-up and steady state performance of a closed split flow recompression brayton cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, James Jay

    2017-02-07

    A method of resolving a balanced condition that generates control parameters for start-up and steady state operating points and various component and cycle performances for a closed split flow recompression cycle system. The method provides for improved control of a Brayton cycle thermal to electrical power conversion system. The method may also be used for system design, operational simulation and/or parameter prediction.

  6. Stabilizing the border steady-state solution of two interacting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we have successfully developed a feedback control which has been used to stabilize an unstable steady-state solution (0, 3.3534). This convergence has occurred when the values of the final time are 190, 200, 210 and 220 which corresponds to the scenario when the value of the step length of our simulation ...

  7. Ideal MHD stability and performance of ITER steady-state scenarios with ITBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, F. M.; Kessel, C. E.; Chance, M. S.; Jardin, S. C.; Manickam, J.

    2012-06-01

    Non-inductive steady-state scenarios on ITER will need to operate with internal transport barriers (ITBs) in order to reach adequate fusion gain at typical currents of 9 MA. The large pressure gradients at the location of the internal barrier are conducive to the development of ideal MHD instabilities that may limit the plasma performance and may lead to plasma disruptions. Fully non-inductive scenario simulations with five combinations of heating and current drive sources are presented in this work, with plasma currents in the range 7-10 MA. For each configuration the linear, ideal MHD stability is analysed for variations of the Greenwald fraction and of the pressure peaking factor around the operating point, aiming at defining an operational space for stable, steady-state operations at optimized performance. It is shown that plasmas with lower hybrid heating and current drive maintain the minimum safety factor above 1.5, which is desirable in steady-state operations to avoid neoclassical tearing modes. Operating with moderate ITBs at 2/3 of the minor radius, these plasmas have a minimum safety factor above 2, are ideal MHD stable and reach Q ≳ 5 operating above the ideal no-wall limit.

  8. Coherent control of long-distance steady-state entanglement in lossy resonator arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelakis, D. G.; Dai, L.; Kwek, L. C.

    2010-07-01

    We show that coherent control of the steady-state long-distance entanglement between pairs of cavity-atom systems in an array of lossy and driven coupled resonators is possible. The cavities are doped with atoms and are connected through waveguides, other cavities or fibers depending on the implementation. We find that the steady-state entanglement can be coherently controlled through the tuning of the phase difference between the driving fields. It can also be surprisingly high in spite of the pumps being classical fields. For some implementations where the connecting element can be a fiber, long-distance steady-state quantum correlations can be established. Furthermore, the maximal of entanglement for any pair is achieved when their corresponding direct coupling is much smaller than their individual couplings to the third party. This effect is reminiscent of the establishment of coherence between otherwise uncoupled atomic levels using classical coherent fields. We suggest a method to measure this entanglement by analyzing the correlations of the emitted photons from the array and also analyze the above results for a range of values of the system parameters, different network geometries and possible implementation technologies.

  9. Producing a steady-state population inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, R.K.; Griffin, D.C.

    1986-03-01

    An observed steady-state transition at 17.5 nm is identified as the 2p 5 3s3p 4 S/sub 3/2/ → 2p 6 3p 2 P/sub 3/2/ transition in Na-like aluminum. The upper level is populated by electron inner shell ionization of metastable Mg-like aluminum. From the emission intensity, the rate coefficient for populating the upper level is calculated to be approximately 5 x 10 -10 ) cm 3 /sec. Since the upper level is quasimetastable with a lifetime 22 times longer than the lower level, it may be possible to produce a population inversion, if a competing process to populate the lower level can be reduced

  10. Steady-state fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopic studies of bacterial luciferase tryptophan mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Meighen, E A

    1994-09-01

    Bacterial luciferase, which catalyzes the bioluminescence reaction in luminous bacteria, consists of two nonidentical polypeptides, α and β. Eight mutants of luciferase with each of the tryptophans replaced by tyrosine were generated by site-directed mutagenesis and purified to homogeneity. The steady-state tryptophan fluorescence and low-temperature phosphorescence spectroscopic properties of these mutants were characterized. In some instances, mutation of only a single tryptophan residue resulted in large spectral changes. The tryptophan residues conserved in both the α and the β subunits exhibited distinct fluorescence emission properties, suggesting that these tryptophans have different local enviroments. The low-temperature phosphorescence data suggest that the tryptophans conserved in bot the α and the β subunits are not located at the subunit interface and/or involved in subunit interactions. The differences in the spectral properties of the mutants have provided useful information on the local environment of the individual tryptophan residues as well as on the quaternary structure of the protein.

  11. Steady-State Ion Beam Modeling with MICHELLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petillo, John

    2003-10-01

    There is a need to efficiently model ion beam physics for ion implantation, chemical vapor deposition, and ion thrusters. Common to all is the need for three-dimensional (3D) simulation of volumetric ion sources, ion acceleration, and optics, with the ability to model charge exchange of the ion beam with a background neutral gas. The two pieces of physics stand out as significant are the modeling of the volumetric source and charge exchange. In the MICHELLE code, the method for modeling the plasma sheath in ion sources assumes that the electron distribution function is a Maxwellian function of electrostatic potential over electron temperature. Charge exchange is the process by which a neutral background gas with a "fast" charged particle streaming through exchanges its electron with the charged particle. An efficient method for capturing this is essential, and the model presented is based on semi-empirical collision cross section functions. This appears to be the first steady-state 3D algorithm of its type to contain multiple generations of charge exchange, work with multiple species and multiple charge state beam/source particles simultaneously, take into account the self-consistent space charge effects, and track the subsequent fast neutral particles. The solution used by MICHELLE is to combine finite element analysis with particle-in-cell (PIC) methods. The basic physics model is based on the equilibrium steady-state application of the electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) approximation employing a conformal computational mesh. The foundation stems from the same basic model introduced in codes such as EGUN. Here, Poisson's equation is used to self-consistently include the effects of space charge on the fields, and the relativistic Lorentz equation is used to integrate the particle trajectories through those fields. The presentation will consider the complexity of modeling ion thrusters.

  12. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T; Porcari, John P

    2015-12-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. There were significant (p Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key pointsSteady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained studentsMild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state trainingHIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval trainingEnjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program.

  13. Steady-State Flammable Gas Release Rate Calculation And Lower Flammability Level Evaluation For Hanford Tank Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, T.A.

    2007-01-01

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The methodology of flammability analysis for Hanford tank waste is developed. The hydrogen generation rate model was applied to calculate the gas generation rate for 177 tanks. Flammability concentrations and the time to reach 25% and 100% of the lower flammability limit, and the minimum ventilation rate to keep from 100 of the LFL are calculated for 177 tanks at various scenarios.

  14. Auditory Steady-State Response Thresholds in Adults With Conductive and Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinabadi, Reza; Jafarzadeh, Sadegh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Auditory steady state response (ASSR) provides a frequency-specific and automatic assessment of hearing sensitivity and is used in infants and difficult-to-test adults. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the ASSR thresholds among various types (normal, conductive, and sensorineural), degree (normal, mild, and moderate), and configuration (flat and sloping) of hearing sensitivity, and measuring the cutoff point between normal condition and hearing loss for differe...

  15. Iterative Observer-based Estimation Algorithms for Steady-State Elliptic Partial Differential Equation Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Majeed, Muhammad Usman

    2017-01-01

    the problems are formulated on higher dimensional space domains. However, in this dissertation, feedback based state estimation algorithms, known as state observers, are developed to solve such steady-state problems using one of the space variables as time

  16. S3C: EBT Steady-State Shooting code description and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downum, W.B.

    1983-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) one-dimensional (1-D) Steady-State Shooting code (S3C) for ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) plasmas is described. Benchmark calculations finding the steady-state density and electron and ion temperature profiles for a known neutral density profile and known external energy sources are carried out. Good agreement is obtained with results from the ORNL Radially Resolved Time Dependent 1-D Transport code for an EBT-Q type reactor. The program logic is described, along with the physics models in each code block and the variable names used. Sample input and output files are listed, along with the main code

  17. Transient and Steady-State Responses of an Asymmetric Nonlinear Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    oscillator that describes the motion of a damped, forced system supported symmetrically by simple shear springs on a smooth inclined bearing surface. We also use the percentage overshoot value to study the influence of damping and nonlinearity on the transient and steady-state oscillatory amplitudes.

  18. Capitalist Diversity and De-growth Trajectories to Steady-state Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Growth-critical scholarship has done much to both expose the environmentally unsustainable nature of the capitalist growth-economies of the overdeveloped part of the world and to develop an alternative vision of a degrowth transition leading to a steady-state economy. However, this scholarship fa...

  19. Analytical solution for multi-species contaminant transport in finite media with time-varying boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most analytical solutions available for the equations governing the advective-dispersive transport of multiple solutes undergoing sequential first-order decay reactions have been developed for infinite or semi-infinite spatial domains and steady-state boundary conditions. In this work we present an ...

  20. Quantitative, steady-state properties of Catania's computational model of the operant reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, John P; McDowell, J J

    2011-05-01

    Catania (2005) found that a computational model of the operant reserve (Skinner, 1938) produced realistic behavior in initial, exploratory analyses. Although Catania's operant reserve computational model demonstrated potential to simulate varied behavioral phenomena, the model was not systematically tested. The current project replicated and extended the Catania model, clarified its capabilities through systematic testing, and determined the extent to which it produces behavior corresponding to matching theory. Significant departures from both classic and modern matching theory were found in behavior generated by the model across all conditions. The results suggest that a simple, dynamic operant model of the reflex reserve does not simulate realistic steady state behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Multi-phase imaging of intermittency at steady state using differential imaging method by X-ray micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Lin, Q.; Bijeljic, B.; Blunt, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    To observe intermittency in consolidated rock, we image a steady state flow of brine and decane in Bentheimer sandstone. We devise an experimental method based on X-ray differential imaging method to examine how changes in flow rate impact the pore-scale distribution of fluids during co-injection flow under dynamic flow conditions at steady state. This helps us elucidate the diverse flow regimes (connected, intermittent break-up, or continual break-up of the non-wetting phase pathways) for two capillary numbers. Also, relative permeability curves under both capillary and viscous limited conditions could be measured. We have performed imbibition sample floods using oil-brine and measured steady state relative permeability on a sandstone rock core in order to fully characterize the flow behaviour at low and high Ca. Two sets of experiments at high and low flow rates are provided to explore the time-evolution of the non-wetting phase clusters distribution under different flow conditions. The high flow rate is 0.5 mL/min, whose corresponding capillary number is 7.7×10-6. The low flow rate is 0.02 mL/min, whose capillary number is 3.1×10-7. A procedure based on using high-salinity brine as the contrast phase and applying differential imaging between the dry scan and that of the sample saturation with a 30 wt% Potassium iodide (KI) doped brine help to make sure there is no non-wetting phase in micro-pores. Then the intermittent phase in multiphase flow image at high Ca can be quantified by obtaining the differential image between the 30 wt% KI brine image and the scans that taken at each fixed fractional flow. By using the grey scale histogram distribution of the raw images at each condition, the oil proportion in the intermittent phase can be calculated. The pressure drops at each fractional flow at low and high Ca can be measured by high-precision pressure differential sensors and utilized to calculate to the relative permeability at pore scale. The relative

  2. Constrained approximation of effective generators for multiscale stochastic reaction networks and application to conditioned path sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotter, Simon L., E-mail: simon.cotter@manchester.ac.uk

    2016-10-15

    Efficient analysis and simulation of multiscale stochastic systems of chemical kinetics is an ongoing area for research, and is the source of many theoretical and computational challenges. In this paper, we present a significant improvement to the constrained approach, which is a method for computing effective dynamics of slowly changing quantities in these systems, but which does not rely on the quasi-steady-state assumption (QSSA). The QSSA can cause errors in the estimation of effective dynamics for systems where the difference in timescales between the “fast” and “slow” variables is not so pronounced. This new application of the constrained approach allows us to compute the effective generator of the slow variables, without the need for expensive stochastic simulations. This is achieved by finding the null space of the generator of the constrained system. For complex systems where this is not possible, or where the constrained subsystem is itself multiscale, the constrained approach can then be applied iteratively. This results in breaking the problem down into finding the solutions to many small eigenvalue problems, which can be efficiently solved using standard methods. Since this methodology does not rely on the quasi steady-state assumption, the effective dynamics that are approximated are highly accurate, and in the case of systems with only monomolecular reactions, are exact. We will demonstrate this with some numerics, and also use the effective generators to sample paths of the slow variables which are conditioned on their endpoints, a task which would be computationally intractable for the generator of the full system.

