Combined Steady-State and Dynamic Heat Exchanger Experiment
Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal; Bader, Paul N.
2009-01-01
This paper describes a heat-transfer experiment that combines steady-state analysis and dynamic control. A process-water stream is circulated through two tube-in-shell heat exchangers in series. In the first, the process water is heated by steam. In the second, it is cooled by cooling water. The equipment is pilot-plant size: heat-transfer areas…
Steady state and transient critical heat flux examinations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szabados, L.
1978-02-01
In steady state conditions within the P.W.R. parameter range the critical heat flux correlations based on local parameters reproduce the experimental data with less deviations than those based on system parameters. The transient experiments were restricted for the case of power transients. A data processing method for critical heat flux measurements has been developed and the applicability of quasi steady state calculation has been verified. (D.P.)
Steady state heat transfer of helium cooled cable bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalil, A.
1982-01-01
In the present study nucleate and film boiling heat transfer characteristics of horizontal conductor bundles are investigated at steady state conditions. The effect of gaps between wires, number of wires, wire position, wire size and bundle orientation on the departure from nucleate boiling and transition to film boiling is studied. For gaps close to the bubble departure diameter, the critical heat flux can approach up to 90% of the single wire value. Consequently, the maximum stable current for a given bundle can be significantly increased above the single conductor value for the same cross-sectional area. (author)
NASA Lewis steady-state heat pipe code users manual
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tower, L.K.
1992-06-01
The NASA Lewis heat pipe code has been developed to predict the performance of heat pipes in the steady state. The code can be used as a design tool on a personal computer or, with a suitable calling routine, as a subroutine for a mainframe radiator code. A variety of wick structures, including a user input option, can be used. Heat pipes with multiple evaporators, condensers, and adiabatic sections in series and with wick structures that differ among sections can be modeled. Several working fluids can be chosen, including potassium, sodium, and lithium, for which the monomer-dimer equilibrium is considered. The code incorporates a vapor flow algorithm that treats compressibility and axially varying heat input. This code facilitates the determination of heat pipe operating temperatures and heat pipe limits that may be encountered at the specified heat input and environment temperature. Data are input to the computer through a user-interactive input subroutine. Output, such as liquid and vapor pressures and temperatures, is printed at equally spaced axial positions along the pipe as determined by the user
NASA Lewis Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Architecture
Mi, Ye; Tower, Leonard K.
2013-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed the LERCHP code. The PC-based LERCHP code can be used to predict the steady-state performance of heat pipes, including the determination of operating temperature and operating limits which might be encountered under specified conditions. The code contains a vapor flow algorithm which incorporates vapor compressibility and axially varying heat input. For the liquid flow in the wick, Darcy s formula is employed. Thermal boundary conditions and geometric structures can be defined through an interactive input interface. A variety of fluid and material options as well as user defined options can be chosen for the working fluid, wick, and pipe materials. This report documents the current effort at GRC to update the LERCHP code for operating in a Microsoft Windows (Microsoft Corporation) environment. A detailed analysis of the model is presented. The programming architecture for the numerical calculations is explained and flowcharts of the key subroutines are given
Rod Bundle Heat Transfer: Steady-State Steam Cooling Experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spring, J.P.; McLaughlin, D.M.
2006-01-01
Through the joint efforts of the Pennsylvania State University and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, an experimental rod bundle heat transfer (RBHT) facility was designed and built. The rod bundle consists of a 7 x 7 square pitch array with spacer grids and geometry similar to that found in a modern pressurized water reactor. From this facility, a series of steady-state steam cooling experiments were performed. The bundle inlet Reynolds number was varied from 1 400 to 30 000 over a pressure range from 1.36 to 4 bars (20 to 60 psia). The bundle inlet steam temperature was controlled to be at saturation for the specified pressure and the fluid exit temperature exceeded 550 deg. C in the highest power tests. One important quantity of interest is the local convective heat transfer coefficient defined in terms of the local bulk mean temperature of the flow, local wall temperature, and heat flux. Steam temperatures were measured at the center of selected subchannels along the length of the bundle by traversing miniaturized thermocouples. Using an analogy between momentum and energy transport, a method was developed for relating the local subchannel centerline temperature measurement to the local bulk mean temperature. Wall temperatures were measured using internal thermocouples strategically placed along the length of each rod and the local wall heat flux was obtained from an inverse conduction program. The local heat transfer coefficient was calculated from the data at each rod thermocouple location. The local heat transfer coefficients calculated for locations where the flow was fully developed were compared against several published correlations. The Weisman and El-Genk correlations were found to agree best with the RBHT steam cooling data, especially over the range of turbulent Reynolds numbers. The effect of spacer grids on the heat transfer enhancement was also determined from instrumentation placed downstream of the spacer grid locations. The local
Fast Prediction Method for Steady-State Heat Convection
Wáng, Yì
2012-03-14
A reduced model by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and Galerkin projection methods for steady-state heat convection is established on a nonuniform grid. It was verified by thousands of examples that the results are in good agreement with the results obtained from the finite volume method. This model can also predict the cases where model parameters far exceed the sample scope. Moreover, the calculation time needed by the model is much shorter than that needed for the finite volume method. Thus, the nonuniform POD-Galerkin projection method exhibits high accuracy, good suitability, and fast computation. It has universal significance for accurate and fast prediction. Also, the methodology can be applied to more complex modeling in chemical engineering and technology, such as reaction and turbulence. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Steady-state heat transfer in an inverted U-tube steam generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boucher, T.J.
1986-01-01
Experimental results are presented involving U-tube steam generator tube bundle local heat transfer and fluid conditions during steady-state, full-power operations performed at high temperatures and pressures with conditions typical of a pressurized water reactor (15.0 MPa primary pressure, 600 K hot-leg fluid temperatures, 6.2 MPa secondary pressure). The MOD-2C facility represents the state-of-the-art in measurement of tube local heat transfer data and average tube bundle secondary fluid density at several elevations, which allows an estimate of the axial heat transfer and void distributions during steady-state and transient operations. The method of heat transfer data reduction is presented and the heat flux, secondary convective heat transfer coefficient, and void fraction distributions are quantified for steady-state, full-power operations
Steady-state heat transfer in an inverted U-tube steam generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boucher, T.J.
1987-01-01
Experimental results are presented involving U-tube steam generator tube bundle local heat transfer and fluid conditions during stead-state, full-power operations performed at high temperatures and pressures with conditions typical of a pressurized water reactor (15.0 MPa primary pressure, 600 K steam generator inlet plenum fluid temperatures, 6.2 MPa secondary pressure). The Semiscale (MOD-2C facility represents the state-of-the-art in measurement of tube local heat transfer data and average tube bundle secondary fluid density at several elevations, which allows an estimate of the axial heat transfer and void distributions during steady-state and transient operations. The method of heat transfer data reduction is presented and the heat flux, secondary convective heat transfer coefficient, and void fraction distributions are quantified for steady-state, full-power operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gormezano, C.
1999-01-01
The seventh meeting of the ITER Physics Group on energetic particles, heating and steady state operation was held at CEN/Cadarache from 14 to 18 September 1999. This was the first meeting following the redefinition of the Expert Group structure and it was also the first meeting without participation of US physicists. The main topics covered were: 1. Energetic Particles, 2. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating, 3. Lower Hybrid Current Drive, 4. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating and Current Drive, 5. Neutral Beam Injection, 6. Steady-State Aspects
TRANSIENT AND STEADY STATE STUDY OF PURE AND MIXED REFRIGERANTS IN A RESIDENTIAL HEAT PUMP
The report gives results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the transient and steady state performance of a residential air-conditioning/heat pump (AC/HP) operating with different refrigerants. (NOTE: The project was motivated by environmental concerns related to...
Steady-state heat transfer to boiling liquid helium in simulated coil windings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walstrom, P.L.
1981-01-01
The present data show that the worst case steady-state stability in the GE/LCT magnet windings is at a horizontal conductor orientation. The heat transfer improves with inclination of the conductor from horizontal. Calculations show that for these small regions normal zones will recover by cold-end conduction from the inclined conductor on either end
Steady-state nucleate pool boiling mechanism at low heat fluxes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bastos, L.E.G.
1979-01-01
Heat is transfered in the steady state to a horizontal cooper disc inmersed in water at saturation temperature. Levels of heat flux are controlled so that convection and the nucleate boiling can be observed. The value of heat flux is determined experimentally and high speed film is used to record bubble growth. In order to explain the phenomenon the oretical model is proposed in which part of the heat is transfered by free convection during nucleate boiling regime. Agreement between the experiments and the theoretical model is good. (Author) [pt
Transient and steady-state analyses of an electrically heated Topaz-II Thermionic Fuel Element
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Genk, M.S.; Xue, H.
1992-01-01
Transient and steady-state analyses of electrically heated, Thermionic Fuel Elements (TFEs) for Topaz-II space power system are performed. The calculated emitter and collector temperatures, load electric power and conversion efficiency are in good agreement with reported data. In this paper the effects or Cs pressure, thermal power input, and load resistance on the steady-state performance of the TFE are also investigated. In addition, the thermal response of the ZrH moderator during a startup transient and following a change in the thermal power input is examined
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lun Yang
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The existing studies on probabilistic steady-state analysis of integrated energy systems (IES are limited to integrated electricity and gas networks or integrated electricity and heating networks. This paper proposes a probabilistic steady-state analysis of integrated electricity, gas and heating networks (EGH-IES. Four typical operation modes of an EGH-IES are presented at first. The probabilistic energy flow problem of the EGS-IES considering its operation modes and correlated uncertainties in wind/solar power and electricity/gas/heat loads is then formulated and solved by the Monte Carlo method based on Latin hypercube sampling and Nataf transformation. Numerical simulations are conducted on a sample EGH-IES working in the “electricity/gas following heat” mode to verify the probabilistic analysis proposed in this paper and to study the effects of uncertainties and correlations on the operation of the EGH-IES, especially uncertainty transmissions among the subnetworks.
Steady-state and transient heat transfer through fins of complex geometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taler Dawid
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Various methods for steady-state and transient analysis of temperature distribution and efficiency of continuous-plate fins are presented. For a constant heat transfer coefficient over the fin surface, the plate fin can be divided into imaginary rectangular or hexangular fins. At first approximate methods for determining the steady-state fin efficiency like the method of equivalent circular fin and the sector method are discussed. When the fin geometry is complex, thus transient temperature distribution and fin efficiency can be determined using numerical methods. A numerical method for transient analysis of fins with complex geometry is developed. Transient temperature distributions in continuous fins attached to oval tubes is computed using the finite volume - finite element methods. The developed method can be used in the transient analysis of compact heat exchangers to calculate correctly the heat flow rate transferred from the finned tubes to the fluid.
High-power and steady-state operation of ICRF heating in the large helical device
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mutoh, T., E-mail: mutoh@nifs.ac.jp; Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Kasahara, H.; Seki, R.; Kamio, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Ii, T.; Makino, R.; Nagaoka, K.; Nomura, G. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6, Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Shinya, T. [The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 2777-8561 (Japan)
2015-12-10
Recent progress in an ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating system and experiment results in a Large Helical Device (LHD) are reported. Three kinds of ICRF antenna pairs were installed in the LHD, and the operation power regimes were extended up to 4.5 MW; also, the steady-state operation was extended for more than 45 min in LHD at a MW power level. We studied ICRF heating physics in heliotron configuration using a Hand Shake type (HAS) antenna, Field Aligned Impedance Transforming (FAIT) antenna, and Poloidal Array (PA) antenna, and established the optimum minority-ion heating scenario in an LHD. The FAIT antenna having a novel impedance transformer inside the vacuum chamber could reduce the VSWR and successfully injected a higher power to plasma. We tested the PA antennas completely removing the Faraday-shield pipes to avoid breakdown and to increase the plasma coupling. The heating performance was almost the same as other antennas; however, the heating efficiency was degraded when the gap between the antenna and plasma surface was large. Using these three kinds of antennas, ICRF heating could contribute to raising the plasma beta with the second- and third-harmonic cyclotron heating mode, and also to raising the ion temperature as discharge cleaning tools. In 2014, steady-state operation plasma with a line-averaged electron density of 1.2 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, ion and electron temperature of 2 keV, and plasma sustainment time of 48 min was achieved with ICH and ECH heating power of 1.2 MW for majority helium with minority hydrogen. In 2015, the higher-power steady-state operation with a heating power of up to 3 MW was tested with higher density of 3 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}.
Universal Trade-Off between Power, Efficiency, and Constancy in Steady-State Heat Engines
Pietzonka, Patrick; Seifert, Udo
2018-05-01
Heat engines should ideally have large power output, operate close to Carnot efficiency and show constancy, i.e., exhibit only small fluctuations in this output. For steady-state heat engines, driven by a constant temperature difference between the two heat baths, we prove that out of these three requirements only two are compatible. Constancy enters quantitatively the conventional trade-off between power and efficiency. Thus, we rationalize and unify recent suggestions for overcoming this simple trade-off. Our universal bound is illustrated for a paradigmatic model of a quantum dot solar cell and for a Brownian gyrator delivering mechanical work against an external force.
The steady-state modeling and optimization of a refrigeration system for high heat flux removal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Rongliang; Zhang Tiejun; Catano, Juan; Wen, John T.; Michna, Gregory J.; Peles, Yoav; Jensen, Michael K.
2010-01-01
Steady-state modeling and optimization of a refrigeration system for high heat flux removal, such as electronics cooling, is studied. The refrigeration cycle proposed consists of multiple evaporators, liquid accumulator, compressor, condenser and expansion valves. To obtain more efficient heat transfer and higher critical heat flux (CHF), the evaporators operate with two-phase flow only. This unique operating condition necessitates the inclusion of a liquid accumulator with integrated heater for the safe operation of the compressor. Due to the projected incorporation of microchannels into the system to enhance the heat transfer in heat sinks, the momentum balance equation, rarely seen in previous vapor compression cycle heat exchangers modeling efforts, is utilized in addition to the mass and energy balance equations to capture the expected significant microchannel pressure drop witnessed in previous experimental investigations. Using the steady-state model developed, a parametric study is performed to study the effect of various external inputs on the system performance. The Pareto optimization is applied to find the optimal system operating conditions for given heat loads such that the system coefficient of performance (COP) is optimized while satisfying the CHF and other system operation constraints. Initial validation efforts show the good agreement between the experimental data and model predictions.
Active control of divertor heat and particle fluxes in EAST towards advanced steady state operations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, L., E-mail: lwang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Guo, H.Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); General Atomics, P. O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States); Li, J.; Wan, B.N.; Gong, X.Z.; Zhang, X.D.; Hu, J.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Liang, Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Association EURATOM-FZJ, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Xu, G.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zou, X.L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Maingi, R.; Menard, J.E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Luo, G.N.; Gao, X.; Hu, L.Q.; Gan, K.F.; Liu, S.C.; Wang, H.Q.; Chen, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); and others
2015-08-15
Significant progress has been made in EAST towards advanced steady state operations by active control of divertor heat and particle fluxes. Many innovative techniques have been developed to mitigate transient ELM and stationary heat fluxes on the divertor target plates. It has been found that lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) can lead to edge plasma ergodization, striation of the stationary heat flux and lower ELM transient heat and particle fluxes. With multi-pulse supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) to quantitatively regulate the divertor particle flux, the divertor power footprint pattern can be actively modified. H-modes have been extended over 30 s in EAST with the divertor peak heat flux and the target temperature being controlled well below 2 MW/m{sup 2} and 250 °C, respectively, by integrating these new methods, coupled with advanced lithium wall conditioning and internal divertor pumping, along with an edge coherent mode to provide continuous particle and power exhaust.
Feedback control of plasma density and heating power for steady state operation in LHD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamio, Shuji, E-mail: kamio@nifs.ac.jp; Kasahara, Hiroshi; Seki, Tetsuo; Saito, Kenji; Seki, Ryosuke; Nomura, Goro; Mutoh, Takashi
2015-12-15
Highlights: • We upgraded a control system for steady state operation in LHD. • This system contains gas fueling system and ICRF power control system. • Automatic power boost system is also attached for stable operation. • As a result, we achieved the long pulse up to 48 min in the electron density of more than 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}. - Abstract: For steady state operation, the feedback control of plasma density and heating power system was developed in the Large Helical Device (LHD). In order to achieve a record of the long pulse discharge, stable plasma density and heating power are needed. This system contains the radio frequency (RF) heating power control, interlocks, gas fueling, automatic RF phase control, ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antenna position control, and graphical user interface (GUI). Using the density control system, the electron density was controlled to the target density and using the RF heating power control system, the RF power injection could be stable. As a result of using this system, we achieved the long pulse up to 48 min in the electron density of more than 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}. Further, the ICRF hardware experienced no critical accidents during the 17th LHD experiment campaign in 2013.
Application of quasi-steady-state plasma streams for simulation of ITER transient heat loads
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bandura, A.N.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Marchenko, A.K.; Solyakov, D.G.; Tereshin, V.I.; Trubchaninov, S.A.; Tsarenko, A.V.; Landman, I.
2004-01-01
The paper presents experimental investigations of energy characteristics of the plasma streams generated with quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50 and adjustment of plasma parameters from the point of view its applicability for simulation of transient plasma heat loads expected for ITER disruptions and type I ELMs. Possibility of generation of high-power magnetized plasma streams with ion impact energy up to 0.6 keV, pulse length of 0.25 ms and heat loads varied in wide range from 0.5 to 30 MJ/m 2 has been demonstrated and some features of plasma interaction with tungsten targets in dependence on plasma heat loads are discussed. (author)
Steady state ensembles of thermal radiation in a layered media with a constant heat flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budaev, Bair V.; Bogy, David B.
2013-01-01
This paper describes steady-state ensembles of thermally excited electromagnetic radiation in nano-scale layered media with a constant non-vanishing heat flux across the layers. It is shown that Planck's law of thermal radiation, the principle of equivalence, and the laws of wave propagation in layered media, imply that in order for the ensemble of thermally excited electromagnetic fields to exist in a medium consisting of a stack of layers between two half-space, the net heat flux across the layers must exceed a certain threshold that is determined by the temperatures of the half spaces and by the reflective properties of the entire structure. The obtained results provide a way for estimating the radiative heat transfer coefficient of nano-scale layered structures. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Steady state and transient heat transfer on molten salt natural circulation loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kudariyawar, Jayaraj Y.; Vaidya, A.M.; Maheshwari, N.K.; Satyamurthy, P.
2016-01-01
In this work, heat transfer characteristics of Molten Salt Natural Circulation Loop (MSNCL) are studied using 3D CFD simulations. Molten Nitrate salt, NaNO_3+KNO_3 (60:40 ratio by weight), is used as a fluid in MSNCL. In the MSNCL, in heater section, flow is developing and also mixed convection flow regime exists. The local Nusselt number variation in heater is calculated from computed data and is compared with that from Boelter correlation. Steady state heat transfer characteristics are obtained using CFD simulations. Transient heat transfer characteristics in the oscillatory flow formed in MSNCL with horizontal heater configuration are also studied and are found to be different as compared to vertical heater configuration. (author)
Fundamental aspects of steady-state conversion of heat to work at the nanoscale
Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio; Saito, Keiji; Whitney, Robert S.
