Steady-State Creep of Asphalt Concrete
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Alibai Iskakbayev
2017-02-01
Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental investigation of the steady-state creep process for fine-grained asphalt concrete at a temperature of 20 ± 2 °С and under stress from 0.055 to 0.311 MPa under direct tension and was found to occur at a constant rate. The experimental results also determined the start, the end point, and the duration of the steady-state creep process. The dependence of these factors, in addition to the steady-state creep rate and viscosity of the asphalt concrete on stress is satisfactorily described by a power function. Furthermore, it showed that stress has a great impact on the specific characteristics of asphalt concrete: stress variation by one order causes their variation by 3–4.5 orders. The described relations are formulated for the steady-state of asphalt concrete in a complex stressed condition. The dependence is determined between stress intensity and strain rate intensity.
Steady-state creep of discontinuous fibre composites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boecker Pedersen, O.
1975-07-01
A review is given of the relevant literature on creep of composites, including a presentation of existing models for the steady-state creep of composites containing aligned discontinuous fibres where creep of the matrix and fibres is assumed to follow a power law. A model is suggested for predicting the composite creep law from a matrix creep law given in a general form, in the case where the fibres do not creep. The composite creep law predicted by this model is compared with those predicted by previous models, when these are extended to comprise a general matrix creep law. Experimentally, pure copper and composites consisting of aligned discontinuous tungsten fibres in a copper matrix were creep tested at a temperature of 500 deg C. The results indicate a relatively low stress sensitivity of the steady-state creep-rate for pure copper and relatively high stress sensitivity for the composites. This may be explained by the creep models based upon a general matrix creep law. A quantitative prediction shows promising agreement with the present experimental results. (author)
Analysis of steady state creep of southeastern New Mexico bedded salt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrmann, W.; Wawersik, W.R.; Lauson, H.S.
1980-03-01
Steady state creep rates have been obtained from a large suite of existing experimental creep data relating to bedded rock salt from the Salado formation of S.E. New Mexico. Experimental conditions covered an intermediate temperature range from 22 0 C to 200 0 C, and shear stresses from 1000 psi (7 MPa) to 6000 psi (31 MPa). An expression, based on a single diffusion controlled dislocation climb mechanism, has been found to fit the observed dependence of steady state creep rate on shear stress and temperature, yielding an activation energy of 12 kcal/mole (50 kJ/mole) and a stress exponent of 4.9. Multiple regression analysis revealed a dependence on stratigraphy, but no statistically significant dependence on pressure of specimen size. No consistent dilatancy or compaction associated with steady state creep was found, although some individual specimens dilated or compacted during creep. The steady state creep data were found to agree very well with creep data for both bedded and dome salt from a variety of other locations
Effect of stacking fault energy on steady-state creep rate of face ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Continuum elastic theory was used to establish the relationships between the force of interaction required to constrict dislocation partials, energy of constriction and climb velocity of the constricted thermal jogs, in order to examine the effect of stacking fault energy (SFE) on steady state creep rate of face centered cubic ...
A comprising steady-state creep model for the austenitic AISI 316 L(N) steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rieth, Michael
2007-01-01
Low-stress creep data of a recently finished special long-term program now allows for much better long-term predictions of the ITER related material 316 L(N) and also enables deformation modeling for a broader stress range. The present work focuses mainly on the set-up of a steady-state creep model with help of well-known rate-equations for different deformation mechanisms. In addition, the impact of microstructure changes and precipitation formation on steady-state creep is studied. The resulting creep model consists of a summation of contributions for diffusion creep, power-law creep, and power-law breakdown. The final creep model agrees well with experimental data for temperatures between 550 and 750 deg C and for shear stresses above 30 MPa. The most important finding of this work is that for very low stresses the model predicts far higher creep rates than can be extrapolated from tests performed at the usual stress range of experimental programs
Analysis of steady-state creep of Fe-Mo alloys from the viewpoint of recovery
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maruyama, K.; Karashima, S.; Oikawa, H.
1979-01-01
A theoretical equation to d evaluate the steady-state creep-rates, d epsilon/dtsub(s), based on a recovery creep model is derived: epsilonsub(s)/dt proportional to r/sigma 2 sub(a) x lambda 2 , where r is the recovery rate, which can be determined from results of stress-reduction tests, deltasub(a) the applied stress, and lambda the dislocation link-length. Two cases of recovery are considered, i.e., recovery of dislocation networks at sub-boundaries and that of three-dimensional networks within subgrains. The high-temperature steady-state creep of Fe-Mo solid solutions, creep characteristics of which have been reported to be well rationalized as viscous glide creep, is analyzed using this equation. It is shown that stress dependence of d epsilon/dtsub(s) is well explained from the viewpoint of recovery, in which the activation and the annihilation of dislocations at sub-boundaries are considered to take place. (orig.) [de
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kwok, Kawai; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Frandsen, Henrik Lund
2015-01-01
This paper investigates the effective steady-state creep response of porous Ni–YSZ composites used in solid oxide fuel cell applications by numerical homogenization based on three-dimensional microstructural reconstructions and steadystate creep properties of the constituent phases. The Ni phase...... is found to carry insignificant stress in the composite and has a negligible role in the effective creep behavior. Thus, when determining effective creep, porous Ni–YSZ composites can be regarded as porous YSZ in which the Ni phase is counted as additional porosity. The stress exponents of porous YSZ...... are the same as that of dense YSZ, but the effective creep rate increases by a factor of 8–10 due to porosity. The relationship of creep rate and volume fraction of YSZ computed by numerical homogenization is underestimated by most existing analytical models. The Ramakrishnan–Arunchalam creep model provides...
The steady-state creep of zircaloy-4 fuel cladding from 940 to 1873 K
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosinger, H.E.; Bera, P.C.; Clendening, W.R.
1978-11-01
The steady-state creep rates of as-received Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding have been determined in the α-Zr phase (940 -6 and 10 -3 s -1 were determined under constant uniaxial load conditions. Assuming that creep rates can be described by a power law - Arrhenius equation, the creep rate for α-phase Zircaloy-4 is given by: epsilon sub(ss) = 2000σ sup(5.32) exp (-284 600/kT) s -1 and for the β-phase Zircaloy-4 is given by: epsilon sub(ss) = 8.1σ sup(3.79) exp (-142 300/kT) s -1 . For both the α-Zr and β-Zr phases, the activation energies for creep are in agreement with those for self-diffusion of zirconium and the rate-controlling mechanism is attributed to dislocation climb. Because of the scarcity of data, it is not possible to determine the rate equation unambiguously, nor to identify the mechanism for creep in the mixed α + β phase region. (author)
Finite element modelling of creep process - steady state stresses and strains
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Sedmak Aleksandar S.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Finite element modelling of steady state creep process has been described. Using an analogy of visco-plastic problem with a described procedure, the finite element method has been used to calculate steady state stresses and strains in 2D problems. An example of application of such a procedure have been presented, using real life problem - cylindrical pipe with longitudinal crack at high temperature, under internal pressure, and estimating its residual life, based on the C*integral evaluation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kwok, Kawai; Boccaccini, Dino; Persson, Åsa Helen
2016-01-01
The effective steady-state creep response of porous metals is studied by numerical homogenization and analytical modeling in this paper. The numerical homogenization is based on finite element models of three-dimensional microstructures directly reconstructed from tomographic images. The effects ...... model, and closely matched by the Gibson-Ashby compression and the Ramakrishnan-Arunchalam creep models. [All rights reserved Elsevier]....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tejeet Singh
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The steady state creep in Al- SiCP composite cylinder subjected to internal pressure was investigated. The creep behavior of the material were described by threshold stress based creep law by assuming a stress exponent of 5. The effect of size and content of the reinforcement (SiCP , and operating temperature on the stresses and strain rates in the composite cylinder were investigated. The stresses in the cylinder did not have significant variation with varying size and content of the reinforcement, and operating temperature. However, the tangential as well as radial strain rates in the cylinder could be reduced to a significant extent by decreasing size of SiCP, increasing the content of SiCP and decreasing operating temperature.
Parametric peak stress functions of 90o pipe bends with ovality under steady-state creep conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yaghi, A.H.; Hyde, T.H.; Becker, A.A.; Sun, W.
2009-01-01
Stress-based life prediction techniques are commonly used to estimate the failure life of pressurised pipe-related components, such as welds and bends, under creep conditions. Previous research has shown that reasonable life predictions can be obtained, based on the steady-state peak stresses, compared with the life predictions obtained from creep damage modelling. In this work, a series of parametric steady-state peak rupture stress functions of right-angled pipe bends with ovality are presented, which are based on the results obtained from finite element (FE) analyses, covering a number of material property and geometry parameters in practical ranges. Methods used to determine the stress functions are described. The FE analyses have been performed using axisymmetric models, subjected to internal pressure only, with a Norton creep law. Typical examples of parametric peak stress curve fitting are shown. In particular, the accuracy of the interpolation and extrapolation abilities of the stress functions is assessed. The results show that in most cases the interpolated and extrapolated peak stresses are accurate to within ±3% and ±5%, respectively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guerreiro, J.N.C.; Loula, A.F.D.
1988-12-01
The mixed Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation is applied to transiente and steady state creep problems. Numerical analysis has shown additional stability of this method compared to classical Galerkin formulations. The accuracy of the new formulation is confirmed in some representative examples of two dimensional and axisymmetric problems. (author) [pt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pankaj Thakur
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Thermal stress and strain rates in a thick walled rotating cylinder under steady state temperature has been derived by using Seth’s transition theory. For elastic-plastic stage, it is seen that with the increase of temperature, the cylinder having smaller radii ratios requires lesser angular velocity to become fully plastic as compared to cylinder having higher radii ratios The circumferential stress becomes larger and larger with the increase in temperature. With increase in thickness ratio stresses must be decrease. For the creep stage, it is seen that circumferential stresses for incompressible materials maximum at the internal surface as compared to compressible material, which increase with the increase in temperature and measure n.
Transient and steady state creep response of ice I and magnesium sulfate hydrate eutectic aggregates
McCarthy, C.; Cooper, R.F.; Goldsby, D.L.; Durham, W.B.; Kirby, S.H.
2011-01-01
Using uniaxial compression creep experiments, we characterized the transient and steady state deformation behaviors of eutectic aggregates of system ice I and MgSO4 11H2O (MS11; meridianiite), which has significance because of its likely presence on moons of the outer solar system. Synthetic samples of eutectic liquid bulk composition, which produce eutectic colonies containing 0.35-0.50 volume fraction MS11, were tested as functions of colony size and lamellar spacing, temperature (230-250 K), and confining pressure (0.1 and 50 MPa) to strains ???0.2. Up to a differential stress of 6 MPa, the ice I-MS11 aggregates display an order of magnitude higher effective viscosity and higher stress sensitivity than do aggregates of pure polycrystalline ice at the same conditions. The creep data and associated microstructural observations demonstrate, however, that the aggregates are additionally more brittle than pure ice, approaching rate-independent plasticity that includes rupture of the hydrate phase at 6-8 MPa, depending on the scale of the microstructure. Microstructures of deformed samples reveal forms of semibrittle flow in which the hydrate phase fractures while the ice phase deforms plastically. Semibrittle flow in the icy shell of a planetary body would truncate the lithospheric strength envelope and thereby decrease the depth to the brittle-ductile transition by 55% and reduce the failure limit for compressional surface features from 10 to ???6 MPa. A constitutive equation that includes eutectic colony boundary sliding and intracolony flow is used to describe the steady state rheology of the eutectic aggregates. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
Creep properties of 20% cold-worked Hastelloy XR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurata, Y.
1996-01-01
The creep properties of Hastelloy XR, in solution-treated and in 20% cold-worked conditions, were studied at 800, 900 and 1000 C. At 800 C, the steady-state creep rate and rupture ductility decrease, while rupture life increases after cold work to 20%. Although the steady-state creep rate and ductility also decrease at 900 C, the beneficial effect on rupture life disappears. Cold work to 20% enhan ces creep resistance of this alloy at 800 and 900 C due to a high density of dislocations introduced by the cold work. Rupture life of the 20% cold-worked alloy becomes shorter and the steady-state creep rate larger at 1000 C during creep of the 20% cold-worked alloy. It is emphasized that these cold work effects should be taken into consideration in design and operation of high-temperature structural components of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. (orig.)
Creep properties of a thermally grown alumina
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, K.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Kwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kjkang@chonnam.ac.kr; Mercer, C. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5050 (United States)
2008-04-15
A unique test system has been developed to measure creep properties of actual thermally grown oxides (TGO) formed on a metal foil. The thickness of TGO, load and displacement can be monitored in situ at high temperature. Two batches of FeCrAlY alloys which differ from each other in contents of yttrium and titanium were selected as the {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} TGO forming materials. The creep tests were performed on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of thickness 1-4 {mu}m, thermally grown at 1200 deg. C in air. The strength of the substrate was found to be negligible, provided that the TGO and substrate thickness satisfy: h{sub TGO} > 1 {mu}m and H{sub sub} {<=} 400 {mu}m. The steady-state creep results for all four TGO thicknesses obtained on batch I reside within a narrow range, characterized by a parabolic creep relation. It is nevertheless clear that the steady-state creep rates vary with TGO thickness: decreasing as the thickness increases. For batch II, the steady-state creep rates are higher and now influenced more significantly by TGO thickness. In comparison with previous results of the creep properties for bulk polycrystalline {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at a grain size of {approx}2 {mu}m, the creep rates for the TGO were apparently higher, but both were significantly affected by yttrium content. The higher creep rate and dependency on the TGO thickness led to a hypothesis that the deformation of the TGO under tensile stress at high temperature was not a result of typical creep mechanisms such as diffusion of vacancies or intra-granular motion of dislocations, but a result of inter-grain growth of TGO. Results also indicate that the amount of yttrium may influence the growth strain as well as the creep rate.
Evaluation of results from an in-pile creep test in the Studsvik R2 reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pettersson, Kjell [Entropy Materials, Stockholm (Sweden)
2002-01-01
An in-pile creep test with bowing of cladding tubes has been performed in a hot water loop in the Studsvik R2 reactor . One test was performed in the core and one outside the core. The out-of-pile sample showed some minor primary creep strain while the in-pile specimen deformed at a steady rate of 5x10{sup -7}/h . However, when the results were compared to a broader data base of Zircaloy in-pile creep it became clear that the creep deformation observed is a primary creep which occurs before the irradiation creep in Zircaloy reaches a constant steady state creep rate. This primary stage is interpreted as a consequence of the development of an irradiation induced microstructure in Zircaloy which does not reach a steady state until a dose of about 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} . At this stage the steady state irradiation creep starts. From this interpretation it is concluded that it is quite feasible to use the test method on pre-irradiated material in which it can be expected that the steady state will be reached already after short irradiation times.
Primary and secondary creep in aluminum alloys as a solid state transformation
Fernández, R.; Bruno, G.; González-Doncel, G.
2016-08-01
Despite the massive literature and the efforts devoted to understand the creep behavior of aluminum alloys, a full description of this phenomenon on the basis of microstructural parameters and experimental conditions is, at present, still missing. The analysis of creep is typically carried out in terms of the so-called steady or secondary creep regime. The present work offers an alternative view of the creep behavior based on the Orowan dislocation dynamics. Our approach considers primary and secondary creep together as solid state isothermal transformations, similar to recrystallization or precipitation phenomena. In this frame, it is shown that the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov equation, typically used to analyze these transformations, can also be employed to explain creep deformation. The description is fully compatible with present (empirical) models of steady state creep. We used creep curves of commercially pure Al and ingot AA6061 alloy at different temperatures and stresses to validate the proposed model.
Thermal creep of Zircaloy-4 cladding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murty, K.L.; Clevinger, G.S.; Papazoglou, T.P.
1977-01-01
Data on the hoop creep characteristics of Zircaloy tubing were collected at temperatures between 600 F and 800 F, and at stress levels ranging from 10 ksi to 25 ksi using internal pressurization tests. At low driving forces, exposures as long as 2000 hours were found insufficient to establish steady state creep. The experimental data at temperatures of 650 F to 800 F correlate well with an exponential stress dependence, and the activation energy for creep was found to be in excellent agreement with that for self-diffusion. The range of stresses and temperatures is too small to study the overall effect of these variables on the activation energy for creep. The experimental steady state creep-rates and those predicted from the creep equation used agree within a factor of 1.3. These correlations imply that the mechanism for hoop creep of Zircaloy-4 cladding is characterized by an activation energy of approximately 60 kcal/mole and an activation area of about 20b 3 . In addition, the exponential stress dependence implies that the activation area for creep is stress-independent. These results suggest that the climb of edge dislocations is the rate controlling mechanism for creep of Zircaloy-4. The transient creep regime was also analysed on the premise that primary creep is directly related to the rate of dispersal of dislocation entanglements by climb. (Auth.)
Creep of sandwich beams with metallic foam cores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kesler, O.; Crews, L.K.; Gibson, L.J.
2003-01-01
The steady state creep deflection rates of sandwich beams with metallic foam cores were measured and compared with analytical and numerical predictions of the creep behavior. The deflection rate depends on the geometry of the sandwich beam, the creep behavior of the foam core and the loading conditions (stress state, temperature). Although there was a considerable scatter in the creep data (both of the foams and of the sandwich beams made using them), the data for the sandwich beams were fairly well described by the analysis
Creep of sandwich beams with metallic foam cores
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kesler, O.; Crews, L.K.; Gibson, L.J
2003-01-20
The steady state creep deflection rates of sandwich beams with metallic foam cores were measured and compared with analytical and numerical predictions of the creep behavior. The deflection rate depends on the geometry of the sandwich beam, the creep behavior of the foam core and the loading conditions (stress state, temperature). Although there was a considerable scatter in the creep data (both of the foams and of the sandwich beams made using them), the data for the sandwich beams were fairly well described by the analysis.
In situ monitored in-pile creep testing of zirconium alloys
Kozar, R. W.; Jaworski, A. W.; Webb, T. W.; Smith, R. W.
2014-01-01
The experiments described herein were designed to investigate the detailed irradiation creep behavior of zirconium based alloys in the HALDEN Reactor spectrum. The HALDEN Test Reactor has the unique capability to control both applied stress and temperature independently and externally for each specimen while the specimen is in-reactor and under fast neutron flux. The ability to monitor in situ the creep rates following a stress and temperature change made possible the characterization of creep behavior over a wide stress-strain-rate-temperature design space for two model experimental heats, Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-2 + 1 wt%Nb, with only 12 test specimens in a 100-day in-pile creep test program. Zircaloy-2 specimens with and without 1 wt% Nb additions were tested at irradiation temperatures of 561 K and 616 K and stresses ranging from 69 MPa to 455 MPa. Various steady state creep models were evaluated against the experimental results. The irradiation creep model proposed by Nichols that separates creep behavior into low, intermediate, and high stress regimes was the best model for predicting steady-state creep rates. Dislocation-based primary creep, rather than diffusion-based transient irradiation creep, was identified as the mechanism controlling deformation during the transitional period of evolving creep rate following a step change to different test conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garner, F.A.; Toloczko, M.B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Grossbeck, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
1997-04-01
The majority of high fluence data on the void swelling and irradiation creep of austenitic steels were generated at relatively high displacement rates and relatively low helium/dpa levels that are not characteristic of the conditions anticipated in ITER and other anticipated fusion environments. After reanalyzing the available data, this paper shows that irradiation creep is not directly sensitive to either the helium/dpa ratio or the displacement rate, other than through their possible influence on void swelling, since one component of the irradiation creep rate varies with no correlation to the instantaneous swelling rate. Until recently, however, the non-swelling-related creep component was also thought to exhibit its own strong dependence on displacement rate, increasing at lower fluxes. This perception originally arose from the work of Lewthwaite and Mosedale at temperatures in the 270-350{degrees}C range. More recently this perception was thought to extend to higher irradiation temperatures. It now appears, however, that this interpretation is incorrect, and in fact the steady-state value of the non-swelling component of irradiation creep is actually insensitive to displacement rate. The perceived flux dependence appears to arise from a failure to properly interpret the impact of the transient regime of irradiation creep.
A Numerical Procedure to Obtain the Creep Parameters of the Thermal Barrier Coating
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shifeng Wen
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Three-point bending creep test was used to understand the creep behavior of typical thin film/substrate systems—thermal barrier coating (TBC systems. Firstly, a simplified model, which does not consider the local effect, has been set up to get an analytical relationship. The important result is that creep stress exponent of materials is equal to the creep load exponent of the steady-state deflection rate of BC specimens. Secondly, in order to consider the local effect of bending, the finite element method (FEM has been carried out. FEM calculation shows that there is a steady stage of the creep deflection under a constant applied load. And the exponent of the steady-state creep deflection rate to the applied load is found to be equal to the creep stress exponent of materials. The creep constant of the materials can be obtained by a set of trials with assumed creep constants of materials and can be finally determined by the best fit method. Finally, the finite element results show that the influences of the friction, the thickness of TBCs, and the modulus ratio of TBC to the substrate on stress distribution are important.
Creep of trabecular bone from the human proximal tibia.
Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Zin, Carolyn; Chang, Neil; Cory, Esther; Chen, Peter; D'Lima, Darryl; Sah, Robert L; McKittrick, Joanna
2014-07-01
Creep is the deformation that occurs under a prolonged, sustained load and can lead to permanent damage in bone. Creep in bone is a complex phenomenon and varies with type of loading and local mechanical properties. Human trabecular bone samples from proximal tibia were harvested from a 71-year old female cadaver with osteoporosis. The samples were initially subjected to one cycle load up to 1% strain to determine the creep load. Samples were then loaded in compression under a constant stress for 2h and immediately unloaded. All tests were conducted with the specimens soaked in phosphate buffered saline with proteinase inhibitors at 37 °C. Steady state creep rate and final creep strain were estimated from mechanical testing and compared with published data. The steady state creep rate correlated well with values obtained from bovine tibial and human vertebral trabecular bone, and was higher for lower density samples. Tissue architecture was analyzed by micro-computed tomography (μCT) both before and after creep testing to assess creep deformation and damage accumulated. Quantitative morphometric analysis indicated that creep induced changes in trabecular separation and the structural model index. A main mode of deformation was bending of trabeculae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Creep of Two-Phase Microstructures for Microelectronic Applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reynolds, Heidi Linch [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1998-12-01
The mechanical properties of low-melting temperature alloys are highly influenced by their creep behavior. This study investigates the dominant mechanisms that control creep behavior of two-phase, low-melting temperature alloys as a function of microstructure. The alloy systems selected for study were In-Ag and Sn-Bi because their eutectic compositions represent distinctly different microstructure.” The In-Ag eutectic contains a discontinuous phase while the Sn-Bi eutectic consists of two continuous phases. In addition, this work generates useful engineering data on Pb-free alloys with a joint specimen geometry that simulates microstructure found in microelectronic applications. The use of joint test specimens allows for observations regarding the practical attainability of superplastic microstructure in real solder joints by varying the cooling rate. Steady-state creep properties of In-Ag eutectic, Sn-Bi eutectic, Sn-xBi solid-solution and pure Bi joints have been measured using constant load tests at temperatures ranging from O°C to 90°C. Constitutive equations are derived to describe the steady-state creep behavior for In-Ageutectic solder joints and Sn-xBi solid-solution joints. The data are well represented by an equation of the form proposed by Dom: a power-law equation applies to each independent creep mechanism. Rate-controlling creep mechanisms, as a function of applied shear stress, test temperature, and joint microstructure, are discussed. Literature data on the steady-state creep properties of Sn-Bi eutectic are reviewed and compared with the Sn-xBi solid-solution and pure Bi joint data measured in the current study. The role of constituent phases in controlling eutectic creep behavior is discussed for both alloy systems. In general, for continuous, two-phase microstructure, where each phase exhibits significantly different creep behavior, the harder or more creep resistant phase will dominate the creep behavior in a lamellar microstructure. If a
Irradiation-induced creep in graphite: a review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Price, R.J.
1981-08-01
Data on irradiation-induced creep in graphite published since 1972 are reviewed. Sources include restrained shrinkage tests conducted at Petten, the Netherlands, tensile creep experiments with continuous strain registration at Petten and Grenoble, France, and controlled load tests with out-of-reactor strain measurement performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Petten, and in the United Kingdom. The data provide reasonable confirmation of the linear viscoelastic creep model with a recoverable transient strain component followed by a steady-state strain component, except that the steady-state creep coefficient must be treated as a function of neutron fluence and is higher for tensile loading than for compressive loading. The total transient creep strain is approximately equal to the preceding elastic strain. No temperature dependence of the transient creep parameters has been demonstrated. The initial steady-state creep coefficient is inversely proportional to the unirradiated Young modulus
The creep of UO2 fuel doped with Nb2O5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sawbridge, P.T.; Reynolds, G.L.; Burton, B.
1981-01-01
The creep of UO 2 containing small additions of Nb 2 O 5 has been investigated in the stress range 0.5-90 MN/m 2 at temperatures between 1422 and 1573 K. The functional dependence of the creep rate of five dopant concentrations up to 0.8 mol% Nb 2 O 5 has been examined and it was established that in all the materials the secondary creep rate could be represented by the equation epsilonkT = Asigmasup(n) exp(-Q/RT), where epsilon is the steady state creep rate per hour, Q the activation energy and A and n are constants for each material. It was observed that Nb 2 O 5 additions can cause a dramatic increase in the steady state creep rate as long as the niobium ion is maintainde in the Nb 5+ valence state. Material containing 0.4 mol% Nb 2 O 5 creeps three orders of magnitude faster than the pure material. Analysis of the results in terms of grain size compensated viscosity suggest that, like pure UO 2 , the creep rate of Nb 2 O 5 doped fuel is diffusion-controlled and proportional to the reciprocal square of the grain size. A model is developed which suggests that the increase in creep rate results from suppression of the U 5+ ion concentration by the addition of Nb 5+ ions, which modifies the crystal defect structure and hence the uranium ion diffusion coefficient. (orig.)
Self-consistent calculation of steady-state creep and growth in textured zirconium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tome, C.N.; So, C.B.; Woo, C.H.
1993-01-01
Irradiation creep and growth in zirconium alloys result in anisotropic dimensional changes relative to the crystallographic axis in each individual grain. Several methods have been attempted to model such dimensional changes, taking into account the development of intergranular stresses. In this paper, we compare the predictions of several such models, namely the upper-bound, the lower-bound, the isotropic K* self-consistent (analytical) and the fully self-consistent (numerical) models. For given single-crystal creep compliances and growth factors, the polycrystal compliances predicted by the upper- and lower-bound models are unreliable. The predictions of the two self-consistent approaches are usually similar. The analytical isotropic K* approach is simple to implement and can be used to estimate the creep and growth rates of the polycrystal in many cases. The numerical fully self-consistent approach should be used when an accurate prediction of polycrystal creep is required, particularly for the important case of a closed-end internally pressurized tube. In most cases, the variations in grain shape introduce only minor corrections to the behaviour of polycrystalline materials. (author)
Creep of trabecular bone from the human proximal tibia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Novitskaya, Ekaterina, E-mail: eevdokim@ucsd.edu [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Zin, Carolyn [Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chang, Neil; Cory, Esther; Chen, Peter [Departments of Bioengineering and Orthopaedic Surgery, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); D’Lima, Darryl [Shiley Center for Orthopaedic Research and Education, Scripps Health, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Sah, Robert L. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Departments of Bioengineering and Orthopaedic Surgery, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); McKittrick, Joanna [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)
2014-07-01
Creep is the deformation that occurs under a prolonged, sustained load and can lead to permanent damage in bone. Creep in bone is a complex phenomenon and varies with type of loading and local mechanical properties. Human trabecular bone samples from proximal tibia were harvested from a 71-year old female cadaver with osteoporosis. The samples were initially subjected to one cycle load up to 1% strain to determine the creep load. Samples were then loaded in compression under a constant stress for 2 h and immediately unloaded. All tests were conducted with the specimens soaked in phosphate buffered saline with proteinase inhibitors at 37 °C. Steady state creep rate and final creep strain were estimated from mechanical testing and compared with published data. The steady state creep rate correlated well with values obtained from bovine tibial and human vertebral trabecular bone, and was higher for lower density samples. Tissue architecture was analyzed by micro-computed tomography (μCT) both before and after creep testing to assess creep deformation and damage accumulated. Quantitative morphometric analysis indicated that creep induced changes in trabecular separation and the structural model index. A main mode of deformation was bending of trabeculae. - Highlights: • Compressive creep tests of human trabecular bone across the tibia were performed. • The creep rate was found to be inversely proportional to the density of the samples. • μ-computed tomography before and after testing identified regions of deformation. • Bending of the trabeculae was found to be the main deformation mode.
Creep Behaviour of Modified Mar-247 Superalloy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cieśla M.
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of analysis of creep behaviour in short term creep tests of cast MAR-247 nickel-based superalloy samples made using various modification techniques and heat treatment. The accelerated creep tests were performed under temperature of 982 °C and the axial stresses of σ = 150 MPa (variant I and 200 MPa (variant II. The creep behaviour was analysed based on: creep durability (creep rupture life, steady-state creep rate and morphological parameters of macro- and microstructure. It was observed that the grain size determines the creep durability in case of test conditions used in variant I, durability of coarse-grained samples was significantly higher.
Effect of carbide precipitates on high temperature creep of a 20Cr-25Ni austenitic stainless steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamane, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakagawa, K.
1984-01-01
The high temperature creep of an austenitic stainless steel having carbide precipitates, is different from that of the carbide precipitate-free one. Strain rates of the steady state creep d(epsilonsub(s))/dt, or minimum strain rates of the creep in precipitate hardened and dispersion strengthened alloys at the creep temperature T, can be expressed by Sherby-Dorn's equation d(epsilonsub(s))/dt = Aσsup(n) exp (-Qsub(c)/RT). The stress exponent n, and the activation energy for creep Qsub(c), in a power law creep region, are more than those of unstrengthened alloys, where σ is the creep stress, R the gas constant and A the constant. In this research, the influence of carbide precipitates on steady creep rates, is investigated. Experimental details are given. Results are given and discussed. (author)
Indentation Creep Behavior of Nugget Zone of Friction Stir Welded 2014 Aluminum Alloy
Das, Jayashree; Robi, P. S.; Sankar, M. Ravi
2018-04-01
The present study is aimed at evaluating the creep behavior of the nugget zone of friction welded 2014 Aluminum alloy by indentation creep tests. Impression creep testing was carried out at different temperatures of 300°C, 350°C and 400 °C with stress 124.77MPa, 187.16MPa, 249.55 MPa using a 1.0 mm diameter WC indenter. Experiments were conducted till the curve enters the steady state creep region. Constitutive modeling of creep behavior was carried out considering the temperature, stress and steady state creep rate. Microstructural investigation of the crept specimen at 400°C temperature and 187.16 MPa load was carried out and found that the small precipitates accumulate along the grain boundaries at the favorable conditions of the creep temperature and stress, new precipitates evolve due to the ageing. The grains are broken and deformed due to the creep phenomena.
Diffusion creep and its inhibition in a stainless steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crossland, I.G.; Clay, B.D.
1977-01-01
The creep of 20% Cr, 25% Ni, Nb stainless steel was examined at low stresses and temperatures around 0.55 T/sub m/. The initial creep behaviour was consistent with the Coble theory of grain boundary diffusion creep; however, steady state creep was not observed and the creep rates quickly fell below the Coble theoretical values although they still remained greater than the Herring--Nabarro predictions. This reduction in creep rate was attributable to an increase in the effective viscosity of the steel rather than to any change in threshold stress. A model is proposed which explains the initial creep rates as being due to Coble creep with elastic accommodation at grain boundary particles. At higher strains grain boundary collapse caused by vacancy sinking is accommodated at precipitate particles by plastic deformation of the adjacent matrix material. 11 figures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mbagwu, J.S.C.
1993-10-01
A knowledge of physical properties influencing the steady-state infiltration rates (ic) of soils is needed for the hydrologic modelling of the infiltration process. In this study evidence is provided to show that effective porosity (Pe) (i.e. the proportion of macro pore spaces with equivalent radius of > 15 μm) and dry bulk density are the most important soil physical properties controlling the steady-state infiltration rates on a tropical savannah with varying land use histories. At a macro porosity value of ≤ 5.0% the steady-state infiltration rate is zero. Total porosity and the proportion of water-retaining pores explained only a small fraction of the variation in this property. Steady-state infiltration rates can also be estimated from either the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) by the equation, i c = 31.1 + 1.06 (Ks), (R 2 = 0.8104, p ≤ 0.001) or the soil water transmissivity (A) by the equation, i c = 30.0 + 29.9(A), (R 2 = 0.8228, ρ ≤ 0.001). The Philip two-parameter model under predicted steady-state infiltration rates generally. Considering the ease of determination and reliability it is suggested that effective porosity be used to estimate the steady-state infiltration rates of these other soils with similar characteristics. The model is, i c 388.7(Pe) - 10.8(R 2 = 0.7265, p ≤ 0.001) where i c is in (cm/hr) and Pe in (cm 3 /cm 3 ). (author). 20 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs
High-purity aluminium creep under high hydrostatic pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zajtsev, V.I.; Lyafer, E.I.; Tokij, V.V.
1977-01-01
The effect of the hydrostatic pressure on the rate of steady-state creep of high-purity aluminium was investigated. It is shown that the hydrostatic pressure inhibits the creep. The activation volume of the creep is independent of the direction in the range of (4.7-6.2) kg/mm 2 and of the pressure in the range of (1-7.8000) atm. It is concluded that self-diffusion does not control the creep of high-purity aluminium at room temperature in the investigated stress and pressure range
Creep mechanisms and constitutive relations in pure metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nix, W.D.
1979-01-01
The mechanisms of creep of pure metals is briefly reviewed and divided into two parts: steady state flow mechanisms, and non-steady state flow mechanisms and constitutive relations. Creep by diffusional flow is now reasonably well understood, with theory and experiment in good agreement. The closely related phenomenon of Harper--Dorn creep can also be understood in terms of diffusion between dislocations. Power law creep involves the climb of edge disloctions controlled by lattice self diffusion. Theoretical treatments of this process invariably give a power law exponent of 3. This natural creep law is compared with the data for FCC and BCC metals. It is suggested that diffusion controlled climb is the controlling process in BCC metals at very high temperatures. Stacking fault energy effects may preclude the possibility that creep is controlled entirely by lattice self diffusion in some FCC metals. The subject of power law breakdown is presented as a natural consequence of the transition to low temperature flow phenomena. The role of core diffusion in this transition is briefly discussed. The mechanisms are presented by which pure metals creep at elevated temperatures. While most of this review deals with the mechanisms of steady state flow, some discussion is devoted to creep flow under non-steady state conditions. This topic is discussed in connection with the development of constitutive equations for describing plastic flow in metals
Low stress creep of stainless steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crossland, I.G.; Clay, B.D.; Baker, C.
1976-06-01
The creep of 20%Cr, 25%Ni, Nb stainless steel has been examined at temperatures from 675 to 775 0 C at sheer stressed below 13 MPa and grain sizes from 6 to 20μm. The results have indicated that the initial creep rates were linearly dependent upon stress but with a threshold stress below which no creep occurred, i.e. Bingham behaviour; in addition, the creep activation energy at small strains was substantially lower than the lattice self-diffusion value and the initial creep rates were approximately related to the grain size through an inverse cube relation. It has been concluded that at low strains (approaching the initial elastic deflection) the creep mechanism was probably that of grain boundary diffusion creep (Coble, 1963) and this is further supported by the close agreement between the observed and theoretically predicted creep rate values. Steady-state creep rates were not observed; initially the creep rates fell rapidly with strain after which a more gradual decrease occurred. Whilst the creep rate - stress relationship continued to be of a Bingham form, the progressive reduction in creep rate with strain was found to be mainly attributable to an increase in the effective viscosity, threshold stress effects being generally of secondary importance. A model has been proposed which explains the initial creep rates as being due to Cable creep with elastic accommodation at grain boundary particles. At higher strains grain boundary collapse caused by vacancy sinking is accommodated at precipitate particles by plastic deformation of the adjacent matrix material. (author)
Tensile, creep and relaxation characteristics of zircaloy cladding at 3850C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murty, K.L.; McDonald, S.G.
1981-01-01
Axial creep tests were carried out at stresses ranging form 30 ksi to 50 ksi. Steady-state creep rates were evaluated from stress change tests to minimize the number of samples. The secondary creep rate was related to the applied stress through a Sinh function. The functional dependence of the strain rate on the stress was also evaluated from load relaxation tests. It is demonstrated that the strain rates derived from load relaxation tests are identical to the creep data when the relaxation testing was carried out at the point of maximum load in a tensile test. In addition, the creep and relaxation results are identical to the true ultimate tensile stress versus applied strain-rate data derived from tensile tests. (orig./HP)
Resonant creep enhancement in austenitic stainless steels due to pulsed irradiation at low doses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kishimoto, N.; Amekura, H.; Saito, T.
1994-01-01
Steady-state irradiation creep of austenitic stainless steels has been extensively studied as one of the most important design parameters in fusion reactors. The steady-state irradiation creep has been evaluated using in-pile and light-ion experiments. Those creep compliances of various austenitic steels range in the vicinity of ε/Gσ = 10 -6 ∼10 -5 (dpa sm-bullet MPa) -1 , depending on chemical composition etc. The mechanism of steady-state irradiation creep has been elucidated, essentially in terms of stress-induced preferential absorption of point defects into dislocations, and their climb motion. From this standpoint, low doses such as 10 -3 ∼10 -1 dpa would not give rise to any serious creep, and the irradiation creep may not be a critical issue for the low-dose fusion devices including ITER. It is, however, possible that pulsed irradiation causes different creep behaviors from the steady-state one due to dynamic unbalance of interstitials and vacancies. The authors have actually observed anomalous creep enhancement due to pulsed irradiation in austenitic stainless steels. The resonant behavior of creep indicates that pulsed irradiation may cause significant deformation in austenitic steels even at such low doses and slow pulsing rates, especially for the SA-materials. The first-wall materials in plasma operation of ∼10 2 s may suffer from unexpected transient creep, even in the near-term fusion deices, such as ITER. Though this effect might be a transient effect for a relatively short period, it should be taken into account that the pulsed irradiation makes influences on stress relaxation of the fusion components and on the irradiation fatigue. The mechanism and the relevant behaviors of pulse-induced creep will be discussed in terms of a point-defect model based on the resonant interstitial enrichment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yingchong Wang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Understanding the time-dependent brittle deformation behavior of concrete as a main building material is fundamental for the lifetime prediction and engineering design. Herein, we present the experimental measures of brittle creep failure, critical behavior, and the dependence of time-to-failure, on the secondary creep rate of concrete under sustained uniaxial compression. A complete evolution process of creep failure is achieved. Three typical creep stages are observed, including the primary (decelerating, secondary (steady state creep regime, and tertiary creep (accelerating creep stages. The time-to-failure shows sample-specificity although all samples exhibit a similar creep process. All specimens exhibit a critical power-law behavior with an exponent of −0.51 ± 0.06, approximately equal to the theoretical value of −1/2. All samples have a long-term secondary stage characterized by a constant strain rate that dominates the lifetime of a sample. The average creep rate expressed by the total creep strain over the lifetime (tf-t0 for each specimen shows a power-law dependence on the secondary creep rate with an exponent of −1. This could provide a clue to the prediction of the time-to-failure of concrete, based on the monitoring of the creep behavior at the steady stage.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoller, R.E.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Mansur, L.K.
1990-01-01
A theoretical model has been developed using the reaction rate theory of radiation effects to explain experimental results that showed higher than expected values of irradiation creep at low temperatures in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The customary assumption that the point defect concentrations are at steady state was not made; rather, the time dependence of the vacancy and interstitial concentrations and the creep rate were explicitly calculated. For temperatures below about 100 to 200 degree C, the time required for the vacancy concentration to reach steady state exceeds the duration of the experiment. For example, if materials parameters typical of austenitic stainless steel are used, the calculated vacancy transient dose at 100 degree C is about 100 dpa. At 550 degree C this transient is over by 10 -8 dpa. During the time that the vacancy population remains lower than its steady state value, dislocation climb is increased since defects of primarily one type are being absorbed. Using the time-dependent point defect concentrations, the dislocation climb velocity has been calculated as a function of time and a climb-enabled glide creep model had been invoked. The extended transient time for the vacancies leads to high creep rates at low temperatures. In agreement with the experimental observations, a minimum in the temperature dependence of creep is predicted at a temperature between 50 and 350 degree C. The temperature at which the minimum occurs decreases as the irradiation dose increases. Predicted values of creep at 8 dpa are in good agreement with the results of the ORR-MFE-6J/7J experiment
The influence of post-processing on creep and microstructure of rolled Cu-8Cr-4Nb
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walley, J.L.; Heelan, J.L.; Vettraino, L.G.; Groza, J.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gibeling, J.C., E-mail: jcgibeling@ucdavis.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 (United States)
2010-10-15
Research highlights: {yields} A simulated-life heat treatment anneal of 24 h at 773 K reduced the steady-state creep rate and increased the creep life of a rolled powder metallurgy Cu-8Cr-4Nb alloy. {yields} The primary microstructural difference between the rolled form and the annealed form of Cu-8Cr-4Nb is the development of annealing twins during heat treatment causing a decrease in the intensity of the texture. {yields} Friction stir welding of rolled Cu-8Cr-4Nb negatively affected creep ductility, thereby decreasing creep life at the temperature tested. Strain localization in the soft heat-affected zone of the weld is hypothesized to be the cause of the decreased creep ductility. - Abstract: Previous work has shown that rolling of an extruded Cu-8Cr-4Nb (GRCop-84) alloy results in higher steady-state creep rates over a range of stresses, leading to concern that other post-processing methods could have substantial deleterious effects on creep properties. To explore that possibility, constant-stress creep tests were conducted at 773 K on rolled GRCop-84 after it was subjected to either friction stir welding (FSW) or a 24 h 1073 K simulated-life heat treatment. The FSW had no measurable effect on the creep rate of the rolled material, but did have detrimental effects on the creep ductility caused by softening, and thus strain localization, in the heat-affected zone of the weld. The simulated-life heat treatment decreased the steady-state creep rate by approximately 45% as compared to the rolled material, leading to longer creep life at a particular applied stress. Electron backscatter diffraction methods were used to compare the microstructural features of extruded, rolled and annealed material forms. It was determined that the rolling procedure decreased the grain size, and decreased the intensity of the texture as compared to the extruded form. The simulated-life heat treatment allowed for the substantial development of twins along with minor grain growth, and
The influence of post-processing on creep and microstructure of rolled Cu-8Cr-4Nb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walley, J.L.; Heelan, J.L.; Vettraino, L.G.; Groza, J.R.; Gibeling, J.C.
2010-01-01
Research highlights: → A simulated-life heat treatment anneal of 24 h at 773 K reduced the steady-state creep rate and increased the creep life of a rolled powder metallurgy Cu-8Cr-4Nb alloy. → The primary microstructural difference between the rolled form and the annealed form of Cu-8Cr-4Nb is the development of annealing twins during heat treatment causing a decrease in the intensity of the texture. → Friction stir welding of rolled Cu-8Cr-4Nb negatively affected creep ductility, thereby decreasing creep life at the temperature tested. Strain localization in the soft heat-affected zone of the weld is hypothesized to be the cause of the decreased creep ductility. - Abstract: Previous work has shown that rolling of an extruded Cu-8Cr-4Nb (GRCop-84) alloy results in higher steady-state creep rates over a range of stresses, leading to concern that other post-processing methods could have substantial deleterious effects on creep properties. To explore that possibility, constant-stress creep tests were conducted at 773 K on rolled GRCop-84 after it was subjected to either friction stir welding (FSW) or a 24 h 1073 K simulated-life heat treatment. The FSW had no measurable effect on the creep rate of the rolled material, but did have detrimental effects on the creep ductility caused by softening, and thus strain localization, in the heat-affected zone of the weld. The simulated-life heat treatment decreased the steady-state creep rate by approximately 45% as compared to the rolled material, leading to longer creep life at a particular applied stress. Electron backscatter diffraction methods were used to compare the microstructural features of extruded, rolled and annealed material forms. It was determined that the rolling procedure decreased the grain size, and decreased the intensity of the texture as compared to the extruded form. The simulated-life heat treatment allowed for the substantial development of twins along with minor grain growth, and a substantial
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuma, Y.; Gordon, R.S.
1981-01-01
It is generally assumed in the diffusional creep of a polycrystalline solid that grain boundaries act as perfect sources and sinks for lattice defects. However, if this assumption is not valid, then diffusional creep can become rate limited by interfacial defect reactions at grain boundaries. Steady state diffusional creep data will be presented at 1450 to 1500 0 C for polycrystalline alumina doped with Ti and a Mg-Ti co-dopant, which are consistent with interfacial controlled kinetics over an intermediate grain size range. A new type of creep deformation map will be presented which reveals the range of grain sizes and impurity concentrations over which interfacial defect creation and/or annihilation processes are important in the steady state creep of polycrystalline alumina
Spherical Indentation Techniques for Creep Property Evaluation Considering Transient Creep
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lim, Dongkyu; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hyungyil [Sogang Univ., Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Haeng [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2013-11-15
Creep through nanoindentations has attracted increasing research attention in recent years. Many studies related to indentation creep tests, however, have simply focused on the characteristics of steady-state creep, and there exist wide discrepancies between the uniaxial test and the indentation test. In this study, we performed a computational simulation of spherical indentations, and we proposed a method for evaluating the creep properties onsidering transient creep. We investigated the material behavior with variation of creep properties and expressed it using regression equations for normalized variables. We finally developed a program to evaluate the creep properties considering transient creep. By using the proposed method, we successfully obtained creep exponents with an average error less than 1.1 and creep coefficients with an average error less than 2.3 from the load-depth curve.
Spherical Indentation Techniques for Creep Property Evaluation Considering Transient Creep
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, Dongkyu; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hyungyil; Lee, Jin Haeng
2013-01-01
Creep through nanoindentations has attracted increasing research attention in recent years. Many studies related to indentation creep tests, however, have simply focused on the characteristics of steady-state creep, and there exist wide discrepancies between the uniaxial test and the indentation test. In this study, we performed a computational simulation of spherical indentations, and we proposed a method for evaluating the creep properties onsidering transient creep. We investigated the material behavior with variation of creep properties and expressed it using regression equations for normalized variables. We finally developed a program to evaluate the creep properties considering transient creep. By using the proposed method, we successfully obtained creep exponents with an average error less than 1.1 and creep coefficients with an average error less than 2.3 from the load-depth curve
Model for transient creep of southeastern New Mexico rock salt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrmann, W.; Wawersik, W.R.; Lauson, H.S.
1980-11-01
In a previous analysis, existing experimental data pertaining to creep tests on rock salt from the Salado formation of S.E. New Mexico were fitted to an exponential transient creep law. While very early time portions of creep strain histories were not fitted very well for tests at low temperatures and stresses, initial creep rates in particular generally being underestimated, the exponential creep law has the property that the transient creep strain approaches a finite limit with time, and is therefore desirable from a creep modelling point of view. In this report, an analysis of transient creep is made. It is found that exponential transient creep can be related to steady-state creep through a universal creep curve. The resultant description is convenient for creep analyses where very early time behavior is not important
Anisotropic thermal creep of internally pressurized Zr-2.5Nb tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, W.; Holt, R.A.
2010-01-01
The anisotropy of creep of internally pressurized cold-worked Zr-2.5Nb tubes with different crystallographic textures is reported. The stress exponent n was determined to be about three at transverse stresses from 100 to 250 MPa with an activation energy of ∼99.54 kJ/mol in the temperature range 300-400 o C. The stress exponent increased to ∼6 for transverse stresses from 250 to 325 MPa. From this data an experimental regime of 350 o C and 300 MPa was established in which dislocation glide is the likely strain-producing mechanism. Creep tests were carried out under these conditions on internally pressurized Zr-2.5Nb tubes with 18 different textures. Creep strain and creep anisotropy (ratio of axial to transverse steady-state creep rate, ε . A /ε . T ) exhibited strong dependence on crystallographic textures of the Zr-2.5Nb tubes. It was found that the values of (ε . A /ε . T ) increased as the difference between the resolved faction of basal plane normals in the transverse and radial directions (f T - f R ) increases. The tubes with the strongest radial texture showed a negative axial creep strain and a negative creep rate ratio (ε . A /ε . T ) and tubes with a strong transverse texture exhibited the positive values of steady-state creep rate ratio (ε . A /ε . T ) and good creep resistance in the transverse direction. These behaviors are qualitatively similar to those observed during irradiation creep, and also to the predictions of polycrystalline models for creep in which glide is the strain-producing mechanism and prismatic slip is the dominant system. A detailed analysis of the results using polycrystalline models may assist in understanding the anisotropy of irradiation creep.
The creep deformation behavior of a single-crystal Co–Al–W-base superalloy at 900 °C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi, L.; Yu, J.J.; Cui, C.Y.; Sun, X.F.
2015-01-01
The creep deformation behavior of a single-crystal Co–Al–W–Ni–Cr–Ta alloy with low tungsten content has been studied at stresses between 275 and 310 MPa at 900 °C. The alloy exhibits comparable creep strength with that of Co–Al–W-base alloys containing more tungsten. The creep deformation consists of three stages, the primary stage, the steady-state stage and the tertiary stage, when described by the creep strain rate versus time curve. At 900 °C, γ′ precipitates tend to raft along the direction of applied tensile stress in the steady-state creep stage and a topologically inverted and rafting γ/γ′ microstructure is formed in the tertiary stage. The main deformation mechanism in the primary creep stage is dislocation shearing of γ′ precipitates, and in the following creep stages, the dominant deformation mechanism is dislocations bypassing γ′ precipitates
Creep in commercially pure metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nabarro, F.R.N.
2006-01-01
The creep of commercially pure polycrystalline metals under constant stress has four stages: a virtually instantaneous extension, decelerating Andrade β creep, almost steady-state Andrade κ creep, and an acceleration towards failure. Little is known about the first stage, and the fourth stage has been extensively reviewed elsewhere. The limited experimental evidence on the physical mechanism of the second stage is reviewed and a critical discussion is given of various theories of this stage. The dependence of strain rate on stress in the third, steady-state, period seems to fall into two regimes, a power law with an exponent of about 4-5, and a rather closely exponential law. The limits of the parameters within which a simple theory of the exponential dependence can be expected to be valid are discussed, and found to be compatible with experiments. Theories of the power-law dependence are discussed, and, appear to be unconvincing. The theoretical models do not relate closely to the metallographic and other physical observations. In view of the weakness of theory, experiments which may indicate the physical processes dominant in steady-state creep are reviewed. It is usually not clear whether they pertain to the power-law or the exponential regime. While the theories all assume that most of the deformation occurs homogeneously within the grains, most experimental observations point strongly to a large deformation at or close to the grain boundaries. However, a detailed study of dislocation processes in a single grain of polycrystalline foil strained in the electron microscope shows that most of the observed strain can be accounted for by the motion of single dislocations through the subgrain structure. There is no clear reconciliation of these two sets of observations. Grain-boundary sliding cannot occur without intragranular deformation. One or other process may dominate the overall deformation; the geometrically dominant process may not be the rate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Song In; Baek, Seoung Se; Kwon, Il Hyun; Yu, Hyo Sun
2002-01-01
A basic research was performed to ensure the usefulness of Small Punch-creep(SP-creep) test for residual life evaluation of heat resistant components effectively. This paper presents analytical results of initial stress and strain distributions in SP specimen caused by constant loading for SP-creep test and its experimental correlations with uniaxial creep(Ten-creep) test on 9CrlMoVNb steel. It was shown that the initial maximum equivalent stress, σ eq · max from FE analysis was correlated with steady-state equivalent creep strain rate, ε qf-ss , rupture time, t r , activation energy, Q and Larson-Miller parameter, LMP during SP-creep deformation. The simple correlation laws, σ SP - σ TEN , P SP -σ TEN and Q SP -Q TEN adopted to established a quantitative correlation between SP-creep and Ten-creep test data. Especially, the activation energy obtained from SP-creep test is linearly related to that from Ten-creep test at 650 deg. C as follows : Q SP-P =1.37 Q TEN , Q SP-σ =1.53 Q TEN
Effects of 14 MeV neutron irradiation on creep of nickel and niobium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barmore, W.; Ruotola, A.; Raymond, E.; Mukherjee, A.
1983-01-01
Flux, stress and temperature effects on the creep strength of nickel and niobium were observed in situ at the RTNS-II 14 MeV neutron source at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Creep test were done on Ni and Nb near 0.3 Tsub(m) with stresses to 280 MPa in a high vacuum test unit using a digital computer for control and data acquisition. Cyclic flux tests produced dramatic changes in creep rate. This creep behavior is attributed to the point defect fluctuations in the crystal structure. Analysis of creep and stress relaxation under steady state flux indicates that an intermediate temperature, thermally activated deformation mechanism is rate controlling. (orig.)
Creep modeling of textured zircaloy under biaxial stressing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adams, B.L.; Murty, K.L.
1984-01-01
Anisotropic biaxial creep behavior of textured Zircaloy tubing was modeled using a crystal-plastic uniform strain-rate upper-bound and a uniform stress lower-bound approach. Power-law steady-state creep is considered to occur on each crystallite glide system by fixing the slip rate to be proportional to the resolved shear stress raised to a power. Prismatic, basal, and pyramidal slip modes were considered. The crystallographic texture is characterized using the orientation distribution function determined from a set of three pole-figures. This method is contrasted with a Von-Mises-Hill phenomenological model in comparison with experimental data obtained at 673 deg K. The resulting creep-dissipative loci show the importance of the basal slip mode on creep in heavily cold-worked cladding, whereas prismatic slip is more important for the recrystallized materials. (author)
In-situ Creep Testing Capability Development for Advanced Test Reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
B. G. Kim; J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; B. H. Sencer
2010-08-01
Creep is the slow, time-dependent strain that occurs in a material under a constant strees (or load) at high temperature. High temperature is a relative term, dependent on the materials being evaluated. A typical creep curve is shown in Figure 1-1. In a creep test, a constant load is applied to a tensile specimen maintained at a constant temperature. Strain is then measured over a period of time. The slope of the curve, identified in the figure below, is the strain rate of the test during Stage II or the creep rate of the material. Primary creep, Stage I, is a period of decreasing creep rate due to work hardening of the material. Primary creep is a period of primarily transient creep. During this period, deformation takes place and the resistance to creep increases until Stage II, Secondary creep. Stage II creep is a period with a roughly constant creep rate. Stage II is referred to as steady-state creep because a balance is achieved between the work hardening and annealing (thermal softening) processes. Tertiary creep, Stage III, occurs when there is a reduction in cross sectional area due to necking or effective reduction in area due to internal void formation; that is, the creep rate increases due to necking of the specimen and the associated increase in local stress.
Steady-state deformation of some lithium ceramics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poeppel, R.B.; Routbort, J.L.; Billone, M.C.; Applegate, D.S.; Buchmann, E.; Londschien, B.
1987-05-01
The stress-strain behavior of Li 2 O, LiAlO 2 and Li 2 ZrO 3 polycrystals, with densities varying from 0.70 to 0.95 of the theoretical, has been measured in constant-crosshead-speed compression tests at temperatures of 700 to 1000 0 C with strain rates ranging from about 10 -6 to 10 -4 s -1 . A steady-state stress, σ/sub s/, for which the work-hardening rate becomes zero, was achieved. These results, therefore, yield information equivalent to that obtained from creep experiments. Limited data on LiAlO 2 and Li 2 ZrO 3 were obtained. Nevertheless, under comparable conditions the lithium aluminate and zirconate were considerably stronger than the Li 2 O. This finding may be related to differences in crystal structure. It is, however, likely that in operation as a function breeder blanket material, the oxide will swell whereas the aluminate and the zirconate will crack. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab
New considerations on variability of creep rupture data and life prediction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Seon Jin; Jeong, Won Taek; Kong, Yu Sik
2009-01-01
This paper deals with the variability analysis of short term creep rupture test data based on the previous creep rupture tests and the possibility of the creep life prediction. From creep tests performed by constant uniaxial stresses at 600, 650 and 700 .deg. C elevated temperature, in order to investigate the variability of short-term creep rupture data, the creep curves were analyzed for normalized creep strain divided by initial strain. There are some variability in thee creep rupture data. And, the difference between general creep curves and normalized creep curves were obtained. The effects of the creep rupture time and state steady creep rate on the Weibull distribution parameters were investigated. There were good relation between normal Weibull parameters and normalized Weibull parameters. Finally, the predicted creep life were compared with the Monkman-Grant model.
New Considerations on Variability of Creep Rupture Data and Life Prediction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Won Taek; Kong, Yu Sik; Kim, Seon Jin
2009-01-01
This paper deals with the variability analysis of short term creep rupture test data based on the previous creep rupture tests and the possibility of the creep life prediction. From creep tests performed by constant uniaxial stresses at 600, 650 and 700 .deg. C elevated temperature, in order to investigate the variability of short-term creep rupture data, the creep curves were analyzed for normalized creep strain divided by initial strain. There are some variability in the creep rupture data. And, the difference between general creep curves and normalized creep curves were obtained. The effects of the creep rupture time (RT) and steady state creep rate (SSCR) on the Weibull distribution parameters were investigated. There were good relation between normal Weibull parameters and normalized Weibull parameters. Finally, the predicted creep life were compared with the Monkman-Grant model
Temperature dependence of creep properties of cold-worked Hastelloy XR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurata, Yuji; Nakajima, Hajime
1995-01-01
The creep properties of Hastelloy XR, in a solution treated, 10% or 20% cold-worked condition, were investigated at temperatures from 800 to 1,000degC for the duration of creep tests up to about 2,500 ks. At 800 and 850degC, the steady-state creep rate and rupture ductility decreased and the rupture life increased after cold work of 10% or 20%. Although the rupture life of the 10% cold-worked alloy was longer at 900degC than that of the solution treated one, the rupture lives of the 10% cold-worked and solution treated alloys were almost equal at 950degC, which is the highest helium temperature in an intermediate heat exchanger of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). The beneficial effect of 10% cold work on the rupture life and the steady-state creep rate disappeared at 1,000degC. The beneficial effect of 20% cold work disappeared at 950degC because significant dynamic recrystallization occurred during creep. While rupture ductility of this alloy decreased after cold work of 10% or 20%, it recovered to a considerable extend at 1,000degC. It is emphasized that these cold work effects should be taken into consideration in design, operation and residual life estimation of high temperature components of the HTTR. (author)
Poiseuille flow of soft glasses in narrow channels: from quiescence to steady state.
Chaudhuri, Pinaki; Horbach, Jürgen
2014-10-01
Using numerical simulations, the onset of Poiseuille flow in a confined soft glass is investigated. Starting from the quiescent state, steady flow sets in at a time scale which increases with a decrease in applied forcing. At this onset time scale, a rapid transition occurs via the simultaneous fluidization of regions having different local stresses. In the absence of steady flow at long times, creep is observed even in regions where the local stress is larger than the bulk yielding threshold. Finally, we show that the time scale to attain steady flow depends strongly on the history of the initial state.
Effects of NaCl, pH, and Potential on the Static Creep Behavior of AA1100
Wan, Quanhe; Quesnel, David J.