  3. Preliminary design study of a steady state tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miya, Naoyuki; Nakajima, Shinji; Ushigusa, Kenkichi; and athors)

    1992-09-01

    Preliminary design study has been made for a steady tokamak with the plasma current of 10MA, as the next to the JT-60U experimental programs. The goal of the research program is the integrated study of steady state, high-power physics and technology. Present candidate design is to use superconducting TF and PF magnet systems and long pulse operation of 100's-1000's of sec with non inductive current drive mainly by 500keV negative ion beam injection of 60MW. Low activation material such as titanium alloy is chosen for the water tank type vacuum vessel, which is also the nuclear shield for the superconducting coils. The present preliminary design study shows that the device can meet the existing JT-60U facility capability. (author)

  4. Effects of low-fat and high-fat meals on steady-state pharmacokinetics of lapatinib in patients with advanced solid tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devriese, Lot A; Koch, Kevin M; Mergui-Roelvink, Marja; Matthys, Gemma M; Ma, Wen Wee; Robidoux, Andre; Stephenson, Joe J; Chu, Quincy S C; Orford, Keith W; Cartee, Leanne; Botbyl, Jeff; Arya, Nikita; Schellens, Jan H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073926272

    AIM: To quantify the effect of food on the systemic exposure of lapatinib at steady state when administered 1 h before and after meals, and to observe the safety and tolerability of lapatinib under these conditions in patients with advanced solid tumours. METHODS: This was a three-treatment,

  5. Steady state operation of tokamaks. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    The first IAEA Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) on Steady State Operation of Tokamaks was organized to discuss the operations of present long-pulse tokamaks (TRIAM-1M, TORE SUPRA, MT-7, HT-7M, HL-1M) and the plans for future steady-state tokamaks such as SST-1, CIEL, and HT-7U. This meeting, held from 13-15 October 1998, was hosted by the Academia Sinica Institute of Plasma Physics (ASIPP), Hefei, China. Participants from China, France, India, Japan, the Russian Federation, and the IAEA participated in the meeting. There were 18 individual presentations plus general discussions on many topics, including superconducting magnet systems, cryogenics, plasma position control, non-inductive current drive, auxiliary heating, plasma-wall interactions, high heat flux components, particle control, and data acquisition

  6. Data system design considerations for a pseudo-steady-state device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility is being designed to run in a steady state. This places stringent requirements on a data system, since it must provide steady-state support that is equivalent to the support users are accustomed to from pulsed experiments; i.e., enough capacity to reduce diagnostic data for live presentation. Parameters such as density, position, and temperature must be presented live (i.e., within 0.1 s). Quantities such as plasma shape or internal structure should be available with a minimum of delay. The traditional solution to providing such capabilities is to use distributed processing to off-load data acquisition from the analysis computers. However, this suffers in a real-time environment because of the necessity of moving large quantities of data from acquisition to analysis. We expect to solve the problem by using a pipelined design that will acquire data directly into shared memory, where any one of four CPU's (VAX 11/780's) can proceed with analysis

  7. Steady state behavior of rotating plasmas in a vacuum-arc centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittencourt, J.A.; Ludwig, G.O.

    1987-01-01

    The steady state behaviour of the fully ionized, multiple species, rotating, magnetized plasma in a vacuum-arc plasma centrifuge is described in detail. The analysis is based on a multiple species fluid model which includes electromagnetic, pressure gradient, centrifugal and collisional forces, for each species, in cylindrical geometry. It is shown that there is a family of theoretically possible dynamical equilibrium configurations, which can be achieved by different combinations of ion rotation velocity, radial ion density distribution and radial dependence of internal electric potential. The parametric dependences of the various plasma parameters under equilibrium conditions, including the ion separation factor, are presented for a nickel-copper plasma. The numerical results are analysed and discussed in light of experimentally measured plasma characteristics in a vacuum-arc plasma centrifuge. (author)

  8. Steady state behavior of rotating plasmas in a vacuum-arc centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittencourt, J.A.; Ludwig, G.O.

    1986-06-01

    The steady state behavior of the fully ionized, multiple species, rotating, magnetized plasma in a vacuum-arc plasma centrifuge is described in detail. The analysis is based on a multiple species fluid model which includes electromagnetic, pressure gradient, centrifugal and collisional forces, for each species, in cylindrical geometry. It is showm that there is a family of theoretically possible dynamical equilibrium configurations, which can be achieved by different combinations of ion rotation velocity, radial ion density distribution and radial dependence of internal electric potential. The parametric dependences of the various plasma parameters under equilibrium conditions, including the ion separation factor, are presented for a nickel-copper plasma. The numerical results are analysed and discussed on light of experimentally measured plasma characteristics in a vacuum-arc plasma centrifuge. (Author) [pt

  9. Steady-state evoked potentials possibilities for mental-state estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Andrew M.; Schnurer, John H.; Ingle, David F.; Downey, Craig W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of the human steady-state evoked potential (SSEP) as a possible measure of mental-state estimation is explored. A method for evoking a visual response to a sum-of-ten sine waves is presented. This approach provides simultaneous multiple frequency measurements of the human EEG to the evoking stimulus in terms of describing functions (gain and phase) and remnant spectra. Ways in which these quantities vary with the addition of performance tasks (manual tracking, grammatical reasoning, and decision making) are presented. Models of the describing function measures can be formulated using systems engineering technology. Relationships between model parameters and performance scores during manual tracking are discussed. Problems of unresponsiveness and lack of repeatability of subject responses are addressed in terms of a need for loop closure of the SSEP. A technique to achieve loop closure using a lock-in amplifier approach is presented. Results of a study designed to test the effectiveness of using feedback to consciously connect humans to their evoked response are presented. Findings indicate that conscious control of EEG is possible. Implications of these results in terms of secondary tasks for mental-state estimation and brain actuated control are addressed.

  10. Progress on advanced tokamak and steady-state scenario development on DIII-D and NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, E J [Department of Electrical Engineering and PSTI, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Garofalo, A M [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Greenfield, C M [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Kaye, S M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Menard, J E [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Murakami, M [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Sabbagh, S A [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Austin, M E [University of Texas-Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Bell, R E [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Burrell, K H [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Ferron, J R [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Gates, D A [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Groebner, R J; Hyatt, A W; Luce, T C; Petty, C C; Wade, M R; Waltz, R E [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Jayakumar, R J [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kinsey, J E [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); LeBlanc, B P [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); McKee, G R [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Okabayashi, M [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Peng, Y-K M [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Politzer, P A [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Rhodes, T L [Dept. of Electrical Engineering and PSTI, Univ. of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Advanced tokamak (AT) research seeks to develop steady-state operating scenarios for ITER and other future devices from a demonstrated scientific basis. Normalized target parameters for steady-state operation on ITER are 100% non-inductive current operation with a bootstrap current fraction f{sub BS} {>=} 60%, q{sub 95} {approx} 4-5 and G {identical_to}{beta}{sub N}H{sub scaling}/q{sub 95}{sup 2} {>=}0.3. Progress in realizing such plasmas is considered in terms of the development of plasma control capabilities and scientific understanding, leading to improved AT performance. NSTX has demonstrated active resistive wall mode stabilization with low, ITER-relevant, rotation rates below the critical value required for passive stabilization. On DIII-D, experimental observations and GYRO simulations indicate that ion internal transport barrier (ITB) formation at rational-q surfaces is due to equilibrium zonal flows generating high local E ? B shear levels. In addition, stability modelling for DIII-D indicates a path to operation at {beta}{sub N} {>=} 4 with q{sub min} {>=} 2, using broad, hollow current profiles to increase the ideal wall stability limit. Both NSTX and DIII-D have optimized plasma performance and expanded AT operational limits. NSTX now has long-pulse, high performance discharges meeting the normalized targets for an spherical torus-based component test facility. DIII-D has developed sustained discharges combining high beta and ITBs, with performance approaching levels required for AT reactor concepts, e.g. {beta}{sub N} = 4, H{sub 89} = 2.5, with f{sub BS} > 60%. Most importantly, DIII-D has developed ITER steady-state demonstration discharges, simultaneously meeting the targets for steady-state Q {>=} 5 operation on ITER set out above, substantially increasing confidence in ITER meeting its steady-state performance objective.

  11. Stability of Carotid Artery Under Steady-State and Pulsatile Blood Flow: A Fluid–Structure Interaction Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeid Khalafvand, Seyed; Han, Hai-Chao

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that arteries may buckle into tortuous shapes under lumen pressure, which in turn could alter blood flow. However, the mechanisms of artery instability under pulsatile flow have not been fully understood. The objective of this study was to simulate the buckling and post-buckling behaviors of the carotid artery under pulsatile flow using a fully coupled fluid–structure interaction (FSI) method. The artery wall was modeled as a nonlinear material with a two-fiber strain-energy function. FSI simulations were performed under steady-state flow and pulsatile flow conditions with a prescribed flow velocity profile at the inlet and different pressures at the outlet to determine the critical buckling pressure. Simulations were performed for normal (160 ml/min) and high (350 ml/min) flow rates and normal (1.5) and reduced (1.3) axial stretch ratios to determine the effects of flow rate and axial tension on stability. The results showed that an artery buckled when the lumen pressure exceeded a critical value. The critical mean buckling pressure at pulsatile flow was 17–23% smaller than at steady-state flow. For both steady-state and pulsatile flow, the high flow rate had very little effect (<5%) on the critical buckling pressure. The fluid and wall stresses were drastically altered at the location with maximum deflection. The maximum lumen shear stress occurred at the inner side of the bend and maximum tensile wall stresses occurred at the outer side. These findings improve our understanding of artery instability in vivo. PMID:25761257

  12. Stability of carotid artery under steady-state and pulsatile blood flow: a fluid-structure interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeid Khalafvand, Seyed; Han, Hai-Chao

    2015-06-01

    It has been shown that arteries may buckle into tortuous shapes under lumen pressure, which in turn could alter blood flow. However, the mechanisms of artery instability under pulsatile flow have not been fully understood. The objective of this study was to simulate the buckling and post-buckling behaviors of the carotid artery under pulsatile flow using a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method. The artery wall was modeled as a nonlinear material with a two-fiber strain-energy function. FSI simulations were performed under steady-state flow and pulsatile flow conditions with a prescribed flow velocity profile at the inlet and different pressures at the outlet to determine the critical buckling pressure. Simulations were performed for normal (160 ml/min) and high (350 ml/min) flow rates and normal (1.5) and reduced (1.3) axial stretch ratios to determine the effects of flow rate and axial tension on stability. The results showed that an artery buckled when the lumen pressure exceeded a critical value. The critical mean buckling pressure at pulsatile flow was 17-23% smaller than at steady-state flow. For both steady-state and pulsatile flow, the high flow rate had very little effect (<5%) on the critical buckling pressure. The fluid and wall stresses were drastically altered at the location with maximum deflection. The maximum lumen shear stress occurred at the inner side of the bend and maximum tensile wall stresses occurred at the outer side. These findings improve our understanding of artery instability in vivo.

  13. Comparing Interval Management Control Laws for Steady-State Errors and String Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Lesley A.; Swieringa, Kurt A.

    2018-01-01

    Interval Management (IM) is a future airborne spacing concept that leverages avionics to provide speed guidance to an aircraft to achieve and maintain a specified spacing interval from another aircraft. The design of a speed control law to achieve the spacing goal is a key aspect in the research and development of the IM concept. In this paper, two control laws that are used in much of the contemporary IM research are analyzed and compared to characterize steady-state errors and string stability. Numerical results are used to illustrate how the choice of control laws gains impacts the size of steady-state errors and string performance and the potential trade-offs between those performance characteristics.

  14. Magnetic sensor for steady state tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neyatani, Yuzuru; Mori, Katsuharu; Oguri, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Mitsuru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1996-06-01

    A new type of magnetic sensor has been developed for the measurement of steady state magnetic fields without DC-drift such as integration circuit. The electromagnetic force induced to the current which leads to the sensor was used for the measurement. For the high frequency component which exceeds higher than the vibration frequency of sensor, pick-up coil was used through the high pass filter. From the results using tokamak discharges, this sensor can measure the magnetic field in the tokamak discharge. During {approx}2 hours measurement, no DC drift was observed. The sensor can respond {approx}10ms of fast change of magnetic field during disruptions. We confirm the extension of measured range to control the current which leads to the sensor. (author).

  15. Interfacial reaction effects on erosion of aluminum matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, J.P.; Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima; Matsumura, M.

    1999-01-01

    Alumina borate (A 18 B 4 O 33 ) whisker reinforced aluminum composites have attracted interest because of their high specific strength, high modulus and low cost. An obvious feature of the microstructure in A 18 B 4 O 33 /Al composite is that an interfacial reaction exists between the whisker and the aluminum alloy. In order to discuss the influence of interface interaction between the whisker and matrix on the erosion resistance of composites, two reaction treatments are conducted. From the results of the treated composites, it can be obtained about the erosion characteristics of the composite materials under steady-state conditions

  16. Blood flow patterns during incremental and steady-state aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coovert, Daniel; Evans, LeVisa D; Jarrett, Steven; Lima, Carla; Lima, Natalia; Gurovich, Alvaro N

    2017-05-30

    Endothelial shear stress (ESS) is a physiological stimulus for vascular homeostasis, highly dependent on blood flow patterns. Exercise-induced ESS might be beneficial on vascular health. However, it is unclear what type of ESS aerobic exercise (AX) produces. The aims of this study are to characterize exercise-induced blood flow patterns during incremental and steady-state AX. We expect blood flow pattern during exercise will be intensity-dependent and bidirectional. Six college-aged students (2 males and 4 females) were recruited to perform 2 exercise tests on cycleergometer. First, an 8-12-min incremental test (Test 1) where oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and blood lactate (La) were measured at rest and after each 2-min step. Then, at least 48-hr. after the first test, a 3-step steady state exercise test (Test 2) was performed measuring VO2, HR, BP, and La. The three steps were performed at the following exercise intensities according to La: 0-2 mmol/L, 2-4 mmol/L, and 4-6 mmol/L. During both tests, blood flow patterns were determined by high-definition ultrasound and Doppler on the brachial artery. These measurements allowed to determine blood flow velocities and directions during exercise. On Test 1 VO2, HR, BP, La, and antegrade blood flow velocity significantly increased in an intensity-dependent manner (repeated measures ANOVA, pflow velocity did not significantly change during Test 1. On Test 2 all the previous variables significantly increased in an intensity-dependent manner (repeated measures ANOVA, pflow patterns during incremental and steady-state exercises include both antegrade and retrograde blood flows.