2017-06-01
In recent years, the study of heat to work conversion has been re-invigorated by nanotechnology. Steady-state devices do this conversion without any macroscopic moving parts, through steady-state flows of microscopic particles such as electrons, photons, phonons, etc. This review aims to introduce some of the theories used to describe these steady-state flows in a variety of mesoscopic or nanoscale systems. These theories are introduced in the context of idealized machines which convert heat into electrical power (heat-engines) or convert electrical power into a heat flow (refrigerators). In this sense, the machines could be categorized as thermoelectrics, although this should be understood to include photovoltaics when the heat source is the sun. As quantum mechanics is important for most such machines, they fall into the field of quantum thermodynamics. In many cases, the machines we consider have few degrees of freedom, however the reservoirs of heat and work that they interact with are assumed to be macroscopic. This review discusses different theories which can take into account different aspects of mesoscopic and nanoscale physics, such as coherent quantum transport, magnetic-field induced effects (including topological ones such as the quantum Hall effect), and single electron charging effects. It discusses the efficiency of thermoelectric conversion, and the thermoelectric figure of merit. More specifically, the theories presented are (i) linear response theory with or without magnetic fields, (ii) Landauer scattering theory in the linear response regime and far from equilibrium, (iii) Green-Kubo formula for strongly interacting systems within the linear response regime, (iv) rate equation analysis for small quantum machines with or without interaction effects, (v) stochastic thermodynamic for fluctuating small systems. In all cases, we place particular emphasis on the fundamental questions about the bounds on ideal machines. Can magnetic-fields change the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tagliafico, Luca A.; Scarpa, Federico; Valsuani, Federico
2014-01-01
Traditional thermal solar panel technologies have limited efficiency and the required economic investments make them noncompetitive in the space heating market. The greatest limit to the diffusion of thermal solar systems is the characteristic temperatures they can reach: the strong connection between the user temperature and the collector temperature makes it possible to achieve high thermal (collector) efficiency only at low, often useless, user temperatures. By using solar collectors as thermal exchange units (evaporators) in a heat pump system (direct expansion solar assisted heat pump, DX-SAHP), the overall efficiency greatly increases with a significative cut of the associated investment in terms of pay-back time. In this study, an approach is proposed to the steady state analysis of DX-SAHP, which is based on the simplified inverse Carnot cycle and on the second law efficiency concept. This method, without the need of calculating the refrigerant fluid properties and the detailed processes occurring in the refrigeration device, allows us to link the main features of the plant to its relevant interactions with the surroundings. The very nature of the proposed method makes the relationship explicit and meaningful among all the involved variables. The paper, after the description of the method, presents an explanatory application of this technique by reviewing various aspects of the performance of a typical DX-SAHP in which the savings on primary energy consumption is regarded as the main feature of the plant and highlighted in a monthly averaged analysis. Results agree to those coming from a common standard steady state thermodynamic analysis. The application to a typical DX-SAHP system demonstrates that a mean saved primary energy of about 50% with respect to standard gas burner can be achieved for the same user needs. Such a result is almost independent from the type of flat plate solar panel used (double or single glazed, or even bare panels) as a result of
Quasi-steady-state model of a counter flow air-to-air heat exchanger with phase change
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rose, Jørgen; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Kragh, Jesper
2008-01-01
-exchanger. Developing highly efficient heat-exchangers and strategies to avoid/remove frost formation implies the use of detailed models to predict and evaluate different heat-exchanger designs and strategies. This paper presents a quasi-steady-state model of a counter-flow air-to-air heat-exchanger that takes...
Heating and current drive requirements towards steady state operation in ITER
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poli, F. M.; Kessel, C. E.; Gorelenkova, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Bonoli, P. T. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Batchelor, D. B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6169 (United States); Harvey, B.; Petrov, Y. [CompX, Box 2672, Del Mar, CA 92014 (United States)
2014-02-12
Steady state scenarios envisaged for ITER aim at optimizing the bootstrap current, while maintaining sufficient confinement and stability to provide the necessary fusion yield. Non-inductive scenarios will need to operate with Internal Transport Barriers (ITBs) in order to reach adequate fusion gain at typical currents of 9 MA. However, the large pressure gradients associated with ITBs in regions of weak or negative magnetic shear can be conducive to ideal MHD instabilities, reducing the no-wall limit. The E × B flow shear from toroidal plasma rotation is expected to be low in ITER, with a major role in the ITB dynamics being played by magnetic geometry. Combinations of H/CD sources that maintain weakly reversed magnetic shear profiles throughout the discharge are the focus of this work. Time-dependent transport simulations indicate that, with a trade-off of the EC equatorial and upper launcher, the formation and sustainment of quasi-steady state ITBs could be demonstrated in ITER with the baseline heating configuration. However, with proper constraints from peeling-ballooning theory on the pedestal width and height, the fusion gain and the maximum non-inductive current are below the ITER target. Upgrades of the heating and current drive system in ITER, like the use of Lower Hybrid current drive, could overcome these limitations, sustaining higher non-inductive current and confinement, more expanded ITBs which are ideal MHD stable.
Heating and current drive requirements towards steady state operation in ITER
Poli, F. M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Kessel, C. E.; Batchelor, D. B.; Gorelenkova, M.; Harvey, B.; Petrov, Y.
2014-02-01
Steady state scenarios envisaged for ITER aim at optimizing the bootstrap current, while maintaining sufficient confinement and stability to provide the necessary fusion yield. Non-inductive scenarios will need to operate with Internal Transport Barriers (ITBs) in order to reach adequate fusion gain at typical currents of 9 MA. However, the large pressure gradients associated with ITBs in regions of weak or negative magnetic shear can be conducive to ideal MHD instabilities, reducing the no-wall limit. The E × B flow shear from toroidal plasma rotation is expected to be low in ITER, with a major role in the ITB dynamics being played by magnetic geometry. Combinations of H/CD sources that maintain weakly reversed magnetic shear profiles throughout the discharge are the focus of this work. Time-dependent transport simulations indicate that, with a trade-off of the EC equatorial and upper launcher, the formation and sustainment of quasi-steady state ITBs could be demonstrated in ITER with the baseline heating configuration. However, with proper constraints from peeling-ballooning theory on the pedestal width and height, the fusion gain and the maximum non-inductive current are below the ITER target. Upgrades of the heating and current drive system in ITER, like the use of Lower Hybrid current drive, could overcome these limitations, sustaining higher non-inductive current and confinement, more expanded ITBs which are ideal MHD stable.
Steady-state heat transfer in He II through porous superconducting cable insulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baudouy, B.J.P.; Juster, F.P.; Meuris, C.; Vieillard, L.
1996-01-01
The LHC program includes the study of thermal behavior of the superconducting cables wound in the dipole magnet cooled by superfluid helium (He II). Insulation of these superconducting cables forms the major thermal shield hindering the He II cooling. This is particularly a problem in magnets which are subjected to thermal loads. To investigate He II heat transfer processes an experimental model has been realized which creates a one-dimensional heat transfer in such media. Insulation is generally realized by wrapping around the superconducting cable a combination of different kind of Kapton reg-sign tapes, fiber-glass impregnated by epoxy resin or Kevlar reg-sign fiber tapes. Steady-state heat transfer in He II through these multi-layer porous slabs has been analyzed. Experimental results for a range of heat flux show the existence of different thermal regimes related to He II. It is shown that the parameters of importance are a global geometrical factor which could be considered as an equivalent open-quotes permeabilityclose quotes related to He II heat transfer, the transfer function f(T) of He II and the thermal conductivity of the slab. The authors present and analyze results for different insulations as a function of the temperature
Theoretical research of helium pulsating heat pipe under steady state conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, D; Liu, H M; Li, L F; Huang, R J; Wang, W
2015-01-01
As a new-type heat pipe, pulsating heat pipe (PHP) has several outstanding features, such as great heat transport ability, strong adjustability, small size and simple construction. PHP is a complex two-phase flow system associated with many physical subjects and parameters, which utilizes the pressure and temperature changes in volume expansion and contraction during phase changes to excite the pulsation motion of liquid plugs and vapor bubbles in the capillary tube between the evaporator and the condenser. At present time, some experimental investigation of helium PHP have been done. However, theoretical research of helium PHP is rare. In this paper, the physical and mathematical models of operating mechanism for helium PHP under steady state are established based on the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. Several important parameters are correlated and solved, including the liquid filling ratio, flow velocity, heat power, temperature, etc. Based on the results, the operational driving force and flow resistances of helium PHP are analysed, and the flow and heat transfer is further studied. (paper)
Theoretical research of helium pulsating heat pipe under steady state conditions
Xu, D.; Liu, H. M.; Li, L. F.; Huang, R. J.; Wang, W.
2015-12-01
As a new-type heat pipe, pulsating heat pipe (PHP) has several outstanding features, such as great heat transport ability, strong adjustability, small size and simple construction. PHP is a complex two-phase flow system associated with many physical subjects and parameters, which utilizes the pressure and temperature changes in volume expansion and contraction during phase changes to excite the pulsation motion of liquid plugs and vapor bubbles in the capillary tube between the evaporator and the condenser. At present time, some experimental investigation of helium PHP have been done. However, theoretical research of helium PHP is rare. In this paper, the physical and mathematical models of operating mechanism for helium PHP under steady state are established based on the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. Several important parameters are correlated and solved, including the liquid filling ratio, flow velocity, heat power, temperature, etc. Based on the results, the operational driving force and flow resistances of helium PHP are analysed, and the flow and heat transfer is further studied.
Modelling of Quench Limit for Steady State Heat Deposits in LHC Magnets
Bocian, D; Siemko, A
2008-01-01
A quench, the transition of a conductor from the superconducting to the normal conducting state, occurs irreversibly in the accelerator magnets if one of the three parameters: temperature, magnetic field or current density exceeds a critical value. Energy deposited in the superconductor by the particle beams provokes quenches detrimental for the accelerator operation. In particular if particles impacting on the vacuum chamber and their secondary showers depose energy in the magnet coils. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) nominal beam intensity is 3.2 ldr 10^14 protons. A quench occurs if a fraction of the order of 10^7 protons per second is lost locally. A network model is used to simulate the thermodynamic behaviour of the magnets. The heat flow in the network model was validated with measurements performed in the CERN magnet test facility. A steady state heat flow was introduced in the coil by using the quench heaters implemented in the LHC magnets. The value of the heat source current is determined by the ne...
External heating and current drive source requirements towards steady-state operation in ITER
Poli, F. M.; Kessel, C. E.; Bonoli, P. T.; Batchelor, D. B.; Harvey, R. W.; Snyder, P. B.
2014-07-01
Steady state scenarios envisaged for ITER aim at optimizing the bootstrap current, while maintaining sufficient confinement and stability to provide the necessary fusion yield. Non-inductive scenarios will need to operate with internal transport barriers (ITBs) in order to reach adequate fusion gain at typical currents of 9 MA. However, the large pressure gradients associated with ITBs in regions of weak or negative magnetic shear can be conducive to ideal MHD instabilities, reducing the no-wall limit. The E × B flow shear from toroidal plasma rotation is expected to be low in ITER, with a major role in the ITB dynamics being played by magnetic geometry. Combinations of heating and current drive (H/CD) sources that sustain reversed magnetic shear profiles throughout the discharge are the focus of this work. Time-dependent transport simulations indicate that a combination of electron cyclotron (EC) and lower hybrid (LH) waves is a promising route towards steady state operation in ITER. The LH forms and sustains expanded barriers and the EC deposition at mid-radius freezes the bootstrap current profile stabilizing the barrier and leading to confinement levels 50% higher than typical H-mode energy confinement times. Using LH spectra with spectrum centred on parallel refractive index of 1.75-1.85, the performance of these plasma scenarios is close to the ITER target of 9 MA non-inductive current, global confinement gain H98 = 1.6 and fusion gain Q = 5.
Steady states in conformal theories
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
A novel conjecture regarding the steady state behavior of conformal field theories placed between two heat baths will be presented. Some verification of the conjecture will be provided in the context of fluid dynamics and holography.
Some problems in steady-state thermal conductivity with variable heat transfer rate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malov, Yu.I.; Martinson, L.K.; Pavlov, K.B.
1975-01-01
Some boundary-value problems of steady heat conductivity with an alternating heat exchange coefficient have been solved for a cylindrical region. The solutions have been performed as expansion in series with respect to eigenfunctions with the coefficients consistent with infinite systems of linear algebraic equations. A reduction method has been substantiated for those systems. The paper presents results of calculation of the temperature distribution inside the infinite cylinder with concrete tasks of heat exchange coefficient variations on the cylinder surface
Analytical solutions of steady-state conjugate heat transfer in ducts with turbulent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cerqueira, Djane R.; Jian Su
2007-01-01
In this work, we present an approximate analytical solution of the steady-state conjugate heat transfer of turbulent forced convection in a circular pipe with wall axial heat conduction and external convective boundary conditions. Improved lumped differential approach based on two points Hermite approximation for integrals was applied to reduce the heat conduction equation in the solid into a second-order ordinary differential equation for the radially averaged solid temperature. The energy equation in the fluid was solved by applying the generalized integral transform technique (GITT). The Sturm-Lioville eigenproblem for fluid energy equation in the cylindrical coordinate system was solved by the sign-count method. The truncated system of N ordinary differential equations for transformed potentials of the fluid temperature and the second-order ordinary differential equation for radially averaged solid temperature formed a homogeneous system of N+2 ordinary differential equations, which was solved analytically. The effects of the fluid-solid thermal conductivity ratio on the Nusselt number, the average fluid and solid temperatures, and the fluid-solid interface temperature were investigated. (author)
Steady-state heat losses in pipes for low-energy district heating
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend
2010-01-01
The synergy between highly energy efficient buildings and low-energy district heating (DH) systems is a promising concept for the optimal integration of energy saving policies and energy supply systems based on renewable energy (RE). Distribution heat losses represent a key factor in the design o...
Steady-state entanglement and thermalization of coupled qubits in two common heat baths
Hu, Li-Zhen; Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie
2018-03-01
In this work, we study the steady-state entanglement and thermalization of two coupled qubits embedded in two common baths with different temperatures. The common bath is relevant when the two qubits are difficult to be isolated to only contact with their local baths. With the quantum master equation constructed in the eigenstate representation of the coupled qubits, we have demonstrated the variations of steady-state entanglement with respect to various parameters of the qubits' system in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium cases of the baths. The coupling strength and energy detuning of the qubits as well as the temperature gradient of the baths are found to be beneficial to the enhancement of the entanglement. We note a dark state of the qubits that is free from time-evolution and its initial population can greatly influence the steady-state entanglement. By virtues of effective temperatures, we also study the thermalization of the coupled qubits and their variations with energy detuning.
Steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs) as a tool to monitor plant heat and drought stress
Cendrero Mateo, M.; Carmo-Silva, A.; Salvucci, M.; Moran, S. M.; Hernandez, M.
2012-12-01
Crop yield decreases when photosynthesis is limited by heat or drought conditions. Yet farmers do not monitor crop photosynthesis because it is difficult to measure at the field scale in real time. Steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs) can be used at the field level as an indirect measure of photosynthetic activity in both healthy and physiologically-perturbed vegetation. In addition, Fs can be measured by satellite-based sensors on a regular basis over large agricultural regions. In this study, plants of Camelina sativa grown under controlled conditions were subjected to heat and drought stress. Gas exchange and Fs were measured simultaneously with a portable photosynthesis system under light limiting and saturating conditions. Results showed that Fs was directly correlated with net CO2 assimilation (A) and inversely correlated with non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Analysis of the relationship between Fs and Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) revealed significant differences between control and stressed plants that could be used to track the status, resilience, and recovery of photochemical processes. In summary, the results provide evidence that Fs measurements, even without normalization, are an easy means to monitor changes in plant photosynthesis, and therefore, provide a rapid assessment of plant stress to guide farmers in resource applications. Figure1. Net CO2 assimilation rate (A) of Camelina sativa plants under control conditions and after heat stress exposure for 1 or 3 days (1d-HS and 3d-HS, respectively) (right) and control, drought and re-watering conditions (left). Conditions for infra-red gas analysis were: reference CO2 = 380 μmol mol-1, PPFD = 500 μmol m-2 s-1 and Tleaf set to 25°C (control, drought and re-water) or 35°C (HS). Different letters denote significant differences at the α=0.05 level. Values are means±SEM (n=10). Figure 2. Stable chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs) of Camelina sativa plants under control conditions and
Heat transfer and voidage measurements in steady state post-dryout at low quality and high pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savage, R.A.; Archer, D.; Swinnerton, D.
1992-01-01
Steady state post-dryout heat transfer and voidage data have been obtained at pressures up to 70 bar and flows up to 1000 kg/m 2 s inside a vertical tube. The data were obtained with steam/water using a directly heated hot notch test section. Heat flux and voidage data are presented. The data are used to investigate aspects of the TRAC-PF1/MOD2 version 5.3 reflood model and are compared against heat transfer models used in it. (8 figures) (Author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Yu. Makarov
2014-01-01
thermal field in biotissue (measuring procedure with the number i, dUiis a variation of a physical value U which unambiguously determines the steady-state thermal field, {pj} is a set of parameters to be measured.Theoretical analysis has shown that the implementation of the above principle leads to the equations that do not contain unknown values of blood temperature and power density of biological heat sources, unlike the starting Pennes equation [4]. This is the main advantage of the developed approach in comparison with non-stationary methods. In addition, there is no dynamic measurement error which is inevitably associated with the measurement procedure for the transient processes.Numerical and physical experiments have been carried out to validate the functionality of the above principle for noninvasive measuring the parameters of stationary heat transfer. For example, with use a thermophysical model of biological tissue [5] the procedure of measuring was simulated to obtain the values of two thermophysical parameters of model biological tissue, namely the blood perfusion (in absolute units and the thermal conductivity. Also, with use a specially designed probe the measurements were carried out for the natural biological tissue of human skin epithelium. The blood perfusion parameter estimation value is in good agreement with the literature data [6], despite the illustrative purpose of conducted measurements. These experiments have also demonstrated the possibility of simultaneous measuring the several thermophysical properties of biological tissue in a noninvasive manner, using a rather simple equipment.Formula (1 can contain not only thermophysical parameters of the living tissue, but any other parameters provided that each one unambiguously affects the heat transfer in a particular experiment. For example, it was shown that it is possible to recover the thicknesses of subcutaneous tissue layers of model of skin on the results of thermal measurements on the basis of
Post-CHF heat transfer during steady-state and transient conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fung, K.K.
1978-06-01
This review extends previous reviews of steady-state post-CHF literature by Groeneveld, Gardiner, and Fung by including more recent data. A review of the literature on transient post-CHF data is also included by extending the work of Yadigaroglu
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Victor ANJO
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The solidification of molten metal during the casting process involves heat transfer from the molten metal to the mould, then to the atmosphere. The mechanical properties and grain size of metals are determined by the heat transfer process during solidification. The aim of this study is to numerically stimulate the steady conduction heat transfer during the solidification of aluminum in green sand mould using finite difference analysis 2D. The properties of materials used are industrial AI 50/60 AFS green sand mould, pure aluminum and MATLAB 7.0.1. for the numerical simulation. The method includes; the finite difference analysis of the heat conduction equation in steady (Laplaces and transient states and using MATLAB to numerically stimulate the thermal flow and cooling curve. The results obtained are: the steady state thermal flow in 2D and transient state cooling curve of casting. The results obtain were consider relevant in the control of the grain size and mechanical properties of the casting.
NASA Glenn Steady-State Heat Pipe Code GLENHP: Compilation for 64- and 32-Bit Windows Platforms
Tower, Leonard K.; Geng, Steven M.
2016-01-01
A new version of the NASA Glenn Steady State Heat Pipe Code, designated "GLENHP," is introduced here. This represents an update to the disk operating system (DOS) version LERCHP reported in NASA/TM-2000-209807. The new code operates on 32- and 64-bit Windows-based platforms from within the 32-bit command prompt window. An additional evaporator boundary condition and other features are provided.
Maity, Somsubhra; Wu, Wei-Chen; Tracy, Joseph B; Clarke, Laura I; Bochinski, Jason R
2017-08-17
Anisotropically-shaped metal nanoparticles act as nanoscale heaters via excitation of a localized surface plasmon resonance, utilizing a photothermal effect which converts the optical energy into local heat. Steady-state temperatures within a polymer matrix embedded with gold nanorods undergoing photothermal heating using continuous-wave excitation are measured in the immediate spatial vicinity of the nanoparticle (referred to as the local temperature) from observing the rate of physical rotation of the asymmetric nanoparticles within the locally created polymer melt. Average temperatures across the entire (mostly solid) sample (referred to as the global temperature) are simultaneously observed using a fluorescence method from randomly dispersed molecular emitters. Comparing these two independent measurements in films having varying concentrations of nanorods reveals the interplay between the local and global temperatures, clearly demonstrating the capability of these material samples to sustain large steady-state spatial temperature gradients when experiencing continuous-wave excitation photothermal heating. These results are discussed quantitatively. Illustrative imaging studies of nanofibers under photothermal heating also support the presence of a large temperature gradient. Photothermal heating in this manner has potential utility in creating unique thermal processing conditions for outcomes such as driving chemical reactions, inducing crystallinity changes, or enhancing degradation processes in a manner unachievable by conventional heating methods.