2013-03-01
The creep rates of AA1100 are measured during exposure to a variety of aggressive environments. NaCl solutions of various concentrations have no influence on the steady-state creep behavior, producing creep rates comparable to those measured in lab air at room temperature. However, after an initial incubation period of steady strain rate, a dramatic increase of strain rate is observed on exposure to HCl solutions and NaOH solutions, as well as during cathodic polarization of specimens in NaCl solutions. Creep strain produces a continuous deformation and elongation of the sample surface that is comparable to slow strain rates at crack tips thought to control the kinetics of crack growth during stress corrosion cracking (SCC). In this experiment, we separate the strain and surface deformation from the complex geometry of the crack tip to better understand the processes at work. Based on this concept, two possible explanations for the environmental influences on creep strain rates are discussed relating to the anodic dissolution of the free surface and hydrogen influences on deformation mechanisms. Consistencies of pH dependence between corrosion creep and SCC at low pH prove a creep-involved SCC mechanism, while the discrepancies between corrosion creep behavior and previous SCC results at high pH indicate a rate-limit step change in the crack propagation of the SCC process.
Creep and stress rupture behaviour of zircaloy-2 and Zr-2.5% Nb alloy tubes at 573 K
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laha, K.; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.; Chandravathi, K.S.; Mannan, S.L.
1992-01-01
Zirconium alloys are extensively used for coolant tubes of pressurised heavy water reactors. The choice of these materials is based on their good corrosion resistance in water, low capture cross section for thermal neutrons and good mechanical properties. In this paper the results of an investigation performed on the creep and rupture behaviour of indigenously produced zircaloy-2 and Zr-2.5% Nb alloy are presented. Samples for creep testing were cut longitudinally from finished pressure tubes. Creep rupture tests were carried out in air under constant load conditions at 300 C employing five stress levels in the range 300-360 MPa. Zr-2.5% Nb alloy displayed higher rupture lives at all stress levels compared to zircaloy-2. Steady state creep rate of Zr-2.5%Nb was lower than that zircaloy-2 at identical stress levels. In the stress range of the experiments, the dependence of the steady state creep rate (ε s ) on applied stress (σ) for both the alloys could be represented by a power law, ε s =A σ n The stress sensitivity (n) for Zr-2.5% Nb was lower than that of zircaloy-2. For both the alloys the time to creep rupture t r was found related to the steady state creep rate through the modified Monkman-Grant relation (ε s ) α . t r = constant. Similar value of α was obtained for both the materials. Zr-2.5%Nb exhibited higher ductility (% elongation to rupture) compared to zircaloy-2 at stress levels ≥ 320 MPa. At lower stresses significant difference in ductility was not noticed. Percentage reduction in area was lower in Zr-2.5%Nb at all stress levels indicating better resistance for necking. The time for onset of tertiary was longer for Zr-2.5% Nb alloy. The proportion of life spent by Zr-2.5% Nb in steady state creep regime was higher compared to that of zircaloy-2. Metallographic investigations on longitudinal sections in both the alloys showed large number of intragranular pores close to the fracture surface. A few number of cracks which are characteristic of
Creep tests on clean and argillaceous salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mellegard, K.D.; Pfeifle, T.W.
1993-05-01
Fifteen triaxial compression creep tests were performed on clean and argillaceous salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The temperatures in the tests were either 25 degrees C or 100 degrees C while the stress difference ranged from 3.5 MPa to 21.0 MPa. In all tests, the confining pressure was 15 MPa. Test duration ranged from 23 to 613 days with an average duration of 300 days. The results of the creep tests supplemented earlier testing and were used to estimate two parameters in the Modified Munson-Dawson constitutive law for the creep behavior of salt. The two parameters determined from each test were the steady-state strain rate and the transient strain limit. These estimates were combined with parameter estimates determined from previous testing to study the dependence of both transient and steady-state creep deformation on stress difference. The exponents on stress difference determined in this study were found to be consistent with revised estimates of the exponents reported by other investigators
A Physics-Based Rock Friction Constitutive Law: Steady State Friction
Aharonov, Einat; Scholz, Christopher H.
2018-02-01
Experiments measuring friction over a wide range of sliding velocities find that the value of the friction coefficient varies widely: friction is high and behaves according to the rate and state constitutive law during slow sliding, yet markedly weakens as the sliding velocity approaches seismic slip speeds. We introduce a physics-based theory to explain this behavior. Using conventional microphysics of creep, we calculate the velocity and temperature dependence of contact stresses during sliding, including the thermal effects of shear heating. Contacts are assumed to reach a coupled thermal and mechanical steady state, and friction is calculated for steady sliding. Results from theory provide good quantitative agreement with reported experimental results for quartz and granite friction over 11 orders of magnitude in velocity. The new model elucidates the physics of friction and predicts the connection between friction laws to independently determined material parameters. It predicts four frictional regimes as function of slip rate: at slow velocity friction is either velocity strengthening or weakening, depending on material parameters, and follows the rate and state friction law. Differences between surface and volume activation energies are the main control on velocity dependence. At intermediate velocity, for some material parameters, a distinct velocity strengthening regime emerges. At fast sliding, shear heating produces thermal softening of friction. At the fastest sliding, melting causes further weakening. This theory, with its four frictional regimes, fits well previously published experimental results under low temperature and normal stress.
Vortex creep and the internal temperature of neutron stars. I - General theory
Alpar, M. A.; Pines, D.; Anderson, P. W.; Shaham, J.
1984-01-01
The theory of a neutron star superfluid coupled to normal matter via thermal creep against pinning forces is developed in some detail. General equations of motion for a pinned rotating superfluid and their form for vortex creep are given. Steady state creep and the way in which the system approaches the steady state are discussed. The developed formalism is applied to the postglitch relaxation of a pulsar, and detailed models are developed which permit explicit calculation of the postglitch response. The energy dissipation associated with creep and glitches is considered.
Recent advances in modelling creep crack growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riedel, H.
1988-08-01
At the time of the previous International Conference on Fracture, the C* integral had long been recognized as a promising load parameter for correlating crack growth rates in creep-ductile materials. The measured crack growth rates as a function of C* and of the temperature could be understood on the basis of micromechanical models. The distinction between C*-controlled and K I -controlled creep crack growth had been clarified and first attempts had been made to describe creep crack growth in the transient regime between elastic behavior and steady-state creep. This paper describes the progress in describing transient crack growth including the effect of primary creep. The effect of crack-tip geometry changes by blunting and by crack growth on the crack-tip fields and on the validity of C* is analyzed by idealizing the growing-crack geometry by a sharp notch and using recent solutions for the notch-tip fields. A few new three-dimensional calculations of C* are cited and important theoretical points are emphasized regarding the three-dimensional fields at crack tips. Finally, creep crack growth is described by continuum-damage models for which similarity solutions can be obtained. Crack growth under small-scale creep conditions turns out to be difficult to understand. Slightly different models yield very different crack growth rates. (orig.) With 4 figs
Creep of fissile ceramic materials under neutron irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brucklacher, D.
1975-01-01
Theoretical estimation of the irradiation-induced creep rate of U0 2 by a modification of the Nabarro-Herring model for diffusional creep resulted in a creep rate range between about 6 x 10 -6 to 8 x 10 -5 h -1 for a fission rate of 1 x 10 14 f/cm 3 s and a stress of 2 kgf/mm 2 . Accordingly, the creep rate is enhanced by irradiation at temperatures below 1000 0 to 1200 0 C. It is essentially due to the 'thermal rods' along the fission fragment tracks. Therefore, irradiation-induced creep rates should depend only slightly on temperature and must be markedly lower for carbide and nitride fuel. In-reactor creep experiments on UO 2 were performed at fuel temperatures between 250 0 to 850 0 C. At burnups between 0.3 to 3% the steady-state compressive creep rates are proportional to stress (0 to 4 kgf/mm 2 ) and to fission rate (1 x 10 13 to 2 x 10 14 f/cm 3 s), and are in the range estimated before. The increase in the creep rate with increasing temperature is low and corresponds to an apparent activation energy of only 5200 cal/mol. At burnups above 3 to 4% the stress exponent of the irradiation-induced creep rate increased from n = 1 to n = 1.5. Creep measurements on UO 2 to 15 wt-%Pu0 2 (mechanically mixed, sintered density 86% TD) showed the same temperature dependence as UO 2 below 700 0 C. However, the creep rates were higher by a factor of about 20 compared to fully dense UO 2 . This difference may be explained by assuming a high 'effective' porosity. In-pile creep tests on some UN samples resulted in creep rates that were lower by an order of magnitude than for UO 2 under comparable conditions. (author)
Transient creep of repository rocks. Mechanistic creep laws for rock salt. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Handin, J.; Russell, J.E.; Carter, N.L.
1984-09-01
We have tested 10 by 20-cm cores of Avery Island rocksalt in triaxial compression at confining pressure of 3.4 and 20 MPa, temperature of 100 0 C, 150 0 C, and 200 0 C, and constant strain rates of 10 -4 , 10 -5 , and 10 -6 s -1 . Neglecting the small effect of confining pressure, we have fit our data to a semi-empirical constitutive model that relates differential stress to strain, strain rate, and absolute temperature. This model rather well predicts the results of relaxation (nearly constant strain) tests as well as constant-stress-rate and constant-stress (creep) tests. Furthermore, even though stress-strain curves reflect the strain hardening that corresponds to transient creep, our model also predicts the steady-state flow stresses measured in creep tests under comparable conditions. Comparing the response of coarse-grained (8 mm) natural rocksalt, fine-grained (0.3 mm) synthetic aggregates, and halite single crystals has revealed that although the effect of grain size alone is small, the influences of substructure (e.g., subgrain size and dislocation density) and impurities (especially brine) may well be large and certainly deserve further investigation
Review and comparison of transient creep laws used for natural rock salt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrmann, W.; Lauson, H.S.
1981-04-01
A number of creep laws are reviewed, which have been proposed to describe the transient creep of rock salt for use in design calculations of nuclear waste isolation and strategic petroleum reserve repositories. It is shown that they all have the same general form, and their ability to fit creep data for rock salt is tested. Four creep laws are found to fit the data for individual creep tests about equally well. Three of these include steady-state as well as transient creep, while the fourth, equivalent to power-law time hardening in the case of a creep test, does not. Extrapolations at constant stress and temperature of the three creep laws with steady-state creep essentially coincide for times longer than a few months, since the transient creep becomes negligible for such times. Power-law hardening, on the other hand, since it depends on time through a power less than one, predicts much smaller creep strains at very long times
Finite element simulation for creep crack growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Sasaki, Toru; Nakagaki, Michihiko; Brust, F.W.
1992-01-01
A finite element method was applied to a generation phase simulation of creep crack growth. Experimental data on creep crack growth in a 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V steel compact tension specimen were numerically simulated using a node-release technique and the variations of various fracture mechanics parameters such as CTOA, J, C * and T * during creep crack growth were calculated. The path-dependencies of the integral parameters J, C * and T * were also obtained to examine whether or not they could characterize the stress field near the tip of a crack propagating under creep condition. The following conclusions were obtained from the present analysis. (1) The J integral shows strong path-dependency during creep crack growth, so that it is does not characterize creep crack growth. (2) The C * integral shows path-dependency to some extent during creep crack growth even in the case of Norton type steady state creep law. Strictly speaking, we cannot use it as a fracture mechanics parameter characterizing creep crack growth. It is, however, useful from the practical viewpoint because it correlates well the rate of creep crack growth. (3) The T * integral shows good path-independency during creep crack growth. Therefore, it is a candidate for a fracture mechanics parameter characterizing creep crack growth. (author)
Creep Modeling in a Composite Rotating Disc with Thickness Variation in Presence of Residual Stress
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vandana Gupta
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Steady-state creep response in a rotating disc made of Al-SiC (particle composite having linearly varying thickness has been carried out using isotropic/anisotropic Hoffman yield criterion and results are compared with those using von Mises yield criterion/Hill's criterion ignoring difference in yield stresses. The steady-state creep behavior has been described by Sherby's creep law. The material parameters characterizing difference in yield stresses have been used from the available experimental results in literature. Stress and strain rate distributions developed due to rotation have been calculated. It is concluded that the stress and strain distributions got affected from the thermal residual stress in an isotropic/anisotropic rotating disc, although the effect of residual stress on creep behavior in an anisotropic rotating disc is observed to be lower than those observed in an isotropic disc. Thus, the presence of residual stress in composite rotating disc with varying thickness needs attention for designing a disc.
The transient creep of vapor deposited Ti-6Al-4V
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warren, J.; Wadley, H.N.G.
1996-01-01
Titanium matrix composites can be synthesized by the consolidation of ceramic fibers (for example, alumina and silicon carbide monofilaments) coated with titanium alloy deposited on the fiber by physical vapor deposition (PVD). Consolidation involves deformation of the matrix coating by both transient and steady-state creep. In a recent paper the mechanisms responsible for steady-state creep in PVD Ti-6Al-4V, between 600 and 900 C, were determined. The analysis of the data first presented has been extended here to consider the transient creep behavior of the material and identify an analogous constitutive law for use in simulating the transient creep contribution to consolidation
Mechanism-based modeling of solute strengthening: application to thermal creep in Zr alloy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tome, Carlos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wen, Wei [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Capolungo, Laurent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-08-01
This report focuses on the development of a physics-based thermal creep model aiming to predict the behavior of Zr alloy under reactor accident condition. The current models used for this kind of simulations are mostly empirical in nature, based generally on fits to the experimental steady-state creep rates under different temperature and stress conditions, which has the following limitations. First, reactor accident conditions, such as RIA and LOCA, usually take place in short times and involve only the primary, not the steady-state creep behavior stage. Moreover, the empirical models cannot cover the conditions from normal operation to accident environments. For example, Kombaiah and Murty [1,2] recently reported a transition between the low (n~4) and high (n~9) power law creep regimes in Zr alloys depending on the applied stress. Capturing such a behavior requires an accurate description of the mechanisms involved in the process. Therefore, a mechanism-based model that accounts for the evolution with time of microstructure is more appropriate and reliable for this kind of simulation.
Steady State versus Pulsed Tokamak DEMO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orsitto, F.P., E-mail: francesco.orsitto@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA Unita Tecnica Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Todd, T. [CCFE/Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)
2012-09-15
Full text: The present report deals with a Review of problems for a Steady state(SS) DEMO, related argument is treated about the models and the present status of comparison between the characteristics of DEMO pulsed versus a Steady state device.The studied SS DEMO Models (SLIM CS, PPCS model C EU-DEMO, ARIES-RS) are analyzed from the point of view of the similarity scaling laws and critical issues for a steady state DEMO. A comparison between steady state and pulsed DEMO is therefore carried out: in this context a new set of parameters for a pulsed (6 - 8 hours pulse) DEMO is determined working below the density limit, peak temperature of 20 keV, and requiring a modest improvement in the confinement factor(H{sub IPBy2} = 1.1) with respect to the H-mode. Both parameters density and confinement parameter are lower than the DEMO models presently considered. The concept of partially non-inductive pulsed DEMO is introduced since a pulsed DEMO needs heating and current drive tools for plasma stability and burn control. The change of the main parameter design for a DEMO working at high plasma peak temperatures T{sub e} {approx} 35 keV is analyzed: in this range the reactivity increases linearly with temperature, and a device with smaller major radius (R = 7.5 m) is compatible with high temperature. Increasing temperature is beneficial for current drive efficiency and heat load on divertor, being the synchrotron radiation one of the relevant components of the plasma emission at high temperatures and current drive efficiency increases with temperature. Technology and engineering problems are examined including efficiency and availability R&D issues for a high temperature DEMO. Fatigue and creep-fatigue effects of pulsed operations on pulsed DEMO components are considered in outline to define the R&D needed for DEMO development. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pahutova, M; Kreici, J; Polesna, M [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno. Ustav Fyzikalni Metalurgie
1976-01-01
The effect of the initial raw material - zirconium sponge or zirconium iodide - on some creep and stres-strain properties was studied on Zr-2.5%Nb alloy by a stress-strain test at constant crosshead speed and by strain-rate sensitivity testing. Dependence of the creep characteristics on cooling conditions after solution treatment was examined. Alloy made from Zr-sponge was used for measurement of steady-state creep rate on time to fracture dependence and steady-state creep rate on time to fracture with respect to the angle between rolling direction of alloy sheets and tensile axis. Transmission electron microscopy was used for structure study of both alloys after different heat treatment. Higher creep strength of the alloy made from iodide zirconium (after respective heat treatment) than that of the alloy made from Zr-sponge is discussed. Oxygen content and its effect on structural changes during heat treatment seems to be responsible for higher creep strength of the first alloy. On the other hand the difference of respective creep strengths is not so significant as to justify production of Zr-2.5%Nb alloy and perhaps of future high-strength Zr alloys (for applications in structural components in reactors in the temperature range of 673 to 773 K) from iodide zirconium. Results of creep and stress-strain (short time) testing are briefly discussed.
High-temperature compressive creep behaviour of perovskite-type oxides SrTi1-xFexO3-δ
ten Donkelaar, S.F.P.; Stournari, V.; Malzbender, J.; Nijmeijer, Arian; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.
2015-01-01
Compressive creep tests have been performed on mixed ionic-electronic conducting perovskite-type oxides SrTi1-xFexO3- (STF, x = 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7). Observed activation energies and stress exponents, at 800–1000 ◦C and in the stress range 10 100 MPa, indicate that the steady-state creep rate of STF
Finite element analysis of nonlinear creeping flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loula, A.F.D.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.
1988-12-01
Steady-state creep problems with monotone constitutive laws are studied. Finite element approximations are constructed based on mixed Petrov-Galerkin formulations for constrained problems. Stability, convergence and a priori error estimates are proved for equal-order discontinuous stress and continuous velocity interpolations. Numerical results are presented confirming the rates of convergence predicted in the analysis and the good performance of this formulation. (author) [pt
Effect of stacking fault energy on high-temperature creep parameters of nickel-cobalt alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nerodenko, L.M.; Dabizha, E.V.
1982-01-01
Results of creep investigation are discussed for two alloys of the Ni-Co system. In terms of the structural creep model an analysis is made for the effect of stacking fault energy on averaged parameters of the dislocation structure: inovable dislocation density subgrain size, activation volume. The rate of steady-state creep is determined by the process of dislocation passing through the subgrain boundaries with activation energy of 171.0 and 211.5 kJ/mol for the Ni-25% Co and Ni-65% Co alloys, respectively
Creep deformation and rupture behavior of CLAM steel at 823 K and 873 K
Zhong, Boyu; Huang, Bo; Li, Chunjing; Liu, Shaojun; Xu, Gang; Zhao, Yanyun; Huang, Qunying
2014-12-01
China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel is selected as the candidate structural material in Fusion Design Study (FDS) series fusion reactor conceptual designs. The creep property of CLAM steel has been studied in this paper. Creep tests have been carried out at 823 K and 873 K over a stress range of 150-230 MPa. The creep curves showed three creep regimes, primary creep, steady-state creep and tertiary creep. The relationship between minimum creep rate (ε˙min) and the applied stress (σ) could be described by Norton power law, and the stress exponent n was decreased with the increase of the creep temperature. The creep mechanism was analyzed with the fractographes of the rupture specimens which were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The coarsening of precipitates observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM) indicated the microstructural degradation after creep test.
Creep deformation and rupture behavior of CLAM steel at 823 K and 873 K
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhong, Boyu; Huang, Bo; Li, Chunjing; Liu, Shaojun; Xu, Gang; Zhao, Yanyun; Huang, Qunying
2014-01-01
China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel is selected as the candidate structural material in Fusion Design Study (FDS) series fusion reactor conceptual designs. The creep property of CLAM steel has been studied in this paper. Creep tests have been carried out at 823 K and 873 K over a stress range of 150–230 MPa. The creep curves showed three creep regimes, primary creep, steady-state creep and tertiary creep. The relationship between minimum creep rate (ε-dot min ) and the applied stress (σ) could be described by Norton power law, and the stress exponent n was decreased with the increase of the creep temperature. The creep mechanism was analyzed with the fractographes of the rupture specimens which were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The coarsening of precipitates observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM) indicated the microstructural degradation after creep test
Influence of specimen size on the creep of rock salt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Senseny, P.E.
1982-01-01
Triaxial compression creep data for Avery Island dome salt are analyzed to determine the influence of specimen size on creep deformation. Laboratory experiments were performed on 50- and 100-mm-diameter specimens in the temperature range from 25 to 200 0 C and the axial stress difference range from 2.5 to 31.0 MPa. The strain-vs-time data from each test are divided into transient and steady-state components. Results of statistical analysis of these data show that transient creep of the small specimens is a stronger function of stress, temperature, and time than is transient creep of the larger specimens. Analysis of the steady-state data show no size effect, however. 14 references, 7 figures, 3 tables
Ganesh Kumar, J.; Laha, K.; Ganesan, V.; Prasad Reddy, G. V.
2018-04-01
The small punch creep (SPC) behavior of 316LN stainless steel (SS) containing 0.07, 0.11 and 0.14 wt.% nitrogen has been investigated at 923 K. The transient and tertiary SPC deformation of 316LN SS with various nitrogen contents have been analyzed according to the equation proposed for SPC deflection, δ = δ0 + δT (1 - e^{ - κ t} ) + \\dot{δ }s t + δ3 e^[ φ( t - tr ) ]. The relationships among the rate of exhaustion of transient creep (κ), steady-state deflection rate (\\dot{δ }s ) and the rate of acceleration of tertiary creep (φ) revealed the interrelationships among the three stages of SPC curve. The first-order reaction rate theory was found to be applicable to SPC deformation throughout the transient as well as tertiary region, in all the investigated steels. The initial and final creep deflection rates were decreased, whereas time to attain steady-state deflection rate increased with the increase in nitrogen content. By increasing the nitrogen content in 316LN SS from 0.07 to 0.14 wt.%, each stage of SPC was prolonged, and consequently, the values of κ, \\dot{δ }s and φ were lowered. Using the above parameters, the master curves for both transient and tertiary SPC deflections were constructed for 316LN SS containing different nitrogen contents.
NORA-2, a model for creep deformation and rupture of zircaloy at high temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raff, S.; Meyder, R.
1983-01-01
A model has been developed to describe Zircaloy cladding behaviour under LOCA and small leak conditions within specified temperature range and strain rates. The deformation model consists of a strain rate equation with two components representing strain rate controlled contributions from different deformation mechanisms. Transition from one mechanism to the other produces the strain rate dependence of the stress exponent of steady state creep. During transient creep the change of creep mechanisms produces a flow softening behaviour which induces unstable creep. Together with a strain hardening model, the strain history can be described for low and high strain values. The influence of oxidation is taken into account by modelling hardening due to solid solution of oxygen, cracking of the brittle oxide and oxygen stabilised α-phase layers, and by an oxidation-induced creep component in steam atmosphere. The rupture criterion is based on a strain fraction rule whose variables are temperature, strain rate or applied stress, and oxygen content. (author)
A discrete dislocation dynamics model of creeping single crystals
Rajaguru, M.; Keralavarma, S. M.
2018-04-01
Failure by creep is a design limiting issue for metallic materials used in several high temperature applications. Current theoretical models of creep are phenomenological with little connection to the underlying microscopic mechanisms. In this paper, a bottom-up simulation framework based on the discrete dislocation dynamics method is presented for dislocation creep aided by the diffusion of vacancies, known to be the rate controlling mechanism at high temperature and stress levels. The time evolution of the creep strain and the dislocation microstructure in a periodic unit cell of a nominally infinite single crystal is simulated using the kinetic Monte Carlo method, together with approximate constitutive laws formulated for the rates of thermal activation of dislocations over local pinning obstacles. The deformation of the crystal due to dislocation glide between individual thermal activation events is simulated using a standard dislocation dynamics algorithm, extended to account for constant stress periodic boundary conditions. Steady state creep conditions are obtained in the simulations with the predicted creep rates as a function of stress and temperature in good agreement with experimentally reported values. Arrhenius scaling of the creep rates as a function of temperature and power-law scaling with the applied stress are also reproduced, with the values of the power-law exponents in the high stress regime in good agreement with experiments.
Creep Deformation and Fracture Processes in OF and OFP Copper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowyer, William H.
2004-10-01
The literature on creep processes in many materials, including copper, has been thoroughly reviewed and complemented by Ashby and co-workers. They have provided physical models which describe the deformation and fracture processes with good qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental data for many cases. A description of the deformation and fracture models is provided and the relevant equations are included in the appendices. Published data from the canister development programme has been compared with the predictions from the models. The purpose was to improve our understanding of (1) a reported benefit to creep performance which arises from additions of 50 ppm phosphorus to oxygen free (OF) copper, and (2) an observed transition from brittle to ductile failure in OF copper. The models adequately describe the general variations in the observed creep behaviour of the experimental materials. Steady state creep rates for OF copper are observed to be up to one order of magnitude higher than the model predicts for pure copper across a wide range of temperatures and stresses in the power law and power law breakdown regimes. For OF copper with 50ppm of phosphorus added (OFP copper), observed steady state creep rates in the power law breakdown regime are up to one order of magnitude lower than the model predicts for pure copper. Creep lives in the experimental OFP material are also higher than creep lives for OF material under similar conditions. The lower creep deformation rates and the longer creep lives of OFP material are attributed the known effects of phosphorus on recovery in copper. The model predicts that the same mechanism will improve creep lives under repository conditions. It is suggested that the factor of improvement under repository conditions will be less than the factor which is observed in the power law breakdown regime. Predicted creep lives, based on measured steady state creep rates and stress exponents ('n' values) are in good agreement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pahutova, M.; Krejci, J.; Polesna, M.
1976-01-01
The effect of the initial raw material - zirconium sponge or zirconium iodide - on some creep and stres-strain properties was studied on Zr-2.5%Nb alloy by a stress-strain test at constant crosshead speed and by strain-rate sensitivity testing. Dependence of the creep characteristics on cooling conditions after solution treatment was examined. Alloy made from Zr-sponge was used for measurement of steady-state creep rate on time to fracture dependence and steady-state creep rate on time to fracture with respect to the angle between rolling direction of alloy sheets and tensile axis. Transmission electron microscopy was used for structure study of both alloys after different heat treatment. Higher creep strength of the alloy made from iodide zirconium (after respective heat treatment) than that of the alloy made from Zr-sponge is discussed. Oxygen content and its effect on structural changes during heat treatment seems to be responsible for higher creep strength of the first alloy. On the other hand the difference of respective creep strengths is not so significant as to justify production of Zr-2.5%Nb alloy and perhaps of future high-strength Zr alloys (for applications in structural components in reactors in the temperature range of 673 to 773 K) from iodide zirconium. Results of creep and stress-strain (short time) testing are briefly discussed. (author)
Raj, S. V.; Noebe, R. D.
2013-01-01
This two-part paper is the first published report on the long term, low temperature creep of hot-extruded near-stoichiometric NiTi. Constant load tensile creep tests were conducted on hot-extruded near-stoichiometric NiTi at 300, 373 and 473 K under initial applied stresses varying between 200 and 350 MPa as long as 15 months. These temperatures corresponded to the martensitic, two-phase and austenitic phase regions, respectively. Normal primary creep lasting several months was observed under all conditions indicating dislocation activity. Although steady-state creep was not observed under these conditions, the estimated creep rates varied between 10(exp -10) and 10(exp -9)/s. The creep behavior of the two phases showed significant differences. The martensitic phase exhibited a large strain on loading followed by a primary creep region accumulating a small amount of strain over a period of several months. The loading strain was attributed to the detwinning of the martensitic phase whereas the subsequent strain accumulation was attributed to dislocation glide-controlled creep. An "incubation period" was observed before the occurrence of detwinning. In contrast, the austenitic phase exhibited a relatively smaller loading strain followed by a primary creep region, where the creep strain continued to increase over several months. It is concluded that the creep of the austenitic phase occurs by a dislocation glide-controlled creep mechanism as well as by the nucleation and growth of deformation twins.
Low temperature irradiation creep of tungsten and molybdenum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pouchou, J.-L.
1975-12-01
It is demonstrated that the mechanism of stress biased nucleation of dislocation loops may contribute significantly to the low temperature irradiation creep. This is achieved by measuring length and electrical resistivity changes at liquid hydrogen temperature, under fission fragments bombardement. From these measurements (correlated with some electron microscopy observations of irradiated samples), the following three stages of deformation appear: at low doses (smaller than 10 -2 displacement per atom) the deformation is mainly an increase in volume due to point defects. The study of this stage gives the formation volume of a Frenkel pair, and the number of point defects created by an initial fission fragment; for doses higher than 10 -2 d.p.a., the point defects saturation is reached. At this stage, vacancies and interstitials collapse into loops, the nucleation of which is polarized by the applied stress. At zero stress, the corresponding creep rate is zero. At high stresses (>50 kg/mm 2 ), creep rate saturates at value of the order of 10 -21 (FF/cm 3 ) -1 ; because of the recombinations of loops, the creep rate decreases continuously during irradiation. The recombinations lead to a dense dislocation network (formed at doses of 1 d.p.a.), the climb of which oriented by the applied stress gives rise to a steady state creep. The creep rate is smaller, by at least one order of magnitude, than that which is observed in the stage of loop formation [fr
Creep consolidation of nuclear depository backfill materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butcher, B.M.
1980-10-01
Evaluation of the effects of backfilling nuclear waste repository rooms is an important aspect of waste repository design. Consolidation of the porous backfill takes place as the room closes with time, causing the supporting stress exerted by the backfill against the intact rock to increase. Estimation of the rate of backfill consolidation is required for closure rate predictions and should be possible if the creep law for the solid constituent is known. A simple theory describing consolidation with a spherical void model is derived to illustrate this relationship. Although the present form of the theory assumes a homogeneous isotropic incompressible material atypical of most rocks, it may be applicable to rock salt, which exhibits considerable plasticity under confined pressure. Application of the theory is illustrated assuming a simple steady-state creep law, to show that the consolidation rate depends on the externally applied stress, temperature, and porosity
Analysis of creep data from MOTA irradiation of 20% cold worked 316 stainless steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garner, F.A.; Toloczko, M.B.; Puigh, R.J.
1992-01-01
The objective of this study is to provide insight into the relationship between void swelling, irradiation creep and applied stress. This insight will be used to develop irradiation creep correlations for fusion applications. Analysis of creep data for 20% cold worked 316 stainless steel irradiated in FFTF/MOTA demonstrates that creep-swelling coupling coefficient is not a strong function of temperature and can be assumed to be -0.6 x 10 -2 MPa -1 in the range 400-600 C. It appears, however, that the creep compliance B o is a moderately strong function of temperature and alloy composition. The latter dependency arises primarily because derived values of B o unavoidably incorporate precipitation-related strains that cannot be easily separated from contributions arising from true creep. It has also been found that at ∼550-600 C there is an upper limit on the total diametral strain rate at 0.33%/dpa. In contrast to the conclusion of an earlier experiment, this limitation does not arise initially from the total disappearance of creep, however. The creep rate first increases with the onset of swelling and then diminishes as the swelling rate increases, disappearing only when the swelling rate reaches its steady state value
Creep and inverse stress relaxation behaviors of carbon nanotube yarns.
Misak, H E; Sabelkin, V; Miller, L; Asmatulu, R; Mall, S
2013-12-01
Creep, creep recovery and inverse stress relaxation behaviors of carbon nanotube yarns that consisted of 1-, 30-, and 100-yarn(s) were characterized. Primary and secondary creep stages were observed over the duration of 336 h. The primary creep stage lasted for about 4 h at an applied load equal to 75% of the ultimate tensile strength. The total strain in the primary stage was significantly larger in the carbon nanotube multi-yarn than in the carbon nanotube 1-yarn. In the secondary stage, 1-yarn also had a smaller steady state strain rate than the multi-yarn, and it was independent of number of yarns in multi-yarn. Strain response under cyclic creep loading condition was comparable to its counterpart in non-cyclic (i.e., standard) creep test except that strain response during the first cycle was slightly different from the subsequent cycles. Inverse creep (i.e., strain recovery) was observed in the 100-yarn during the cyclic creep tests after the first unloading cycle. Furthermore, inverse stress relaxation of the multi-yarns was characterized. Inverse stress relaxation was larger and for longer duration with the larger number of yarns.
A study of creep behavior in refractory alloys for thermionic emitter applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Hong; Zee, Ralph
1997-01-01
The creep behavior of HfC strengthened tungsten alloys was studied. An ultrahigh vacuum high precision creep test system was constructed for this purpose so that the samples could be heated up to 3000 K for heat treatment and creep strain could be measured from the creep sample inside the vacuum chamber. Creep tests were conducted in tungsten strengthened with 0.37 percent of HfC at temperatures between 2000 K to 2500 K for durations up to 8 weeks. To explain the creep behavior observed in this dispersion strengthened alloy, a creep model was proposed which accounted for the presence of HfC particles in the form of a back stress generated by these particles. This model was verified by the creep test data of a W-0.37HfC alloy tested under both extruded and recrystallized microstructural conditions. According to this model, the steady state creep of this type alloys was expected to increase with time due to the HfC particle coarsening and recrystallization under high temperatures. In contrast, conventional simple power law creep only predicts a constant steady state creep for these materials, which does not represent the microstructural evolution of the materials. In this study, the experimental study was designed to verify the semi-mechanistic phenomenological creep model developed for carbide particle strengthened tungsten alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Hiroyuki; Miyano, Takaya
2010-01-01
A method of creep life prediction by means of Strain-Acceleration-Parameter (SAP), α, is presented. The authors show that the shape of creep curve can be characterized by SAP that reflects magnitude of strain-rate change in secondary creep. The SAP-values, α are evaluated on magnesium-aluminium solution hardened alloys. Reconstruction of creep curves by combinations of SAP and minimum-creep rates are successfully performed, and the curves reasonably agree with experiments. The advantage of the proposed method is that the required parameters evaluated from individual creep curves are directly connected with the minimum creep rate. The predicted times-to-failure agree well with that obtained by experiments, and possibility of precise life time prediction by SAP is pronounced.
Investigation of component failure rates for pulsed versus steady state tokamak operation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cadwallader, L.C.
1992-07-01
This report presents component failure rate data sources applicable to magnetic fusion systems, and defines multiplicative factors to adjust these data for specific use on magnetic fusion experiment designs. The multipliers address both long pulse and steady state tokamak operation. Thermal fatigue and radiation damage are among the leading reasons for large multiplier values in pulsed operation applications. Field failure rate values for graphite protective tiles are presented, and beryllium tile failure rates in laboratory testing are also given. All of these data can be used for reliability studies, safety analyses, design tradeoff studies, and risk assessments
Effect of Gd–Ca combined additions on the microstructure and creep properties of Mg–7Al–1Si alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Jian; Wang, Wuxiao; Zhang, Sha; Zhang, Dongjie; Zhang, Haiyan
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The effect of compound addition of Ca and Gd on the microstructure and creep properties of Mg–7Al–1Si alloys was investigated. • After adding 1 wt.% of (Ca + Gd), the creep strain and steady-state creep rate were reduced by about 80% and 84%, respectively. • After adding 1 wt.% of (Ca + Gd), the creep properties of Mg–7Al–1Si alloys were superior to that containing single Gd additive. • The improvement of creep properties after compound addition of Gd and Ca is a result of multiple factors. - Abstract: The microstructure and creep properties of Mg–7Al–1Si alloys with combined additions of alkaline earth element Ca and rare earth element (RE) Gd were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and compressive creep tests. It was found that the combined additions of Ca and Gd contributed to grain refinement, modification of the morphology of coarse Chinese script Mg 2 Si phase, and reduction of β-Mg 17 Al 12 content. Mg–7Al–1Si alloys containing 1 wt.% compound modifier (0.5 wt.% Gd + 0.5 wt.% Ca) exhibited the minimal steady-state creep rate, and were even superior to Mg–7Al–1Si alloys containing single Gd addition. The great improvement of creep properties is mainly attributed to the reduction in the amount and continuity of eutectic β-Mg 17 Al 12 phase, morphology modification of Mg 2 Si phase, solution strengthening of Gd, as well as the formation of thermally stable intermetallic Al 2 Gd, which acted as an effective barrier against grain boundary sliding and dislocation movement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
HU TA
2009-10-26
Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.
Steady State Investigations of DPF Soot Burn Rates and DPF Modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cordtz, Rasmus Lage; Ivarsson, Anders; Schramm, Jesper
2011-01-01
and soot mass concentrations are used as model boundary conditions. An in-house developed raw exhaust gas sampling technique is used to measure the soot concentration upstream the DPF which is also needed to find the DPF soot burn rate. The soot concentration is measured basically by filtering the soot...... characteristics are used to fit model constants of soot and filter properties. Measured DPF gas conversions and soot burn rates are used to fit model activation energies of four DPF regeneration reactions using O2 and NO2 as reactants. Modeled DPF pressure drops and soot burn rates are compared to the steady...... state DPF experiments in the temperature range between 260 and 480 °C. The model widely reproduces the experimental results. Especially the exponential soot burn rate versus temperature is accurately reproduced by the model....
Standard test method for measurement of creep crack growth times in metals
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
2007-01-01
1.1 This test method covers the determination of creep crack growth (CCG) in metals at elevated temperatures using pre-cracked specimens subjected to static or quasi-static loading conditions. The time (CCI), t0.2 to an initial crack extension δai = 0.2 mm from the onset of first applied force and creep crack growth rate, ˙a or da/dt is expressed in terms of the magnitude of creep crack growth relating parameters, C* or K. With C* defined as the steady state determination of the crack tip stresses derived in principal from C*(t) and Ct (1-14). The crack growth derived in this manner is identified as a material property which can be used in modeling and life assessment methods (15-25). 1.1.1 The choice of the crack growth correlating parameter C*, C*(t), Ct, or K depends on the material creep properties, geometry and size of the specimen. Two types of material behavior are generally observed during creep crack growth tests; creep-ductile (1-14) and creep-brittle (26-37). In creep ductile materials, where cr...
Effects of microstructure on creep of Ti-24Al-11Nb polycrystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albert, D.E.
1991-01-01
The purpose was to determine the steady-state creep rate (CRSS) of various microstructures of Ti-24Al-11Nb (a/o). This alloy is a two-phase (β + α 2 ) Ti 3 Al-based aluminide with niobium added to stabilize β. The microstructure of the heat-treated alloy is lath α 2 surrounded by a thin film of β arranged in a basketweave morphology, while the as-received microstructure consists of equiaxed α 2 plus a small amount of β. SSCR vs. stress and vs. temperature curves were determined to find Q a , apparent creep activation energy, and n, power law stress exponent. At low stresses, Q a s determined for all microstructures were found to be between 106 kJ/mol and 145 kJ/mol, which agrees fairly well with the value of 121 kJ/mol previously obtained for grain boundary diffusional creep in titanium at low stresses. Mechanical-test results show that microstructures with a coarse α 2 lath size in general display improved creep resistance over fine-lathed structures. Specimens with an equiaxed α 2 phase microstructure exhibit much greater creep rates at all stresses and temperatures
New results in the limit analysis by secondary modified creep
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feijoo, R.A.; Taroco, E.; Zouain, N.
1982-03-01
Two methods for computing upper and lower bounds of colapse loads are proposed by means of generalized creep constitutive relations. The actual material behaviour is rigid-perfectly plastic and the techniques here analized consist in the substitution of this material by a fictitious one which presents steady state creep response. Some analytical examples are also presented. (Author) [pt
Numerical treatment of creep crack growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kienzler, R.; Hollstein, T.
1990-06-01
To accomplish the safety analysis and to predict the lifetime of high-termpature components with flaws, several concepts have been proposed to correlate creep-crack initiation and growth with fracture mechanics parameters. The concepts of stress-intensity factor K, reference stress σ ref , line integral C * , and others will be discussed. Among them, the C * -integral concept seems to have the widest range of applicability, if large creep zones develop and steady state creep conditions can be assumed. The numerical evaluation of C * by the virtual crack extension method is described. The methods are demonstrated by two- and three-dimensional finite element simulations including creep crack growth. As for ductile fracture experiments, plane stress and plane strain simulations are bounds to the three-dimensional simulations which agree well with corresponding experiments. (orig.)
Creep and precipitation behaviors of AL6XN austenitic steel at elevated temperatures
Meng, L. J.; Sun, J.; Xing, H.
2012-08-01
Creep behaviors of the solution-treated AL6XN austenitic stainless steel have been investigated at 873-1023 K and 120-260 MPa. The results showed that the creep stress exponent and activation energy of the AL6XN steel are 5 and 395.4 kJ/mol, respectively in the power-law breakdown regime. TEM observations revealed that dislocations distributed homogenously in grains. The creep deformation mechanism is mainly attributed to viscous dislocation glide. Precipitates in the steel after creep deformation were additionally analyzed by TEM, and the results showed that there are four different types of precipitates, such as M23C6, M6C, σ phase and Laves phase. The M23C6 carbides were observed at grain boundaries in the steel after creep at 873 K. The M6C, σ phase and Laves phase precipitates were found when the creep temperature increases to 923-1023 K. Although the AL6XN steel exhibited low steady state creep rates, a high volume fraction of brittle precipitates of σ and Laves phases reduced the creep lifetime of the steel at elevated temperatures.
Creep and precipitation behaviors of AL6XN austenitic steel at elevated temperatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meng, L.J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240 (China); Sun, J., E-mail: jsun@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xing, H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240 (China)
2012-08-15
Creep behaviors of the solution-treated AL6XN austenitic stainless steel have been investigated at 873-1023 K and 120-260 MPa. The results showed that the creep stress exponent and activation energy of the AL6XN steel are 5 and 395.4 kJ/mol, respectively in the power-law breakdown regime. TEM observations revealed that dislocations distributed homogenously in grains. The creep deformation mechanism is mainly attributed to viscous dislocation glide. Precipitates in the steel after creep deformation were additionally analyzed by TEM, and the results showed that there are four different types of precipitates, such as M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, M{sub 6}C, {sigma} phase and Laves phase. The M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides were observed at grain boundaries in the steel after creep at 873 K. The M{sub 6}C, {sigma} phase and Laves phase precipitates were found when the creep temperature increases to 923-1023 K. Although the AL6XN steel exhibited low steady state creep rates, a high volume fraction of brittle precipitates of {sigma} and Laves phases reduced the creep lifetime of the steel at elevated temperatures.
Davis, J. W.; Cramer, B. A.
1976-01-01
A method of analysis was developed for predicting permanent cyclic creep deflections in stiffened panel structures. This method uses creep equations based on cyclic tensile creep tests and a computer program to predict panel deflections as a function of mission cycle. Four materials were investigated - a titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), a cobalt alloy (L605), and two nickel alloys (Rene'41 and TDNiCr). Steady-state and cyclic creep response data were obtained by testing tensile specimens fabricated from thin gage sheet (0.025 and 0.63 cm nominal). Steady-state and cyclic creep equations were developed which describe creep as a function of time, temperature and load. Tests were also performed on subsize (6.35 x 30.5 cm) rib and corrugation stiffened panels. These tests were used to correlate creep responses between elemental specimens and panels. The panel response was analyzed by use of a specially written computer program.
On the spherical nanoindentation creep of metallic glassy thin films at room temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, T.H.; Ye, J.H. [Institution of Micro/Nano-Mechanical Testing Technology & Application, College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Feng, Y.H. [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics (LNM), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Ma, Y., E-mail: may@zjut.edu.cn [Institution of Micro/Nano-Mechanical Testing Technology & Application, College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China)
2017-02-08
Metallic glassy thin films with eight kind of compositions were successfully prepared on Si substrate by magnetron sputtering. The room-temperature creep tests were performed at plastic regions for each sample relying on spherical nanoindetation. The creep deformations were studied by recording the total creep displacement and strain after 2000 s holding. More pronounced creep deformation was observed in the sample with lower glass transition temperature (T{sub g}). Strain rate sensitivity (SRS) was then calculated from the steady-state creep and exhibited a negative correlation with increasing T{sub g}. It is suggested that creep mechanism of the nano-sized metallic glass was T{sub g}-dependent, according to the demarcation of SRS values. Based on the obtained SRS, shear transformation zone (STZ) size in each sample could be estimated. The results indicated that an STZ involves about 25–60 atoms for the employed eight samples and is strongly tied to T{sub g}. The characteristic of STZ size in metallic glassy thin films was discussed in terms of applied method and deformation modes.
Microstructure and creep behavior of an orthorhombic Ti-25Al-17Nb-1Mo alloy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, J.W.; Zou, D.X.; Li, S.Q.; Lee, C.S.; Lai, J.K.L.
1998-01-01
Microstructural evolution during three heat-treatment schedules and the terminal microstructures in an orthorhombic alloy of Ti-25Al-17Nb-1Mo were observed and analyzed with optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The creep behavior of the alloy with three different microstructures (a coarse-lath, fine-lath, and fine equiaxed microstructure) was studied over a temperature range of 600 C to 750 C and over a stress range of 150 to 400 MPa in air. The steady-state creep rates, apparent stress exponents, and apparent creep activation energies of the various samples have been determined. The results show that creep behaviors in the alloy are strongly influenced by microstructure. The effect on creep by some of the microstructural features, such as the multivariants within the coarse laths and the interfaces of the laths and the equiaxed grains, is also discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deaf, G.H. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Physics; Youssef, S.B. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Physics; Mahmoud, M.A. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Physics
1996-11-16
The steady state creep behaviour of Al-16 wt% Ag and Al-16 wt% Ag-0.1 wt% Zr alloys has been studied at constant load (= 137.2 MPa) and tested at different working temperatures for samples aged at temperatures favouring the formation of {gamma}` and {gamma} precipitates. It was found that addition of Zr to Al-16 wt% Ag alloy accelerates the precipitations {gamma}` and {gamma} due to the formation of the metastable phase Al{sub 3}Zr. For both alloys, two values of activation energy have been obtained as (34 {+-} 0.3) kJ/mol for viscous glide of dislocations due to the existence of {gamma}` precipitates and (68 {+-} 0.3) kJ/mol for grain boundary diffusion due to the existence of {gamma} precipitates. TEM investigations of {gamma}` and {gamma} precipitates confirmed the above-mentioned effect of Zr addition. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ravi, S., E-mail: sravi@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Laha, K.; Mathew, M.D. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Vijayaraghavan, S.; Shanmugavel, M.; Rajan, K.K. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)
2012-08-15
The influence of flowing sodium on creep deformation and rupture behaviour of AISI 316L(N) austenitic stainless steel has been investigated at 873 K over a stress range of 235-305 MPa. The results were compared with those obtained from testing in air environment. The steady state creep rates of the material were not influenced appreciably by the testing environments. The time to onset of tertiary stage of creep deformation was delayed in sodium environment. The creep-rupture lives of the material increased in sodium environment, which became more pronounced at lower applied stresses. The increase in rupture life of the material in flowing sodium was accompanied by an increase in rupture ductility. The creep damage on specimen surface as well as inside the specimen was less in specimen tested in sodium. SEM fractographic investigation revealed predominantly transgranular dimple failure for the specimen tested in sodium, whereas predominantly intergranular creep failure was observed in the air tested specimens. Almost no oxidation was observed in the specimens creep tested in the sodium environment. Absence of oxidation and less creep damage cavitation extended the secondary state in liquid sodium tests and lead to increase in creep rupture life and ductility of the material as compared to in air.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morrow, B.M., E-mail: morrow@lanl.gov [The Ohio State University, 2041 College Rd., 477 Watts Hall, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS G755, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Kozar, R.W.; Anderson, K.R. [Bettis Laboratory, Bechtel Marine Propulsion Corp., West Mifflin, PA 15122 (United States); Mills, M.J., E-mail: millsmj@mse.osu.edu [The Ohio State University, 2041 College Rd., 477 Watts Hall, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)
2016-05-17
Several specimens of Zircaloy-4 were creep tested at a single stress-temperature condition, and interrupted at different accumulated strain levels. Substructural observations were performed using bright field scanning transmission electron microscopy (BF STEM). The dislocation substructure was characterized to ascertain how creep strain evolution impacts the Modified Jogged-Screw (MJS) model, which has previously been utilized to predict steady-state strain rates in Zircaloy-4. Special attention was paid to the evolution of individual model parameters with increasing strain. Results of model parameter measurements are reported and discussed, along with possible extensions to the MJS model.
Effect of vadose zone on the steady-state leakage rates from landfill barrier systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Celik, B.; Rowe, R.K.; Unlue, K.
2009-01-01
Leakage rates are evaluated for a landfill barrier system having a compacted clay liner (CCL) underlain by a vadose zone of variable thickness. A numerical unsaturated flow model SEEP/W is used to simulate the moisture flow regime and steady-state leakage rates for the cases of unsaturated zones with different soil types and thicknesses. The results of the simulations demonstrate that harmonic mean hydraulic conductivity of coarse textured vadose zones is 3-4 orders of magnitude less than saturated hydraulic conductivity; whereas, the difference is only one order of magnitude for fine textured vadose zones. For both coarse and fine textured vadose zones, the effective hydraulic conductivity of the barrier system and the leakage rate to an underlying aquifer increases with increasing thickness of the vadose zone and ultimately reaches an asymptotic value for a coarse textured vadose zone thickness of about 10 m and a fine textured vadose zone thickness of about 5 m. Therefore, the fine and coarse textured vadose zones thicker than about 5 m and 10 m, respectively, act as an effective part of the barrier systems examined. Although the thickness of vadose zone affects the effective hydraulic conductivity of the overall barrier system, the results demonstrated that the hydraulic conductivity of the CCL is the dominant factor controlling the steady-state leakage rates through barrier systems having single low permeability clay layers
Creep of crystals: High-temperature deformation processes in metals, ceramics and minerals
Poirier, J. P.
An introductory text describing high-temperature deformation processes in metals, ceramics, and minerals is presented. Among the specific topics discussed are: the mechanical aspects of crystal deformation; lattice defects; and phenomenological and thermodynamical analysis of quasi-steady-state creep. Consideration is also given to: dislocation creep models; the effect of hydrostatic pressure on deformation; creep polygonization; and dynamic recrystallization. The status of experimental techniques for the study of transformation plasticity in crystals is also discussed.
Strain gradient effects on steady state crack growth in rate-sensitive materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, John W.
2012-01-01
, a characteristic velocity, at which the toughness becomes independent of the rate-sensitivity, has been observed. It is the aim to bring forward a similar characteristic velocity for the current strain gradient visco-plastic model, as-well as to signify its use in future visco-plastic material modeling.......Steady state crack propagation produce substantial plastic strain gradients near the tip, which are accompanied by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and additional local strain hardening. Here, the objective is to study these gradient effects on Mode I toughness...... of a homogeneous rate-sensitive metal, using a higher order plasticity theory. Throughout, emphasis is on the toughness rate-sensitivity, as a recent numerical study of a conventional material (no gradient effects) has indicated a significant influence of both strain rate hardening and crack tip velocity. Moreover...
Contribution of uranium diffusion on creep behaviour of uranium dicarbide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurasawa, T.; Kikuchi, T.
1976-01-01
Compressive creep tests of uranium dicarbide (UC 2 ) have been conducted. The general equation best describing the creep rate over the temperature range 1200-1400 0 C and over the stress range 2000-15000psi is represented by the sum of two exponential terms d(epsilon)/dt=A(sigma/E)sup(0.9) exp(-39.6+- 1.0/RT) + B(sigma/E)sup(4.5) exp(-120.6+-1.7/RT), where pre-exponential factors are A(sigma/E)sup(0.9)=12.3/h at low stress region (3000 psi) and B(sigma/E)sup(4.5)=3.17x10 13 /h at high stress region (9000 psi), and the activation energy is given in kcal/mol. Each term of this experimental equation indicates that important processes occurring during the steady state creep are grain-boundary diffusion of the Coble model at low stress region and the Weertman dislocation climb model at high stress region. Both mechanisms are related to migration of uranium vacancies. (Auth.)
Measurement of non-steady-state free fatty acid turnover
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jensen, M.D.; Heiling, V.; Miles, J.M.
1990-01-01
The accuracy of non-steady-state equations for measuring changes in free fatty acid rate of appearance (Ra) is unknown. In the present study, endogenous lipolysis (traced with [ 14 C]-linoleate) was pharmacologically suppressed in six conscious mongrel dogs. A computer-responsive infusion pump was then used to deliver an intravenous oleic acid emulsion in both constant and linear gradient infusion modes. Both non-steady-state equations with various effective volumes of distribution (V) and steady-state equations were used to measure oleate Ra [( 14 C]oleate). Endogenous lipolysis did not change during the experiment. When oleate Ra increased in a linear gradient fashion, only non-steady-state equations with a large (150 ml/kg) V resulted in erroneous values (9% overestimate, P less than 0.05). In contrast, when oleate Ra decreased in a similar fashion, steady-state and standard non-steady-state equations (V = plasma volume = 50 ml/kg) overestimated total oleate Ra (18 and 7%, P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.05, respectively). Overall, non-steady-state equations with an effective V of 90 ml/kg (1.8 x plasma volume) allowed the most accurate estimates of oleate Ra
A planar model study of creep in metal matrix composites with misaligned short fibres
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, N.J.
1993-01-01
The effect of fibre misalignment on the creep behaviour of metal matrix composites is modelled, including hardening behaviour (stage 1), dynamic recovery and steady state creep (stage 2) of the matrix material, using an internal variable constitutive model for the creep behaviour of the metal...... matrix. Numerical plane strain results in terms of average properties and detailed local deformation behaviour up to large strains are needed to show effects of fibre misalignment on the development of inelastic strains and the resulting over-all creep resistance of the material. The creep resistance...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, T.A.
2007-01-01
Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The methodology of flammability analysis for Hanford tank waste is developed. The hydrogen generation rate model was applied to calculate the gas generation rate for 177 tanks. Flammability concentrations and the time to reach 25% and 100% of the lower flammability limit, and the minimum ventilation rate to keep from 100 of the LFL are calculated for 177 tanks at various scenarios.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Y.Y.; Zawadzki, S.; Billone, M.C.; Nayak, U.P.; Roth, T.
1979-01-01
The methodology used to develop the LMFBR carbide/nitride fuels code, LIFE4-CN, is described in detail along with some subtleties encountered in code development. Fuel primary and steady-state thermal creep have been used as an example to illustrate the need for physical modeling and the need to recognize the importance of the materials characteristics. A self-consistent strategy for LIFE4-CN verification against irradiation data has been outlined with emphasis on the establishment of the gross uncertainty bands. These gross uncertainty bands can be used as an objective measure to gauge the overall success of the code predictions. Preliminary code predictions for sample steady-state and transient cases are given
The Formation of Multipoles during the High-Temperature Creep of Austenitic Stainless Steels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Howell, J.; Nielsson, O.; Horsewell, Andy
1981-01-01
It is shown that multipole dislocation configurations can arise during power-law creep of certain austenitic stainless steels. These multipoles have been analysed in some detail for two particular steels (Alloy 800 and a modified AISI 316L) and it is suggested that they arise either during...... instantaneous loading or during the primary creep stage. Trace analysis has shown that the multipoles are confined to {1 1 1} planes during primary creep but are not necessarily confined to these planes during steady-state creep unless they are pinned by interstitials....
Steady state compact toroidal plasma production
Turner, William C.
1986-01-01
Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.
Study of creep behaviour in P-doped copper with slow strain rate tensile tests
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xuexing Yao; Sandstroem, Rolf
2000-08-01
Pure copper with addition of phosphorous is planned to be used to construct the canisters for spent nuclear fuel. The copper canisters can be exposed to a creep deformation up to 2-4% at temperatures in services. The ordinary creep strain tests with dead weight loading are generally employed to study the creep behaviour; however, it is reported that an initial plastic deformation of 5-15% takes place when loading the creep specimens at lower temperatures. The slow strain rate tensile test is an alternative to study creep deformation behaviour of materials. Ordinary creep test and slow strain rate tensile test can give the same information in the secondary creep stage. The advantage of the tensile test is that the starting phase is much more controlled than in a creep test. In a tensile test the initial deformation behaviour can be determined and the initial strain of less than 5% can be modelled. In this study slow strain rate tensile tests at strain rate of 10 -4 , 10 -5 , 10 -6 , and 10 -7 /s at 75, 125 and 175 degrees C have been performed on P-doped pure Cu to supplement creep data from conventional creep tests. The deformation behaviour has successfully been modelled. It is shown that the slow strain rate tensile tests can be implemented to study the creep deformation behaviours of pure Cu
Steady state flow evaluations for passive auxiliary feedwater system of APR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jongha; Kim, Jaeyul; Seong, Hoje; Kang, Kyoungho
2012-01-01
This paper briefly introduces a methodology to evaluate steady state flow of APR+ Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS). The PAFS is being developed as a safety grade passive system to completely replace the existing active Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS). Natural circulation cooling can be generally classified into the single-phase, two-phase, and boiling-condensation modes. The PAF is designed to be operated in a boiling-condensation natural circulation mode. The steady-state flow rate should be equal to the steady-state boiling/condensation rate determined by the steady-state energy and momentum balances in the PAFS. The determined steady-state flow rate can be used in the design optimization for the natural circulation loop of the PAFS through the steady-state momentum balance. Since the retarding force, which is to be balanced by the driving force in the natural circulation system design depends on the reliable evaluation of the success of a natural circulation system design depends on the reliable evaluation of the pressure loss coefficients. In PAFS, the core decay heat is released by natural circulation flow between the S G secondary side and the Passive Condensation Heat Exchanger (PCHX) that is immersed in the Passive Condensation Cooling Tank (PCCT). The PCCT is located on the top of Auxiliary building The driving force is determined by the difference between the S/G (heat Source) secondary water level and condensation liquid (heat sink) level. It will overcome retarding force at flowrate in the system, which is determined by vaporization and condensation of the steam which is generated at the S/G by the latent heat in system. In this study, the theoretical method to estimate the steady state flow rate in boiling-condensation natural circulation system is developed and compared with test results
The steady-state tokamak program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Politzer, D.A.; Nevins, W.M.
1992-01-01
This paper reports on a steady-state tokamak experiment (STE) needed to develop the technology and physics data base required for construction of a steady-state fusion power demonstration reactor in the early 21st century. The STE will provide an integrated facility for the development and demonstration of steady-state and particle handling, low-activation high-heat-flux components and materials, efficient current drive, and continuous plasma performance in steady-state, with reactor-like plasma conditions under severe conditions of heat and particle bombardment of the wall. The STE facility will also be used to develop operation and control scenarios for ITER
The creep behavior of In-Ag eutectic solder joints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reynolds, H.L.; Kang, S.H.; Morris, J.W. Jr.; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA
1999-01-01
The addition of 3 wt.% Ag to In results in a eutectic composition with improved mechanical properties while only slightly lowering the melting temperature. Steady-state creep properties of In-Ag eutectic solder joints have been measured using constant load tests at 0, 30, 60, and 90 C. Constitutive equations are derived to describe the creep behavior. The data are well represented by an equation of the form proposed by Dorn: a power-law equation applies to each independent creep mechanism. Two parallel mechanisms were observed for the In-Ag eutectic joints. The high-stress mechanism is a bulk mechanism with a thermal dependence dominated by the thermal dependence of creep in the In-rich matrix. The low-stress mechanism is a grain boundary mechanism. Results of this work are discussed with regard to creep behavior of typical eutectic systems
Creep in single crystals of γ single phase Ni-20Cr alloy and evolution of dynamic recrystallization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuo, T.; Terada, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Ishiwari, Y.