  17. Modeling Non-Steady Isotopologue and Isotopomer Speciation and Fractionation during Denitrification in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, F.; Riley, W. J.

    2009-12-01

    The composition and location of 15N atoms on N2O isotopomers and isotopologues during isotope speciation has been used to characterize soil biological N cycling and N2O surface emissions. Although there exist few experimental observations, no attempt has been made to model N2O isotopomer speciation. The mathematical treatment of biological kinetic reactions in isotopic applications normally makes use of first-order and quasi steady-state complexation assumptions without taking into account changes in enzyme concentration, reaction stoichiometry, and isotopologue and isotopomer speciation. When multiatomic isotopically-labeled reactants are used in a multi-molecurar reaction, these assumptions may fail since they always lead to a constant fractionation factor and cannot describe speciation of isotopologues and isotopomers. We have developed a mathematical framework that is capable of describing isotopologue and isotopmer speciation and fractionation under the assumption of non-steady complexation during biological kinetic reactions that overcome the limitations mentioned above. This framework was applied to a case study of non-steady (variable and inverse) isotopic effects observed during N2O production and consumption in soils. Our mathematical treatment has led to generalized kinetic equations which replicate experimental observations with high accuracy and help interpret non-steady isotopic effects and isotopologue and isotopomer speciation. The kinetic equations introduced and applied here have general validity in describing isotopic effects in any biochemical reactions by considering: changing enzyme concentrations, mass and isotope conservation, and reaction stoichiometry. The equations also describe speciation of any isotopologue and isotopomer product from any isotopologue and isotopmer reactant.

  18. Estimating steady state and transient characteristics of molten salt natural circulation loop using CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudariyawar, J.Y. [Homi Bhabha National Institue, Mumbai (India); Vaidya, A.M.; Maheshwari, K.K.; Srivastava, A.K. [Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India); Satyamurthy, P. [ATDS, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India)

    2015-03-15

    The steady state and transient characteristics of a molten salt natural circulation loop (NCL) are obtained by 3D CFD simulations. The working fluid is a mixture of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} in 60:40 ratio. Simulation is performed using PHOENICS CFD software. The computational domain is discretized by a body fitted grid generated using in-built mesh generator. The CFD model includes primary side. Primary side fluid is subjected to heat addition in heater section, heat loss to ambient (in piping connecting heater and cooler) and to secondary side (in cooler section). Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations are solved along with the standard k-ε turbulence model. Validation of the model is done by comparing the computed steady state Reynolds number with that predicted by various correlations proposed previously. Transient simulations were carried out to study the flow initiations transients for different heater powers and different configurations. Similarly the ''power raising'' transient is computed and compared with in-house experimental data. It is found that, using detailed information obtained from 3D transient CFD simulations, it is possible to understand the physics of oscillatory flow patterns obtained in the loop under certain conditions.

  19. Reaction Hamiltonian and state-to-state description of chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruf, B.A.; Kresin, V.Z.; Lester, W.A. Jr.

    1985-08-01

    A chemical reaction is treated as a quantum transition from reactants to products. A specific reaction Hamiltonian (in second quantization formalism) is introduced. The approach leads to Franck-Condon-like factor, and adiabatic method in the framework of the nuclear motion problems. The influence of reagent vibrational state on the product energy distribution has been studied following the reaction Hamiltonian method. Two different cases (fixed available energy and fixed translational energy) are distinguished. Results for several biomolecular reactions are presented. 40 refs., 5 figs

  20. Stabilization of the potential multi-steady-state absolute instabilities in a gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Chaohai; Liu Pukun

    2009-01-01

    The problem of spurious oscillations induced by absolute instabilities is the most challenging one that hinders the development of the millimeter-wave gyrotron traveling-wave amplifiers (gyro-TWTs). A spurious oscillation exists as a high order axial mode (HOAM) in the interaction circuit. This paper is devoted to demonstrating the complicated steady states of these HOAMs and exploring corresponding techniques to stabilize these potential multi-steady-state absolute instabilities. The stability-oriented design principle is conveyed in a start-to-end design flow of a Ka-band TE 11 mode gyro-TWT. Strong magnetic tapering near the downstream port, which is capable of cutting short the effective interaction circuit of a spurious oscillation and simultaneously boosting the amplification performance, is for the first time proposed to further improve the system stability. It is also found that an ideal prebunched electron beam in the linear stage is the necessary condition to efficient amplification in the nonlinear stage, suggesting that it is feasible to design a stable prebunching stage to replace the distributed-loss-loaded linear stage. The stability-oriented design principle provides more explicit reference for future design of a zero-drive stable gyro-TWT.

  1. Concept study of the Steady State Tokamak Reactor (SSTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Steady State Tokamak Reactor (SSTR) concept has been proposed as a realistic fusion power reactor to be built in the near future. An overall concept of SSTR is introduced which is based on a small extension of the present day physics and technologies. The major feature of SSTR is the maximum utilization of a bootstrap current in order to reduce the power required for the steady state operation. This requirement leads to the choice of moderate current (12 MA), and high βp (2.0) for the device, which are achieved by selecting high aspect ratio (A=4) and high toroidal magnetic field (16.5 T). A negative-ion-based neutral beam injection system is used both for heating and central current drive. Notable engineering features of SSTR are: the use of a uniform vacuum vessel and periodical replacements of the first wall and blanket layers and significant reduction of the electromagnetic force with the use of functionally gradient material. It is shown that a tokamak machine comparable to ITER in size can become a power reactor capable of generating about 1 GW of electricity with a plant efficiency of ∼30%. (author)

  2. Steady-state pattern electroretinogram and short-duration transient visual evoked potentials in glaucomatous and healthy eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekera, Dilru C; Resende, Arthur F; Waisbourd, Michael; Puri, Sanjeev; Moster, Marlene R; Hark, Lisa A; Katz, L Jay; Fudemberg, Scott J; Mantravadi, Anand V

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluates two rapid electrophysiological glaucoma diagnostic tests that may add a functional perspective to glaucoma diagnosis. This study aimed to determine the ability of two office-based electrophysiological diagnostic tests, steady-state pattern electroretinogram and short-duration transient visual evoked potentials, to discern between glaucomatous and healthy eyes. This is a cross-sectional study in a hospital setting. Forty-one patients with glaucoma and 41 healthy volunteers participated in the study. Steady-state pattern electroretinogram and short-duration transient visual evoked potential testing was conducted in glaucomatous and healthy eyes. A 64-bar-size stimulus with both a low-contrast and high-contrast setting was used to compare steady-state pattern electroretinogram parameters in both groups. A low-contrast and high-contrast checkerboard stimulus was used to measure short-duration transient visual evoked potential parameters in both groups. Steady-state pattern electroretinogram parameters compared were MagnitudeD, MagnitudeD/Magnitude ratio, and the signal-to-noise ratio. Short-duration transient visual evoked potential parameters compared were amplitude and latency. MagnitudeD was significantly lower in glaucoma patients when using a low-contrast (P = 0.001) and high-contrast (P state pattern electroretinogram stimulus. MagnitudeD/Magnitude ratio and SNR were significantly lower in the glaucoma group when using a high-contrast 64-bar-size stimulus (P state pattern electroretinogram was effectively able to discern between glaucomatous and healthy eyes. Steady-state pattern electroretinogram may thus have a role as a clinically useful electrophysiological diagnostic tool. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  3. Steady-state free precession with myocardial tagging: CSPAMM in a single breathhold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Kuijer, Joost P A; Marcus, J Tim; Heethaar, Robert M

    2003-04-01

    A method is presented that combines steady-state free precession (SSFP) cine imaging with myocardial tagging. Before the tagging preparation at each ECG-R wave, the steady-state magnetization is stored as longitudinal magnetization by an alpha/2 flip-back pulse. Imaging is continued immediately after tagging preparation, using linearly increasing startup angles (LISA) with a rampup over 10 pulses. Interleaved segmented k-space ordering is used to prevent artifacts from the increasing signal during the LISA rampup. First, this LISA-SSFP method was evaluated regarding ghost artifacts from the steady-state interruption by comparing LISA with an alpha/2 startup method. Next, LISA-SSFP was compared with spoiled gradient echo (SGRE) imaging, regarding tag contrast-to-noise ratio and tag persistence. The measurements were performed in phantoms and in six subjects applying breathhold cine imaging with tagging (temporal resolution 51 ms). The results show that ghost artifacts are negligible for the LISA method. Compared to the SGRE reference, LISA-SSFP was two times faster, with a slightly better tag contrast-to-noise. Additionally, the tags persisted 126 ms longer with LISA-SSFP than with SGRE imaging. The high efficiency of LISA-SSFP enables the acquisition of complementary tagged (CSPAMM) images in a single breathhold. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Steady-State Characterization of Bacteriorhodopsin-D85N Photocycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timucin, Dogan A.; Downie, John D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    An operational characterization of the photocycle of the genetic mutant D85N of bacteriorhodopsin, BR-D85N, is presented. Steady-state bleach spectra and pump-probe absorbance data are obtained with thick hydrated films containing BR-D85N embedded in a gelatin host. Simple two- and three-state models are used to analyze the photocycle dynamics and extract relevant information such as pure-state absorption spectra, photochemical-transition quantum efficiencies, and thermal lifetimes of dominant states appearing in the photocycle, the knowledge of which should aid in the analysis of optical recording and retrieval of data in films incorporating this photochromic material. The remarkable characteristics of this material and their implications from the viewpoint of optical data storage and processing are discussed.

  5. HIGHTEX: a computer program for the steady-state simulation of steam-methane reformers used in a nuclear process heat plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadokoro, Yoshihiro; Seya, Toko

    1977-08-01

    This report describes a computational model and the input procedure of HIGHTEX, a computer program for steady-state simulation of the steam-methane reformers used in a nuclear process heat plant. The HIGHTEX program simulates rapidly a single reformer tube, and treats the reactant single-phase in the two-dimensional catalyst bed. Output of the computer program is radial distributions of temperature and reaction products in the catalyst-packed bed, pressure loss of the packed bed, stress in the reformer tube, hydrogen permeation rate through the reformer tube, heat rate of reaction, and heat-transfer rate between helium and process gas. The running time (cpu) for a 9m-long bayonet type reformer tube is 12 min with FACOM-230/75. (auth.)

  6. Photocatalytic dechlorination of PCB 138 using leuco-methylene blue and visible light; reaction conditions and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izadifard, Maryam; Langford, Cooper H.; Achari, Gopal

    2010-01-01

    A study of dechlorination of PCB 138, under visible light employing methylene blue (MB) and triethylamine (TEA) in acetonitrile/water has been conducted to investigate the details of the mechanism of dechlorination and to determine the efficiency of the process for this representative congener. Two other amines, N-methyldiethanolamine (MEDA) and (triethanolamine) TEOA also replaced TEA and two other solvents, methanol and ethanol replacing acetonitrile were examined for effects on reaction rates. The results show that PCB 138 can be dechlorinated efficiently in this photocatalytic reaction. Clarifying ambiguities in several previous reports, the reduced form of MB, leuco-methylene blue (LMB) was identified as responsible for the photoreaction with its excited state transferring an electron to PCBs; oxidized LMB (i.e. MB) is reduced back to LMB by the excess amine present. The reaction depends on a cycle driven by the amine as a sacrificial electron donor. MEDA proved to be the most efficient electron donor; apparently in consequence of the most favourable steady state concentration of LMB. Methanol and ethanol may be used to replace acetonitrile with little change in the efficiency of the reaction.

  7. Pu recycling in a full Th-MOX PWR core. Part I: Steady state analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, E.; Kliem, S.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Detailed 3D 100% Th-MOX PWR core design is developed. → Pu incineration increased by a factor of 2 as compared to a full MOX PWR core. → The core controllability under steady state conditions is demonstrated. - Abstract: Current practice of Pu recycling in existing Light Water Reactors (LWRs) in the form of U-Pu mixed oxide fuel (MOX) is not efficient due to continuous Pu production from U-238. The use of Th-Pu mixed oxide (TOX) fuel will considerably improve Pu consumption rates because virtually no new Pu is generated from thorium. In this study, the feasibility of Pu recycling in a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) fully loaded with TOX fuel is investigated. Detailed 3-dimensional 100% TOX and 100% MOX PWR core designs are developed. The full MOX core is considered for comparison purposes. The design stages included determination of Pu loading required to achieve 18-month fuel cycle assuming three-batch fuel management scheme, selection of poison materials, development of the core loading pattern, optimization of burnable poison loadings, evaluation of critical boron concentration requirements, estimation of reactivity coefficients, core kinetic parameters, and shutdown margin. The performance of the MOX and TOX cores under steady-state condition and during selected reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs) is compared with that of the actual uranium oxide (UOX) PWR core. Part I of this paper describes the full TOX and MOX PWR core designs and reports the results of steady state analysis. The TOX core requires a slightly higher initial Pu loading than the MOX core to achieve the target fuel cycle length. However, the TOX core exhibits superior Pu incineration capabilities. The significantly degraded worth of control materials in Pu cores is partially addressed by the use of enriched soluble boron and B 4 C as a control rod absorbing material. Wet annular burnable absorber (WABA) rods are used to flatten radial power distribution

  8. HEATHYD, Steady-State Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of Low-Enriched U Fuel Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NABBI, R.