Supel'nyak, M. I.
2017-11-01
Features of calculation of temperature oscillations which are damped in a surface layer of a solid and which are having a small range in comparison with range of temperature of the fluid medium surrounding the solid at heat transfer coefficient changing in time under the periodic law are considered. For the specified case the equations for approximate definition of constant and oscillating components of temperature field of a solid are received. The possibility of use of appropriately chosen steady-state coefficient when calculating the temperature oscillations instead of unsteady heat-transfer coefficient is investigated. Dependence for definition of such equivalent constant heat-transfer coefficient is determined. With its help the research of temperature oscillations of solids with canonical form for some specific conditions of heat transfer is undertaken. Comparison of the obtained data with results of exact solutions of a problem of heat conductivity by which the limits to applicability of the offered approach are defined is carried out.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marija Macenić
2018-01-01
Full Text Available At three locations in Zagreb, classical and extended thermal response test (TRT was conducted on installed coaxial heat exchangers. With classic TR test, thermogeological properties of the ground and thermal resistance of the borehole were determined at each location. It is seen that thermal conductivity of the ground varies, due to difference in geological profile of the sites. In addition, experimental research of steady-state thermal response step test (SSTRST was carried out to determine heat rejection rates for passive and active cooling in steady state regime. Results showed that heat rejection rate is only between 8-11 W/m, which indicates that coaxial system is not suitable for passive cooling demands. Furthermore, the heat pump in passive cooling mode uses additional plate heat exchanger where there is additional temperature drop of working fluid by approximately 1,5 °C. Therefore, steady-state rejection rate for passive cooling is even lower for a real case project. Coaxial heat exchanger should be always designed for an active cooling regime with an operation of a heat pump compressor in a classical vapour compression refrigeration cycle.
Steady state in a gas of inelastic rough spheres heated by a uniform stochastic force
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vega Reyes, Francisco, E-mail: fvega@unex.es; Santos, Andrés, E-mail: andres@unex.es [Departamento de Física and Instituto de Computación Científica Avanzada (ICCAEx), Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)
2015-11-15
We study here the steady state attained in a granular gas of inelastic rough spheres that is subject to a spatially uniform random volume force. The stochastic force has the form of the so-called white noise and acts by adding impulse to the particle translational velocities. We work out an analytical solution of the corresponding velocity distribution function from a Sonine polynomial expansion that displays energy non-equipartition between the translational and rotational modes, translational and rotational kurtoses, and translational-rotational velocity correlations. By comparison with a numerical solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation (by means of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method), we show that our analytical solution provides a good description that is quantitatively very accurate in certain ranges of inelasticity and roughness. We also find three important features that make the forced granular gas steady state very different from the homogeneous cooling state (attained by an unforced granular gas). First, the marginal velocity distributions are always close to a Maxwellian. Second, there is a continuous transition to the purely smooth limit (where the effects of particle rotations are ignored). And third, the angular translational-rotational velocity correlations show a preference for a quasiperpendicular mutual orientation (which is called “lifted-tennis-ball” behavior)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolios, M.C.; Worthington, A.E.; Hunt, J.W.; Holdsworth, D.W.; Sherar, M.D.
1999-01-01
Temperature distributions measured during thermal therapy are a major prognostic factor of the efficacy and success of the procedure. Thermal models are used to predict the temperature elevation of tissues during heating. Theoretical work has shown that blood flow through large blood vessels plays an important role in determining temperature profiles of heated tissues. In this paper, an experimental investigation of the effects of large vessels on the temperature distribution of heated tissue is performed. The blood flow dependence of steady state and transient temperature profiles created by a cylindrical conductive heat source and an ultrasound transducer were examined using a fixed porcine kidney as a flow model. In the transient experiments, a 20 s pulse of hot water, 30 deg. C above ambient, heated the tissues. Temperatures were measured at selected locations in steps of 0.1 mm. It was observed that vessels could either heat or cool tissues depending on the orientation of the vascular geometry with respect to the heat source and that these effects are a function of flow rate through the vessels. Temperature gradients of 6 deg. C mm -1 close to large vessels were routinely measured. Furthermore, it was observed that the temperature gradients caused by large vessels depended on whether the heating source was highly localized (i.e. a hot needle) or more distributed (i.e. external ultrasound). The gradients measured near large vessels during localized heating were between two and three times greater than the gradients measured during ultrasound heating at the same location, for comparable flows. Moreover, these gradients were more sensitive to flow variations for the localized needle heating. X-ray computed tomography data of the kidney vasculature were in good spatial agreement with the locations of all of the temperature variations measured. The three-dimensional vessel path observed could account for the complex features of the temperature profiles. The flow
Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Nagaraj, Ben A.; Bruce, Robert W.
2000-01-01
The thermal conductivity of electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) Zr02-8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was determined by a steady-state heat flux laser technique. Thermal conductivity change kinetics of the EB-PVD ceramic coatings were also obtained in real time, at high temperatures, under the laser high heat flux, long term test conditions. The thermal conductivity increase due to micro-pore sintering and the decrease due to coating micro-delaminations in the EB-PVD coatings were evaluated for grooved and non-grooved EB-PVD coating systems under isothermal and thermal cycling conditions. The coating failure modes under the high heat flux test conditions were also investigated. The test technique provides a viable means for obtaining coating thermal conductivity data for use in design, development, and life prediction for engine applications.
The steady-state tokamak program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Politzer, D.A.; Nevins, W.M.
1992-01-01
This paper reports on a steady-state tokamak experiment (STE) needed to develop the technology and physics data base required for construction of a steady-state fusion power demonstration reactor in the early 21st century. The STE will provide an integrated facility for the development and demonstration of steady-state and particle handling, low-activation high-heat-flux components and materials, efficient current drive, and continuous plasma performance in steady-state, with reactor-like plasma conditions under severe conditions of heat and particle bombardment of the wall. The STE facility will also be used to develop operation and control scenarios for ITER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herszage, A.; Toren, M.
1998-01-01
Estimation of operating conditions for fossil fuel boiler heat exchangers is often required due to changes in working conditions, design modifications and especially for monitoring performance and failure diagnosis. Regular heat exchangers in fossil fuel boilers are composed of tube banks through which water or steam flow, while hot combustion (flue) gases flow outside the tubes. This work presents a top-down approach to operating conditions estimation based on field measurements. An example for a 350 MW unit superheater is thoroughly discussed. Integral calculations based on measurements for all unit heat exchangers (reheaters, superheaters) were performed first. Based on these calculations a scheme of integral conservation equations (lumped parameter) was then formulated at the single tube level. Steady state temperatures of superheater tube walls were obtained as a main output, and were compared to the maximum allowable operating temperatures of the tubes material. A combined lumped parameter - CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics, FLUENT code) approach constitutes an efficient tool in certain cases. A brief report of such a case is given for another unit superheater. We conclude that steady state evaluations based on both integral and detailed simulations are a valuable monitoring and diagnosis tool for the power generation industry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagarajan, Vijaisri; Chen, Yitung; Wang, Qiuwang; Ma, Ting
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Rip saw fin design is considered to be the best because it has thin fins and has higher heat transfer coefficient. • Minimum principal stress and maximum safety factor are obtained for the inverted bolt fin design. • Maximum principal stress and minimum safety factor are obtained for triangular fin design. • Thermal stress has significant impact than mechanical stress. • High principal stress is found at the startup and shutdown stage. - Abstract: In this study three-dimensional model of ceramic plate-fin high temperature heat exchanger with different fin designs and arrangements is analyzed numerically using ANSYS FLUENT and ANSYS structural module. The ability of ceramics to withstand high temperature and corrosion makes silicon carbide (SiC) suitable candidate material to be used in high temperature heat exchanger. The operating temperature of heat exchanger is 950 °C and the operating pressure is 1.5 MPa. The working fluids are helium, sulfur trioxide, sulfur dioxide, oxygen and the water vapor. Fluid flow and heat transfer analysis are carried out for steady and transient state in FLUENT. The obtained thermal and pressure load for the steady and transient state from ANSYS FLUENT are imported to ANSYS structural module to obtain the principal stress and the factor of safety. Different arrangements of rectangular fins, triangular fins, inverted bolt fins and ripsaw fins are studied. From the results it is found that the minimum stress and the maximum safety factor are obtained for inverted bolt fins. The triangular fins have the maximum principal stress and minimum factor of safety. However, the fluid flow and heat transfer analysis show inverted bolt fins and triangular fins produce higher pressure drop and friction factor. The steady state maximum principal stress is 10.08 MPa, 9.90 MPa and 11.43 MPa for straight, staggered and top and bottom ripsaw fin arrangement. The corresponding safety factors are 21.80, 21.95 and 19
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, R.R.; Lu, X.S.; Li, S.Z.; Lin, W.S.; Gu, A.Z.
2005-01-01
In this study, the heating performance of a gas engine driven air to water heat pump was analyzed using a steady state model. The thermodynamic model of a natural gas engine is identified by the experimental data and the compressor model is created by several empirical equations. The heat exchanger models are developed by the theory of heat balance. The system model is validated by comparing the experimental and simulation data, which shows good agreement. To understand the heating characteristic in detail, the performance of the system is analyzed in a wide range of operating conditions, and especially the effect of engine waste heat on the heating performance is discussed. The results show that engine waste heat can provide about 1/3 of the total heating capacity in this gas engine driven air to water heat pump. The performance of the engine, heat pump and integral system are analyzed under variations of engine speed and ambient temperature. It shows that engine speed has remarkable effects on both the engine and heat pump, but ambient temperature has little influence on the engine's performance. The system and component performances in variable speed operating conditions is also discussed at the end of the paper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shepherd, I.M.
1982-01-01
The computer code BUSH has been developed for the calculation of steady state heat transfer in a rod bundle. For a given power, flow and geometry it can calculate the temperatures in the rods, coolant and shroud assuming that at any axial level each rod can be described by one temperature and the coolant fluid is also radially uniform at this level. Heat transfer by convection and radiation are handled and the geometry is flexible enough to model nearly all types of envisaged shroud design for the SUPERSARA test series. The modular way in which BUSH has been written makes it suitable for future development, either within the present BUSH framework or as part of a more advanced code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia Liang; Chan, M.Y.; Deng Shiming
2008-01-01
A complete set of calculation method for steady-state equipment sensible heat ratio (SHR) for a direct expansion (DX) cooling coil has been developed and reported. The method was based on the fundamentals of energy conservation and heat and mass transfer taking place in the DX cooling coil, and was experimentally validated using an experimental DX A/C rig. With the method developed, the effect of refrigerant evaporating temperature at fixed inlet air conditions on equipment SHR has been theoretically analyzed. The validated method can be useful in further studying the inherent operating characteristics of a DX air conditioning (A/C) unit and in developing suitable control strategies for achieving higher energy efficiency and better indoor thermal environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Eui Guk; Boo, Joon Hong
2008-01-01
This study deals with a mathematical modeling for the steady-state temperature characteristics of an entire loop heat pipe. The lumped layer model was applied to each node for temperature analysis. The flat type evaporator and condenser in the model had planar dimensions of 40 mm (W) x 50 mm (L). The wick material was a sintered metal and the working fluid was methanol. The molecular kinetic theory was employed to model the phase change phenomena in the evaporator and the condenser. Liquid-vapor interface configuration was expressed by the thin film theories available in the literature. Effects of design factors of loop heat pipe on the thermal performance were investigated by the modeling proposed in this study
Steady state neutral beam injector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mattoo, S.K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Baruah, U.K.; Bisai, N.; Chakbraborty, A.K.; Chakrapani, Ch.; Jana, M.R.; Bajpai, M.; Jaykumar, P.K.; Patel, D.; Patel, G.; Patel, P.J.; Prahlad, V.; Rao, N.V.M.; Rotti, C.; Singh, N.P.; Sridhar, B.
2000-01-01
Learning from operational reliability of neutral beam injectors in particular and various heating schemes including RF in general on TFTR, JET, JT-60, it has become clear that neutral beam injectors may find a greater role assigned to them for maintaining the plasma in steady state devices under construction. Many technological solutions, integrated in the present day generation of injectors have given rise to capability of producing multimegawatt power at many tens of kV. They have already operated for integrated time >10 5 S without deterioration in the performance. However, a new generation of injectors for steady state devices have to address to some basic issues. They stem from material erosion under particle bombardment, heat transfer > 10 MW/m 2 , frequent regeneration of cryopanels, inertial power supplies, data acquisition and control of large volume of data. Some of these engineering issues have been addressed to in the proposed neutral beam injector for SST-1 at our institute; the remaining shall have to wait for the inputs of the database generated from the actual experience with steady state injectors. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murakami, Yoshiki; Itami, Kiyoshi; Sugihara, Masayoshi; Fujieda, Hirobumi.
1992-09-01
Steady-state and hybrid mode operations of ITER are investigated by 0-D power balance calculations assuming no radiation and charge-exchange cooling in divertor region. Operation points are optimized with respect to divertor heat load which must be reduced to the level of ignition mode (∼5 MW/m 2 ). Dependence of the divertor heat load on the variety of the models, i.e., constant-χ model, Bohm-type-χ model and JT-60U empirical scaling model, is also discussed. The divertor heat load increases linearly with the fusion power (P FUS ) in all models. The possible highest fusion power much differs for each model with an allowable divertor heat load. The heat load evaluated by constant-χ model is, for example, about 1.8 times larger than that by Bohm-type-χ model at P FUS = 750 MW. Effect of reduction of the helium accumulation, improvements of the confinement capability and the current-drive efficiency are also investigated aiming at lowering the divertor heat load. It is found that NBI power should be larger than about 60 MW to obtain a burn time longer than 2000 s. The optimized operation point, where the minimum divertor heat load is achieved, does not depend on the model and is the point with the minimum-P FUS and the maximum-P NBI . When P FUS = 690 MW and P NBI = 110 MW, the divertor heat load can be reduced to the level of ignition mode without impurity seeding if H = 2.2 is achieved. Controllability of the current-profile is also discussed. (J.P.N.)
The Oak Ridge Heat Pump Models: I. A Steady-State Computer Design Model of Air-to-Air Heat Pumps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fischer, S.K. Rice, C.K.
1999-12-10
The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model is a FORTRAN-IV computer program to predict the steady-state performance of conventional, vapor compression, electrically-driven, air-to-air heat pumps in both heating and cooling modes. This model is intended to serve as an analytical design tool for use by heat pump manufacturers, consulting engineers, research institutions, and universities in studies directed toward the improvement of heat pump performance. The Heat Pump Design Model allows the user to specify: system operating conditions, compressor characteristics, refrigerant flow control devices, fin-and-tube heat exchanger parameters, fan and indoor duct characteristics, and any of ten refrigerants. The model will compute: system capacity and COP (or EER), compressor and fan motor power consumptions, coil outlet air dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, air- and refrigerant-side pressure drops, a summary of the refrigerant-side states throughout the cycle, and overall compressor efficiencies and heat exchanger effectiveness. This report provides thorough documentation of how to use and/or modify the model. This is a revision of an earlier report containing miscellaneous corrections and information on availability and distribution of the model--including an interactive version.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rust, K.; Weinberg, D.; Hoffmann, H.; Frey, H.H.; Baumann, W.; Hain, K.; Leiling, W.; Hayafune, H.; Ohira, H.
1995-12-01
During the course of steady state NEPTUN investigations, the effects of different design and operating parameters were studied; in particular: The shell design of the above core sturcture, the core power, the number of decay heat exchangers put in operation, the complete flow path blockage at the primary side of the intermediate heat exchangers, and the fluid level in the primary vessel. The findings of the NEPTUN experiments indicate that the decay heat can be safely removed by natural convection. The interwrapper flow makes an essential contribution to that behavior. The decay heat exchangers installed in the upper plenum cause a thermal stratification associated with a pronounced gradient. The vertical extent of the stratification and the quantity of the gradient are depending on the fact whether a permeable or an impermeable shell covers the above core structure. An increase of the core power or a reduction of the number of decay heat exchangers being in operation leads to a higher temperature level in the primary system but does not alter the global temperature distribution. In the case that no coolant enters the inlet windows at the primary side of the intermediate and decay heat exchangers, the core remains coolable as far as the primary vessel is filled with fluid up to a minimum level. Cold water penetrates from the upper plenum into the core and removes the decay heat. The thermal hydraulic computer code FLUTAN was applied for the three-dimensional numerical simulation of the majority of NEPTUN tests reported here. The comparison of computed against experimental data indicates a qualitatively and quantitatively satisfying agreement of the findings with respect to the field of isotherms as well as the temperature profiles in the upper plenum and within the core region of very complex geometry. (orig./HP) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarboe, T.R.
1982-01-01
A major effort is being made in the national program to make the operation of axisymmetric, toroidal confinement systems steady state by the application of expensive rf current drive. Described here is a method by which such a confinement system, the spheromak, can be refluxed indefinitely through the application of dc power. As a step towards dc sustainment we have operated the present CTX source in the slow source mode with a longer power application time (approx. 0.1 ms) and successfully generated long-lived spheromaks. If the erosion of the electrodes can be controlled as well as it is with MPD arcs then dc operation should be very clean. If only a small fraction (approx. 10% for an experiment) of the poloidal flux of the spheromak connects to the source then the dc sustainment can be very efficient. The amount of connecting flux that is necessary for sustainment needs to be determined experimentally
Comparative analysis of steady state heat transfer in a TBC and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
C, corrosion problems assume significance and protective coatings ... heat transfer studies for FGMs have been conducted by various researchers .... Figure 2. FGM model of turbine blade with profile of NACA0012 airfoil. .... A series of simulation runs for the FEM model for typical gas turbine ..... Intl. J. Heat and Fluid Flow.
A multipoint flux approximation of the steady-state heat conduction equation in anisotropic media
Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu; El-Amin, M. F.
2013-01-01
In this work, we introduce multipoint flux (MF) approximation method to the problem of conduction heat transfer in anisotropic media. In such media, the heat flux vector is no longer coincident with the temperature gradient vector. In this case, thermal conductivity is described as a second order tensor that usually requires, at least, six quantities to be fully defined in general three-dimensional problems. The two-point flux finite differences approximation may not handle such anisotropy and essentially more points need to be involved to describe the heat flux vector. In the framework of mixed finite element method (MFE), the MFMFE methods are locally conservative with continuous normal fluxes. We consider the lowest order Brezzi-Douglas-Marini (BDM) mixed finite element method with a special quadrature rule that allows for nodal velocity elimination resulting in a cell-centered system for the temperature. We show comparisons with some analytical solution of the problem of conduction heat transfer in anisotropic long strip. We also consider the problem of heat conduction in a bounded, rectangular domain with different anisotropy scenarios. It is noticed that the temperature field is significantly affected by such anisotropy scenarios. Also, the technique used in this work has shown that it is possible to use the finite difference settings to handle heat transfer in anisotropic media. In this case, heat flux vectors, for the case of rectangular mesh, generally require six points to be described. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.
A multipoint flux approximation of the steady-state heat conduction equation in anisotropic media
Salama, Amgad
2013-03-20
In this work, we introduce multipoint flux (MF) approximation method to the problem of conduction heat transfer in anisotropic media. In such media, the heat flux vector is no longer coincident with the temperature gradient vector. In this case, thermal conductivity is described as a second order tensor that usually requires, at least, six quantities to be fully defined in general three-dimensional problems. The two-point flux finite differences approximation may not handle such anisotropy and essentially more points need to be involved to describe the heat flux vector. In the framework of mixed finite element method (MFE), the MFMFE methods are locally conservative with continuous normal fluxes. We consider the lowest order Brezzi-Douglas-Marini (BDM) mixed finite element method with a special quadrature rule that allows for nodal velocity elimination resulting in a cell-centered system for the temperature. We show comparisons with some analytical solution of the problem of conduction heat transfer in anisotropic long strip. We also consider the problem of heat conduction in a bounded, rectangular domain with different anisotropy scenarios. It is noticed that the temperature field is significantly affected by such anisotropy scenarios. Also, the technique used in this work has shown that it is possible to use the finite difference settings to handle heat transfer in anisotropic media. In this case, heat flux vectors, for the case of rectangular mesh, generally require six points to be described. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.