2000-01-01
The creep rate - time and the creep rate - strain curves of the single crystals of γ single phase Ni-20 mass%Cr alloy have been investigated at 1173 K under the wide stress range of 19.6 to 98 MPa, and compared with those of polycrystals. The orientation corresponding to the stress axis of the single crystals were chosen within the standard stereographic triangle. The creep curve in the Ni-20 mass%Cr single crystal consists of a transient stage and an accelerating stage without a steady state stage. The transient stage has two steps. In the first step, the creep rate slightly decreases, and in the second step, the decrease in creep rate becomes prominent with increasing the testing time. With decreasing the stress, the extension of transient stage becomes prominent, and by this extension, the decreasing ratio of the creep rate in transient stage is enlarged. At the lowest stress of 19.6 MPa, the most prominent extension of transient stage and the more than two order decrease in creep rate in transient stage are detected. The creep interrupting tests have been conducted at the stress of 29.4 MPa in the strain range of 0.1 to 0.6 to examine the appearance of dynamically recrystallized grains. At the strain of 0.1 corresponding to the end of the first step in transient stage, a straight subboundary parallel to slip plane appears in a wide distance of a few hundreds micrometers. With increasing the strain, the straight subboundary turns to waved one. At the strain showing the minimum creep rate, a lot of evolved subgrains appear. At the strain corresponding to the early stage of accelerating creep, dynamically recrystallized grains appear. It is confirmed that the onset of accelerating creep well corresponds to the appearance of dynamically recrystallized grains. In the single crystal creep ruptured, the whole gage portion turns to polycrystal with equiaxed grains having a diameter of 150 μm. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Yong; Ge, Hao; Xiong, Jie; Xu, Lihu
2016-01-01
Fluctuation theorem is one of the major achievements in the field of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics during the past two decades. There exist very few results for steady-state fluctuation theorem of sample entropy production rate in terms of large deviation principle for diffusion processes due to the technical difficulties. Here we give a proof for the steady-state fluctuation theorem of a diffusion process in magnetic fields, with explicit expressions of the free energy function and rate function. The proof is based on the Karhunen-Loève expansion of complex-valued Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, Peder; Segle, Peter; Samuelson, Lars Aa.
1999-04-01
A 3D finite element study of creep crack growth in cross-weld CT specimens with material properties of 2.25Cr1Mo at 550 deg C is carried out, where large strain and displacement theory is used. The creep crack growth rate is calculated using a creep ductility based damage model, in which the creep strain rate perpendicular to the crack plane ahead of the crack tip is integrated, considering the multiaxial stress state. The influence of specimen size on creep crack growth rate under constant load is given special attention, but the possibility to transfer results from cross-weld CT specimens to welded high temperature components is also investigated. The creep crack growth rate of a crack in a circumferentially welded pipe is compared with the creep crack growth rate of cross-weld CT specimens of three different sizes, cut out from the pipe. Although the constraint ahead of the crack tip is higher for a larger CT specimen, the creep crack growth rate is higher for a smaller specimen than for a larger one if they are loaded to attain the same stress intensity factor. If the specimens are loaded to the same C* value, however, a more complicated pattern occurs; depending on the material properties of the weldment constituents, the CT specimen with the intermediate size will either yield the highest or the lowest creep crack growth rate
Asymptotics of steady states of a selection–mutation equation for small mutation rate
Calsina, Àngel
2013-12-01
We consider a selection-mutation equation for the density of individuals with respect to a continuous phenotypic evolutionary trait. We assume that the competition term for an individual with a given trait depends on the traits of all the other individuals, therefore giving an infinite-dimensional nonlinearity. Mutations are modelled by means of an integral operator. We prove existence of steady states and show that, when the mutation rate goes to zero, the asymptotic profile of the population is a Cauchy distribution. © Royal Society of Edinburgh 2013.
Asymptotics of steady states of a selection–mutation equation for small mutation rate
Calsina, À ngel; Cuadrado, Sí lvia; Desvillettes, Laurent; Raoul, Gaë l
2013-01-01
We consider a selection-mutation equation for the density of individuals with respect to a continuous phenotypic evolutionary trait. We assume that the competition term for an individual with a given trait depends on the traits of all the other individuals, therefore giving an infinite-dimensional nonlinearity. Mutations are modelled by means of an integral operator. We prove existence of steady states and show that, when the mutation rate goes to zero, the asymptotic profile of the population is a Cauchy distribution. © Royal Society of Edinburgh 2013.
Irradiation creep transients in Ni-4 at.% Si
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagakawa, J.
1983-01-01
In the course of irradiation creep experiments on Ni-4 at.% Si alloy, two types of creep transients were observed on the termination of irradiation. The short term transient was completed within one minute while the long term transient persisted for nearly ten hours. A change in the temperature distribution was excluded from the possible causes, partly because the stress dependence of the observed transient strains was not linear, and partly because the strain increase expected from the temperature change was much smaller than the observed value. Transient behavior of point defects was examined in conjunction with the climb-glide mechanism and the steady-state irradiation creep data. Calculated creep transient due to excess vacancy flux to dislocations was in good agreement with the observed short term transient. The long term transient appears to be a result of dislocation microstructure change. The present results suggest an enhanced irradiation creep under cyclic irradiation conditions which will be encountered in the early generations of fusion reactors. (orig.)
The anisotropic creep behaviour of zircaloy-4 fuel cladding at 1073 K
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosinger, H.E.; Bowden, J.; Shewfelt, R.S.W.
1982-04-01
The anisotropy coefficients (F, G and H) of Hill's equation, suitably modified for creep deformation, have been determined for Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding from steady-state creep tests at an elevated temperature. Creep specimens were subjected to both uniaxial and biaxial loads (via internal pressure) at 1073 K and the strain measured concurrently in the axial and tangential directions. It has been found that Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding is almost, but not completely, isotropic at 1073 K; the values of F, G and H are 0.57, 0.48 and 0.45 respectively
Complex finite element sensitivity method for creep analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez-Farias, Armando; Montoya, Arturo; Millwater, Harry
2015-01-01
The complex finite element method (ZFEM) has been extended to perform sensitivity analysis for mechanical and structural systems undergoing creep deformation. ZFEM uses a complex finite element formulation to provide shape, material, and loading derivatives of the system response, providing an insight into the essential factors which control the behavior of the system as a function of time. A complex variable-based quadrilateral user element (UEL) subroutine implementing the power law creep constitutive formulation was incorporated within the Abaqus commercial finite element software. The results of the complex finite element computations were verified by comparing them to the reference solution for the steady-state creep problem of a thick-walled cylinder in the power law creep range. A practical application of the ZFEM implementation to creep deformation analysis is the calculation of the skeletal point of a notched bar test from a single ZFEM run. In contrast, the standard finite element procedure requires multiple runs. The value of the skeletal point is that it identifies the location where the stress state is accurate, regardless of the certainty of the creep material properties. - Highlights: • A novel finite element sensitivity method (ZFEM) for creep was introduced. • ZFEM has the capability to calculate accurate partial derivatives. • ZFEM can be used for identification of the skeletal point of creep structures. • ZFEM can be easily implemented in a commercial software, e.g. Abaqus. • ZFEM results were shown to be in excellent agreement with analytical solutions
Microstructure in Zircaloy Creep Tested in the R2 Reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pettersson, Kjell
2004-12-01
obstacles to glide. The deformation rate thus decreases with irradiation dose, leading to a primary creep stage. However, finally the loop density saturates after which a steady state creep rate is established
Biaxial creep behavior of ribbed GCFR cladding at 6500C in nominally pure helium (99.99%)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yaggee, F.L.; Purohit, A.; Grajek, W.J.; Peoppel, R.B.
1977-11-01
Biaxial creep-rupture tests were conducted on 12 prototypic GCFR fuel-cladding specimens at 650 0 C and a nominal hoop stress of 241.3 MPa. All test specimens were fabricated from 20% cold-worked Type 316 stainless steel tubes that were ribbed on the outer surface by mechanical grinding or electro-chemical etching. Test variables included specimen length and the presence or absence of weld-reinforcing end collars. Test results have indicated that, compared with data on smooth specimens, ribbing has no detrimental effect on creep-rupture lifetime. Specimens fabricated from tubes ribbed by electrochemical etching exhibit a significantly shorter creep-rupture lifetime and a higher secondary (steady-state) creep rate than specimens fabricated from tubes ribbed by mechanical grinding. Specimen length does not strongly affect creep-rupture lifetime, but the presence of an end collar does exhibit a significant influence on both the axial strain profile and the ratio of maximum diametral strain at the failure site to average diametral strain away from the failure site. The ribs do not inhibit the propagation of fissure or rupture failures
Correct Interpretation of Creep Rates: A Case Study of Cu
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Blum, W.; Dvořák, Jiří; Král, Petr; Eisenlohr, P.; Sklenička, V.
2015-01-01
Roč. 31, č. 11 (2015), s. 1065-1068 ISSN 1005-0302 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Cu * Creep * Minimum creep rate * Activation energy * Stress exponent Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.267, year: 2015
Wear and creep of highly crosslinked polyethylene against cobalt chrome and ceramic femoral heads.
Galvin, A L; Jennings, L M; Tipper, J L; Ingham, E; Fisher, J
2010-10-01
The wear and creep characteristics of highly crosslinked ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) articulating against large-diameter (36mm) ceramic and cobalt chrome femoral heads have been investigated in a physiological anatomical hip joint simulator for 10 million cycles. The crosslinked UHMWPE/ceramic combination showed higher volume deformation due to creep plus wear during the first 2 million cycles, and a steady-state wear rate 40 per cent lower than that of the crosslinked UHMWPE/cobalt chrome combination. Wear particles were isolated and characterized from the hip simulator lubricants. The wear particles were similar in size and morphology for both head materials. The particle isolation methodology used could not detect a statistically significant difference between the particles produced by the cobalt chrome and alumina ceramic femoral heads.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Akihiro; Yabana, Shuichi
2000-01-01
In this report, to evaluate creep properties and effects of creep deformation on mechanical properties of thick rubber bearings for three-dimensional isolation system, we show results of compression creep test for rubber bearings of various rubber materials and shapes and development of numerical simulation method. Creep properties of thick rubber bearings were obtained from compression creep tests. The creep strain shows steady creep that have logarithmic relationships between strain and time and accelerated creep that have linear relationships. We make numerical model of a rubber material with nonlinear viscoelastic constitutional equations. Mechanical properties after creep loading test are simulated with enough accuracy. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, F.Q.; Xue, H.; Zhao, L.Y.; Fang, X.R.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Creep is considered to be the primary mechanical factor of crack tip film degradation. • The prediction model of SCC rate is based on crack tip creep strain rate. • The SCC rate calculated at the secondary stage of creep is recommended. • The effect of stress intensity factor on SCC growth rate is discussed. - Abstract: The quantitative prediction of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of structure materials is essential in safety assessment of nuclear power plants. A new quantitative prediction model is proposed by combining the Ford–Andresen model, a crack tip creep model and an elastic–plastic finite element method. The creep at the crack tip is considered to be the primary mechanical factor of protective film degradation, and the creep strain rate at the crack tip is suggested as primary mechanical factor in predicting the SCC rate. The SCC rates at secondary stage of creep are recommended when using the approach introduced in this study to predict the SCC rates of materials in high temperature water. The proposed approach can be used to understand the SCC crack growth in structural materials of light water reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beshai, M.H.N. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Physics; Deaf, G.H. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Physics; Abd El Khalek, A.M. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Physics; Graiss, G. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Physics; Kenawy, M.A. [Physics Dept., University Coll. for Women, Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt)
1997-05-16
Torsional oscillations of increasing frequencies with constant torsional strain amplitude, {theta}, of 3.1 x 10{sup -4} were superimposed on wires of Al-1 wt% Si and Al-1 wt% Si-0.1 wt% Zr-0.1 wt% Ti alloys, while being crept under constant stress (52.3 MPa) and different testing temperatures. It was found that increasing the frequency of oscillations resulted in an increase of both transient and steady state creep. In the transient stage, while the exponent n is increasing with frequency v, the parameter {beta} decreases. Zirconium and titanium addition generally reduced the rate of creep. A value of 20 kJ/mol was found for the activation energy of the mechanism operating in the transient and steady state stages which was ascribed as being due to dislocation intersection. (orig.)
Biaxial creep behavior of ribbed GCFR cladding at 650/sup 0/C in nominally pure helium (99. 99%)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yaggee, F. L.; Purohit, A.; Grajek, W. J.; Peoppel, R. B.
1977-11-01
Biaxial creep-rupture tests were conducted on 12 prototypic GCFR fuel-cladding specimens at 650/sup 0/C and a nominal hoop stress of 241.3 MPa. All test specimens were fabricated from 20% cold-worked Type 316 stainless steel tubes that were ribbed on the outer surface by mechanical grinding or electro-chemical etching. Test variables included specimen length and the presence or absence of weld-reinforcing end collars. Test results have indicated that, compared with data on smooth specimens, ribbing has no detrimental effect on creep-rupture lifetime. Specimens fabricated from tubes ribbed by electrochemical etching exhibit a significantly shorter creep-rupture lifetime and a higher secondary (steady-state) creep rate than specimens fabricated from tubes ribbed by mechanical grinding. Specimen length does not strongly affect creep-rupture lifetime, but the presence of an end collar does exhibit a significant influence on both the axial strain profile and the ratio of maximum diametral strain at the failure site to average diametral strain away from the failure site. The ribs do not inhibit the propagation of fissure or rupture failures.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bubáková, Petra; Pivokonský, Martin; Filip, Petr
2013-01-01
Roč. 235, February (2013), s. 540-549 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/11/0247 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : aggregation * aggregate size * fractal dimension * shear rate * steady state * time evolution Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.269, year: 2013
Measurement test on creep strain rate of uranium-zirconium solid solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogata, Takanari; Akabori, Mitsuo; Ogawa, Toru
1996-11-01
In order to measure creep strain rate of a small specimen of U-Zr solid solution, authors proposed an estimation method which was based upon the stress relaxation after compression. It was applied to measurement test on creep strain rate of the U-10wt%Zr specimen in the temperature range of 757 to 911degC. It may be concluded that the proposed method is valid, provided that the strain is within the appropriate range and that sufficient amount of the load decrement is observed. The obtained creep rate of U-10wt%Zr alloy indicated significantly smaller value, compared to the experimental data for pure U metal and evaluated data for U-Pu-Zr alloy. However, more careful measurement is desired in future since the present data are thought to be influenced by the precipitations included in the specimen. (author)
Creep analysis of boiler tubes by fem | Taye | Zede Journal
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper an analysis is developed for the determination of creep deformation of an axisymmetric boiler tubes subjected to axisymmetric loads. The stresses and the permanent strains at a particular time and at the steady state condition, resulting from loading of the tube under constant internal pressure and elevated ...
Creep analysis of orthotropic shells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehra, V.K.; Ghosh, A.
1975-01-01
A method of creep analysis of orthotropic cylindrical shells subjected to axisymmetric loads has been developed. A general study of creep behaviour of cylindrical shells subjected to a uniform internal pressure has been conducted for a wide range of values of anisotropy coefficients and creep law exponent. Analysis includes determination of stress re-distribution, strain rates, stationary state stresses. Application of reference stress technique has been extended to analysis of shells. (author)
Irradiation creep, stress relaxation and a mechanical equation of state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foster, J.P.
1976-01-01
Irradiation creep and stress relaxation data are available from the United Kingdom for 20 percent CW M316, 20 percent CW FV 548 and FHT PE16 using pure torsion in the absence of swelling at 300 0 C. Irradiation creep models were used to calculate the relaxation and permanent deflection of the stress relaxation tests. Two relationships between irradiation creep and stress relaxation were assessed by comparing the measured and calculated stress relaxation and permanent deflection. The results show that for M316 and FV548, the stress relaxation and deflection may be calculated using irradiation creep models when the stress rate term arising from the irradiation creep model is set equal to zero. In the case of PE16, the inability to calculate the stress relaxation and permanent deflection from the irradiation creep data was attributed to differences in creep behavior arising from lot-to-lot variations in alloying elements and impurity content. A modification of the FV548 and PE16 irradiation creep coefficients was necessary in order to calculate the stress relaxation and deflection. The modifications in FV548 and PE16 irradiation creep properties reduces the large variation in the transient or incubation parameter predicted by irradiation creep tests for M316, FV548 and PE16
Creep of ex-service AISI-316H steel at very low strain rates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kloc, Lubos; Sklenicka, Vaclav [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno (Czech Republic). Inst. of Physics of Materials; Spindler, Michael [British Energy Generation, Barbwood, Gloucester (United Kingdom)
2010-07-01
The creep response of ex-service Type 316H austenitic steel was investigated at temperatures from 470 to 550 C and stresses from 80 to 120 MPa. These conditions lead to very low strain rates. Both helicoid spring specimen tests and conventional uniaxial creep tests were used to measure these very low creep strains. An internal stress model was used to analyse the creep curves and the results were compared to creep curves obtained on a Type 316H in the as-received condition, which for austenitic steels is after solution heat treatment. The creep behavior of the ex-service steel was very similar to that of the as-received steel. Thus, no creep damage or significant change of microstructure was detected during the service period of 65,000 hours at {proportional_to} 520 C. It was found that the helicoid spring specimen technique provides results compatible with that of conventional creep tests, but with superior accuracy with very low creep strains. (orig.)
steady – state performance of induction and transfer state
African Journals Online (AJOL)
eobe
This paper presents paper presents paper presents the steady the steady the steady–state performance state performance state performance comparison comparison comparison between polyphase induction motor and polyphase between polyphase induction motor and polyphase. TF motor operating in. TF motor ...
Mathematic modeling of reactor fuel radiation creep at example of uranium and its alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasov, V.A.
2001-01-01
The model of a radiation creep is explained within the framework of the mechanism of gliding and climbing dislocations based on the conception of a dislocation as not ideal sink for point radiation defects (PRD). The offered model is efficient for installed concentration PRD, considerably exceeding thermally steady state concentration. The gliding of dislocation are describing as due to moving dislocation kinks in Peierl's relief. The climbing of dislocation are describing as due to moving dislocation jogs. The mathematical model for the computer program simulating the offered model of radiation creep is developed. The complex of the computer programs simulating the radiation creep is developed. The computer simulation researches are conducted and the outcomes of a research of a kinetics of a flexible sliding and climbing dislocation interacting to obstacles of a various type (spherical centre of extension, dislocation prismatic loop and their spatially random distributions) for various installed concentration PRD, external loadings and temperatures are represented. The curves of installed rate of a radiation creep from temperature for uranium and its alloys with small additions of molybdenum (from 0,9 to 1,3 %) are obtained
Guarini, J.-M.; Chauvaud, Laurent; Cloern, J.E.; Clavier, J.; Coston-Guarini, J.; Patry, Y.
2011-01-01
Generally, growth rates of living organisms are considered to be at steady state, varying only under environmental forcing factors. For example, these rates may be described as a function of light for plants or organic food resources for animals and these could be regulated (or not) by temperature or other conditions. But, what are the consequences for an individual's growth (and also for the population growth) if growth rate variations are themselves dynamic and not steady state? For organisms presenting phases of dormancy or long periods of stress, this is a crucial question. A dynamic perspective for quantifying short-term growth was explored using the daily growth record of the scallop Pecten maximus (L.). This species is a good biological model for ectotherm growth because the shell records growth striae daily. Independently, a generic mathematical function representing the dynamics of mean daily growth rate (MDGR) was implemented to simulate a diverse set of growth patterns. Once the function was calibrated with the striae patterns, the growth rate dynamics appeared as a forced damped oscillation during the growth period having a basic periodicity during two transitory phases (mean duration 43. days) and appearing at both growth start and growth end. This phase is most likely due to the internal dynamics of energy transfer within the organism rather than to external forcing factors. After growth restart, the transitory regime represents successive phases of over-growth and regulation. This pattern corresponds to a typical representation of compensatory growth, which from an evolutionary perspective can be interpreted as an adaptive strategy to coping with a fluctuating environment. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Creep and creep fatigue crack behavior of 1Cr- and 9Cr-steels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maile, K.; Klenk, A.; Schellenberg, G.; Granacher, J.; Tramer, M.
2000-01-01
A large database for creep crack initiation and propagation under constant load conditions is available on conventional power plant steels of types 1%Cr and 12%Cr. Modern plants are often used in the medium and peak load regime, thus the dominant loading situation in high temperature components is creep fatigue. For life assessment data about crack initiation and growth under creep fatigue loading are required. These characteristics can not be substituted by pure fatigue or creep crack data. Therefore, a comprehensive test programme was started to investigate the creep fatigue crack behaviour of a 1%CrMoNiV turbine rotor steel (30CrMoNiV 4 11) at 550 C and a new 9%CrMoVNb pipe steel (type P 9 1) at 600 C. DENT-specimen with 15 and 60 mm thickness as well as side grooved CT-specimen with 25 and 50 mm thickness have been tested to determine possible influences of geometry and thus to check the transferability of the data to components. The creep fatigue crack growth results of tests with dwell times between t H = 0,32h and 10 h lie in the scatterbands given by creep crack growth results. Nevertheless a higher crack growth rate under creep fatigue conditions can be stated. An increase in crack growth rate due to creep fatigue is clearly visible. Loading situations with frequencies higher than 1.10 -4 Hz should be not assessed with pure creep crack results or sufficient safety margins have to be applied. (orig.)
Bosma, T; Pikkemaat, MG; Kingma, Jacob; Dijk, J; Janssen, DB
2003-01-01
Haloalkane dehalogenase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 (DhaA) catalyzes the hydrolysis of carbon-halogen bonds in a wide range of haloalkanes. We examined the steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics of halopropane conversion by DhaA to illuminate mechanistic details of the
Pseudo Steady-State Free Precession for MR-Fingerprinting.
Assländer, Jakob; Glaser, Steffen J; Hennig, Jürgen
2017-03-01
This article discusses the signal behavior in the case the flip angle in steady-state free precession sequences is continuously varied as suggested for MR-fingerprinting sequences. Flip angle variations prevent the establishment of a steady state and introduce instabilities regarding to magnetic field inhomogeneities and intravoxel dephasing. We show how a pseudo steady state can be achieved, which restores the spin echo nature of steady-state free precession. Based on geometrical considerations, relationships between the flip angle, repetition and echo time are derived that suffice to the establishment of a pseudo steady state. The theory is tested with Bloch simulations as well as phantom and in vivo experiments. A typical steady-state free precession passband can be restored with the proposed conditions. The stability of the pseudo steady state is demonstrated by comparing the evolution of the signal of a single isochromat to one resulting from a spin ensemble. As confirmed by experiments, magnetization in a pseudo steady state can be described with fewer degrees of freedom compared to the original fingerprinting and the pseudo steady state results in more reliable parameter maps. The proposed conditions restore the spin-echo-like signal behavior typical for steady-state free precession in fingerprinting sequences, making this approach more robust to B 0 variations. Magn Reson Med 77:1151-1161, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Yongky, Andrew; Lee, Jongchan; Le, Tung; Mulukutla, Bhanu Chandra; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Hu, Wei-Shou
2015-07-01
Continuous culture for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins offers the possibility of steady state operations and thus more consistent product quality and increased productivity. Under some conditions, multiplicity of steady states has been observed in continuous cultures of mammalian cells, wherein with the same dilution rate and feed nutrient composition, steady states with very different cell and product concentrations may be reached. At those different steady states, cells may exhibit a high glycolysis flux with high lactate production and low cell concentration, or a low glycolysis flux with low lactate and high cell concentration. These different steady states, with different cell concentration, also have different productivity. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the occurrence of steady state multiplicity and devising a strategy to steer the culture toward the desired steady state is critical. We establish a multi-scale kinetic model that integrates a mechanistic intracellular metabolic model and cell growth model in a continuous bioreactor. We show that steady state multiplicity exists in a range of dilution rate in continuous culture as a result of the bistable behavior in glycolysis. The insights from the model were used to devise strategies to guide the culture to the desired steady state in the multiple steady state region. The model provides a guideline principle in the design of continuous culture processes of mammalian cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Assessing Quasi-Steady State in Evaporation of Sessile Drops by Diffusion Models
Martin, Cameron; Nguyen, Hoa; Kelly-Zion, Peter; Pursell, Chris
2017-11-01
The vapor distributions surrounding sessile drops of methanol are modeled as the solutions of the steady-state and transient diffusion equations using Matlab's PDE Toolbox. The goal is to determine how quickly the transient diffusive transport reaches its quasi-steady state as the droplet geometry is varied between a Weber's disc, a real droplet shape, and a spherical cap with matching thickness or contact angle. We assume that the only transport mechanism at work is diffusion. Quasi-steady state is defined using several metrics, such as differences between the transient and steady-state solutions, and change in the transient solution over time. Knowing the vapor distribution, the gradient is computed to evaluate the diffusive flux. The flux is integrated along the surface of a control volume surrounding the drop to obtain the net rate of diffusion out of the volume. Based on the differences between the transient and steady-state diffusive fluxes at the discrete points along the control-volume surface, the time to reach quasi-steady state evaporation is determined and is consistent with other proposed measurements. By varying the dimensions of the control volume, we can also assess what regimes have equivalent or different quasi-steady states for different droplet geometries. Petroleum Research Fund.
Multimode optical fibers: steady state mode exciter.
Ikeda, M; Sugimura, A; Ikegami, T
1976-09-01
The steady state mode power distribution of the multimode graded index fiber was measured. A simple and effective steady state mode exciter was fabricated by an etching technique. Its insertion loss was 0.5 dB for an injection laser. Deviation in transmission characteristics of multimode graded index fibers can be avoided by using the steady state mode exciter.
The Greenville Fault: preliminary estimates of its long-term creep rate and seismic potential
Lienkaemper, James J.; Barry, Robert G.; Smith, Forrest E.; Mello, Joseph D.; McFarland, Forrest S.
2013-01-01
Once assumed locked, we show that the northern third of the Greenville fault (GF) creeps at 2 mm/yr, based on 47 yr of trilateration net data. This northern GF creep rate equals its 11-ka slip rate, suggesting a low strain accumulation rate. In 1980, the GF, easternmost strand of the San Andreas fault system east of San Francisco Bay, produced a Mw5.8 earthquake with a 6-km surface rupture and dextral slip growing to ≥2 cm on cracks over a few weeks. Trilateration shows a 10-cm post-1980 transient slip ending in 1984. Analysis of 2000-2012 crustal velocities on continuous global positioning system stations, allows creep rates of ~2 mm/yr on the northern GF, 0-1 mm/yr on the central GF, and ~0 mm/yr on its southern third. Modeled depth ranges of creep along the GF allow 5-25% aseismic release. Greater locking in the southern two thirds of the GF is consistent with paleoseismic evidence there for large late Holocene ruptures. Because the GF lacks large (>1 km) discontinuities likely to arrest higher (~1 m) slip ruptures, we expect full-length (54-km) ruptures to occur that include the northern creeping zone. We estimate sufficient strain accumulation on the entire GF to produce Mw6.9 earthquakes with a mean recurrence of ~575 yr. While the creeping 16-km northern part has the potential to produce a Mw6.2 event in 240 yr, it may rupture in both moderate (1980) and large events. These two-dimensional-model estimates of creep rate along the southern GF need verification with small aperture surveys.
STEADY-STATE RELATIVISTIC STELLAR DYNAMICS AROUND A MASSIVE BLACK HOLE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bar-Or, Ben; Alexander, Tal [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, P.O. Box 26, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)
2016-04-01
A massive black hole (MBH) consumes stars whose orbits evolve into the small phase-space volume of unstable orbits, the “loss cone,” which take them into the MBH, or close enough to interact strongly with it. The resulting phenomena, e.g., tidal heating and disruption, binary capture and hyper-velocity star ejection, gravitational wave (GW) emission by inspiraling compact remnants, or hydrodynamical interactions with an accretion disk, can produce observable signatures and thereby reveal the MBH, affect its mass and spin evolution, test strong gravity, and probe stars and gas near the MBH. These continuous stellar loss and resupply processes shape the central stellar distribution. We investigate relativistic stellar dynamics near the loss cone of a non-spinning MBH in steady state, analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations of the diffusion of the orbital parameters. These take into account Newtonian mass precession due to enclosed stellar mass, in-plane precession due to general relativity, dissipation by GW, uncorrelated two-body relaxation, correlated resonant relaxation (RR), and adiabatic invariance due to secular precession, using a rigorously derived description of correlated post-Newtonian dynamics in the diffusion limit. We argue that general maximal entropy considerations strongly constrain the orbital diffusion in steady state, irrespective of the relaxation mechanism. We identify the exact phase-space separatrix between plunges and inspirals, and predict their steady-state rates. We derive the dependence of the rates on the mass of the MBH, show that the contribution of RR in steady state is small, and discuss special cases where unquenched RR in restricted volumes of phase-space may affect the steady state substantially.
Description of Concrete Creep under Time-Varying Stress Using Parallel Creep Curve
Park, Yeong-Seong; Lee, Yong-Hak; Lee, Youngwhan
2016-01-01
An incremental format of creep model was presented to take account of the development of concrete creep due to loading at different ages. The formulation was attained by introducing a horizontal parallel assumption of creep curves and combining it with the vertical parallel creep curve of the rate of creep method to remedy the disadvantage of the rate of creep method that significantly underestimates the amount of creep strain, regardless of its simple format. Two creep curves were combined b...
Creep properties of discontinuous fibre composites with partly creeping fibres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilde-Soerensen, J.B.; Lilholt, H.
1977-05-01
In a previous report (RISO-M-1810) the creep properties of discontinuous fibre composites with non-creeping fibres were analyzed. In the present report this analysis is extended to include the case of discontinuous composites with partly creeping fibres. It is shown that the creep properties of the composite at a given strain rate, epsilonsub(c), depend on the creep properties of the matrix at a strain rate higher than epsilonsub(c), and on the creep properties of the fibres at epsilonsub(c). The composite creep law is presented in a form which permits a graphical determination of the composite creep curve. This can be constructed on the basis of the matrix and the fibre creep curves by vector operations in a log epsilon vs. log sigma diagram. The matrix contribution to the creep strength can be evaluated by a simple method. (author)
Steady-state solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride
Peppin, S. S. L.; Huppert, Herbert E.; Worster, M. Grae
We report on a series of experiments in which a Hele-Shaw cell containing aqueous solutions of NH4Cl was translated at prescribed rates through a steady temperature gradient. The salt formed the primary solid phase of a mushy layer as the solution solidified, with the salt-depleted residual fluid driving buoyancy-driven convection and the development of chimneys in the mushy layer. Depending on the operating conditions, several morphological transitions occurred. A regime diagram is presented quantifying these transitions as a function of freezing rate and the initial concentration of the solution. In general, for a given concentration, increasing the freezing rate caused the steady-state system to change from a convecting mushy layer with chimneys to a non-convecting mushy layer below a relatively quiescent liquid, and then to a much thinner mushy layer separated from the liquid by a region of active secondary nucleation. At higher initial concentrations the second of these states did not occur. At lower concentrations, but still above the eutectic, the mushy layer disappeared. A simple mathematical model of the system is developed which compares well with the experimental measurements of the intermediate, non-convecting state and serves as a benchmark against which to understand some of the effects of convection. Movies are available with the online version of the paper.
Irradiation-induced creep in fuel compacts for high-temperature reactor applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Veringa, H; Blackstone, R [Stichting Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland, Petten; Loelgen, R
1977-01-01
Restrained shrinkage experiments at neutron fluences up to 3 x 10/sup 21/ n cm/sup -2/ DNE in the temperature range 600 to 1200/sup 0/C were performed on three different dummy coated-particle fuel compacts in the high-flux reactor at Petten. The data were evaluated to obtain the steady-state radiation creep coefficient of the compacts. It was found that, for the materials investigated, the creep coefficient is temperature dependent, but no clear relationship with Young's modulus could be established. Under certain conditions this irradiation-induced plasticity influences the elastic properties, with the concomitant increase of the creep coefficient. This effect coincides with the formation and further opening up of cracks due to stresses caused by irradiation-induced shrinkage of matrix material.
Irradiation-induced creep in fuel compacts for high-temperature reactor applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veringa, H.; Blackstone, R.; Loelgen, R.
1977-01-01
Restrained shrinkage experiments at neutron fluences up to 3 x 10 21 n cm -2 DNE in the temperature range 600 to 1200 0 C were performed on three different dummy coated-particle fuel compacts in the high-flux reactor at Petten. The data were evaluated to obtain the steady-state radiation creep coefficient of the compacts. It was found that, for the materials investigated, the creep coefficient is temperature dependent, but no clear relationship with Young's modulus could be established. Under certain conditions this irradiation-induced plasticity influences the elastic properties, with the concomitant increase of the creep coefficient. This effect coincides with the formation and further opening up of cracks due to stresses caused by irradiation-induced shrinkage of matrix material. (author)
Emergence of advance waves in a steady-state universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hobart, R.H.
1979-10-01
In standard Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics advanced waves from any source are absolutely canceled by the advanced waves from the absorber responding to that source. The present work shows this cancellation fails over cosmic distances in a steady-state universe. A test of the view proposed earlier, in a paper which assumed failure of cancellation ad hoc, that zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field are such emergent advanced waves, is posed. The view entails anomalous slowing of spontaneous transition rates at longer emission wavelengths; available data go against this, furnishing additional argument against the suspect assumption that the universe is steady-state.
Emergence of advance waves in a steady-state universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hobart, R.H.
1979-01-01
In standard Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics advanced waves from any source are absolutely canceled by the advanced waves from the absorber responding to that source. The present work shows this cancellation fails over cosmic distances in a steady-state universe. A test of the view proposed earlier, in a paper which assumed failure of cancellation ad hoc, that zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field are such emergent advanced waves, is posed. The view entails anomalous slowing of spontaneous transition rates at longer emission wavelengths; available data go against this, furnishing additional argument against the suspect assumption that the universe is steady-state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rui Wu; Sandstroem, Rolf; Seitisleam, Facredin
2004-02-01
Uni-axial creep and creep crack growth (CCG) tests at 320 deg C and 340 deg C as well as post test metallography have been carried out in a low alloy reactor pressure vessel steel (ASTM A508 class 2) having simulated coarse grained heat affected zone microstructure. The CCG behaviour is studied in terms of steady crack growth rate, creep fracture parameter C*, stress intensity factor and reference stress at given testing conditions. It has been found that CCG does occur at both tested temperatures. The lifetimes for the CCG tests are considerably shorter than those for the uni-axial creep tests. This is more pronounced at longer lifetimes or lower stresses. Increasing temperature from 320 deg C to 340 deg C causes a reduction of lifetime by approximately a factor of five and a corresponding increase of steady crack growth rate. For the CCG tests, there are three regions when the crack length is plotted against time. After incubation, the crack grows steadily until it accelerates when rupture is approached. Notable crack growth takes place at later stage of the tests. No creep cavitation is observed and transgranular fracture is dominant for the uni-axial creep specimens. In the CT specimens the cracks propagate intergranularly, independent of temperature and time. Some relations between time to failure, reference stress and steady crack growth rate are found for the CCG tests. A linear extrapolation based on the stress-time results indicates that the reference stress causing failure due to CCG at a given lifetime of 350,000 hours at 320 deg C is clearly lower than both yield and tensile strengths, on which the design stress may have based. Therefore, caution must be taken to prevent premature failure due to low temperature CCG. Both uni-axial and CCG tests on real welded joint at 320 deg C, study of creep damage zone at crack tip as well as numerical simulation are recommended for future work
Chlorine decay under steady and unsteady-state hydraulic conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stoianov, Ivan; Aisopou, Angeliki
2014-01-01
This paper describes a simulation framework for the scale-adaptive hydraulic and chlorine decay modelling under steady and unsteady-state flows. Bulk flow and pipe wall reaction coefficients are replaced with steady and unsteady-state reaction coefficients. An unsteady decay coefficient is defined...... which depends upon the absolute value of shear stress and the rate of change of shear stress for quasi-unsteady and unsteady-state flows. A preliminary experimental and analytical investigation was carried out in a water transmission main. The results were used to model monochloramine decay...... and these demonstrate that the dynamic hydraulic conditions have a significant impact on water quality deterioration and the rapid loss of disinfectant residual. © 2013 The Authors....
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Nabarro, FRN
2002-02-01
Full Text Available stream_source_info nabarro_2002.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 31615 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name nabarro_2002.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Creep at Very Low Rates F... to the necessary condition: vol. 29, p. 1285. 10. J.E. Harris, R.B. Jones, G.W. Greenwood, and M.J. Ward: J. Aust.L/b . m/2psp [5] Inst. Met., 1969, vol. 14, p. 154. 11. G.B. Gibbs: Mem. Sci. Rev. Met., 1965, vol. 62, p. 781.Even if this condition is satisfied, H...
Strength and life under creeping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pospishil, B.
1982-01-01
Certain examples of the application of the Lepin modified creep model, which are of interest from technical viewpoint, are presented. Mathematical solution of the dependence of strength limit at elevated temperatures on creep characteristics is obtained. Tensile test at elevated temperatures is a particular case of creep or relaxation and both strength limit and conventional yield strength at elevated temperatures are completely determined by parameters of state equations during creep. The equation of fracture summing during creep is confirmed not only by the experiment data when stresses change sporadically, but also by good reflection of durability curve using the system of equations. The system presented on the basis of parameters of the equations obtained on any part of durability curve, permits to forecast the following parameters of creep: strain, strain rate, life time, strain in the process of fracture. Tensile test at elevated temperature is advisable as an addition when determining creep curves (time-strain curves) [ru
A Unified Physical Model for Creep and Hot Working of Al-Mg Solid Solution Alloys
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano Spigarelli
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The description of the dependence of steady-state creep rate on applied stress and temperature is almost invariably based on the Norton equation or on derived power-law relationships. In hot working, the Norton equation does not work, and is therefore usually replaced with the Garofalo (sinh equation. Both of these equations are phenomenological in nature and can be seldom unambiguously related to microstructural parameters, such as dislocation density, although early efforts in this sense led to the introduction of the “natural power law” with exponent 3. In an attempt to overcome this deficiency, a recent model with sound physical basis has been successfully used to describe the creep response of fcc metals, such as copper. The main advantage of this model is that it does not require any data fitting to predict the strain rate dependence on applied stress and temperature, which is a particularly attractive peculiarity when studying the hot workability of metals. Thus, the model, properly modified to take into account solid solution strengthening effects, has been here applied to the study of the creep and hot-working of simple Al-Mg single phase alloys. The model demonstrated an excellent accuracy in describing both creep and hot working regimes, still maintaining its most important feature, that is, it does not require any fitting of the experimental data.
A SIPA-based theory of irradiation creep in the low swelling rate regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garner, F.A.; Woo, C.H.
1991-11-01
A model is presented which describes the major facets of the relationships between irradiation creep, void swelling and applied stress. The increasing degree of anisotropy in distribution of dislocation Burger's vectors with stress level plays a major role in this model. Although bcc metals are known to creep and swell at lower rates than fcc metals, it is predicted that the creep-swelling coupling coefficient is actually larger
Spatial variability of steady-state infiltration into a two-layer soil system on burned hillslopes
Kinner, D.A.; Moody, J.A.
2010-01-01
Rainfall-runoff simulations were conducted to estimate the characteristics of the steady-state infiltration rate into 1-m2 north- and south-facing hillslope plots burned by a wildfire in October 2003. Soil profiles in the plots consisted of a two-layer system composed of an ash on top of sandy mineral soil. Multiple rainfall rates (18.4-51.2 mm h-1) were used during 14 short-duration (30 min) and 2 long-duration simulations (2-4 h). Steady state was reached in 7-26 min. Observed spatially-averaged steady-state infiltration rates ranged from 18.2 to 23.8 mm h-1 for north-facing and from 17.9 to 36.0 mm h-1 for south-facing plots. Three different theoretical spatial distribution models of steady-state infiltration rate were fit to the measurements of rainfall rate and steady-state discharge to provided estimates of the spatial average (19.2-22.2 mm h-1) and the coefficient of variation (0.11-0.40) of infiltration rates, overland flow contributing area (74-90% of the plot area), and infiltration threshold (19.0-26 mm h-1). Tensiometer measurements indicated a downward moving pressure wave and suggest that infiltration-excess overland flow is the runoff process on these burned hillslope with a two-layer system. Moreover, the results indicate that the ash layer is wettable, may restrict water flow into the underlying layer, and increase the infiltration threshold; whereas, the underlying mineral soil, though coarser, limits the infiltration rate. These results of the spatial variability of steady-state infiltration can be used to develop physically-based rainfall-runoff models for burned areas with a two-layer soil system. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Correlation of creep rate with microstructural changes during high temperature creep
Young, C. T.; Sommers, B. R.; Lytton, J. L.
1977-01-01
Creep tests were conducted on Haynes 188 cobalt-base alloy and alpha titanium. The tests on Haynes 188 were conducted at 1600 F and 1800 F for stresses from 3 to 20 ksi, and the as-received, mill-annealed results were compared to specimens given 5%, 10%, and 15% room temperature prestrains and then annealed one hour at 1800 F. The tests on alpha titanium were performed at 7,250 and 10,000 psi at 500 C. One creep test was done at 527 C and 10,000 psi to provide information on kinetics. Results for annealed titanium were compared to specimens given 10% and 20% room temperature prestrains followed by 100 hours recovery at 550 C. Electron microscopy was used to relate dislocation and precipitate structure to the creep behavior of the two materials. The results on Haynes 188 alloy reveal that the time to reach 0.5% creep strain at 1600 F increases with increasing prestrain for exposure times less than 1,000 hours, the increase at 15% prestrain being more than a factor of ten.
Onset of aseismic creep on major strike-slip faults
Çakir, Ziyadin
2012-10-02
Time series analysis of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, GPS measurements, and fi eld observations reveal that the central section of the Izmit (Turkey) fault that slipped with a supershear rupture velocity in the A.D. 1999, Mw7.4, Izmit earthquake began creeping aseismically following the earthquake. Rapid initial postseismic afterslip decayed logarithmically with time and appears to have reached a steady rate comparable to the preearthquake full fault-crossing rate, suggesting that it may continue for decades and possibly until late in the earthquake cycle. If confi rmed by future monitoring, these observations identify postseismic afterslip as a mechanism for initiating creep behavior along strike-slip faults. Long-term afterslip and/or creep has signifi cant implications for earthquake cycle models, recurrence intervals of large earthquakes, and accordingly, seismic hazard estimation along mature strike-slip faults, in particular for Istanbul which is believed to lie adjacent to a seismic gap along the North Anatolian fault in the Sea of Marmara. © 2012 Geological Society of America.
Onset of aseismic creep on major strike-slip faults
Ç akir, Ziyadin; Ergintav, Semih; Ö zener, Haluk; Doǧan, Uǧur; Akoglu, Ahmet; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Reilinger, Robert E.
2012-01-01
Time series analysis of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, GPS measurements, and fi eld observations reveal that the central section of the Izmit (Turkey) fault that slipped with a supershear rupture velocity in the A.D. 1999, Mw7.4, Izmit earthquake began creeping aseismically following the earthquake. Rapid initial postseismic afterslip decayed logarithmically with time and appears to have reached a steady rate comparable to the preearthquake full fault-crossing rate, suggesting that it may continue for decades and possibly until late in the earthquake cycle. If confi rmed by future monitoring, these observations identify postseismic afterslip as a mechanism for initiating creep behavior along strike-slip faults. Long-term afterslip and/or creep has signifi cant implications for earthquake cycle models, recurrence intervals of large earthquakes, and accordingly, seismic hazard estimation along mature strike-slip faults, in particular for Istanbul which is believed to lie adjacent to a seismic gap along the North Anatolian fault in the Sea of Marmara. © 2012 Geological Society of America.
Creep-fatigue monitoring system for header ligaments of fossil power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, K.L.; Deardorf, A.F.; Copeland, J.F.; Pflasterer, R.; Beckerdite, G.
1993-01-01
The cracking of headers (primary and secondary superheater outlet, and reheater outlet headers) at ligament locations is an important issue for fossil power plants. A model for crack initiation and growth has been developed, based on creep-fatigue damage mechanisms. This cracking model is included in a creep-fatigue monitoring system to assess header structural integrity under high temperature operating conditions. The following principal activities are required to achieve this goal: (1) the development of transfer functions and (2) the development of a ligament cracking model. The first task is to develop stress transfer functions to convert measured (monitored) temperatures, pressures and flow rates into stresses to be used to compute damage. Elastic three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed to study transient thermal stress behavior. The sustained pressure stress redistribution due to high temperature creep was studied by nonlinear finite element analyses. The preceding results are used to derive Green's functions and pressure stress gradient transfer functions for monitoring at the juncture of the tube with the header inner surface, and for crack growth at the ligaments. The virtual crack closure method is applied to derive a stress intensity factor K solution for a corner crack at the tube/header juncture. Similarly, using the reference stress method, the steady state creep crack growth parameter C * is derived for a header corner crack. The C * solution for a small corner crack in a header can be inserted directed into the available C t solution, along with K to provide the complete transient creep solution
High temperature creep behavior in the (α + β) phase temperature range of M5 alloy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trego, G.
2011-01-01
The isothermal steady-state creep behavior of a M5 thin sheet alloy in a vacuum environment was investigated in the (α + β) temperature, low-stress (1-10 MPa) range. To this aim, the simplest approach consists in identifying α and β creep flow rules in their respective single-phase temperature ranges and extrapolating them in the two-phase domain. However, the (α + β) experimental behavior may fall outside any bounds calculated using such creep flow data. Here, the model was improved for each phase by considering two microstructural effects: (i) Grain size: Thermo-mechanical treatments applied on the material yielded various controlled grain size distributions. Creep tests in near-α and near-β ranges evidenced a strong grain-size effect, especially in the diffusional creep regime. (ii) Chemical contrast between the two phases in the (α + β) range: From thermodynamic calculations and microstructural investigations, the β phase is enriched in Nb and depleted in O (the reverse being true for the α phase). Thus, creep tests were performed on model Zr-Nb-O thin sheets with Nb and O concentrations representative of each phase in the considered temperature range. New α and β creep flow equations were developed from this extended experimental database and used to compute, via a finite element model, the creep rates of the two-phase material. The 3D morphology of phases (β grains nucleated at α grain boundaries) was explicitly introduced in the computations. The effect of phase morphology on the macroscopic creep flow was shown using this specific morphology, compared to other typical morphologies and to experimental data. (author) [fr
Kravitz, K.; Mueller, K. J.; Furuya, M.; Tiampo, K. F.
2017-12-01
behavior driven by rheological conditions that promote steady state slip in a complex array of extensional faults. Besides defining how creep varies along strike on individual faults, our work also hints at how strain rates may vary within the context of ongoing strain and fault linkage in a complex fault array.
Theory of minimum dissipation of energy for the steady state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, T.K.
1992-02-01
The magnetic configuration of an inductively driven steady-state plasma bounded by a surface (or two adjacent surfaces) on which B·n = 0 is force-free: ∇xB = 2αB, where α is a constant, in time and in space. α is the ratio of the Poynting flux to the magnetic helicity flux at the boundary. It is also the ratio of the dissipative rates of the magnetic energy to the magnetic helicity in the plasma. The spatial extent of the configuration is noninfinitesimal. This global constraint is a result of the requirement that, for a steady-state plasma, the rate of change of the vector potential, ∂A/∂t, is constant in time and uniform in space
Steady-state irradiation testing of U-Pu-Zr fuel to >18% burnup
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pahl, R.G.; Wisner, R.S.; Billone, M.C.; Hofman, G.L.
1990-01-01
Tests of austenitic stainless steel clad U-xP-10Zr fuel (x=o, 8, 19 wt. %) to peak burnups as high as 18.4 at. % have been completed in the EBR-II. Fuel swelling and fractional fission gas release are slowly increasing functions of burnup beyond 2 at. % burnup. Increasing plutonium content in the fuel reduces swelling and decreases the amount of fission gas which diffuses from fuel to plenum. LIFE-METAL code modelling of cladding strains is consistent with creep by fission gas loading and irradiation-induced swelling mechanisms. Fuel/cladding chemical interaction involves the ingress of rare-earth fission products. Constituent redistribution in the fuel had not limited steady-state performance. Cladding breach behavior at closure welds, in the gas plenum, and in the fuel column region have been benign events. 3 refs., 5 figs
An Approach for Impression Creep of Lead Free Microelectronic Solders
Anastasio, Onofrio A.
2002-06-01
Currently, the microelectronics industry is transitioning from lead-containing to lead-free solders in response to legislation in the EU and Japan. Before an alternative alloy can be designated as a replacement for current Pb-Sn extensive testing must be accomplished. One major characteristic of the alloy that must be considered is creep. Traditionally, creep testing requires numerous samples and a long tin, which thwarts the generation of comprehensive creep databases for difficult to prepare samples such as microelectronic solder joints. However, a relatively new technique, impression creep enables us to rapidly generate creep data. This test uses a cylindrical punch with a flat end to make an impression on the surface of a specimen under constant load. The steady state velocity of the indenter is found to have the same stress and temperature dependence as the conventional unidirectional creep test using bulk specimens. This thesis examines impression creep tests of eutectic Sn-Ag. A testing program and apparatus was developed constructed based on a servo hydraulic test frame. The apparatus is capable of a load resolution of 0.01N with a stability of plus/minus 0.1N, and a displacement resolution of 0.05 microns with a stability of plus/minus 0.1 microns. Samples of eutectic Sn-Ag solder were reflowed to develop the microstructure used in microelectronic packaging. Creep tests were conducted at various stresses and temperatures and showed that coarse microstructures creep more rapidly than the microstructures in the tested regime.
Stress state dependence of transient irradiation creep in 20% cold worked 316 stainless steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foster, J.P.; Gilbert, E.R.
1998-01-01
Irradiation creep tests were performed in fast reactors using the stress states of uniaxial tension, biaxial tension, bending and torsion. In order to compare the saturated transient strain irradiation creep component, the test data were converted to equivalent strain and equivalent stress. The saturated transient irradiation creep component was observed to depend on the stress state. The highest value was exhibited by the uniaxial tension stress state, and the lowest by the torsion stress state. The biaxial tension and bending stress state transient component values were intermediate. This behavior appears to be related to the dislocation or microscopic substructure resulting from fabrication processing and the applied stress direction. (orig.)
Practical steady-state enzyme kinetics.
Lorsch, Jon R
2014-01-01
Enzymes are key components of most biological processes. Characterization of enzymes is therefore frequently required during the study of biological systems. Steady-state kinetics provides a simple and rapid means of assessing the substrate specificity of an enzyme. When combined with site-directed mutagenesis (see Site-Directed Mutagenesis), it can be used to probe the roles of particular amino acids in the enzyme in substrate recognition and catalysis. Effects of interaction partners and posttranslational modifications can also be assessed using steady-state kinetics. This overview explains the general principles of steady-state enzyme kinetics experiments in a practical, rather than theoretical, way. Any biochemistry textbook will have a section on the theory of Michaelis-Menten kinetics, including derivations of the relevant equations. No specific enzymatic assay is described here, although a method for monitoring product formation or substrate consumption over time (an assay) is required to perform the experiments described. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Off-fault seismicity suggests creep below 10 km on the northern San Jacinto Fault
Cooke, M. L.; Beyer, J. L.
2017-12-01
Within the San Bernardino basin, CA, south of the juncture of the San Jacinto (SJF) and San Andreas faults (SAF), focal mechanisms show normal slip events that are inconsistent with the interseismic strike-slip loading of the region. High-quality (nodal plane uncertainty faults [Anderson et al., 2004]. However, the loading of these normal slip events remains enigmatic because the region is expected to have dextral loading between large earthquake events. These enigmatic normal slip events may be loaded by deep (> 10 km depth) spatially creep along the northern SJF. Steady state models show that over many earthquake cycles, the dextral slip rate on the northern SJF increases southward, placing the San Bernardino basin in extension. In the absence of recent large seismic events that could produce off-fault normal focal mechanisms in the San Bernardino basin, non-uniform deep aseismic slip on the SJF could account for this seismicity. We develop interseismic models that incorporate spatially non-uniform creep below 10 km on the SJF based on steady-state slip distribution. These model results match the pattern of deep normal slip events within the San Bernardino basin. Such deep creep on the SJF may not be detectable from the geodetic signal due to the close proximity of the SAF, whose lack of seismicity suggests that it is locked to 20 km. Interseismic models with 15 km locking depth on both faults are indistinguishable from models with 10 km locking depth on the SJF and 20 km locking depth on the SAF. This analysis suggests that the microseismicity in our multi-decadal catalog may record both the interseismic dextral loading of the region as well as off-fault deformation associated with deep aseismic creep on the northern SJF. If the enigmatic normal slip events of the San Bernardino basin are included in stress inversions from the seismic catalog used to assess seismic hazard, the results may provide inaccurate information about fault loading in this region.
Laser interferometer system for the measurement of creep in pressurized tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirchner, T.L.
1976-07-01
A laser interferometer measurement system was developed to measure the length, diameter, and radius of various pressurized tube specimens. The machine measures and records profilometric data of the pressurized tubes prior to insertion in the reactor and then again after a predetermined fluence has been reached to determine the amount of creep which has occurred. This data provides a statistical basis for the description of steady-state in-reactor creep and creep rupture behavior of the reference fuel cladding and structural materials for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR). In addition, this data will be used to determine the relative in-reactor creep and creep rupture behavior of candidate alloys for advanced cladding and structural materials. The laser interferometer system, referred to as the Biaxial Creep Measurement Machine (BCMM), was built to meet or exceed design criteria such as: automatic measurement of the five biaxial creep specimens varying in size; complete automation of the machine using a mini-computer; complete specimen loading, unloading, and data processing in less than five minutes; storage of data on magnetic cassette tapes; quick-look data readout and error checking during each run to determine proper machine operation; and remote operation in a radioactive environment
Estimating steady-state evaporation rates from bare soils under conditions of high water table
Ripple, C.D.; Rubin, J.; Van Hylckama, T. E. A.
1970-01-01
A procedure that combines meteorological and soil equations of water transfer makes it possible to estimate approximately the steady-state evaporation from bare soils under conditions of high water table. Field data required include soil-water retention curves, water table depth and a record of air temperature, air humidity and wind velocity at one elevation. The procedure takes into account the relevant atmospheric factors and the soil's capability to conduct 'water in liquid and vapor forms. It neglects the effects of thermal transfer (except in the vapor case) and of salt accumulation. Homogeneous as well as layered soils can be treated. Results obtained with the method demonstrate how the soil evaporation rates·depend on potential evaporation, water table depth, vapor transfer and certain soil parameters.
Crack Growth Behaviour of P92 Steel Under Creep-fatigue Interaction Conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
JING Hong-yang
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Creep-fatigue interaction tests of P92 steel at 630℃ under stress-controlled were carried out, and the crack propagation behaviour of P92 steel was studied. The fracture mechanism of crack growth under creep-fatigue interaction and the transition points in a-N curves were analyzed based on the fracture morphology. The results show that the fracture of P92 steel under creep-fatigue interaction is creep ductile fracture and the (Ctavg parameter is employed to demonstrate the crack growth behaviour; in addition, the fracture morphology shows that the crack growth for P92 steel under creep-fatigue interaction is mainly caused by the nucleation and growth of the creep voids and micro-cracks. Furthermore, the transition point of a-lg(Ni/Nf curve corresponds to the turning point of initial crack growth changed into steady crack growth while the transition point of (da/dN-N curve exhibits the turning point of steady creep crack growth changed into the accelerated crack growth.
Steady-State Crack Growth in Rate-Sensitive Single Crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul, Kristian Jørgensen; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof
2016-01-01
The characteristics of the active plastic zone surrounding a crack growingin a single crystal (FCC, BCC, and HCP) at constant velocity is investigated for ModeI loading under plane strain assumptions. The framework builds upon a steady-state relation bringing the desired solution out in a frame...... translating with the crack tip. In the study, the shielding of the crack tip that follows from plastic slip is investigated by adopting the SSV-model. High resolution plots of the plastic zones are obtained and a detailed study confirms the existence of analytically determined velocity discontinuities from...... the literature. The plastic zone is found to be smallest for the FCC structure andlargest for the HCP structure, which is also reected in the shielding ratio, where FCC crystals show the smallest shielding and HCP the largest shielding....
Comparison of creep rupture behavior of tungsten inert gas and electron beam welded grade 91 steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dey, H.C.; Vanaja, J.; Laha, K.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Albert, S.K.; Roy, G.G.
2016-01-01
Creep rupture behavior of Grade 91 steel weld joints fabricated by multi-pass tungsten inert gas (TIG) and electron beam welding (EBW) processes has been studied and compared with base metal. Cross-weld creep specimens were fabricated from the X-ray radiography qualified and post weld heat treated (760°C/4 h) weld joints. Creep testing of weld joints and base metal was carried out at 650°C over a stress range of 40°120 MPa. Creep life of EBW joint is comparable to base metal; whereas multi-pass TIG joint have shown significant drop in creep life tested for the same stress level. Both types of weld joints show Type IV cracking for all the stress levels. The steady state creep rate of multi-pass TIG is found to be fifteen times than that of EBW joint for stress level of 80 MPa, which may be attributed to over tempering, more re-austenization, and fine grain structure of inter-critical and fine grain heat affected zone regions of the TIG joint. In contrast, single-pass and rapid weld thermal cycles associated with EBW process causes minimum phase transformation in the corresponding regions of heat affected zone. Microstructure studies on creep tested specimens shows creep cavities formed at the primary austenite grain boundaries nucleated on coarse carbide precipitates. The hardness measured across the weld on creep tested specimens shows significant drop in hardness in the inter-critical and fine grain heat affected zone regions of multi-pass TIG (176 VHN) in comparison to 192 VHN in the corresponding locations in EBW joint. (author)
Steady-State Performance of Kalman Filter for DPLL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIAN Yi; CUI Xiaowei; LU Mingquan; FENG Zhenming
2009-01-01
For certain system models, the structure of the Kalman filter is equivalent to a second-order vari-able gain digital phase-locked loop (DPLL). To apply the knowledge of DPLLs to the design of Kalman filters, this paper studies the steady-state performance of Kalman filters for these system models. The results show that the steady-state Kalman gain has the same form as the DPLL gain. An approximate simple form for the steady-state Kalman gain is used to derive an expression for the equivalent loop bandwidth of the Kalman filter as a function of the process and observation noise variances. These results can be used to analyze the steady-state performance of a Kalman filter with DPLL theory or to design a Kalman filter model with the same steady-state performance as a given DPLL.
Superplastic Creep of Metal Nanowires From Rate-Dependent Plasticity Transition.