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: HEATHYD is a code for the steady-state heat transfer calculation of research nuclear reactors with forced convection. It models heat transfer and coolant flow for assemblies of parallel fuel plates of MTR type with any axial power distribution. The thermodynamic model accounts for single phase cooling and sub- cooled boiling condition using the transition criterion of Bergeles-Rosenow. In addition to the calculation of the channel flow velocities and coolant pressure drops, HEATHYD calculates axial distribution of the coolant and clad-surface temperatures. Safety margins to the critical heat flux as a result of burnout condition or flow instability are determined. 2 - Method of solution: Applying the finite difference method, HEATHYD solves the equations of heat conduction and heat transfer to the coolant. For the physical properties of the coolant as a function of the coolant temperature polynomials of degree 6 are used. Depending on the coolant condition, different correlations for the heat transfer coefficient can be applied. The analysis of the critical cooling conditions resulting in burnout or flow instability, is performed according to the correlations developed by Mirshak/ Labuntsov and Forgan/Whittle

  9. Navier-Stokes Predictions of Dynamic Stability Derivatives: Evaluation of Steady-State Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeSpirito, James; Silton, Sidra I; Weinacht, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The prediction of the dynamic stability derivatives-roll-damping, Magnus, and pitch-damping moments-were evaluated for three spin-stabilized projectiles using steady-state computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calculations...

  10. Adjoint sensitivity theory for steady-state ground-water flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    In this study, adjoint sensitivity theory is developed for equations of two-dimensional steady-state flow in a confined aquifer. Both the primary flow equation and the adjoint sensitivity equation are solved using the Galerkin finite element method. The developed computer code is used to investigate the regional flow parameters of the Leadville Formation of the Paradox Basin in Utah and the Wolcamp carbonate/sandstone aquifer of the Palo Duro Basin in the Texas Panhandle. Two performance measures are evaluated, local heads and velocity in the vicinity of potential high-level nuclear waste repositories. The results illustrate the sensitivity of calculated local heads to the boundary conditions. Local velocity-related performance measures are more sensitive to hydraulic conductivities. The uncertainty in the performance measure is a function of the parameter sensitivity, parameter variance and the correlation between parameters. Given a parameter covariance matrix, the uncertainty of the performance measure can be calculated. Although no results are presented here, the implications of uncertainty calculations for the two studies are discussed. 18 references, 25 figures

  11. Technology and physics in the Tokamak Program: The need for an integrated, steady-state RandD tokamak experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The Steady-state Tokamak (STE) Experiment is a proposed superconducting-coil, hydrogen-plasma tokamak device intended to address the integrated non-nuclear issues of steady state, high-power tokamak physics and technology. Such a facility has been called for in the US program plan for the mid 1990's, and will play a unique role in the world-wide fusion effort. Information from STE on steady-state current drive, plasma control, and high power technology will contribute significantly to the operating capabilities of future steady-state devices. This paper reviews preliminary designs and expected technological contributions to the US and world fusion reactor research from each of the above mentioned reactor systems. This document is intended as a proposal and feasibility discussion and does not include exhaustive technical reviews. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Rohan; Balis, Frank M; Tullio, Antonella N; DeCarlo, Ellen; Worrell, Carol J; Steinberg, Seth M; Flaherty, John F; Yale, Kitty; Poblenz, Marianne; Kearney, Brian P; Zhong, Lijie; Coakley, Dion F; Blanche, Stephane; Bresson, Jean Louis; Zuckerman, Judith A; Zeichner, Steven L

    2004-01-01

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) is a potent nucleotide analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor approved for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults. The single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of tenofovir were evaluated following administration of tenofovir DF in treatment-experienced HIV-infected children requiring a change in antiretroviral therapy. Using increments of tenofovir DF 75-mg tablets, the target dose was 175 mg/m(2); the median administered dose was 208 mg/m(2). Single-dose pharmacokinetics were evaluated in 18 subjects, and the geometric mean area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC(0- infinity )) was 2,150 ng. h/ml and the geometric mean maximum concentration (C(max)) was 266 ng/ml. Subsequently, other antiretrovirals were added to each patient's regimen based upon treatment history and baseline viral resistance results. Steady-state pharmacokinetics were evaluated in 16 subjects at week 4. The steady-state, geometric mean AUC for the 24-h dosing interval was 2,920 ng. h/ml and was significantly higher than the AUC(0- infinity ) after the first dose (P = 0.0004). The geometric mean C(max) at steady state was 302 ng/ml. Tenofovir DF was generally very well tolerated. Steady-state tenofovir exposures in children receiving tenofovir DF-containing combination antiretroviral therapy approached values seen in HIV-infected adults (AUC, approximately 3,000 ng. h/ml; C(max), approximately 300 ng/ml) treated with tenofovir DF at 300 mg.

  13. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bers, A.

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave rf energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected rf energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected rf energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range delta . The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width delta in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma

  14. RELAP5 capabilities in thermal-hydraulic prediction of SBWR containment behaviour: PANDA steady state and transient tests evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faluomi, V.; Aksan, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the qualification activity of RELAP5/Mod3.2 code performed using PANDA steady state and integral test experimental data. The steady state tests evaluate the PCC performances in removing decay heat power in presence and in absence of non-condensable gases, while the considered integral test (M3) simulates the transient following a break in the main steam line of the SBWR, using, as nominal initial conditions, those calculated for the SBWR under SSAR assumptions at one hour into the LOCA. The results obtained simulating both types of tests show a rather good and robust overall code behavior both in the simulation of steady state test and in the representation of the integral test considered: most of the main experimental results (WW/DW pressures, PCC heat exchange) were well represented by the code. The different studies performed indicated that: Different models of PCC pool lead a different trend of system pressure, and sometimes to an opening of vacuum breaker valves, that does not occur in the transient; The code underestimate the heat exchanged between PCC pool and tubes: n the considered test the system pressure is slightly overestimated (maximum 2% more than the experimental value). This fact is also proved by the differences in the temperature of the condensing mixture in the PCC, quite large in all the performed studies; The treatment of the non condensable gases, as implemented in the code, lead some errors in the calculation of the heat transfer coefficient in the PCC components and generally slow down the overall calculation. In general terms, the RELAP5/Mod3.2 was found to be suitable to represent the SBWR containment behavior under the conditions specified in the experimental side. (author)

  15. Steady-state crack growth in single crystals under Mode I loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristian Jørgensen; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2017-01-01

    The active plastic zone that surrounds the tip of a sharp crack growing under plane strain Mode I loading conditions at a constant velocity in a single crystal is studied. Both the characteristics of the plastic zone and its effect on the macroscopic toughness is investigated in terms of crack tip...... that the largest shielding effect develops in HCP crystals, while the lowest shielding exists for FCC crystals. Rate-sensitivity is found to affect the plastic zone size, but the characteristics overall remain similar for each individual crystal structure. An increasing rate-sensitivity at low crack velocities...... shielding due to plasticity (quantified by employing the Suo, Shih, and Varias set-up). Three single crystals (FCC, BCC, HCP) are modelled in a steady-state elastic visco-plastic framework, with emphasis on the influence of rate-sensitivity and crystal structures. Distinct velocity discontinuities...

  16. Steady State Thermal Analyses of SCEPTOR X-57 Wingtip Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnulo, Sydney L.; Chin, Jeffrey C.; Smith, Andrew D.; Dubois, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Electric aircraft concepts enable advanced propulsion airframe integration approaches that promise increased efficiency as well as reduced emissions and noise. NASA's fully electric Maxwell X-57, developed under the SCEPTOR program, features distributed propulsion across a high aspect ratio wing. There are 14 propulsors in all: 12 high lift motor that are only active during take off and climb, and 2 larger motors positioned on the wingtips that operate over the entire mission. The power electronics involved in the wingtip propulsion are temperature sensitive and therefore require thermal management. This work focuses on the high and low fidelity heat transfer analysis methods performed to ensure that the wingtip motor inverters do not reach their temperature limits. It also explores different geometry configurations involved in the X-57 development and any thermal concerns. All analyses presented are performed at steady state under stressful operating conditions, therefore predicting temperatures which are considered the worst-case scenario to remain conservative.

  17. Undergoing spherically symmetric steady-state accretion stability of white dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienkiewicz, R [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw. N. Copernicus Astronomical Center

    1980-01-01

    Thermal and vibrational stabilities of accreting white dwarfs with steady-state nuclear burning were considered, assuming spherically symmetric accretion of the hydrogen-rich matter and using linear stability analysis. Almost all models with masses 0.2 M(sun) - 1.39 M(sun) were found to be unstable in some way. The type of instability expected to dominate is given as a function of the accretion rate. For most accretion rates it is the thermal instability. Oscillation periods are given for the models in which the vibrational instability is the most violent one. These periods are of the order of seconds or minutes. We expect that our stability analysis may suggest the cause of the variabilities of the hot components of some symbiotic stars, for a wide range of the accretion rates. In this case our models may serve as the initial conditions for evolutionary computations. The results predict that short-period oscillations should be observed in some hot nuclei of planetary nebulae.

  18. Differential equation methods for simulation of GFP kinetics in non-steady state experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phair, Robert D

    2018-03-15

    Genetically encoded fluorescent proteins, combined with fluorescence microscopy, are widely used in cell biology to collect kinetic data on intracellular trafficking. Methods for extraction of quantitative information from these data are based on the mathematics of diffusion and tracer kinetics. Current methods, although useful and powerful, depend on the assumption that the cellular system being studied is in a steady state, that is, the assumption that all the molecular concentrations and fluxes are constant for the duration of the experiment. Here, we derive new tracer kinetic analytical methods for non-steady state biological systems by constructing mechanistic nonlinear differential equation models of the underlying cell biological processes and linking them to a separate set of differential equations governing the kinetics of the fluorescent tracer. Linking the two sets of equations is based on a new application of the fundamental tracer principle of indistinguishability and, unlike current methods, supports correct dependence of tracer kinetics on cellular dynamics. This approach thus provides a general mathematical framework for applications of GFP fluorescence microscopy (including photobleaching [FRAP, FLIP] and photoactivation to frequently encountered experimental protocols involving physiological or pharmacological perturbations (e.g., growth factors, neurotransmitters, acute knockouts, inhibitors, hormones, cytokines, and metabolites) that initiate mechanistically informative intracellular transients. When a new steady state is achieved, these methods automatically reduce to classical steady state tracer kinetic analysis. © 2018 Phair. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  19. Steady-State Diffusion of Water through Soft-Contact LensMaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasiero, Francesco; Krull, Florian; Radke, Clayton J.; Prausnitz, JohnM.

    2005-01-31

    Water transport through soft contact lenses (SCL) is important for acceptable performance on the human eye. Chemical-potential gradient-driven diffusion rates of water through soft-contact-lens materials are measured with an evaporation-cell technique. Water is evaporated from the bottom surface of a lens membrane by impinging air at controlled flow rate and humidity. The resulting weight loss of a water reservoir covering the top surface of the contact-lens material is recorded as a function of time. New results are reported for a conventional hydrogel material (SofLens{trademark} One Day, hilafilcon A, water content at saturation W{sub 10} = 70 weight %) and a silicone hydrogel material (PureVision{trademark}, balafilcon A, W{sub 10} = 36 %), with and without surface oxygen plasma treatment. Also, previously reported data for a conventional HEMA-SCL (W{sub 10} = 38 %) hydrogel are reexamined and compared with those for SofLens{trademark} One Day and PureVision{trademark} hydrogels. Measured steady-state water fluxes are largest for SofLens{trademark} One Day, followed by PureVision{trademark} and HEMA. In some cases, the measured steady-state water fluxes increase with rising relative air humidity. This increase, due to an apparent mass-transfer resistance at the surface (trapping skinning), is associated with formation of a glassy skin at the air/membrane interface when the relative humidity is below 55-75%. Steady-state water-fluxes are interpreted through an extended Maxwell-Stefan diffusion model for a mixture of species starkly different in size. Thermodynamic nonideality is considered through Flory-Rehner polymer-solution theory. Shrinking/swelling is self-consistently modeled by conservation of the total polymer mass. Fitted Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities increase significantly with water concentration in the contact lens.

  20. Steady state magnetic field configurations for the earth's magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, L.-N.; Wolf, R. A.; Voigt, G.-H.; Wu, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    A two-dimensional, force-balance magnetic field model is presented. The theoretical existence of a steady state magnetic field configuration that is force-balanced and consistent with slow, lossless, adiabatic, earthward convection within the limit of the ideal MHD is demonstrated. A numerical solution is obtained for a two-dimensional magnetosphere with a rectangular magnetopause and nonflaring tail. The results are consistent with the convection time sequences reported by Erickson (1985).

  1. Radioactivity computation of steady-state and pulsed fusion reactors operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaya, H.

    1994-06-01

    Different mathematical methods are used to calculate the nuclear transmutation in steady-state and pulsed neutron irradiation. These methods are the Schuer decomposition, the eigenvector decomposition, and the Pade approximation of the matrix exponential function. In the case of the linear decay chain approximation, a simple algorithm is used to evaluate the transition matrices

  2. A steady state model for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A steady state model for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge is developed that comprises three sequential parts – a kinetic part from which the % COD removal and ... and a carbonate system weak acid/base chemistry part from which the digester pH is calculated from the partial pressure of CO2 and alkalinity generated.

  3. A Theoretical Study of Steady State and Transient Condensation on Axisymmetric Fins Under Combined Capillary and Gravitational Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostoglou, M.; Karapantsios, T. D.; Buffone, C.; Glushchuk, A.; Iorio, C.