Lee, A. Y.
1967-01-01
Computer program calculates the steady state fluid distribution, temperature rise, and pressure drop of a coolant, the material temperature distribution of a heat generating solid, and the heat flux distributions at the fluid-solid interfaces. It performs the necessary iterations automatically within the computer, in one machine run.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zushi, H.; Sakamoto, M.; Hanada, K.; Iyomasa, A.; Nakamura, K.; Sato, K.N.; Idei, H.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Hasegawa, M.; Matsuo, Y.; Kuramoto, K.; Sugata, T.; Maezono, N.; Hoshika, H.; Sasaki, K.
2004-01-01
Plasma wall interaction (PWI) driven relaxation oscillations are investigated in the steady state discharge for 5 hours. The oscillation frequency was about 10 -3 Hz and each perturbation lasted for about 300 s. The heat load, recycling flux and impurity influx were varied from a few % to several tens of %. The largest variation of 70% was seen on the Mo XIII (molybdenum), although the influx of Mo I was only 20 %. Although the input rf power is kept constant during the discharge, the coupling between the rf and plasma was increased by about 10%. The current drive efficiency is decreased by 24 % in spite of current ramp. The toroidal and poloidal profiles of the recycling flux were also changed. During the last relaxation phase, the plasma was finally terminated. The current reduction (> 4 kA) was not recovered by intense local perturbation of the recycling superposed on the relaxation oscillation. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zushi, H.; Sakamoto, M.; Hanada, K.; Iyomasa, A.; Nakamura, K.; Sato, K.N.; Idei, H.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Hasegawa, M. [Kyushu Univ., Research Institute for Applied Mechanics (Japan); Matsuo, Y.; Kuramoto, K.; Sugata, T.; Maezono, N.; Hoshika, H.; Sasaki, K. [Kyushu Univ., Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences (Japan)
2004-07-01
Plasma wall interaction (PWI) driven relaxation oscillations are investigated in the steady state discharge for 5 hours. The oscillation frequency was about 10{sup -3} Hz and each perturbation lasted for about 300 s. The heat load, recycling flux and impurity influx were varied from a few % to several tens of %. The largest variation of 70% was seen on the Mo XIII (molybdenum), although the influx of Mo I was only 20 %. Although the input rf power is kept constant during the discharge, the coupling between the rf and plasma was increased by about 10%. The current drive efficiency is decreased by 24 % in spite of current ramp. The toroidal and poloidal profiles of the recycling flux were also changed. During the last relaxation phase, the plasma was finally terminated. The current reduction (> 4 kA) was not recovered by intense local perturbation of the recycling superposed on the relaxation oscillation. (authors)
Combined impact of transient heat loads and steady-state plasma exposure on tungsten
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huber, Alexander, E-mail: A.Huber@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Wirtz, Marius; Sergienko, Gennady; Steudel, Isabel [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Arakcheev, Aleksey; Burdakov, Aleksander [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Esser, Hans Guenter; Freisinger, Michaele; Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Linsmeier, Christian; Mertens, Philippe; Möller, Sören; Philipps, Volker; Pintsuk, Gerald; Reinhart, Michael; Schweer, Bernd [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Shoshin, Andrey [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Terra, Alexis; Unterberg, Bernhard [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, 52425 Jülich (Germany)
2015-10-15
Highlights: • W-samples under combined loading conditions show a lower damage threshold. • The pre-loaded W-samples show a lower damage threshold due to the D- embrittlement. • Pronounced increase of the D retention has been observed during the combined loads. • Enhanced blister formation has been observed under combined loading conditions. - Abstract: Cracking thresholds and crack patterns in tungsten targets have been studied in recent experiments after repetitive ITER-like ELM heat pulses in combination with plasma exposure in PSI-2 (Γ{sub target} = 2.5–4.0 × 10{sup 21} m{sup −2} s{sup −1}, ion energy on surface E{sub ion} = 60 eV, T{sub e} ≈ 10 eV). The heat pulses were simulated by laser irradiation. A Nd:YAG laser with energy per pulse of up to 32 J and a duration of 1 ms at the fundamental wavelength (λ = 1064 nm, repetition rate 0.5 Hz) was used to irradiate ITER-grade W samples with repetitive heat loads. In contrast to pure thermal exposure with a laser beam where the damage threshold under pure heat loads for ITER-grade W lies between 0.38 and 0.76 GW/m{sup 2}, the experiments with pre-loaded W-samples as well as under combined loading conditions show a lower damage threshold of 0.3 GW/m{sup 2}. This is probably due to deuterium embrittlement and/or a higher defect concentration in a region close to the surface due to supersaturation with deuterium. A pronounced increase in the D retention (more than a factor of five) has been observed during the combined transient heat loads and plasma exposure. Enhanced blister formation has been observed under these combined loading conditions.
Combined impact of transient heat loads and steady-state plasma exposure on tungsten
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huber, Alexander; Wirtz, Marius; Sergienko, Gennady; Steudel, Isabel; Arakcheev, Aleksey; Burdakov, Aleksander; Esser, Hans Guenter; Freisinger, Michaele; Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Linsmeier, Christian; Mertens, Philippe; Möller, Sören; Philipps, Volker; Pintsuk, Gerald; Reinhart, Michael; Schweer, Bernd; Shoshin, Andrey; Terra, Alexis; Unterberg, Bernhard
2015-01-01
Highlights: • W-samples under combined loading conditions show a lower damage threshold. • The pre-loaded W-samples show a lower damage threshold due to the D- embrittlement. • Pronounced increase of the D retention has been observed during the combined loads. • Enhanced blister formation has been observed under combined loading conditions. - Abstract: Cracking thresholds and crack patterns in tungsten targets have been studied in recent experiments after repetitive ITER-like ELM heat pulses in combination with plasma exposure in PSI-2 (Γ_t_a_r_g_e_t = 2.5–4.0 × 10"2"1 m"−"2 s"−"1, ion energy on surface E_i_o_n = 60 eV, T_e ≈ 10 eV). The heat pulses were simulated by laser irradiation. A Nd:YAG laser with energy per pulse of up to 32 J and a duration of 1 ms at the fundamental wavelength (λ = 1064 nm, repetition rate 0.5 Hz) was used to irradiate ITER-grade W samples with repetitive heat loads. In contrast to pure thermal exposure with a laser beam where the damage threshold under pure heat loads for ITER-grade W lies between 0.38 and 0.76 GW/m"2, the experiments with pre-loaded W-samples as well as under combined loading conditions show a lower damage threshold of 0.3 GW/m"2. This is probably due to deuterium embrittlement and/or a higher defect concentration in a region close to the surface due to supersaturation with deuterium. A pronounced increase in the D retention (more than a factor of five) has been observed during the combined transient heat loads and plasma exposure. Enhanced blister formation has been observed under these combined loading conditions.
Computer simulation of steady-state performance of air-to-air heat pumps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ellison, R D; Creswick, F A
1978-03-01
A computer model by which the performance of air-to-air heat pumps can be simulated is described. The intended use of the model is to evaluate analytically the improvements in performance that can be effected by various component improvements. The model is based on a trio of independent simulation programs originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Heat Transfer Laboratory. The three programs have been combined so that user intervention and decision making between major steps of the simulation are unnecessary. The program was further modified by substituting a new compressor model and adding a capillary tube model, both of which are described. Performance predicted by the computer model is shown to be in reasonable agreement with performance data observed in our laboratory. Planned modifications by which the utility of the computer model can be enhanced in the future are described. User instructions and a FORTRAN listing of the program are included.
Steady state simulation of Joule heated ceramic melter for vitrification of high level liquid waste
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sugilal, G; Wattal, P K; Theyyunni, T K [Process Engineering and Systems Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Iyer, K N [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Inst. of Tech., Mumbai (India)
1994-06-01
The Joule heated ceramic melter is emerging as an attractive alternative to metallic melters for high level waste vitrification. The inherent limitations with metallic melters viz., low capacity and short melter life, are overcome in a ceramic melter which can be adopted for continuous mode of operation. The ceramic melter has the added advantage of better operational flexibility. This paper describes the three dimensional model used for simulating the complex design conditions of the ceramic melter. (author).
Steady state simulation of Joule heated ceramic melter for vitrification of high level liquid waste
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugilal, G.; Wattal, P.K.; Theyyunni, T.K.; Iyer, K.N.
1994-01-01
The Joule heated ceramic melter is emerging as an attractive alternative to metallic melters for high level waste vitrification. The inherent limitations with metallic melters viz., low capacity and short melter life, are overcome in a ceramic melter which can be adopted for continuous mode of operation. The ceramic melter has the added advantage of better operational flexibility. This paper describes the three dimensional model used for simulating the complex design conditions of the ceramic melter. (author)
Poli, Francesca
2012-10-01
Steady state scenarios envisaged for ITER aim at optimizing the bootstrap current, while maintaining sufficient confinement and stability to provide the necessary fusion yield. Non-inductive scenarios will need to operate with Internal Transport Barriers (ITBs) in order to reach adequate fusion gain at typical currents of 9 MA. However, the large pressure gradients associated with ITBs in regions of weak or negative magnetic shear can be conducive to ideal MHD instabilities in a wide range of βN, reducing the no-wall limit. Scenarios are established as relaxed flattop states with time-dependent transport simulations with TSC [1]. Fully non-inductive configurations with current in the range of 7-10 MA and various heating mixes (NB, EC, IC and LH) have been studied against variations of the pressure profile peaking and of the Greenwald fraction. It is found that stable equilibria have qmin> 2 and moderate ITBs at 2/3 of the minor radius [2]. The ExB flow shear from toroidal plasma rotation is expected to be low in ITER, with a major role in the ITB dynamics being played by magnetic geometry. Combinations of H&CD sources that maintain reverse or weak magnetic shear profiles throughout the discharge and ρ(qmin)>=0.5 are the focus of this work. The ITER EC upper launcher, designed for NTM control, can provide enough current drive off-axis to sustain moderate ITBs at mid-radius and maintain a non-inductive current of 8-9MA and H98>=1.5 with the day one heating mix. LH heating and current drive is effective in modifying the current profile off-axis, facilitating the formation of stronger ITBs in the rampup phase, their sustainment at larger radii and larger bootstrap fraction. The implications for steady state operation and fusion performance are discussed.[4pt] [1] Jardin S.C. et al, J. Comput. Phys. 66 (1986) 481[0pt] [2] Poli F.M. et al, Nucl. Fusion 52 (2012) 063027.
Analytical method for steady state heat transfer in two-dimensional porous media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siegal, R.; Goldstein, M.E.
1970-07-01
A general technique has been devised for obtaining exact solutions for the heat transfer behavior of a 2- dimensional porous cooled medium. Fluid flows through the porous medium from a reservoir at constant pressure and temperature to a second reservoir at a lower pressure. For the type of flow involved, the surfaces of the porous region that are each at constant pressure are boundaries of constant velocity potential. This fact is used to map the porous region into a strip bounded by parallel potential lines in a complex potential plane. The energy equation, derived by assuming the local matrix and fluid temperatures are equal, is transformed into a separable equation when its independent variables are changed to the coordinates of the potential plane. This allows the general solution for the temperature distribution to be found in the potential plane. The solution is then mapped into the physical plane to yield the heat transfer characteristics of the porous region. An example problem of a porous wall having a step in thickness and a specified surface temperature or heat flux is worked out in detail.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tereshin, V I [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Bandura, A N [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Byrka, O V [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Chebotarev, V V [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Garkusha, I E [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Landman, I [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Makhlaj, V A [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Neklyudov, I M [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Solyakov, D G [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Tsarenko, A V [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine)
2007-05-15
The paper presents the investigations of high power plasma interaction with material surfaces under conditions simulating the ITER disruptions and type I ELMs. Different materials were exposed to plasma with repetitive pulses of 250 {mu}s duration, the ion energy of up to 0.6 keV, and the heat loads varying in the 0.5-25 MJ m{sup -2} range. The plasma energy transfer to the material surface versus impact load has been analysed. The fraction of plasma energy that is absorbed by the target surface is rapidly decreased with the achievement of the evaporation onset for exposed targets. The distributions of evaporated material in front of the target surface and the thickness of the shielding layer are found to be strongly dependent on the target atomic mass. The surface analysis of tungsten targets exposed to quasi-steady-state plasma accelerators plasma streams is presented together with measurements of the melting onset load and evaporation threshold, and also of erosion patterns with increasing heat load and the number of plasma pulses.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nygren, R.; Koski, J.; Lutz, T.; McGrath; Miller, J.; Watkins, J.; Guilhem, D.; Chappuis, P.; Cordier, J.; Loarer, T.
1995-01-01
Tore Supra's Phase III outboard pump limiter (OPL) is a modular actively-cooled mid-plane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long pulse operation. During its initial operation in 1993, the OPL successfully removed about 1 MW of power during ohmicly heated shots of up to 10 s duration and reached (steady state) thermal equilibrium. The particle pumping of the Phase III OPL was found to be about 50% greater than the Phase II OPL which had a radial distance between the last closed flux surface and the entrance of the pumping throat of 3.5 cm compared with only 2.5 cm for the Phase III OPL. This paper gives examples of power distribution over the limiter from IR measurements of surface temperature and from extensively calorimetry (34 thermocouples and 10 flow meters) and compares the distributions with values predicted by a 3D model (HF3D) with a detailed magnetic configuration (e.g., includes field ripple). ((orig.))
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Won Pyo; Ha, Kwi Seok; Jeong, Hae Yong; Kwon, Young Min; Eoh, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Yong Bum
2003-06-01
A sodium circuit has usually featured for a Liquid Metal Reactor(LMR) using sodium as coolant to remove the decay heat ultimately under accidental conditions because of its high reliability. Most of the system codes used for a Light Water Reactor(LWR) analysis is capable of calculating natural circulation within such circuit, but the code currently used for the LMR analysis does not feature stand alone capability to simulate the natural circulation flow inside the circuit due to its application limitation. To this end, the present study has been carried out because the natural circulation analysis for such the circuit is realistically raised for the design with a new concept. The steady state modeling is presented in this paper, development of a transient model is also followed to close the study. The incompressibility assumption of sodium which allow the circuit to be modeled with a single flow, makes the model greatly simplified. Models such as a heat exchanger developed in the study can be effectively applied to other system analysis codes which require such component models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumazawa, R.; Mutoh, T.; Saito, K.
2008-10-01
A long pulse plasma discharge experiment was carried out using RF heating power in the Large Helical Device (LHD), a currentless magnetic confining system. Progress in long pulse operation is summarized since the 10th experimental campaign (2006). A scaling relation of the plasma duration time to the applied RF power has been derived from the experimental data so far collected. It indicates that there exists a critical divertor temperature and consequently a critical RF heating power P RFcrit =0.65 MW. The area on the graph of the duration time versus the RF heating power was extended over the scaling relation by replacing divertor plates with new ones with better heat conductivity. The cause of the plasma collapse at the end of the long pulse operation was found to be the penetration of metal impurities. Many thin flakes consisting of heavy metals and graphite in stratified layers were found on the divertor plates and it was thought that they were the cause of impurity metals penetrating into the plasma. In a simulation involving injecting a graphite-coated Fe pellet to the plasma it was found that 230 Eμm in the diameter of the Fe pellet sphere was the critical size which led the plasma to collapse. A mode-conversion heating method was examined in place of the minority ICRF heating which has been employed in almost all the long-pulse plasma discharges. It was found that this method was much better from the viewpoint of achieving uniformity of the plasma heat load to the divertors. It is expected that P RFcrit will be increased by using the mode-conversion heating method. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Jie; Gao, Lei; Tong, Jian-fei; Mehmood, Irfan; Lu, Wen-qiang
2015-01-01
Thermal hydraulics of spallation target, which is regarded as the ‘heart’ of the accelerator driven system (ADS), is very complicated due to the flow of the heavy liquid metal, spallation reaction and the coupling. In this paper, the steady-state temperature distribution, based on the flow pattern and the heat deposition, in the windowless spallation target with various large beam intensities from 10 mA to 40 mA is obtained to be in line with the development of ADS in China. The results show that the shape of temperature distribution is the same as broken wing of the butterfly but the temperature gradient and the maximum temperature vary in proportion with beam intensity. The variation of temperature gradient in different zones is also used to figure out the effect of large beam intensity. It has been found that large radial and axial temperature gradient leads to large temperature gradient on the wall. This may cause extremely large thermal stresses which leads to structural material damage. The results may be applied to the future design and optimization of ADS in China. - Highlights: • Shape of temperature distribution is the same but temperature gradient and maximum temperature vary with intensity. • The variation of temperature gradient in different zones reveals the effect of large beam intensity. • Large radial and axial temperature gradient leads to large temperature gradient on the wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masoud, Ibrahim T.; Abdel-Jabbar, Nabil; Qasim, Muhammad; Chebbi, Rachid
2016-01-01
Highlights: • HEN total annualized cost, heat recovery, and controllability are considered in the framework. • Steady-state and dynamic simulations are performed. • Effect of bypass on total annualized cost and controllability is reported. • Optimum bypass fractions are found from closed and open-loop efforts. - Abstract: The problem of interaction between economic design and control system design of heat exchanger networks (HENs) is addressed in this work. The controllability issues are incorporated in the classical design of HENs. A new methodological framework is proposed to account for both economics and controllability of HENs. Two classical design methods are employed, namely, Pinch and superstructure designs. Controllability measures such as relative gain array (RGA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) are used. The proposed framework also presents a bypass placement strategy for optimal control of the designed network. A case study is used to test the applicability of the framework and to assess both economics and controllability. The results indicate that the superstructure design is more economical and controllable compared to the Pinch design. The controllability of the designed HEN is evaluated using Aspen-HYSYS closed-loop dynamic simulator. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed to study the effect of bypass fractions on the total annualized cost and controllability of the designed HEN. The analysis shows that increasing any bypass fraction increases the total annualized cost. However, the trend with the total annualized cost was not observed with respect to the control effort manifested by minimizing the integral of the squared errors (ISE) between the controlled stream temperatures and their targets (set-points). An optimal ISE point is found at a certain bypass fraction, which does not correspond to the minimal total annualized cost. The bypass fractions are validated via open-loop simulation and the additional cooling and
Steady-State Process Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul
2011-01-01
illustrate the “equation oriented” approach as well as the “sequential modular” approach to solving complex flowsheets for steady state applications. The applications include the Williams-Otto plant, the hydrodealkylation (HDA) of toluene, conversion of ethylene to ethanol and a bio-ethanol process....
Steady State Shift Damage Localization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sekjær, Claus; Bull, Thomas; Markvart, Morten Kusk
2017-01-01
The steady state shift damage localization (S3DL) method localizes structural deterioration, manifested as either a mass or stiffness perturbation, by interrogating the damage-induced change in the steady state vibration response with damage patterns cast from a theoretical model. Damage is, thus...... the required accuracy when examining complex structures, an extensive amount of degrees of freedom (DOF) must often be utilized. Since the interrogation matrix for each damage pattern depends on the size of the system matrices constituting the FE-model, the computational time quickly becomes of first......-order importance. The present paper investigates two sub-structuring approaches, in which the idea is to employ Craig-Bampton super-elements to reduce the amount of interrogation distributions while still providing an acceptable localization resolution. The first approach operates on a strict super-element level...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tadokoro, Yoshihiro; Seya, Toko
1977-08-01
This report describes a computational model and the input procedure of HIGHTEX, a computer program for steady-state simulation of the steam-methane reformers used in a nuclear process heat plant. The HIGHTEX program simulates rapidly a single reformer tube, and treats the reactant single-phase in the two-dimensional catalyst bed. Output of the computer program is radial distributions of temperature and reaction products in the catalyst-packed bed, pressure loss of the packed bed, stress in the reformer tube, hydrogen permeation rate through the reformer tube, heat rate of reaction, and heat-transfer rate between helium and process gas. The running time (cpu) for a 9m-long bayonet type reformer tube is 12 min with FACOM-230/75. (auth.)
Multimode optical fibers: steady state mode exciter.