Tao, Weiwei; Cao, Penghui; Park, Harold S
2018-04-30
Understanding the time-dependent mechanical behavior of nanomaterials such as nanowires is essential to predict their reliability in nanomechanical devices. This understanding is typically obtained using creep tests, which are the most fundamental loading mechanism by which the time-dependent deformation of materials is characterized. However, due to existing challenges facing both experimentalists and theorists, the time-dependent mechanical response of nanowires is not well-understood. Here, we use atomistic simulations that can access experimental time scales to examine the creep of single crystal FCC metal (Cu, Ag, Pt) nanowires. We report that both Cu and Ag nanowires show significantly increased ductility and superplasticity under low creep stresses, where the superplasticity is driven by a rate-dependent transition in defect nucleation from twinning to trailing partial dislocations at the micro or millisecond timescale. The transition in deformation mechanism also governs a corresponding transition in the stress-dependent creep time at the microsecond (Ag) and millisecond (Cu) timescales. Overall, this work demonstrates the necessity of accessing timescales that far exceed those seen in conventional atomistic modeling for accurate insights into the time-dependent mechanical behavior and properties of nanomaterials.
Rapid mixing and short storage timescale in the magma dynamics of a steady-state volcano
Petrone, Chiara Maria; Braschi, Eleonora; Francalanci, Lorella; Casalini, Martina; Tommasini, Simone
2018-06-01
Steady-state volcanic activity implies equilibrium between the rate of magma replenishment and eruption of compositionally homogeneous magmas, lasting for tens to thousands of years in an open conduit system. The Present-day activity of Stromboli volcano (Aeolian Islands, Southern Italy) has long been recognised as typical of a steady-state volcano, with a shallow magmatic reservoir (highly porphyritic or hp-magma) continuously refilled by more mafic magma (with low phenocryst content or lp-magma) at a constant rate and accompanied by mixing, crystallisation and eruption. Our aim is to clarify the timescale and dynamics of the plumbing system at the establishment of the Present-day steady-state activity (volcanoes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marija Macenić
2018-01-01
Full Text Available At three locations in Zagreb, classical and extended thermal response test (TRT was conducted on installed coaxial heat exchangers. With classic TR test, thermogeological properties of the ground and thermal resistance of the borehole were determined at each location. It is seen that thermal conductivity of the ground varies, due to difference in geological profile of the sites. In addition, experimental research of steady-state thermal response step test (SSTRST was carried out to determine heat rejection rates for passive and active cooling in steady state regime. Results showed that heat rejection rate is only between 8-11 W/m, which indicates that coaxial system is not suitable for passive cooling demands. Furthermore, the heat pump in passive cooling mode uses additional plate heat exchanger where there is additional temperature drop of working fluid by approximately 1,5 °C. Therefore, steady-state rejection rate for passive cooling is even lower for a real case project. Coaxial heat exchanger should be always designed for an active cooling regime with an operation of a heat pump compressor in a classical vapour compression refrigeration cycle.
The irradiation induced creep in fuel compact materials for H.T.R. applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veringa, H.; Blackstone, R.; Loelgen, R.
1976-01-01
Restrained shrinkage experiments up to 3 x 10 21 ncm -2 (DNE) in the temperature range of 600-1,200 0 C on three different dummy coated particle fuel compact materials were performed in the High Flux Reactor at Petten, the Netherlands. The data were evaluated to obtain the steady state irradiation creep coefficient of the compacts. It was found that for the materials investigated, the creep coefficient is temperature-dependent, but no clear relationship to the Young's modulus could be established. Under certain conditions, this irradiation-induced plasticity influences the elastic properties, while also the creep coefficient increases. This effect coincides with the formation and further opening of cracks due to stresses caused by irradiation shrinkage of the matrix material. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondyr, A.; Sandstroem, R.; Samuelsson, A.
1979-02-01
A detailed analysis of creep strain results for three low alloyed steels of type 0.5 Mo, 1 Cr-0.5 Mo and 2.25 Cr-1 Mo has been undertaken. The results show that, excluding the primary stage, the true strain rate can be described by a simple analytical expression dE/dt = Aexp(B.E) where A and B are constants at constant stress and temperature. A is approximately equal to the minimum strain rate and B inversly proportional to the fracture strain. Furthermore, 1/AB equals the time t sub(r) to rupture. The residual life fraction in creep can be expressed as exp(-B.E) = 1-t/t sub(r) and a creep damage function μ is introduced as μ = 1-ABt. The expressions for strain rate and damage are shown to be a special case of the Rabotnov-Kachanov equations. The analysis has been generalized to account for multiaxial stress states, and as an example creep in a tube with internal pressure is considered. (author)
X-Ray Spectral Analysis of the Steady States of GRS1915+105
Peris, Charith S.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Steiner, James F.; Vrtilek, Saeqa D.; Varnière, Peggy; Rodriguez, Jerome; Pooley, Guy
2016-05-01
We report on the X-ray spectral behavior within the steady states of GRS1915+105. Our work is based on the full data set of the source obtained using the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and 15 GHz radio data obtained using the Ryle Telescope. The steady observations within the X-ray data set naturally separated into two regions in the color-color diagram and we refer to these regions as steady-soft and steady-hard. GRS1915+105 displays significant curvature in the coronal component in both the soft and hard data within the RXTE/PCA bandpass. A majority of the steady-soft observations displays a roughly constant inner disk radius ({R}{{in}}), while the steady-hard observations display an evolving disk truncation which is correlated to the mass accretion rate through the disk. The disk flux and coronal flux are strongly correlated in steady-hard observations and very weakly correlated in the steady-soft observations. Within the steady-hard observations, we observe two particular circumstances when there are correlations between the coronal X-ray flux and the radio flux with log slopes η ˜ 0.68+/- 0.35 and η ˜ 1.12+/- 0.13. They are consistent with the upper and lower tracks of Gallo et al. (2012), respectively. A comparison of the model parameters to the state definitions shows that almost all of the steady-soft observations match the criteria of either a thermal or steep power-law state, while a large portion of the steady-hard observations match the hard-state criteria when the disk fraction constraint is neglected.
Time-Dependent Behaviors of Granite: Loading-Rate Dependence, Creep, and Relaxation
Hashiba, K.; Fukui, K.
2016-07-01
To assess the long-term stability of underground structures, it is important to understand the time-dependent behaviors of rocks, such as their loading-rate dependence, creep, and relaxation. However, there have been fewer studies on crystalline rocks than on tuff, mudstone, and rock salt, because the high strength of crystalline rocks makes the detection of their time-dependent behaviors much more difficult. Moreover, studies on the relaxation, temporal change of stress and strain (TCSS) conditions, and relations between various time-dependent behaviors are scarce for not only granites, but also other rocks. In this study, previous reports on the time-dependent behaviors of granites were reviewed and various laboratory tests were conducted using Toki granite. These tests included an alternating-loading-rate test, creep test, relaxation test, and TCSS test. The results showed that the degree of time dependence of Toki granite is similar to other granites, and that the TCSS resembles the stress-relaxation curve and creep-strain curve. A viscoelastic constitutive model, proposed in a previous study, was modified to investigate the relations between the time-dependent behaviors in the pre- and post-peak regions. The modified model reproduced the stress-strain curve, creep, relaxation, and the results of the TCSS test. Based on a comparison of the results of the laboratory tests and numerical simulations, close relations between the time-dependent behaviors were revealed quantitatively.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1988-01-01
Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-01-01
Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems
Creep crack growth in a reactor pressure vessel steel at 360 deg C
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Rui; Seitisleam, F; Sandstroem, R [Swedish Institute for Metals Research, Stockholm (Sweden)
1999-12-31
Plain creep (PC) and creep crack growth (CCG) tests at 360 deg C and post metallography were carried out on a low alloy reactor pressure vessel steel (ASTM A508 class 2) with different microstructures. Lives for the CCG tests were shorter than those for the PC tests and this is more pronounced for simulated heat affected zone microstructure than for the parent metal at longer lives. For the CCG tests, after initiation, the cracks grew constantly and intergranularly before they accelerated to approach rupture. The creep crack growth rate is well described by C*. The relations between reference stress, failure time and steady crack growth rate are presented for the CCG tests. It is demonstrated that the failure stress due to CCG is considerably lower than the yield stress at 360 deg C. Consequently, the CCG will control the static strength of a reactor vessel. (orig.) 17 refs.
Creep crack growth in a reactor pressure vessel steel at 360 deg C
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rui Wu; Seitisleam, F.; Sandstroem, R. [Swedish Institute for Metals Research, Stockholm (Sweden)
1998-12-31
Plain creep (PC) and creep crack growth (CCG) tests at 360 deg C and post metallography were carried out on a low alloy reactor pressure vessel steel (ASTM A508 class 2) with different microstructures. Lives for the CCG tests were shorter than those for the PC tests and this is more pronounced for simulated heat affected zone microstructure than for the parent metal at longer lives. For the CCG tests, after initiation, the cracks grew constantly and intergranularly before they accelerated to approach rupture. The creep crack growth rate is well described by C*. The relations between reference stress, failure time and steady crack growth rate are presented for the CCG tests. It is demonstrated that the failure stress due to CCG is considerably lower than the yield stress at 360 deg C. Consequently, the CCG will control the static strength of a reactor vessel. (orig.) 17 refs.
Quasi-steady state natural convection in a tilted porous layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robillard, L.; Vasseur, P. (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada))
1992-12-01
Natural convection in an inclined porous layer heated or cooled on one side, when its other walls are insulated, has several important engineering applications. These include solar power collection, regenerative heat exchangers, and high performance insulation for buildings and cold storage. Although the problem is basically an unsteady state one, it is known that if the heating (or cooling) process is maintained for a sufficiently long time, a quasi-steady state is approached. Quasi-steady state laminar natural convection in an inclined porous layer is studied analytically and numerically. On the basis of the Darcy-Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations, the problem is solved analytically in the limit of a thin porous layer heated on one side by a heat flux while the other boundaries are maintained adiabatic. For quasi-steady state, the flow and temperature fields overall heat transfer rates are obtained in terms of the controlling parameters and the onset of convection in a bottom heated horizantal system is predicted. It is also demonstrated for the case of a bottom-heated layer that for sufficiently small inclinations, multiple unicellular quasi-steady states exist, some of which are unstable. A numerical study of the same phenomenon, obtained by solving the complete set of governing equations, is conducted. Good agreement is found between the analytical predictions and the numerical simulation. 22 refs., 6 figs.
New Tore Supra steady state operating scenario
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, G.; Parlange, F.; van Houtte, D.; Wijnands, T.
1995-01-01
This document deals with plasma control in steady state conditions. A new plasma control systems enabling feedback control of global plasma equilibrium parameters has been developed. It also enables to operate plasma discharge in steady state regime. (TEC). 4 refs., 5 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rautenberg, M.; Poquillon, D.; Pilvin, P.; Grosjean, C.; Cloué, J.M.; Feaugas, X.
2014-01-01
Zirconium alloys are widely used in the nuclear industry. Several components, such as cladding or guide tubes, undergo strong mechanical loading during and after their use inside the pressurized water reactors. The current requirements on higher fuel performances lead to the developing on new Zr based alloys exhibiting better mechanical properties. In this framework, creep behaviors of recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5™, have been investigated and then compared. In order to give a better understanding of the thermal creep anisotropy of Zr-based alloys, multi-axial creep tests have been carried out at 673 K. Using a specific device, creep conditions have been set using different values of β = σ zz /σ θθ , σ zz and σ θθ being respectively the axial and hoop creep stresses. Both axial and hoop strains are measured during each test which is carried out until stationary creep is stabilized. The steady-state strain rates are then used to build isocreep curves. Considering the isocreep curves, the M5™ alloy shows a largely improved creep resistance compared to the recrystallized Zircaloy-4, especially for tubes under high hoop loadings (0 < β < 1). The isocreep curves are then compared with simulations performed using two different mechanical models. Model 1 uses a von Mises yield criterion, the model 2 is based on a Hill yield criterion. For both models, a coefficient derived from Norton law is used to assess the stress dependence
Steady state neutral beam injector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mattoo, S.K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Baruah, U.K.; Bisai, N.; Chakbraborty, A.K.; Chakrapani, Ch.; Jana, M.R.; Bajpai, M.; Jaykumar, P.K.; Patel, D.; Patel, G.; Patel, P.J.; Prahlad, V.; Rao, N.V.M.; Rotti, C.; Singh, N.P.; Sridhar, B.
2000-01-01
Learning from operational reliability of neutral beam injectors in particular and various heating schemes including RF in general on TFTR, JET, JT-60, it has become clear that neutral beam injectors may find a greater role assigned to them for maintaining the plasma in steady state devices under construction. Many technological solutions, integrated in the present day generation of injectors have given rise to capability of producing multimegawatt power at many tens of kV. They have already operated for integrated time >10 5 S without deterioration in the performance. However, a new generation of injectors for steady state devices have to address to some basic issues. They stem from material erosion under particle bombardment, heat transfer > 10 MW/m 2 , frequent regeneration of cryopanels, inertial power supplies, data acquisition and control of large volume of data. Some of these engineering issues have been addressed to in the proposed neutral beam injector for SST-1 at our institute; the remaining shall have to wait for the inputs of the database generated from the actual experience with steady state injectors. (author)
Engineering C-integral estimates for generalised creep behaviour and finite element validation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Yun-Jae; Kim, Jin-Su; Huh, Nam-Su; Kim, Young-Jin
2002-01-01
This paper proposes an engineering method to estimate the creep C-integral for realistic creep laws to assess defective components operating at elevated temperatures. The proposed estimation method is mainly for the steady-state C * -integral, but a suggestion is also given for estimating the transient C(t)-integral. The reference stress approach is the basis of the proposed equation, but an enhancement in terms of accuracy is made through the definition of the reference stress. The proposed estimation equations are compared with extensive elastic-creep FE results employing various creep-deformation constitutive laws for six different geometries, including two-dimensional, axi-symmetric and three-dimensional geometries. Overall good agreement between the proposed method and the FE results provides confidence in the use of the proposed method for defect assessment of components at elevated temperatures. Moreover, it is shown that for surface cracks the proposed method can be used to estimate C * at any location along the crack front
A review of creep analysis and design under multi-axial stress states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao, H.-T.; Xuan Fuzhen; Wang Zhengdong; Tu Shantung
2007-01-01
The existence of multi-axial states of stress cannot be avoided in elevated temperature components. It is essential to understand the associated failure mechanisms and to predict the lifetime in practice. Although metal creep has been studied for about 100 years, many problems are still unsolved, in particular for those involving multi-axial stresses. In this work, a state-of-the-art review of creep analysis and engineering design is carried out, with particular emphasis on the effect of multi-axial stresses. The existing theories and creep design approaches are grouped into three categories, i.e., the classical plastic theory (CPT) based approach, the cavity growth mechanism (CGM) based approach and the continuum damage mechanics (CDM) based approach. Following above arrangements, the constitutive equations and design criteria are addressed. In the end, challenges on the precise description of the multi-axial creep behavior and then improving the strength criteria in engineering design are presented
Contribution to the study of the creep of uranium dioxide. Role of grain growth promoters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vivant-Duguay, Christelle
1998-01-01
Improvement of nuclear fuel performances involves enhancing the plasticity of uranium dioxide UO 2 , in order to reduce the stress applied by the pellet to the cladding during a power ramp. The objective of this work is to identify and to formulate the effects produced by the nature and the concentration of additives of corundum structure, Cr 2 O 3 or Al 2 O 3 , which are grain growth promoters for UO 2 . The review of literature data establishes that oxygen content, grain size or porosity markedly affect the mechanical properties of uranium dioxide. On the other hand, there is relatively little reported work on the influence of doping. Prepared samples have been deformed by uniaxial compression. In the case of standard undoped UO 2 , two distinct preponderant creep mechanisms occur depending on stress level: a grain boundary diffusional creep, as per Coble, for stresses below the transition stress and a dislocation creep above. The doped materials have a large grained microstructure, which allows a dislocation creep only. In the range of temperature and stress investigated here, doping significantly improves the plasticity of standard UO 2 . This common effect of dopants is characterized by a decrease in the flow stress for tests with constant strain rate and by enhanced steady-state creep rates. Cr 2 O 3 doping is the more effective. The apparent benefit of doping results from the gain due to the increased grain size, but it is compensated by the strengthening effect of the additive. The creep law used to describe the behavior of standard UO 2 , has been modified to account for the influence of the dopant, by including either the concentration or the grain size. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Woo-Gon; Yin, Song-Nan; Koo, Gyeong-Hoi
2009-01-01
This study dealt with the construction of long-term isochronous stress-strain curves (ISSC) by a modeling of short-term creep curves for a Grade 9Cr-1Mo steel (G91) which is a candidate material for structural applications in the next generation nuclear reactors as well as in fusion reactors. To do this, tensile material data used in the inelastic constitutive equations was obtained by tensile tests at 550degC. Creep curves were obtained by a series of creep tests with different stress levels of 300MPa to 220MPa at an identical controlled temperature of 550degC. On the basis of these experimental data, the creep curves were characterized by Garofalo's creep model. Three parameters of P 1 , P 2 and P 3 in Garofalo's model were properly optimized by a nonlinear least square fitting (NLSF) analysis. The stress dependency of the three parameters was found to be a linear relationship. But, the P 3 parameter representing the steady state creep rate exhibited a two slope behavior with different stress exponents at a transient stress of about 250 MPa. The long-term creep curves of the G91 steel was modeled by Garofalo's model with only a few short-term creep data. Using the modeled creep curves, the long-term isochronous curves up to 10 5 hours were successfully constructed. (author)
Microphysically Derived Expressions for Rate-and-State Friction Parameters, a, b, and Dc
Chen, Jianye; Niemeijer, A. R.; Spiers, Christopher J.
2017-12-01
Rate-and-state friction (RSF) laws are extensively applied in fault mechanics but have a largely empirical basis reflecting only limited understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms. We recently proposed a microphysical model describing the frictional behavior of a granular fault gouge undergoing deformation in terms of granular flow accompanied by thermally activated creep and intergranular sliding at grain contacts. Numerical solutions reproduced typical experimental results well. Here we extend our model to obtain physically meaningful, analytical expressions for the steady state frictional strength and standard RSF parameters, a, b, and Dc. The frictional strength contains two components, namely, grain boundary friction and friction due to intergranular dilatation. The expressions obtained for a and b linearly reflect the rate dependence of these two terms. Dc scales with slip band thickness and varies only slightly with velocity. The values of a, b, and Dc predicted show quantitative agreement with previous experimental results, and inserting their values into classical RSF laws gives simulated friction behavior that is consistent with the predictions of our numerically implemented model for small departures from steady state. For large velocity steps, the model produces mixed RSF behavior that falls between the Slowness and Slip laws, for example, with an intermediate equivalent slip(-weakening) distance d0. Our model possesses the interesting property not only that a and b are velocity dependent but also that Dc and d0 scale differently from classical RSF models, potentially explaining behaviour seen in many hydrothermal friction experiments and having substantial implications for natural fault friction.
Ho, Pang-Yen; Chuang, Guo-Syong; Chao, An-Chong; Li, Hsing-Ya
2005-05-01
The capacity of complex biochemical reaction networks (consisting of 11 coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations) to show multiple steady states, was investigated. The system involved esterification of ethanol and oleic acid by lipase in an isothermal continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The Deficiency One Algorithm and the Subnetwork Analysis were applied to determine the steady state multiplicity. A set of rate constants and two corresponding steady states are computed. The phenomena of bistability, hysteresis and bifurcation are discussed. Moreover, the capacity of steady state multiplicity is extended to the family of the studied reaction networks.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof
2012-01-01
the SSV model [Suo, Z., Shih, C., Varias, A., 1993. A theory for cleavage cracking in the presence of plastic flow. Acta Metall. Mater. 41, 1551–1557] embedded in a steady state finite element formulation, here assuming plane strain conditions and small-scale yielding. Results are presented for a wide......Crack propagation in metallic materials produces plastic dissipation when material in front for the crack tip enters the active plastic zone traveling with the tip, and later ends up being part of the residual plastic strain wake. Thus, the macroscopic work required to advance the crack...... is typically much larger than the work needed in the near tip fracture process. For rate sensitive materials, the amount of plastic dissipation typically depends on the rate at which the material is deformed. A dependency on the crack velocity should therefore be expected. The objective of this paper...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Place, A.R.; Eccleston, J.F.
1987-01-01
The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isolated from Drosophila is unique among alcohol metabolizing enzymes by not requiring metals for catalysis, by showing 4-pro-S (B-sided) hydride transfer stereospecificity, and by possessing a greater catalytic turnover rate for secondary alcohols than for primary alcohols. They have extended their studies on the kinetic mechanism for this enzyme by examining the pre-steady state transients of ternary complex interconversion using stopped-flow fluorescence methods. When enzyme and a 30-fold molar excess of NADH is mixed with excess acetadehyde, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), or cyclohexanone a rapid (> 100 s -1 ) transient is observe before the steady-state. The rates are insensitive to isotope substitution. With the substrate MEK, the rate and amplitude suggests a single turnover of the enzyme. Similar pre-steady state transients are observed when enzyme and a 50-fold molar excess of NAD + is mixed with ethanol, 2-propanol, and cyclohexanol. The rates show a hyperbolic concentration dependence and a deuterium isotope effect. With d 6 -deuteroethanol the transient no longer occurs in the pre-steady state. When the optical isomers of secondary alcohols are used as substrates, transients are observed only in the R-(-) isomers for all chain lengths. With 2-S(+)-heptanol and 2-S(+)-octanol no transients occur
Steady-state ozone concentrations in radiation induced noble gas-oxygen discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elsayed-Ali, H.E.; Miley, G.H.
1985-01-01
Measurements of steady-state ozone concentrations in continuous radiation induced noble gas-O/sub 2/ and noble gas-o/sub 2/-SF/sub 6/ mixtures has been accomplished. The discharges were created through the bombardment of the gases with energetic particles from the boron-10 (n,α) lithium-7 nuclear reaction. Three noble gases were studied, He, Ne, and Ar at partial pressures of few hundred Torr. The dose rates studied were in the order of 10/sup 15/ eV . cm/sup -3/ . s/sup -1/. The experimental apparatus and procedure were previously described. The experimentally observed steady-state ozone concentrations in noble gas-O/sub 2/ discharges were about an order of magnitude lower than that observed for oxygen radiolysis at similar dose rates. These results were physically explained by an enhanced role of negative ionic reactions with ozone causing its destruction. In noble gas-O/sub 2/-SF/sub 6/ mixtures, the steady-state ozone concentrations were found to be significantly higher (3-6 times) than that without the SF/sub 6/ addition. This observation was contrary to only a small increase observed after SF/sub 6/ addition to a few hundred Torr oxygen and is explained by an enhanced rate of electron dissociative attachment of ozone in noble gas-O/sub 2/ discharges
Effect of loading rate on creep of phosphorous doped copper
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andersson-Oestling, Henrik C.M.; Sandstroem, Rolf (Swerea KIMAB (Sweden))
2011-12-15
Creep testing of copper intended for nuclear waste disposal has been performed on continuous creep tests machines at a temperature of 75 deg C. The loading time has been varied from 1 hour to 6 months. The rupture strain including both loading and creep strains does not differ from traditional dead weight lever creep test rigs. The loading strain increases with increasing loading time, at the expense of the creep strain. The time dependence of the creep strain has been modelled taking athermal plastic deformation and creep into account. During loading the contribution to the strain from the athermal plastic deformation dominates until the stress is close to the constant load level. When the constant load has been reached there is no more athermal strain and all of the strain comes from creep
Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel
2016-01-01
Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization.
A novel multivariate STeady-state index during general ANesthesia (STAN).
Castro, Ana; de Almeida, Fernando Gomes; Amorim, Pedro; Nunes, Catarina S
2017-08-01
The assessment of the adequacy of general anesthesia for surgery, namely the nociception/anti-nociception balance, has received wide attention from the scientific community. Monitoring systems based on the frontal EEG/EMG, or autonomic state reactions (e.g. heart rate and blood pressure) have been developed aiming to objectively assess this balance. In this study a new multivariate indicator of patients' steady-state during anesthesia (STAN) is proposed, based on wavelet analysis of signals linked to noxious activation. A clinical protocol was designed to analyze precise noxious stimuli (laryngoscopy/intubation, tetanic, and incision), under three different analgesic doses; patients were randomized to receive either remifentanil 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0 ng/ml. ECG, PPG, BP, BIS, EMG and [Formula: see text] were continuously recorded. ECG, PPG and BP were processed to extract beat-to-beat information, and [Formula: see text] curve used to estimate the respiration rate. A combined steady-state index based on wavelet analysis of these variables, was applied and compared between the three study groups and stimuli (Wilcoxon signed ranks, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests). Following institutional approval and signing the informed consent thirty four patients were enrolled in this study (3 excluded due to signal loss during data collection). The BIS index of the EEG, frontal EMG, heart rate, BP, and PPG wave amplitude changed in response to different noxious stimuli. Laryngoscopy/intubation was the stimulus with the more pronounced response [Formula: see text]. These variables were used in the construction of the combined index STAN; STAN responded adequately to noxious stimuli, with a more pronounced response to laryngoscopy/intubation (18.5-43.1 %, [Formula: see text]), and the attenuation provided by the analgesic, detecting steady-state periods in the different physiological signals analyzed (approximately 50 % of the total study time). A new multivariate approach for
Pre-steady-state Kinetics for Hydrolysis of Insoluble Cellulose by Cellobiohydrolase Cel7A
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Olsen, Jens Elmerdahl; Præstgaard, Eigil
2012-01-01
The transient kinetic behavior of enzyme reactions prior to the establishment of steady state is a major source of mechanistic information, yet this approach has not been utilized for cellulases acting on their natural substrate, insoluble cellulose. Here, we elucidate the pre-steady-state regime...... for the exo-acting cellulase Cel7A using amperometric biosensors and an explicit model for processive hydrolysis of cellulose. This analysis allows the identification of a pseudo-steady-state period and quantification of a processivity number as well as rate constants for the formation of a threaded enzyme...... to unveil fundamental reasons for the distinctive variability in hydrolytic activity found in different cellulase-substrate systems....
Implications of steady-state operation on divertor design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sevier, D.L.; Reis, E.E.; Baxi, C.B.; Silke, G.W.; Wong, C.P.C.; Hill, D.N.
1996-01-01
As fusion experiments progress towards long pulse or steady state operation, plasma facing components are undergoing a significant change in their design. This change represents the transition from inertially cooled pulsed systems to steady state designs of significant power handling capacity. A limited number of Plasma Facing Component (PFC) systems are in operation or planning to address this steady state challenge at low heat flux. However in most divertor designs components are required to operate at heat fluxes at 5 MW/m 2 or above. The need for data in this area has resulted in a significant amount of thermal/hydraulic and thermal fatigue testing being done on prototypical elements. Short pulse design solutions are not adequate for longer pulse experiments and the areas of thermal design, structural design, material selection, maintainability, and lifetime prediction are undergoing significant changes. A prudent engineering approach will guide us through the transitional phase of divertor design to steady-state power plant components. This paper reviews the design implications in this transition to steady state machines and the status of the community efforts to meet evolving design requirements. 54 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs
Study of stress-reduction effects on creep behaviour of AISI-316 stainless steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alegria, R.V.
1984-01-01
Creep tests were performed in 316 austenitic stainless steel at 1006 0 K in both solution treated and in 15% pre-deformed samples. The dislocation substructure in the steady state stage was analysed for the applied stresses 109,30 MPa and 208,23 MPa. The influence of the prestraining conditions was verified. The strutural modifications occurring after a stress reduction were analysed in stress reduction tests. The results are discussed in terms of current ideas and its shown that the increase in creep resistance, introduced by a 15% pre-strain, is due to the presence of a subgrain structure and carbides which act as obstacles to dislocation motion. (E.G.) [pt
Accuracy of the calculations of the ionization-state densities in a steady-state plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salzmann, D.
1980-01-01
A quantitative definition is given to the accuracy of the computation of the partial densities of the ionization states in a steady-state plasma when there is an inaccuracy in the rate coefficients used in the rate equation. It is found that the partial density of the most abundant ion species is almost independent of the exact form of the rate coefficients, but large errors may occur for the rare species. The effect of the variation of the total ion density on the partial densities is also calculated. For low-ion densities the partial ionization-state densities grow proportionally to the change of the total density, but at high densities there is an alteration of the charge-state distribution as well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khristov, G.P.; Kosov, B.D.
1982-01-01
The paper deals with analysis of results of experimental studies in creep of the austenitic OKh16n15m3b steel with various size of initial-structure grain under conditions of high-intensity reactor irradiation and control tests. It is suggested to consider the material initial structure effect on intensity of minimum creep rates both under ordinary and intrareactor conditions of loading by means of the function grain size effect on the equivalent stress. It is shown that the criterial expression previously suggested by the authors is invariant to the type of stressed and structural states and relative to intensity of minimal creep rates. It is established that the creep rate of the irradiated steel may be calculated from dependence for nonirradiated steel using as an argument a certain reduced equivalent stress which is a function of the acting stress and irradiation parameter
Steady-State Process Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul
2011-01-01
illustrate the “equation oriented” approach as well as the “sequential modular” approach to solving complex flowsheets for steady state applications. The applications include the Williams-Otto plant, the hydrodealkylation (HDA) of toluene, conversion of ethylene to ethanol and a bio-ethanol process....
Rheological behavior of semi-solid 7075 aluminum alloy at steady state
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Yageng
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The further application of semi-solid processing lies in the in-depth fundamental study like rheological behavior. In this research, the apparent viscosity of the semi-solid slurry of 7075 alloy was measured using a Couette type viscometer. The effects of solid fraction and shearing rate on the apparent viscosity of this alloy were investigated under different processing conditions. It can be seen that the apparent viscosity increases with an increase in the solid fraction from 10% to 50% (temperature 620 篊 to 630 篊 at steady state. When the solid fraction was fixed, the apparent viscosity can be decreased by altering the shearing rate from 61.235 s-1 to 489.88 s-1 at steady state. An empirical equation that shows the effects of solid fraction and shearing rate on the apparent viscosity is fitted. The microstructure of quenched samples was examined to understand the alloy抯 rheological behavior.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubiez-Le Goff, Sophie; Couturier, Raphaeel; Guetaz, Laure; Burlet, Helene
2004-01-01
Powder metallurgy processed Udimet 720 is a high creep strength nickel-based superalloy considered for high temperature turbine disks for nuclear gas cooled reactors working under 700 deg. C. Both fine-grained and coarse-grained microstructures have been obtained by applying respectively a subsolvus or a supersolvus solution treatments, followed by ageing treatments. In both microstructures, the distribution of the strengthening γ' precipitates has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The creep curves of the coarse-grained microstructure show the three usual creep stages. On the contrary, the creep curves of the fine-grained microstructure show a transition directly from primary to apparent tertiary creep without any obvious steady state. According to TEM analyses, Orowan loops surround Udimet 720 CR γ' and U720 HS γ' at high stress whereas U720 HS γ' are sheared at low stress. To describe the behavior of the superalloy Udimet 720, a specific creep model is developed on the basis of McLean and Dyson models including physical damage parameters
Pellet injectors for steady state plasma fuelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vinyar, I.; Geraud, A.; Yamada, H.; Lukin, A.; Sakamoto, R.; Skoblikov, S.; Umov, A.; Oda, Y.; Gros, G.; Krasilnikov, I.; Reznichenko, P.; Panchenko, V.
2005-01-01
Successful steady state operation of a fusion reactor should be supported by repetitive pellet injection of solidified hydrogen isotopes in order to produce high performance plasmas. This paper presents pneumatic pellet injectors and its implementation for long discharge on the LHD and TORE SUPRA, and a new centrifuge pellet injector test results. All injectors are fitted with screw extruders well suited for steady state operation
Break of slope in earthquake size distribution and creep rate along the San Andreas Fault system
Shebalin, P.; Narteau, C.; Vorobieva, I.
2017-12-01
Crustal faults accommodate slip either by a succession of earthquakes or continuous slip, andin most instances, both these seismic and aseismic processes coexist. Recorded seismicity and geodeticmeasurements are therefore two complementary data sets that together document ongoing deformationalong active tectonic structures. Here we study the influence of stable sliding on earthquake statistics.We show that creep along the San Andreas Fault is responsible for a break of slope in the earthquake sizedistribution. This slope increases with an increasing creep rate for larger magnitude ranges, whereas itshows no systematic dependence on creep rate for smaller magnitude ranges. This is interpreted as a deficitof large events under conditions of faster creep where seismic ruptures are less likely to propagate. Theseresults suggest that the earthquake size distribution does not only depend on the level of stress but also onthe type of deformation.
Efficient decoding with steady-state Kalman filter in neural interface systems.
Malik, Wasim Q; Truccolo, Wilson; Brown, Emery N; Hochberg, Leigh R
2011-02-01
The Kalman filter is commonly used in neural interface systems to decode neural activity and estimate the desired movement kinematics. We analyze a low-complexity Kalman filter implementation in which the filter gain is approximated by its steady-state form, computed offline before real-time decoding commences. We evaluate its performance using human motor cortical spike train data obtained from an intracortical recording array as part of an ongoing pilot clinical trial. We demonstrate that the standard Kalman filter gain converges to within 95% of the steady-state filter gain in 1.5±0.5 s (mean ±s.d.). The difference in the intended movement velocity decoded by the two filters vanishes within 5 s, with a correlation coefficient of 0.99 between the two decoded velocities over the session length. We also find that the steady-state Kalman filter reduces the computational load (algorithm execution time) for decoding the firing rates of 25±3 single units by a factor of 7.0±0.9. We expect that the gain in computational efficiency will be much higher in systems with larger neural ensembles. The steady-state filter can thus provide substantial runtime efficiency at little cost in terms of estimation accuracy. This far more efficient neural decoding approach will facilitate the practical implementation of future large-dimensional, multisignal neural interface systems.
Influence of stress on creep deformation properties of 9-12Cr ferritic creep resistant steels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kimura, K.; Sawada, K.; Kushima, H. [National Institute for Materials Science (Japan)
2008-07-01
Creep deformation property of 9-12Cr ferritic creep resistant steels was investigated. With decrease in stress, a magnitude of creep strain at the onset of accelerating creep stage decreased from about 2% in the short-term to less than 1% in the longterm. A time to 1% total strain was observed in the transient creep stage in the short term regime, however, it shifted to the accelerating creep stage in the long-term regime. Life fraction of the times to 1% creep strain and 1% total strain tended to increase with decrease in stress. Difference in stress dependence of the minimum creep rate was observed in the high- and low-stress regimes with a boundary condition of 50% of 0.2% offset yield stress. Stress dependence of the minimum creep rate in the high stress regime was equivalent to a strain rate dependence of the flow stress evaluated by tensile test, and a magnitude of stress exponent, n, in the high stress regime decreased with increase in temperature from 20 at 550 C to 10 at 700 C. On the other hand, n value in the low stress regime was about 5, and creep deformation in the low stress regime was considered to be controlled by dislocation climb. Creep rupture life was accurately predicted by a region splitting method by considering a change in stress dependence of creep deformation. (orig.)
Hydrodynamics of stratified epithelium: Steady state and linearized dynamics
Yeh, Wei-Ting; Chen, Hsuan-Yi
2016-05-01
A theoretical model for stratified epithelium is presented. The viscoelastic properties of the tissue are assumed to be dependent on the spatial distribution of proliferative and differentiated cells. Based on this assumption, a hydrodynamic description of tissue dynamics at the long-wavelength, long-time limit is developed, and the analysis reveals important insights into the dynamics of an epithelium close to its steady state. When the proliferative cells occupy a thin region close to the basal membrane, the relaxation rate towards the steady state is enhanced by cell division and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, when the region where proliferative cells reside becomes sufficiently thick, a flow induced by cell apoptosis close to the apical surface enhances small perturbations. This destabilizing mechanism is general for continuous self-renewal multilayered tissues; it could be related to the origin of certain tissue morphology, tumor growth, and the development pattern.
Lienkaemper, James J.; McFarland, Forrest S.; Simpson, Robert W.; Bilham, Roger; Ponce, David A.; Boatwright, John; Caskey, S. John
2012-01-01
The Hayward fault (HF) in California exhibits large (Mw 6.5–7.1) earthquakes with short recurrence times (161±65 yr), probably kept short by a 26%–78% aseismic release rate (including postseismic). Its interseismic release rate varies locally over time, as we infer from many decades of surface creep data. Earliest estimates of creep rate, primarily from infrequent surveys of offset cultural features, revealed distinct spatial variation in rates along the fault, but no detectable temporal variation. Since the 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake (LPE), monitoring on 32 alinement arrays and 5 creepmeters has greatly improved the spatial and temporal resolution of creep rate. We now identify significant temporal variations, mostly associated with local and regional earthquakes. The largest rate change was a 6‐yr cessation of creep along a 5‐km length near the south end of the HF, attributed to a regional stress drop from the LPE, ending in 1996 with a 2‐cm creep event. North of there near Union City starting in 1991, rates apparently increased by 25% above pre‐LPE levels on a 16‐km‐long reach of the fault. Near Oakland in 2007 an Mw 4.2 earthquake initiated a 1–2 cm creep event extending 10–15 km along the fault. Using new better‐constrained long‐term creep rates, we updated earlier estimates of depth to locking along the HF. The locking depths outline a single, ∼50‐km‐long locked or retarded patch with the potential for an Mw∼6.8 event equaling the 1868 HF earthquake. We propose that this inferred patch regulates the size and frequency of large earthquakes on HF.
Influence of creep ductility on creep-fatigue behaviour of 20%Cr/25%Ni/Nb stainless steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gladwin, D.; Miller, D.A.
1985-01-01
The influence of creep ductility on creep-fatigue endurance of 20%Cr/25%Ni/Nb stainless steel has been examined. In order to induce different creep ductilities in the 20/25/Nb stainless steel, three different thermo-mechanical routes were employed. These resulted in a range of ductilities (3-36%) being obtained at the strain rates of interest. Strain controlled slow-fast creep-fatigue cycles were used with strain rates of 10 -6 s -1 , 10 -7 s -1 in tension and 10 -3 s -1 in compression. It was found that creep ductility strongly influenced the creep-fatigue endurance of the 20/25/Nb stainless steel. When failure was creep dominated endurance was found to be directly proportional to the creep ductility. A ductility exhaustion model has been used to successfully predict creep-fatigue endurance when failure was creep dominated. (author)
Dissipative dark matter halos: The steady state solution. II.
Foot, R.
2018-05-01
Within the mirror dark matter model and dissipative dark matter models in general, halos around galaxies with active star formation (including spirals and gas-rich dwarfs) are dynamical: they expand and contract in response to heating and cooling processes. Ordinary type II supernovae (SNe) can provide the dominant heat source, which is possible if kinetic mixing interaction exists with strength ɛ ˜10-9- 10-10 . Dissipative dark matter halos can be modeled as a fluid governed by Euler's equations. Around sufficiently isolated and unperturbed galaxies the halo can relax to a steady state configuration, where heating and cooling rates locally balance and hydrostatic equilibrium prevails. These steady state conditions can be solved to derive the physical properties, including the halo density and temperature profiles, for model galaxies. Here, we consider idealized spherically symmetric galaxies within the mirror dark particle model, as in our earlier paper [Phys. Rev. D 97, 043012 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevD.97.043012], but we assume that the local halo heating in the SN vicinity dominates over radiative sources. With this assumption, physically interesting steady state solutions arise which we compute for a representative range of model galaxies. The end result is a rather simple description of the dark matter halo around idealized spherically symmetric systems, characterized in principle by only one parameter, with physical properties that closely resemble the empirical properties of disk galaxies.
Sinha, Nitish; Singh, Arun K.; Singh, Trilok N.
2018-05-01
In this article, we study numerically the dynamic stability of the rate, state, temperature, and pore pressure friction (RSTPF) model at a rock interface using standard spring-mass sliding system. This particular friction model is a basically modified form of the previously studied friction model namely the rate, state, and temperature friction (RSTF). The RSTPF takes into account the role of thermal pressurization including dilatancy and permeability of the pore fluid due to shear heating at the slip interface. The linear stability analysis shows that the critical stiffness, at which the sliding becomes stable to unstable or vice versa, increases with the coefficient of thermal pressurization. Critical stiffness, on the other hand, remains constant for small values of either dilatancy factor or hydraulic diffusivity, but the same decreases as their values are increased further from dilatancy factor (˜ 10^{ - 4} ) and hydraulic diffusivity (˜ 10^{ - 9} {m}2 {s}^{ - 1} ) . Moreover, steady-state friction is independent of the coefficient of thermal pressurization, hydraulic diffusivity, and dilatancy factor. The proposed model is also used for predicting time of failure of a creeping interface of a rock slope under the constant gravitational force. It is observed that time of failure decreases with increase in coefficient of thermal pressurization and hydraulic diffusivity, but the dilatancy factor delays the failure of the rock fault under the condition of heat accumulation at the creeping interface. Moreover, stiffness of the rock-mass also stabilizes the failure process of the interface as the strain energy due to the gravitational force accumulates in the rock-mass before it transfers to the sliding interface. Practical implications of the present study are also discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baek, Seung Se; Na, Sung Hun; Yu, Hyo Sun; Na, Eui Gyun
2001-01-01
In this study, a Small Punch Creep(SP-Creep) test using miniaturized specimen(10 x 10 x 0.5mm) is described to develop the new creep test method for high temperature structural materials. The SP-Creep test is applied to 2.25Cr-1Mo(STBA24) steel which is widely used as boiler tube material. The test temperatures applied for the creep deformation of miniaturized specimens are between 550∼600 .deg. C. The SP-Creep curves depend definitely on applied load and creep temperature, and show the three stages of creep behavior like in conventional uniaxial tensile creep curves. The load exponent of miniaturized specimen decrease with increasing test temperature, and its behavior is similar to stress exponent behavior of uniaxial creep test. The creep activation energy obtained from the relationship between SP-Creep rate and test temperature decreases as the applied load increases. A predicting equation of SP-Creep rate for 2.25Cr-1Mo steel is suggested, and a good agreement between experimental and calculated data has been found
Steady State Shift Damage Localization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sekjær, Claus; Bull, Thomas; Markvart, Morten Kusk
2017-01-01
The steady state shift damage localization (S3DL) method localizes structural deterioration, manifested as either a mass or stiffness perturbation, by interrogating the damage-induced change in the steady state vibration response with damage patterns cast from a theoretical model. Damage is, thus...... the required accuracy when examining complex structures, an extensive amount of degrees of freedom (DOF) must often be utilized. Since the interrogation matrix for each damage pattern depends on the size of the system matrices constituting the FE-model, the computational time quickly becomes of first......-order importance. The present paper investigates two sub-structuring approaches, in which the idea is to employ Craig-Bampton super-elements to reduce the amount of interrogation distributions while still providing an acceptable localization resolution. The first approach operates on a strict super-element level...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meacham, J.E.
2008-01-01
This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for al1 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 13 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 12 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meacham, J.E.
2009-01-01
This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for all 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 11 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-10l) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 10 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-101) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).
Creep properties of phosphorus alloyed oxygen free copper under multiaxial stress state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rui Wu; Sandstroem, Rolf; Seitisleam, Facredin
2009-10-01
Phosphorus alloyed oxygen free copper (Cu-OFP) canisters are planned to be used for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The copper canisters will be subjected to creep under multiaxial stress states in the repository. Creep tests have therefore been carried out at 75 deg C using double notch specimens with notch acuities of 0.5, 2, 5, and 18.8, respectively. The creep lifetime for notched specimens is considerably longer than that for the smooth one at a given net section stress, indicating that the investigated Cu-OFP is notch insensitive (notch strengthening). The notch strengthening factor in time is, for instance, greater than 70 at 180 MPa for the bluntest notch (notch acuity = 0.5). The creep lifetime is notch acuity dependent. The sharper the notch, the longer the creep lifetime is. The creep deformation is to a significant extent concentrated to the region around the notches. Different deformation on the two notches is observed. Both axial and radial strains on the failed notch are several times larger than those on the unbroken one. Linear relation between the axial and the radial strains on the notches is found. Transgranular failure is predominant, independent of stress, rupture time, and notch acuity. Adjacent to fracture, elongated grains along the stress direction, separate pores and cavities are often visible. On the unbroken notch, fewer separate cavities and cracks are only seen intergranularly for the sharper notches (notch acuity > 2). To interpret the tests for the notched creep specimens, finite element computations have been performed. A fundamental model for primary and secondary creep without fitting parameters has been used as constitutive equation. The FEM-modelling could represent the creep strain versus time curves for the notched specimens in a satisfactory way. In these curves the strain on loading is included. From the FEM-computations a stationary creep stress could be assessed, which is close to the reference stress. For a given
Evaluating steady-state soil thickness by coupling uranium series and 10Be cosmogenic radionuclides
Vanacker, Veerle; Schoonejans, Jerome; Opfergelt, Sophie; Granet, Matthieu; Christl, Marcus; Chabaux, Francois
2017-04-01
Within the Critical Zone, the development of the regolith mantle is controlled by the downwards propagation of the weathering front into the bedrock and denudation at the surface of the regolith by mass movements, water and wind erosion. When the removal of surface material is approximately balanced by the soil production, the soil system is assumed to be in steady-state. The steady state soil thickness (or so-called SSST) can be considered as a dynamic equilibrium of the system, where the thickness of the soil mantle stays relatively constant over time. In this study, we present and compare analytical data from two independent isotopic techniques: in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides and U-series disequilibria to constrain soil development under semi-arid climatic conditions. The Spanish Betic Cordillera (Southeast Spain) was selected for this study, as it offers us a unique opportunity to analyze soil thickness steady-state conditions for thin soils of semiarid environments. Three soil profiles were sampled across the Betic Ranges, at the ridge crest of zero-order catchments with distinct topographic relief, hillslope gradient and 10Be-derived denudation rate. The magnitude of soil production rates determined based on U-series isotopes (238U, 234U, 230Th and 226Ra) is in the same order of magnitude as the 10Be-derived denudation rates, suggesting steady state soil thickness in two out of three sampling sites. The results suggest that coupling U-series isotopes with in-situ produced radionuclides can provide new insights in the rates of soil development; and also illustrate the potential frontiers in applying U-series disequilibria to track soil production in rapidly eroding landscapes characterized by thin weathering depths.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurata, Yuji; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Shindo, Masami; Suzuki, Tomio; Tanabe, Tatsuhiko; Mutoh, Isao; Hiraga, Kenjiro
1999-01-01
Creep tests of base metal, weld metal and welded joint of Hastelloy XR, which had the same chemical composition as Hastelloy XR produced for an intermediate heat exchanger of the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, were conducted in simulated primary coolant helium. The weld metal and welded joint showed almost equal to or longer rupture time than the base metal of Hastelloy XR at 850 and 900degC, although they gave shorter rupture time at 950degC under low stress and at 1,000degC. The welded joint of Hastelloy XR ruptured at the base metal region at 850 and 900degC. On the other hand, it ruptured at the weld metal region at 950 and 1,000degC. The steady-state creep rate of weld metal of Hastelloy XR was lower than that of base metal at 850, 900 and 950degC. The creep rupture strengths of base metal, weld metal and welded joint of Hastelloy XR obtained in this study were confirmed to be much higher than the design allowable creep-rupture stress (S R ) of the Design Allowable Limits below 950degC. (author)
Quantum thermodynamics of nanoscale steady states far from equilibrium
Taniguchi, Nobuhiko
2018-04-01
We develop an exact quantum thermodynamic description for a noninteracting nanoscale steady state that couples strongly with multiple reservoirs. We demonstrate that there exists a steady-state extension of the thermodynamic function that correctly accounts for the multiterminal Landauer-Büttiker formula of quantum transport of charge, energy, or heat via the nonequilibrium thermodynamic relations. Its explicit form is obtained for a single bosonic or fermionic level in the wide-band limit, and corresponding thermodynamic forces (affinities) are identified. Nonlinear generalization of the Onsager reciprocity relations are derived. We suggest that the steady-state thermodynamic function is also capable of characterizing the heat current fluctuations of the critical transport where the thermal fluctuations dominate. Also, the suggested nonequilibrium steady-state thermodynamic relations seemingly persist for a spin-degenerate single level with local interaction.
Robust random number generation using steady-state emission of gain-switched laser diodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Z. L.; Lucamarini, M.; Dynes, J. F.; Fröhlich, B.; Plews, A.; Shields, A. J.
2014-01-01
We demonstrate robust, high-speed random number generation using interference of the steady-state emission of guaranteed random phases, obtained through gain-switching a semiconductor laser diode. Steady-state emission tolerates large temporal pulse misalignments and therefore significantly improves the interference quality. Using an 8-bit digitizer followed by a finite-impulse-response unbiasing algorithm, we achieve random number generation rates of 8 and 20 Gb/s, for laser repetition rates of 1 and 2.5 GHz, respectively, with a ±20% tolerance in the interferometer differential delay. We also report a generation rate of 80 Gb/s using partially phase-correlated short pulses. In relation to the field of quantum key distribution, our results confirm the gain-switched laser diode as a suitable light source, capable of providing phase-randomized coherent pulses at a clock rate of up to 2.5 GHz.
Steady states in conformal theories
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
A novel conjecture regarding the steady state behavior of conformal field theories placed between two heat baths will be presented. Some verification of the conjecture will be provided in the context of fluid dynamics and holography.
Hagin, Paul N.
Laboratory experiments on dry, unconsolidated sands from the Wilmington field, CA, reveal significant viscous creep strain under a variety of loading conditions. In hydrostatic compression tests between 10 and 50 MPa of pressure, the creep strain exceeds the magnitude of the instantaneous strain and follows a power law function of time. Interestingly, the viscous effects only appear when loading a sample beyond its preconsolidation pressure. Cyclic loading tests (at quasi-static frequencies of 10-6 to 10 -2 Hz) show that the bulk modulus increases by a factor of two with increasing frequency while attenuation remains constant. I attempt to fit these observations using three classes of models: linear viscoelastic, viscoplastic, and rate-and-state friction models. For the linear viscoelastic modeling, I investigated two types of models; spring-dashpot (exponential) and power law models. I find that a combined power law-Maxwell solid creep model adequately fits all of the data. Extrapolating the power law-Maxwell creep model out to 30 years (to simulate the lifetime of a reservoir) predicts that the static bulk modulus is 25% of the dynamic modulus, in good agreement with field observations. Laboratory studies also reveal that a large portion of the deformation is permanent, suggesting that an elastic-plastic model is appropriate. However, because the viscous component of deformation is significant, an elastic-viscoplastic model is necessary. An appropriate model for unconsolidated sands is developed by incorporating Perzyna (power law) viscoplasticity theory into the modified Cambridge clay cap model. Hydrostatic compression tests conducted as a function of volumetric strain rate produced values for the required model parameters. As a result, by using an end cap model combined with power law viscoplasticity theory, changes in porosity in both the elastic and viscoplastic regimes can be predicted as a function of both stress path and strain rate. To test whether rate-and-state
Prediction of the creep properties of discontinuous fibre composites from the matrix creep law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilde-Soerensen, J.B.; Boecker Pedersen, O.; Lilholt, H.
1975-02-01
Existing theories for predicting the creep properties of discontinuous fibre composites with non-creeping fibres from matrix creep properties, originally based on a power law, are extended to include an exponential law, and in principle a general matrixlaw. An analysis shows that the composite creep curve can be obtained by a simple displacement of the matrix creep curve in a log sigma vs. log epsilon diagram. This principle, that each point on the matrix curve has a corresponding point on the composite curve,is given a physical interpretation. The direction of displacement is such that the transition from a power law toan exponential law occurs at a lower strain rate for the composite than for the unreinforced matrix. This emphasizes the importance of the exponential creep range in the creep of fibre composites. The combined use of matrix and composite data may allow the creep phenomenon to be studied over a larger range of strain rates than otherwise possible. A method for constructing generalized composite creep diagrams is suggested. Creep properties predicted from matrix data by the present analysis are compared with experimental data from the literature. (author)
Nanogranular origin of concrete creep.
Vandamme, Matthieu; Ulm, Franz-Josef
2009-06-30
Concrete, the solid that forms at room temperature from mixing Portland cement with water, sand, and aggregates, suffers from time-dependent deformation under load. This creep occurs at a rate that deteriorates the durability and truncates the lifespan of concrete structures. However, despite decades of research, the origin of concrete creep remains unknown. Here, we measure the in situ creep behavior of calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H), the nano-meter sized particles that form the fundamental building block of Portland cement concrete. We show that C-S-H exhibits a logarithmic creep that depends only on the packing of 3 structurally distinct but compositionally similar C-S-H forms: low density, high density, ultra-high density. We demonstrate that the creep rate ( approximately 1/t) is likely due to the rearrangement of nanoscale particles around limit packing densities following the free-volume dynamics theory of granular physics. These findings could lead to a new basis for nanoengineering concrete materials and structures with minimal creep rates monitored by packing density distributions of nanoscale particles, and predicted by nanoscale creep measurements in some minute time, which are as exact as macroscopic creep tests carried out over years.
Differences between automatically detected and steady-state fractional flow reserve.
Härle, Tobias; Meyer, Sven; Vahldiek, Felix; Elsässer, Albrecht
2016-02-01
Measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR) has become a standard diagnostic tool in the catheterization laboratory. FFR evaluation studies were based on pressure recordings during steady-state maximum hyperemia. Commercially available computer systems detect the lowest Pd/Pa ratio automatically, which might not always be measured during steady-state hyperemia. We sought to compare the automatically detected FFR and true steady-state FFR. Pressure measurement traces of 105 coronary lesions from 77 patients with intermediate coronary lesions or multivessel disease were reviewed. In all patients, hyperemia had been achieved by intravenous adenosine administration using a dosage of 140 µg/kg/min. In 42 lesions (40%) automatically detected FFR was lower than true steady-state FFR. Mean bias was 0.009 (standard deviation 0.015, limits of agreement -0.02, 0.037). In 4 lesions (3.8%) both methods lead to different treatment recommendations, in all 4 cases instantaneous wave-free ratio confirmed steady-state FFR. Automatically detected FFR was slightly lower than steady-state FFR in more than one-third of cases. Consequently, interpretation of automatically detected FFR values closely below the cutoff value requires special attention.
EFAM ETM-CREEP 03 - the engineering flaw assessment method for creep
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landes, J.D.; Schwalbe, K.H.
2002-01-01
EFAM ETM-CREEP is a document that describes the GKSS procedure for estimating residual lives for structural components that contain crack-like defects and operating in a high temperature regime where they undergo creep deformation. It uses the traditional parameters C t and C * and the ETM parameters δ 5 and δ 5 to characterize the crack extension rates. It relies on input from EFAM ETM 97 for calculating these parameters and from EFAM GTP-CREEP 02 to provide the material property data for crack extension rates and fracture toughness data. (orig.) [de
The prediction of creep damage in Type 347 weld metal: part II creep fatigue tests
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spindler, M.W.
2005-01-01
Calculations of creep damage under conditions of strain control are often carried out using either a time fraction approach or a ductility exhaustion approach. In part I of this paper the rupture strength and creep ductility data for a Type 347 weld metal were fitted to provide the material properties that are used to calculate creep damage. Part II of this paper examines whether the time fraction approach or the ductility exhaustion approach gives the better predictions of creep damage in creep-fatigue tests on the same Type 347 weld metal. In addition, a new creep damage model, which was developed by removing some of the simplifying assumptions that are made in the ductility exhaustion approach, was used. This new creep damage model is a function of the strain rate, stress and temperature and was derived from creep and constant strain rate test data using a reverse modelling technique (see part I of this paper). It is shown that the new creep damage model gives better predictions of creep damage in the creep-fatigue tests than the time fraction and the ductility exhaustion approaches
Mechanisms of transient radiation-induced creep
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pyatiletov, Yu.S.
1981-01-01
Radiation-induced creep at the transient stage is investigated for metals. The situation, when several possible creep mechanisms operate simultaneously is studied. Among them revealed are those which give the main contribution and determine thereby the creep behaviour. The time dependence of creep rate and its relation to the smelling rate is obtained. The results satisfactorily agree with the available experimental data [ru
Comparison of Steady-State SVC Models in Load Flow Calculations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte
2008-01-01
This paper compares in a load flow calculation three existing steady-state models of static var compensator (SVC), i.e. the generator-fixed susceptance model, the total susceptance model and the firing angle model. The comparison is made in terms of the voltage at the SVC regulated bus, equivalent...... SVC susceptance at the fundamental frequency and the load flow convergence rate both when SVC is operating within and on the limits. The latter two models give inaccurate results of the equivalent SVC susceptance as compared to the generator model due to the assumption of constant voltage when the SVC...... is operating within the limits. This may underestimate or overestimate the SVC regulating capability. Two modified models are proposed to improve the SVC regulated voltage according to its steady-state characteristic. The simulation results of the two modified models show the improved accuracy...
Producing a steady-state population inversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richards, R.K.; Griffin, D.C.
1986-03-01
An observed steady-state transition at 17.5 nm is identified as the 2p 5 3s3p 4 S/sub 3/2/ → 2p 6 3p 2 P/sub 3/2/ transition in Na-like aluminum. The upper level is populated by electron inner shell ionization of metastable Mg-like aluminum. From the emission intensity, the rate coefficient for populating the upper level is calculated to be approximately 5 x 10 -10 ) cm 3 /sec. Since the upper level is quasimetastable with a lifetime 22 times longer than the lower level, it may be possible to produce a population inversion, if a competing process to populate the lower level can be reduced
Nonequilibrium steady state of biochemical cycle kinetics under non-isothermal conditions
Jin, Xiao; Ge, Hao
2018-04-01
The nonequilibrium steady state of isothermal biochemical cycle kinetics has been extensively studied, but that under non-isothermal conditions has been much less extensively investigated. When the heat exchange between subsystems is slow, the isothermal assumption of the whole system breaks down, as is true for many types of living organisms. Here, starting with a four-state model of molecular transporter across the cell membrane, we generalize the nonequilibrium steady-state theory of isothermal biochemical cycle kinetics to the circumstances with non-uniform temperatures of subsystems in terms of general master equation models. We obtain a new thermodynamic relationship between the chemical reaction rates and thermodynamic potentials in non-isothermal circumstances, based on the overdamped dynamics along the continuous reaction coordinate. We show that the entropy production can vary up to 3% in real cells, even when the temperature difference across the cell membrane is only approximately 1 K. We then decompose the total thermodynamic driving force into its thermal and chemical components and predict that the net flux of molecules transported by the molecular transporter can potentially go against the temperature gradient in the absence of a chemical driving force. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the simple application of the isothermal transition-state rate formula for each chemical reaction in terms of only the reactant’ temperature is not thermodynamically consistent. Therefore, we mathematically derive several revised reaction rate formulas that are not only consistent with the new thermodynamic relationship but also approximate the exact reaction rate better than Kramers’ rate formula under isothermal conditions.
Simultaneous consolidation and creep
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krogsbøll, Anette
1997-01-01
Materials that exhibit creep under constant effective stress typically also show rate dependent behavior. The creep deformations and the rate sensitive behavior is very important when engineering and geological problems with large time scales are considered. When stress induced compaction...
Steady-state ozone concentration in radiation induced noble gas-oxygen discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elsayed-Ali, H.E.; Miley, G.H.