    2016-10-01

    The present work attempts to model the case of combined gravitational and capillary motion of condensate for an axisymmetric fin under steady and transient fin operation conditions. The focus here is to examine the structure of the mathematical problem and to develop suitable numerical techniques rather than yield information on the macroscopic condensate flow rate and fin efficiency. The problem is formulated starting from general conditions and is simplified step by step by introducing corresponding assumptions. The particular fin shape of a paraboloid from revolution is chosen and the equations are properly non-dimensionalized. A vast reduction of the number of problem parameters is achieved in this way. The cases of isothermal fin, steady state operation and dynamic operation are treated separately using specialized numerical solution techniques developed for each case in order to improve computational efficiency and accuracy. Typical results of fin temperature and condensate film thickness are presented and discussed.

  4. Natural equilibria in steady-state neutron diffusion with temperature feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pounders, J. M.; Ingram, R.

    2013-01-01

    The critical diffusion equation with feedback is investigated within the context of steady-state multiphysics. It is proposed that for critical configurations there is no need to include the multiplication factor k in the formulation of the diffusion equation. This is notable because exclusion of k from the coupled system of equations precludes the mathematically tenuous notion of a nonlinear eigenvalue problem. On the other hand, it is shown that if the factor k is retained in the diffusion equation, as is currently common practice, then the resulting problem is equivalent to the constrained minimization of a functional representing the critical equilibrium of neutron and temperature distributions. The unconstrained solution corresponding to k = 1 represents the natural equilibrium of a critical system at steady-state. Computational methods for solving the constrained problem (with k) are briefly reviewed from the literature and a method for the unconstrained problem (without k) is outlined. A numerical example is studied to examine the effects of the constraint in the nonlinear system. (authors)

  5. Adaptively locating unknown steady states: Formalism and basin of attraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yu; Lin, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The adaptive technique, which includes both dynamical estimators and coupling gains, has been recently verified to be practical for locating the unknown steady states numerically. This Letter, in the light of the center manifold theory for dynamical systems and the matrix spectrum principle, establishes an analytical formalism of this adaptive technique and reveals a connection between this technique and the original adaptive controller which includes only the dynamical estimator. More interestingly, in study of the well-known Lorenz system, the selections of the estimator parameters and initial values are found to be crucial to the successful application of the adaptive technique. Some Milnor-like basins of attraction with fractal structures are found quantitatively. All the results obtained in the Letter can be further extended to more general dynamical systems of higher dimensions. -- Highlights: → Establishing a new and rigorous formalism for the adaptive stabilization technique. → Showing a close connection between the adaptive technique and the original controller. → Providing feasible algorithms for simultaneous stabilization of multiple steady states. → Finding Milnor-like basins of attraction with fractal structures in adaptive control.

  6. Steady-state and transient heat transfer through fins of complex geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taler Dawid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Various methods for steady-state and transient analysis of temperature distribution and efficiency of continuous-plate fins are presented. For a constant heat transfer coefficient over the fin surface, the plate fin can be divided into imaginary rectangular or hexangular fins. At first approximate methods for determining the steady-state fin efficiency like the method of equivalent circular fin and the sector method are discussed. When the fin geometry is complex, thus transient temperature distribution and fin efficiency can be determined using numerical methods. A numerical method for transient analysis of fins with complex geometry is developed. Transient temperature distributions in continuous fins attached to oval tubes is computed using the finite volume - finite element methods. The developed method can be used in the transient analysis of compact heat exchangers to calculate correctly the heat flow rate transferred from the finned tubes to the fluid.

  7. SUPERENERGY-2: a multiassembly, steady-state computer code for LMFBR core thermal-hydraulic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basehore, K.L.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-08-01

    Core thermal-hydraulic design and performance analyses for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) require repeated detailed multiassembly calculations to determine radial temperature profiles and subchannel outlet temperatures for various core configurations and subassembly structural analyses. At steady-state, detailed core-wide temperature profiles are required for core restraint calculations and subassembly structural analysis. In addition, sodium outlet temperatures are routinely needed for each reactor operating cycle. The SUPERENERGY-2 thermal-hydraulic code was designed specifically to meet these designer needs. It is applicable only to steady-state, forced-convection flow in LMFBR core geometries.

  8. Transient and steady-state analyses of an electrically heated Topaz-II Thermionic Fuel Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Xue, H.

    1992-01-01

    Transient and steady-state analyses of electrically heated, Thermionic Fuel Elements (TFEs) for Topaz-II space power system are performed. The calculated emitter and collector temperatures, load electric power and conversion efficiency are in good agreement with reported data. In this paper the effects or Cs pressure, thermal power input, and load resistance on the steady-state performance of the TFE are also investigated. In addition, the thermal response of the ZrH moderator during a startup transient and following a change in the thermal power input is examined

  9. SUPERENERGY-2: a multiassembly, steady-state computer code for LMFBR core thermal-hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basehore, K.L.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-08-01

    Core thermal-hydraulic design and performance analyses for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) require repeated detailed multiassembly calculations to determine radial temperature profiles and subchannel outlet temperatures for various core configurations and subassembly structural analyses. At steady-state, detailed core-wide temperature profiles are required for core restraint calculations and subassembly structural analysis. In addition, sodium outlet temperatures are routinely needed for each reactor operating cycle. The SUPERENERGY-2 thermal-hydraulic code was designed specifically to meet these designer needs. It is applicable only to steady-state, forced-convection flow in LMFBR core geometries

  10. Parametric spatiotemporal oscillation in reaction-diffusion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2016-03-01

    We consider a reaction-diffusion system in a homogeneous stable steady state. On perturbation by a time-dependent sinusoidal forcing of a suitable scaling parameter the system exhibits parametric spatiotemporal instability beyond a critical threshold frequency. We have formulated a general scheme to calculate the threshold condition for oscillation and the range of unstable spatial modes lying within a V-shaped region reminiscent of Arnold's tongue. Full numerical simulations show that depending on the specificity of nonlinearity of the models, the instability may result in time-periodic stationary patterns in the form of standing clusters or spatially localized breathing patterns with characteristic wavelengths. Our theoretical analysis of the parametric oscillation in reaction-diffusion system is corroborated by full numerical simulation of two well-known chemical dynamical models: chlorite-iodine-malonic acid and Briggs-Rauscher reactions.

  11. 40 CFR 1048.505 - How do I test engines using steady-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing? 1048.505 Section 1048.505 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Test Procedures § 1048.505 How do I test engines using steady-state duty cycles... some cases, we allow you to choose the appropriate steady-state duty cycle for an engine. In these...

  12. Dissipative dark matter halos: The steady state solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, R.

    2018-02-01

    Dissipative dark matter, where dark matter particle properties closely resemble familiar baryonic matter, is considered. Mirror dark matter, which arises from an isomorphic hidden sector, is a specific and theoretically constrained scenario. Other possibilities include models with more generic hidden sectors that contain massless dark photons [unbroken U (1 ) gauge interactions]. Such dark matter not only features dissipative cooling processes but also is assumed to have nontrivial heating sourced by ordinary supernovae (facilitated by the kinetic mixing interaction). The dynamics of dissipative dark matter halos around rotationally supported galaxies, influenced by heating as well as cooling processes, can be modeled by fluid equations. For a sufficiently isolated galaxy with a stable star formation rate, the dissipative dark matter halos are expected to evolve to a steady state configuration which is in hydrostatic equilibrium and where heating and cooling rates locally balance. Here, we take into account the major cooling and heating processes, and numerically solve for the steady state solution under the assumptions of spherical symmetry, negligible dark magnetic fields, and that supernova sourced energy is transported to the halo via dark radiation. For the parameters considered, and assumptions made, we were unable to find a physically realistic solution for the constrained case of mirror dark matter halos. Halo cooling generally exceeds heating at realistic halo mass densities. This problem can be rectified in more generic dissipative dark matter models, and we discuss a specific example in some detail.

  13. Steady state likelihood ratio sensitivity analysis for stiff kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, M; Vlachos, D G

    2015-01-28

    Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation is an integral tool in the study of complex physical phenomena present in applications ranging from heterogeneous catalysis to biological systems to crystal growth and atmospheric sciences. Sensitivity analysis is useful for identifying important parameters and rate-determining steps, but the finite-difference application of sensitivity analysis is computationally demanding. Techniques based on the likelihood ratio method reduce the computational cost of sensitivity analysis by obtaining all gradient information in a single run. However, we show that disparity in time scales of microscopic events, which is ubiquitous in real systems, introduces drastic statistical noise into derivative estimates for parameters affecting the fast events. In this work, the steady-state likelihood ratio sensitivity analysis is extended to singularly perturbed systems by invoking partial equilibration for fast reactions, that is, by working on the fast and slow manifolds of the chemistry. Derivatives on each time scale are computed independently and combined to the desired sensitivity coefficients to considerably reduce the noise in derivative estimates for stiff systems. The approach is demonstrated in an analytically solvable linear system.

  14. Steady and dynamic states analysis of induction motor: FEA approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with the steady and dynamic states analysis of induction motor using finite element analysis (FEA) approach. The motor has aluminum rotor bars and is designed for direct-on-line operation at 50 Hz. A study of the losses occurring in the motor performed at operating frequency of 50Hz showed that stator ...

  15. Steady state magnetic field configurations for the earth's magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau, L.N.; Wolf, R.A.; Voigt, G.H.; Wu, C.C.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a two-dimensional, force-balanced magnetic field model in which flux tubes have constant pVγ throughout an extended region of the nightside plasma sheet, between approximately 36 R E geocentric distance and the region of the inner edge of the plasma sheet. They have thus demonstrated the theoretical existence of a steady state magnetic field configuration that is force-balanced and also consistent with slow, lossless, adiabatic, earthward convection within the limit of the ideal MHD (isotropic pressure, perfect conductivity). The numerical solution was constructed for a two-dimensional magnetosphere with a rectangular magnetopause and nonflaring tail. The primary characteristics of the steady state convection solution are (1) a pressure maximum just tailward of the inner edge of the plasma sheet and (2) a deep, broad minimum in equatorial magnetic field strength B ze , also just tailward of the inner edge. The results are consistent with Erickson's (1985) convection time sequences, which exhibited analogous pressure peaks and B ze minima. Observations do not indicate the existence of a B ze minimum, on the average. They suggest that the configurations with such deep minima in B ze may be tearing-mode unstable, thus leading to substorm onset in the inner plasma sheet

  16. Numerical investigation of steady-state thermal behavior of an infrared detector cryo chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhal Mayank

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An infrared (IR detector is simply a transducer of radiant energy, converting radiant energy into a measurable form. Since radiation does not rely on visible light, it offers the possibility of seeing in the dark or through obscured conditions, by detecting the IR energy emitted by objects. One of the prime applications of IR detector systems for military use is in target acquisition and tracking of projectile systems. The IR detectors also have great potential in commercial market. Typically, IR detectors perform best when cooled to cryogenic temperatures in the range of nearly 120 K. However, the necessity to operate in such cryogenic regimes makes the application of IR detectors extremely complex. Further, prior to proceeding on to a full blown transient thermal analysis it is worthwhile to perform a steady-state numerical analysis for ascertaining the effect of variation in viz., material, gas conduction coefficient, h, emissivity, ε, on the temperature profile along the cryo chamber length. This would enable understanding the interaction between the cryo chamber and its environment. Hence, the present work focuses on the development of steady-state numerical models for thermal analysis of IR cryo chamber using MATLAB. The numerical results show that gas conduction coefficient has marked influence on the temperature profile of the cryo chamber whereas the emissivity has a weak effect. The experimental validation of numerical results has also been presented.

  17. A cubic autocatalytic reaction in a continuous stirred tank reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakubu, Aisha Aliyu; Yatim, Yazariah Mohd [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-10-22

    In the present study, the dynamics of the cubic autocatalytic reaction model in a continuous stirred tank reactor with linear autocatalyst decay is studied. This model describes the behavior of two chemicals (reactant and autocatalyst) flowing into the tank reactor. The behavior of the model is studied analytically and numerically. The steady state solutions are obtained for two cases, i.e. with the presence of an autocatalyst and its absence in the inflow. In the case with an autocatalyst, the model has a stable steady state. While in the case without an autocatalyst, the model exhibits three steady states, where one of the steady state is stable, the second is a saddle point while the last is spiral node. The last steady state losses stability through Hopf bifurcation and the location is determined. The physical interpretations of the results are also presented.