Ikeda, M; Sugimura, A; Ikegami, T
1976-09-01
The steady state mode power distribution of the multimode graded index fiber was measured. A simple and effective steady state mode exciter was fabricated by an etching technique. Its insertion loss was 0.5 dB for an injection laser. Deviation in transmission characteristics of multimode graded index fibers can be avoided by using the steady state mode exciter.
Steady State versus Pulsed Tokamak DEMO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orsitto, F.P., E-mail: francesco.orsitto@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA Unita Tecnica Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Todd, T. [CCFE/Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)
2012-09-15
Full text: The present report deals with a Review of problems for a Steady state(SS) DEMO, related argument is treated about the models and the present status of comparison between the characteristics of DEMO pulsed versus a Steady state device.The studied SS DEMO Models (SLIM CS, PPCS model C EU-DEMO, ARIES-RS) are analyzed from the point of view of the similarity scaling laws and critical issues for a steady state DEMO. A comparison between steady state and pulsed DEMO is therefore carried out: in this context a new set of parameters for a pulsed (6 - 8 hours pulse) DEMO is determined working below the density limit, peak temperature of 20 keV, and requiring a modest improvement in the confinement factor(H{sub IPBy2} = 1.1) with respect to the H-mode. Both parameters density and confinement parameter are lower than the DEMO models presently considered. The concept of partially non-inductive pulsed DEMO is introduced since a pulsed DEMO needs heating and current drive tools for plasma stability and burn control. The change of the main parameter design for a DEMO working at high plasma peak temperatures T{sub e} {approx} 35 keV is analyzed: in this range the reactivity increases linearly with temperature, and a device with smaller major radius (R = 7.5 m) is compatible with high temperature. Increasing temperature is beneficial for current drive efficiency and heat load on divertor, being the synchrotron radiation one of the relevant components of the plasma emission at high temperatures and current drive efficiency increases with temperature. Technology and engineering problems are examined including efficiency and availability R&D issues for a high temperature DEMO. Fatigue and creep-fatigue effects of pulsed operations on pulsed DEMO components are considered in outline to define the R&D needed for DEMO development. (author)
Model study on steady heat capacity in driven stochastic systems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pešek, Jiří; Boksenbojm, E.; Netočný, Karel
2012-01-01
Roč. 10, č. 3 (2012), 692-701 ISSN 1895-1082 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nonequilibrium steady state * quasistatic process * heat capacity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.905, year: 2012
Steady, three-dimensional, internally heated convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schubert, G.; Glatzmaier, G.A.; Travis, B.
1993-01-01
Numerical calculations have been carried out of steady, symmetric, three-dimensional modes of convection in internally heated, infinite Prandtl number, Boussinesq fluids at a Rayleigh number of 1.4x10 4 in a spherical shell with inner/outer radius of 0.55 and in a 3x3x1 rectangular box. Multiple patterns of convection occur in both geometries. In the Cartesian geometry the patterns are dominated by cylindrical cold downflows and a broad hot upwelling. In the spherical geometry the patterns consist of cylindrical cold downwellings centered either at the vertices of a tetrahedron or the centers of the faces of a cube. The cold downflow cylinders are immersed in a background of upwelling within which there are cylindrical hot concentrations (plumes) and hot halos around the downflows. The forced hot upflow return plumes of internally heated spherical convection are fundamentally different from the buoyancy-driven plumes of heated from below convection
Santandrea, Dario; Tuccillo, Raffaele; Granieri, Pier Paolo
The heat management is a basic and fundamental aspect of the superconducting magnets used in the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Indeed, the coil temperature must be kept below the critical value, despite the heat which can be generated or deposited in the magnet during the normal operations. Therefore, this thesis work aims at determining the heating power which can be extracted from the superconducting cables of the LHC, specially through their electrical insulation which represents the main thermal barrier. An experimental measurement campaign in superfluid helium bath was performed on several samples reproducting the main LHC magnets. The heating power was generated in the sample by Joule heating and the temperature increase was measured by means of Cernox bare chip and thermocouples. An innovative instrumentation technique which also includes the in-situ calibration of the thermocouples was developed. A thorough uncertainty analysis on the overall measurement chain concluded the experimental setup. The prese...
Balakrishnan, Vivekananthan; Dinh, Toan; Phan, Hoang-Phuong; Kozeki, Takahiro; Namazu, Takahiro; Viet Dao, Dzung; Nguyen, Nam-Trung
2017-07-01
This paper reports an analytical model and its validation for a released microscale heater made of 3C-SiC thin films. A model for the equivalent electrical and thermal parameters was developed for the two-layer multi-segment heat and electric conduction. The model is based on a 1D energy equation, which considers the temperature-dependent resistivity and allows for the prediction of voltage-current and power-current characteristics of the microheater. The steady-state analytical model was validated by experimental characterization. The results, in particular the nonlinearity caused by temperature dependency, are in good agreement. The low power consumption of the order of 0.18 mW at approximately 310 K indicates the potential use of the structure as thermal sensors in portable applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fulfs, H.; Katsaounis, A.; Kreubig, M.; Minden, C. von; Orlowski, R.
1980-01-01
The results will be described in exemplary presentations completely and concluding. The experimental examination of the steady state simularity of critical heat flux (CHF) in freon 12 and water at identical PWR-5 x 15-rod bundles will show that hot rod/hot channels position as well as CHF can be transformed from model to original fluid with good accuracy. The investigated mass flow and power transients (only in freon 12) point out a definite influence of initial and boundary conditions on CHF and CHF time delay at changing rates higher than 10 to 20%/s. On the contrary simulation of primary pump failure (LOFA) shows no or only small improvement in CHF behaviour while a coupled Scram prevents from reaching the boiling crisis. (orig.) [de
TAC-3D, 3-D Steady-State and Transient Heat Transfer in X-Y-Z and R-Theta-Z Geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petersen, J.F.
1972-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: TAC3D is designed to treat transient, three-dimensional heat transfer problems. Steady-state problems are treated by considering the problem to be a transient, starting with an assumed temperature distribution and running until equilibrium conditions are established. Geometrically, the problem may be defined by either rectangular (x,y,z) or cylindrical (r,z,theta) coordinates. 2 - Method of solution: The heat conduction equation is replaced by an equivalent set of linear finite-difference equations. These are solved by an implicit alternating-direction scheme which requires a regular geometry in that the points at which temperatures are to be calculated must be in regular rows, columns, and planes. As a consequence, TAC3D is primarily suited to solve problems that roughly fit an envelope of either a rectangular parallelepiped or an incomplete right circular cylinder. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: (a) The grid plane system must be orthogonal in the rectangular or cylindrical coordinate system. Therefore, the sides of the nodal elements must also be orthogonal. The entire problem must be bounded by 6 grid planes on one of the coordinate systems. Difficulties in treating irregular boundaries can be overcome to some extent through the use of materials having specially chosen properties. (b) All radiation is treated one-dimensionally. (c) There are no provisions for thermal expansion or change of phase Such special heat transfer situations could be included by extensions of the existing programming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyd, R.D.
1981-04-01
This experimental study deals with the measurement of the heat transfer across a horizontal annulus which is formed by an inner hexagonal cylinder and an outer concentric circular cylinder. The geometry simulates, in two dimensions, a liquid metal fast breeder reactor radioactive fuel subassembly inside a shipping container. This geometry is also similar to a radioactive fuel pin inside a horizontal reactor subassembly. The objective of the experiments is to measure the local and mean heat transfer at the surface of the inner hexagonal cylinder
Steady-state pool boiling heat transfer on nicr wire surface submerged in Al2O3 nano-fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dereje Shiferaw; Hyun Sun Park; Bal Raj Sehgal
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: nano-fluids, or conventional liquids, e.g., water, with small concentration of nano-particles uniformly suspended, have attracted attention as a new heat transport medium with enhanced thermo-physical properties. Up to the present, only exploratory experiments on nano-fluids have been reported. Das et al (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 43, pp 3701-3707, 2003) conducted boiling experiments with water containing 38 nm Al 2 O 3 nano-particles. They observed deterioration in the nucleate boiling heat transfer due to the deposition of nano-particles. Boiling experiments conducted by Vassallo et al (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 47, pp 407-411, 2004) using silica nano-fluid using 0.4 mm diameter NiCr wire showed three times higher critical heat flux (CHF) and the wire traversed the film boiling region before it failed. Another independent experiment performed on 1 cm 2 square plate with a very low concentration of nano-particles ranging from 0.01 to 0.05 g/liter and at under pressure (2.89 psia), nano-fluids resulted in drastic 2∼3 times enhancement of the CHF (You and Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83. No 16, 2003). However in all the aforementioned studies no appropriate explanation of the CHF enhancement has been advanced. The measured 2-3 times higher critical heat flux for very dilute nano-fluids may have high significance if such nano-fluids could be employed in heat transport systems. Recently, we investigated the effect of nano-particles on film boiling, which governs heat transfer during accident conditions in a reactor plant, e.g., in coolability of a degraded core, or a particulate debris bed or a core melt, and in steam explosions. Our previous experiments performed on film boiling in nano-fluids having larger concentrations of 5, 10, and 20 g/liter than those in You's experiments showed that the nano-fluids lower the film boiling temperature, decrease the film boiling heat transfer and provide a much thicker and more stable film than
Steady-State Operation in Tore Supra
Hoang, G. T.; Tore Supra, Equipe
1999-11-01
The Tore Supra superconducting tokamak is devoted to steady-state operation. The CIEL (French acronym for internal component and limiter) project( LIPA, M., et al., Proc. of the 17th IEEE/NPSS Symp. on Fus. Engineering, San Diego, USA, 1997.) consists of a complete upgrade of the inner chamber of Tore Supra, planned to be installed during the year 2000. This project will allow physics scenarios with up to 24 MW of radio frequency heating and current drive (typically 8 - 10 MW of ICRF, 10 - 12 MW of LHCD and 2 MW of ECRF) in stationary plasmas up to 1000 s, with active particle control. This paper presents an overview of the experiments planned to explore the properties, such as the confinement and MHD stability, of various heating and current drive scenarios for long duration discharges. The expected performance for the CIEL phase is also reported.
Steady-state and dynamic modelling of a 1 MWel commercial waste heat recovery ORC power plant
Andritsos, George; Desideri, Adriano; Gantiez, Clement; Lemort, Vincent; Quoilin, Sylvain
2016-01-01
ORC power systems have been proven to be a mature technology for low quality waste heat recovery applications. ORC units stand out for their simple structure, reliability and cost- effectiveness. The non-constant nature of the energy source requires the ORC power unit to be flexible. Dynamic modelling can be adopted to evaluate and optimize the response time of a system in case of transient conditions, to develop and test control strategies, to support the tuning of the controller and to supp...
Steady parallel flow in an evaporating fluid heated from sidewalls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Kausik S.
2009-01-01
Evaporation is ubiquitous in nature, but very few attempts have been made in the past to couple the effects of evaporation with fluid flow behavior. In this theoretical paper we have discussed the effects of evaporation on the dynamics of steady state thermocapillary convection in a two-dimensional rectangular container. The liquid is heated by differentially heated sidewalls and mass loss from the interface due to evaporation is compensated by the liquid entering into the container through a lower inlet, thus keeping the thickness of the liquid layer constant. We show that for an evaporating liquid one can obtain a plane parallel base state profile which depends on the evaporative mass flux.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melese d'Hospital, G.B.
1979-10-01
General expressions for steady state temperatures and elastic thermal stress distributions are derived for a hollow fuel element cooled on both sides. The main simplifying assumptions consist of one dimensional heat transfer and a single medium. Dimensionless numerical results are plotted in the case of uniform internal heat generation and for constant thermal conductivity. Solid rods and flat plates are treated as special cases. As could be expected, cooling on both sides rather than on only one side, leads to significant reduction in maximum fuel temperature and thermal stresses for a given power density, or to a significant increase in power density for either given maximum temperature drop in the fuel or for maximum tensile thermal stress. Typically, for a rod diameter ratio of 2, the power density could be increased by a factor of 3 to 4 without increasing the maximum stress. Similarly, for the same power density, replacing internal cooling of a hollow fuel element by external cooling reduces the maximum fuel temperature drop by a factor of 1.5 and the average fuel temperature drop (or maximum tensile stress) by a factor of 2, with the same maximum compressive stress
Quantum thermodynamics of nanoscale steady states far from equilibrium
Taniguchi, Nobuhiko
2018-04-01
We develop an exact quantum thermodynamic description for a noninteracting nanoscale steady state that couples strongly with multiple reservoirs. We demonstrate that there exists a steady-state extension of the thermodynamic function that correctly accounts for the multiterminal Landauer-Büttiker formula of quantum transport of charge, energy, or heat via the nonequilibrium thermodynamic relations. Its explicit form is obtained for a single bosonic or fermionic level in the wide-band limit, and corresponding thermodynamic forces (affinities) are identified. Nonlinear generalization of the Onsager reciprocity relations are derived. We suggest that the steady-state thermodynamic function is also capable of characterizing the heat current fluctuations of the critical transport where the thermal fluctuations dominate. Also, the suggested nonequilibrium steady-state thermodynamic relations seemingly persist for a spin-degenerate single level with local interaction.
New Tore Supra steady state operating scenario
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, G.; Parlange, F.; van Houtte, D.; Wijnands, T.
1995-01-01
This document deals with plasma control in steady state conditions. A new plasma control systems enabling feedback control of global plasma equilibrium parameters has been developed. It also enables to operate plasma discharge in steady state regime. (TEC). 4 refs., 5 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1988-01-01
Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-01-01
Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems
A design of steady state fusion burner
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, Akira; Hatori, Tadatsugu; Itoh, Kimitaka; Ikuta, Takashi; Kodama, Yuji.
1975-01-01
We present a brief design of a steady state fusion burner in which a continuous burning of nuclear fuel may be achieved with output power of a gigawatt. The laser fusion is proposed to ignite the fuel. (auth.)
Pellet injectors for steady state plasma fuelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vinyar, I.; Geraud, A.; Yamada, H.; Lukin, A.; Sakamoto, R.; Skoblikov, S.; Umov, A.; Oda, Y.; Gros, G.; Krasilnikov, I.; Reznichenko, P.; Panchenko, V.
2005-01-01
Successful steady state operation of a fusion reactor should be supported by repetitive pellet injection of solidified hydrogen isotopes in order to produce high performance plasmas. This paper presents pneumatic pellet injectors and its implementation for long discharge on the LHD and TORE SUPRA, and a new centrifuge pellet injector test results. All injectors are fitted with screw extruders well suited for steady state operation
Progress towards Steady State on NSTX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gates, D.A.; Kessel, C.; Menard, J.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J.R.
2005-01-01
In order to reduce recirculating power fraction to acceptable levels, the spherical torus concept relies on the simultaneous achievement of high toroidal β and high bootstrap fraction in steady state. In the last year, as a result of plasma control system improvements, the achievable plasma elongation on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been raised from κ ∼ 2.1 to κ ∼ 2.6--approximately a 25% increase. This increase in elongation has lead to a doubling increase in the toroidal β for long-pulse discharges. The increase in β is associated with an increase in plasma current at nearly fixed poloidal β, which enables higher β t with nearly constant bootstrap fraction. As a result, for the first time in a spherical torus, a discharge with a plasma current of 1 MA has been sustained for 1 second. Data is presented from NSTX correlating the increase in performance with increased plasma shaping capability. In addition to improved shaping, H-modes induced during the current ramp phase of the plasma discharge have been used to reduce flux consumption during and to delay the onset of MHD instabilities. A modeled integrated scenario, which has 100% non-inductive current drive with very high toroidal β, will also be presented. The NSTX poloidal field coils are currently being modified to produce the plasma shape which is required for this scenario, which requires high triangularity ((delta) ∼ 0.8) at elevated elongation (κ ∼ 2.5). The other main requirement for steady state on NSTX is the ability to drive a fraction of the total plasma current with radio-frequency waves. The results of High Harmonic Fast Wave heating and current drive studies as well as electron Bernstein Wave emission studies will be presented
The Opportunities of Steady State.
Sillars, Malcolm O.
Recent restrictions in funds made available to higher education, reinforced by declining birth rates and slowing or falling enrollments, are forcing an adjustment of thinking by educators. The growth of the last 20 years was not the normal state of higher education. Educators have come to think that bigger is better as enrollments and faculty have…
Fluctuations When Driving Between Nonequilibrium Steady States
Riechers, Paul M.; Crutchfield, James P.
2017-08-01
Maintained by environmental fluxes, biological systems are thermodynamic processes that operate far from equilibrium without detailed-balanced dynamics. Yet, they often exhibit well defined nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). More importantly, critical thermodynamic functionality arises directly from transitions among their NESSs, driven by environmental switching. Here, we identify the constraints on excess heat and dissipated work necessary to control a system that is kept far from equilibrium by background, uncontrolled "housekeeping" forces. We do this by extending the Crooks fluctuation theorem to transitions among NESSs, without invoking an unphysical dual dynamics. This and corresponding integral fluctuation theorems determine how much work must be expended when controlling systems maintained far from equilibrium. This generalizes thermodynamic feedback control theory, showing that Maxwellian Demons can leverage mesoscopic-state information to take advantage of the excess energetics in NESS transitions. We also generalize an approach recently used to determine the work dissipated when driving between functionally relevant configurations of an active energy-consuming complex system. Altogether, these results highlight universal thermodynamic laws that apply to the accessible degrees of freedom within the effective dynamic at any emergent level of hierarchical organization. By way of illustration, we analyze a voltage-gated sodium ion channel whose molecular conformational dynamics play a critical functional role in propagating action potentials in mammalian neuronal membranes.
Implications of steady-state operation on divertor design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sevier, D.L.; Reis, E.E.; Baxi, C.B.; Silke, G.W.; Wong, C.P.C.; Hill, D.N.
1996-01-01
As fusion experiments progress towards long pulse or steady state operation, plasma facing components are undergoing a significant change in their design. This change represents the transition from inertially cooled pulsed systems to steady state designs of significant power handling capacity. A limited number of Plasma Facing Component (PFC) systems are in operation or planning to address this steady state challenge at low heat flux. However in most divertor designs components are required to operate at heat fluxes at 5 MW/m 2 or above. The need for data in this area has resulted in a significant amount of thermal/hydraulic and thermal fatigue testing being done on prototypical elements. Short pulse design solutions are not adequate for longer pulse experiments and the areas of thermal design, structural design, material selection, maintainability, and lifetime prediction are undergoing significant changes. A prudent engineering approach will guide us through the transitional phase of divertor design to steady-state power plant components. This paper reviews the design implications in this transition to steady state machines and the status of the community efforts to meet evolving design requirements. 54 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs
Practical steady-state enzyme kinetics.
Lorsch, Jon R
2014-01-01
Enzymes are key components of most biological processes. Characterization of enzymes is therefore frequently required during the study of biological systems. Steady-state kinetics provides a simple and rapid means of assessing the substrate specificity of an enzyme. When combined with site-directed mutagenesis (see Site-Directed Mutagenesis), it can be used to probe the roles of particular amino acids in the enzyme in substrate recognition and catalysis. Effects of interaction partners and posttranslational modifications can also be assessed using steady-state kinetics. This overview explains the general principles of steady-state enzyme kinetics experiments in a practical, rather than theoretical, way. Any biochemistry textbook will have a section on the theory of Michaelis-Menten kinetics, including derivations of the relevant equations. No specific enzymatic assay is described here, although a method for monitoring product formation or substrate consumption over time (an assay) is required to perform the experiments described. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
steady – state performance of induction and transfer state
African Journals Online (AJOL)
eobe
This paper presents paper presents paper presents the steady the steady the steady–state performance state performance state performance comparison comparison comparison between polyphase induction motor and polyphase between polyphase induction motor and polyphase. TF motor operating in. TF motor ...
The Steady State Calculation for SMART with MIDAS/SMR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jong Hwa; Kim, Dong Ha; Chung, Young Jong; Park, Sun Hee; Cho, Seong Won
2010-01-01
KAERI is developing a new concept of reactor that all the main components such as the steam generator, the coolant pumps and the pressurizer are located inside the reactor vessel. Before the severe accident sequences are estimated, it is prerequisite that MIDAS code predicts the steady state conditions properly. But MIDAS code does not include the heat transfer model for the helical tube. Therefore, the heat transfer models for the helical tube from TASS/SMR-S were implemented into MIDAS code. To estimate the validity of the implemented heat transfer correlations for the helical tube and the input data, the steady state was recalculated with MIDAS/SMR based on design level 2 and compared with the design values
Realizing steady-state tokamak operation for fusion energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luce, T. C.