1985-01-01
Measurements of steady-state ozone concentrations in continuous radiation induced noble gas-O 2 and noble gas-O 2 -SF 6 mixtures has been accomplished. The discharges were created through the bombardment of the gases with energetic particles from the boron-10 (n,α) lithium-7 nuclear reaction. Three noble gases were studied, He, Ne, and Ar at partial pressures of few hundred Torr. The dose rates studied were in the order of 10 15 eV.cm -3 .s -1 . The experimental apparatus and proceedure were previously described. The experimentally observed stead-state ozone concentrations in noble gas-O 2 discharges were about an order of magnitude lower than that observed for oxygen radiolysis at similar dose rates. These results were physically explained by an enhanced role of negative ionic reactions with ozone causing its destruction. In noble gas-O 2 -SF 6 mixtures, the steady-state ozone concentrations were found to be significantly higher (3-6 times) than that without the SF 6 addition. This observation was contrary to only a small increase observed after SF 6 addition to a few hundred Torr oxygen and is explained by an enhanced rate of electron dissociative attachment of ozone in noble gas-O 2 discharges
Accelerated creep of Ni-YSZ anodes during reduction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Greco, Fabio; Ni, De Wei
2014-01-01
by the thermomechanical history of the stack (e.g. sintering temperature, time at temperature etc.). During operation the stress state will depend on time as stresses are relaxed by creep processes. Creep has mainly been studied at operating conditions, where the Ni-YSZ anode is in the reduced state and YSZ is the main......To evaluate the reliability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks during operation the stress field must be known at all times. This is influenced by external loads, the operating conditions, the particular design of the stack components and their mechanical properties and finally...... load-carrying component. In this work we report on a new creep-reduction phenomenon observed to take place during the reduction process itself, where stresses are relaxed at a rate much faster (~×104) than during operation where the anode is in fully reduced state. Furthermore, samples exposed...
Experimental research on creep characteristics of Nansha soft soil.
Luo, Qingzi; Chen, Xiaoping
2014-01-01
A series of tests were performed to investigate the creep characteristics of soil in interactive marine and terrestrial deposit of Pearl River Delta. The secondary consolidation test results show that the influence of consolidation pressure on coefficient of secondary consolidation is conditional, which is decided by the consolidation state. The ratio of coefficient of secondary consolidation and coefficient of compressibility (Ca/Cc) is almost a constant, and the value is 0.03. In the shear-box test, the direct sheer creep failure of soil is mainly controlled by shear stress rather than the accumulation of shear strain. The triaxial creep features are closely associated with the drainage conditions, and consolidation can weaken the effect of creep. When the soft soil has triaxial creep damage, the strain rate will increase sharply.
Experimental Research on Creep Characteristics of Nansha Soft Soil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingzi Luo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A series of tests were performed to investigate the creep characteristics of soil in interactive marine and terrestrial deposit of Pearl River Delta. The secondary consolidation test results show that the influence of consolidation pressure on coefficient of secondary consolidation is conditional, which is decided by the consolidation state. The ratio of coefficient of secondary consolidation and coefficient of compressibility Ca/Cc is almost a constant, and the value is 0.03. In the shear-box test, the direct sheer creep failure of soil is mainly controlled by shear stress rather than the accumulation of shear strain. The triaxial creep features are closely associated with the drainage conditions, and consolidation can weaken the effect of creep. When the soft soil has triaxial creep damage, the strain rate will increase sharply.
Experimental Research on Creep Characteristics of Nansha Soft Soil
Luo, Qingzi; Chen, Xiaoping
2014-01-01
A series of tests were performed to investigate the creep characteristics of soil in interactive marine and terrestrial deposit of Pearl River Delta. The secondary consolidation test results show that the influence of consolidation pressure on coefficient of secondary consolidation is conditional, which is decided by the consolidation state. The ratio of coefficient of secondary consolidation and coefficient of compressibility C a/C c is almost a constant, and the value is 0.03. In the shear-box test, the direct sheer creep failure of soil is mainly controlled by shear stress rather than the accumulation of shear strain. The triaxial creep features are closely associated with the drainage conditions, and consolidation can weaken the effect of creep. When the soft soil has triaxial creep damage, the strain rate will increase sharply. PMID:24526925
Lattice continuum and diffusional creep.
Mesarovic, Sinisa Dj
2016-04-01
Diffusional creep is characterized by growth/disappearance of lattice planes at the crystal boundaries that serve as sources/sinks of vacancies, and by diffusion of vacancies. The lattice continuum theory developed here represents a natural and intuitive framework for the analysis of diffusion in crystals and lattice growth/loss at the boundaries. The formulation includes the definition of the Lagrangian reference configuration for the newly created lattice, the transport theorem and the definition of the creep rate tensor for a polycrystal as a piecewise uniform, discontinuous field. The values associated with each crystalline grain are related to the normal diffusional flux at grain boundaries. The governing equations for Nabarro-Herring creep are derived with coupled diffusion and elasticity with compositional eigenstrain. Both, bulk diffusional dissipation and boundary dissipation accompanying vacancy nucleation and absorption, are considered, but the latter is found to be negligible. For periodic arrangements of grains, diffusion formally decouples from elasticity but at the cost of a complicated boundary condition. The equilibrium of deviatorically stressed polycrystals is impossible without inclusion of interface energies. The secondary creep rate estimates correspond to the standard Nabarro-Herring model, and the volumetric creep is small. The initial (primary) creep rate is estimated to be much larger than the secondary creep rate.
Wang, Yi Kan; Hurley, Daniel G; Schnell, Santiago; Print, Cristin G; Crampin, Edmund J
2013-01-01
We develop a new regression algorithm, cMIKANA, for inference of gene regulatory networks from combinations of steady-state and time-series gene expression data. Using simulated gene expression datasets to assess the accuracy of reconstructing gene regulatory networks, we show that steady-state and time-series data sets can successfully be combined to identify gene regulatory interactions using the new algorithm. Inferring gene networks from combined data sets was found to be advantageous when using noisy measurements collected with either lower sampling rates or a limited number of experimental replicates. We illustrate our method by applying it to a microarray gene expression dataset from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) which combines time series data from treatment with growth factor TNF and steady state data from siRNA knockdown treatments. Our results suggest that the combination of steady-state and time-series datasets may provide better prediction of RNA-to-RNA interactions, and may also reveal biological features that cannot be identified from dynamic or steady state information alone. Finally, we consider the experimental design of genomics experiments for gene regulatory network inference and show that network inference can be improved by incorporating steady-state measurements with time-series data.
An equation oriented approach to steady state flowsheeting of methanol synthesis loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fathikalajahi, J.; Baniadam, M.; Rahimpour, M.R.
2008-01-01
An equation-oriented approach was developed for steady state flowsheeting of a commercial methanol plant. The loop consists of fixed bed reactor, flash separator, preheater, coolers, and compressor. For steady sate flowsheeting of the plant mathematical model of reactor and other units are needed. Reactor used in loop is a Lurgi type and its configuration is rather complex. Previously reactor and flash separator are modeled as two important units of plant. The model is based on mass and energy balances in each equipment and utilizing some auxiliary equations such as rate of reaction and thermodynamics model for activity coefficients of liquid. In order to validate the mathematical model for the synthesis loop, some simulation data were performed using operating conditions and characteristics of the commercial plant. The good agreement between the steady state simulation results and the plant data shows the validity of the model
LANSCE steady state unperturbed thermal neutron fluxes at 100 μA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Russell, G.J.
1989-01-01
The ''maximum'' unperturbed, steady state thermal neutron flux for LANSCE is calculated to be 2 /times/ 10 13 n/cm 2 -s for 100 μA of 800-MeV protons. This LANSCE neutron flux is a comparable entity to a steady state reactor thermal neutron flux. LANSCE perturbed steady state thermal neutron fluxes have also been calculated. Because LANSCE is a pulsed neutron source, much higher ''peak'' (in time) neutron fluxes can be generated than at a steady state reactor source. 5 refs., 5 figs
Ako, Olga Y; Kitamura, Y; Intabon, K; Satake, T
2008-09-01
A Monod model has been used to describe the steady state characteristics of the acclimated mesophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogens in experimental chemostat reactors. The bacteria were fed with mineral salts and specific trace metals and a H(2)/CO(2) supply was used as a single limited substrate. Under steady state conditions, the growth yield (Y(CH4)) reached 11.66 g cells per mmol of H(2)/CO(2) consumed. The daily cells generation average was 5.67 x 10(11), 5.25 x 10(11), 4.2 x 10(11) and 2.1 x 10(11) cells/l-culture for the dilutions 0.071/d, 0.083/d, 0.1/d and 0.125/d, respectively. The maximum specific growth rate (mu(max)) and the Monod half-saturation coefficient (K(S)) were 0.15/d and 0.82 g/L, respectively. Using these results, the reactor performance was simulated. During the steady state, the simulation predicts the dependence of the H(2)/CO(2) concentration (S) and the cell concentration (X) on the dilution rate. The model fitted the experimental data well and was able to yield a maximum methanogenic activity of 0.24 L CH(4)/g VSS.d. The dilution rate was estimated to be 0.1/d. At the dilution rate of 0.14/d, the exponential cells washout was achieved.
Calculation analysis on steady state natural circulation characteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Fei; Nie Changhua; Huang Yanping
2005-01-01
The calculation results of single-phase steady state natural circulation characteristics by using Retran02 code have been presented, good agreement is achieved between the verified calculation result and the experimental data which were conducted at a test facility. Based on the calculation model, some sensibility analyses were made and much deeper understanding for single-phase steady state natural circulation characteristics was obtained. (author)
Selection of steady states in planar Darcy convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsybulin, V.G.; Karasoezen, B.; Ergenc, T.
2006-01-01
The planar natural convection of an incompressible fluid in a porous medium is considered. We study the selection of steady states under temperature perturbations on the boundary. A selection map is introduced in order to analyze the selection of a steady state from a continuous family of equilibria which exists under zero boundary conditions. The results of finite-difference modeling for a rectangular enclosure are presented
Study of oxide layers in creep of Ti alloy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reis, D.A.P.; Moura Neto, C.; Machado, J.P.B.; Martins, G.V.; Barboza, M.J.R.
2009-01-01
The present study is about the effect of oxide layers in creep of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, in different atmospheres (air, nitrogen and argon). Ti-6Al-4V alloy was treated during 24 hours in a thermal treatment furnace at 600°C in different atmospheres (argon, nitrogen and air). The samples were analyzed by High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and microhardness test. The polished samples of Ti-6Al-4V alloy were treated during 24 hours at 600°C and the oxidation behavior in each case using argon, nitrogen and air atmospheres was observed. The oxidation was more aggressive in air atmosphere, forming TiO 2 film in the surface. The oxidation produced a weight gain through the oxide layer growth and hardening by oxygen dissolution. Ti-6Al-4V alloy specimens also were produced in order to test them in creep, at 250 MPa and 600 deg C, with argon, nitrogen and air atmospheres. When the Ti-6Al-4V alloy was tested under argon and nitrogen atmospheres oxidation effects are smaller and the behavior of the creep curves shows that the creep life time was better in atmospheres not so oxidant. It is observed a decreasing of steady state creep in function of the oxidation process reduction. It is shown that, for the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, their useful life is strongly affected by the atmosphere that is submitted, on account of the oxidation suffered by the material. (author)
Quenching effect on creep of polycrystal nickel at 1.5-4.2 K
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gindin, I.A.; Starodubov, Ya.D.; Aksenov, V.K.; Karaseva, E.V.
1977-01-01
Stepwise creep of vacuum-remelted nickel of 99.996% purity at temperatures of 1.5; 2.2 and 4.2 K in the initial and hardened state was studied. It has been established that excess concentration of vacancies reduced the creep rate, especially at low applied stresses (sigma 0.4 sigmasub(B) (T=const) the creep characteristics only slightly depend on the specimen prehistory. The creep of hardened and initial specimens in the investigated temperature range is of an athermal nature up to sigma <= 0.8 sigmasub(B), but at higher stresses an increase in temperature from 1.5 to 4.2 K increases the rate of nonstationary creep of both initial and hardened specimens. The causes for the regularities observed are discussed
Steady-state oxygen-solubility in niobium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulze, K.; Jehn, H.
1977-01-01
During annealing of niobium in oxygen in certain temperature and pressure ranges steady states are established between the absorption of molecular oxygen and the evaporation of volatile oxides. The oxygen concentration in the niobium-oxygen α-solid solution is a function of oxygen pressure and temperature and has been redetermined in the ranges 10 -5 - 10 -2 Pa O 2 and 2,070 - 2,470 K. It follows differing from former results the equation csub(o) = 9.1 x 10 -6 x sub(po2) x exp (502000/RT) with csub(o) in at.-ppm, sub(po2) in Pa, T in K, R = 8.31 J x mol -1 x K -1 . The existence of steady states is limited to a temperature range from 1870 to 2470 K and to oxygen concentrations below the solubility limit given by solidus and solvus lines in the T-c diagram. In the experiments high-purity niobium wires with a specific electrical ratio rho (273 K)/rho(4.2 K) > 5,000 have been gassed under isothermal-isobaric conditions until the steady state has been reached. The oxygen concentration has been determined analytically by vacuum fusion extraction with platinum-flux technique as well as by electrical residual resistivity measurements at 4.2 K. (orig.) [de
Steady-state entanglement activation in optomechanical cavities
Farace, Alessandro; Ciccarello, Francesco; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio
2014-02-01
Quantum discord, and related indicators, are raising a relentless interest as a novel paradigm of nonclassical correlations beyond entanglement. Here, we discover a discord-activated mechanism yielding steady-state entanglement production in a realistic continuous-variable setup. This comprises two coupled optomechanical cavities, where the optical modes (OMs) communicate through a fiber. We first use a simplified model to highlight the creation of steady-state discord between the OMs. We show next that such discord improves the level of stationary optomechanical entanglement attainable in the system, making it more robust against temperature and thermal noise.
Creep Strength of Discontinuous Fibre Composites
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Ole Bøcker
1974-01-01
relation between stress and strain rate. Expressions for the interface stress, the creep velocity profile adjacent to the fibres and the creep strength of the composite are derived. Previous results for the creep strength, sc = aVfs0 ( \\frac[( Î )\\dot] [( Î )\\dot] 0 )1/nr1 + 1/n c=Vf001n1+1n in which[( Î...... )\\dot] is the composite creep rate,V f is the fibre volume fraction,sgr 0,epsi 0 andn are the constants in the matrix creep law. The creep strength coefficient agr is found to be very weakly dependent onV f and practically independent ofn whenn is greater than about 6....
Multiaxial creep-fatigue rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spindler, M.W.; Hales, R.; Ainsworth, R.A.
1997-01-01
Within the UK, a comprehensive procedure, called R5, is used to assess the high temperature response of structures. One part of R5 deals with creep-fatigue initiation, and in this paper we describe developments in this part of R5 to cover multiaxial stress states. To assess creep-fatigue, damage is written as the linear sum of fatigue and creep components. Fatigue is assessed using Miner's law with the total endurance split into initiation and growth cycles. Initiation is assessed by entering the curve of initiation cycles vs strain range using a Tresca equivalent strain range. Growth is assessed by entering the curve of growth cycles vs strain range using a Rankine equivalent strain range. The number of allowable cycles is obtained by summing the initiation and growth cycles. In this way the problem of defining an equivalent strain range applicable over a range of endurance is avoided. Creep damage is calculated using ductility exhaustion methods. In this paper we address two aspects; first, the nature of stress relaxation and, hence, accumulated creep strain in multiaxial stress fields; secondly, the effect of multiaxial stress on creep ductility. The effect of multiaxial stress state on creep ductility has been examined using experimental data and mechanistic models. Good agreement is demonstrated between an empirical description of test data and a cavity growth model, provided a simple nucleation criterion is included. A simple scaling factor is applied to uniaxial creep ductility, defined as a function of stress state. The factor is independent of the cavity growth mechanisms and yields a value of equivalent strain which can be conveniently used in determining creep damage by ductility exhaustion. (author). 14 refs, 4 figs
Numerical method for three dimensional steady-state two-phase flow calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raymond, P.; Toumi, I.
1992-01-01
This paper presents the numerical scheme which was developed for the FLICA-4 computer code to calculate three dimensional steady state two phase flows. This computer code is devoted to steady state and transient thermal hydraulics analysis of nuclear reactor cores 1,3 . The first section briefly describes the FLICA-4 flow modelling. Then in order to introduce the numerical method for steady state computations, some details are given about the implicit numerical scheme based upon an approximate Riemann solver which was developed for calculation of flow transients. The third section deals with the numerical method for steady state computations, which is derived from this previous general scheme and its optimization. We give some numerical results for steady state calculations and comparisons on required CPU time and memory for various meshing and linear system solvers
Development of synchronous generator saturation model from steady-state operating data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jadric, Martin; Despalatovic, Marin; Terzic, Bozo [FESB University of Split, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Split (Croatia)
2010-11-15
A new method to estimate and model the saturated synchronous reactances of hydroturbine generators from operating data is presented. For the estimation process, measurements of only the generator steady-state variables are required. First, using a specific procedure, the field to armature turns ratio is estimated from measured steady-state variables at constant power generation and various excitation conditions. Subsequently, for each set of steady-state operating data, saturated synchronous reactances are identified. Fitting surfaces, defined as polynomial functions in two variables, are later used to model these saturated reactances. It is shown that the simpler polynomial functions may be used to model saturation at the steady-state than at the dynamic conditions. The developed steady-state model is validated with measurements performed on the 34 MVA hydroturbine generator. (author)
Influence of variations in creep curve on creep behavior of a high-temperature structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hada, Kazuhiko
1986-01-01
It is one of the key issues for a high-temperature structural design guideline to evaluate the influence of variations in creep curve on the creep behavior of a high-temperature structure. In the present paper, a comparative evaluation was made to clarify such influence. Additional consideration was given to the influence of the relationship between creep rupture life and minimum creep rate, i.e., the Monkman-Grant's relationship, on the creep damage evaluation. The consideration suggested that the Monkman-Grant's relationship be taken into account in evaluating the creep damage behavior, especially the creep damage variations. However, it was clarified that the application of the creep damage evaluation rule of ASME B and P.V. Code Case N-47 to the ''standard case'' which was predicted from the average creep property would predict the creep damage on the safe side. (orig./GL)
Coarsening behavior of lath and its effect on creep rates in tempered martensitic 9Cr-W steels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abe, F.
2004-01-01
The coarsening behavior of martensite lath has been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy for tempered martensitic 9 wt.% Cr-(0, 1, 2, 4 wt.%) W steels during creep at 823-923 K. During creep, the recovery of excess dislocations, the agglomeration of carbides and the coarsening of laths take place. The coarsening of laths with absorbing excess dislocations is the major process in the creep acceleration. The coarsening rate of lath decreases with increasing W concentration, which is correlated with the rate of Ostwald ripening of M 23 C 6 carbides. The progressive local-coalescence of two adjacent laths boundaries near the Y-junction causes the movement of Y-junction, resulting in the coarsening of lath
Negative creep in nickel base superalloys
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Hald, John
2004-01-01
Negative creep describes the time dependent contraction of a material as opposed to the elongation seen for a material experiencing normal creep behavior. Negative creep occurs because of solid state transformations that results in lattice contractions. For most applications negative creep will h...
van Kuilenburg, A. B.; Gorren, A. C.; Dekker, H. L.; Nieboer, P.; van Gelder, B. F.; Muijsers, A. O.
1992-01-01
Human cytochrome c oxidase was purified in a fully active form from heart and skeletal muscle. The enzyme was selectively solubilised with octylglucoside and KCl from submitochondrial particles followed by ammonium sulphate fractionation. The presteady-state and steady-state kinetic properties of
Computational models for residual creep life prediction of power plant components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grewal, G.S.; Singh, A.K.; Ramamoortry, M.
2006-01-01
All high temperature - high pressure power plant components are prone to irreversible visco-plastic deformation by the phenomenon of creep. The steady state creep response as well as the total creep life of a material is related to the operational component temperature through, respectively, the exponential and inverse exponential relationships. Minor increases in the component temperature can thus have serious consequences as far as the creep life and dimensional stability of a plant component are concerned. In high temperature steam tubing in power plants, one mechanism by which a significant temperature rise can occur is by the growth of a thermally insulating oxide film on its steam side surface. In the present paper, an elegantly simple and computationally efficient technique is presented for predicting the residual creep life of steel components subjected to continual steam side oxide film growth. Similarly, fabrication of high temperature power plant components involves extensive use of welding as the fabrication process of choice. Naturally, issues related to the creep life of weldments have to be seriously addressed for safe and continual operation of the welded plant component. Unfortunately, a typical weldment in an engineering structure is a zone of complex microstructural gradation comprising of a number of distinct sub-zones with distinct meso-scale and micro-scale morphology of the phases and (even) chemistry and its creep life prediction presents considerable challenges. The present paper presents a stochastic algorithm, which can be' used for developing experimental creep-cavitation intensity versus residual life correlations for welded structures. Apart from estimates of the residual life in a mean field sense, the model can be used for predicting the reliability of the plant component in a rigorous probabilistic setting. (author)
Energy management in multi stage evaporator through a steady and dynamic state analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verma, Om Prakash; Manik, Gaurav; Mohammed, Toufiq Haji [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee (India)
2017-10-15
Increasing energy demand, high cost of energy and global warming issues across the globe require energy intensive industries, such as paper mills to improve energy efficiency. Multi-stage evaporators used to concentrate the black liquor in such mills form its most energy consuming unit and require a strong understanding of steady and unsteady state behavior to ensure energy savings. The modeling of nonlinear heptads’ effect system yielded a set of complex nonlinear algebraic and differential equations that are analyzed using Interior-point method and state space representation. Dynamic response of product concentration and system vapor temperatures along with system stability and controllability have been explored by disturbing the flow rate, concentration and temperature of feed, and fresh steam flow rate. Simulations predict that steam flow rate, feed flow rate and its concentration invariably are major controlling factors (in decreasing order) of vapor temperature and product concentration. The interactive behavior between different effects translates into slower responses of the effects with increasing separation from disturbance source. This steady state and transient study opens many new explanations to this relatively less explored area and helps to propose and implement industrial PID controllers to reduce steam consumption and control product quality.
Steady state and transient critical heat flux examinations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szabados, L.
1978-02-01
In steady state conditions within the P.W.R. parameter range the critical heat flux correlations based on local parameters reproduce the experimental data with less deviations than those based on system parameters. The transient experiments were restricted for the case of power transients. A data processing method for critical heat flux measurements has been developed and the applicability of quasi steady state calculation has been verified. (D.P.)
Boehlert, C. J.; Dickmann, D. S.; Eisinger, Ny. N. C.
2006-01-01
The grain size, grain boundary character distribution (GBCD), creep, and tensile behavior of INCONEL alloy 718 (IN 718) were characterized to identify processing-microstructure-property relationships. The alloy was sequentially cold rolled (CR) to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 80 pct followed by annealing at temperatures between 954 °C and 1050 °C and the traditional aging schedule used for this alloy. In addition, this alloy can be superplastically formed (IN 718SPF) to a significantly finer grain size and the corresponding microstructure and mechanical behavior were evaluated. The creep behavior was evaluated in the applied stress (σ a ) range of 300 to 758 MPa and the temperature range of 638 °C to 670 °C. Constant-load tensile creep experiments were used to measure the values of the steady-state creep rate and the consecutive load reduction method was used to determine the values of backstress (σ0). The values for the effective stress exponent and activation energy suggested that the transition between the rate-controlling creep mechanisms was dependent on effective stresses (σ e =σ a σ0) and the transition occurred at σ e ≅ 135 MPa. The 10 to 40 pct CR samples exhibited the greatest 650 °C strength, while IN 718SPF exhibited the greatest room-temperature (RT) tensile strength (>1550 MPa) and ductility (ɛ f >16 pct). After the 954 °C annealing treatment, the 20 pct CR and 30 pct CR microstructures exhibited the most attractive combination of elevated-temperature tensile and creep strength, while the most severely cold-rolled materials exhibited the poorest elevated-temperature properties. After the 1050 °C annealing treatment, the IN 718SPF material exhibited the greatest backstress and best creep resistance. Electron backscattered diffraction was performed to identify the GBCD as a function of CR and annealing. The data indicated that annealing above 1010 °C increased the grain size and resulted in a greater fraction of twin boundaries, which in
Dissipative dark matter halos: The steady state solution
Foot, R.
2018-02-01
Dissipative dark matter, where dark matter particle properties closely resemble familiar baryonic matter, is considered. Mirror dark matter, which arises from an isomorphic hidden sector, is a specific and theoretically constrained scenario. Other possibilities include models with more generic hidden sectors that contain massless dark photons [unbroken U (1 ) gauge interactions]. Such dark matter not only features dissipative cooling processes but also is assumed to have nontrivial heating sourced by ordinary supernovae (facilitated by the kinetic mixing interaction). The dynamics of dissipative dark matter halos around rotationally supported galaxies, influenced by heating as well as cooling processes, can be modeled by fluid equations. For a sufficiently isolated galaxy with a stable star formation rate, the dissipative dark matter halos are expected to evolve to a steady state configuration which is in hydrostatic equilibrium and where heating and cooling rates locally balance. Here, we take into account the major cooling and heating processes, and numerically solve for the steady state solution under the assumptions of spherical symmetry, negligible dark magnetic fields, and that supernova sourced energy is transported to the halo via dark radiation. For the parameters considered, and assumptions made, we were unable to find a physically realistic solution for the constrained case of mirror dark matter halos. Halo cooling generally exceeds heating at realistic halo mass densities. This problem can be rectified in more generic dissipative dark matter models, and we discuss a specific example in some detail.
Magnetothermoelastic creep analysis of functionally graded cylinders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loghman, A.; Ghorbanpour Arani, A.; Amir, S.; Vajedi, A.
2010-01-01
This paper describes time-dependent creep stress redistribution analysis of a thick-walled FGM cylinder placed in uniform magnetic and temperature fields and subjected to an internal pressure. The material creep, magnetic and mechanical properties through the radial graded direction are assumed to obey the simple power law variation. Total strains are assumed to be the sum of elastic, thermal and creep strains. Creep strains are time, temperature and stress dependent. Using equations of equilibrium, stress-strain and strain-displacement a differential equation, containing creep strains, for displacement is obtained. Ignoring creep strains in this differential equation a closed form solution for the displacement and initial magnetothermoelastic stresses at zero time is presented. Initial magnetothermoelastic stresses are illustrated for different material properties. Using Prandtl-Reuss relation in conjunction with the above differential equation and the Norton's law for the material uniaxial creep constitutive model, the radial displacement rate is obtained and then the radial and circumferential creep stress rates are calculated. Creep stress rates are plotted against dimensionless radius for different material properties. Using creep stress rates, stress redistributions are calculated iteratively using magnetothermoelastic stresses as initial values for stress redistributions. It has been found that radial stress redistributions are not significant for different material properties, however major redistributions occur for circumferential and effective stresses.
Anifowose, Adebanjo Jacob; Takeda, Kazuhiko; Sakugawa, Hiroshi
2015-12-15
Superoxide radical (O2(•-)) is an important reactive oxygen species in seawater. Measurements of its production rates and steady-state concentrations generated by photochemical processes have been a Herculean task over the years. In this study, a probe - 3'6'-(diphenylphosphinyl)fluorescein (PF-1) - was used to trap photochemically generated O2(•-) in seawater, thereby yielding fluorescein. The fluorescein produced was measured by an isocratic fluorescence HPLC at excitation/emission wavelengths of 490/513 nm, respectively. The reaction rate constant of PF-1 with O2(•-) (kPF-1) was pH-dependent: (3.2-23.5) × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1) at pHTOT 7.65-8.50. By applying appropriate equations, both the production rate and the steady-state concentration of O2(•-) generated by photochemical reactions in the seawater were quantified. Under the optimized experimental conditions, fluorescein standards (3-50 nM) exhibited linearity in the seawater by HPLC. The photoformation of fluorescein, due to the reaction of PF-1 with the O2(•-) photochemically produced in the seawater, was linear within the 20 min irradiation. The detection limit of the fluorescein photoformation rate was 0.03 pM s(-1), defined as 3σ of the lowest standard fluorescein concentration per 20 min irradiation. Using this value, the yield of fluorescein, and the fraction of O2(•-) that reacted with PF-1 in the seawater, the detection limit of the O2(•-) photoformation rate was 1.78 pM s(-1). Superoxide measurements using the proposed method were relatively unaffected by the potential interfering species in seawater. Application of the proposed method to ten (10) seawater samples from the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, resulted in measured O2(•-) photoformation rates of 3.1-8.5 nM s(-1), with steady-state concentrations ranging (0.06-0.3) × 10(-10) M. The method is simple, requires no technical sample preparation, and can be used to analyze a large number of samples.
Steady State Crack Propagation in Layered Material Systems Displaying Visco-plastic Behaviour
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kim Lau
2012-01-01
The steady state fracture toughness of elastic visco-plastic materials is studied numerically, using both a conventional and a higher order model. Focus is on the combined effect of strain hardening, strain gradient hardening and strain rate hardening on cracking in layered material systems...
The Markov process admits a consistent steady-state thermodynamic formalism
Peng, Liangrong; Zhu, Yi; Hong, Liu
2018-01-01
The search for a unified formulation for describing various non-equilibrium processes is a central task of modern non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In this paper, a novel steady-state thermodynamic formalism was established for general Markov processes described by the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. Furthermore, corresponding formalisms of steady-state thermodynamics for the master equation and Fokker-Planck equation could be rigorously derived in mathematics. To be concrete, we proved that (1) in the limit of continuous time, the steady-state thermodynamic formalism for the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation fully agrees with that for the master equation; (2) a similar one-to-one correspondence could be established rigorously between the master equation and Fokker-Planck equation in the limit of large system size; (3) when a Markov process is restrained to one-step jump, the steady-state thermodynamic formalism for the Fokker-Planck equation with discrete state variables also goes to that for master equations, as the discretization step gets smaller and smaller. Our analysis indicated that general Markov processes admit a unified and self-consistent non-equilibrium steady-state thermodynamic formalism, regardless of underlying detailed models.
Creep fracture mechanics analysis for through-wall cracked pipes under widespread creep condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huh, Nam Su; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Young Jin
2003-01-01
This paper compares engineering estimation schemes of C * and creep COD for circumferential and axial through-wall cracked pipes at elevated temperatures with detailed 3-D elastic-creep finite element results. Engineering estimation schemes included the GE/EPRI method, the reference stress method where reference stress is defined based on the plastic limit load and the enhanced reference stress method where the reference stress is defined based on the optimized reference load. Systematic investigations are made not only on the effect of creep-deformation behaviour on C * and creep COD, but also on effects of the crack location, the pipe geometry, the crack length and the loading mode. Comparison of the FE results with engineering estimations provides that for idealized power law creep, estimated C * and COD rate results from the GE/EPRI method agree best with FE results. For general creep-deformation laws where either primary or tertiary creep is important and thus the GE/EPRI method is hard to apply, on the other hand, the enhanced reference stress method provides more accurate and robust estimations for C * and COD rate than the reference stress method
Constitutive relations describing creep deformation for multi-axial time-dependent stress states
McCartney, L. N.
1981-02-01
A THEORY of primary and secondary creep deformation in metals is presented, which is based upon the concept of tensor internal state variables and the principles of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics. The theory is able to account for both multi-axial and time-dependent stress and strain states. The wellknown concepts of elastic, anelastic and plastic strains follow naturally from the theory. Homogeneous stress states are considered in detail and a simplified theory is derived by linearizing with respect to the internal state variables. It is demonstrated that the model can be developed in such a way that multi-axial constant-stress creep data can be presented as a single relationship between an equivalent stress and an equivalent strain. It is shown how the theory may be used to describe the multi-axial deformation of metals which are subjected to constant stress states. The multi-axial strain response to a general cyclic stress state is calculated. For uni-axial stress states, square-wave loading and a thermal fatigue stress cycle are analysed.
Sahoo, K. C.; Goyal, Sunil; Parameswaran, P.; Ravi, S.; Laha, K.
2018-03-01
The role of the multiaxial state of stress on creep deformation and rupture behavior of 304HCu austenitic stainless steel was assessed by performing creep rupture tests on both smooth and notched specimens of the steel. The multiaxial state of stress was introduced by incorporating circumferential U-notches of different root radii ranging from 0.25 to 5.00 mm on the smooth specimens of the steel. Creep tests were carried out at 973 K over the stress range of 140 to 220 MPa. In the presence of notch, the creep rupture strength of the steel was found to increase with the associated decrease in rupture ductility. Over the investigated stress range and notch sharpness, the strengthening was found to increase drastically with notch sharpness and tended toward saturation. The fractographic studies revealed the mixed mode of failure consisting of transgranular dimples and intergranular creep cavitation for shallow notches, whereas the failure was predominantly intergranular for relatively sharper notches. Detailed finite element analysis of stress distribution across the notch throat plane on creep exposure was carried out to assess the creep failure of the material in the presence of notch. The reduction in von-Mises stress across the notch throat plane, which was greater for sharper notches, increased the creep rupture strength of the material. The variation in fracture behavior of the material in the presence of notch was elucidated based on the von-Mises, maximum principal, and hydrostatic stresses. Electron backscatter diffraction analysis of creep strain distribution across the notch revealed localized creep straining at the notch root for sharper notches. A master curve for predicting creep rupture life under the multiaxial state of stress was generated considering the representative stress having contributions from both the von-Mises and principal stress components of the stress field in the notch throat plane. Rupture ductility was also predicted based on the
Transitional Thermal Creep of Early Age Concrete
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hauggaard-Nielsen, Anders Boe; Damkilde, Lars; Freiesleben Hansen, Per
1999-01-01
Couplings between creep of hardened concrete and temperature/water effects are well-known. Both the level and the gradients in time of temperature or water content influence the creep properties. In early age concrete the internal drying and the heat development due to hydration increase the effect...... of these couplings. The purpose of this work is to set up a mathematical model for creep of concrete which includes the transitional thermal effect. The model govern both early age concrete and hardened concrete. The development of the material properties in the model are assumed to depend on the hydration process...... termed the microprestresses, which reduces the stiffness of the concrete and increase the creep rate. The aging material is modelled in an incremental way reflecting the hydration process in which new layers of cement gel solidifies in a stress free state and add stiffness to the material. Analysis...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, M.; Sakagami, M.
1984-01-01
FARST, a computer code for the evaluation of fuel rod thermal and mechanical behavior under steady-state/transient conditions has been developed. The code characteristics are summarized as follows: (I) FARST evaluates the fuel rod behavior under the transient conditions. The code analyzes thermal and mechanical phenomena within a fuel rod, taking into account the temperature change in coolant surrounding the fuel rod. (II) Permanent strains such as plastic, creep and swelling strains as well as thermoelastic deformations can be analyzed by using the strain increment method. (III) Axial force and contact pressure which act on the fuel stack and cladding are analyzed based on the stick/slip conditions. (IV) FARST used a pellet swelling model which depends on the contact pressure between pellet and cladding, and an empirical pellet relocation model, designated as 'jump relocation model'. The code was successfully applied to analyses of the fuel rod irradiation data from pulse reactor for nuclear safety research in Cadarache (CABRI) and pulse reactor for nuclear safety research in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (NSRR). The code was further applied to stress analysis of a 1000 MW class large FBR plant fuel rod during transient conditions. The steady-state model which was used so far gave the conservative results for cladding stress during overpower transient, but underestimated the results for cladding stress during a rapid temperature decrease of coolant. (orig.)
Higgins, N.; Lapusta, N.
2016-12-01
What physical mechanism drives the occurrence of foreshocks? Many studies have suggested that slow slip from the mainshock nucleation is a necessary ingredient for explaining foreshock observations. We explore this view, investigating asperity-type foreshock sources driven by nucleation-induced creep using rate-and-state fault models, and numerically simulatie their behavior over many rupture cycles. Inspired by the unique laboratory experiments of earthquake nucleation and rupture conducted on a meter-scale slab of granite by McLaskey and colleagues, we model potential foreshock sources as "bumps" on the fault interface by assigning a significantly higher normal compression and, in some cases, increased smoothness (lower characteristic slip) over small patches within a seismogenic fault. In order to study the mechanics of isolated patch-induced seismic events preceding the mainshock, we separate these patches sufficiently in space. The simulation results show that our rate-and-state fault model with patches of locally different properties driven by the slow nucleation of the mainshock is indeed able to produce isolated microseismicity before the mainshock. Remarkably, the stress drops of these precursory events are compatible with observations and approximately independent of the patch compression, despite the wide range of the elevated patch compression used in different simulations. We find that this unexpected property of stress drops for this type of model is due to two factors. Firstly, failure of stronger patches results in rupture further into the surrounding fault, keeping the average stress drop down. Secondly, patches close to their local nucleation size relieve a significant amount of stress via aseismic pre-slip, which also helps to keep the stress drop down. Our current work is directed towards investigating the seismic signature of such events and the potential differences with other types of microseismicity.
Contour analysis of steady state tokamak reactor performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devoto, R.S.; Fenstermacher, M.E.
1990-01-01
A new method of analysis for presenting the possible operating space for steady state, non-ignited tokamak reactors is proposed. The method uses contours of reactor performance and plasma characteristics, fusion power gain, wall neutron flux, current drive power, etc., plotted on a two-dimensional grid, the axes of which are the plasma current I p and the normalized beta, β n = β/(I p /aB 0 ), to show possible operating points. These steady state operating contour plots are called SOPCONS. This technique is illustrated in an application to a design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) with neutral beam, lower hybrid and bootstrap current drive. The utility of the SOPCON plots for pointing out some of the non-intuitive considerations in steady state reactor design is shown. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ravi, S., E-mail: sravi@igcar.gov.in; Laha, K.; Sakthy, S.; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T.
2014-02-15
Highlights: • Design of a lever type creep machine for carrying out creep test in flowing sodium. • Leveling of lever during creep was achieved by automated movement of fulcrum. • Design of creep chamber for providing constant sodium flow rate across creep specimen. • Minimum use of bellow in chamber for sodium containment and mechanical isolation. • Mini-lever mechanism to counter balance load reduction on specimen due to bellow stiffness. - Abstract: A creep testing system has been designed, fabricated, installed and validated for carrying out creep tests in flowing liquid sodium. The testing system consists of two sections namely creep testing machine and an environmental chamber. The testing system has the ability of (i) applying tensile load to the test specimen through a lever, (ii) monitoring continuously the creep elongation and (iii) allowing sodium to flow around the creep specimen at constant velocity. The annular space between the creep specimen and the environmental chamber has been suitably designed to maintain constant sodium flow velocity. Primary and secondary bellows are employed in the environmental chamber to (i) mechanically isolate the creep specimen, (ii) prevent the flowing sodium in contact with air and (iii) maintain an argon gas cover to the leaking sodium if any from primary bellow, with a provision to an alarm get activated by a spark plug. The lever-horizontality during creep test has been maintained by automatically lifting up the fulcrum instead of lowering down the pull rod as conventionally used. A mini lever mechanism has been incorporated in the load train to counter balance the load reduction on specimen from the changing stiffness of the bellows. The validation of the testing system has been established by carrying out creep tests on 316L(N) stainless steel at 873 K over a wide stress range and comparing the results with those obtained in air by employing the developed and conventional creep testing machines.
Perez-Benito, Joaquin F.
2017-01-01
The elementary reaction sequence A ? I ? Products is the simplest mechanism for which the steady-state and quasi-equilibrium kinetic approximations can be applied. The exact integrated solutions for this chemical system allow inferring the conditions that must fulfill the rate constants for the different approximations to hold. A graphical…
Solution of generalized control system equations at steady state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vilim, R.B.
1987-01-01
Although a number of reactor systems codes feature generalized control system models, none of the models offer a steady-state solution finder. Indeed, if a transient is to begin from steady-state conditions, the user must provide estimates for the control system initial conditions and run a null transient until the plant converges to steady state. Several such transients may have to be run before values for control system demand signals are found that produce the desired plant steady state. The intent of this paper is (a) to present the control system equations assumed in the SASSYS reactor systems code and to identify the appropriate set of initial conditions, (b) to describe the generalized block diagram approach used to represent these equations, and (c) to describe a solution method and algorithm for computing these initial conditions from the block diagram. The algorithm has been installed in the SASSYS code for use with the code's generalized control system model. The solution finder greatly enhances the effectiveness of the code and the efficiency of the user in running it
Creep buckling of shell structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Hagihara, Seiya
2015-01-01
The present article contains a review of the literatures on the creep buckling of shell structures published from late 1950's to recent years. In this article, the creep buckling studies on circular cylindrical shells, spherical shells, partial cylindrical shells and other shells are reviewed in addition to creep buckling criteria. Creep buckling is categorized into two types. One is the creep buckling due to quasi-static instability, in which the critical time for creep buckling is determined by tracing a creep deformation versus time curve. The other is the creep buckling due to kinetic instability, in which the critical time can be determined by examining the shape of total potential energy in the vicinity of a quasi-static equilibrium state. Bifurcation buckling and snap-through buckling during creep deformation belong to this type of creep buckling. A few detailed descriptions are given to the bifurcation and snap-through type of creep buckling based on the present authors' works. (author)
Modeling of the blood rheology in steady-state shear flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apostolidis, Alex J.; Beris, Antony N.
2014-01-01
We undertake here a systematic study of the rheology of blood in steady-state shear flows. As blood is a complex fluid, the first question that we try to answer is whether, even in steady-state shear flows, we can model it as a rheologically simple fluid, i.e., we can describe its behavior through a constitutive model that involves only local kinematic quantities. Having answered that question positively, we then probe as to which non-Newtonian model best fits available shear stress vs shear-rate literature data. We show that under physiological conditions blood is typically viscoplastic, i.e., it exhibits a yield stress that acts as a minimum threshold for flow. We further show that the Casson model emerges naturally as the best approximation, at least for low and moderate shear-rates. We then develop systematically a parametric dependence of the rheological parameters entering the Casson model on key physiological quantities, such as the red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit). For the yield stress, we base our description on its critical, percolation-originated nature. Thus, we first determine onset conditions, i.e., the critical threshold value that the hematocrit has to have in order for yield stress to appear. It is shown that this is a function of the concentration of a key red blood cell binding protein, fibrinogen. Then, we establish a parametric dependence as a function of the fibrinogen and the square of the difference of the hematocrit from its critical onset value. Similarly, we provide an expression for the Casson viscosity, in terms of the hematocrit and the temperature. A successful validation of the proposed formula is performed against additional experimental literature data. The proposed expression is anticipated to be useful not only for steady-state blood flow modeling but also as providing the starting point for transient shear, or more general flow modeling
Steady-State Diffusion of Water through Soft-Contact LensMaterials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fornasiero, Francesco; Krull, Florian; Radke, Clayton J.; Prausnitz, JohnM.
2005-01-31
Water transport through soft contact lenses (SCL) is important for acceptable performance on the human eye. Chemical-potential gradient-driven diffusion rates of water through soft-contact-lens materials are measured with an evaporation-cell technique. Water is evaporated from the bottom surface of a lens membrane by impinging air at controlled flow rate and humidity. The resulting weight loss of a water reservoir covering the top surface of the contact-lens material is recorded as a function of time. New results are reported for a conventional hydrogel material (SofLens{trademark} One Day, hilafilcon A, water content at saturation W{sub 10} = 70 weight %) and a silicone hydrogel material (PureVision{trademark}, balafilcon A, W{sub 10} = 36 %), with and without surface oxygen plasma treatment. Also, previously reported data for a conventional HEMA-SCL (W{sub 10} = 38 %) hydrogel are reexamined and compared with those for SofLens{trademark} One Day and PureVision{trademark} hydrogels. Measured steady-state water fluxes are largest for SofLens{trademark} One Day, followed by PureVision{trademark} and HEMA. In some cases, the measured steady-state water fluxes increase with rising relative air humidity. This increase, due to an apparent mass-transfer resistance at the surface (trapping skinning), is associated with formation of a glassy skin at the air/membrane interface when the relative humidity is below 55-75%. Steady-state water-fluxes are interpreted through an extended Maxwell-Stefan diffusion model for a mixture of species starkly different in size. Thermodynamic nonideality is considered through Flory-Rehner polymer-solution theory. Shrinking/swelling is self-consistently modeled by conservation of the total polymer mass. Fitted Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities increase significantly with water concentration in the contact lens.
Steady-state spheromak reactor studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.
1985-01-01
After summarizing the essential elements of a gun-sustained spheromak, the potential for a steady-state is explored by means of a comprehensive physics/engineering/costing model. A range of cost-optimized reactor design points is presented, and the sensitivity of cost to key physics, engineering, and operational variables is reported
Creep rupture strength and creep behavior of low-activation martensitic OPTIFER alloys. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schirra, M.; Falkenstein, A.; Heger, S.; Lapena, J.
2001-07-01
The creep rupture strength and creep experiments performed on low-activation OPTIFER alloys in the temperature range of 450-700 C shall be summarized in the present report. Together with the reference alloy of the type 9.5Cr1W-Mn-V-Ta, W-free variants (+Ge) with a more favorable activation and decay behavior shall be studied. Their smaller strength values are compensated by far better toughness characteristics. Of each development line, several batches of slightly varying chemical composition have been investigated over service lives of up to 40,000 h. Apart from the impact of a reference thermal treatment at a hardening temperature of 1075 C and an annealing temperature of 750 C, the influence of reduced hardening temperatures (up to 950 C) has been determined. A long-term use at increased temperatures (max. 550 C-20,000 h) produces an aging effect with strength being decreased in the annealed state. To determine this aging effect quantitatively, creep rupture experiments have been performed using specimens that were subjected to variable types of T/t annealing (550 -650 C, 330-5000 h). Based on all test results, minimum values for the 1% time-strain limit and creep rupture in the T range of 400-600 C can be given as design curves for 20,000 h. The minimum creep rates obtained from the creep curves recorded as a function of the experimental stress yield the stress exponent n (n=Norton) for the individual test temperatures. Creep behavior as a function of the test temperature yields the values for the effective activation energy of creeping Q K . The influence of a preceding temperature transient up to 800 C (≤Ac 1b ) or 840 C (>Ac 1b ) with subsequent creep rupture tests at 500 C and 550 C, respectively, shall be described. The results obtained for the OPTIFER alloys shall be compared with the results achieved for the Japanese 2% W-containing F82H-mod. alloy. (orig.) [de
Creep in jointed rock masses. State of knowledge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glamheden, Rune (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Hoekmark, Harald (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))
2010-06-15
To describe creep behaviour in hard rock masses in a physically realistic way, elaborate models including various combinations of dash pots, spring elements and sliders would be needed. According to our knowledge, there are at present no numerical tools available that can handle such a creep model. In addition, there are no records over sufficient long time periods of tunnel convergence in crystalline rock that could be used to determine or calibrate values for the model parameters. A possible method to perform bounding estimates of creep movements around openings in a repository may be to use distinct element codes with standard built-in elasto-plastic models. By locally reducing the fracture shear strength near the underground openings a relaxation of fracture shear loads is reached. The accumulated displacements may then represent the maximum possible effects of creep that can take place in a jointed rock mass without reference to the actual time it takes to reach the displacements. Estimates based on results from analyses where all shear stresses are allowed to disappear completely will, however, be over-conservative. To be able to set up and analyse reasonably realistic numerical models with the proposed method, further assumptions regarding the creep movements and the creep region around the opening have to be made. The purpose of this report is to present support for such assumptions as found in the literature.
Creep in jointed rock masses. State of knowledge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glamheden, Rune; Hoekmark, Harald
2010-06-01
To describe creep behaviour in hard rock masses in a physically realistic way, elaborate models including various combinations of dash pots, spring elements and sliders would be needed. According to our knowledge, there are at present no numerical tools available that can handle such a creep model. In addition, there are no records over sufficient long time periods of tunnel convergence in crystalline rock that could be used to determine or calibrate values for the model parameters. A possible method to perform bounding estimates of creep movements around openings in a repository may be to use distinct element codes with standard built-in elasto-plastic models. By locally reducing the fracture shear strength near the underground openings a relaxation of fracture shear loads is reached. The accumulated displacements may then represent the maximum possible effects of creep that can take place in a jointed rock mass without reference to the actual time it takes to reach the displacements. Estimates based on results from analyses where all shear stresses are allowed to disappear completely will, however, be over-conservative. To be able to set up and analyse reasonably realistic numerical models with the proposed method, further assumptions regarding the creep movements and the creep region around the opening have to be made. The purpose of this report is to present support for such assumptions as found in the literature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laiarinandrasana, Lucien; Devilliers, Clémence; Lucatelli, Jean Marc; Gaudichet-Maurin, Emmanuelle; Brossard, Jean Michel
2014-01-01
To assess the durability of drinking water connection pipes subjected to oxidation and slow crack growth, a comprehensive database was constructed on a novel specimen geometry: the pre-cracked NOL ring. 135 tests were carried out consisting of initial crack depth ratio ranging from 0.08 to 0.6; single or double longitudinal cracks: tensile with steady strain rate and creep loading. A threshold value of the crack depth ratio of 0.2, induced by the oxidation was determined by analyzing several mechanical parameters. This threshold value was shown to be independent on the strain rate effects, single or double crack configuration and the kind of loading: tensile or creep. Creep test results with crack depth ratio larger than 0.2 were then utilized to establish a failure assessment diagram. A methodology allowing the prediction of residual lifetime of in-service pipes was proposed, using this diagram. - Highlights: • Experimental data on pre-cracked rings featuring a longitudinally cracked HDPE pipe. • Crack depth ratio threshold for slow crack growth study consecutive to oxidation. • Investigation of the effects of the single/double notch(es) and of the strain rate. • Original results obtained from tests performed with tensile and creep loadings. • Correlation between creep initiation time and C* with DENT and ring specimens
Steady state of tapped granular polygons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlevaro, Carlos M; Pugnaloni, Luis A
2011-01-01
The steady state packing fraction of a tapped granular bed is studied for different grain shapes via a discrete element method. Grains are monosized regular polygons, from triangles to icosagons. Comparisons with disc packings show that the steady state packing fraction as a function of the tapping intensity presents the same general trends in polygon packings. However, better packing fractions are obtained, as expected, for shapes that can tessellate the plane (triangles, squares and hexagons). In addition, we find a sharp transition for packings of polygons with more than 13 vertices signaled by a discontinuity in the packing fraction at a particular tapping intensity. Density fluctuations for most shapes are consistent with recent experimental findings in disc packing; however, a peculiar behavior is found for triangles and squares
Deformation by grain boundary sliding and slip creep versus diffusional creep
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruano, O A; Sherby, O D; Wadsworth, J.
1998-01-01
A review is presented of the debates between the present authors and other investigators regarding the possible role of diffusional creep in the plastic flow of polycrystalline metals at low stresses. These debates are recorded in eleven papers over the past seventeen years. ln these papers it has been shown that the creep rates of materials in the so-called diffusional creep region are almost always higher than those predicted by the diffusional creep theory. Additionally, the predictions of grain size effects and stress exponents from diffusional creep theory are often not found in the experimental data. Finally, denuded zones have been universally considered to be direct evidence for diffusional creep; but, those reported in the literature are shown to be found only under conditions where a high stress exponent is observed. Also, the locations of the denuded zones do not match those predicted. Alternative mechanisms are described in which diffusion-controlled dislocation creep and/or grain boundary sliding are the dominant deformation processes in low-stress creep. It is proposed that denuded zones are formed by stress-directed grain boundary migration with the precipitates dissolving in the moving grain boundaries. The above observations have led us to the conclusion that grain boundary sliding and slip creep are in fact the principal mechanisms for observations of plastic flow in the so-called diffusional creep regions
A simplified model for cumulative damage with interaction effect for creep loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomuc, R.; Bui-Quoc, T.; Biron, A.
1989-01-01
This paper explains that the basic creep-rupture behavior of a material at high temperature is obtained with constant stresses under isothermal conditions. Structural components operating at high temperature are, however, usually subjected to fluctuations of stresses and/or temperatures. Experimental conditions cannot cover all possible combinations of these parameters and, in addition, systematic investigations on cumulative creep damage are very limited due to long-term testing. The authors suggest that there is a need to establish a reliable procedure for evaluating the cumulative creep damage effect under non-steady stresses and temperatures
Creep cavitation effects in polycrystalline alumina
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Porter, J.R.; Blumenthal, W.; Evans, A.G.
1981-01-01
Fine grained polycrystalline alumina has been deformed in creep at high temperatures, to examine the evolution of cavities at grain boundaries. Cavities with equilibrium and crack-like morphologies have been observed, distributed nonuniformly throughout the material. The role of these cavities during creep has been described. A transition from equilibrium to crack-like morphology has been observed and correlated with a model based on the influence of the surface to boundary diffusivity ratio and the local tensile stress. The contribution of cavitation to the creep rate and total creep strain has been analyzed and excluded as the principal cause of the observed non-linear creep rate
Creep strain accumulation in a typical LMFBR piperun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnstone, T.L.
1975-01-01
The analysis described allows the strain concentrations in typical LMFBR two anchor point uniplanar piperuns to be calculated. Account is taken of the effect of pipe elbows in attracting creep strain to themselves as well as possible movements of the thrust line due to strain redistribution. The influence of the initial load conditions is also examined. The stress relaxation analysis is facilitated by making the assumption that a cross-sectional stress distribution determined by the asymptotic fully developed state of creep exists at all times. Use is then made of Hoff(s) analogy between materials with a creep law of the Norton type and those with a corresponding non-linear elastic stress strain law, to determine complementary strain energy rates for straight pipes and bends. Ovalisation of the latter produces an increased strain energy rate which can be simply calculated by comparison with an equal length of straight pipe through employing a creep flexibility factor due to Spence. Deflection rates at any location in the pipework can then be evaluated in terms of the thermal restraint forces at that location by an application of Castigliano's principle. In particular for an anchor point the deflection rates are identically zero and this leads to the generation of 3 simultaneous differential equations determining the relaxation of the anchor reactions. Indicative results are presented for the continuous relaxation at 570 deg C of the thermally induced stress in a planar approximation to a typical LMFBR pipe run chosen to have peak elbow stresses close to the code maximum. The results indicate a ratio, after 10 5 hours, of 3 for creep strain concentration relative to initial peak strain (calculated on the assumption of fully elastic behavior) in the most severely affected elbow, when either austenitic 316 or 321 creep properties are employed
Lienkaemper, James J.; McFarland, Forrest S.; Simpson, Robert W.; Caskey, S. John
2014-01-01
Surface creep rate, observed along five branches of the dextral San Andreas fault system in northern California, varies considerably from one section to the next, indicating that so too may the depth at which the faults are locked. We model locking on 29 fault sections using each section’s mean long‐term creep rate and the consensus values of fault width and geologic slip rate. Surface creep rate observations from 111 short‐range alignment and trilateration arrays and 48 near‐fault, Global Positioning System station pairs are used to estimate depth of creep, assuming an elastic half‐space model and adjusting depth of creep iteratively by trial and error to match the creep observations along fault sections. Fault sections are delineated either by geometric discontinuities between them or by distinctly different creeping behaviors. We remove transient rate changes associated with five large (M≥5.5) regional earthquakes. Estimates of fraction locked, the ratio of moment accumulation rate to loading rate, on each section of the fault system provide a uniform means to inform source parameters relevant to seismic‐hazard assessment. From its mean creep rates, we infer the main branch (the San Andreas fault) ranges from only 20%±10% locked on its central creeping section to 99%–100% on the north coast. From mean accumulation rates, we infer that four urban faults appear to have accumulated enough seismic moment to produce major earthquakes: the northern Calaveras (M 6.8), Hayward (M 6.8), Rodgers Creek (M 7.1), and Green Valley (M 7.1). The latter three faults are nearing or past their mean recurrence interval.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hales, R.
1983-01-01
A method of combining long term creep data with relatively short term mechanical behaviour to provide an estimate of creep-fatigue endurance is presented. It is proposed that the creep-fatigue effect in high temperature cyclic deformation is governed by a difference in strain rate around the cycle and the associated variation in ductility with strain rate. (author)
Steady-state propagation of interface corner crack
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Veluri, Badrinath; Jensen, Henrik Myhre
2013-01-01
Steady-state propagation of interface cracks close to three-dimensional corners has been analyzed. Attention was focused on modeling the shape of the interface crack front and calculating the critical stress for steady-state propagation of the crack. The crack propagation was investigated...... on the finite element method with iterative adjustment of the crack front to estimate the critical delamination stresses as a function of the fracture criterion and corner angles. The implication of the results on the delamination is discussed in terms of crack front profiles and the critical stresses...... for propagation and the angle of intersection of the crack front with the free edge....
Steady-state leaching of tritiated water from silica gel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Das, H.A.; Hou, Xiaolin
2009-01-01
Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion.......Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion....
Quasi steady-state aerodynamic model development for race vehicle simulations
Mohrfeld-Halterman, J. A.; Uddin, M.
2016-01-01
Presented in this paper is a procedure to develop a high fidelity quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for use in race car vehicle dynamic simulations. Developed to fit quasi steady-state wind tunnel data, the aerodynamic model is regressed against three independent variables: front ground clearance, rear ride height, and yaw angle. An initial dual range model is presented and then further refined to reduce the model complexity while maintaining a high level of predictive accuracy. The model complexity reduction decreases the required amount of wind tunnel data thereby reducing wind tunnel testing time and cost. The quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for the pitch moment degree of freedom is systematically developed in this paper. This same procedure can be extended to the other five aerodynamic degrees of freedom to develop a complete six degree of freedom quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for any vehicle.
Realizing steady-state tokamak operation for fusion energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luce, T. C.
2011-01-01
Continuous operation of a tokamak for fusion energy has clear engineering advantages but requires conditions beyond those sufficient for a burning plasma. The fusion reactions and external sources must support both the pressure and the current equilibrium without inductive current drive, leading to demands on stability, confinement, current drive, and plasma-wall interactions that exceed those for pulsed tokamaks. These conditions have been met individually, and significant progress has been made in the past decade to realize scenarios where the required conditions are obtained simultaneously. Tokamaks are operated routinely without disruptions near pressure limits, as needed for steady-state operation. Fully noninductive sustainment with more than half of the current from intrinsic currents has been obtained for a resistive time with normalized pressure and confinement approaching those needed for steady-state conditions. One remaining challenge is handling the heat and particle fluxes expected in a steady-state tokamak without compromising the core plasma performance.
Steady State Advanced Tokamak (SSAT): The mission and the machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomassen, K.; Goldston, R.; Nevins, B.; Neilson, H.; Shannon, T.; Montgomery, B.
1992-03-01
Extending the tokamak concept to the steady state regime and pursuing advances in tokamak physics are important and complementary steps for the magnetic fusion energy program. The required transition away from inductive current drive will provide exciting opportunities for advances in tokamak physics, as well as important impetus to drive advances in fusion technology. Recognizing this, the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee and the US National Energy Strategy identified the development of steady state tokamak physics and technology, and improvements in the tokamak concept, as vital elements in the magnetic fusion energy development plan. Both called for the construction of a steady state tokamak facility to address these plan elements. Advances in physics that produce better confinement and higher pressure limits are required for a similar unit size reactor. Regimes with largely self-driven plasma current are required to permit a steady-state tokamak reactor with acceptable recirculating power. Reliable techniques of disruption control will be needed to achieve the availability goals of an economic reactor. Thus the central role of this new tokamak facility is to point the way to a more attractive demonstration reactor (DEMO) than the present data base would support. To meet the challenges, we propose a new ''Steady State Advanced Tokamak'' (SSAT) facility that would develop and demonstrate optimized steady state tokamak operating mode. While other tokamaks in the world program employ superconducting toroidal field coils, SSAT would be the first major tokamak to operate with a fully superconducting coil set in the elongated, divertor geometry planned for ITER and DEMO
Creep performance of oxide ceramic fiber materials at elevated temperature in air and in steam
Armani, Clinton J.