  18. Steady-state response of periodically supported structures to a moving load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metrikine, A.V.; Wolfert, A.R.M.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Steady-state vibrations of periodically supported structures under a moving load are analytically investigated. The following three structures are considered: an overhead power line for a train, a long suspended bridge and a railway track. The study is based on the application of so-called

  19. Vulcan: A steady-state tokamak for reactor-relevant plasma–material interaction science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olynyk, G.M.; Hartwig, Z.S.; Whyte, D.G.; Barnard, H.S.; Bonoli, P.T.; Bromberg, L.; Garrett, M.L.; Haakonsen, C.B.; Mumgaard, R.T.; Podpaly, Y.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new scaling for obtaining reactor similarity in the divertor of scaled tokamaks. ► Conceptual design for a tokamak (“Vulcan”) to implement this new scaling. ► Demountable superconducting coils and compact neutron shielding. ► Helium-cooled high-temperature vacuum vessel and first wall. ► High-field-side lower hybrid current drive for non-inductive operation. - Abstract: An economically viable magnetic-confinement fusion reactor will require steady-state operation and high areal power density for sufficient energy output, and elevated wall/blanket temperatures for efficient energy conversion. These three requirements frame, and couple to, the challenge of plasma–material interaction (PMI) for fusion energy sciences. Present and planned tokamaks are not designed to simultaneously meet these criteria. A new and expanded set of dimensionless figures of merit for PMI have been developed. The key feature of the scaling is that the power flux across the last closed flux surface P/S ≃ 1 MW m −2 is to be held constant, while scaling the core volume-averaged density weakly with major radius, n ∼ R −2/7 . While complete similarity is not possible, this new “P/S” or “PMI” scaling provides similarity for the most critical reactor PMI issues, compatible with sufficient current drive efficiency for non-inductive steady-state core scenarios. A conceptual design is developed for Vulcan, a compact steady-state deuterium main-ion tokamak which implements the P/S scaling rules. A zero-dimensional core analysis is used to determine R = 1.2 m, with a conventional reactor aspect ratio R/a = 4.0, as the minimum feasible size for Vulcan. Scoping studies of innovative fusion technologies to support the Vulcan PMI mission were carried out for three critical areas: a high-temperature, helium-cooled vacuum vessel and divertor design; a demountable superconducting toroidal field magnet system; and a steady-state lower hybrid current drive system

  20. An expression of excess work during the transition between nonequilibrium steady states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuge, Tatsuro

    2014-01-01

    Excess work is a nondiverging part of the work during the transition between nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). It is a central quantity in steady-state thermodynamics (SST), which is a candidate for nonequilibrium thermodynamics theory. We derive an expression of excess work during quasistatic transitions between NESSs by using the macroscopic linear response relation of the NESS. This expression is a line integral of a vector potential in the space of control parameters. We show a relationship between the vector potential and the response function of the NESS, and thus obtain a relationship between the SST and a macroscopic quantity. We also connect the macroscopic formulation to microscopic physics through a microscopic expression of the nonequilibrium response function, which gives a result that is consistent with previous studies. (paper)

  1. Development of repetitive railgun pellet accelerator and steady-state solid hydrogen extruder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Y.; Azuma, K.; Onozuka, M.; Kasai, S.; Hasegawa, K.

    1995-01-01

    Development of a railgun pellet accelerator and a steady-state solid hydrogen extruder has been conducted. A railgun accelerator has been investigated for a high-speed repetitive pellet acceleration. The final objective is to develop a railgun system that can achieve a 5km/s speed-class repetitive (2Hz) pellet injection. Improvement in the acceleration efficiency showed a pellet velocity of more than 2km/s using augment rails and a ceramic insulator applied to a 1m-long railgun. The other investigation focused on the development of a steady-state solid hydrogen extruder for continuous pellet injection. Screw-driven extruding system has been chosen to extrude the solid hydrogen filament continuously. Theoretical considerations suggest that temperature control of the system is important in future research. (orig.)

  2. Development of repetitive railgun pellet accelerator and steady-state solid hydrogen extruder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Azuma, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Kasai, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan); Hasegawa, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Development of a railgun pellet accelerator and a steady-state solid hydrogen extruder has been conducted. A railgun accelerator has been investigated for a high-speed repetitive pellet acceleration. The final objective is to develop a railgun system that can achieve a 5km/s speed-class repetitive (2Hz) pellet injection. Improvement in the acceleration efficiency showed a pellet velocity of more than 2km/s using augment rails and a ceramic insulator applied to a 1m-long railgun. The other investigation focused on the development of a steady-state solid hydrogen extruder for continuous pellet injection. Screw-driven extruding system has been chosen to extrude the solid hydrogen filament continuously. Theoretical considerations suggest that temperature control of the system is important in future research. (orig.).

  3. Characterizing steady states of genome-scale metabolic networks in continuous cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernandez-de-Cossio-Diaz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the continuous mode of cell culture, a constant flow carrying fresh media replaces culture fluid, cells, nutrients and secreted metabolites. Here we present a model for continuous cell culture coupling intra-cellular metabolism to extracellular variables describing the state of the bioreactor, taking into account the growth capacity of the cell and the impact of toxic byproduct accumulation. We provide a method to determine the steady states of this system that is tractable for metabolic networks of arbitrary complexity. We demonstrate our approach in a toy model first, and then in a genome-scale metabolic network of the Chinese hamster ovary cell line, obtaining results that are in qualitative agreement with experimental observations. We derive a number of consequences from the model that are independent of parameter values. The ratio between cell density and dilution rate is an ideal control parameter to fix a steady state with desired metabolic properties. This conclusion is robust even in the presence of multi-stability, which is explained in our model by a negative feedback loop due to toxic byproduct accumulation. A complex landscape of steady states emerges from our simulations, including multiple metabolic switches, which also explain why cell-line and media benchmarks carried out in batch culture cannot be extrapolated to perfusion. On the other hand, we predict invariance laws between continuous cell cultures with different parameters. A practical consequence is that the chemostat is an ideal experimental model for large-scale high-density perfusion cultures, where the complex landscape of metabolic transitions is faithfully reproduced.

  4. Nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relations for one- and two-particle correlation functions in steady-state quantum transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ness, H.; Dash, L. K.

    2014-01-01

    We study the non-equilibrium (NE) fluctuation-dissipation (FD) relations in the context of quantum thermoelectric transport through a two-terminal nanodevice in the steady-state. The FD relations for the one- and two-particle correlation functions are derived for a model of the central region consisting of a single electron level. Explicit expressions for the FD relations of the Green's functions (one-particle correlations) are provided. The FD relations for the current-current and charge-charge (two-particle) correlations are calculated numerically. We use self-consistent NE Green's functions calculations to treat the system in the absence and in the presence of interaction (electron-phonon) in the central region. We show that, for this model, there is no single universal FD theorem for the NE steady state. There are different FD relations for each different class of problems. We find that the FD relations for the one-particle correlation function are strongly dependent on both the NE conditions and the interactions, while the FD relations of the current-current correlation function are much less dependent on the interaction. The latter property suggests interesting applications for single-molecule and other nanoscale transport experiments

  5. Determination of steady state and nonsteady-state glycerol kinetics in humans using deuterium-labeled tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beylot, M.; Martin, C.; Beaufrere, B.; Riou, J.P.; Mornex, R.

    1987-01-01

    Using deuterium-labeled glycerol as tracer and gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques for the determination of isotopic enrichment, we have developed a simple and ethically acceptable method of determining glycerol appearance rate in humans under steady-state and nonsteady-state conditions. In normal subjects, the appearance rate of glycerol in the post-absorptive state was 2.22 +/- 0.20 mumol X kg-1 X min-1, a value in agreement with those reported in studies with radioactively labeled tracers. The ratio nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) appearance rate/glycerol appearance rate ranged from 1.95 to 3.40. In insulin-dependent diabetic patients with a mild degree of metabolic control, the appearance rate of glycerol was 2.48 +/- 0.29 mumol X kg-1 X min-1. The volume of distribution of glycerol, determined by the bolus injection technique, was (mean) 0.306 l X kg-1 in normal subjects and 0.308 l X kg-1 in insulin-independent diabetic patients. To evaluate the usefulness of the method for determination of glycerol kinetics in nonsteady-state conditions, we infused six normal subjects with natural glycerol and calculated the isotopically determined glycerol appearance rate using a single compartment model (volume of distribution 0.31 l X kg-1). During these tests, the expected glycerol appearance rates were successively 5.03 +/- 0.33, 7.48 +/- 0.39, 9.94 +/- 0.34, 7.48 +/- 0.39, and 5.03 +/- 0.33 mumol +/- kg-1 X min-1, whereas the corresponding isotopically determined appearance rates were 4.62 +/- 0.45, 6.95 +/- 0.56, 10.85 +/- 0.51, 7.35 +/- 0.34, and 5.28 +/- 0.12 mumol X kg-1 X min-1

  6. Angular momentum transfer in steady disk accretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatskij, V.G.

    1977-01-01

    The conditions of steady disk accretion have been investigated. The disk axisymmetric model is considered. It is shown that the gas is let at the outer boundary of the disk with the azimuthal velocity which is slightly less than the Kepler circular one. Gas possesses the motion quality moment which is transferred from the outer layers of the disk to the surface of the star. The steady state of the disk preserved until the inflow of the moment to the star increases its rotation velocity up to magnitudes close to the critical one

  7. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave rf energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected rf energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected rf energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range delta . The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width delta in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma

  8. Intrinsic Noise Profoundly Alters the Dynamics and Steady State of Morphogen-Controlled Bistable Genetic Switches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Perez-Carrasco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During tissue development, patterns of gene expression determine the spatial arrangement of cell types. In many cases, gradients of secreted signalling molecules-morphogens-guide this process by controlling downstream transcriptional networks. A mechanism commonly used in these networks to convert the continuous information provided by the gradient into discrete transitions between adjacent cell types is the genetic toggle switch, composed of cross-repressing transcriptional determinants. Previous analyses have emphasised the steady state output of these mechanisms. Here, we explore the dynamics of the toggle switch and use exact numerical simulations of the kinetic reactions, the corresponding Chemical Langevin Equation, and Minimum Action Path theory to establish a framework for studying the effect of gene expression noise on patterning time and boundary position. This provides insight into the time scale, gene expression trajectories and directionality of stochastic switching events between cell states. Taking gene expression noise into account predicts that the final boundary position of a morphogen-induced toggle switch, although robust to changes in the details of the noise, is distinct from that of the deterministic system. Moreover, the dramatic increase in patterning time close to the boundary predicted from the deterministic case is substantially reduced. The resulting stochastic switching introduces differences in patterning time along the morphogen gradient that result in a patterning wave propagating away from the morphogen source with a velocity determined by the intrinsic noise. The wave sharpens and slows as it advances and may never reach steady state in a biologically relevant time. This could explain experimentally observed dynamics of pattern formation. Together the analysis reveals the importance of dynamical transients for understanding morphogen-driven transcriptional networks and indicates that gene expression noise can

  9. Intrinsic Noise Profoundly Alters the Dynamics and Steady State of Morphogen-Controlled Bistable Genetic Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    During tissue development, patterns of gene expression determine the spatial arrangement of cell types. In many cases, gradients of secreted signalling molecules—morphogens—guide this process by controlling downstream transcriptional networks. A mechanism commonly used in these networks to convert the continuous information provided by the gradient into discrete transitions between adjacent cell types is the genetic toggle switch, composed of cross-repressing transcriptional determinants. Previous analyses have emphasised the steady state output of these mechanisms. Here, we explore the dynamics of the toggle switch and use exact numerical simulations of the kinetic reactions, the corresponding Chemical Langevin Equation, and Minimum Action Path theory to establish a framework for studying the effect of gene expression noise on patterning time and boundary position. This provides insight into the time scale, gene expression trajectories and directionality of stochastic switching events between cell states. Taking gene expression noise into account predicts that the final boundary position of a morphogen-induced toggle switch, although robust to changes in the details of the noise, is distinct from that of the deterministic system. Moreover, the dramatic increase in patterning time close to the boundary predicted from the deterministic case is substantially reduced. The resulting stochastic switching introduces differences in patterning time along the morphogen gradient that result in a patterning wave propagating away from the morphogen source with a velocity determined by the intrinsic noise. The wave sharpens and slows as it advances and may never reach steady state in a biologically relevant time. This could explain experimentally observed dynamics of pattern formation. Together the analysis reveals the importance of dynamical transients for understanding morphogen-driven transcriptional networks and indicates that gene expression noise can qualitatively

  10. Reactor kinetics - pulse and steady state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, B F; Morris, F M [Sandia Laboratories (United States)

    1974-07-01

    An analytical model has been developed which couples the nuclear and thermal characteristics of the Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR) into a solution which describes both the neutron kinetics of the reactor and the temperature behavior of a fuel-moderator element. The model describes both pulse and steady state operations. This paper describes the important aspects of the reactor, the fuel- moderator elements, the neutron kinetic equations of the reactor, and the time-temperature behavior of a fuel-moderator element that is being subjected to the maximum power density in the core. The parameters which are utilized in the equations are divided into two classes, those that can be measured directly and those that are assumed to be known (each is described briefly). Some of the solutions which demonstrate the versatility of the analytical model are described. (author)

  11. How do monomeric components of a polymer gel dosimeter respond to ionising radiation: A steady-state radiolysis towards preparation of a 3D polymer gel dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozicki, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Ionising radiation-induced reactions of aqueous single monomer solutions and mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (Bis) in a steady-state condition are presented below and above gelation doses in order to highlight reactions in irradiated 3D polymer gel dosimeters, which are assigned for radiotherapy dosimetry. Both monomers are shown to undergo radical polymerisation and cross-linking, which result in the measured increase in molecular weight and radius of gyration of the formed polydisperse polymer coils. The formation of nanogels was also observed for Bis solutions at a low concentration. In the case of PEGDA-Bis mixtures, co-polymerisation is suggested as well. At a sufficiently high radiation dose, the formation of a polymer network was observed for both monomers and their mixture. For this reason a sol-gel analysis for PEGDA and Bis was performed gravimetrically and a proposition of an alternative to this method employing a nuclear magnetic resonance technique is made. The two monomers were used for preparation of 3D polymer gel dosimeters having the acronyms PABIG and PABIG nx . The latter is presented for the first time in this work and is a type of the formerly established PABIG polymer gel dosimeter. The elementary characteristics of the new composition are presented, underlining the ease of its preparation, low dose threshold, and slightly increased sensitivity but lower quasi-linear range of dose response in comparison to PABIG. - Highlights: → Steady-state radiolysis of Bis, PEGDA and Bis-PEGDA is examined. → High Mw products are formed at low absorbed doses. → Formation of Bis nanogels is likely; PEGDA solutions form hydrogels. → NMR technique can be used for sol-gel analysis. → Features of 3D polymer gel dosimeters made from PEGDA and Bis are shown.