2011-01-01
Continuous operation of a tokamak for fusion energy has clear engineering advantages but requires conditions beyond those sufficient for a burning plasma. The fusion reactions and external sources must support both the pressure and the current equilibrium without inductive current drive, leading to demands on stability, confinement, current drive, and plasma-wall interactions that exceed those for pulsed tokamaks. These conditions have been met individually, and significant progress has been made in the past decade to realize scenarios where the required conditions are obtained simultaneously. Tokamaks are operated routinely without disruptions near pressure limits, as needed for steady-state operation. Fully noninductive sustainment with more than half of the current from intrinsic currents has been obtained for a resistive time with normalized pressure and confinement approaching those needed for steady-state conditions. One remaining challenge is handling the heat and particle fluxes expected in a steady-state tokamak without compromising the core plasma performance.
Steady-state spheromak reactor studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.
1985-01-01
After summarizing the essential elements of a gun-sustained spheromak, the potential for a steady-state is explored by means of a comprehensive physics/engineering/costing model. A range of cost-optimized reactor design points is presented, and the sensitivity of cost to key physics, engineering, and operational variables is reported
Steady-State Creep of Asphalt Concrete
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alibai Iskakbayev
2017-02-01
Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental investigation of the steady-state creep process for fine-grained asphalt concrete at a temperature of 20 ± 2 °С and under stress from 0.055 to 0.311 MPa under direct tension and was found to occur at a constant rate. The experimental results also determined the start, the end point, and the duration of the steady-state creep process. The dependence of these factors, in addition to the steady-state creep rate and viscosity of the asphalt concrete on stress is satisfactorily described by a power function. Furthermore, it showed that stress has a great impact on the specific characteristics of asphalt concrete: stress variation by one order causes their variation by 3–4.5 orders. The described relations are formulated for the steady-state of asphalt concrete in a complex stressed condition. The dependence is determined between stress intensity and strain rate intensity.
Steady state compact toroidal plasma production
Turner, William C.
1986-01-01
Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.
Dissipative dark matter halos: The steady state solution. II.
Foot, R.
2018-05-01
Within the mirror dark matter model and dissipative dark matter models in general, halos around galaxies with active star formation (including spirals and gas-rich dwarfs) are dynamical: they expand and contract in response to heating and cooling processes. Ordinary type II supernovae (SNe) can provide the dominant heat source, which is possible if kinetic mixing interaction exists with strength ɛ ˜10-9- 10-10 . Dissipative dark matter halos can be modeled as a fluid governed by Euler's equations. Around sufficiently isolated and unperturbed galaxies the halo can relax to a steady state configuration, where heating and cooling rates locally balance and hydrostatic equilibrium prevails. These steady state conditions can be solved to derive the physical properties, including the halo density and temperature profiles, for model galaxies. Here, we consider idealized spherically symmetric galaxies within the mirror dark particle model, as in our earlier paper [Phys. Rev. D 97, 043012 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevD.97.043012], but we assume that the local halo heating in the SN vicinity dominates over radiative sources. With this assumption, physically interesting steady state solutions arise which we compute for a representative range of model galaxies. The end result is a rather simple description of the dark matter halo around idealized spherically symmetric systems, characterized in principle by only one parameter, with physical properties that closely resemble the empirical properties of disk galaxies.
Steady state of tapped granular polygons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlevaro, Carlos M; Pugnaloni, Luis A
2011-01-01
The steady state packing fraction of a tapped granular bed is studied for different grain shapes via a discrete element method. Grains are monosized regular polygons, from triangles to icosagons. Comparisons with disc packings show that the steady state packing fraction as a function of the tapping intensity presents the same general trends in polygon packings. However, better packing fractions are obtained, as expected, for shapes that can tessellate the plane (triangles, squares and hexagons). In addition, we find a sharp transition for packings of polygons with more than 13 vertices signaled by a discontinuity in the packing fraction at a particular tapping intensity. Density fluctuations for most shapes are consistent with recent experimental findings in disc packing; however, a peculiar behavior is found for triangles and squares
The quasi-steady state of the valley wind system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juerg eSchmidli
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The quasi-steady-state limit of the diurnal valley wind system is investigated overidealized three-dimensional topography. Although this limit is rarely attained inreality due to ever-changing forcings, the investigation of this limit canprovide valuable insight, in particular on the mass and heat fluxes associatedwith the along-valley wind. We derive a scaling relation for the quasi-steady-state along-valleymass flux as a function of valley geometry, valley size, atmospheric stratification,and surface sensible heat flux forcing. The scaling relation is tested by comparisonwith the mass flux diagnosed from numerical simulations of the valleywind system. Good agreement is found. The results also provide insight into the relationbetween surface friction and the strength of the along-valley pressure gradient.
On Steady-State Tropical Cyclones
2014-01-01
Press: London. Marks FD, Black PG, Montgomery MT, Burpee RW. 2008. Structure of the eye and eyewall of Hurricane Hugo (1989). Mon. Weather Rev. 136: 1237... hurricanes ; tropical cyclones; typhoons; steady-state Received 18 April 2013; Revised 25 November 2013; Accepted 29 December 2013; Published online in Wiley...the concept of the ‘mature stage’ of a hurricane vortex. The definition of the ‘mature stage’ is commonly based on the time period in which the maximum
COOLOD, Steady-State Thermal Hydraulics of Research Reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaminaga, Masanori
1997-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: The COOLOD-N2 code provides a capability for the analyses of the steady-state thermal-hydraulics of research reactors. This code is a revised version of the COOLOD-N code, and is applicable not only for research reactors in which plate-type fuel is adopted, but also for research reactors in which rod-type fuel is adopted. In the code, subroutines to calculate temperature distribution in rod-type fuel have been newly added to the COOLOD-N code. The COOLOD-N2 code can calculate fuel temperatures under both forced convection cooling mode and natural convection cooling mode. A 'Heat Transfer package' is used for calculating heat transfer coefficient, DNB heat flux etc. The 'Heat Transfer package' is a subroutine program and is especially developed for research reactors in which plate-type fuel is adopted. In case of rod-type fuel, DNB heat flux is calculated by both the 'Heat Transfer package' and Lund DNB heat flux correlation which is popular for TRIGA reactor. The COOLOD-N2 code also has a capability of calculating ONB temperature, the heat flux at onset of flow instability as well as DNB heat flux. 2 - Method of solution: The 'Heat Transfer Package' is a subprogram for calculating heat transfer coefficients, ONB temperature, heat flux at onset of flow instability and DNB heat flux. The 'Heat transfer package' was especially developed for research reactors which are operated under low pressure and low temperature conditions using plate-type fuel, just like the JRR-3M. Heat transfer correlations adopted in the 'Heat Transfer Package' were obtained or estimated based on the heat transfer experiments in which thermal-hydraulic features of the upgraded JRR-3 core were properly reflected. The 'Heat Transfer Package' is applicable to upward and downward flow
Dissipative dark matter halos: The steady state solution
Foot, R.
2018-02-01
Dissipative dark matter, where dark matter particle properties closely resemble familiar baryonic matter, is considered. Mirror dark matter, which arises from an isomorphic hidden sector, is a specific and theoretically constrained scenario. Other possibilities include models with more generic hidden sectors that contain massless dark photons [unbroken U (1 ) gauge interactions]. Such dark matter not only features dissipative cooling processes but also is assumed to have nontrivial heating sourced by ordinary supernovae (facilitated by the kinetic mixing interaction). The dynamics of dissipative dark matter halos around rotationally supported galaxies, influenced by heating as well as cooling processes, can be modeled by fluid equations. For a sufficiently isolated galaxy with a stable star formation rate, the dissipative dark matter halos are expected to evolve to a steady state configuration which is in hydrostatic equilibrium and where heating and cooling rates locally balance. Here, we take into account the major cooling and heating processes, and numerically solve for the steady state solution under the assumptions of spherical symmetry, negligible dark magnetic fields, and that supernova sourced energy is transported to the halo via dark radiation. For the parameters considered, and assumptions made, we were unable to find a physically realistic solution for the constrained case of mirror dark matter halos. Halo cooling generally exceeds heating at realistic halo mass densities. This problem can be rectified in more generic dissipative dark matter models, and we discuss a specific example in some detail.
Stationary Distribution and Thermodynamic Relation in Nonequilibrium Steady States
Komatsu, Teruhisa S.; Nakagawa, Naoko; Sasa, Shin-ichi; Tasaki, Hal; Ito, Nobuyasu
2010-01-01
We describe our recent attempts toward statistical mechanics and thermodynamics for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) realized, e.g., in a heat conducting system. Our first result is a simple expression of the probability distribution (of microscopic states) of a NESS. Our second result is a natural extension of the thermodynamic Clausius relation and a definition of an accompanying entropy in NESS. This entropy coincides with the normalization constant appearing in the above mentioned microscopic expression of NESS, and has an expression similar to the Shannon entropy (with a further symmetrization). The NESS entropy proposed here is a clearly defined measurable quantity even in a system with a large degrees of freedom. We numerically measure the NESS entropy in hardsphere fluid systems with a heat current, by observing energy exchange between the system and the heat baths when the temperatures of the baths are changed according to specified protocols.
An accelerator based steady state neutron source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burke, R.J.; Johnson, D.L.
1985-01-01
Using high current, c.w. linear accelerator technology, a spallation neutron source can achieve much higher average intensities than existing or proposed pulsed spallation sources. With about 100 mA of 300 MeV protons or deuterons, the Accelerator Based Neutron Research Facility (ABNR) would initially achieve the 10 16 n/cm 2 .s thermal flux goal of the advanced steady state neutron source, and upgrading could provide higher steady state fluxes. The relatively low ion energy compared to other spallation sources has an important impact on R and D requirements as well as capital cost, for which a range of $300-450M is estimated by comparison to other accelerator-based neutron source facilities. The source is similar to a reactor source in most respects. It has some higher energy neutrons but fewer gamma rays, and the moderator region is free of many of the design constraints of a reactor, which helps to implement sources for various neutron energy spectra, many beam tubes, etc. With the development of multi-beam concept and the basis for currents greater than 100 mA that is assumed in the R and D plan, the ABNR would serve many additional uses, such as fusion materials development, production of proton-rich isotopes, and other energy and defense program needs
Statistical steady states in turbulent droplet condensation
Bec, Jeremie; Krstulovic, Giorgio; Siewert, Christoph
2017-11-01
We investigate the general problem of turbulent condensation. Using direct numerical simulations we show that the fluctuations of the supersaturation field offer different conditions for the growth of droplets which evolve in time due to turbulent transport and mixing. This leads to propose a Lagrangian stochastic model consisting of a set of integro-differential equations for the joint evolution of the squared radius and the supersaturation along droplet trajectories. The model has two parameters fixed by the total amount of water and the thermodynamic properties, as well as the Lagrangian integral timescale of the turbulent supersaturation. The model reproduces very well the droplet size distributions obtained from direct numerical simulations and their time evolution. A noticeable result is that, after a stage where the squared radius simply diffuses, the system converges exponentially fast to a statistical steady state independent of the initial conditions. The main mechanism involved in this convergence is a loss of memory induced by a significant number of droplets undergoing a complete evaporation before growing again. The statistical steady state is characterised by an exponential tail in the droplet mass distribution.
Progress and prospect of true steady state operation with RF
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacquinot Jean
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Operation of fusion confinement experiments in full steady state is a major challenge for the development towards fusion energy. Critical to achieving this goal is the availability of actively cooled plasma facing components and auxiliary systems withstanding the very harsh plasma environment. Equally challenging are physics issues related to achieving plasma conditions and current drive efficiency required by reactor plasmas. RF heating and current drive systems have been key instruments for obtaining the progress made until today towards steady state. They hold all the records of long pulse plasma operation both in tokamaks and in stellarators. Nevertheless much progress remains to be made in particular for integrating all the requirements necessary for maintaining in steady state the density and plasma pressure conditions of a reactor. This is an important stated aim of ITER and of devices equipped with superconducting magnets. After considering the present state of the art, this review will address the key issues which remain to be solved both in physics and technology for reaching this goal. They constitute very active subjects of research which will require much dedicated experimentation in the new generation of superconducting devices which are now in operation or becoming close to it.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mullins, C.B.; Felde, D.K.; Sutton, A.G.; Gould, S.S.; Morris, D.G.; Robinson, J.J.
1982-05-01
Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF) test series 3.07.9 was conducted by members of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pressurized-Water Reactor (ORNL-PWR) Blowdown Heat Transfer (BDHT) Separate-Effects Program on September 11, September 18, and October 1, 1980. The objective of the program is to investigate heat transfer phenomena believed to occur in PWRs during accidents, including small- and large-break loss-of-coolant accidents. Test series 3.07.9 was designed to provide steady-state film boiling data in rod bundle geometry under reactor accident-type conditions. This report presents the reduced instrument responses for THTF test series 3.07.9. Also included are uncertainties in the instrument responses, calculated mass flows, and calculated rod powers
A generalised correlation for the steady state flow in single-phase natural circulation loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vijayan, P.K.; Bade, M.H.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.; Venkat Raj, V.
2000-08-01
To establish the heat transport capability of natural circulation loops, it is essential to know the flow rate. A generalized correlation for steady state flow valid for uniform and non-uniform diameter loops has been theoretically derived
Producing a steady-state population inversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richards, R.K.; Griffin, D.C.
1986-03-01
An observed steady-state transition at 17.5 nm is identified as the 2p 5 3s3p 4 S/sub 3/2/ → 2p 6 3p 2 P/sub 3/2/ transition in Na-like aluminum. The upper level is populated by electron inner shell ionization of metastable Mg-like aluminum. From the emission intensity, the rate coefficient for populating the upper level is calculated to be approximately 5 x 10 -10 ) cm 3 /sec. Since the upper level is quasimetastable with a lifetime 22 times longer than the lower level, it may be possible to produce a population inversion, if a competing process to populate the lower level can be reduced
Reactor kinetics - pulse and steady state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Estes, B F; Morris, F M [Sandia Laboratories (United States)
1974-07-01
An analytical model has been developed which couples the nuclear and thermal characteristics of the Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR) into a solution which describes both the neutron kinetics of the reactor and the temperature behavior of a fuel-moderator element. The model describes both pulse and steady state operations. This paper describes the important aspects of the reactor, the fuel- moderator elements, the neutron kinetic equations of the reactor, and the time-temperature behavior of a fuel-moderator element that is being subjected to the maximum power density in the core. The parameters which are utilized in the equations are divided into two classes, those that can be measured directly and those that are assumed to be known (each is described briefly). Some of the solutions which demonstrate the versatility of the analytical model are described. (author)
Magnetic sensor for steady state tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neyatani, Yuzuru; Mori, Katsuharu; Oguri, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Mitsuru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment
1996-06-01
A new type of magnetic sensor has been developed for the measurement of steady state magnetic fields without DC-drift such as integration circuit. The electromagnetic force induced to the current which leads to the sensor was used for the measurement. For the high frequency component which exceeds higher than the vibration frequency of sensor, pick-up coil was used through the high pass filter. From the results using tokamak discharges, this sensor can measure the magnetic field in the tokamak discharge. During {approx}2 hours measurement, no DC drift was observed. The sensor can respond {approx}10ms of fast change of magnetic field during disruptions. We confirm the extension of measured range to control the current which leads to the sensor. (author).
Diffusion-driven steady states of the Z-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1988-01-01
Steady states of a Z-pinch where no electric field is imposed along the pinch axis by external means are investigated. In this case, diffusion-driven states become possible when imposed volume sources of particles and heat drive a radial diffusion velocity that, in its turn, generates the electric plasma current. The particle sources can be from pellet injection or a neutral gas blanket, and the heat sources provided by thermonuclear reactions or auxiliary heating. The present analysis and associated kinetic considerations indicate that steady diffusion-driven operation should become possible for certain classes of plasma profiles, without running into singularity problems at the pinch axis. Such operation leads to higher axial currents in a Z-pinch without an axial magnetic field than in a tokamaklike case under similar plasma conditions. The technical difficulty in realizing a volume distribution of particle sinks introduces certain constraints on the plasma and current profiles. This fact has to be taken into account in a stability analysis. Neoclassical or anomalous diffusion will increase the diffusion velocity of the plasma but is not expected to affect the main physical features of the present results
Simulations of KSTAR high performance steady state operation scenarios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Na, Yong-Su; Kessel, C.E.; Park, J.M.; Yi, Sumin; Kim, J.Y.; Becoulet, A.; Sips, A.C.C.
2009-01-01
We report the results of predictive modelling of high performance steady state operation scenarios in KSTAR. Firstly, the capabilities of steady state operation are investigated with time-dependent simulations using a free-boundary plasma equilibrium evolution code coupled with transport calculations. Secondly, the reproducibility of high performance steady state operation scenarios developed in the DIII-D tokamak, of similar size to that of KSTAR, is investigated using the experimental data taken from DIII-D. Finally, the capability of ITER-relevant steady state operation is investigated in KSTAR. It is found that KSTAR is able to establish high performance steady state operation scenarios; β N above 3, H 98 (y, 2) up to 2.0, f BS up to 0.76 and f NI equals 1.0. In this work, a realistic density profile is newly introduced for predictive simulations by employing the scaling law of a density peaking factor. The influence of the current ramp-up scenario and the transport model is discussed with respect to the fusion performance and non-inductive current drive fraction in the transport simulations. As observed in the experiments, both the heating and the plasma current waveforms in the current ramp-up phase produce a strong effect on the q-profile, the fusion performance and also on the non-inductive current drive fraction in the current flattop phase. A criterion in terms of q min is found to establish ITER-relevant steady state operation scenarios. This will provide a guideline for designing the current ramp-up phase in KSTAR. It is observed that the transport model also affects the predictive values of fusion performance as well as the non-inductive current drive fraction. The Weiland transport model predicts the highest fusion performance as well as non-inductive current drive fraction in KSTAR. In contrast, the GLF23 model exhibits the lowest ones. ITER-relevant advanced scenarios cannot be obtained with the GLF23 model in the conditions given in this work
Steady Particle States of Revised Electromagnetics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lehnert B.
2006-07-01
Full Text Available A revised Lorentz invariant electromagnetic theory leading beyond Maxwell's equations, and to a form of extended quantum electrodynamics, has been elaborated on the basis of a nonzero electric charge density and a nonzero electric field divergence in the vacuum state. Among the applications of this theory, there are steady electromagnetic states having no counterpart in conventional theory and resulting in models of electrically charged and neutral leptons, such as the electron and the neutrino. The analysis of the electron model debouches into a point-charge-like geometry with a very small characteristic radius but having finite self-energy. This provides an alternative to the conventional renormalization procedure. In contrast to conventional theory, an integrated radial force balance can further be established in which the electron is prevented from "exploding" under the action of its net self-charge. Through a combination of variational analysis and an investigation of the radial force balance, a value of the electronic charge has been deduced which deviates by only one percent from that obtained in experiments. This deviation requires further investigation. A model of the neutrino finally reproduces some of the basic features, such as a small but nonzero rest mass, an angular momentum but no magnetic moment, and long mean free paths in solid matter.
Steady Particle States of Revised Electromagnetics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lehnert B.
2006-07-01
Full Text Available A revised Lorentz invariant electromagnetic theory leading beyond Maxwell’s equations, and to a form of extended quantum electrodynamics, has been elaborated on the basis of a nonzero electric charge density and a nonzero electric field divergence in the vacuum state. Among the applications of this theory, there are steady electromagnetic states having no counterpart in conventional theory and resulting in models of electrically charged and neutral leptons, such as the electron and the neutrino. The analysis of the electron model debouches into a point-charge-like geometry with a very small characteristic radius but having finite self-energy. This provides an alternative to the conventional renormalization procedure. In contrast to conventional theory, an integrated radial force balance can further be established in which the electron is prevented from “exploding” under the action of its net self-charge. Through a combination of variational analysis and an investigation of the radial force balance, a value of the electronic charge has been deduced which deviates by only one percent from that obtained in experiments. This deviation requires further investigation. A model of the neutrino finally reproduces some of the basic features, such as a small but nonzero rest mass, an angular momentum but no magnetic moment, and long mean free paths in solid matter.