Structural aerospace components that operate in severe conditions, such as extreme temperatures and detrimental environments, require structural materials that have superior long-term mechanical properties and that are thermochemically stable over a broad range of service temperatures and environments. Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) capable of excellent mechanical performance in harsh environments are prime candidates for such applications. Oxide ceramic materials have been used as constituents in CMCs. However, recent studies have shown that high-temperature mechanical performance of oxide-oxide CMCs deteriorate in a steam-rich environment. The degradation of strength at elevated temperature in steam has been attributed to the environmentally assisted subcritical crack growth in the oxide fibers. Furthermore, oxide-oxide CMCs have shown significant increases in steady-state creep rates in steam. The present research investigated the effects of steam on the high-temperature creep and monotonic tension performance of several oxide ceramic materials. Experimental facilities were designed and configured, and experimental methods were developed to explore the influence of steam on the mechanical behaviors of ceramic fiber tows and of ceramic bulk materials under temperatures in the 1100--1300°C range. The effects of steam on creep behavior of Nextel(TM)610 and Nextel(TM)720 fiber tows were examined. Creep rates at elevated temperatures in air and in steam were obtained for both types of fibers. Relationships between creep rates and applied stresses were modeled and underlying creep mechanisms were identified. For both types of fiber tows, a creep life prediction analysis was performed using linear elastic fracture mechanics and a power-law crack velocity model. These results have not been previously reported and have critical design implications for CMC components operating in steam or near the recommended design limits. Predictions were assessed and validated via
Do's and don'ts in Fourier analysis of steady-state potentials.
Bach, M; Meigen, T
1999-01-01
Fourier analysis is a powerful tool in signal analysis that can be very fruitfully applied to steady-state evoked potentials (flicker ERG, pattern ERG, VEP, etc.). However, there are some inherent assumptions in the underlying discrete Fourier transform (DFT) that are not necessarily fulfilled in typical electrophysiological recording and analysis conditions. Furthermore, engineering software-packages may be ill-suited and/or may not fully exploit the information of steady-state recordings. Specifically: * In the case of steady-state stimulation we know more about the stimulus than in standard textbook situations (exact frequency, phase stability), so 'windowing' and calculation of the 'periodogram' are not necessary. * It is mandatory to choose an integer relationship between sampling rate and frame rate when employing a raster-based CRT stimulator. * The analysis interval must comprise an exact integer number (e.g., 10) of stimulus periods. * The choice of the number of stimulus periods per analysis interval needs a wise compromise: A high number increases the frequency resolution, but makes artifact removal difficult; a low number 'spills' noise into the response frequency. * There is no need to feel tied to a power-of-two number of data points as required by standard FFT, 'resampling' is an easy and efficient alternative. * Proper estimates of noise-corrected Fourier magnitude and statistical significance can be calculated that take into account the non-linear superposition of signal and noise. These aspects are developed in an intuitive approach with examples using both simulations and recordings. Proper use of Fourier analysis of our electrophysiological records will reduce recording time and/or increase the reliability of physiologic or pathologic interpretations.
Murray, Jessica R.; Minson, Sarah E.; Svarc, Jerry L.
2014-01-01
Fault creep, depending on its rate and spatial extent, is thought to reduce earthquake hazard by releasing tectonic strain aseismically. We use Bayesian inversion and a newly expanded GPS data set to infer the deep slip rates below assigned locking depths on the San Andreas, Maacama, and Bartlett Springs Faults of Northern California and, for the latter two, the spatially variable interseismic creep rate above the locking depth. We estimate deep slip rates of 21.5 ± 0.5, 13.1 ± 0.8, and 7.5 ± 0.7 mm/yr below 16 km, 9 km, and 13 km on the San Andreas, Maacama, and Bartlett Springs Faults, respectively. We infer that on average the Bartlett Springs fault creeps from the Earth's surface to 13 km depth, and below 5 km the creep rate approaches the deep slip rate. This implies that microseismicity may extend below the locking depth; however, we cannot rule out the presence of locked patches in the seismogenic zone that could generate moderate earthquakes. Our estimated Maacama creep rate, while comparable to the inferred deep slip rate at the Earth's surface, decreases with depth, implying a slip deficit exists. The Maacama deep slip rate estimate, 13.1 mm/yr, exceeds long-term geologic slip rate estimates, perhaps due to distributed off-fault strain or the presence of multiple active fault strands. While our creep rate estimates are relatively insensitive to choice of model locking depth, insufficient independent information regarding locking depths is a source of epistemic uncertainty that impacts deep slip rate estimates.
Study of the creep of lime-stabilised zirconia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saint-Jacques, Robert G.
1971-09-01
This research thesis reports the study of creep of stabilised zirconia containing between 13 and 20 per cent of lime, at temperatures between 1.200 and 1.400 C, and under compression stresses between 500 and 4.000 pounds by square inch. Specimens are polycrystalline with an average grain diameter between 7 and 29 microns. The author notably shows that the creep rate of lime-stabilised zirconia is directly proportional to the applied stress, and that the creep apparent activation energy is close to activation energy of volume self-diffusion of calcium and zirconium in lime-stabilised zirconia. Results of creep tests show that, in the studied conditions, the creep rate is directly proportional to the inverse of the grain average diameter, and this is in compliance with the Gifkins and Snowden theory of creep by sliding at grain boundaries. The author also shows that the creep rate of the lime stabilised zirconia varies with lime content, and reaches a maximum when zirconia contains about 15 per cent of lime. Lower creep rates obtained for higher and lower lime contents are explained [fr
A phenomenological theory of transient creep
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ajaja, O.; Ardell, A.J.
1979-01-01
A new creep theory is proposed which takes into account the strain generated during the annihilation of dislocations. This contribution is found to be very significant when recovery is appreciable, and is mainly responsible for the decreasing creep rate associated with the normal primary creep of class II materials. The theory provides excellent semiquantitative rationalization for the types of creep curves presented in the preceding paper. In particular, the theory predicts a change in the shape of the primary creep curve from normal to inverted as recovery becomes less important, i.e. as the applied stress and/or temperature decrease(s). It also predicts a minimum creep rate under certain circumstances, hence pseudo-tertiary behaviour. These different types of creep curves are predicted even though the net dislocation density decreases monotonically with time in all cases. Qualitative rationalization is presented for the inverted transient which always follows a stress drop in class II materials, as well as for the inverted primary and sigmoidal creep behaviour of class I solid solutions. (author)
Creep theories compared by means of high sensitivity tensile creep data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salim, A.
1987-01-01
Commonly used creep theories include time-hardening, strain-hardening and Rabotnov's modified strain-hardening. In the paper they are examined by using high sensitivity tensile creep data produced on 1% CrMoV steel at a temperatue of 565 0 C. A special creep machine designed and developed by the author is briefly described and is compared with other existing machines. Tensile creep data reported cover a stress range of 100-260 MN m -2 ; four variable-creep tests each in duplicate are also reported. Test durations are limited to 3000 h, or failure, whichever occurs earlier. The strain-hardening theory and Rabotnov's modified strain-hardening theory are found to give good prediction of creep strain under variable stress conditions. The time-hardening theory shows a relatively poor agreement and considerably underestimates the accumulated inelastic strain under increasing stress condition. This discrepancy increases with the increased stress rate. The theories failed to predict the variable stress results towards the later part of the test where tertiary effects were significant. The use of creep equations which could account for creep strain at higher stress levels seems to improve the situation considerably. Under conditions of variable stress, it is suggested that a theory based on continuous damage mechanics concepts might give a better prediction. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gou Junli; Qiu Suizheng; Su Guanghui; Jia Dounan
2006-01-01
This article presents a theoretical investigation on the steady-state natural circulation characteristics of a new type of pressurized water reactor. Through numerically solving the one-dimensional steady-state single-phase conservative equations for the primary circuit and the steady-state two-phase drift-flux conservative equations for the secondary side of the steam generator, the natural circulation characteristics were studied. On the basis of the preliminary calculation analysis, it was found that natural circulation mass flow rate was proportional to the exponential function of the power and that the value of the exponent is related to the operating conditions of the secondary side of the steam generator. The higher the outlet pressure of the secondary side of the steam generator, the higher the primary natural circulation mass flow rate. The larger height difference between the core center and the steam generator center is favorable for the heat removal capacity of the natural circulation. (authors)
Steady-state and transient heat transfer through fins of complex geometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taler Dawid
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Various methods for steady-state and transient analysis of temperature distribution and efficiency of continuous-plate fins are presented. For a constant heat transfer coefficient over the fin surface, the plate fin can be divided into imaginary rectangular or hexangular fins. At first approximate methods for determining the steady-state fin efficiency like the method of equivalent circular fin and the sector method are discussed. When the fin geometry is complex, thus transient temperature distribution and fin efficiency can be determined using numerical methods. A numerical method for transient analysis of fins with complex geometry is developed. Transient temperature distributions in continuous fins attached to oval tubes is computed using the finite volume - finite element methods. The developed method can be used in the transient analysis of compact heat exchangers to calculate correctly the heat flow rate transferred from the finned tubes to the fluid.
Martin, Catherine; Naidoo, Nicolette P; Venter, W D Francois; Jaffer, Ambereen; Barker, Pierre M
2014-05-12
Target setting is useful in planning, assessing and improving antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes. In the past 4 years, the ART initiation environment has been transformed due to the change in eligibility criteria (starting ART at a CD4+ count ART. To describe and illustrate the use of a target-setting model for estimating district-based targets in the era of an expanding ART programme and changing CD4+ count thresholds for ART initiation. Using previously described models and data for annual new HIV infections, we estimated both steady-state need for ART initiation and backlog in a North West Province district, accounting for the shift in eligibility. Comparison of actual v. targeted ART initiations was undertaken. The change in CD4+ count threshold adds a once-off group of newly eligible patients to the pool requiring ART - the backlog. The steady-state remains unchanged as it is determined by the annual rate of new HIV infections in previous years. The steady-state need for the district was 639 initiations/month, and the backlog was ~15,388 patients. After the shift in eligibility in September 2011, the steady-state target was exceeded over several months with some backlog addressed. Of the total backlog for this district, 72% remains to be cleared. South Africa has two pools of patients who need ART: the steady-state of HIV-infected patients entering the programme each year, determined by historical infection rates; and the backlog created by the shift in eligibility. The healthcare system needs to build long- term capacity to meet the steady-state need for ART and additional capacity to address the backlog.
A generalised correlation for the steady state flow in single-phase natural circulation loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vijayan, P.K.; Bade, M.H.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.; Venkat Raj, V.
2000-08-01
To establish the heat transport capability of natural circulation loops, it is essential to know the flow rate. A generalized correlation for steady state flow valid for uniform and non-uniform diameter loops has been theoretically derived
Radiation effects on time-dependent deformation: Creep and growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simonen, E.P.
1989-03-01
Observations of irradiation creep strain as well as irradiation growth strain and related microstructures are reviewed and compared to mechanisms for radiation effects on time-dependent deformation. Composition, microstructure, stress and temperature affect irradiation creep less than thermal creep. Irradiation creep rates can often dominate thermal creep rates, particularly at low temperatures and low stresses. Irradiation creep mechanisms are classified in two general categories: (1) stress-induced preferential absorption and (2) climb-glide. In the former, creep results from dislocation climb, whereas in the latter, creep results from dislocation glide. The effects of irradiation creep on failure modes in nuclear environments are discussed. 53 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab
Steady state theta pinch concept for slow formation of FRC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirano, K.
1987-05-01
A steady state high beta plasma flow through a channel along the magnetic field increasing downstream can be regarded as a ''steady state theta pinch'', because if we see the plasma riding on the flow we should observe very similar process taking place in a theta pinch. Anticipating to produce an FRC without using very high voltage technics such as the ones required in a conventional theta pinch, we have studied after the analogy a ''steady state reversed field theta pinch'' which is brought about by steady head-on collision of counter plasma streams along the channel as ejected from two identical co-axial plasma sources mounted at the both ends of the apparatus. The ideal Poisson and shock adiabatic flow models are employed for the analysis of the steady colliding process. It is demonstrated that an FRC involving large numbers of particles is produced only by the weak shock mode which is achieved in case energetic plasma flow is decelerated almost to be stagnated through Poisson adiabatic process before the streams are collided. (author)
A new perspective on steady-state cosmology: from Einstein to Hoyle
O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; Mitton, Simon
2015-01-01
We recently reported the discovery of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted a 'steady-state' model of the universe, i.e., a cosmic model in which the expanding universe remains essentially unchanged due to a continuous formation of matter from empty space. The manuscript was apparently written in early 1931, many years before the steady-state models of Fred Hoyle, Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold. We compare Einstein’s steady-state cosmology with that of Hoyle, Bondi...
Analysis of steady state and transient two-phase flows in downwardly inclined lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crawford, T.J.
1983-01-01
A study of steady-state and transient two-phase flows in downwardly inclined lines is described. Steady-state flow patterns maps are presented using Freon-113 as the working fluid to provide new high density vapors. These flow maps with high density vapor serve to significantly extend the investigations of steady-state downward two-phase flow patterns. Physical models developed which successfully predicted the onset or location of various flow pattern transitions. A new simplified criterion that would be useful to designers and experimenters is offered for the onset of dispersed flow. A new empirical holdup correlation and a new bubble diameter/flow rate correlation are also proposed. Flow transients in vertical downward lines were studied to investigate the possible formation of intermediate or spurious flow patterns that would not be seen at steady-state conditions. Void fraction behavior during the transients was modeled by using the dynamic slip equation from the transient analysis code RETRAN. Physical models of interfacial area were developed and compared with models and data from literature. There was satisfactory agreement between the models of the present study and the literature models and data. The concentration parameter of the drift flux model was evaluated for vertical downward flow. These new values of the flow dependent parameter were different from those previously proposed in the literature for use in upward flows, and made the drift flux model suitable for use in upward or downward flow lines
Axial and radial velocities in the creeping flow in a pipe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zuykov Andrey L'vovich
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The article is devoted to analytical study of transformation fields of axial and radial velocities in uneven steady creeping flow of a Newtonian fluid in the initial portion of the cylindrical channel. It is shown that the velocity field of the flow is two-dimensional and determined by the stream function. The article is a continuation of a series of papers, where normalized analytic functions of radial axial distributions in uneven steady creeping flow in a cylindrical tube with azimuthal vorticity and stream function were obtained. There is Poiseuille profile for the axial velocity in the uniform motion of a fluid at an infinite distance from the entrance of the pipe (at x = ∞, here taken equal to zero radial velocity. There is uniform distribution of the axial velocity in the cross section at the tube inlet at x = 0, at which the axial velocity is constant along the current radius. Due to the axial symmetry of the flow on the axis of the pipe (at r = 0, the radial velocities and the partial derivative of the axial velocity along the radius, corresponding to the condition of the soft function extremum, are equal to zero. The authors stated vanishing of the velocity of the fluid on the walls of the pipe (at r = R , where R - radius of the tube due to its viscous sticking and tightness of the walls. The condition of conservation of volume flow along the tube was also accepted. All the solutions are obtained in the form of the Fourier - Bessel. It is shown that the hydraulic losses at uniform creeping flow of a Newtonian fluid correspond to Poiseuille - Hagen formula.
Environmental degradation of 316 stainless steel in high temperature low cycle fatigue
Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Manson, S. Stanford; Halford, Gary R.
1987-01-01
Procedures based on modification of the conventional Strainrange Partitioning method are proposed to characterize the time-dependent degradation of engineering alloys in high-temperature, low-cycle fatigue. Creep-fatigue experiments were conducted in air using different waveforms of loading on 316 stainless steel at 816 C (1500 F) to determine the effect of exposure time on cyclic life. Reductions in the partitioned cyclic lives were observed with an increase in the time of exposure (or with the corresponding decrease in the steady-state creep rate) for all the waveforms involving creep strain. Excellent correlations of the experimental data were obtained by modifying the Conventional Strainrange Partitioning life relationships involving creep strain using a power-law term of either: (1) time of exposure, or (2) steady-state creep rate of the creep-fatigue test. Environmental degradation due to oxidation, material degradation due to the precipitation of carbides along the grain boundaries and detrimental deformation modes associated with the prolonged periods of creep were observed to be the main mechanisms responsible for life reductions at long exposure times.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sklenicka, V.; Kucharova, K.; Svoboda, M.; Kroupa, A.; Kloc, L. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno (Czech Republic). Inst. of Physics of Materials; Cmakal, J. [UJP PRAHA a.s., Praha-Zbraslav (Czech Republic)
2010-07-01
Creep behaviour and degradation of creep properties of creep resistant materials are phenomena of major practical relevance, often limiting the lives of components and structures designed to operate for long periods under stress at elevated and/or high temperatures. Since life expectancy is, in reality, based on the ability of the material to retain its high-temperature creep strength for the projected designed life, methods of creep properties assessment based on microstructural evolution in the material during creep rather than simple parametric extrapolation of short-term creep tests are necessary. In this paper we will try to further clarify the creep-strength degradation of selected advanced creep resistant steels. In order to accelerate some microstructural changes and thus to simulate degradation processes in long-term service, isothermal ageing at 650 C for 10 000 h was applied to P91 and P23 steels in their as-received states. The accelerated tensile creep tests were performed at temperature 600 C in argon atmosphere on all steels both in the as-received state and after long-term isothermal ageing, in an effort to obtain a more complete description of the role of microstructural stability in high temperature creep of these steels. Creep tests were followed by microstructural investigations by means of both transmission and scanning electron microscopy and by the thermodynamic calculations. The applicability of the accelerated creep tests was verified by the theoretical modelling of the phase equilibria at different temperatures. It is suggested that under restructed oxidation due to argon atmosphere microstructural instability is the main detrimental process in the long-term degradation of the creep rupture strength of these steels. (orig.)
High dose effects in neutron irradiated face-centered cubic metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garner, F.A.; Toloczko, M.B.
1993-06-01
During neutron irradiation, most face-centered cubic metals and alloys develop saturation or quasi-steady state microstructures. This, in turn, leads to saturation levels in mechanical properties and quasi-steady state rates of swelling and creep deformation. Swelling initially plays only a small role in determining these saturation states, but as swelling rises to higher levels, it exerts strong feedback on the microstructure and its response to environmental variables. The influence of swelling, either directly or indirectly via second order mechanisms, such as elemental segregation to void surfaces, eventually causes major changes, not only in irradiation creep and mechanical properties, but also on swelling itself. The feedback effects of swelling on irradiation creep are particularly complex and lead to problems in applying creep data derived from highly pressurized creep tubes to low stress situations, such as fuel pins in liquid metal reactors
Toroidal visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic steady states contain vortices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bates, J.W.; Montgomery, D.C.
1998-01-01
Poloidal velocity fields seem to be a fundamental feature of resistive toroidal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) steady states. They are a consequence of force balance in toroidal geometry, do not require any kind of instability, and disappear in the open-quotes straight cylinderclose quotes (infinite aspect ratio) limit. If a current density j results from an axisymmetric toroidal electric field that is irrotational inside a torus, it leads to a magnetic field B such that ∇x(jxB) is nonvanishing, so that the Lorentz force cannot be balanced by the gradient of any scalar pressure in the equation of motion. In a steady state, finite poloidal velocity fields and toroidal vorticity must exist. Their calculation is difficult, but explicit solutions can be found in the limit of low Reynolds number. Here, existing calculations are generalized to the more realistic case of no-slip boundary conditions on the velocity field and a circular toroidal cross section. The results of this paper strongly suggest that discussions of confined steady states in toroidal MHD must include flows from the outset. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Transient and steady-state currents in epoxy resin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guillermin, Christophe; Rain, Pascal; Rowe, Stephen W
2006-01-01
Charging and discharging currents have been measured in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin with and without silica fillers, below and above its glass transition temperature T g = 65 deg. C. Both transient and steady-state current densities have been analysed. The average applied fields ranged from 3 to 35 kV mm -1 with a sample thickness of 0.5 mm. Above T g , transient currents suggested a phenomenon of charge injection forming trapped space charges even at low fields. Steady-state currents confirmed that the behaviour was not Ohmic and suggested Schottky-type injection. Below T g , the current is not controlled by the metal-dielectric interface but by the conduction in the volume: the current is Ohmic at low fields and both transient and steady-state currents suggest a phenomenon of space-charge limited currents at high fields. The field threshold is similar in the filler-free and the filled resin. Values in the range 12-17 kV mm -1 have been measured
Transient and steady-state currents in epoxy resin
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guillermin, Christophe [Schneider Electric Industries S.A.S., 37 quai Paul-Louis Merlin, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rain, Pascal [Laboratoire d' Electrostatique et de Materiaux Dielectriques (LEMD), CNRS, 25 avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rowe, Stephen W [Schneider Electric Industries S.A.S., 37 quai Paul-Louis Merlin, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)
2006-02-07
Charging and discharging currents have been measured in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin with and without silica fillers, below and above its glass transition temperature T{sub g} = 65 deg. C. Both transient and steady-state current densities have been analysed. The average applied fields ranged from 3 to 35 kV mm{sup -1} with a sample thickness of 0.5 mm. Above T{sub g}, transient currents suggested a phenomenon of charge injection forming trapped space charges even at low fields. Steady-state currents confirmed that the behaviour was not Ohmic and suggested Schottky-type injection. Below T{sub g}, the current is not controlled by the metal-dielectric interface but by the conduction in the volume: the current is Ohmic at low fields and both transient and steady-state currents suggest a phenomenon of space-charge limited currents at high fields. The field threshold is similar in the filler-free and the filled resin. Values in the range 12-17 kV mm{sup -1} have been measured.
Efficient steady-state solver for hierarchical quantum master equations
Zhang, Hou-Dao; Qiao, Qin; Xu, Rui-Xue; Zheng, Xiao; Yan, YiJing
2017-07-01
Steady states play pivotal roles in many equilibrium and non-equilibrium open system studies. Their accurate evaluations call for exact theories with rigorous treatment of system-bath interactions. Therein, the hierarchical equations-of-motion (HEOM) formalism is a nonperturbative and non-Markovian quantum dissipation theory, which can faithfully describe the dissipative dynamics and nonlinear response of open systems. Nevertheless, solving the steady states of open quantum systems via HEOM is often a challenging task, due to the vast number of dynamical quantities involved. In this work, we propose a self-consistent iteration approach that quickly solves the HEOM steady states. We demonstrate its high efficiency with accurate and fast evaluations of low-temperature thermal equilibrium of a model Fenna-Matthews-Olson pigment-protein complex. Numerically exact evaluation of thermal equilibrium Rényi entropies and stationary emission line shapes is presented with detailed discussion.
Corr, David T; Herzog, Walter
2016-03-21
Force depression (FD), the reduction of isometric force following active shortening, is a phenomenon of skeletal muscle that has received significant attention in biomechanical and physiological literature, yet the mechanisms underlying FD remain unknown. Recent experiments identified a slower rate of force redevelopment with increasing amounts of steady-state FD, suggesting that FD may be caused, at least in part, by a decrease in cross-bridge binding rate (Corr and Herzog, 2005; Koppes et al., 2014). Herein, we develop a cross-bridge based model of FD in which the binding rate function, f, decreases with the mechanical work performed during shortening. This modification incorporates a direct relationship between steady-state FD and muscle mechanical work (Corr and Herzog, 2005; Herzog et al., 2000; Kosterina et al., 2008), and is consistent with a proposed mechanism attributing FD to stress-induced inhibition of cross-bridge attachments (Herzog, 1998; Maréchal and Plaghki, 1979). Thus, for an increase in mechanical work, the model should predict a slower force redevelopment (decreased attachment rate) to a more depressed steady-state force (fewer attached cross-bridges), and a reduction in contractile element stiffness (Ford et al., 1981). We hypothesized that since this modification affects the cross-bridge kinetics, a corresponding model would be able to account for both transient and steady-state FD behaviors. Comparisons to prior experiments (Corr and Herzog, 2005; Herzog et al., 2000; Kosterina et al., 2008) show that both steady-state and transient aspects of FD, as well as the relationship of FD with respect to speed and amplitude of shortening, are well captured by this model. Thus, this relatively simple cross-bridge based model of FD lends support to a mechanism involving the inhibition of cross-bridge binding, and indicates that cross-bridge kinetics may play a critical role in FD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Einstein's steady-state theory: an abandoned model of the cosmos
O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; McCann, Brendan; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon
2014-09-01
We present a translation and analysis of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted to construct a `steady-state' model of the universe. The manuscript, which appears to have been written in early 1931, demonstrates that Einstein once explored a cosmic model in which the mean density of matter in an expanding universe is maintained constant by the continuous formation of matter from empty space. This model is very different to previously known Einsteinian models of the cosmos (both static and dynamic) but anticipates the later steady-state cosmology of Hoyle, Bondi and Gold in some ways. We find that Einstein's steady-state model contains a fundamental flaw and suggest that it was abandoned for this reason. We also suggest that he declined to explore a more sophisticated version because he found such theories rather contrived. The manuscript is of historical interest because it reveals that Einstein debated between steady-state and evolving models of the cosmos decades before a similar debate took place in the cosmological community.
Creep in crystalline rock with application to high level nuclear waste repository
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eloranta, P.; Simonen, A.
1992-06-01
The time-dependent strength and deformation properties of hard crystalline rock are studied. Theoretical models defining the phenomena which can effect these properties are reviewed. The time- dependent deformation of the openings in the proposed nuclear waste repository is analysed. The most important factors affecting the subcritical crack growth in crystalline rock are the stress state, the chemical environment, temperature and microstructure of the rock. There are several theoretical models for the analysis of creep and cyclic fatigue: deformation diagrams, rheological models thermodynamic models, reaction rate models, stochastic models, damage models and time-dependent safety factor model. They are defective in describing the three-axial stress condition and strength criteria. In addition, the required parameters are often too difficult to determine with adequate accuracy. Therefore these models are seldom applied in practice. The effect of microcrack- driven creep on the stability of the work shaft, the emplacement tunnel and the capsulation hole of a proposed nuclear waste repository was studied using a numerical model developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. According to the model, the microcrack driven creep progresses very slowly in good quality rock. Poor rock quality may accelerate the creep rate. The model is very sensitive to the properties of the rock and secondary stress state. The results show that creep causes no stability problems on excavations in good rock. The results overestimate the effect of the creep, because the analysis omitted the effect of support structures and backfilling
Effects of governing parameters on steady-state inter-wrapper flow in an LMFBR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moriya, Shoichi
2001-01-01
Hydraulic experiments were performed using a 1/8th scale rectangular model, based on a Japanese demonstration fast breeder reactor design, in order to study fundamental characteristics of interwrapper flows occurring under steady state conditions in an LMFBR. The steady state interwrapper flow of which direction was downward in the center region and upward in the peripheral region of a core barrel was observed because of the radial static pressure gradient in the upper part of the core barrel, produced by a core blockage effect resulting from an above core structure with a perforated skirt. Thermal stratification phenomena were moreover observed in the interwrapper region, created by the hot steady state interwrapper flow from an upper plenum and the cold leakage flow through the separated plate of the core barrel. The thermal interface was generated in higher part of the core barrel when the core blockage effect was smaller and Richardson number and the leakage flow rate ratio were larger. Significant temperature fluctuations occurred in the peripheral region of the core barrel, when the difference between the interface elevations in the center and peripheral regions of the core barrel was enough large. (author)
Creep of titanium--silicon alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paton, N.E.; Mahoney, M.W.
1976-01-01
Operative creep mechanisms in laboratory melts of Ti-5Zr-0.5Si and Ti-5Zr-0.5Si have been investigated as a function of microstructure, creep stress, and temperature. From creep rate data and transmission electron microscopy results, it has been shown that an important creep strengthening mechanism at 811 0 K in Si-bearing Ti alloys is clustering of solute atoms on dislocations. All of the alloys investigated showed anomalously high apparent activation energies and areas for creep and a high exponent (n) in the Dorn equation. In addition, the effect of heat treatment was investigated and it is shown that the highest creep strength was obtained by using a heat treatment which retained the maximum amount of silicon in solution. This is consistent with the proposed creep strengthening mechanism. An investigation of the creep behavior of several other Si containing alloys including two commercial alloys, Ti-11 and IMI-685 indicated similar results. 12 fig., 6 tables
Simulations of KSTAR high performance steady state operation scenarios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Na, Yong-Su; Kessel, C.E.; Park, J.M.; Yi, Sumin; Kim, J.Y.; Becoulet, A.; Sips, A.C.C.
2009-01-01
We report the results of predictive modelling of high performance steady state operation scenarios in KSTAR. Firstly, the capabilities of steady state operation are investigated with time-dependent simulations using a free-boundary plasma equilibrium evolution code coupled with transport calculations. Secondly, the reproducibility of high performance steady state operation scenarios developed in the DIII-D tokamak, of similar size to that of KSTAR, is investigated using the experimental data taken from DIII-D. Finally, the capability of ITER-relevant steady state operation is investigated in KSTAR. It is found that KSTAR is able to establish high performance steady state operation scenarios; β N above 3, H 98 (y, 2) up to 2.0, f BS up to 0.76 and f NI equals 1.0. In this work, a realistic density profile is newly introduced for predictive simulations by employing the scaling law of a density peaking factor. The influence of the current ramp-up scenario and the transport model is discussed with respect to the fusion performance and non-inductive current drive fraction in the transport simulations. As observed in the experiments, both the heating and the plasma current waveforms in the current ramp-up phase produce a strong effect on the q-profile, the fusion performance and also on the non-inductive current drive fraction in the current flattop phase. A criterion in terms of q min is found to establish ITER-relevant steady state operation scenarios. This will provide a guideline for designing the current ramp-up phase in KSTAR. It is observed that the transport model also affects the predictive values of fusion performance as well as the non-inductive current drive fraction. The Weiland transport model predicts the highest fusion performance as well as non-inductive current drive fraction in KSTAR. In contrast, the GLF23 model exhibits the lowest ones. ITER-relevant advanced scenarios cannot be obtained with the GLF23 model in the conditions given in this work
Superconducting magnets and cryogenics for the steady state superconducting tokamak SST-1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saxena, Y.C.
2000-01-01
SST-1 is a steady state superconducting tokamak for studying the physics of the plasma processes in tokamak under steady state conditions and to learn technologies related to the steady state operation of the tokamak. SST-1 will have superconducting magnets made from NbTi based conductors operating at 4.5 K temperature. The design of the superconducting magnets and the cryogenic system of SST-1 tokamak are described. (author)
Creep of high temperature composites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadananda, K.; Feng, C.R.
1993-01-01
High temperature creep deformation of composites is examined. Creep of composites depends on the interplay of many factors. One of the basic issues in the design of the creep resistant composites is the ability to predict their creep behavior from the knowledge of the creep behavior of the individual components. In this report, the existing theoretical models based on continuum mechanics principles are reviewed. These models are evaluated using extensive experimental data on molydisilicide-silicon carbide composites obtained by the authors. The analysis shows that the rule of mixture based on isostrain and isostress provides two limiting bounds wherein all other theoretical predictions fall. For molydisilicide composites, the creep is predominantly governed by the creep of the majority phase, i.e. the matrix with fibers deforming elastically. The role of back stresses both on creep rates and activation energies are shown to be minimum. Kinetics of creep in MoSi 2 is shown to be controlled by the process of dislocation glide with climb involving the diffusion of Mo atoms
Mechanisms of unsteady shallow creep on major crustal faults
Jiang, J.; Fialko, Y. A.
2017-12-01
A number of active crustal faults are associated with geodetically detectable shallow creep, while other faults appear to be locked all the way to the surface over the interseismic period. Faults that exhibit shallow creep also often host episodic accelerated creep events. Examples include the Ismetpasa segment of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in Turkey and the Southern San Andreas and Superstition Hills (SHF) faults in Southern California. Recent geodetic observations indicate that shallow creep events can involve large fault sections (tens of km long) and persist throughout different stages of a seismic cycle. A traditional interpretation of shallow creep in terms of a velocity-strengthening (VS) layer atop the seismogenic velocity-weakening (VW) zone fails to explain episodic creep events. Wei et al. (2013) proposed that such events can be due to a thin VW layer within the VS shallow crust, implying rather special structural and lithologic conditions. We explore the rheologic controls on aseismic episodic slip and its implications for seismic faulting in the framework of laboratory rate-and-state friction. Observations of co-, post- and inter-seismic slip from the NAF and SHF are used to infer depth-dependent frictional properties in a 2D fault model. In particular, creep events with displacements on the order of millimeters and periods of months are reproduced in a model having monotonic depth variations in rate-and-state parameters. Such a model includes a velocity-neutral (VN) layer sandwiched between the surface layer with VS frictional properties, constrained by observed postseismic afterslip, and a deeper VW layer that largely controls the recurrence of major earthquakes. With the presence of the VN layer, the amount of surface-breaching coseismic slip critically depends on how dynamic weakening varies with depth in the seismogenic layer. Observations of limited surface slip during prior events on the NAF and SHF suggest that coseismic fault weakening is
Creep-Fatigue Failure Diagnosis
Holdsworth, Stuart
2015-01-01
Failure diagnosis invariably involves consideration of both associated material condition and the results of a mechanical analysis of prior operating history. This Review focuses on these aspects with particular reference to creep-fatigue failure diagnosis. Creep-fatigue cracking can be due to a spectrum of loading conditions ranging from pure cyclic to mainly steady loading with infrequent off-load transients. These require a range of mechanical analysis approaches, a number of which are reviewed. The microstructural information revealing material condition can vary with alloy class. In practice, the detail of the consequent cracking mechanism(s) can be camouflaged by oxidation at high temperatures, although the presence of oxide on fracture surfaces can be used to date events leading to failure. Routine laboratory specimen post-test examination is strongly recommended to characterise the detail of deformation and damage accumulation under known and well-controlled loading conditions to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of failure diagnosis. PMID:28793676
Equipment for long-term testing of material creep in liquid sodium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dufek, F.; Walder, V.; Cech, V.; Winkler, P.
1980-01-01
A sodium test plant is described and the methods are shown of securing the desired test specifications. The facility is used for the long-term testing of nonsteady material creep under the action of temperature and mechanical stress due to the static or pulsed overpressure of inert gas inside a tube specimen and a simultaneous effect of sodium flow on the outside wall. The test results are to be used for comparing Czechoslovak-made steels with foreign materials and also for testing the degradation effects of the above phenomena on the standardized long-term properties in inert and steady state conditions. (B.S.)
Steady-state models in electrophoresis: from isotachophoresis to capillary zone electrophoresis
Beckers, J.L.
1995-01-01
Although all electrophoretic techniques are closely allied and controlled by the same rules, we often distinguish between steady-state and dynamic models in the modeling of electrophoretic processes, whereby steady-state models are applied for isotachophoresis (ITP) and dynamic models are applied
Creep of Posidonia Shale at Elevated Pressure and Temperature
Rybacki, E.; Herrmann, J.; Wirth, R.; Dresen, G.
2017-12-01
The economic production of gas and oil from shales requires repeated hydraulic fracturing operations to stimulate these tight reservoir rocks. Besides simple depletion, the often observed decay of production rate with time may arise from creep-induced fracture closure. We examined experimentally the creep behavior of an immature carbonate-rich Posidonia shale, subjected to constant stress conditions at temperatures between 50 and 200 °C and confining pressures of 50-200 MPa, simulating elevated in situ depth conditions. Samples showed transient creep in the semibrittle regime with high deformation rates at high differential stress, high temperature and low confinement. Strain was mainly accommodated by deformation of the weak organic matter and phyllosilicates and by pore space reduction. The primary decelerating creep phase observed at relatively low stress can be described by an empirical power law relation between strain and time, where the fitted parameters vary with temperature, pressure and stress. Our results suggest that healing of hydraulic fractures at low stresses by creep-induced proppant embedment is unlikely within a creep period of several years. At higher differential stress, as may be expected in situ at contact areas due to stress concentrations, the shale showed secondary creep, followed by tertiary creep until failure. In this regime, microcrack propagation and coalescence may be assisted by stress corrosion. Secondary creep rates were also described by a power law, predicting faster fracture closure rates than for primary creep, likely contributing to production rate decline. Comparison of our data with published primary creep data on other shales suggests that the long-term creep behavior of shales can be correlated with their brittleness estimated from composition. Low creep strain is supported by a high fraction of strong minerals that can build up a load-bearing framework.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohnuma, Hiroshi; Abe, Hirotoshi
1979-01-01
In order to design rationally the vessels made of prestressed concrete for nuclear power stations and to improve the accuracy of high temperature creep analysis, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry had carried out the proving experiments with scale models. In order to improve the accuracy of analysis, it is important to grasp the creep behavior of the concrete subjected to triaxial compressive stresses at high temperature as the basic property of concrete, because actual prestressed concrete vessels are in such conditions. In this paper, the triaxial compression creep test at 60 deg. C using the concrete specimens with same mixing ratio as the scale models is reported. The compressive strength of the concrete at the age of 28 days was 406 kg/cm 2 , and the age of the concrete at the time of loading was 63 days. Creep and creep recovery were measured for 5 months and 2 months, respectively. The creep of concrete due to uniaxial compression increased with temperature rise, and the creep strain at 60 deg. C was 2.54 times as much as that at 20 deg. C. The effective Poisson's ratio in triaxial compression creep was 0.15 on the average, based on the creep strain due to uniaxial compression at 60 deg. C. The creep recovery rate in high temperature, triaxial compression creep was 33% on the average. (Kako, I.)
Nanoindentation creep versus bulk compressive creep of dental resin-composites.
El-Safty, S; Silikas, N; Akhtar, R; Watts, D C
2012-11-01
creep and nano creep that could also be expressed via a simple fractional-power function. A significant (p=0.003) positive linear correlation (r(2)=0.69) existed between nano creep recovery and bulk creep recovery. With both methods of examination, except for Venus Bulk Fill™ (VB), the flowable and bulk-fill resin-composites exhibited creep within the range exhibited by the conventional resin-composites. Despite the differences in loading and unloading conditions, in both methods of examination the correlation observed between the creep and recovery responses for a set of resin-composites was high. Both nano creep and recovery positively correlated with loading and unloading rates, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Relative contributions of transient and steady state infiltration during ephemeral streamflow
Blasch, Kyle W.; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Hoffmann, John P.; Fleming, John B.
2006-01-01
Simulations of infiltration during three ephemeral streamflow events in a coarse‐grained alluvial channel overlying a less permeable basin‐fill layer were conducted to determine the relative contribution of transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow to cumulative infiltration for the event. Water content, temperature, and piezometric measurements from 2.5‐m vertical profiles within the alluvial sediments were used to constrain a variably saturated water flow and heat transport model. Simulated and measured transient infiltration rates at the onset of streamflow were about two to three orders of magnitude greater than steady state infiltration rates. The duration of simulated transient infiltration ranged from 1.8 to 20 hours, compared with steady state flow periods of 231 to 307 hours. Cumulative infiltration during the transient period represented 10 to 26% of the total cumulative infiltration, with an average contribution of approximately 18%. Cumulative infiltration error for the simulated streamflow events ranged from 9 to 25%. Cumulative infiltration error for typical streamflow events of about 8 hours in duration in is about 90%. This analysis indicates that when estimating total cumulative infiltration in coarse‐grained ephemeral stream channels, consideration of the transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow will improve predictions of the total volume of infiltration that may become groundwater recharge.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selle, J.E.; Tennery, V.J.
1980-05-01
Creep and stress relaxation in structural ceramics are important properties to the high-temperature design and safety analysis of the core support structure of the HTGR. The ability of the support structure to function for the lifetime of the reactor is directly related to the allowable creep strain and the ability of the structure to withstand thermal transients. The thermal-mechanical response of the core support pads to steady-state stresses and potential thermal transients depends on variables, including the ability of the ceramics to undergo some stress relaxation in relatively short times. Creep and stress relaxation phenomena in structural ceramics of interest were examined. Of the materials considered (fused silica, alumina, silicon nitride, and silicon carbide), alumina has been more extensively investigated in creep. Activation energies reported varied between 482 and 837 kJ/mole, and consequently, variations in the assigned mechanisms were noted. Nabarro-Herring creep is considered as the primary creep mechanism and no definite grain size dependence has been identified. Results for silicon nitride are in better agreement with reported activation energies. No creep data were found for fused silica or silicon carbide and no stress relaxation data were found for any of the candidate materials. While creep and stress relaxation are similar and it is theoretically possible to derive the value of one property when the other is known, no explicit demonstrated relationship exists between the two. For a given structural ceramic material, both properties must be experimentally determined to obtain the information necessary for use in high-temperature design and safety analyses
Blood flow patterns during incremental and steady-state aerobic exercise.
Coovert, Daniel; Evans, LeVisa D; Jarrett, Steven; Lima, Carla; Lima, Natalia; Gurovich, Alvaro N
2017-05-30
Endothelial shear stress (ESS) is a physiological stimulus for vascular homeostasis, highly dependent on blood flow patterns. Exercise-induced ESS might be beneficial on vascular health. However, it is unclear what type of ESS aerobic exercise (AX) produces. The aims of this study are to characterize exercise-induced blood flow patterns during incremental and steady-state AX. We expect blood flow pattern during exercise will be intensity-dependent and bidirectional. Six college-aged students (2 males and 4 females) were recruited to perform 2 exercise tests on cycleergometer. First, an 8-12-min incremental test (Test 1) where oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and blood lactate (La) were measured at rest and after each 2-min step. Then, at least 48-hr. after the first test, a 3-step steady state exercise test (Test 2) was performed measuring VO2, HR, BP, and La. The three steps were performed at the following exercise intensities according to La: 0-2 mmol/L, 2-4 mmol/L, and 4-6 mmol/L. During both tests, blood flow patterns were determined by high-definition ultrasound and Doppler on the brachial artery. These measurements allowed to determine blood flow velocities and directions during exercise. On Test 1 VO2, HR, BP, La, and antegrade blood flow velocity significantly increased in an intensity-dependent manner (repeated measures ANOVA, pflow velocity did not significantly change during Test 1. On Test 2 all the previous variables significantly increased in an intensity-dependent manner (repeated measures ANOVA, pflow patterns during incremental and steady-state exercises include both antegrade and retrograde blood flows.
Progress on advanced tokamak and steady-state scenario development on DIII-D and NSTX
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doyle, E J [Department of Electrical Engineering and PSTI, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Garofalo, A M [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Greenfield, C M [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Kaye, S M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Menard, J E [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Murakami, M [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Sabbagh, S A [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Austin, M E [University of Texas-Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Bell, R E [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Burrell, K H [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Ferron, J R [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Gates, D A [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Groebner, R J; Hyatt, A W; Luce, T C; Petty, C C; Wade, M R; Waltz, R E [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Jayakumar, R J [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kinsey, J E [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); LeBlanc, B P [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); McKee, G R [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Okabayashi, M [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Peng, Y-K M [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Politzer, P A [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Rhodes, T L [Dept. of Electrical Engineering and PSTI, Univ. of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)
2006-12-15
Advanced tokamak (AT) research seeks to develop steady-state operating scenarios for ITER and other future devices from a demonstrated scientific basis. Normalized target parameters for steady-state operation on ITER are 100% non-inductive current operation with a bootstrap current fraction f{sub BS} {>=} 60%, q{sub 95} {approx} 4-5 and G {identical_to}{beta}{sub N}H{sub scaling}/q{sub 95}{sup 2} {>=}0.3. Progress in realizing such plasmas is considered in terms of the development of plasma control capabilities and scientific understanding, leading to improved AT performance. NSTX has demonstrated active resistive wall mode stabilization with low, ITER-relevant, rotation rates below the critical value required for passive stabilization. On DIII-D, experimental observations and GYRO simulations indicate that ion internal transport barrier (ITB) formation at rational-q surfaces is due to equilibrium zonal flows generating high local E ? B shear levels. In addition, stability modelling for DIII-D indicates a path to operation at {beta}{sub N} {>=} 4 with q{sub min} {>=} 2, using broad, hollow current profiles to increase the ideal wall stability limit. Both NSTX and DIII-D have optimized plasma performance and expanded AT operational limits. NSTX now has long-pulse, high performance discharges meeting the normalized targets for an spherical torus-based component test facility. DIII-D has developed sustained discharges combining high beta and ITBs, with performance approaching levels required for AT reactor concepts, e.g. {beta}{sub N} = 4, H{sub 89} = 2.5, with f{sub BS} > 60%. Most importantly, DIII-D has developed ITER steady-state demonstration discharges, simultaneously meeting the targets for steady-state Q {>=} 5 operation on ITER set out above, substantially increasing confidence in ITER meeting its steady-state performance objective.
Creep characteristics of precipitation hardened carbon free martensitic alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muneki, S.; Igarashi, M.; Abe, F.
2000-01-01
A new attempt has been demonstrated using carbon free Fe-Ni-Co martensitic alloys strengthened by Laves phase such as Fe 2 W or Fe 2 Mo to achieve homogeneous creep deformation at high temperatures under low stress levels. Creep behavior of the alloys is found to be completely different from that of the conventional high-Cr ferritic steels. The alloys exhibit gradual change in the creep rate with strain both in the transient and acceleration creep regions, and give a larger strain for the minimum creep rate. In these alloys the creep deformation takes place very homogeneously and no heterogeneous creep deformation is enhanced even at low stress levels. The minimum creep rates of the Fe-Ni-Co alloys at 700 C are found to be much lower than that of the conventional steel, which is due to fine dispersion strengthening useful even at 700 C in these alloys. It is thus concluded that the Fe-Ni-Co martensite strengthened by Laves phase is very useful to increase the creep resistance at elevated temperatures over 650 C. (orig.)
Physical design of MW-class steady-state spherical tokamak, QUEST
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanada, K.; Sato, K.N.; Zushi, H.; Nakamura, K.; Sakamoto, M.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Higashizono, Y.; Yoshida, N.; Takase, Y.; Ejiri, A.; Ogawa, Y.; Ono, Y.; Yoshida, Z.; Mitarai, O.; Maekawa, T.; Kishimoto, Y.; Ishiguro, M.; Yoshinaga, T.; Igami, H.; Hirooka, Y.; Komori, A.; Motojima, O.; Sudo, S.; Yamada, H.; Ando, A.; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Matsukawa, Makoto; Ishida, A.; Ohno, N.; Peng, M.
2008-10-01
QUEST (R=0.68 m, a=0.4 m) focuses on the steady state operation of the spherical tokamak (ST) by controlled PWI and electron Bernstain wave (EBW) current drive (CD). The QUEST project will be developed along two phases, phase I: steady state operation with plasma current, I p =20-30 kA on open divertor configuration and phase II: steady state operation with I p = 100 kA and β of 10% in short pulse on closed divertor configuration. Feasibility of the missions on QUEST was investigated and the suitable machine size of QUEST was decided based on the physical view of plasma parameters. Electron Bernstein wave (EBW) current drive are planned to establish the maintenance of plasma current in steady state. Mode conversion efficiency to EBW was calculated and the conversion of 95% will be expected. A new type antenna for QUEST has been fabricated to excite EBW effectively. The situation of heat and particle handling is challenging, and W and high temperature wall is adopted. The start-up scenario of plasma current was investigated based on the driven current by energetic electron and the most favorable magnetic configuration for start-up is proposed. (author)
Effects of microstructure on light ion irradiation creep in nickel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henager, C.H. Jr.; Simonen, E.P.; Bradley, E.R.; Stang, R.G.
1982-10-01
The concept of inhomogeneous slip or localized deformation is introduced to account for a weak dependence of irradiation creep on initial microstructure. Specimens of pure Ni with three different microstructures were irradiated at 473 0 K with 15 to 17 MeV deuterons in the PNL light ion irradiation creep apparatus. A dispersed barrier model for climb-glide creep was unable to account for the observed creep rates and creep strains. The weak dependence on microstructure was consistent with the SIPA creep mechanism but a high stress enhanced bias had to be assumed to account for the creep rates. Also, SIPA was unable to account for the observed creep strains. The modeling utilized rate theory calculations of point defect fluxes and transmission electron microscopy for sink sizes and densities
Basin stability measure of different steady states in coupled oscillators
Rakshit, Sarbendu; Bera, Bidesh K.; Majhi, Soumen; Hens, Chittaranjan; Ghosh, Dibakar
2017-04-01
In this report, we investigate the stabilization of saddle fixed points in coupled oscillators where individual oscillators exhibit the saddle fixed points. The coupled oscillators may have two structurally different types of suppressed states, namely amplitude death and oscillation death. The stabilization of saddle equilibrium point refers to the amplitude death state where oscillations are ceased and all the oscillators converge to the single stable steady state via inverse pitchfork bifurcation. Due to multistability features of oscillation death states, linear stability theory fails to analyze the stability of such states analytically, so we quantify all the states by basin stability measurement which is an universal nonlocal nonlinear concept and it interplays with the volume of basins of attractions. We also observe multi-clustered oscillation death states in a random network and measure them using basin stability framework. To explore such phenomena we choose a network of coupled Duffing-Holmes and Lorenz oscillators which are interacting through mean-field coupling. We investigate how basin stability for different steady states depends on mean-field density and coupling strength. We also analytically derive stability conditions for different steady states and confirm by rigorous bifurcation analysis.
A simple model for indentation creep
Ginder, Ryan S.; Nix, William D.; Pharr, George M.
2018-03-01
A simple model for indentation creep is developed that allows one to directly convert creep parameters measured in indentation tests to those observed in uniaxial tests through simple closed-form relationships. The model is based on the expansion of a spherical cavity in a power law creeping material modified to account for indentation loading in a manner similar to that developed by Johnson for elastic-plastic indentation (Johnson, 1970). Although only approximate in nature, the simple mathematical form of the new model makes it useful for general estimation purposes or in the development of other deformation models in which a simple closed-form expression for the indentation creep rate is desirable. Comparison to a more rigorous analysis which uses finite element simulation for numerical evaluation shows that the new model predicts uniaxial creep rates within a factor of 2.5, and usually much better than this, for materials creeping with stress exponents in the range 1 ≤ n ≤ 7. The predictive capabilities of the model are evaluated by comparing it to the more rigorous analysis and several sets of experimental data in which both the indentation and uniaxial creep behavior have been measured independently.
Molecular control of steady-state dendritic cell maturation and immune homeostasis.
Hammer, Gianna Elena; Ma, Averil
2013-01-01
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized sentinels responsible for coordinating adaptive immunity. This function is dependent upon coupled sensitivity to environmental signs of inflammation and infection to cellular maturation-the programmed alteration of DC phenotype and function to enhance immune cell activation. Although DCs are thus well equipped to respond to pathogens, maturation triggers are not unique to infection. Given that immune cells are exquisitely sensitive to the biological functions of DCs, we now appreciate that multiple layers of suppression are required to restrict the environmental sensitivity, cellular maturation, and even life span of DCs to prevent aberrant immune activation during the steady state. At the same time, steady-state DCs are not quiescent but rather perform key functions that support homeostasis of numerous cell types. Here we review these functions and molecular mechanisms of suppression that control steady-state DC maturation. Corruption of these steady-state operatives has diverse immunological consequences and pinpoints DCs as potent drivers of autoimmune and inflammatory disease.
Restitution slope is principally determined by steady-state action potential duration.
Shattock, Michael J; Park, Kyung Chan; Yang, Hsiang-Yu; Lee, Angela W C; Niederer, Steven; MacLeod, Kenneth T; Winter, James
2017-06-01
The steepness of the action potential duration (APD) restitution curve and local tissue refractoriness are both thought to play important roles in arrhythmogenesis. Despite this, there has been little recognition of the apparent association between steady-state APD and the slope of the restitution curve. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that restitution slope is determined by APD and to examine the relationship between restitution slope, refractoriness and susceptibility to VF. Experiments were conducted in isolated hearts and ventricular myocytes from adult guinea pigs and rabbits. Restitution curves were measured under control conditions and following intervention to prolong (clofilium, veratridine, bretylium, low [Ca]e, chronic transverse aortic constriction) or shorten (catecholamines, rapid pacing) ventricular APD. Despite markedly differing mechanisms of action, all interventions that prolonged the action potential led to a steepening of the restitution curve (and vice versa). Normalizing the restitution curve as a % of steady-state APD abolished the difference in restitution curves with all interventions. Effects on restitution were preserved when APD was modulated by current injection in myocytes pre-treated with the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM - to abolish the intracellular calcium transient. The non-linear relation between APD and the rate of repolarization of the action potential is shown to underpin the common influence of APD on the slope of the restitution curve. Susceptibility to VF was found to parallel changes in APD/refractoriness, rather than restitution slope. Steady-state APD is the principal determinant of the slope of the ventricular electrical restitution curve. In the absence of post-repolarization refractoriness, factors that prolong the action potential would be expected to steepen the restitution curve. However, concomitant changes in tissue refractoriness act to reduce susceptibility to sustained VF. Dependence on
Dark Entangled Steady States of Interacting Rydberg Atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dasari, Durga; Mølmer, Klaus
2013-01-01
their short-lived excited states lead to rapid, dissipative formation of an entangled steady state. We show that for a wide range of physical parameters, this entangled state is formed on a time scale given by the strengths of coherent Raman and Rabi fields applied to the atoms, while it is only weakly...
Computational simulation for creep fracture properties taking microscopic mechanism into account
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tabuchi, Masaaki
2003-01-01
Relationship between creep crack growth rate and microscopic fracture mechanism i.e., wedge-type intergranular, transgranular and cavity-type intergranular crack growth, has been investigated. The growth rate of wedge-type and transgranular creep crack could be characterized by creep ductility. Creep damages formed ahead of the cavity-type crack tip accelerated the crack growth rate. Based on the experimental results, FEM code that simulates creep crack growth has been developed by taking the fracture mechanism into account. The effect of creep ductility and void formation ahead of the crack tip on creep crack growth behavior could be simulated. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christrup, Lona Louring; Bonde, J; Rasmussen, S N
1992-01-01
Single-dose and steady state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different oral formulations were assessed with particular reference to rate and extent of absorption. Following single dose administration a significant difference in tmax was observed (2.9 +/- 1.9 and 6.8 +/- 2.6 hr r...
Fiedler, Anna; Raeth, Sebastian; Theis, Fabian J; Hausser, Angelika; Hasenauer, Jan
2016-08-22
Ordinary differential equation (ODE) models are widely used to describe (bio-)chemical and biological processes. To enhance the predictive power of these models, their unknown parameters are estimated from experimental data. These experimental data are mostly collected in perturbation experiments, in which the processes are pushed out of steady state by applying a stimulus. The information that the initial condition is a steady state of the unperturbed process provides valuable information, as it restricts the dynamics of the process and thereby the parameters. However, implementing steady-state constraints in the optimization often results in convergence problems. In this manuscript, we propose two new methods for solving optimization problems with steady-state constraints. The first method exploits ideas from optimization algorithms on manifolds and introduces a retraction operator, essentially reducing the dimension of the optimization problem. The second method is based on the continuous analogue of the optimization problem. This continuous analogue is an ODE whose equilibrium points are the optima of the constrained optimization problem. This equivalence enables the use of adaptive numerical methods for solving optimization problems with steady-state constraints. Both methods are tailored to the problem structure and exploit the local geometry of the steady-state manifold and its stability properties. A parameterization of the steady-state manifold is not required. The efficiency and reliability of the proposed methods is evaluated using one toy example and two applications. The first application example uses published data while the second uses a novel dataset for Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. The proposed methods demonstrated better convergence properties than state-of-the-art methods employed in systems and computational biology. Furthermore, the average computation time per converged start is significantly lower. In addition to the theoretical results, the
Irradiation creep experiments on fusion reactor candidate structural materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hausen, H.; Cundy, M.R.; Schuele, W.
1991-01-01
Irradiation creep rates were determined for annealed and cold-worked AMCR- and 316-type steel alloys in the high flux reactor at Petten, for various irradiation temperatures, stresses and for neutron doses up to 4 dpa. Primary creep elongations were found in all annealed materials. A negative creep elongation was found in cold-worked materials for stresses equal to or below about 100 MPa. An increase of the negative creep elongation is found for decreasing irradiation temperatures and decreasing applied stresses. The stress exponent of the irradiation creep rate in annealed and cold-worked AMCR alloys is n = 1.85 and n = 1.1, respectively. The creep rates of cold-worked AMCR alloys are almost temperature independent over the range investigated (573-693 K). The results obtained in the HFR at Petten are compared with those obtained in ORR and EBR II. The smallest creep rates are found for cold-worked materials of AMCR- and US-PCA-type at Petten which are about a factor two smaller than the creep rates obtained of US-316 at Petten or for US-PCA at ORR or for 316L at EBR II. The scatter band factor for US-PCA, 316L, US-316 irradiated in ORR and EBR II is about 1.5 after a temperature and damage rate normalization
Small-angle scattering at a pulsed neutron source: comparison with a steady-state reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borso, C S; Carpenter, J M; Williamson, F S; Holmblad, G L; Mueller, M H; Faber, J Jr; Epperson, J E; Danyluk, S S [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)
1982-08-01
A time-of-flight small-angle diffractometer employing seven tapered collimator elements and a two-dimensional gas proportional counter was successfully utilized to collect small-angle scattering data from a solution sample of the lipid salt cetylpyridinium chloride, C/sub 21/H/sub 38/N/sup +/.Cl/sup -/, at the Argonne National Laboratory prototype pulsed spallation neutron source, ZING-P'. Comparison of the small-angle scattering observed from the same compound at the University of Missouri Research Reactor corroborated the ZING-P' results. The results are used to compare the neutron flux available from the ZING-P' source relative to the well characterized University of Missouri source. Calculations based on experimentally determined parameters indicated the time-averaged rate of detected neutrons at the ZING-P' pulsed spallation source to have been at least 33% higher than the steady-state count rate from the same sample. Differences between time-of-flight techniques and conventional steady-state techniques are discussed.
A design of steady state fusion burner
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, Akira; Hatori, Tadatsugu; Itoh, Kimitaka; Ikuta, Takashi; Kodama, Yuji.
1975-01-01
We present a brief design of a steady state fusion burner in which a continuous burning of nuclear fuel may be achieved with output power of a gigawatt. The laser fusion is proposed to ignite the fuel. (auth.)
High temperature creep of vanadium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juhasz, A.; Kovacs, I.
1978-01-01
The creep behaviour of polycrystalline vanadium of 99.7% purity has been investigated in the temperature range 790-880 0 C in a high temperature microscope. It was found that the creep properties depend strongly on the history of the sample. To take this fact into account some additional properties such as the dependence of the yield stress and the microhardness on the pre-annealing treatment have also been studied. Samples used in creep measurements were selected on the basis of their microhardness. The activation energy of creep depends on the microhardness and on the creep temperature. In samples annealed at 1250 0 C for one hour (HV=160 kgf mm -2 ) the rate of creep is controlled by vacancy diffusion in the temperature range 820-880 0 C with an activation energy of 78+-8 kcal mol -1 . (Auth.)
Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui
2011-06-01
The glass transition temperature of as-deposited parylene-C is first measured to be 50°C with a ramping-temperature-dependent modulus experiment. The creep behavior of parylene-C film in the primary and secondary creep region is then investigated below and above this glass transition temperature using a dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) machine Q800 from TA instruments at 8 different temperatures: 10, 25, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 150°C. The Burger\\'s model, which is the combined Maxwell model and Kelvin-Voigt model, fits well with our primary and secondary creep data. Accordingly, the results show that there\\'s little or no creep below the glass transition temperature. Above the glass transition temperature, the primary creep and creep rate increases with the temperature, with a retardation time constant around 6 minutes. © 2011 IEEE.
Effect of microstructure on light ion irradiation creep in nickel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henager, C.H. Jr.; Simonen, E.P.; Bradley, E.R.; Stang, R.G.
1983-01-01
The concept of inhomogeneous slip or localized deformation is introduced to account for a weak dependence of irradiation creep on initial microstructure. Specimens of pure nickel (Ni) with three different microstructures were irradiated at 473 K with 15-17 MeV deuterons in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) light ion irradiation creep apparatus. A dispersed barrier model for Climb-Glide (CG) creep was unable to account for the observed creep rates and creep strains. The weak dependence on microstructure was consistent with the Stress Induced Preferential Absorption (SIPA) creep mechanism but a high stress enhanced bias had to be assumed to account for the creep rates. Also, SIPA was unable to account for the observed creep strains. The CG and SIPA modeling utilized rate theory calculations of point defect fluxes and transmission electron microscopy for sink sizes and densities. (orig.)
Transformation-Induced Creep and Creep Recovery of Shape Memory Alloy.
Takeda, Kohei; Tobushi, Hisaaki; Pieczyska, Elzbieta A
2012-05-22
If the shape memory alloy is subjected to the subloop loading under the stress-controlled condition, creep and creep recovery can appear based on the martensitic transformation. In the design of shape memory alloy elements, these deformation properties are important since the deflection of shape memory alloy elements can change under constant stress. The conditions for the progress of the martensitic transformation are discussed based on the kinetics of the martensitic transformation for the shape memory alloy. During loading under constant stress rate, temperature increases due to the stress-induced martensitic transformation. If stress is held constant during the martensitic transformation stage in the loading process, temperature decreases and the condition for the progress of the martensitic transformation is satisfied, resulting in the transformation-induced creep deformation. If stress is held constant during the reverse transformation stage in the unloading process, creep recovery appears due to the reverse transformation. The details for these thermomechanical properties are investigated experimentally for TiNi shape memory alloy, which is most widely used in practical applications. The volume fraction of the martensitic phase increases in proportion to an increase in creep strain.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramzan, Naveed; Faheem, Muhammad; Gani, Rafiqul
2010-01-01
A packed reactive distillation column producing ethyl tert-butyl ether from tert-butyl alcohol and ethanol was simulated for detection of multiple steady states using Aspen Plus®. A rate-based approach was used to make the simulation model more realistic. A base-case was first developed and fine...
The role of cell structure during creep of cold worked copper
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sandström, Rolf, E-mail: rsand@kth.se
2016-09-30
In previous work it was demonstrated that cold work could reduce the creep rate of phosphorus doped copper (Cu-OFP) by up to six orders of magnitude at 75 °C at a given applied stress. Cu-OFP will be used in canisters for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. A dislocation model for the cell structure in the cold deformed material has been formulated. A distinction is made between the balanced dislocation content in the cell walls where the number of dislocations of opposite sign match and the unbalanced content where they do not. The recovery rate of the unbalanced content is much lower than that of the balanced content. Taking this into account, it has been possible to model the creep curves of both 12% and 24% cold worked Cu-OFP. The general appearance of the two sets of creep curves are distinctly different, which can be explained by the higher recovery rate in the 24% deformed state.
Steady State Dynamic Operating Behavior of Universal Motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Khan Burdi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A detailed investigation of the universal motor is developed and used for various dynamic steady state and transient operating conditions of loads. In the investigation, output torque, motor speed, input current, input/output power and efficiency are computed, compared and analyzed for different loads. While this paper discusses the steady-state behavior of the universal motor, another companion paper, ?Transient dynamic behavior of universal motor?, will discuss its transient behavior in detail. A non-linear generalized electric machine model of the motor is considered for the analysis. This study was essential to investigate effect of output load on input current, power, speed and efficiency of the motor during operations. Previously such investigation is not known
Stochastic theory of nonequilibrium steady states and its applications. Part I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Xuejuan; Qian Hong; Qian Min
2012-01-01
The concepts of equilibrium and nonequilibrium steady states are introduced in the present review as mathematical concepts associated with stationary Markov processes. For both discrete stochastic systems with master equations and continuous diffusion processes with Fokker–Planck equations, the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) is characterized in terms of several key notions which are originated from nonequilibrium physics: time irreversibility, breakdown of detailed balance, free energy dissipation, and positive entropy production rate. After presenting this NESS theory in pedagogically accessible mathematical terms that require only a minimal amount of prerequisites in nonlinear differential equations and the theory of probability, it is applied, in Part I, to two widely studied problems: the stochastic resonance (also known as coherent resonance) and molecular motors (also known as Brownian ratchet). Although both areas have advanced rapidly on their own with a vast amount of literature, the theory of NESS provides them with a unifying mathematical foundation. Part II of this review contains applications of the NESS theory to processes from cellular biochemistry, ranging from enzyme catalyzed reactions, kinetic proofreading, to zeroth-order ultrasensitivity.
On Steady-State Tropical Cyclones
2014-01-01
Press: London. Marks FD, Black PG, Montgomery MT, Burpee RW. 2008. Structure of the eye and eyewall of Hurricane Hugo (1989). Mon. Weather Rev. 136: 1237... hurricanes ; tropical cyclones; typhoons; steady-state Received 18 April 2013; Revised 25 November 2013; Accepted 29 December 2013; Published online in Wiley...the concept of the ‘mature stage’ of a hurricane vortex. The definition of the ‘mature stage’ is commonly based on the time period in which the maximum
Dauvergne, Duncan; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah
2015-08-21
We consider bidirectional transport of cargo by molecular motors dynein and kinesin that walk along microtubules, and/or diffuse in the cell. The motors compete to transport cargo in opposite directions with respect to microtubule polarity (towards the plus or minus end of the microtubule). In recent work, Gou et al. (2014) used a hierarchical set of models, each consisting of continuum transport equations to track the evolution of motors and their cargo (early endosomes) in the specific case of the fungus Ustilago maydis. We complement their work using a framework of quasi-steady state analysis developed by Newby and Bressloff (2010) and Bressloff and Newby (2013) to reduce the models to an approximating steady state Fokker-Plank equation. This analysis allows us to find analytic approximations to the steady state solutions in many cases where the full models are not easily solved. Consequently, we can make predictions about parameter dependence of the resulting spatial distributions. We also characterize the overall rates of bulk transport and diffusion, and how these are related to state transition parameters, motor speeds, microtubule polarity distribution, and specific assumptions made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1039 - Steady-State Duty Cycles
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Duty Cycles II Appendix... Appendix II to Part 1039—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply for constant-speed engines: (1) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing: D2 mode number Engine speed...
Characterizing steady states of genome-scale metabolic networks in continuous cell cultures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge Fernandez-de-Cossio-Diaz
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In the continuous mode of cell culture, a constant flow carrying fresh media replaces culture fluid, cells, nutrients and secreted metabolites. Here we present a model for continuous cell culture coupling intra-cellular metabolism to extracellular variables describing the state of the bioreactor, taking into account the growth capacity of the cell and the impact of toxic byproduct accumulation. We provide a method to determine the steady states of this system that is tractable for metabolic networks of arbitrary complexity. We demonstrate our approach in a toy model first, and then in a genome-scale metabolic network of the Chinese hamster ovary cell line, obtaining results that are in qualitative agreement with experimental observations. We derive a number of consequences from the model that are independent of parameter values. The ratio between cell density and dilution rate is an ideal control parameter to fix a steady state with desired metabolic properties. This conclusion is robust even in the presence of multi-stability, which is explained in our model by a negative feedback loop due to toxic byproduct accumulation. A complex landscape of steady states emerges from our simulations, including multiple metabolic switches, which also explain why cell-line and media benchmarks carried out in batch culture cannot be extrapolated to perfusion. On the other hand, we predict invariance laws between continuous cell cultures with different parameters. A practical consequence is that the chemostat is an ideal experimental model for large-scale high-density perfusion cultures, where the complex landscape of metabolic transitions is faithfully reproduced.
Steady-state heat transfer in an inverted U-tube steam generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boucher, T.J.
1986-01-01
Experimental results are presented involving U-tube steam generator tube bundle local heat transfer and fluid conditions during steady-state, full-power operations performed at high temperatures and pressures with conditions typical of a pressurized water reactor (15.0 MPa primary pressure, 600 K hot-leg fluid temperatures, 6.2 MPa secondary pressure). The MOD-2C facility represents the state-of-the-art in measurement of tube local heat transfer data and average tube bundle secondary fluid density at several elevations, which allows an estimate of the axial heat transfer and void distributions during steady-state and transient operations. The method of heat transfer data reduction is presented and the heat flux, secondary convective heat transfer coefficient, and void fraction distributions are quantified for steady-state, full-power operations
Simulation of irradiation creep
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reiley, T.C.; Jung, P.
1977-01-01
The results to date in the area of radiation enhanced deformation using beams of light ions to simulate fast neutron displacement damage are reviewed. A comparison is made between these results and those of in-reactor experiments. Particular attention is given to the displacement rate calculations for light ions and the electronic energy losses and their effect on the displacement cross section. Differences in the displacement processes for light ions and neutrons which may effect the irradiation creep process are discussed. The experimental constraints and potential problem areas associated with these experiments are compared to the advantages of simulation. Support experiments on the effect of thickness on thermal creep are presented. A brief description of the experiments in progress is presented for the following laboratories: HEDL, NRL, ORNL, PNL, U. of Lowell/MIT in the United States, AERE Harwell in the United Kingdom, CEN Saclay in France, GRK Karlsruhe and KFA Julich in West Germany
40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1042 - Steady-State Duty Cycles
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Duty Cycles II Appendix..., App. II Appendix II to Part 1042—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply as specified in § 1042.505(b)(1): (1) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing: E3 mode No...
Creep properties of Hastelloy X and their application to structural design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiyoshige, Masanori; Murase, Koichi; Fujioka, Junzo; Shimizu, Shigeki; Satoh, Keisuke
1977-01-01
Creep and stress rupture tests on three heats of Hastelloy X differing in the manufacturing process were carried out at 800 0 C, 900 0 C and 1000 0 C. Interpretation of the observed creep properties was made, and a method for predicting necessary design data from the experimentally obtained results was discussed. The results are as follows. (1) It was difficult to separate the primary, secondary and tertiary creep stages in the creep curve of Hastelloy X of the present tests. However, those were made distinguishable by plotting the results in a double-logarithmic coordinates. From these creep rate curves, the primary and secondary creep rates and the times to the initiation of secondary and tertiary creeps were derived. (2) It is considered that the same stress and temperature dependences between the primary and secondary creep rates exist in the creep behaviour of Hastelloy X of the present tests. (3) All the creep data, except the isochronous stress-strain curve, required for the design such as stress vs. rupture time, stress vs. secondary creep rate and stress vs. time to initiation of tertiary creep could be arranged through the Larson-Miller parameter. On the other hand, the isochronous stress-strain curve was figured out by estimating creep curves. The constitutive equations of creep for a heat of Hastelloy X proposed in this paper and the isochronous stress-strain curves derived from these constitutive equations were consistent with the experimental data obtained for the corresponding material. (auth.)
Measurement of soil creep by inclinometer
Robert R. Ziemer
1977-01-01
Abstract - Continued inclinometer measurements at borehole sites installed in 1964 in northern California suggest that previously reported rates of soil creep are excessively high. Upon analysis of 35 access casings located in forested and grassland sites, no consistent direction of soil movement could be detected. In addition, no significant rate of soil creep could...
Transient and steady-state selection in the striatal microcircuit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam eTomkins
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Although the basal ganglia have been widely studied and implicated in signal processing and action selection, little information is known about the active role the striatal microcircuit plays in action selection in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. To address this knowledge gap we use a large scale three dimensional spiking model of the striatum, combined with a rate coded model of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, to asses the computational role the striatum plays in action selection. We identify a robust transient phenomena generated by the striatal microcircuit, which temporarily enhances the difference between two competing cortical inputs. We show that this transient is sufficient to modulate decision making in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit. We also find that the transient selection originates from a novel adaptation effect in single striatal projection neurons, which is amenable to experimental testing. Finally, we compared transient selection with models implementing classical steady-state selection. We challenged both forms of model to account for recent reports of paradoxically enhanced response selection in Huntington's Disease patients. We found that steady-state selection was uniformly impaired under all simulated Huntington's conditions, but transient selection was enhanced given a sufficient Huntington's-like increase in NMDA receptor sensitivity. Thus our models provide an intriguing hypothesis for the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical cognitive improvements in manifest Huntington's patients.
Analysis of the steady state hydraulic behaviour of the ITER blanket cooling system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Di Maio, P.A., E-mail: pietroalessandro.dimaio@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Dell’Orco, G.; Furmanek, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Garitta, S. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Merola, M.; Mitteau, R.; Raffray, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Spagnuolo, G.A.; Vallone, E. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)
2015-10-15
Highlights: • Nominal steady state hydraulic behaviour of ITER blanket standard sector cooling system has been investigated. • Numerical simulations have been run adopting a qualified thermal-hydraulic system code. • Hydraulic characteristic functions and coolant mass flow rates, velocities and pressure drops have been assessed. • Most of the considered circuits are able to effectively cool blanket modules, meeting ITER requirements. - Abstract: The blanket system is the ITER reactor component devoted to providing a physical boundary for plasma transients and contributing to thermal and nuclear shielding of vacuum vessel, magnets and external components. It is expected to be subjected to significant heat loads under nominal conditions and its cooling system has to ensure an adequate cooling, preventing any risk of critical heat flux occurrence while complying with pressure drop limits. At the University of Palermo a study has been performed, in cooperation with the ITER Organization, to investigate the steady state hydraulic behaviour of the ITER blanket standard sector cooling system. A theoretical–computational approach based on the finite volume method has been followed, adopting the RELAP5 system code. Finite volume models of the most critical blanket cooling circuits have been set-up, realistically simulating the coolant flow domain. The steady state hydraulic behaviour of each cooling circuit has been investigated, determining its hydraulic characteristic function and assessing the spatial distribution of coolant mass flow rates, velocities and pressure drops under reference nominal conditions. Results obtained have indicated that the investigated cooling circuits are able to provide an effective cooling to blanket modules, generally meeting ITER requirements in term of pressure drop and velocity distribution, except for a couple of circuits that are being revised.
Creep behavior of double tempered 8% Cr-2% WVTa martensitic steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamura, Manabu; Shinozuka, Kei; Esaka, Hisao; Nowell, Matthew M.
2006-01-01
Creep testing was carried out at around 650degC for a martensitic 8Cr-2WVTa steel (F82H), which is a candidate alloy for the first wall of the fusion reactors of the Tokamak type. Rupture strength of the double tempered steel (F82HD) is lightly higher than that of simple tempered steel (F82HS). On the other hand, creep rate of F82HD is obviously smaller than that of F82HS in acceleration creep, though creep strain of F82HD in transition creep, where creep rate decreases with increasing strain, is larger than that of F82HS. Hardness of the crept H82HD decreases with increasing creep strain, which corresponded with the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. On the contrary, X-ray diffraction and electron back-scattered diffraction pattern measurements show that fine sub-grains are created during transition creep. The creep curves were analyzed using an exponential type creep equation and the apparent activation energy, the activation volume and the pre-exponential factor were calculated as a function of creep strain. Then, these parameters were converted into two parameters, i.e. equivalent obstacle spacing (EOS) and mobile dislocation density parameter (MDDP). While EOS decreases with increasing creep strain, MDDP increases with increasing strain during transition creep. The decrease in EOS and the increase in either EOS or MDDP are rate-controlling factors in transition and acceleration creep, respectively. On the other hand, in case of F82HS, EOS increases and MDDP decreases during transition creep. In this case, the decrease in MDDP controls the creep rate during transition creep of F82HS. It is concluded that both EOS and MDDP are representative parameters of the change in substructure during creep. (author)
Khoshmanesh, M.; Shirzaei, M.
2017-12-01
Recent seismic and geodetic observations indicate that interseismic creep rate varies in both time and space. The spatial extent of creep determines the earthquake potential, while its temporal evolution, known as slow slip events (SSE), may trigger earthquakes. Although the conditions promoting fault creep are well-established, the mechanism for initiating self-sustaining and sometimes cyclic creep events is enigmatic. Here we investigate a time series of 19 years of surface deformation measured by radar interferometry between 1992 and 2011 along the Central San Andreas Fault (CSAF) to constrain the temporal evolution of creep. We show that the creep rate along the CSAF has a sporadic behavior, quantified with a Gumbel-like probability distribution characterized by longer tail toward the extreme positive rates, which is signature of burst-like creep dynamics. Defining creep avalanches as clusters of isolated creep with rates exceeding the shearing rate of tectonic plates, we investigate the statistical properties of their size and length. We show that, similar to the frequency-magnitude distribution of seismic events, the distribution of potency estimated for creep avalanches along the CSAF follows a power law, dictated by the distribution of their along-strike lengths. We further show that an ensemble of concurrent creep avalanches which aseismically rupture isolated fault compartments form the semi-periodic SSEs observed along the CSAF. Using a rate and state friction model, we show that normal stress is temporally variable on the fault, and support this using seismic observations. We propose that, through a self-sustaining fault-valve behavior, compaction induced elevation of pore pressure within hydraulically isolated fault compartments, and subsequent frictional dilation is the cause for the observed episodic SSEs. We further suggest that the 2004 Parkfield Mw6 earthquake may have been triggered by the SSE on adjacent creeping segment, which increased Coulomb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romanovskii, V.R.
2003-01-01
The physical peculiarities of the flux-creep dynamics of low- and high-temperature superconductors placed in external varying magnetic field are studied. The flux-creep problem was studied for the partial penetration state. The proposed analysis was based on the macroscopic description of the flux creep by power and exponential equations of current-voltage characteristics of superconductors. It is shown that during flux creep the screening current penetrates into the superconductor at a finite velocity. Therefore, inside the superconductor a moving boundary of a magnetization region appears like in the critical state model. The time-dependent equations of screening current front have been written. However, unlike the critical state model nontrivial conditions are fulfilled at the moving boundary. They describe the smooth transition of the electromagnetic field induced by external perturbation to the undisturbed ones. A flux-creep distribution of the differential resistivity of the superconductor has been discussed. The performed analysis reveals that it monotonically decreases toward the moving boundary and depends on the magnetic ramp rate. In accordance with these flux-creep conditions the energy dissipation in the superconductors and their magnetic moment depend on the propagation law of the screening current moving boundary. The applicability of the Bean model for describing the flux-creep states is investigated
Creep damage evaluation of low alloy steel weld joint by small punch creep testing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishioka, Tomoya; Sawaragi, Yoshiatsu; Uemura, Hiromi
2013-01-01
The effect of sampling location on SPC (Small Punch Creep) tests were investigated for weld joints to establish evaluation method of Type IV creep behavior. The SPC specimen shape was 10mm diameter and 0.5mm thick round disc prepared from weld joints of 2.25Cr-1Mo low alloy steel. It was found that the center of SPC specimen should be 2mm apart from the weld interface as the recommended sampling location. Creep damage was imposed for large weld joint specimens by axial creep loading at 620degC, 52MPa with the interrupted time fraction of 0.34, 0.45, 0.64 and 0.82.SPC samples were prepared from those damaged specimens following the recommended way described in this paper. Among the various SPC tests conducted, good relationships were found for the test condition of 625degC, 200N. Namely, good relationships were obtained both between minimum deflection rate and creep life fraction, and between rupture time and creep life fraction. Consequently, creep life assessment of Type IV fracture by SPC tests could be well conducted using the sampling location and the test condition recommended in this paper. (author)
Analysis of structures based on a characteristic-strain model of creep
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolton, J. [Alstom Power, Newbold Road, Rugby CV21 2NH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: janjohn.bolton@virgin.net
2008-01-15
A companion paper [Bolton J. In: A characteristic-strain model for creep, ECCC/I.Mech.E. conference on creep and fracture in high-temperature components, London, September 2005] describes a creep model based on a constant 'characteristic strain' at any temperature. The present paper discusses the application of such a model, first to simple structures and then to engineering components of general form under steady loading. A basis is proposed for identifying the stress within a structure, or within the critical part of a structure, which can be considered to govern both its overall and local deformations. The concept is similar to skeletal-point stress but is more readily applied to components of any shape. The implementation of the concept of 'structural stress' is discussed in the context of finite-element creep calculations. Consideration is given to the analysis of cracked structures, where very high strains at the crack tip must be accommodated.
Analysis of structures based on a characteristic-strain model of creep
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolton, J. [Alstom Power, Newbold Road, Rugby CV21 2NH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: janjohn.bolton@virgin.net
2008-01-15
A companion paper [Bolton J. In: A characteristic-strain model for creep, ECCC/I.Mech.E. conference on creep and fracture in high-temperature components, London, September 2005] describes a creep model based on a constant 'characteristic strain' at any temperature. The present paper discusses the application of such a model, first to simple structures and then to engineering components of general form under steady loading. A basis is proposed for identifying the stress within a structure, or within the critical part of a structure, which can be considered to govern both its overall and local deformations. The concept is similar to skeletal-point stress but is more readily applied to components of any shape. The implementation of the concept of 'structural stress' is discussed in the context of finite-element creep calculations. Consideration is given to the analysis of cracked structures, where very high strains at the crack tip must be accommodated.
Analysis of structures based on a characteristic-strain model of creep
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolton, J.
2008-01-01
A companion paper [Bolton J. In: A characteristic-strain model for creep, ECCC/I.Mech.E. conference on creep and fracture in high-temperature components, London, September 2005] describes a creep model based on a constant 'characteristic strain' at any temperature. The present paper discusses the application of such a model, first to simple structures and then to engineering components of general form under steady loading. A basis is proposed for identifying the stress within a structure, or within the critical part of a structure, which can be considered to govern both its overall and local deformations. The concept is similar to skeletal-point stress but is more readily applied to components of any shape. The implementation of the concept of 'structural stress' is discussed in the context of finite-element creep calculations. Consideration is given to the analysis of cracked structures, where very high strains at the crack tip must be accommodated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, C.Y.; Harris, B.G.; Cook, P.F.
1988-01-01
Isotope partitioning studies beginning with E-[ 14 C]NAD, E-[ 14 C] malate, E-[ 14 C] NAD-Mg 2+ , and E-Mg-[ 14 C]malate suggest a steady-state random mechanism for the NAD-malic enzyme. Isotope trapping beginning with E-[ 14 C]NAD and with varying concentrations of Mg 2+ and malate in the chase solution indicates that Mg 2+ is added in rapid equilibrium and must be added prior to malate for productive ternary complex formation. Equal percentage trapping from E-[ 14 C]NAD-Mg and E-Mg-[ 14 C] malate indicates the mechanism is steady-state random with equal off-rates for NAD and malate from E-NAD-Mg-malate. The off-rates for both do not change significantly in the ternary E-Mg-malate and E-NAD-Mg complexes, nor does the off-rate change for NAD from E-NAD. No trapping of malate was obtained from E-[ 14 C] malate, suggesting that this complex is nonproductive. A quantitative analysis of the data allows an estimation of values for a number of the rate constants along the reaction pathway
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sawada, Kota; Maruyama, Kouichi; Komine, Ryuji; Nagae, Yuji
1998-02-01
Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel has a martensitic lath structure. Recovery of the lath structure takes place in the course of creep. Microstructural degradation due to the recovery results in the acceleration of creep rate and the subsequent failure of a specimen. Change of lath width during creep of the steel was quantitatively investigated to propose a residual life assessment methodology based on the recovery process. Since the steel was tempered at 1053K, the lath structure is thermally stable at the testing temperatures (848K-923K). However, recovery of lath structure readily takes place during creep, indicating that the recovery is induced by creep deformation. Lath width d increases with creep strain and saturates to a value d s determined by creep stress. The increase of d is faster at a higher stress and temperature. A normalized change in lath width, Δd/Δd s , was introduced to explain the variation of lath growth rate with creep stress and temperature. Δd is the change in lath width from the initial value d 0 , and Δd s is the difference between d s and d 0 . Δd/Δd s is uniquely related to creep strain ε and the relationship is independent of creep stress as well as creep temperature. This Δd/Δd s -ε relationship obtained by an accelerated creep test at a higher temperature or stress is applicable to any creep condition including service conditions of engineering plants. Creep strain can be evaluated from the measurement of Δd/Δd s based on the Δd/Δd s -ε relationship. A creep curve under any creep condition can readily be calculated by creep data of the steel. Combining these information one can assess residual life of a structural component made of the steel. (author)
Nioradze, Nikoloz; Kim, Jiyeon; Amemiya, Shigeru
2011-02-01
We report on a novel theory and experiment for scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to enable quasi-steady-state voltammetry of rapid electron transfer (ET) reactions at macroscopic substrates. With this powerful approach, the substrate potential is cycled widely across the formal potential of a redox couple while the reactant or product of a substrate reaction is amperometrically detected at the tip in the feedback or substrate generation/tip collection mode, respectively. The plot of tip current versus substrate potential features the retraceable sigmoidal shape of a quasi-steady-state voltammogram although a transient voltammogram is obtained at the macroscopic substrate. Finite element simulations reveal that a short tip-substrate distance and a reversible substrate reaction (except under the tip) are required for quasi-steady-state voltammetry. Advantageously, a pair of quasi-steady-state voltammograms is obtained by employing both operation modes to reliably determine all transport, thermodynamic, and kinetic parameters as confirmed experimentally for rapid ET reactions of ferrocenemethanol and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane at a Pt substrate with ∼0.5 μm-radius Pt tips positioned at 90 nm-1 μm distances. Standard ET rate constants of ∼7 cm/s were obtained for the latter mediator as the largest determined for a substrate reaction by SECM. Various potential applications of quasi-steady-state voltammetry are also proposed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spindler, M.W.
2005-01-01
Calculations of creep damage under conditions of strain control are often carried out using either a time fraction approach or a ductility exhaustion approach. In the case of the time fraction approach the rupture strength is used to calculate creep damage, whereas creep ductility is used in the ductility exhaustion approach. In part I of this paper the methods that are used to determine these material properties are applied to some creep and constant strain rate tests on a Type 347 weld metal. In addition, new developments to the ductility exhaustion approach are described which give improved predictions of creep damage at failure in these tests. These developments use reverse modelling to determine the most appropriate creep damage model as a function of strain rate, stress and temperature. Hence, the new approach is no longer a ductility exhaustion approach but is a true creep damage model
The assessment of creep-fatigue initiation and crack growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Priest, R.H.; Miller, D.A.
1991-01-01
An outline of Nuclear Electric's Assessment Procedure for the High Temperature Response of Structures ('R5') for creep-fatigue initiation and crack growth is given. A unified approach is adopted for both regimes. For initiation, total damage is described in terms of separate creep and fatigue components. Ductility exhaustion is used for estimating creep damage whilst continuous cycling endurance data are used to evaluate the fatigue damage term. Evidence supporting this approach is given through the successful prediction of creep-fatigue endurances for a range of materials, cycle types, dwell period times, etc. Creep-fatigue crack growth is similarly described in terms of separated creep and fatigue components. Crack growth rates for each component are characterised in terms of fracture mechanics parameters. It is shown that creep crack growth rates can be rationalised on a ductility basis. Creep-fatigue interactions are accommodated in the cyclic growth component through the use of materials coefficients which depend on dwell time. (orig.)
Interface Evolution During Transient Pressure Solution Creep
Dysthe, D. K.; Podladchikov, Y. Y.; Renard, F.; Jamtveit, B.; Feder, J.
When aggregates of small grains are pressed together in the presence of small amounts of solvent the aggregate compacts and the grains tend to stick together. This hap- pens to salt and sugar in humid air, and to sediments when buried in the Earths crust. Stress concentration at the grain contacts cause local dissolution, diffusion of the dissolved material out of the interface and deposition on the less stressed faces of the grains{1}. This process, in geology known as pressure solution, plays a cen- tral role during compaction of sedimentary basins{1,2}, during tectonic deformation of the Earth's crust{3}, and in strengthening of active fault gouges following earth- quakes{4,5}. Experimental data on pressure solution has so far not been sufficiently accurate to understand the transient processes at the grain scale. Here we present ex- perimental evidence that pressure solution creep does not establish a steady state inter- face microstructure as previously thought. Conversely, cumulative creep strain and the characteristic size of interface microstructures grow as the cubic root of time. A sim- ilar transient phenomenon is known in metallurgy (Andrade creep) and is explained here using an analogy with spinodal dewetting. 1 Weyl, P. K., Pressure solution and the force of crystallization - a phenomenological theory. J. Geophys. Res., 64, 2001-2025 (1959). 2 Heald, M. T., Cementation of Simpson and St. Peter Sandstones in parts of Okla- homa, Arkansas and Missouri, J. Geol. Chicago, 14, 16-30 (1956). 3 Schwartz, S., Stöckert, B., Pressure solution in siliciclastic HP-LT metamorphic rocks constraints on the state of stress in deep levels of accretionary complexes. Tectonophysics, 255, 203-209 (1996). 4 Renard, F., Gratier, J.P., Jamtveit, B., Kinetics of crack-sealing, intergranular pres- sure solution, and compaction around active faults. J. Struct. Geol., 22, 1395-1407, (2000). 5 Miller, S. A., BenZion, Y., Burg, J. P.,A three-dimensional fluid-controlled earth
Cyclic Creep Behavior of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel at 600 .deg. C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Woo Gon; Kim, Dae Whan; Jang, Jin Sung; Park, Jae Young
2012-01-01
Cyclic deformation behavior is important in practice because high-temperature structural components are exposed under the cyclic conditions of repeated loading. In static creep (SC), the response of the material is simple as a static state of monotonic loading. However, in cyclic creep (CC), it is complex as dynamic loading. Cyclic creep data have been rarely reported until now. In particular, it is not understood well whether cyclic creep will accelerate or retard the creep rate compared with static creep, because it is not only the plastic deformation under cyclic loading is drastically different from monotonic loading, but also the cyclic response is dependent on the cycling frequency, stress range, stress ratio, and hold periods of cycling. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the cyclic creep behavior influencing the creep deformation and fracture process. In this study, a series of cyclic creep tests was carried out using magnitudes of stress range of constant stress ratio (R=0.1) under continuous tension-tension loading cycles at a hold time of 10 minutes. Cyclic curves were monitored and obtained with time variations, and the properties of the cyclic creep tests were compared with those of static creep tests. The fracture microstructures were observed and analyzed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Payne, M. G.; Deng, L.; Jiang, K. J.
2006-01-01
We consider a two-state system driven by an on-resonance, continuous wave pump laser and a much weaker pulsed probe laser that is slightly detuned from the pump laser frequency (usually this detuning is about ω p -ω P =Δ≅1 kHz). The upper state population is assumed to be slowly decaying, but the off-diagonal element of the density matrix decays rapidly due to homogeneous broadening. This model has been solved by others in rare-earth-element-doped fibers and crystals in a usual steady state approximation for slow optical wave propagation. We show that in general the usual steady state approximation does not apply unless either Δτ>>1 or (2S+1)γ 2 τ>>1 where γ 2 is the decay rate of the excited state population, τ is the pulse length of the probe field, and 2S is the saturation parameter. Both conditions, however, are not satisfied in many population-oscillation- and corresponding group-velocity-reduction-related studies. Our theory and corresponding numerical simulations have indicated that for probe pulses that are much shorter than the lifetime of the upper state, there is no analytical theory for the amplitude, pulse shape, and group velocity of the probe field. In addition, there is no reason to assume that the group velocity remains small when γ 2 τ<<1 and there is no reason to believe that many pulse length decays can be obtained for such short pulses
Steady-state Operational Characteristics of Ghana Research ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Steady state operational characteristics of the 30 kW tank-in-pool type reactor named Ghana Research Reactor-1 were investigated after a successful on-site zero power critical experiments. The steadystate operational character-istics determined were the thermal neutron fluxes, maximum period of operation at nominal ...
Evidence for forcing-dependent steady states in a turbulent swirling flow.
Saint-Michel, B; Dubrulle, B; Marié, L; Ravelet, F; Daviaud, F
2013-12-06
We study the influence on steady turbulent states of the forcing in a von Karman flow, at constant impeller speed, or at constant torque. We find that the different forcing conditions change the nature of the stability of the steady states and reveal dynamical regimes that bear similarities to low-dimensional systems. We suggest that this forcing dependence may be applicable to other turbulent systems.
Constructive interference in steady-state/FIESTA-C clinical applications in neuroimaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulkami, Makarand
2011-01-01
Full text: High spatial resolution is one of the major problems in neuroimaging, par ticularly in cranial and spinal nerve imaging. Constructive interference in steady-state/fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition with phase cycling is a robust sequence in imaging the cranial and spinal nerve patholo gies. This pictorial review is a concise article about the applications of this sequence in neuroimaging with clinical examples.
Predominantly elastic crack growth under combined creep-fatigue cycling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lloyd, G.J.
1979-01-01
A rationalization of the various observed effects of combined creep-fatigue cycling upon predominantly elastic fatigue-crack propagation in austenitic steel is presented. Existing and new evidence is used to show two main groups of behaviour: (i) material and cycling conditions which lead to modest increases (6-8 times) in the rate of crack growth are associated with relaxation-induced changes in the material deformation characteristics, and (ii) material and cycling conditions severe enough to generate internal fracture damage lead to significant (up to a factor of 30) increases in crack growth rate when compared with fast-cycling crack propagation rates at the same temperature. A working hypothesis is presented to show that the boundary between the two groups occurs when the scale of the nucleated creep damage is of the same magnitude as the crack tip opening displacement. This leads to the possibility of unstable crack advance. Creep crack growth rates are shown to provide an upper bound to creep-fatigue crack growth rates when crack advance is unstable. If the deformation properties only are affected by the creep-fatigue cycling then creep crack growth rates provide a lower bound. The role of intergranular oxygen corrosion in very low frequency crack growth tests is also briefly discussed. (author)
Optimal control of transitions between nonequilibrium steady states.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick R Zulkowski
Full Text Available Biological systems fundamentally exist out of equilibrium in order to preserve organized structures and processes. Many changing cellular conditions can be represented as transitions between nonequilibrium steady states, and organisms have an interest in optimizing such transitions. Using the Hatano-Sasa Y-value, we extend a recently developed geometrical framework for determining optimal protocols so that it can be applied to systems driven from nonequilibrium steady states. We calculate and numerically verify optimal protocols for a colloidal particle dragged through solution by a translating optical trap with two controllable parameters. We offer experimental predictions, specifically that optimal protocols are significantly less costly than naive ones. Optimal protocols similar to these may ultimately point to design principles for biological energy transduction systems and guide the design of artificial molecular machines.
Influence of phosphorus on the creep ductility of copper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandström, Rolf; Wu, Rui
2013-01-01
Around 1990 it was discovered that pure copper could have extra low creep ductility in the temperature interval 180–250 °C. The material was intended for use in canisters for nuclear waste disposal. Although extra low creep ductility was not observed much below 180 °C and the temperature in the canister will never exceed 100 °C, it was feared that the creep ductility could reach low values at lower temperatures after long term exposure. If 50 ppm phosphorus was added to the copper the low creep ductility disappeared. A creep cavitation model is presented that can quantitatively describe the cavitation behaviour in uniaxial and multiaxial creep tests as well as the observed creep ductility for copper with and without phosphorus. A so-called double ledge model has been introduced that demonstrates why the nucleation rate of creep cavities is often proportional to the creep rate. The phosphorus agglomerates at the grain boundaries and limits their local deformation and thereby reduces the formation and growth of cavities. This explains why extra low creep ductility does not occur in phosphorus alloyed copper
Long-term creep test with finite elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Argyris, J.H.; Szimmat, J.; Willam, K.J.
1975-01-01
Following a presentation of concrete creep, a brief summary of the direct and incremental calculation methods for long-term creep behaviour is given. In addition, a survey on the methods of the inner state variables is given which, on the one hand, gives a uniform framework for the various formulations of concrete creep, and on the other hand leads to a computable calculation method. Two examples on long-term creep behaviour illustrate the application field of the calculation method. (orig./LH) [de
The non-local Fisher–KPP equation: travelling waves and steady states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berestycki, Henri; Nadin, Grégoire; Perthame, Benoit; Ryzhik, Lenya
2009-01-01
We consider the Fisher–KPP equation with a non-local saturation effect defined through an interaction kernel φ(x) and investigate the possible differences with the standard Fisher–KPP equation. Our first concern is the existence of steady states. We prove that if the Fourier transform φ-circumflex(ξ) is positive or if the length σ of the non-local interaction is short enough, then the only steady states are u ≡ 0 and u ≡ 1. Next, we study existence of the travelling waves. We prove that this equation admits travelling wave solutions that connect u = 0 to an unknown positive steady state u ∞ (x), for all speeds c ≥ c * . The travelling wave connects to the standard state u ∞ (x) ≡ 1 under the aforementioned conditions: φ-circumflex(ξ) > 0 or σ is sufficiently small. However, the wave is not monotonic for σ large
Irradiation creep in zirconium single crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MacEwen, S.R.; Fidleris, V.
1976-07-01
Two identical single crystals of crystal bar zirconium have been creep tested in reactor. Both specimens were preirradiated at low stress to a dose of about 4 x 10 23 n/m 2 (E > 1 MeV), and were then loaded to 25 MPa. The first specimen was loaded with reactor at full power, the second during a shutdown. The loading strain for both crystals was more than an order of magnitude smaller than that observed when an identical unirradiated crystal was loaded to the same stress. Both crystals exhibited periods of primary creep, after which their creep rates reached nearly constant values when the reactor was at power. During shutdowns the creep rates decreased rapidly with time. Electron microscopy revealed that the irradiation damage consisted of prismatic dislocation loops, approximately 13.5 nm in diameter. Cleared channels, identified as lying on (1010) planes, were also observed. The results are discussed in terms of the current theories for flux enhanced creep in the light of the microstructures observed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malloy, C.R.; Jeffrey, F.M.H.; Thompson, J.R.; Sherry, A.D.
1990-01-01
A method is presented for the rapid determination of substrate selection in a manner that is not restricted to conditions of metabolic and isotopic steady state. Competition between several substrates can be assessed directly and continuously in a single experiment, allowing the effect of interventions to be studied. It is shown that a single proton-decoupled 13 C NMR spectrum of glutamate provides a direct measure of the contribution of exogenous 13 C-labeled substrates to acetyl-CoA without measurement of oxygen consumption and that steady-state conditions need not apply. Two sets of experiments were performed: one in which a metabolic steady state but a non-steady-state 13 C distribution was achieved and another in which both metabolism and labeling were not at steady state. In the first group, isolated rat hearts were supplied with [1,2- 13 C]acetate, [3- 13 C]lactate, and unlabeled glucose. 13 C NMR spectra of extracts from hearts perfused under identical conditions for 5 or 30 min were compared. In spite of significant differences in the spectra, the measured contributions of acetate, lactate, and unlabeled sources to acetyl-CoA were the same. In the second set of experiments, the same group of labeled substrates was used in a regional ischemia model in isolated rabbit hearts to show regional differences in substrate utilization under both metabolic and isotopic non steady state. The time resolution of these measurements may not be limited by technical contraints but by the rate of carbon flux in the citric acid cycle. Although this technique is demonstrated for the heart, it is applicable to all tissues
Power-law creep of powder-metallurgy grade molybdenum sheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciulik, J.; Taleff, E.M.
2007-01-01
Creep behavior of commercial-purity, powder-metallurgy grade molybdenum (Mo) sheet has been investigated at temperatures between 1300 and 1600 deg. C (0.56-0.63 T m ) using tensile testing at controlled strain rates. Strain-rate-change tests were performed at constant-temperatures over true-strain rates from 1.0 x 10 -6 to 5.0 x 10 -4 s -1 . Results agree with previously published data indicating that Mo follows power-law creep with a stress exponent of about 5; however, the present results address a temperature range not previously documented. The activation energy for creep was determined to be 240 kJ/mol within this temperature range, which is lower than previously published values and approximately half the value reported for self-diffusion, indicating that diffusion mechanisms faster than lattice diffusion are active. It is shown that Mo creep data from a variety of investigations converge closely to a single line on a master plot of strain rate normalized using an activation energy of 240 kJ/mol when plotted against stress normalized by the temperature-dependent elastic modulus. This activation energy for creep is attributed to an effective diffusivity that fits the creep data obtained during this study as well as from previously published creep data from commercial-purity molybdenum
A fission-fusion hybrid reactor in steady-state L-mode tokamak configuration with natural uranium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reed, Mark; Parker, Ronald R.; Forget, Benoit
2012-01-01
This work develops a conceptual design for a fusion-fission hybrid reactor operating in steady-state L-mode tokamak configuration with a subcritical natural or depleted uranium pebble bed blanket. A liquid lithium-lead alloy breeds enough tritium to replenish that consumed by the D-T fusion reaction. The fission blanket augments the fusion power such that the fusion core itself need not have a high power gain, thus allowing for fully non-inductive (steady-state) low confinement mode (L-mode) operation at relatively small physical dimensions. A neutron transport Monte Carlo code models the natural uranium fission blanket. Maximizing the fission power gain while breeding sufficient tritium allows for the selection of an optimal set of blanket parameters, which yields a maximum prudent fission power gain of approximately 7. A 0-D tokamak model suffices to analyze approximate tokamak operating conditions. This fission blanket would allow the fusion component of a hybrid reactor with the same dimensions as ITER to operate in steady-state L-mode very comfortably with a fusion power gain of 6.7 and a thermal fusion power of 2.1 GW. Taking this further can determine the approximate minimum scale for a steady-state L-mode tokamak hybrid reactor, which is a major radius of 5.2 m and an aspect ratio of 2.8. This minimum scale device operates barely within the steady-state L-mode realm with a thermal fusion power of 1.7 GW. Basic thermal hydraulic analysis demonstrates that pressurized helium could cool the pebble bed fission blanket with a flow rate below 10 m/s. The Brayton cycle thermal efficiency is 41%. This reactor, dubbed the Steady-state L-mode non-Enriched Uranium Tokamak Hybrid (SLEUTH), with its very fast neutron spectrum, could be superior to pure fission reactors in terms of breeding fissile fuel and transmuting deleterious fission products. It would likely function best as a prolific plutonium breeder, and the plutonium it produces could actually be more
Current drive efficiency requirements for an attractive steady-state reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tonon, G
1994-12-31
The expected values of the figure of merit and the electrical efficiency of various non-inductive current drive methods are considered. The main experimental results achieved today with neutral beams and radiofrequency systems are summarized. Taking into account the simplified energy flow diagram of a steady state reactor, the figure of merit and the electrical efficiency values which are necessary in order to envisage an attractive steady-state reactor are determined. These values are compared to the theoretical predictions. (author). 16 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.
Current drive efficiency requirements for an attractive steady-state reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tonon, G.
1994-01-01
The expected values of the figure of merit and the electrical efficiency of various non-inductive current drive methods are considered. The main experimental results achieved today with neutral beams and radiofrequency systems are summarized. Taking into account the simplified energy flow diagram of a steady state reactor, the figure of merit and the electrical efficiency values which are necessary in order to envisage an attractive steady-state reactor are determined. These values are compared to the theoretical predictions. (author). 16 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs
An empirically based steady state friction law and implications for fault stability.
Spagnuolo, E; Nielsen, S; Violay, M; Di Toro, G
2016-04-16
Empirically based rate-and-state friction laws (RSFLs) have been proposed to model the dependence of friction forces with slip and time. The relevance of the RSFL for earthquake mechanics is that few constitutive parameters define critical conditions for fault stability (i.e., critical stiffness and frictional fault behavior). However, the RSFLs were determined from experiments conducted at subseismic slip rates ( V 0.1 m/s) remains questionable on the basis of the experimental evidence of (1) large dynamic weakening and (2) activation of particular fault lubrication processes at seismic slip rates. Here we propose a modified RSFL (MFL) based on the review of a large published and unpublished data set of rock friction experiments performed with different testing machines. The MFL, valid at steady state conditions from subseismic to seismic slip rates (0.1 µm/s fault frictional stability with implications for slip event styles and relevance for models of seismic rupture nucleation, propagation, and arrest.
Application of HDF5 in long-pulse quasi-steady state data acquisition at high sampling rate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Y.; Wang, F.; Li, S.; Xiao, B.J.; Yang, F.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • The new data-acquisition system supports long-pulse EAST data acquisition. • The new data-acquisition system is capable for most of the high frequency signals of EAST experiments. • The system's total throughput is about 500 MB/s. • The system uses HDF5 to store data. - Abstract: A new high sampling rate quasi-steady state data-acquisition system has been designed for the microwave reflectometry diagnostic of EAST experiments. In order to meet the requirements of long-pulse discharge and high sampling rate, it is designed based on PXI Express technology. A high-performance digitizer National Instruments PXIe-5122 with two synchronous analog input channels in which the maximum sampling rate is 100 MHz has been adopted. Two PXIe-5122 boards at 60 MSPS and one PXIe-6368 board at 2 MSPS are used in the system and the total throughput is about 500 MB/s. To guarantee the large amounts of data being saved continuously in the long-pulse discharge, an external hard-disk data stream enclosure NI HDD-8265 in which the capacity of sustained speed of reading and writing is 700 MB/s. And in RAID-5 mode its storage capacity is 80% of the total. The obtained raw data firstly stream continuously into NI HDD-8265 during the discharge. Then it will be transferred to the data server automatically and converted into HDF5 file format. HDF5 is an open source file format for data storage and management which has been widely used in various fields, and suitable for long term case. The details of the system are described in the paper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Youbin; Zeng, Jianmin
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Mn addition could significantly refine the grain of the Zn coating. • Twins could be observed in the Zn coatings. • The stress exponent of the Zn coating increases with Mn addition. • The creep process of the Zn coating is dominated by dislocation climb and twins. - Abstract: The Zn coatings with different Mn additions were prepared by hot dip process, and the effects of the Mn addition on the microstructure and indentation creep behavior of the coatings were investigated through scanning electron microscope and constant-load holding indentation technique at the room temperature. Some twins can be observed in the microstructure of Zn coating, which may account for the formation of the large thermal misfit stress between the zinc coating and the steel substrate. The amount of twin microstructure in the Zn coating decreases with the Mn addition. It is also found that Mn addition could induce MnZn 13 phases to precipitate along the grain boundary and significantly refine the grains of Zn coatings. The steady-state stress of the Zn coating could be improved by Mn addition. The creep stress exponent values are in the range of 14–46 and increases with Mn addition. The creep process of the Zn coating is dominated by dislocation climb and twin formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kainuma, T.; Iwao, N.; Suzuki, T.; Watanabe, R.
1982-01-01
The creep and creep rupture properties of vanadium and vanadium-base alloys were studied at 700 and 1000 0 C. The alloys were vanadium-base binary alloys containing about 5 - 21 at.% Al, Ti, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo or Fe, three V-20wt.%Nb-base ternary alloys containing 5 or 10 wt.% Al, Cr or Mo, V-10wt.%Ta-10wt.%Al and V-25wt.%Cr-0.8wt.%Zr. The creep rupture stress of the binary alloys, except the V-Al and V-Ti alloys, increased linearly with increasing concentration of the alloying elements. The V-Nb alloy had the best properties with respect to the rupture stress and creep rate at 700 0 C and the rupture stress at 1000 0 C, but the V-Mo alloy appeared likely to have better creep properties at longer times and higher temperatures. Of the five ternary alloys, V-20wt.%Nb-5wt.%Cr and V-20wt.%Nb-10wt.%Mo showed the best creep properties. The creep properties of these two alloys were compared with those of other vanadium alloys and of type 316 stainless steel. (Auth.)
Steady States in SIRS Epidemical Model of Mobile Individuals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Duanming; He Minhua; Yu Xiaoling; Pan Guijun; Sun Hongzhang; Su Xiangying; Sun Fan; Yin Yanping; Li Rui; Liu Dan
2006-01-01
We consider an epidemical model within socially interacting mobile individuals to study the behaviors of steady states of epidemic propagation in 2D networks. Using mean-field approximation and large scale simulations, we recover the usual epidemic behavior with critical thresholds δ c and p c below which infectious disease dies out. For the population density δ far above δ c , it is found that there is linear relationship between contact rate λ and the population density δ in the main. At the same time, the result obtained from mean-field approximation is compared with our numerical result, and it is found that these two results are similar by and large but not completely the same.
Burn cycle requirements comparison of pulsed and steady-state tokamak reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.
1983-12-01
Burn cycle parameters and energy transfer system requirements were analyzed for an 8-m commercial tokamak reactor using four types of cycles: conventional, hybrid, internal transformer, and steady state. Not surprisingly, steady state is the best burn mode if it can be achieved. The hybrid cycle is a promising alternative to the conventional. In contrast, the internal transformer cycle does not appear attractive for the size tokamak in question
Saeid Khalafvand, Seyed; Han, Hai-Chao
2015-01-01
It has been shown that arteries may buckle into tortuous shapes under lumen pressure, which in turn could alter blood flow. However, the mechanisms of artery instability under pulsatile flow have not been fully understood. The objective of this study was to simulate the buckling and post-buckling behaviors of the carotid artery under pulsatile flow using a fully coupled fluid–structure interaction (FSI) method. The artery wall was modeled as a nonlinear material with a two-fiber strain-energy function. FSI simulations were performed under steady-state flow and pulsatile flow conditions with a prescribed flow velocity profile at the inlet and different pressures at the outlet to determine the critical buckling pressure. Simulations were performed for normal (160 ml/min) and high (350 ml/min) flow rates and normal (1.5) and reduced (1.3) axial stretch ratios to determine the effects of flow rate and axial tension on stability. The results showed that an artery buckled when the lumen pressure exceeded a critical value. The critical mean buckling pressure at pulsatile flow was 17–23% smaller than at steady-state flow. For both steady-state and pulsatile flow, the high flow rate had very little effect (<5%) on the critical buckling pressure. The fluid and wall stresses were drastically altered at the location with maximum deflection. The maximum lumen shear stress occurred at the inner side of the bend and maximum tensile wall stresses occurred at the outer side. These findings improve our understanding of artery instability in vivo. PMID:25761257
Saeid Khalafvand, Seyed; Han, Hai-Chao
2015-06-01
It has been shown that arteries may buckle into tortuous shapes under lumen pressure, which in turn could alter blood flow. However, the mechanisms of artery instability under pulsatile flow have not been fully understood. The objective of this study was to simulate the buckling and post-buckling behaviors of the carotid artery under pulsatile flow using a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method. The artery wall was modeled as a nonlinear material with a two-fiber strain-energy function. FSI simulations were performed under steady-state flow and pulsatile flow conditions with a prescribed flow velocity profile at the inlet and different pressures at the outlet to determine the critical buckling pressure. Simulations were performed for normal (160 ml/min) and high (350 ml/min) flow rates and normal (1.5) and reduced (1.3) axial stretch ratios to determine the effects of flow rate and axial tension on stability. The results showed that an artery buckled when the lumen pressure exceeded a critical value. The critical mean buckling pressure at pulsatile flow was 17-23% smaller than at steady-state flow. For both steady-state and pulsatile flow, the high flow rate had very little effect (<5%) on the critical buckling pressure. The fluid and wall stresses were drastically altered at the location with maximum deflection. The maximum lumen shear stress occurred at the inner side of the bend and maximum tensile wall stresses occurred at the outer side. These findings improve our understanding of artery instability in vivo.
Pineda, Evan J.; Mital, Subodh K.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.
2015-01-01
Constituent properties, along with volume fraction, have a first order effect on the microscale fields within a composite material and influence the macroscopic response. Therefore, there is a need to assess the significance of stochastic variation in the constituent properties of composites at the higher scales. The effect of variability in the parameters controlling the time-dependent behavior, in a unidirectional SCS-6 SiC fiber-reinforced RBSN matrix composite lamina, on the residual stresses induced during processing is investigated numerically. The generalized method of cells micromechanics theory is utilized to model the ceramic matrix composite lamina using a repeating unit cell. The primary creep phases of the constituents are approximated using a Norton-Bailey, steady state, power law creep model. The effect of residual stresses on the proportional limit stress and strain to failure of the composite is demonstrated. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted using a normal distribution for the power law parameters and the resulting residual stress distributions were predicted.
40 CFR 1033.515 - Discrete-mode steady-state emission tests of locomotives and locomotive engines.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrete-mode steady-state emission... Procedures § 1033.515 Discrete-mode steady-state emission tests of locomotives and locomotive engines. This... a warm-up followed by a sequence of nominally steady-state discrete test modes, as described in...
Viscoelastic creep of high-temperature concrete
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfeiffer, P.A.; Marchertas, A.H.; Bazant, Z.P.
1985-01-01
Presented in this report is the analytical model for analysis of high temperature creep response of concrete. The creep law used is linear (viscoelastic), the temperature and moisture effects on the creep rate and also aging are included. Both constant and transient temperature as well as constant and transient moisture conditions are considered. Examples are presented to correlate experimental data with parameters of the analytical model by the use of a finite element scheme
Engelbrecht, Nicolaas; Chiuta, Steven; Bessarabov, Dmitri G.
2018-05-01
The experimental evaluation of an autothermal microchannel reactor for H2 production from NH3 decomposition is described. The reactor design incorporates an autothermal approach, with added NH3 oxidation, for coupled heat supply to the endothermic decomposition reaction. An alternating catalytic plate arrangement is used to accomplish this thermal coupling in a cocurrent flow strategy. Detailed analysis of the transient operating regime associated with reactor start-up and steady-state results is presented. The effects of operating parameters on reactor performance are investigated, specifically, the NH3 decomposition flow rate, NH3 oxidation flow rate, and fuel-oxygen equivalence ratio. Overall, the reactor exhibits rapid response time during start-up; within 60 min, H2 production is approximately 95% of steady-state values. The recommended operating point for steady-state H2 production corresponds to an NH3 decomposition flow rate of 6 NL min-1, NH3 oxidation flow rate of 4 NL min-1, and fuel-oxygen equivalence ratio of 1.4. Under these flows, NH3 conversion of 99.8% and H2 equivalent fuel cell power output of 0.71 kWe is achieved. The reactor shows good heat utilization with a thermal efficiency of 75.9%. An efficient autothermal reactor design is therefore demonstrated, which may be upscaled to a multi-kW H2 production system for commercial implementation.
Influence of mobility and annihilation of forest dislocations on radiation creep rate of metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pyatiletov, Yu.S.; Tyupkina, O.G.
1988-01-01
Dependence of radiation creep rate ε of metals on stress σ is calculated. It is established that account of mobility and annihilation of 'forest' dislocations leads to the increase of calculational value ε and the effect increases with the growth of σ, reaching 10-15% at σ ∼ 0.8 σ cr (σ cr - critical shear stress)
The non-steady state oceanic CO2 signal: its importance, magnitude and a novel way to detect it
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. I. McNeil
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The role of the ocean has been pivotal in modulating rising atmospheric CO2 levels since the industrial revolution, sequestering nearly half of all fossil-fuel derived CO2 emissions. Net oceanic uptake of CO2 has roughly doubled between the 1960s (~1 Pg C yr−1 and 2000s (~2 Pg C yr−1, with expectations that it will continue to absorb even more CO2 with rising future atmospheric CO2 levels. However, recent CO2 observational analyses along with numerous model predictions suggest the rate of oceanic CO2 uptake is already slowing, largely as a result of a natural decadal-scale outgassing signal. This recent CO2 outgassing signal represents a significant shift in our understanding of the oceans role in modulating atmospheric CO2. Current tracer-based estimates for the ocean storage of anthropogenic CO2 assume the ocean circulation and biology is in steady state, thereby missing the new and potentially important "non-steady state" CO2 outgassing signal. By combining data-based techniques that assume the ocean is in a steady state, with techniques that constrain the net oceanic CO2 uptake signal, we show how to extract the non-steady state CO2 signal from observations. Over the entire industrial era, the non-steady state CO2 outgassing signal (~13 ± 10 Pg C is estimated to represent about 9% of the total net CO2 inventory change (~142 Pg C. However, between 1989 and 2007, the non-steady state CO2 outgassing signal (~6.3 Pg C has likely increased to be ~18% of net oceanic CO2 storage over that period (~36 Pg C. The present uncertainty of our data-based techniques for oceanic CO2 uptake limit our capacity to quantify the non-steady state CO2 signal, however with more data and better certainty estimates across a range of diverse methods, this important and growing CO2 signal could be better constrained in the future.
Spear, Tyler J; Stromp, Tori A; Leung, Steve W; Vandsburger, Moriel H
2017-11-01
Emerging quantitative cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) techniques use cine balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) to measure myocardial signal intensity and probe underlying physiological parameters. This correlation assumes that steady-state is maintained uniformly throughout the heart in space and time. To determine the effects of longitudinal cardiac motion and initial slice position on signal deviation in cine bSSFP imaging by comparing two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) acquisitions. Nine healthy volunteers completed cardiac MRI on a 1.5-T scanner. Short axis images were taken at six slice locations using both 2D and 3D cine bSSFP. 3D acquisitions spanned two slices above and below selected slice locations. Changes in myocardial signal intensity were measured across the cardiac cycle and compared to longitudinal shortening. For 2D cine bSSFP, 46% ± 9% of all frames and 84% ± 13% of end-diastolic frames remained within 10% of initial signal intensity. For 3D cine bSSFP the proportions increased to 87% ± 8% and 97% ± 5%. There was no correlation between longitudinal shortening and peak changes in myocardial signal. The initial slice position significantly impacted peak changes in signal intensity for 2D sequences ( P cine bSSFP that is only restored at the center of a 3D excitation volume. During diastole, a transient steady-state is established similar to that achieved with 3D cine bSSFP regardless of slice location.
Progress and prospect of true steady state operation with RF
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacquinot Jean
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Operation of fusion confinement experiments in full steady state is a major challenge for the development towards fusion energy. Critical to achieving this goal is the availability of actively cooled plasma facing components and auxiliary systems withstanding the very harsh plasma environment. Equally challenging are physics issues related to achieving plasma conditions and current drive efficiency required by reactor plasmas. RF heating and current drive systems have been key instruments for obtaining the progress made until today towards steady state. They hold all the records of long pulse plasma operation both in tokamaks and in stellarators. Nevertheless much progress remains to be made in particular for integrating all the requirements necessary for maintaining in steady state the density and plasma pressure conditions of a reactor. This is an important stated aim of ITER and of devices equipped with superconducting magnets. After considering the present state of the art, this review will address the key issues which remain to be solved both in physics and technology for reaching this goal. They constitute very active subjects of research which will require much dedicated experimentation in the new generation of superconducting devices which are now in operation or becoming close to it.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smirnova, E.S.; Chuvil'deev, V.N.