  12. Steady State Thermo-Hydrodynamic Analysis of Two-Axial groove and Multilobe Hydrodynamic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bhagat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Steady state thermo-hydrodynamic analysis of two axial groove and multi lobe oil journal bearings is performed in this paper. To study the steady state thermo-hydrodynamic characteristics Reynolds equation is solved simultaneously along with the energy equation and heat conduction equation in bush and shaft. The effect of groove geometry, cavitation in the fluid film, the recirculation of lubricant, shaft speed has also been taken into account. Film temperature in case of three-lobe bearing is found to be high as compared to other studied bearing configurations. The data obtained from this analysis can be used conveniently in the design of such bearings, which are presented in dimensionless form.

  13. Stability of periodic steady-state solutions to a non-isentropic Euler-Poisson system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cunming; Peng, Yue-Jun

    2017-06-01

    We study the stability of periodic smooth solutions near non-constant steady-states for a non-isentropic Euler-Poisson system without temperature damping term. The system arises in the theory of semiconductors for which the doping profile is a given smooth function. In this stability problem, there are no special restrictions on the size of the doping profile, but only on the size of the perturbation. We prove that small perturbations of periodic steady-states are exponentially stable for large time. For this purpose, we introduce new variables and choose a non-diagonal symmetrizer of the full Euler equations to recover dissipation estimates. This also allows to make the proof of the stability result very simple and concise.

  14. Steady-state visually evoked potential correlates of human body perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giabbiconi, Claire-Marie; Jurilj, Verena; Gruber, Thomas; Vocks, Silja

    2016-11-01

    In cognitive neuroscience, interest in the neuronal basis underlying the processing of human bodies is steadily increasing. Based on functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, it is assumed that the processing of pictures of human bodies is anchored in a network of specialized brain areas comprising the extrastriate and the fusiform body area (EBA, FBA). An alternative to examine the dynamics within these networks is electroencephalography, more specifically so-called steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs). In SSVEP tasks, a visual stimulus is presented repetitively at a predefined flickering rate and typically elicits a continuous oscillatory brain response at this frequency. This brain response is characterized by an excellent signal-to-noise ratio-a major advantage for source reconstructions. The main goal of present study was to demonstrate the feasibility of this method to study human body perception. To that end, we presented pictures of bodies and contrasted the resulting SSVEPs to two control conditions, i.e., non-objects and pictures of everyday objects (chairs). We found specific SSVEPs amplitude differences between bodies and both control conditions. Source reconstructions localized the SSVEP generators to a network of temporal, occipital and parietal areas. Interestingly, only body perception resulted in activity differences in middle temporal and lateral occipitotemporal areas, most likely reflecting the EBA/FBA.

  15. Kinematic Cosmology & a new ``Steady State'' Model of Continued Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Mogens

    2006-03-01

    Only a new "steady state" model justifies the observations of fully mature galaxies at ever increasing distances. The basic idea behind the world model presented here, which is a synthesis of the cosmologies of Parmenides and Herakleitos, is that the invariant structure of the infinite contents of a universe in flux may be depicted as a finite hyperbolic pseudo-sphere.

  16. Influence of non-steady state during isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp in hypertension. A LIFE substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Andersen, U B; Wachtell, K

    1999-01-01

    We wanted to investigate whether time to steady state was reached within 2 h of insulin infusion during isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, comparing the glucose uptake index (M/IG) with Bergman's insulin sensitivity index (Sip). We performed a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test and a 3-h isoglycemic....... Because the 2-h M/IG correlated strongly with the 3-h Sip with relatively narrow limits of agreement, it is a good measure of insulin sensitivity. However, a 2-h clamp results in lower insulin sensitivity values in elderly, hypertensive patients due to the fact that steady state is not reached...

  17. Plasma flow reactor for steady state monitoring of physical and chemical processes at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroglu, Batikan; Mehl, Marco; Armstrong, Michael R; Crowhurst, Jonathan C; Weisz, David G; Zaug, Joseph M; Dai, Zurong; Radousky, Harry B; Chernov, Alex; Ramon, Erick; Stavrou, Elissaios; Knight, Kim; Fabris, Andrea L; Cappelli, Mark A; Rose, Timothy P

    2017-09-01

    We present the development of a steady state plasma flow reactor to investigate gas phase physical and chemical processes that occur at high temperature (1000 flow injector). We have modeled the system using computational fluid dynamics simulations that are bounded by measured temperatures. In situ line-of-sight optical emission and absorption spectroscopy have been used to determine the structures and concentrations of molecules formed during rapid cooling of reactants after they pass through the plasma. Emission spectroscopy also enables us to determine the temperatures at which these dynamic processes occur. A sample collection probe inserted from the open end of the reactor is used to collect condensed materials and analyze them ex situ using electron microscopy. The preliminary results of two separate investigations involving the condensation of metal oxides and chemical kinetics of high-temperature gas reactions are discussed.

  18. High Beta Steady State Research and Future Directions on JT-60U and JFT-2M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Shinichi

    2003-10-01

    JT-60U and JFT-2M research is focused on high beta steady state operation towards economically and environmentally attractive reactors. In JT-60U, a high-βp H-mode plasma was sustained with βN 2.7 for 7.4 s in which neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) limited the attainable β_N. Real-time tracking NTM stabilization system using ECCD demonstrated complete suppression of NTM leading to recovery of βN before onset of NTM. Performance in a fully non-inductive H-mode plasma was improved up to n_i(0) τE T_i(0) = 3.1 x 10^20 keV s m-3 using N-NBCD with βN 2.4, HH_y,2=1.2 and bootstrap fraction f_BS 0.5. ECH experiments extended the confinement enhancement for dominantly electron heated reversed shear plasmas up to HH_y,2 2 at T_e/Ti 1.25. A world record ECCD efficiency, 4.2 x 10^18 A/W/m^2, was achieved at Te 23 keV with a highly localized central current density. Innovative initiation and current build-up without center solenoid currents were established by LHCD/ECH and bootstrap current up to f_BS 0.9. In JFT-2M, the inside of the vacuum vessel wall was fully covered with low-activation ferritic steel plates to investigate their use in plasmas near fusion conditions. High βN plasmas were produced up to βN = 3.3 with an internal transport barrier (ITB) and a steady H-mode edge. A new H-mode regime with steady high recycling (HRS) and an ITB was exploited leading to βN H_89P 6.2 at n_e/nG 0.7. In 2003, JT-60U will be able to operate for the duration up to 65 s at 1 MA/2.7 T and the heating/current-drive duration up to 30 s at 17 MW to prolong high-βN and/or high-f_BS discharges with feedback controls. JFT-2M is planning to implement wall stabilization experiments in 2004 to pursue plasmas above the ideal no-wall limit using a ferritic wall. The modification of JT-60 to a fully superconducting tokamak is under discussion to explore high-β steady state operation in collision-less plasmas well above no-wall limit with ferritic wall in a steady state.

  19. Validation of a CATHENA fuel channel model for the post blowdown analysis of the high temperature thermal-chemical experiment CS28-1, I - Steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Bo Wook; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Park, Joo Hwan

    2008-01-01

    To form a licensing basis for the new methodology of the fuel channel safety analysis code system for CANDU-6, a CATHENA model for the post-blowdown fuel channel analysis for a Large Break LOCA has been developed, and tested for the steady state of a high temperature thermal-chemical experiment CS28-1. As the major concerns of the post-blowdown fuel channel analysis of the current CANDU-6 design are how much of the decay heat can be discharged to the moderator via a radiation and a convective heat transfer at the expected accident conditions, and how much zirconium sheath would be oxidized to generate H 2 at how high a fuel temperature, this study has focused on understanding these phenomena, their interrelations, and a way to maintain a good accuracy in the prediction of the fuel and the pressure tube temperatures without losing the important physics of the involved phenomena throughout the post-blowdown phase of a LBLOCA. For a better prediction, those factors that may significantly contribute to the prediction accuracy of the steady state of the test bundles were sought. The result shows that once the pressure tube temperature is predicted correctly by the CATHENA heat transfer model between the pressure tube and the calandria tube through a gap thermal resistance adjustment, all the remaining temperatures of the inner ring, middle ring and outer ring FES temperatures can be predicted quite satisfactorily, say to within an accuracy range of 20-25 deg. C, which is comparable to the reported accuracy of the temperature measurement, ±2%. Also the analysis shows the choice of the emissivity of the solid structures (typically, 0.80, 0.34, 0.34 for FES, PT, CT), and the thermal resistance across the CO 2 annulus are factors that significantly affect the steady state prediction accuracy. A question on the legitimacy of using 'transparent' assumption for the CO 2 gas annulus for the radiation heat transfer between the pressure tube and the calandria tube in CATHENA

  20. Accuracy of the calculations of the ionization-state densities in a steady-state plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzmann, D.

    1980-01-01

    A quantitative definition is given to the accuracy of the computation of the partial densities of the ionization states in a steady-state plasma when there is an inaccuracy in the rate coefficients used in the rate equation. It is found that the partial density of the most abundant ion species is almost independent of the exact form of the rate coefficients, but large errors may occur for the rare species. The effect of the variation of the total ion density on the partial densities is also calculated. For low-ion densities the partial ionization-state densities grow proportionally to the change of the total density, but at high densities there is an alteration of the charge-state distribution as well

  1. Plasma control issues for an advanced steady state tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with specific control issues related to the advanced tokamak scenarios in which rather accurate tailoring of the current density profile is a requirement in connection with the steady state operation of a reactor in a high confinement optimized shear mode. It is found that adequate current profile control can be performed if real-time magnetic flux reconstruction is available through a set of dedicated diagnostics and computers, with sufficient accuracy to deduce the radial profile of the safety factor and of the internal plasma loop voltage. It is also shown that the safety factor can be precisely controlled in the outer half of the plasma through the surface loop voltage and the off-axis current drive power, but that a compromise must be made between the accuracy of the core safety factor control and the total duration of the current and fuel density ramp-up phases, so that the demonstration of the steady state reactor potential of the optimized/reversed shear concept in the Next Step device will demand pulse lengths of the order of one thousand seconds (or more for an ITER-size machine). (author)

  2. Plasma control issues for an advanced steady state tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, D.; Voitsekhovitch, I.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with specific control issues related to the advanced tokamak scenarios in which rather accurate tailoring of the current density profile is a requirement in connection with the steady state operation of a reactor in a high confinement optimized shear mode. It is found that adequate current profile control can be performed if real-time magnetic flux reconstruction is available through a set of dedicated diagnostics and computers, with sufficient accuracy to deduce the radial profile of the safety factor and of the internal plasma loop voltage. It is also shown that the safety factor can be precisely controlled in the outer half of the plasma through the surface loop voltage and the off-axis current drive power, but that a compromise must be made between the accuracy of the core safety factor control and the total duration of the current and fuel density ramp-up phases, so that the demonstration of the steady state reactor potential of the optimized/reversed shear concept in the Next Step device will demand pulse lengths of the order of one thousand seconds (or more for an ITER-size machine). (author)

  3. The non-steady state oceanic CO2 signal: its importance, magnitude and a novel way to detect it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. McNeil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of the ocean has been pivotal in modulating rising atmospheric CO2 levels since the industrial revolution, sequestering nearly half of all fossil-fuel derived CO2 emissions. Net oceanic uptake of CO2 has roughly doubled between the 1960s (~1 Pg C yr−1 and 2000s (~2 Pg C yr−1, with expectations that it will continue to absorb even more CO2 with rising future atmospheric CO2 levels. However, recent CO2 observational analyses along with numerous model predictions suggest the rate of oceanic CO2 uptake is already slowing, largely as a result of a natural decadal-scale outgassing signal. This recent CO2 outgassing signal represents a significant shift in our understanding of the oceans role in modulating atmospheric CO2. Current tracer-based estimates for the ocean storage of anthropogenic CO2 assume the ocean circulation and biology is in steady state, thereby missing the new and potentially important "non-steady state" CO2 outgassing signal. By combining data-based techniques that assume the ocean is in a steady state, with techniques that constrain the net oceanic CO2 uptake signal, we show how to extract the non-steady state CO2 signal from observations. Over the entire industrial era, the non-steady state CO2 outgassing signal (~13 ± 10 Pg C is estimated to represent about 9% of the total net CO2 inventory change (~142 Pg C. However, between 1989 and 2007, the non-steady state CO2 outgassing signal (~6.3 Pg C has likely increased to be ~18% of net oceanic CO2 storage over that period (~36 Pg C. The present uncertainty of our data-based techniques for oceanic CO2 uptake limit our capacity to quantify the non-steady state CO2 signal, however with more data and better certainty estimates across a range of diverse methods, this important and growing CO2 signal could be better constrained in the future.

  4. Steady state drift vortices in plasmas with shear flow in equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Hasegawa-Mima equation in the presence of sheared poloidal flow is solved for two-dimensional steady state vortex. It is shown that when the phase velocity of the vortex is the same as the diamagnetic drift velocity, an exact solution in the form of counter-rotating vortices may appear...

  5. Quasi-steady state thermal performances of a solar air heater with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quasi-steady state thermal performance of a solar air heater with a combined absorber is studied. The whole energy balance equations related to the system were articulated as a linear system of temperature equations. Solutions to this linear system were assessed from program based on an iterative process. The mean ...