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases.
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013)]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.240405]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.
Pseudo Steady-State Free Precession for MR-Fingerprinting.
Assländer, Jakob; Glaser, Steffen J; Hennig, Jürgen
2017-03-01
This article discusses the signal behavior in the case the flip angle in steady-state free precession sequences is continuously varied as suggested for MR-fingerprinting sequences. Flip angle variations prevent the establishment of a steady state and introduce instabilities regarding to magnetic field inhomogeneities and intravoxel dephasing. We show how a pseudo steady state can be achieved, which restores the spin echo nature of steady-state free precession. Based on geometrical considerations, relationships between the flip angle, repetition and echo time are derived that suffice to the establishment of a pseudo steady state. The theory is tested with Bloch simulations as well as phantom and in vivo experiments. A typical steady-state free precession passband can be restored with the proposed conditions. The stability of the pseudo steady state is demonstrated by comparing the evolution of the signal of a single isochromat to one resulting from a spin ensemble. As confirmed by experiments, magnetization in a pseudo steady state can be described with fewer degrees of freedom compared to the original fingerprinting and the pseudo steady state results in more reliable parameter maps. The proposed conditions restore the spin-echo-like signal behavior typical for steady-state free precession in fingerprinting sequences, making this approach more robust to B 0 variations. Magn Reson Med 77:1151-1161, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Simulation of steady-state natural convection using CFD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zitzmann, T.; Pfrommer, P. [Univ. of Applied Sciences, Coberg (Germany); Cook, M.; Rees, S.; Marjanovic, L. [De Montfort Univ., Leicester (United Kingdom). Inst. of Energy and Sustainable Development
2005-07-01
Building materials play an important role in the creation of comfortable indoor environments and can reduce dependence on high energy use mechanical systems. Correct predictions between building structure and heat transfer are needed in order to achieve optimal conditions. Heat transfer is dependent on the velocity and temperature distribution in a room, particularly in the wall boundary layer. This paper discussed the modeling of air flow and heat transfer over a heated vertical plate in a differentially-heated cavity using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Guidelines on the use of CFD with unstructured meshes to model buoyancy-driven flow in a cavity were presented. Benchmark CFD results were compared with published analytical data. The finite volume method was employed using an unstructured mesh containing tetrahedral and prism elements, so that local numerical diffusion was reduced and therefore suitable for complex flows. The code was based on a couple solver for solving the differential equations using the fully implicit discretization method. Hydrodynamic equations were treated as one single system. A false time stepping method was used to reduce the number of iterations required for convergence, which also guided the solutions to a steady-state solution. It was concluded that the methodology achieves accurate predictions, and is suitable for the modeling of heat transfer optimizations. 13 refs., 7 figs.
A steady-state axisymmetric toroidal system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirano, K.
1984-01-01
Conditions for achieving a steady state in an axisymmetric toroidal system are studied with emphasis on a very-high-beta field-reversed configuration. The analysis is carried out for the electromotive force produced by the Ohkawa current that is induced by neutral-beam injection. It turns out that, since the perpendicular component of the current j-vectorsub(perpendicular) to the magnetic field can be generated automatically by the diamagnetic effect, only the parallel component j-vectorsub(parallel) must be driven by the electromotive force. The drive of j-vectorsub(parallel) generates shear in the field line so that the pure toroidal field on the magnetic axis is rotated towards the plasma boundary and matched to the external field lines. This matching condition determines the necessary amount of injection beam current and power. It is demonstrated that a very-high-beta field-reversed configuration requires only a small amount of current-driving beam power because almost all the toroidal current except that close to the magnetic axis is carried by the diamagnetic current due to high beta. A low-beta tokamak, on the other hand, needs very high current-driving power since most of the toroidal current is composed of j-vectorsub(parallel) which must be driven by the beam. (author)
Triple echo steady-state (TESS) relaxometry.
Heule, Rahel; Ganter, Carl; Bieri, Oliver
2014-01-01
Rapid imaging techniques have attracted increased interest for relaxometry, but none are perfect: they are prone to static (B0 ) and transmit (B1 ) field heterogeneities, and commonly biased by T2 /T1 . The purpose of this study is the development of a rapid T1 and T2 relaxometry method that is completely (T2 ) or partly (T1 ) bias-free. A new method is introduced to simultaneously quantify T1 and T2 within one single scan based on a triple echo steady-state (TESS) approach in combination with an iterative golden section search. TESS relaxometry is optimized and evaluated from simulations, in vitro studies, and in vivo experiments. It is found that relaxometry with TESS is not biased by T2 /T1 , insensitive to B0 heterogeneities, and, surprisingly, that TESS-T2 is not affected by B1 field errors. Consequently, excellent correspondence between TESS and reference spin echo data is observed for T2 in vitro at 1.5 T and in vivo at 3 T. TESS offers rapid T1 and T2 quantification within one single scan, and in particular B1 -insensitive T2 estimation. As a result, the new proposed method is of high interest for fast and reliable high-resolution T2 mapping, especially of the musculoskeletal system at high to ultra-high fields. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
BR2 reactor core steady state transient modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makarenko, A.; Petrova, T.
2000-01-01
A coupled neutronics/hydraulics/heat-conduction model of the BR2 reactor core is under development at SCK-CEN. The neutron transport phenomenon has been implemented as steady state and time dependent nodal diffusion. The non-linear heat conduction equation in-side fuel elements is solved with a time dependent finite element method. To allow coupling between functional modules and to simulate subcooled regimes, a simple single-phase hydraulics has been introduced, while the two-phase hydraulics is under development. Multiple tests, general benchmark cases as well as calculation/experiment comparisons demonstrated a good accuracy of both neutronic and thermal hydraulic models, numerical reliability and full code portability. A refinement methodology has been developed and tested for better neutronic representation in hexagonal geometry. Much effort is still needed to complete the development of an extended cross section library with kinetic data and two-phase flow representation. (author)
Modular first wall concept for steady state operation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotzlowski, H.E.
1981-01-01
On the basis of the limiter design proposed for ZEPHYR a first wall concept has been developed which can also be used as a large area limiter, heat shield or beam pump. Its specific feature is the thermal contact of the wall armour elements with the water-cooled base plates. The combination of radiation and contact cooling, compared with radiation only, helps to lower the steady state temperatures of the first wall by approximately 50 % and to reduce the cooling-time between discharges. Particulary the lower wall temperature give a larger margin for additional heating of the wall by plasma disruption or neutral beams until excessive erosion or damage of the armour takes place
Steady state plasma operation in RF dominated regimes on EAST
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, X. J.; Zhao, Y. P.; Gong, X. Z.; Hu, C. D.; Liu, F. K.; Hu, L. Q.; Wan, B. N., E-mail: bnwan@ipp.ac.cn; Li, J. G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)
2015-12-10
Significant progress has recently been made on EAST in the 2014 campaign, including the enhanced CW H&CD system over 20MW heating power (LHCD, ICRH and NBI), more than 70 diagnostics, ITER-like W-monoblock on upper divertor, two inner cryo-pumps and RMP coils, enabling EAST to investigate long pulse H mode operation with dominant electron heating and low torque to address the critical issues for ITER. H-mode plasmas were achieved by new H&CD system or 4.6GHz LHCD alone for the first time. Long pulse high performance H mode has been obtained by LHCD alone up to 28s at H{sub 98}∼1.2 or by combing of ICRH and LHCD, no or small ELM was found in RF plasmas, which is essential for steady state operation in the future Tokamak. Plasma operation in low collision regimes were implemented by new 4.6GHz LHCD with core Te∼4.5keV. The non-inductive scenarios with high performance at high bootstrap current fraction have been demonstrated in RF dominated regimes for long pulse operation. Near full non-inductive CD discharges have been achieved. In addition, effective heating and decoupling method under multi-transmitter for ICRF system were developed in this campaign, etc. EAST could be in operation with over 30MW CW heating and current drive power (LHCD ICRH NBI and ECRH), enhanced diagnostic capabilities and full actively-cooled metal wall from 2015. It will therefore allow to access new confinement regimes and to extend these regimes towards to steady state operation.
Vigeant, Margot; Prince, Michael; Nottis, Katharyn
2011-01-01
This study examines the use of inquiry-based instruction to promote the understanding of critical concepts in thermodynamics and heat transfer. Significant research shows that students frequently enter our courses with tightly held misconceptions about the physical world that are not effectively addressed through traditional instruction. Students'…
Quasi-steady state natural convection in a tilted porous layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robillard, L.; Vasseur, P. (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada))
1992-12-01
Natural convection in an inclined porous layer heated or cooled on one side, when its other walls are insulated, has several important engineering applications. These include solar power collection, regenerative heat exchangers, and high performance insulation for buildings and cold storage. Although the problem is basically an unsteady state one, it is known that if the heating (or cooling) process is maintained for a sufficiently long time, a quasi-steady state is approached. Quasi-steady state laminar natural convection in an inclined porous layer is studied analytically and numerically. On the basis of the Darcy-Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations, the problem is solved analytically in the limit of a thin porous layer heated on one side by a heat flux while the other boundaries are maintained adiabatic. For quasi-steady state, the flow and temperature fields overall heat transfer rates are obtained in terms of the controlling parameters and the onset of convection in a bottom heated horizantal system is predicted. It is also demonstrated for the case of a bottom-heated layer that for sufficiently small inclinations, multiple unicellular quasi-steady states exist, some of which are unstable. A numerical study of the same phenomenon, obtained by solving the complete set of governing equations, is conducted. Good agreement is found between the analytical predictions and the numerical simulation. 22 refs., 6 figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takenaga, H.; Asakura, N.; Higashijima, S.; Nakano, T.; Kubo, H.; Konoshima, S.; Oyama, N.; Isayama, A.; Ide, S.; Fujita, T.; Miura, Y.
2005-01-01
Long time scale variation of plasma-wall interactions and its impact on particle balance, main plasma performance and particle behavior have been investigated in ELMy H-mode plasmas by extending the discharge pulse and the neutral beam heating pulse to 65 s and 30 s, respectively. The wall pumping rate starts to decrease in the latter phase by repeating the long-pulse discharges with 60% of Greenwald density sustained by gas-puffing. After several discharges, the wall inventory is saturated in the latter phase and, consequently, the density increases with neutral beam fuelling only. The edge pressure in the main plasma is reduced and ELMs are close to the type III regime under conditions of wall saturation. The intensities of C II emission near the X-point and CD band emission in the inner divertor start to increase before the wall saturates and continue to increase after the wall is saturated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schlosser, J.; Chappuis, P.; Chatelier, M.; Durocher, A.; Guilheim, D.; Lipa, M.; Mitteau, R.; Tonon, G.; Tsitrone, E.
1998-01-01
Actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC) have been developed and used in Tore Supra since 1985. One of the main technological problem is due to the expansion mismatch between graphite armour and metallic heat sink material. A first technology used graphite tiles with or without a reinforcement and a compliant layer, brazed with titanium copper-silver (TiCuAg) alloy. The next technology used carbon fiber material (CFC) tiles with a 2 mm pure copper compliant layer, since the good mechanical strength of the CFC allowed the reinforcement layer to be suppressed. No destructive inspection during the manufacturing procedure was found to be essential to insure a good reliability of the elements. (orig.)
Steady-State Performance of Kalman Filter for DPLL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIAN Yi; CUI Xiaowei; LU Mingquan; FENG Zhenming
2009-01-01
For certain system models, the structure of the Kalman filter is equivalent to a second-order vari-able gain digital phase-locked loop (DPLL). To apply the knowledge of DPLLs to the design of Kalman filters, this paper studies the steady-state performance of Kalman filters for these system models. The results show that the steady-state Kalman gain has the same form as the DPLL gain. An approximate simple form for the steady-state Kalman gain is used to derive an expression for the equivalent loop bandwidth of the Kalman filter as a function of the process and observation noise variances. These results can be used to analyze the steady-state performance of a Kalman filter with DPLL theory or to design a Kalman filter model with the same steady-state performance as a given DPLL.
Steady state operation of the superconducting tokamak TRIAM-1M
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanada, K.; Itoh, S.; Sato, K.; Nakamura, K.; Zushi, H.; Sakamoto, M.; Jotaki, E.; Makino, K.
2000-01-01
A 2-hour limiter discharge in circular configuration was successfully maintained using both Hall generators to be free from the drift of integrator and position control by TV image to avoid the concentration of heat load. The property of wall saturation is discussed as the serious issue for steady state operation, which strongly depends on electron density. In the high density region, the discharges sometimes terminate due to uncontrollable increase in electron density caused by wall saturation. The plasmas with high k ∼1.5 can be demonstrated for longer than 1 min. The duration of discharge is limited by vertical displacement event (VDE). The avoidance of VDE is a crucial point to achieve long discharges with high k. A new technique to monitor the accurate magnetic field with high time resolution for a long time is required to achieve the longer discharge with high k. A high ion temperature (HIT) discharge characterized by high ion temperature up to 5 keV and by steep temperature gradient up to 85 keV/m is successfully sustained for longer than 30 sec by 2.45 GHz LHCD on single null divertor configuration. This indicates that the transport barrier of ion temperature can be maintained in steady state. (author)
Concept study of the Steady State Tokamak Reactor (SSTR)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-06-01
The Steady State Tokamak Reactor (SSTR) concept has been proposed as a realistic fusion power reactor to be built in the near future. An overall concept of SSTR is introduced which is based on a small extension of the present day physics and technologies. The major feature of SSTR is the maximum utilization of a bootstrap current in order to reduce the power required for the steady state operation. This requirement leads to the choice of moderate current (12 MA), and high βp (2.0) for the device, which are achieved by selecting high aspect ratio (A=4) and high toroidal magnetic field (16.5 T). A negative-ion-based neutral beam injection system is used both for heating and central current drive. Notable engineering features of SSTR are: the use of a uniform vacuum vessel and periodical replacements of the first wall and blanket layers and significant reduction of the electromagnetic force with the use of functionally gradient material. It is shown that a tokamak machine comparable to ITER in size can become a power reactor capable of generating about 1 GW of electricity with a plant efficiency of ∼30%. (author)
Bosma, T; Pikkemaat, MG; Kingma, Jacob; Dijk, J; Janssen, DB
2003-01-01
Haloalkane dehalogenase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 (DhaA) catalyzes the hydrolysis of carbon-halogen bonds in a wide range of haloalkanes. We examined the steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics of halopropane conversion by DhaA to illuminate mechanistic details of the
Steady State Thermal Analyses of SCEPTOR X-57 Wingtip Propulsion
Schnulo, Sydney L.; Chin, Jeffrey C.; Smith, Andrew D.; Dubois, Arthur
2017-01-01
Electric aircraft concepts enable advanced propulsion airframe integration approaches that promise increased efficiency as well as reduced emissions and noise. NASA's fully electric Maxwell X-57, developed under the SCEPTOR program, features distributed propulsion across a high aspect ratio wing. There are 14 propulsors in all: 12 high lift motor that are only active during take off and climb, and 2 larger motors positioned on the wingtips that operate over the entire mission. The power electronics involved in the wingtip propulsion are temperature sensitive and therefore require thermal management. This work focuses on the high and low fidelity heat transfer analysis methods performed to ensure that the wingtip motor inverters do not reach their temperature limits. It also explores different geometry configurations involved in the X-57 development and any thermal concerns. All analyses presented are performed at steady state under stressful operating conditions, therefore predicting temperatures which are considered the worst-case scenario to remain conservative.
Steady state flow evaluations for passive auxiliary feedwater system of APR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jongha; Kim, Jaeyul; Seong, Hoje; Kang, Kyoungho
2012-01-01
This paper briefly introduces a methodology to evaluate steady state flow of APR+ Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS). The PAFS is being developed as a safety grade passive system to completely replace the existing active Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS). Natural circulation cooling can be generally classified into the single-phase, two-phase, and boiling-condensation modes. The PAF is designed to be operated in a boiling-condensation natural circulation mode. The steady-state flow rate should be equal to the steady-state boiling/condensation rate determined by the steady-state energy and momentum balances in the PAFS. The determined steady-state flow rate can be used in the design optimization for the natural circulation loop of the PAFS through the steady-state momentum balance. Since the retarding force, which is to be balanced by the driving force in the natural circulation system design depends on the reliable evaluation of the success of a natural circulation system design depends on the reliable evaluation of the pressure loss coefficients. In PAFS, the core decay heat is released by natural circulation flow between the S G secondary side and the Passive Condensation Heat Exchanger (PCHX) that is immersed in the Passive Condensation Cooling Tank (PCCT). The PCCT is located on the top of Auxiliary building The driving force is determined by the difference between the S/G (heat Source) secondary water level and condensation liquid (heat sink) level. It will overcome retarding force at flowrate in the system, which is determined by vaporization and condensation of the steam which is generated at the S/G by the latent heat in system. In this study, the theoretical method to estimate the steady state flow rate in boiling-condensation natural circulation system is developed and compared with test results
Measurement of non-steady-state free fatty acid turnover
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jensen, M.D.; Heiling, V.; Miles, J.M.
1990-01-01
The accuracy of non-steady-state equations for measuring changes in free fatty acid rate of appearance (Ra) is unknown. In the present study, endogenous lipolysis (traced with [ 14 C]-linoleate) was pharmacologically suppressed in six conscious mongrel dogs. A computer-responsive infusion pump was then used to deliver an intravenous oleic acid emulsion in both constant and linear gradient infusion modes. Both non-steady-state equations with various effective volumes of distribution (V) and steady-state equations were used to measure oleate Ra [( 14 C]oleate). Endogenous lipolysis did not change during the experiment. When oleate Ra increased in a linear gradient fashion, only non-steady-state equations with a large (150 ml/kg) V resulted in erroneous values (9% overestimate, P less than 0.05). In contrast, when oleate Ra decreased in a similar fashion, steady-state and standard non-steady-state equations (V = plasma volume = 50 ml/kg) overestimated total oleate Ra (18 and 7%, P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.05, respectively). Overall, non-steady-state equations with an effective V of 90 ml/kg (1.8 x plasma volume) allowed the most accurate estimates of oleate Ra
Steady state modeling of desiccant wheels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl
2014-01-01
Desiccant wheels are rotary desiccant dehumidifiers used in air conditioning and drying applications. The modeling of simultaneous heat and mass transfer in these components is crucial for estimating their performances, as well as for simulating and optimizing their implementation in complete...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villar Colome, J.