1998-01-01
The model is suggested which describes the influence of large-angle grain boundary migration on a diffusion controlled creep rate in polycrystalline materials (Coble creep). The model is based on the concept about changing the value of migrating boundary free volume when introducing dislocations distributed over the grain bulk into this boundary. Expressions are obtained to calculate the grain boundary diffusion coefficient under conditions of boundary migration and the parameter, which characterized the value of Coble creep acceleration. A comparison is made between calculated and experimental data for Cd, Co and Fe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarboe, T.R.
1982-01-01
A major effort is being made in the national program to make the operation of axisymmetric, toroidal confinement systems steady state by the application of expensive rf current drive. Described here is a method by which such a confinement system, the spheromak, can be refluxed indefinitely through the application of dc power. As a step towards dc sustainment we have operated the present CTX source in the slow source mode with a longer power application time (approx. 0.1 ms) and successfully generated long-lived spheromaks. If the erosion of the electrodes can be controlled as well as it is with MPD arcs then dc operation should be very clean. If only a small fraction (approx. 10% for an experiment) of the poloidal flux of the spheromak connects to the source then the dc sustainment can be very efficient. The amount of connecting flux that is necessary for sustainment needs to be determined experimentally
The Steady State Calculation for SMART with MIDAS/SMR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jong Hwa; Kim, Dong Ha; Chung, Young Jong; Park, Sun Hee; Cho, Seong Won
2010-01-01
KAERI is developing a new concept of reactor that all the main components such as the steam generator, the coolant pumps and the pressurizer are located inside the reactor vessel. Before the severe accident sequences are estimated, it is prerequisite that MIDAS code predicts the steady state conditions properly. But MIDAS code does not include the heat transfer model for the helical tube. Therefore, the heat transfer models for the helical tube from TASS/SMR-S were implemented into MIDAS code. To estimate the validity of the implemented heat transfer correlations for the helical tube and the input data, the steady state was recalculated with MIDAS/SMR based on design level 2 and compared with the design values
On the optimization of a steady-state bootstrap-reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polevoy, A.R.; Martynov, A.A.; Medvedev, S.Yu.
1993-01-01
A commercial fusion tokamak-reactor may be economically acceptable only for low recirculating power fraction r 0 ≡ P CD /P α BS ≡I BS /I > 0.9 to sustain the steady-state operation mode for high plasma densities > 1.5 10 20 m -3 , fulfilled the divertor conditions. This paper presents the approximate expressions for the optimal set of reactor parameters for r BS /I∼1, based on the self-consistent plasma simulations by 1.5D ASTRA code. The linear MHD stability analysis for ideal n=1 kink and ballooning modes has been carried out to determine the conditions of stabilization for bootstrap steady state tokamak reactor BSSTR configurations. (author) 10 refs., 1 tab
The Physical Mechanism of Frictional Aging Revealed by Nanoindentation Creep
Thom, C.; Carpick, R. W.; Goldsby, D. L.
2017-12-01
A classical observation from rock friction experiments is that friction increases linearly with the logarithm of the time of stationary contact, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as aging. Aging is most often attributed to an increase in the real area of contact due to asperity creep. However, recent atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that time-dependent siloxane (Si—O—Si) bonding gives rise to aging in silica-silica contacts in the absence of plastic deformation. Determining whether an increase in contact `quantity' (due to creep), contact `quality' (due to chemical bonding), or another unknown mechanism causes aging is a challenging experimental task, despite its importance for developing a physical basis for rate and state friction laws. An intriguing observation is that aging is absent in friction experiments on quartz rocks and gouge at humidities water on asperity creep (via hydrolytic weakening) or on the adhesive strength of contacts. To discern between these possibilities, we have conducted nanoindentation experiments on single crystals of quartz to measure their indentation hardness and creep behavior at humidities of 2% to 50%, and in vacuum. Samples were loaded at 1000 mN/s to a peak load of 15, 40, or 400 mN, which was then held constant for 10 s. After the peak load is reached, the tip sinks into the material with time due to creep of the indentation contact. Our experiments reveal that there is no effect of varying humidity on either indentation hardness or indentation creep behavior over the full range of humidities investigated. If asperity creep were the dominant mechanism of frictional aging for quartz in the experiments cited above, then significant increases in hardness and decreases in the growth rate of indentation contacts at low humidities is expected, in stark contrast with our nanoindentation data. Our experiments indicate that asperity creep cannot be the cause of aging in quartz
Material Parameters for Creep Rupture of Austenitic Stainless Steel Foils
Osman, H.; Borhana, A.; Tamin, M. N.
2014-08-01
Creep rupture properties of austenitic stainless steel foil, 347SS, used in compact recuperators have been evaluated at 700 °C in the stress range of 54-221 MPa to establish the baseline behavior for its extended use. Creep curves of the foil show that the primary creep stage is brief and creep life is dominated by tertiary creep deformation with rupture lives in the range of 10-2000 h. Results are compared with properties of bulk specimens tested at 98 and 162 MPa. Thin foil 347SS specimens were found to have higher creep rates and higher rupture ductility than their bulk specimen counterparts. Power law relationship was obtained between the minimum creep rate and the applied stress with stress exponent value, n = 5.7. The value of the stress exponent is indicative of the rate-controlling deformation mechanism associated with dislocation creep. Nucleation of voids mainly occurred at second-phase particles (chromium-rich M23C6 carbides) that are present in the metal matrix by decohesion of the particle-matrix interface. The improvement in strength is attributed to the precipitation of fine niobium carbides in the matrix that act as obstacles to the movement of dislocations.
Steady state statistical correlations predict bistability in reaction motifs.
Chakravarty, Suchana; Barik, Debashis
2017-03-28
Various cellular decision making processes are regulated by bistable switches that take graded input signals and convert them to binary all-or-none responses. Traditionally, a bistable switch generated by a positive feedback loop is characterized either by a hysteretic signal response curve with two distinct signaling thresholds or by characterizing the bimodality of the response distribution in the bistable region. To identify the intrinsic bistability of a feedback regulated network, here we propose that bistability can be determined by correlating higher order moments and cumulants (≥2) of the joint steady state distributions of two components connected in a positive feedback loop. We performed stochastic simulations of four feedback regulated models with intrinsic bistability and we show that for a bistable switch with variation of the signal dose, the steady state variance vs. covariance adopts a signatory cusp-shaped curve. Further, we find that the (n + 1)th order cross-cumulant vs. nth order cross-cumulant adopts a closed loop structure for at least n = 3. We also propose that our method is capable of identifying systems without intrinsic bistability even though the system may show bimodality in the marginal response distribution. The proposed method can be used to analyze single cell protein data measured at steady state from experiments such as flow cytometry.
Understanding void fraction in steady state and dynamic environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chexal, B.; Maulbetsch, J.; Harrison, J.; Petersen, C.; Jensen, P.; Horowitz, J.
1997-01-01
Understanding void fraction behavior in steady-state and dynamic environments is important to accurately predict the thermal-hydraulic behavior of two-phase or two-component systems. The Chexal-Lellouche (C-L) void fraction mode described herein covers the full range of pressures, flows, void fractions, and fluid types (steam-water, air-water, and refrigerants). A drift flux model formulation is used which covers the complete range of concurrent and countercurrent flows. The (1996) model revises the earlier C-L void fraction correlation, improves the capability of the model in countercurrent flow based on the incorporation of additional data, and improves the characteristics of the correlation that are important in transient programs. The model has been qualified with data from a number of steady state two-phase and two-component tests, and has been incorporated into the transient analysis code RELAP5 and RETRAN-3D and evaluated with a variety of transient and steady state tests. A 'plug-in' module for the void fraction correlation has been developed and implemented in RELAP5 and RETRAN-3D. The module is available as source code for inclusion into other thermal-hydraulic programs and can be used in any program that utilizes the same interface variables
Extracting Steady State Components from Synchrophasor Data Using Kalman Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farhan Mahmood
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Data from phasor measurement units (PMUs may be exploited to provide steady state information to the applications which require it. As PMU measurements may contain errors and missing data, the paper presents the application of a Kalman Filter technique for real-time data processing. PMU data captures the power system’s response at different time-scales, which are generated by different types of power system events; the presented Kalman Filter methods have been applied to extract the steady state components of PMU measurements that can be fed to steady state applications. Two KF-based methods have been proposed, i.e., a windowing-based KF method and “the modified KF”. Both methods are capable of reducing noise, compensating for missing data and filtering outliers from input PMU signals. A comparison of proposed methods has been carried out using the PMU data generated from a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL experimental setup. In addition, a performance analysis of the proposed methods is performed using an evaluation metric.
Tensile cracks in creeping solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riedel, H.; Rice, J.R.
1979-02-01
The loading parameter determining the stress and strain fields near a crack tip, and thereby the growth of the crack, under creep conditions is discussed. Relevant loading parameters considered are the stress intensity factor K/sub I/, the path-independent integral C*, and the net section stress sigma/sub net/. The material behavior is modelled as elastic-nonlinear viscous where the nonlinear term describes power law creep. At the time t = 0 load is applied to the cracked specimen, and in the first instant the stress distribution is elastic. Subsequently, creep deformation relaxes the initial stress concentration at the crack tip, and creep strains develop rapidly near the crack tip. These processes may be analytically described by self-similar solutions for short times t. Small scale yielding may be defined. In creep problems, this means that elastic strains dominate almost everywhere except in a small creep zone which grows around the crack tip. If crack growth ensues while the creep zone is still small compared with the crack length and the specimen size, the stress intensity factor governs crack growth behavior. If the calculated creep zone becomes larger than the specimen size, the stresses become finally time-independent and the elastic strain rates can be neglected. In this case, the stress field is the same as in the fully-plastic limit of power law hardening plasticity. The loading parameter which determines the near tip fields uniquely is then the path-independent integral C*.K/sub I/ and C* characterize opposite limiting cases. The case applied in a given situation is decided by comparing the creep zone size with the specimen size and the crack length. Besides several methods of estimating the creep zone size, a convenient expression for a characteristic time is derived, which characterizes the transition from small scale yielding to extensive creep of the whole specimen
Translation of incremental talk test responses to steady-state exercise training intensity.
Lyon, Ellen; Menke, Miranda; Foster, Carl; Porcari, John P; Gibson, Mark; Bubbers, Terresa
2014-01-01
The Talk Test (TT) is a submaximal, incremental exercise test that has been shown to be useful in prescribing exercise training intensity. It is based on a subject's ability to speak comfortably during exercise. This study defined the amount of reduction in absolute workload intensity from an incremental exercise test using the TT to give appropriate absolute training intensity for cardiac rehabilitation patients. Patients in an outpatient rehabilitation program (N = 30) performed an incremental exercise test with the TT given every 2-minute stage. Patients rated their speech comfort after reciting a standardized paragraph. Anything other than a "yes" response was considered the "equivocal" stage, while all preceding stages were "positive" stages. The last stage with the unequivocally positive ability to speak was the Last Positive (LP), and the preceding stages were (LP-1 and LP-2). Subsequently, three 20-minute steady-state training bouts were performed in random order at the absolute workload at the LP, LP-1, and LP-2 stages of the incremental test. Speech comfort, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every 5 minutes. The 20-minute exercise training bout was completed fully by LP (n = 19), LP-1 (n = 28), and LP-2 (n = 30). Heart rate, RPE, and speech comfort were similar through the LP-1 and LP-2 tests, but the LP stage was markedly more difficult. Steady-state exercise training intensity was easily and appropriately prescribed at intensity associated with the LP-1 and LP-2 stages of the TT. The LP stage may be too difficult for patients in a cardiac rehabilitation program.
Transitions in creep mechanisms and creep anisotropy in Zr-1Nb-1Sn-0.2Fe sheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murty, K.L.; Ravi, J.; Wiratmo
1995-01-01
The creep characteristics of a Zr-1Nb-1Sn-0.2Fe alloy sheet were investigated at temperatures from 773 to 923K and at stresses ranging from 9 to 150MPa along both the rolling and transverse directions. Transitions in creep mechansims are noted, with diffusional viscous creep at low stresses, viscous-glide-controlled microcreep in the intermediate stress regime and the climb of edge dislocations at high stresses. The creep anisotropy decreases with a decrease in the stress exponent and the creep rates differ by only 30% in the viscous creep regime, while an order-of-magnitude difference is noted at high stresses. The solute-strengthening effect of Nb addition is evident in the stress regime where appropriate data are available. These transitions in creep mechansims clearly reveal the dangers in blind extrapolation of short-term high stress data to low stresses and long times relevant to in-reactor conditions. The creep behavior of these materials is similar to that noted in Class I alloys, while the transitions in deformation mechanisms in Zircaloy-4 resemble those found in pure metals or Class II alloys with no viscous glide mechanism. ((orig.))
"A New Class of Creep Resistant Oxide/Oxide Ceramic Matrix Composites"
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dr. Mohit Jain, Dr. Ganesh Skandan, Prof. Roger Cannon, Rutgers University
2007-03-30
Despite recent progress in the development of SiC-SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), their application in industrial gas turbines for distributed energy (DE) systems has been limited. The poor oxidation resistance of the non-oxide ceramics warrants the use of envrionmental barrier coatings (EBCs), which in turn lead to issues pertaining to life expectancy of the coatings. On the other hand, oxide/oxide CMCs are potential replacements, but their use has been limited until now due to the poor creep resistance at high temperatures, particularly above 1200 oC: the lack of a creep resistant matrix has been a major limiting factor. Using yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) as the matrix material system, we have advanced the state-of-the-art in oxide/oxide CMCs by introducing innovations in both the structure and composition of the matrix material, thereby leading to high temperature matrix creep properties not achieved until now. An array of YAG-based powders with a unique set of particle characteristics were produced in-house and sintered to full density and compressive creep data was obtained. Aided in part by the composition and the microstructure, the creep rates were found to be two orders of magnitude smaller than the most creep resistant oxide fiber available commercially. Even after accounting for porosity and a smaller matrix grain size in a practical CMC component, the YAG-based matrix material was found to creep slower than the most creep resistant oxide fiber available commercially.
Documentation for the viscoplastic and creep program
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bellini, Anna
2004-01-01
of this workpackage is to simulate creep behavior of aluminum cast samples subjected to high temperature. In this document a two-state variables unified model is applied in order to simulate creep behavior and time-dependent metallurgical changes. The fundamental assumption of the unified theory is that creep...... is run using the material data obtained through the mentioned experimental study. The results obtained for the simulation of tensile tests and of creep tests are compared with experimental curves, showing a good agreement. Moreover, the document describes the results obtained during the first...... is quite stable and convergence can be reached also with big time steps. Keywords: Viscoplasticity, creep, unified constitutive model, aluminum, high temperature....
Sources of Variation in Creep Testing
Loewenthal, William S.; Ellis, David L.
2011-01-01
Creep rupture is an important material characteristic for the design of rocket engines. It was observed during the characterization of GRCop-84 that the complete data set had nearly 4 orders of magnitude of scatter. This scatter likely confounded attempts to determine how creep performance was influenced by manufacturing. It was unclear if this variation was from the testing, the material, or both. Sources of variation were examined by conducting tests on identically processed specimens at the same specified stresses and temperatures. Significant differences existed between the five constant-load creep frames. The specimen temperature was higher than the desired temperature by as much as 43 C. It was also observed that the temperature gradient was up to 44 C. Improved specimen temperature control minimized temperature variations. The data from additional tests demonstrated that the results from all five frames were comparable. The variation decreased to 1/2 order of magnitude from 2 orders of magnitude for the baseline data set. Independent determination of creep rates in a reference load frame closely matched the creep rates determined after the modifications. Testing in helium tended to decrease the sample temperature gradient, but helium was not a significant improvement over vacuum.
Effect of the hydro-thermal load history on the high-temperature creep of HTR-concrete
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diederichs, U.; Rostasy, F.S.; Becker, G.
1991-01-01
In the research and development works for the prestressed concrete vessel for the HTR-500 high temperature reactor, the comprehensive tests concerning mix design, manufacture as well as mechanical and thermal behavior of the concrete have been carried out. The concrete was put to the numerous tests for determining the strength and the creep behavior at elevated temperature. In the real PCRV, the concrete is heated at different heating rate depending on the location of a certain volume element of the concrete in the structure. Furthermore, the heat transport simultaneously causes the moisture transport. For this reason, the test has been planned to investigate the transient creep at various heating rates and in different states of moisture during heating to the accident temperature up to 300 deg C. The cylindrical specimens were used for the high temperature creep test. The test procedure and the test results are reported. It was shown that the thermal history (heating rate, duration of holding at a certain temperature and so on) determines the transient creep deformation to a great extent. (K.I.)
Full transmission modes and steady states in defect gratings,
van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.; Sopaheluwakan, A.; Andonowati, A.; de Ridder, R.M; Altena, G; Geuzebroek, D.H.; Dekker, R
2003-01-01
For a symmetric grating structure with a defect, we show that a fully transmitted defect mode in the band gap can be obtained as a superposition of two steady states: an amplified and an attenuated defect state. Without scanning the whole band gap by transmission calculations, this simplifies the
Rowan, D J
2013-07-01
Steady state approaches, such as transfer coefficients or bioaccumulation factors, are commonly used to model the bioaccumulation of (137)Cs in aquatic foodwebs from routine operations and releases from nuclear generating stations and other nuclear facilities. Routine releases from nuclear generating stations and facilities, however, often consist of pulses as liquid waste is stored, analyzed to ensure regulatory compliance and then released. The effect of repeated pulse releases on the steady state assumption inherent in the bioaccumulation factor approach has not been evaluated. In this study, I examine the steady state assumption for aquatic biota by analyzing data for two cesium isotopes in the same biota, one isotope in steady state (stable (133)Cs) from geologic sources and the other released in pulses ((137)Cs) from reactor operations. I also compare (137)Cs bioaccumulation factors for similar upstream populations from the same system exposed solely to weapon test (137)Cs, and assumed to be in steady state. The steady state assumption appears to be valid for small organisms at lower trophic levels (zooplankton, rainbow smelt and 0+ yellow perch) but not for older and larger fish at higher trophic levels (walleye). Attempts to account for previous exposure and retention through a biokinetics approach had a similar effect on steady state, upstream and non-steady state, downstream populations of walleye, but were ineffective in explaining the more or less constant deviation between fish with steady state exposures and non-steady state exposures of about 2-fold for all age classes of walleye. These results suggest that for large, piscivorous fish, repeated exposure to short duration, pulse releases leads to much higher (137)Cs BAFs than expected from (133)Cs BAFs for the same fish or (137)Cs BAFs for similar populations in the same system not impacted by reactor releases. These results suggest that the steady state approach should be used with caution in any
An axisymmetric method of creep analysis for primary and secondary creep
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jahed, Hamid; Bidabadi, Jalal
2003-01-01
A general axisymmetric method for elastic-plastic analysis was previously proposed by Jahed and Dubey [ASME J Pressure Vessels Technol 119 (1997) 264]. In the present work the method is extended to the time domain. General rate type governing equations are derived and solved in terms of rate of change of displacement as a function of rate of change in loading. Different types of loading, such as internal and external pressure, centrifugal loading and temperature gradient, are considered. To derive specific equations and employ the proposed formulation, the problem of an inhomogeneous non-uniform rotating disc is worked out. Primary and secondary creep behaviour is predicted using the proposed method and results are compared to FEM results. The problem of creep in pressurized vessels is also solved. Several numerical examples show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method
Steady states of a diode with counterstreaming electron and positron beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ender, A. Ya.; Kuznetsov, V. I., E-mail: victor.kuznetsov@mail.ioffe.ru; Gruzdev, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation)
2016-10-15
Steady states of a plasma layer with counterstreaming beams of oppositely charged particles moving without collisions in a self-consistent electric field are analyzed. The study is aimed at clarifying the mechanism of generation and reconstruction of pulsar radiation. Such a layer also models the processes occurring in Knudsen plasma diodes with counterstreaming electron and ion beams. The steady-state solutions are exhaustively classified. The existence of several solutions at the same external parameters is established.
Creep behavior of UO2 above 20000C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slagle, O.D.
1978-01-01
A series of high temperature creep measurements were made for UO 2 in the temperature range from 2000 0 C to the melting temperature. The effects of temperature, stress and accrued strain on the creep rate have been measured. The results indicate that additional creep mechanisms are being activated at the higher temperatures
Feasibility study for improved steady-state initialization algorithms for the RELAP5 computer code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paulsen, M.P.; Peterson, C.E.; Katsma, K.R.
1993-04-01
A design for a new steady-state initialization method is presented that represents an improvement over the current method used in RELAP5. Current initialization methods for RELAP5 solve the transient fluidflow balance equations simulating a transient to achieve steady-state conditions. Because the transient solution is used, the initial conditions may change from the desired values requiring the use of controllers and long transient running times to obtain steady-state conditions for system problems. The new initialization method allows the user to fix thermal-hydraulic values in volumes and junctions where the conditions are best known and have the code compute the initial conditions in other areas of the system. The steady-state balance equations and solution methods are presented. The constitutive, component, and specialpurpose models are reviewed with respect to modifications required for the new steady-state initialization method. The requirements for user input are defined and the feasibility of the method is demonstrated with a testbed code by initializing some simple channel problems. The initialization of the sample problems using, the old and the new methods are compared
Time Reversibility, Correlation Decay and the Steady State Fluctuation Relation for Dissipation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Denis J. Evans
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Steady state fluctuation relations for nonequilibrium systems are under intense investigation because of their important practical implications in nanotechnology and biology. However the precise conditions under which they hold need clarification. Using the dissipation function, which is related to the entropy production of linear irreversible thermodynamics, we show time reversibility, ergodic consistency and a recently introduced form of correlation decay, called T-mixing, are sufficient conditions for steady state fluctuation relations to hold. Our results are not restricted to a particular model and show that the steady state fluctuation relation for the dissipation function holds near or far from equilibrium subject to these conditions. The dissipation function thus plays a comparable role in nonequilibrium systems to thermodynamic potentials in equilibrium systems.
Bruhat, Lucile; Segall, Paul
2017-10-01
Interpretations of interseismic slip deficit on the northern Cascadia megathrust are complicated by an enigmatic `gap' between the downdip limit of the locked region, inferred from kinematic inversions of deformation rates, and the top of the episodic tremor and slip (ETS) zone. Recent inversions of global positioning system (GPS) and tide gauge/leveling data for shear stress rates acting on the megathrust found a ˜21 km locking depth with a steep slip-rate gradient at its base is required to fit the data. Previous studies have assumed the depth distribution of interseismic slip rate to be time invariant; however, steep slip-rate gradients could also result from the updip propagation of slip into the locked region. This study explores models where interseismic slip penetrates up into the locked zone. We consider the creeping region, corresponding to the gap and the ETS zone, as a quasi-static crack driven by the plate velocity at its downdip end. We derive a simple model that allows for crack propagation over time, and provides analytical expressions for stress drop within the crack, slip and slip rate on the fault. It is convenient to expand the non-singular slip-rate distribution in a sum of Chebyshev polynomials. Estimation of the polynomial coefficients is underdetermined, yet provides a useful way of testing particular solutions and provides bounds on the updip propagation rate. When applied to the deformation rates in northern Cascadia, best-fitting models reveal that a very slow updip propagation, between 30 and 120 m yr-1 along the fault, could explain the steep slip-rate profile, needed to fit the data. This work provides a new tool for estimating interseismic slip rates, between purely kinematic inversions and full physics-based modeling, allowing for the possibility for updip expansion of the creeping zone.
Origin of the extra low creep ductility of copper without phosphorus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sandstroem, Rolf [Corrosion and Metals Research Inst., Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Rui Wu [Corrosion and Metals Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)
2007-02-15
Around 1990 it was discovered that pure copper could have extra low creep ductility in the temperature interval 180 to 250 deg C. If 50 ppm phosphorus was added to the material the low creep ductility disappeared. A creep cavitation model is presented that can quantitatively describe the observed creep ductility for copper with and without phosphorus. A new model called the double ledge model has been introduced that explains why the nucleation rate of creep cavities is often proportional to the creep rate. The phosphorus agglomerates at the grain boundaries, locks their sliding and thereby reduces the formation and growth of cavities. This is the main reason why extra low creep ductility does not occur in phosphorus alloyed copper.
Manifest and Subtle Cyclic Behavior in Nonequilibrium Steady States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zia, R K P; Weiss, Jeffrey B; Mandal, Dibyendu; Fox-Kemper, Baylor
2016-01-01
Many interesting phenomena in nature are described by stochastic processes with irreversible dynamics. To model these phenomena, we focus on a master equation or a Fokker-Planck equation with rates which violate detailed balance. When the system settles in a stationary state, it will be a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS), with time independent probability distribution as well as persistent probability current loops. The observable consequences of the latter are explored. In particular, cyclic behavior of some form must be present: some are prominent and manifest, while others are more obscure and subtle. We present a theoretical framework to analyze such properties, introducing the notion of “probability angular momentum” and its distribution. Using several examples, we illustrate the manifest and subtle categories and how best to distinguish between them. These techniques can be applied to reveal the NESS nature of a wide range of systems in a large variety of areas. We illustrate with one application: variability of ocean heat content in our climate system. (paper)
The quasi-steady state of the valley wind system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juerg eSchmidli
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The quasi-steady-state limit of the diurnal valley wind system is investigated overidealized three-dimensional topography. Although this limit is rarely attained inreality due to ever-changing forcings, the investigation of this limit canprovide valuable insight, in particular on the mass and heat fluxes associatedwith the along-valley wind. We derive a scaling relation for the quasi-steady-state along-valleymass flux as a function of valley geometry, valley size, atmospheric stratification,and surface sensible heat flux forcing. The scaling relation is tested by comparisonwith the mass flux diagnosed from numerical simulations of the valleywind system. Good agreement is found. The results also provide insight into the relationbetween surface friction and the strength of the along-valley pressure gradient.
Stability of racemic and chiral steady states in open and closed chemical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ribo, Josep M. [Departament de Quimica Organica, Universitat de Barcelona, c. Marti i Franques 1, Barcelona (Spain); Hochberg, David [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Ctra. Ajalvir Km. 4, 28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: hochbergd@inta.es
2008-12-22
The stability properties of models of spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking in chemistry are characterized algebraically. The models considered here all derive either from the Frank model or from autocatalysis with limited enantioselectivity. Emphasis is given to identifying the critical parameter controlling the chiral symmetry breaking transition from racemic to chiral steady-state solutions. This parameter is identified in each case, and the constraints on the chemical rate constants determined from dynamic stability are derived.
Stability of racemic and chiral steady states in open and closed chemical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ribo, Josep M.; Hochberg, David
2008-01-01
The stability properties of models of spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking in chemistry are characterized algebraically. The models considered here all derive either from the Frank model or from autocatalysis with limited enantioselectivity. Emphasis is given to identifying the critical parameter controlling the chiral symmetry breaking transition from racemic to chiral steady-state solutions. This parameter is identified in each case, and the constraints on the chemical rate constants determined from dynamic stability are derived
Creep buckling analysis of shells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stone, C.M.; Nickell, R.E.
1977-01-01
The current study was conducted in an effort to determine the degree of conservatism or lack of conservatism in current ASME design rules concerning time-dependent (creep) buckling. In the course of this investigation, certain observations were made concerning the numerical solution of creep buckling problems. It was demonstrated that a nonlinear finite element code could be used to solve the time-dependent buckling problem. A direct method of solution was presented which proved to be computationally efficient and provided answers which agreed very well with available analytical solutions. It was observed that the calculated buckling times could vary widely for small errors in computed displacements. The presence of high creep strain rates contributed to the prediction of early buckling times when calculated during the primary creep stage. The predicted time estimates were found to increase with time until the secondary stage was reached and the estimates approached the critical times predicted without primary creep. It can be concluded, therefore, that for most nuclear piping components, whose primary creep stage is small compared to the secondary stage, the effect of primary creep is negligible and can be omitted from the calculations. In an evaluation of the past and current ASME design rules for time-dependent, load controlled buckling, it was concluded that current use of design load safety factors is not equivalent to a safety factor of ten on service life for low creep exponents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armstrong, R.L.
1981-01-01
The proposition that continental crust is recycled into the mantle and that the Earth is in a near-steady state with essentially constant volumes of oceans and crust through geological time is defended. Constancy of continental freeboard and uniformity of thickness of stable continental crust with age are the only two quantitative measures of crustal volume through time and these imply negligible crustal growth since 2.9 Ga B.P. Planetary analogies, Pb isotopes, atmospheric evolution, and palaeomagnetism also argue for early terrestrial differentiation. Rates of crustal growth and recycling are sufficient to reach a near-steady state over the first 1 Ga of Earth history, before widespread cratonization. Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of igneous rocks from the mantle are explainable in terms of a near-steady-state model. The recycling process can be observed on the Earth today. The observed escape of primordial 3 He from the mantle is not evidence for continuing continental differentiation or against early differentiation of the Earth. Even if nearly complete equilibrium chemical differentiation occurred at 4.6 Ga B.P., some 3 He would remain dissolved in the interior and would escape as recycling continued. (U.K.)
Creep of ex-service 0.5CrMoV steel at low strain rates
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kloc, Luboš
510-511, - (2009), s. 70-73 ISSN 0921-5093. [Creep 2008. Bayreuth, 04.05.2008-09.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Residual creep life * Low strain creep * Low alloy steel Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.901, year: 2009
A Review of Fusion and Tokamak Research Towards Steady-State Operation: A JAEA Contribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mitsuru Kikuchi
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Providing a historical overview of 50 years of fusion research, a review of the fundamentals and concepts of fusion and research efforts towards the implementation of a steady state tokamak reactor is presented. In 1990, a steady-state tokamak reactor (SSTR best utilizing the bootstrap current was developed. Since then, significant efforts have been made in major tokamaks, including JT-60U, exploring advanced regimes relevant to the steady state operation of tokamaks. In this paper, the fundamentals of fusion and plasma confinement, and the concepts and research on current drive and MHD stability of advanced tokamaks towards realization of a steady-state tokamak reactor are reviewed, with an emphasis on the contributions of the JAEA. Finally, a view of fusion energy utilization in the 21st century is introduced.
Undergoing spherically symmetric steady-state accretion stability of white dwarfs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sienkiewicz, R [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw. N. Copernicus Astronomical Center
1980-01-01
Thermal and vibrational stabilities of accreting white dwarfs with steady-state nuclear burning were considered, assuming spherically symmetric accretion of the hydrogen-rich matter and using linear stability analysis. Almost all models with masses 0.2 M(sun) - 1.39 M(sun) were found to be unstable in some way. The type of instability expected to dominate is given as a function of the accretion rate. For most accretion rates it is the thermal instability. Oscillation periods are given for the models in which the vibrational instability is the most violent one. These periods are of the order of seconds or minutes. We expect that our stability analysis may suggest the cause of the variabilities of the hot components of some symbiotic stars, for a wide range of the accretion rates. In this case our models may serve as the initial conditions for evolutionary computations. The results predict that short-period oscillations should be observed in some hot nuclei of planetary nebulae.
Creep crack growth in phosphorus alloyed oxygen free copper
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Rui; Seitisleam, Facredin (Swerea KIMAB (Sweden)); Sandstroem, Rolf; Jin, Lai-Zhe (Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Inst. of Technology (Sweden))
2011-01-15
Using standard compact tension (CT) specimens taken from a pierce and draw cylinder, creep crack growth (CCG) has been studied in phosphorus-alloyed oxygen-free copper (Cu-OFP) parent metal at 22, 75, 175, and 215 deg C. Pre- and post-test metallography are performed. At higher temperatures the rupture time of CCG is shorter by a factor up of 65 than that of uniaxial at same stress/reference stress. At 175 and 215 deg C, crack does grow by creep about 10 mm before final instantaneous failure. In contrast, there is hardly any visible crack growth at 22 and 75 deg C. The tests were interrupted after 5000 to 13000 hours. For ruptured tests at 175 and 215 deg C, strongly elongated and deformed grains are observed adjacent to crack. Extensive and intergranular creep cavities and microcracks are found several mm around crack. For interrupted tests at 22 and 75 deg C, strongly elongated and deformed grains, creep cavities, as well as microcracks are observed close to crack tip. Surface cracks from both sides have initiated and grown about 45 deg to the load direction towards inside. For the interrupted tests, hardness adjacent to crack tip has more than doubled because of work hardening, or heavy deformation. This is consistent with large crack tip opening. The true strain at the crack tip is estimated to 10 and 4 for the tests at 22 and 75 deg C, respectively. The stress state behind the crack tip has been modelled with FEM. Stress relaxation after loading has also been taken into account. A model for the creep damage based on the creep strain rate has been formulated that can describe the uniaxial creep rupture data without fitting parameters. Based on the formulation for the creep damage, a model for the crack propagation has been set up. When the creep damage has reached the value unity in front of the crack tip, the crack is assumed to propagate. Taking multiaxial effects into account the observed life times of the CT specimens can be well described. The multiaxial
Creep crack growth in phosphorus alloyed oxygen free copper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Rui; Seitisleam, Facredin; Sandstroem, Rolf; Jin, Lai-Zhe
2011-01-01
Using standard compact tension (CT) specimens taken from a pierce and draw cylinder, creep crack growth (CCG) has been studied in phosphorus-alloyed oxygen-free copper (Cu-OFP) parent metal at 22, 75, 175, and 215 deg C. Pre- and post-test metallography are performed. At higher temperatures the rupture time of CCG is shorter by a factor up of 65 than that of uniaxial at same stress/reference stress. At 175 and 215 deg C, crack does grow by creep about 10 mm before final instantaneous failure. In contrast, there is hardly any visible crack growth at 22 and 75 deg C. The tests were interrupted after 5000 to 13000 hours. For ruptured tests at 175 and 215 deg C, strongly elongated and deformed grains are observed adjacent to crack. Extensive and intergranular creep cavities and microcracks are found several mm around crack. For interrupted tests at 22 and 75 deg C, strongly elongated and deformed grains, creep cavities, as well as microcracks are observed close to crack tip. Surface cracks from both sides have initiated and grown about 45 deg to the load direction towards inside. For the interrupted tests, hardness adjacent to crack tip has more than doubled because of work hardening, or heavy deformation. This is consistent with large crack tip opening. The true strain at the crack tip is estimated to 10 and 4 for the tests at 22 and 75 deg C, respectively. The stress state behind the crack tip has been modelled with FEM. Stress relaxation after loading has also been taken into account. A model for the creep damage based on the creep strain rate has been formulated that can describe the uniaxial creep rupture data without fitting parameters. Based on the formulation for the creep damage, a model for the crack propagation has been set up. When the creep damage has reached the value unity in front of the crack tip, the crack is assumed to propagate. Taking multiaxial effects into account the observed life times of the CT specimens can be well described. The multiaxial
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beylot, M.; Martin, C.; Beaufrere, B.; Riou, J.P.; Mornex, R.
1987-01-01
Using deuterium-labeled glycerol as tracer and gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques for the determination of isotopic enrichment, we have developed a simple and ethically acceptable method of determining glycerol appearance rate in humans under steady-state and nonsteady-state conditions. In normal subjects, the appearance rate of glycerol in the post-absorptive state was 2.22 +/- 0.20 mumol X kg-1 X min-1, a value in agreement with those reported in studies with radioactively labeled tracers. The ratio nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) appearance rate/glycerol appearance rate ranged from 1.95 to 3.40. In insulin-dependent diabetic patients with a mild degree of metabolic control, the appearance rate of glycerol was 2.48 +/- 0.29 mumol X kg-1 X min-1. The volume of distribution of glycerol, determined by the bolus injection technique, was (mean) 0.306 l X kg-1 in normal subjects and 0.308 l X kg-1 in insulin-independent diabetic patients. To evaluate the usefulness of the method for determination of glycerol kinetics in nonsteady-state conditions, we infused six normal subjects with natural glycerol and calculated the isotopically determined glycerol appearance rate using a single compartment model (volume of distribution 0.31 l X kg-1). During these tests, the expected glycerol appearance rates were successively 5.03 +/- 0.33, 7.48 +/- 0.39, 9.94 +/- 0.34, 7.48 +/- 0.39, and 5.03 +/- 0.33 mumol +/- kg-1 X min-1, whereas the corresponding isotopically determined appearance rates were 4.62 +/- 0.45, 6.95 +/- 0.56, 10.85 +/- 0.51, 7.35 +/- 0.34, and 5.28 +/- 0.12 mumol X kg-1 X min-1
Multiple solutions of steady-state Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations with steric effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Tai-Chia; Eisenberg, Bob
2015-01-01
Experiments measuring currents through single protein channels show unstable currents. Channels switch between ‘open’ or ‘closed’ states in a spontaneous stochastic process called gating. Currents are either (nearly) zero or at a definite level, characteristic of each type of protein, independent of time, once the channel is open. The steady state Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations with steric effects (PNP-steric equations) describe steady current through the open channel quite well, in a wide variety of conditions. Here we study the existence of multiple solutions of steady state PNP-steric equations to see if they themselves, without modification or augmentation, can describe two levels of current. We prove that there are two steady state solutions of PNP-steric equations for (a) three types of ion species (two types of cations and one type of anion) with a positive constant permanent charge, and (b) four types of ion species (two types of cations and their counter-ions) with a constant permanent charge but no sign condition. The excess currents (due to steric effects) associated with these two steady state solutions are derived and expressed as two distinct formulas. Our results indicate that PNP-steric equations may become a useful model to study spontaneous gating of ion channels. Spontaneous gating is thought to involve small structural changes in the channel protein that perhaps produce large changes in the profiles of free energy that determine ion flow. Gating is known to be modulated by external structures. Both can be included in future extensions of our present analysis. (paper)
Modeling networks of coupled enzymatic reactions using the total quasi-steady state approximation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Ciliberto
2007-03-01
Full Text Available In metabolic networks, metabolites are usually present in great excess over the enzymes that catalyze their interconversion, and describing the rates of these reactions by using the Michaelis-Menten rate law is perfectly valid. This rate law assumes that the concentration of enzyme-substrate complex (C is much less than the free substrate concentration (S0. However, in protein interaction networks, the enzymes and substrates are all proteins in comparable concentrations, and neglecting C with respect to S0 is not valid. Borghans, DeBoer, and Segel developed an alternative description of enzyme kinetics that is valid when C is comparable to S0. We extend this description, which Borghans et al. call the total quasi-steady state approximation, to networks of coupled enzymatic reactions. First, we analyze an isolated Goldbeter-Koshland switch when enzymes and substrates are present in comparable concentrations. Then, on the basis of a real example of the molecular network governing cell cycle progression, we couple two and three Goldbeter-Koshland switches together to study the effects of feedback in networks of protein kinases and phosphatases. Our analysis shows that the total quasi-steady state approximation provides an excellent kinetic formalism for protein interaction networks, because (1 it unveils the modular structure of the enzymatic reactions, (2 it suggests a simple algorithm to formulate correct kinetic equations, and (3 contrary to classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics, it succeeds in faithfully reproducing the dynamics of the network both qualitatively and quantitatively.
Steady-state crack growth in single crystals under Mode I loading
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul, Kristian Jørgensen; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof
2017-01-01
The active plastic zone that surrounds the tip of a sharp crack growing under plane strain Mode I loading conditions at a constant velocity in a single crystal is studied. Both the characteristics of the plastic zone and its effect on the macroscopic toughness is investigated in terms of crack tip...... that the largest shielding effect develops in HCP crystals, while the lowest shielding exists for FCC crystals. Rate-sensitivity is found to affect the plastic zone size, but the characteristics overall remain similar for each individual crystal structure. An increasing rate-sensitivity at low crack velocities...... shielding due to plasticity (quantified by employing the Suo, Shih, and Varias set-up). Three single crystals (FCC, BCC, HCP) are modelled in a steady-state elastic visco-plastic framework, with emphasis on the influence of rate-sensitivity and crystal structures. Distinct velocity discontinuities...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mansur, L K [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)
1979-04-01
A mechanism of irradiation creep arising from the climb-enabled glide of dislocations due to stress-induced preferred absorption of radiation-produced point defects is proposed. This creep component is here termed preferred absorption glide, PAG. PAG-creep operates in addition to the previously studied components of creep from climb by stress-induced preferred absorption, (SI) PA-creep, and the climb-enabled glide due to excess absorption of interstitials on dislocations during swelling, I-creep. A formulation of the various climb and climb-enabled glide processes which includes earlier results is presented. PAG-creep is comparable in magnitude to PA-creep in the parameter range of applications. While the PSA-creep rate and the I-creep rate are linear in stress, the PAG-creep rate is quadratic in stress and thus dominates at high stresses.
Theoretical studying the stability of steady-state regime of a channel with a coolant condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savikhin, O.G.
1987-01-01
Based on the boiling channel stability theory, the channel steady-state stability with the coolant condensation is studied. Condensable coolants are used in the NPP steam-separator superheaters as well as in cryogenic technique. Under certain conditions the coolant flow rate and temperature fluctuations may be excited in the parallel channel system with coolant condensation, which produce a sufficient effect on the heat exchange equipment operation reliability. To describe unsteady processes of heat and mass transfer in the channel, a homogeneous two-phase flow one dimensional model is used. The results obtained allow one to make a conclusion concerning the effect of some parameters on condensing channel steady-state regime stability: reduction of inlet and outlet unheated communication length, pressure drop increase at the outlet plate and its reduction at the inlet one lead to the increase of stability margin
Accelerated Creep Testing of High Strength Aramid Webbing
Jones, Thomas C.; Doggett, William R.; Stnfield, Clarence E.; Valverde, Omar
2012-01-01
A series of preliminary accelerated creep tests were performed on four variants of 12K and 24K lbf rated Vectran webbing to help develop an accelerated creep test methodology and analysis capability for high strength aramid webbings. The variants included pristine, aged, folded and stitched samples. This class of webbings is used in the restraint layer of habitable, inflatable space structures, for which the lifetime properties are currently not well characterized. The Stepped Isothermal Method was used to accelerate the creep life of the webbings and a novel stereo photogrammetry system was used to measure the full-field strains. A custom MATLAB code is described, and used to reduce the strain data to produce master creep curves for the test samples. Initial results show good correlation between replicates; however, it is clear that a larger number of samples are needed to build confidence in the consistency of the results. It is noted that local fiber breaks affect the creep response in a similar manner to increasing the load, thus raising the creep rate and reducing the time to creep failure. The stitched webbings produced the highest variance between replicates, due to the combination of higher local stresses and thread-on-fiber damage. Large variability in the strength of the webbings is also shown to have an impact on the range of predicted creep life.
A Model for Creep and Creep Damage in the γ-Titanium Aluminide Ti-45Al-2Mn-2Nb.
Harrison, William; Abdallah, Zakaria; Whittaker, Mark
2014-03-14
Gamma titanium aluminides (γ-TiAl) display significantly improved high temperature mechanical properties over conventional titanium alloys. Due to their low densities, these alloys are increasingly becoming strong candidates to replace nickel-base superalloys in future gas turbine aeroengine components. To determine the safe operating life of such components, a good understanding of their creep properties is essential. Of particular importance to gas turbine component design is the ability to accurately predict the rate of accumulation of creep strain to ensure that excessive deformation does not occur during the component's service life and to quantify the effects of creep on fatigue life. The theta (θ) projection technique is an illustrative example of a creep curve method which has, in this paper, been utilised to accurately represent the creep behaviour of the γ-TiAl alloy Ti -45Al-2Mn-2Nb. Furthermore, a continuum damage approach based on the θ-projection method has also been used to represent tertiary creep damage and accurately predict creep rupture.
Flexural creep of coated SiC-fiber-reinforced glass-ceramic composites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, E.Y.
1995-01-01
This study reports the flexural creep behavior of a fiber-reinforced glass-ceramic and associated changes in microstructure. SiC fibers were coated with a dual layer of SiC/BN to provide a weak interface that was stable at high temperatures. Flexural creep, creep-rupture, and creep-strain recovery experiments were conducted on composite material and barium-magnesium aluminosilicate matrix from 1,000 to 1,200 C. Below 1,130 C, creep rates were extremely low (∼10 -9 s -1 ), preventing accurate measurement of the stress dependence. Above 1,130 C, creep rates were in the 10 -8 s -1 range. The creep-rupture strength of the composite at 1,100 C was about 75--80% of the fast fracture strength. Creep-strain recovery experiments showed recovery of up to 90% under prolonged unloading. Experimental creep results from the composite and the matrix were compared, and microstructural observations by TEM were employed to assess the effectiveness of the fiber coatings and to determine the mechanism(s) of creep deformation and damage
40 CFR 86.1363-2007 - Steady-state testing with a discrete-mode cycle.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-state testing with a discrete-mode cycle. 86.1363-2007 Section 86.1363-2007 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1363-2007 Steady-state testing with a discrete-mode cycle. This section...
In-reactor creep of zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium at 570 K
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coleman, C.E.; Causey, A.R.; Fidleris, V.
1976-01-01
The effect of fast neutron flux at 570 K on the creep rate of specimens of zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium alloy taken from tubes in various metallurgical conditions has been measured using both constant load tensile creep machines and bent-beam stress relaxation. Creep rates calculated from stress relaxation fit on the trend line for the constant load creep data. Between 114 MPa and 450 MPa the creep rate is proportional to neutron flux. The creep rate of specimens from the longitudinal direction is about twice that of specimens from the circumferential direction of a tube. This anisotropy in creep strength is attributed partly to crystallographic texture and partly to deformation substructure. Cold-work is detrimental to in-reactor creep strength; as-extruded material has higher creep strength. In cold-worked material at stresses below 100 MPa the stress exponent, n, is about 1; n gradually increases with stress being about 10 at 525 MPa and about 100 at 660 MPa. In laboratory tests, rupture ductility correlates inversely with n; the lower n the higher the ductility. In-reactor tests support this correlation thus pressure tubes in CANDU reactors, operating at 117 MPa where n approximately 1, should have good ductility. (Auth.)
Herd-Level Modeling and Steady-State Livestock Productivity ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... an outline of the scope for applications and addresses the prospects for refinement and model extensions. The algorithms for use in development of steady state derivations include transition of matrices in a Markov Chain approach, continuous differential equations and actuarial approach built on life and fecundity tables.
Principle of Entropy Maximization for Nonequilibrium Steady States
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2002-01-01
The goal of this contribution is to find out to what extent the principle of entropy maximization, which serves as a basis for the equilibrium thermodynamics, may be generalized onto non-equilibrium steady states. We prove a theorem that, in the system of thermodynamic coordinates, where entropy...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schweiker, Marcel; Kolarik, Jakub; Dovjak, Mateja
2016-01-01
of the present study confirmed previously indicated trends that lowest human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation close to neutrality. Moreover, higher acceptability was in general associated with lower human body exergy consumption rate. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Few examples studied applicability of exergy analysis on human thermal comfort. These examples relate the human-body exergy consumption rate with subjectively obtained thermal sensation votes and had been based on steady-state calculation methods. However, humans are rarely exposed to steady...... between the human-body exergy consumption rate and subjective assessment of thermal environment represented by thermal sensation as well as to extend the investigation towards thermal acceptability votes. Comparison of steady-state and unsteady-state model showed that results from both models were...
Review of recent irradiation-creep results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coghlan, W.A.
1982-05-01
Materials deform faster under stress in the presence of irradiation by a process known as irradiation creep. This phenomenon is important to reactor design and has been the subject of a large number of experimental and theoretical investigations. The purpose of this work is to review the recent experimental results to obtain a summary of these results and to determine those research areas that require additional information. The investigations have been classified into four subgroups based on the different experimental methods used. These four are: (1) irradiation creep using stress relaxation methods, (2) creep measurements using pressurized tubes, (3) irradiation creep from constant applied load, and (4) irradiation creep experiments using accelerated particles. The similarity and the differences of the results from these methods are discussed and a summary of important results and suggested areas for research is presented. In brief, the important results relate to the dependence of creep on swelling, temperature, stress state and alloying additions. In each of these areas new results have been presented and new questions have arisen which require further research to answer. 65 references
Steady-state operation of spheromaks by inductive techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janos, A.
1984-04-01
A method to maintain a steady-state spheromak configuration inductively using the S-1 Spheromak device is described. The S-1 Spheromak formation apparatus can be utilized to inject magnetic helicity continuously (C.W., not pulsed or D.C.) into the spheromak configuration after equilibrium is achieved in the linked mode of operation. Oscillation of both poloidal- and toroidal-field currents in the flux core (psi-phi Pumping), with proper phasing, injects a net time-averaged helicity into the plasma. Steady-state maintenance relies on flux conversion, which has been earlier identified. Relevant experimental data from the operation of S-1 are described. Helicity flow has been measured and the proposed injection scheme simulated. In a reasonable time practical voltages and frequencies can inject an amount of helicity comparable to that in the initial plasma. Plasma currents can be maintained or increased. This pumping technique is similar to F-THETA Pumping of a Reversed-Field-Pinch but is applied to this inverse-pinch formation
Rupture of Al matrix in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel by fission induced creep
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeong, Gwan Yoon; Sohn, Dong Seong [UNIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon Soo [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonnge (United States); Lee, Kyu Hong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
This phenomenon was found specifically in the dispersion fuel plate with Si addition in the Al matrix to suppress interaction layer (IL) formation between UMo and Al. It is known that the stresses induced by fission induced swelling in U-Mo fuel particles are relieved by creep deformation of the IL, surrounding the fuel particles, that has a much higher creep rate than the Al matrix. Thus, when IL growth is suppressed, the stress is instead exerted on the Al matrix. The observed rupture in the Al matrix is believed to be caused when the stress exceeded the rupture strength of the Al matrix. In this study, the possibility of creep rupture of the Al matrix between the neighboring U-Mo fuel particles was examined using the ABAQUS finite element analysis (FEA) tool. The predicted rupture time for a plate was much shorter than its irradiation life indicating a rupture during the irradiation. The higher stress leads Al matrix to early creep rupture in this plate for which the Al matrix with lower creep strain rate does not effectively relieve the stress caused by the swelling of the U-Mo fuel particles. For the other plate, no rupture was predicted for the given irradiation condition. The effect of creeping of the continuous phase on the state of stress is significant.
Statistical steady states in turbulent droplet condensation
Bec, Jeremie; Krstulovic, Giorgio; Siewert, Christoph
2017-11-01
We investigate the general problem of turbulent condensation. Using direct numerical simulations we show that the fluctuations of the supersaturation field offer different conditions for the growth of droplets which evolve in time due to turbulent transport and mixing. This leads to propose a Lagrangian stochastic model consisting of a set of integro-differential equations for the joint evolution of the squared radius and the supersaturation along droplet trajectories. The model has two parameters fixed by the total amount of water and the thermodynamic properties, as well as the Lagrangian integral timescale of the turbulent supersaturation. The model reproduces very well the droplet size distributions obtained from direct numerical simulations and their time evolution. A noticeable result is that, after a stage where the squared radius simply diffuses, the system converges exponentially fast to a statistical steady state independent of the initial conditions. The main mechanism involved in this convergence is a loss of memory induced by a significant number of droplets undergoing a complete evaporation before growing again. The statistical steady state is characterised by an exponential tail in the droplet mass distribution.
ATC calculation with steady-state security constraints using Benders decomposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaaban, M.; Yan, Z.; Ni, Y.; Wu, F.; Li, W.; Liu, H.
2003-01-01
Available transfer capability (ATC) is an important indicator of the usable amount of transmission capacity accessible by assorted parties for commercial trading, ATC calculation is nontrivial when steady-state security constraints are included. In hie paper, Benders decomposition method is proposed to partition the AC problem with steady-state security constraints into a base case master problem and a series of subproblems relevant to various contingencies to include their impacts on ATC. The mathematical model is formulated and the two solution schemes are presented. Computer testing on the 4-bus system and IEEE 30-bus system shows the effectiveness of the proposed method and the solution schemes. (Author)
Steady state and linear stability analysis of a supercritical water natural circulation loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, Manish; Pilkhwal, D.S.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.
2010-01-01
Supercritical water (SCW) has excellent heat transfer characteristics as a coolant for nuclear reactors. Besides it results in high thermal efficiency of the plant. However, the flow can experience instabilities in supercritical water reactors, as the density change is very large for the supercritical fluids. A computer code SUCLIN using supercritical water properties has been developed to carry out the steady state and linear stability analysis of a SCW natural circulation loop. The conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy have been linearized by imposing small perturbation in flow rate, enthalpy, pressure and specific volume. The equations have been solved analytically to generate the characteristic equation. The roots of the equation determine the stability of the system. The code has been qualitatively assessed with published results and has been extensively used for studying the effect of diameter, height, heater inlet temperature, pressure and local loss coefficients on steady state and stability behavior of a Supercritical Water Natural Circulation Loop (SCWNCL). The present paper describes the linear stability analysis model and the results obtained in detail.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whyatt, G.A.
1995-07-01
Testing was performed to determine if gravel particles will creep into and puncture the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) liner in the catch basin of a grout vault over a nominal 30-year period. Testing was performed to support a design without a protective geotextile cover after the geotextile was removed from the design. Recently, a protective geotextile cover over the liner was put back into the design. The data indicate that the geotextile has an insignificant effect on the creep of gravel into the liner. However, the geotextile may help to protect the liner during construction. Two types of tests were performed to evaluate the potential for creep-related puncture. In the first type of test, a very sensitive instrument measured the rate at which a probe crept into HDPE over a 20-minute period at temperatures of 176 degrees F to 212 degrees F (80 degrees C to 100 degrees C). The second type of test consisted of placing the liner between gravel and mortar at 194 degrees F (90 degrees C) and 45.1 psi overburden pressure for periods up to 1 year. By combining data from the two tests, the long-term behavior of the creep was extrapolated to 30 years of service. After 30 years of service, the liner will be in a nearly steady condition and further creep will be extremely small. The results indicate that the creep of gravel into the liner will not create a puncture during service at 194 degrees F (90 degrees C). The estimated creep over 30 years is expected to be less than 25 mils out of the total initial thickness of 60 mils. The test temperature of 194 degrees F (90 degrees C) corresponds to the design basis temperature of the vault. Lower temperatures are expected at the liner, which makes the test conservative. Only the potential for failure of the liner resulting from creep of gravel is addressed in this report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Estey, S.D.
1997-01-01
This calculation note analyzes headspace concentrations of hydrogen dependent upon assumed ventilation flow rates provided for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102. The analyses are based on measured or estimated steady state hydrogen release rates. Tank 241-C-106 is analyzed prior to sluicing; tank 241-AY-102 is analyzed both prior to and after completion of sluicing. Specific analyses, using both best estimated and bounding hydrogen generation rates, include the minimum primary ventilation flow rates required in the tanks to ensure that the steady state hydrogen concentration in the respective tank headspace does not exceed 25% and 100% of the LFL. The headspace hydrogen concentration as a function of time as well as the time required to reach 25% and 100% of LFL upon complete loss of active ventilation, starting from the steady state hydrogen concentration based on a 200 CFM minimum flow rate in tank 241-C-106 and a 100 CFM minimum flow rate in tank241-AY-102. The headspace hydrogen concentration as a function of thee following partial loss of active ventilation (i.e., step changes to l60, l20, 80, and 40 CFM ventilation flow rates) in tank 241-C-106, staffing from a 200 CFM flow rate and the corresponding steady state hydrogen concentration based on the 200 CFM flow rate. The headspace hydrogen concentration as a function of the following partial loss of active ventilation i.e., step changes to 80, 60, 40, and 20 CFM ventilation flow rates) in tank 241-AY-102, starting from a 100 CFM flow rate and the corresponding steady state hydrogen concentration based on the 100 CFM flow rate
Creep curve formularization at 950degC for Hastelloy XR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Muto, Yasushi
1991-03-01
Creep tests under constant stress were conducted on a nickel-base heat-resistant alloy, Hastelloy XR, in air at 950degC. Minimum creep strain rate, time to the onset of tertiary creep and time to rupture were obtained as a function of applied stress. Then, a creep constitutive equation was made based on the Garofalo formula for primary and secondary creep and based on the Kachanov-Rabotnov formula for tertiary creep, which could represent fairly well the experimental creep deformation curves under the constant stress conditions. The creep deformation under the constant load condition corresponding to the stress increment was analysed using the creep constitutive equation and strain hardening law. Then the calculated creep strain showed slightly higher value than the experimental creep strain, and the calculated life was shorter than the experimental one. (author)
Pt-Rh alloys. Investigation of creep rate and rupture time at high temperatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trumic, Biserka; Gomidzelovic, Lidija; Marjanovic, Sasa; Ivanovic, Aleksandra; Dimitrijevic, Silvana [Belgrade Univ., Bor (Serbia). Inst. of Mining and Metallurgy; Krstic, Vesna
2013-02-01
The results of experimental investigation of creep rate and rupture time of the alloys of Pt-Rh system are presented in this paper. Selected alloys with 7-40 wt.-% Rh content were examined using a universal device for tensile testing of materials at high temperatures, and monitoring structure changes of the samples by electron microscopy. Investigations were performed in the temperature range between 1200 C and 1700 C at a stress between 2 MPa and 15 MPa. (orig.)
Don S. Stone; Joseph E. Jakes; Jonathan Puthoff; Abdelmageed A. Elmustafa
2010-01-01
Finite element analysis is used to simulate cone indentation creep in materials across a wide range of hardness, strain rate sensitivity, and work-hardening exponent. Modeling reveals that the commonly held assumption of the hardness strain rate sensitivity (mΗ) equaling the flow stress strain rate sensitivity (mσ...
Examination of the creep behaviour of ceramic fuel elements under neutron irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brucklacher, D.
1978-01-01
This paper examines the creeping of UO 2 , UO 2 -PuO 2 and UN under neutron irradiation. It starts with the experimental results about the relation between the thermal creep rate and the load, the temperature, as well as characteristic material values, stoichiometry, grain size and porosity. These correlation are first qualitatively discussed and then compared with the statements of actual quantitative equations. From the models and theories on which these equations are based a modified Nabarro-Heering-equation results for the correlation between the creep rate of ceramic fuels, stress, temperature and the fission rate. In the experimental part of the examination, length-changes of creep samples of UO 2 , (U,Pu)O 2 and UN were measured in specially developed irradiation creep casings in different reactors. The measuring data were corrected and evaluated considering the thermal expansion effects, irregular temperature distribution and swelling effects in such a way that the dependences of the creep rate of UO 2 , UO 2 -PuO 2 and UN under irradiation on stress, temperature, fission rate, burn-up and porosity is obtained. It shows that creeping of fuels under irradiation at high temperatures is equivalent to thermally activated creeping, while at low temperature the creep rate induced by irradiation is much higher than the condition without irradiation. The increment of oxidic nuclear fuels is greater than in UN, the stress dependence on low burn-up is proportional in both cases, and the influence of temperature is quite small. (orig.) [de
How should we understand non-equilibrium many-body steady states?
Maghrebi, Mohammad; Gorshkov, Alexey
: Many-body systems with both coherent dynamics and dissipation constitute a rich class of models which are nevertheless much less explored than their dissipationless counterparts. The advent of numerous experimental platforms that simulate such dynamics poses an immediate challenge to systematically understand and classify these models. In particular, nontrivial many-body states emerge as steady states under non-equilibrium dynamics. In this talk, I use a field-theoretic approach based on the Keldysh formalism to study nonequilibrium phases and phase transitions in such models. I show that an effective temperature generically emerges as a result of dissipation, and the universal behavior including the dynamics near the steady state is described by a thermodynamic universality class. In the end, I will also discuss possibilities that go beyond the paradigm of an effective thermodynamic behavior.