  6. Steady-state transport equation resolution by particle methods, and numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, B.

    1985-10-01

    A method to solve steady-state transport equation has been given. Principles of the method are given. The method is studied in two different cases; estimations given by the theory are compared to numerical results. Results got in 1-D (spherical geometry) and in 2-D (axisymmetric geometry) are given [fr

  7. Analysis of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the DEMO Water-Cooled Lithium Lead breeding blanket module under normal operation steady state conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maio, P.A.; Arena, P. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Aubert, J. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Bongiovì, G. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Chiovaro, P., E-mail: pierluigi.chiovaro@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Giammusso, R. [ENEA – C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy); Li Puma, A. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Tincani, A. [ENEA – C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A DEMO WCLL blanket module thermo-mechanical behaviour has been investigated. • Two models of the WCLL blanket module have been set-up adopting a code based on FEM. • The water flow domain in the module has been considered. • A set of uncoupled steady state thermo-mechanical analyses has been carried out. • Critical temperature is not overcome. Safety verifications are generally satisfied. - Abstract: Within the framework of DEMO R&D activities, a research cooperation has been launched between ENEA, the University of Palermo and CEA to investigate the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the outboard equatorial module of the DEMO1 Water-Cooled Lithium Lead (WCLL) blanket under normal operation steady state scenario. The research campaign has been carried out following a theoretical–computational approach based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) and adopting a qualified commercial FEM code. In particular, two different 3D FEM models (Model 1 and Model 2), reproducing respectively the central and the lateral poloidal–radial slices of the WCLL blanket module, have been set up. A particular attention has been paid to the modelling of water flow domain, within both the segment box channels and the breeder zone tubes, to simulate realistically the coolant-box thermal coupling. Results obtained are herewith reported and critically discussed.

  8. Steady-State-Preserving Simulation of Genetic Regulatory Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqiang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel family of exponential Runge-Kutta (expRK methods are designed incorporating the stable steady-state structure of genetic regulatory systems. A natural and convenient approach to constructing new expRK methods on the base of traditional RK methods is provided. In the numerical integration of the one-gene, two-gene, and p53-mdm2 regulatory systems, the new expRK methods are shown to be more accurate than their prototype RK methods. Moreover, for nonstiff genetic regulatory systems, the expRK methods are more efficient than some traditional exponential RK integrators in the scientific literature.

  9. MHD stability regimes for steady state and pulsed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.E.; Pomphrey, N.

    1994-02-01

    A tokamak reactor will operate at the maximum value of β≡2μ 0 /B 2 that is compatible with MHD stability. This value depends upon the plasma current and pressure profiles, the plasma shape and aspect ratio, and the location of nearby conducting structures. In addition, a steady state reactor will minimize its external current drive requirements and thus achieve its maximum economic benefit with a bootstrap fraction near one, I bs /I p ∼ 1, which constrains the product of the inverse aspect ratio and the plasma poloidal beta to be near unity, ε β p ∼ 1. An inductively driven pulsed reactor has different constraints set by the steady-state Ohm's law which relates the plasma temperature and density profiles to the parallel current density. We present the results obtained during the ARIES I, II/IV, and III and the PULSAR reactor studies where these quantities were optimized subject to different design philosophies. The ARIES-II/IV and ARIES-III designs are both in the second stability regime, but differ in requirements on the form of the profiles at the plasma edge, and in the location of the conducting wall. The relation between these, as well as new attractive MHD regimes not utilized in the ARIES or PULSAR studies is also discussed

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic stability regimes for steady state and pulsed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.E.; Pomphrey, N.

    1994-01-01

    A tokamak reactor will operate at the maximum value of β≡2μ 0 left angle p right angle /B 2 that is compatible with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability. This value depends on the plasma current and pressure profiles, the plasma shape and aspect ratio, and the location of nearby conducting structures. In addition, a steady state reactor will minimize its external current drive requirements and thus achieve its maximum economic benefit with a bootstrap fraction near unity, I BS /I P ∼1, which constrains the product of the inverse aspect ratio and the plasma poloidal β to be near unity, arepsilonβ P ∼1. An inductively driven pulsed reactor has different constraints set by the steady-state Ohm's law which relates the plasma temperature and density profiles to the parallel current density. We present the results obtained during ARIES I, II/IV, and III and PULSAR reactor studies where these quantities were optimized subject to different design philosophies. The ARIES-II/IV and ARIES-III designs are both in the second stability regime, but differ in requirements in the form of the profiles at the plasma edge, and in the location of the conducting wall. The relation between these, as well as new attractive MHD regimes not utilized in the ARIES or PULSAR studies, is also discussed. ((orig.))

  11. Theory of steady state plasma flow and confinement in a periodic magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.G.

    1981-02-01

    The steady flow of plasmas through spatially periodic magnetic fields is examined, and a theoretical model is developed for the case of axisymmetric geometry. The externally applied magnetic fields can be cusps or mirrors joined end to end; electrons are then localised by these fields because of their small Larmor radius, while the ions can traverse the magnetic mirrors. The properties of the model equations are studied and dimensionless parameters which appear are interpreted. Numerical methods used in steady flow applications are reviewed, and some techniques of solution for the model equations are discussed. A solution method involving numerical integration of time-dependent equations is described, which approaches the steady state asymptotically; results from this method are presented and compared with the results from perturbation theory. (author)

  12. Nonequilibrium steady state in open quantum systems: Influence action, stochastic equation and power balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiang, J.-T.; Hu, B.L.

    2015-01-01

    The existence and uniqueness of a steady state for nonequilibrium systems (NESS) is a fundamental subject and a main theme of research in statistical mechanics for decades. For Gaussian systems, such as a chain of classical harmonic oscillators connected at each end to a heat bath, and for classical anharmonic oscillators under specified conditions, definitive answers exist in the form of proven theorems. Answering this question for quantum many-body systems poses a challenge for the present. In this work we address this issue by deriving the stochastic equations for the reduced system with self-consistent backaction from the two baths, calculating the energy flow from one bath to the chain to the other bath, and exhibiting a power balance relation in the total (chain + baths) system which testifies to the existence of a NESS in this system at late times. Its insensitivity to the initial conditions of the chain corroborates to its uniqueness. The functional method we adopt here entails the use of the influence functional, the coarse-grained and stochastic effective actions, from which one can derive the stochastic equations and calculate the average values of physical variables in open quantum systems. This involves both taking the expectation values of quantum operators of the system and the distributional averages of stochastic variables stemming from the coarse-grained environment. This method though formal in appearance is compact and complete. It can also easily accommodate perturbative techniques and diagrammatic methods from field theory. Taken all together it provides a solid platform for carrying out systematic investigations into the nonequilibrium dynamics of open quantum systems and quantum thermodynamics. -- Highlights: •Nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) for interacting quantum many-body systems. •Derivation of stochastic equations for quantum oscillator chain with two heat baths. •Explicit calculation of the energy flow from one bath to the

  13. Recent results on steady state and confinement improvement research on JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Shunsuke

    2000-01-01

    On the JT-60U tokamak, fusion plasma research for realization of a steady state tokamak reactor has been pursued. Towards that goal, confinement improved plasmas such as H-mode, high β p , reversed magnetic shear (RS) and latter two combined with H-mode edge pedestal have been developed and investigated intensively. A key issue to achieve non-inductive current drive relevant to a steady state fusion reactor is to increase the fraction of the bootstrap current and match the spatial profile to the optimum. In 1999, as the result of the optimization, the equivalent deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion gain (Q DT eq ) of 0.5 was sustained for 0.8 s, which is roughly equal to the energy confinement time, in a RS plasma. In order to achieve a RS plasma in steady state two approach have been explored. One is to use external current driver such as lower hybrid current drive (LHCD), and by optimizing LHCD a quasi-steady RS discharge was obtained. The other approach is to utilize bootstrap current as much as possible, and with highly increased fraction of the bootstrap current, a confinement enhancement factor of 3.6 was maintained for 2.7 s in a RS plasma with H-mode edge. A heating and current drive system in the electron cyclotron range of frequency for localized heating and current drive has been installed on JT-60U, and in initial experiments a clear increase of the central electron temperature in a RS high density central region was confirmed only with injected power of 0.75 MW. (author)

  14. Setting ART initiation targets in response to changing guidelines: The importance of addressing both steady-state and backlog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Catherine; Naidoo, Nicolette P; Venter, W D Francois; Jaffer, Ambereen; Barker, Pierre M

    2014-05-12

    Target setting is useful in planning, assessing and improving antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes. In the past 4 years, the ART initiation environment has been transformed due to the change in eligibility criteria (starting ART at a CD4+ count ART. To describe and illustrate the use of a target-setting model for estimating district-based targets in the era of an expanding ART programme and changing CD4+ count thresholds for ART initiation. Using previously described models and data for annual new HIV infections, we estimated both steady-state need for ART initiation and backlog in a North West Province district, accounting for the shift in eligibility. Comparison of actual v. targeted ART initiations was undertaken. The change in CD4+ count threshold adds a once-off group of newly eligible patients to the pool requiring ART - the backlog. The steady-state remains unchanged as it is determined by the annual rate of new HIV infections in previous years. The steady-state need for the district was 639 initiations/month, and the backlog was ~15,388 patients. After the shift in eligibility in September 2011, the steady-state target was exceeded over several months with some backlog addressed. Of the total backlog for this district, 72% remains to be cleared. South Africa has two pools of patients who need ART: the steady-state of HIV-infected patients entering the programme each year, determined by historical infection rates; and the backlog created by the shift in eligibility. The healthcare system needs to build long- term capacity to meet the steady-state need for ART and additional capacity to address the backlog.

  15. [Mechanism of reaction catalyzed by RNA-ligase from bacteriophage T4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrebel'nyĭ, S N; Zernov, Iu P

    1987-01-01

    The dissociation constants of the complexes of RNA-ligase with acceptors, donors and the adenylylated donor A(5')ppAp have been determined on the basis of the inhibition of ATP-pyrophosphate exchange reaction. The dissociation constants of the complexes of the enzyme with "poor" acceptors (oligouridilates) have been shown to be slightly different from those with "good" acceptors (oligoadenylates). The dependence of the reaction velocity of the formation of ligation products on the concentration of acceptors (pA)4, (pU)4 and the adenylylated donor A(5)ppAp has been studied. On the basis of the data obtained the conclusion about the random addition mechanism has been drawn. The reaction takes place in the steady-state conditions in the case of (pA)4 and in the equilibrium conditions--in the case of (pU)4.

  16. Hopf bifurcation in a reaction-diffusive two-species model with nonlocal delay effect and general functional response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Renji; Dai, Binxiang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We model general two-dimensional reaction-diffusion with nonlocal delay. • The existence of unique positive steady state is studied. • The bilinear form for the proposed system is given. • The existence, direction of Hopf bifurcation are given by symmetry method. - Abstract: A nonlocal delayed reaction-diffusive two-species model with Dirichlet boundary condition and general functional response is investigated in this paper. Based on the Lyapunov–Schmidt reduction, the existence, bifurcation direction and stability of Hopf bifurcating periodic orbits near the positive spatially nonhomogeneous steady-state solution are obtained, where the time delay is taken as the bifurcation parameter. Moreover, the general results are applied to a diffusive Lotka–Volterra type food-limited population model with nonlocal delay effect, and it is found that diffusion and nonlocal delay can also affect the other dynamic behavior of the system by numerical experiments.

  17. Steady-state and loss-of-pumping accident analyses of the Savannah River new production reactor representative design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, R.J.; Maloney, K.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document contains the steady-state and loss-of-pumping accident analysis of the representative design for the Savannah River heavy water new production reactor. A description of the reactor system and computer input model, the results of the steady-state analysis, and the results of four loss-of-pumping accident calculations are presented. 5 refs., 37 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Steady-State Operation in Tore Supra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, G. T.; Tore Supra, Equipe

    1999-11-01

    The Tore Supra superconducting tokamak is devoted to steady-state operation. The CIEL (French acronym for internal component and limiter) project( LIPA, M., et al., Proc. of the 17th IEEE/NPSS Symp. on Fus. Engineering, San Diego, USA, 1997.) consists of a complete upgrade of the inner chamber of Tore Supra, planned to be installed during the year 2000. This project will allow physics scenarios with up to 24 MW of radio frequency heating and current drive (typically 8 - 10 MW of ICRF, 10 - 12 MW of LHCD and 2 MW of ECRF) in stationary plasmas up to 1000 s, with active particle control. This paper presents an overview of the experiments planned to explore the properties, such as the confinement and MHD stability, of various heating and current drive scenarios for long duration discharges. The expected performance for the CIEL phase is also reported.

  19. Exact fluctuations of nonequilibrium steady states from approximate auxiliary dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a framework to significantly reduce the computational effort to evaluate large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We do this by incorporating an auxiliary dynamics into trajectory based Monte Carlo calculations, through a transformation of the system's propagator using an approximate guiding function. This procedure importance samples the trajectories that most contribute to the large deviation function, mitigating the exponenti...

  20. Steady-state tokamak reactor with non-divertor impurity control: STARFIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.

    1980-01-01

    STARFIRE is a conceptual design study of a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant. Particular emphasis has been placed on simplifying the reactor concept by developing design concepts to produce a steady-state tokamak with non-divertor impurity control and helium ash removal. The concepts of plasma current drive using lower hybrid rf waves and a limiter/vacuum system for reactor applications are described