1997-12-01
The aim of this thesis is to give a global scope of the problem of energy transport within a thermonuclear plasma in the context of its power balance and the implications when modelling ITER operating scenarios. This is made in two phases. First, by furnishing new elements to the existing models of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in a thermonuclear plasma. Second, by applying the improved models to plasma engineering studies of ITER operating scenarios. The scenarios modelled are the steady state operating point and the transient that appears to have the biggest technological implications: the fast burn termination. The conduction-convection losses are modelled through the energy confinement time. This parameter is empirically obtained from the existing experimental data, since the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In chapter 2 an expression for the energy confinement time is semi-analytically deduced from the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins local transport model. The current estimates of the synchrotron radiation losses are made with expressions of the dimensionless transparency factor deduced from a 0-dimensional cylindrical model proposed by Trubnikov in 1979. In chapter 3 realistic hypothesis for the cases of cylindrical and toroidal geometry are included in the model to deduce compact explicit expressions for the fast numerical computation of the synchrotron radiation losses. Numerical applications are provided for the cylindrical case. The results are checked against the existing models. In chapter 4, the nominal operating point of ITER and its thermal stability is studied by means of a 0-dimensional burn model of the thermonuclear plasma in ignition. This model is deduced by the elements furnished by the plasma particle and power balance. Possible heat overloading on the plasma facing components may provoke severe structural damage, implying potential safety problems related to tritium inventory and metal activation. In chapter 5, the assessment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Villar Colome, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee]|[Universitat Polytechnica de Catalunya (Spain)
1997-12-01
The aim of this thesis is to give a global scope of the problem of energy transport within a thermonuclear plasma in the context of its power balance and the implications when modelling ITER operating scenarios. This is made in two phases. First, by furnishing new elements to the existing models of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in a thermonuclear plasma. Second, by applying the improved models to plasma engineering studies of ITER operating scenarios. The scenarios modelled are the steady state operating point and the transient that appears to have the biggest technological implications: the fast burn termination. The conduction-convection losses are modelled through the energy confinement time. This parameter is empirically obtained from the existing experimental data, since the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In chapter 2 an expression for the energy confinement time is semi-analytically deduced from the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins local transport model. The current estimates of the synchrotron radiation losses are made with expressions of the dimensionless transparency factor deduced from a 0-dimensional cylindrical model proposed by Trubnikov in 1979. In chapter 3 realistic hypothesis for the cases of cylindrical and toroidal geometry are included in the model to deduce compact explicit expressions for the fast numerical computation of the synchrotron radiation losses. Numerical applications are provided for the cylindrical case. The results are checked against the existing models. In chapter 4, the nominal operating point of ITER and its thermal stability is studied by means of a 0-dimensional burn model of the thermonuclear plasma in ignition. This model is deduced by the elements furnished by the plasma particle and power balance. Possible heat overloading on the plasma facing components may provoke severe structural damage, implying potential safety problems related to tritium inventory and metal activation. In chapter 5, the assessment
Calculation analysis on steady state natural circulation characteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Fei; Nie Changhua; Huang Yanping
2005-01-01
The calculation results of single-phase steady state natural circulation characteristics by using Retran02 code have been presented, good agreement is achieved between the verified calculation result and the experimental data which were conducted at a test facility. Based on the calculation model, some sensibility analyses were made and much deeper understanding for single-phase steady state natural circulation characteristics was obtained. (author)
Steady-state leaching of tritiated water from silica gel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Das, H.A.; Hou, Xiaolin
2009-01-01
Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion.......Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion....
Selection of steady states in planar Darcy convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsybulin, V.G.; Karasoezen, B.; Ergenc, T.
2006-01-01
The planar natural convection of an incompressible fluid in a porous medium is considered. We study the selection of steady states under temperature perturbations on the boundary. A selection map is introduced in order to analyze the selection of a steady state from a continuous family of equilibria which exists under zero boundary conditions. The results of finite-difference modeling for a rectangular enclosure are presented
An implicit steady-state initialization package for the RELAP5 computer code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paulsen, M.P.; Peterson, C.E.; Odar, F.
1995-08-01
A direct steady-state initialization (DSSI) method has been developed and implemented in the RELAP5 hydrodynamic analysis program. It provides a means for users to specify a small set of initial conditions which are then propagated through the remainder of the system. The DSSI scheme utilizes the steady-state form of the RELAP5 balance equations for nonequilibrium two-phase flow. It also employs the RELAP5 component models and constitutive model packages for wall-to-phase and interphase momentum and heat exchange. A fully implicit solution of the linearized hydrodynamic equations is implemented. An implicit coupling scheme is used to augment the standard steady-state heat conduction solution for steam generator use. It solves the primary-side tube region energy equations, heat conduction equations, wall heat flux boundary conditions, and overall energy balance equation as a coupled system of equations and improves convergence. The DSSI method for initializing RELAP5 problems to steady-state conditions has been compared with the transient solution scheme using a suite of test problems including; adiabatic single-phase liquid and vapor flow through channels with and without healing and area changes; a heated two-phase test bundle representative of BWR core conditions; and a single-loop PWR model
Dark Entangled Steady States of Interacting Rydberg Atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dasari, Durga; Mølmer, Klaus
2013-01-01
their short-lived excited states lead to rapid, dissipative formation of an entangled steady state. We show that for a wide range of physical parameters, this entangled state is formed on a time scale given by the strengths of coherent Raman and Rabi fields applied to the atoms, while it is only weakly...
Manifest and Subtle Cyclic Behavior in Nonequilibrium Steady States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zia, R K P; Weiss, Jeffrey B; Mandal, Dibyendu; Fox-Kemper, Baylor
2016-01-01
Many interesting phenomena in nature are described by stochastic processes with irreversible dynamics. To model these phenomena, we focus on a master equation or a Fokker-Planck equation with rates which violate detailed balance. When the system settles in a stationary state, it will be a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS), with time independent probability distribution as well as persistent probability current loops. The observable consequences of the latter are explored. In particular, cyclic behavior of some form must be present: some are prominent and manifest, while others are more obscure and subtle. We present a theoretical framework to analyze such properties, introducing the notion of “probability angular momentum” and its distribution. Using several examples, we illustrate the manifest and subtle categories and how best to distinguish between them. These techniques can be applied to reveal the NESS nature of a wide range of systems in a large variety of areas. We illustrate with one application: variability of ocean heat content in our climate system. (paper)
Steady state ion acceleration by a circularly polarized laser pulse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Xiaomei; Shen Baifei; Cang Yu; Li Xuemei; Jin Zhangying; Wang Fengchao
2007-01-01
The steady state ion acceleration at the front of a cold solid target by a circularly polarized flat-top laser pulse is studied with one-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. A model that ions are reflected by a steady laser-driven piston is used by comparing with the electrostatic shock acceleration. A stable profile with a double-flat-top structure in phase space forms after ions enter the undisturbed region of the target with a constant velocity
The Energy Budget of Steady State Photosynthesis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dr. David M. Kramer
2012-11-27
Progress is reported in addressing these questions: Why do hcef mutants have increased CEF1? Is increased CEF1 caused by elevated expression or altered regulation of CEF1 components? Which metabolic pools can be regulators of CEF1? Do metabolites influence CEF1 directly or indirectly? Which CEF1 pathways are activated in high CEF1 mutants? Is PQR a proton pump? Is elevated CEF1 activated by state transitions?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Jie-Dong
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the local fractional Laplace equation in the steady heat-conduction problem. The solutions involving the non-differentiable graph are obtained by using the characteristic equation method (CEM via local fractional derivative. The obtained results are given to present the accuracy of the technology to solve the steady heat-conduction in fractal media.
Full transmission modes and steady states in defect gratings,
van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.; Sopaheluwakan, A.; Andonowati, A.; de Ridder, R.M; Altena, G; Geuzebroek, D.H.; Dekker, R
2003-01-01
For a symmetric grating structure with a defect, we show that a fully transmitted defect mode in the band gap can be obtained as a superposition of two steady states: an amplified and an attenuated defect state. Without scanning the whole band gap by transmission calculations, this simplifies the
Flavour fields in steady state: stress tensor and free energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, Avik; Kundu, Arnab; Kundu, Sandipan
2016-01-01
The dynamics of a probe brane in a given gravitational background is governed by the Dirac-Born-Infeld action. The corresponding open string metric arises naturally in studying the fluctuations on the probe. In Gauge-String duality, it is known that in the presence of a constant electric field on the worldvolume of the probe, the open string metric acquires an event horizon and therefore the fluctuation modes on the probe experience an effective temperature. In this article, we bring together various properties of such a system to a formal definition and a subsequent narration of the effective thermodynamics and the stress tensor of the corresponding flavour fields, also including a non-vanishing chemical potential. In doing so, we point out a potentially infinitely-degenerate scheme-dependence of regularizing the free energy, which nevertheless yields a universal contribution in certain cases. This universal piece appears as the coefficient of a log-divergence in free energy when a space-filling probe brane is embedded in AdS d+1 -background, for d=2,4, and is related to conformal anomaly. For the special case of d=2, the universal factor has a striking resemblance to the well-known heat current formula in (1+1)-dimensional conformal field theory in steady-state, which endows a plausible physical interpretation to it. Interestingly, we observe a vanishing conformal anomaly in d=6.
Contour analysis of steady state tokamak reactor performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devoto, R.S.; Fenstermacher, M.E.
1990-01-01
A new method of analysis for presenting the possible operating space for steady state, non-ignited tokamak reactors is proposed. The method uses contours of reactor performance and plasma characteristics, fusion power gain, wall neutron flux, current drive power, etc., plotted on a two-dimensional grid, the axes of which are the plasma current I p and the normalized beta, β n = β/(I p /aB 0 ), to show possible operating points. These steady state operating contour plots are called SOPCONS. This technique is illustrated in an application to a design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) with neutral beam, lower hybrid and bootstrap current drive. The utility of the SOPCON plots for pointing out some of the non-intuitive considerations in steady state reactor design is shown. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab
Efficient steady-state solver for hierarchical quantum master equations
Zhang, Hou-Dao; Qiao, Qin; Xu, Rui-Xue; Zheng, Xiao; Yan, YiJing
2017-07-01
Steady states play pivotal roles in many equilibrium and non-equilibrium open system studies. Their accurate evaluations call for exact theories with rigorous treatment of system-bath interactions. Therein, the hierarchical equations-of-motion (HEOM) formalism is a nonperturbative and non-Markovian quantum dissipation theory, which can faithfully describe the dissipative dynamics and nonlinear response of open systems. Nevertheless, solving the steady states of open quantum systems via HEOM is often a challenging task, due to the vast number of dynamical quantities involved. In this work, we propose a self-consistent iteration approach that quickly solves the HEOM steady states. We demonstrate its high efficiency with accurate and fast evaluations of low-temperature thermal equilibrium of a model Fenna-Matthews-Olson pigment-protein complex. Numerically exact evaluation of thermal equilibrium Rényi entropies and stationary emission line shapes is presented with detailed discussion.
Steady State Advanced Tokamak (SSAT): The mission and the machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomassen, K.; Goldston, R.; Nevins, B.; Neilson, H.; Shannon, T.; Montgomery, B.
1992-03-01
Extending the tokamak concept to the steady state regime and pursuing advances in tokamak physics are important and complementary steps for the magnetic fusion energy program. The required transition away from inductive current drive will provide exciting opportunities for advances in tokamak physics, as well as important impetus to drive advances in fusion technology. Recognizing this, the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee and the US National Energy Strategy identified the development of steady state tokamak physics and technology, and improvements in the tokamak concept, as vital elements in the magnetic fusion energy development plan. Both called for the construction of a steady state tokamak facility to address these plan elements. Advances in physics that produce better confinement and higher pressure limits are required for a similar unit size reactor. Regimes with largely self-driven plasma current are required to permit a steady-state tokamak reactor with acceptable recirculating power. Reliable techniques of disruption control will be needed to achieve the availability goals of an economic reactor. Thus the central role of this new tokamak facility is to point the way to a more attractive demonstration reactor (DEMO) than the present data base would support. To meet the challenges, we propose a new ''Steady State Advanced Tokamak'' (SSAT) facility that would develop and demonstrate optimized steady state tokamak operating mode. While other tokamaks in the world program employ superconducting toroidal field coils, SSAT would be the first major tokamak to operate with a fully superconducting coil set in the elongated, divertor geometry planned for ITER and DEMO
Emergence of advance waves in a steady-state universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hobart, R.H.
1979-10-01
In standard Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics advanced waves from any source are absolutely canceled by the advanced waves from the absorber responding to that source. The present work shows this cancellation fails over cosmic distances in a steady-state universe. A test of the view proposed earlier, in a paper which assumed failure of cancellation ad hoc, that zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field are such emergent advanced waves, is posed. The view entails anomalous slowing of spontaneous transition rates at longer emission wavelengths; available data go against this, furnishing additional argument against the suspect assumption that the universe is steady-state.
Steady-state entanglement activation in optomechanical cavities
Farace, Alessandro; Ciccarello, Francesco; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio
2014-02-01
Quantum discord, and related indicators, are raising a relentless interest as a novel paradigm of nonclassical correlations beyond entanglement. Here, we discover a discord-activated mechanism yielding steady-state entanglement production in a realistic continuous-variable setup. This comprises two coupled optomechanical cavities, where the optical modes (OMs) communicate through a fiber. We first use a simplified model to highlight the creation of steady-state discord between the OMs. We show next that such discord improves the level of stationary optomechanical entanglement attainable in the system, making it more robust against temperature and thermal noise.
Emergence of advance waves in a steady-state universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hobart, R.H.
1979-01-01
In standard Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics advanced waves from any source are absolutely canceled by the advanced waves from the absorber responding to that source. The present work shows this cancellation fails over cosmic distances in a steady-state universe. A test of the view proposed earlier, in a paper which assumed failure of cancellation ad hoc, that zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field are such emergent advanced waves, is posed. The view entails anomalous slowing of spontaneous transition rates at longer emission wavelengths; available data go against this, furnishing additional argument against the suspect assumption that the universe is steady-state
Steady-state propagation of interface corner crack
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Veluri, Badrinath; Jensen, Henrik Myhre
2013-01-01
Steady-state propagation of interface cracks close to three-dimensional corners has been analyzed. Attention was focused on modeling the shape of the interface crack front and calculating the critical stress for steady-state propagation of the crack. The crack propagation was investigated...... on the finite element method with iterative adjustment of the crack front to estimate the critical delamination stresses as a function of the fracture criterion and corner angles. The implication of the results on the delamination is discussed in terms of crack front profiles and the critical stresses...... for propagation and the angle of intersection of the crack front with the free edge....
Steady state theta pinch concept for slow formation of FRC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirano, K.
1987-05-01
A steady state high beta plasma flow through a channel along the magnetic field increasing downstream can be regarded as a ''steady state theta pinch'', because if we see the plasma riding on the flow we should observe very similar process taking place in a theta pinch. Anticipating to produce an FRC without using very high voltage technics such as the ones required in a conventional theta pinch, we have studied after the analogy a ''steady state reversed field theta pinch'' which is brought about by steady head-on collision of counter plasma streams along the channel as ejected from two identical co-axial plasma sources mounted at the both ends of the apparatus. The ideal Poisson and shock adiabatic flow models are employed for the analysis of the steady colliding process. It is demonstrated that an FRC involving large numbers of particles is produced only by the weak shock mode which is achieved in case energetic plasma flow is decelerated almost to be stagnated through Poisson adiabatic process before the streams are collided. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2015-01-01
This meeting has provided an appropriate forum to discuss current issues covering a wide range of technical topics related to the steady state operation issues and also to encourage forecast of the ITER performances. The technical meeting includes invited and contributed papers. The topics that have been dealt with are: 1) Superconducting devices (ITER, KSTAR, Tore-Supra, HT-7U, EAST, LHD, Wendelstein-7-X,...); 2) Long-pulse operation and advanced tokamak physics; 3) steady state fusion technologies; 4) Long pulse heating and current drive; 5) Particle control and power exhaust, and 6) ITER-related research and development issues. This document gathers the abstracts
Basin stability measure of different steady states in coupled oscillators
Rakshit, Sarbendu; Bera, Bidesh K.; Majhi, Soumen; Hens, Chittaranjan; Ghosh, Dibakar
2017-04-01
In this report, we investigate the stabilization of saddle fixed points in coupled oscillators where individual oscillators exhibit the saddle fixed points. The coupled oscillators may have two structurally different types of suppressed states, namely amplitude death and oscillation death. The stabilization of saddle equilibrium point refers to the amplitude death state where oscillations are ceased and all the oscillators converge to the single stable steady state via inverse pitchfork bifurcation. Due to multistability features of oscillation death states, linear stability theory fails to analyze the stability of such states analytically, so we quantify all the states by basin stability measurement which is an universal nonlocal nonlinear concept and it interplays with the volume of basins of attractions. We also observe multi-clustered oscillation death states in a random network and measure them using basin stability framework. To explore such phenomena we choose a network of coupled Duffing-Holmes and Lorenz oscillators which are interacting through mean-field coupling. We investigate how basin stability for different steady states depends on mean-field density and coupling strength. We also analytically derive stability conditions for different steady states and confirm by rigorous bifurcation analysis.
Steady state solution of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golovnev, A.; Trimper, S.
2010-01-01
The exact steady state solution of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations (PNP) is given in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. A more tractable approximate solution is derived which can be used to compare the results with experimental observations in binary electrolytes. The breakdown of the PNP for high concentration and high applied voltage is discussed.
Kinematic Cosmology & a new ``Steady State'' Model of Continued Creation
Wegener, Mogens
2006-03-01
Only a new "steady state" model justifies the observations of fully mature galaxies at ever increasing distances. The basic idea behind the world model presented here, which is a synthesis of the cosmologies of Parmenides and Herakleitos, is that the invariant structure of the infinite contents of a universe in flux may be depicted as a finite hyperbolic pseudo-sphere.
Herd-Level Modeling and Steady-State Livestock Productivity ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... an outline of the scope for applications and addresses the prospects for refinement and model extensions. The algorithms for use in development of steady state derivations include transition of matrices in a Markov Chain approach, continuous differential equations and actuarial approach built on life and fecundity tables.
Principle of Entropy Maximization for Nonequilibrium Steady States
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2002-01-01
The goal of this contribution is to find out to what extent the principle of entropy maximization, which serves as a basis for the equilibrium thermodynamics, may be generalized onto non-equilibrium steady states. We prove a theorem that, in the system of thermodynamic coordinates, where entropy...
A steady state model for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludges ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A steady state model for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge is developed that comprises three sequential parts – a kinetic part from which the % COD removal and ... and a carbonate system weak acid/base chemistry part from which the digester pH is calculated from the partial pressure of CO2 and alkalinity generated.
Steady State and Transient Analysis of Induction Motor Driving a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The importance of using a digital computer in studying the performance of Induction machine under steady and transient states is presented with computer results which show the transient behaviour of 3-phase machine during balanced and unbalanced conditions. The computer simulation for these operating conditions is ...
Solution of generalized control system equations at steady state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vilim, R.B.
1987-01-01
Although a number of reactor systems codes feature generalized control system models, none of the models offer a steady-state solution finder. Indeed, if a transient is to begin from steady-state conditions, the user must provide estimates for the control system initial conditions and run a null transient until the plant converges to steady state. Several such transients may have to be run before values for control system demand signals are found that produce the desired plant steady state. The intent of this paper is (a) to present the control system equations assumed in the SASSYS reactor systems code and to identify the appropriate set of initial conditions, (b) to describe the generalized block diagram approach used to represent these equations, and (c) to describe a solution method and algorithm for computing these initial conditions from the block diagram. The algorithm has been installed in the SASSYS code for use with the code's generalized control system model. The solution finder greatly enhances the effectiveness of the code and the efficiency of the user in running it
steady and dynamic states analysis of induction motor: fea approach
African Journals Online (AJOL)
HOD
The flux levels at these loading conditions were also monitored. Key words: Three phase Induction Motor, Steady state and Dynamic Response, Flux Levels, FEA, Loading conditions. 1. INTRODUCTION ..... Boston: Computational Mechanics Publications;. New York: ... for Electrical Engineers, Cambridge University. Press ...
Optimising performance in steady state for a supermarket refrigeration system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Green, Torben; Kinnaert, Michel; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh
2012-01-01
Using a supermarket refrigeration system as an illustrative example, the paper postulates that by appropriately utilising knowledge of plant operation, the plant wide performance can be optimised based on a small set of variables. Focusing on steady state operations, the total system performance...
Steady and dynamic states analysis of induction motor: FEA approach
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper deals with the steady and dynamic states analysis of induction motor using finite element analysis (FEA) approach. The motor has aluminum rotor bars and is designed for direct-on-line operation at 50 Hz. A study of the losses occurring in the motor performed at operating frequency of 50Hz showed that stator ...
Steady-state equations of even flux and scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verwaerde, D.
1985-11-01
Some mathematical properties of steady-state equation of even flux are shown in variational formalism. This theoretical frame allows to study the existence of a solution and its asymptotical behavior in opaque media (i.e. the relation with scattering equation). At last it allows to qualify the convergence velocity of resolution iterative processes used practically [fr
A displacement based FE formulation for steady state problems
Yu, Y.
2005-01-01
In this thesis a new displacement based formulation is developed for elasto-plastic deformations in steady state problems. In this formulation the displacements are the primary variables, which is in contrast to the more common formulations in terms of the velocities as the primary variables. In a
Steady-state Operational Characteristics of Ghana Research ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Steady state operational characteristics of the 30 kW tank-in-pool type reactor named Ghana Research Reactor-1 were investigated after a successful on-site zero power critical experiments. The steadystate operational character-istics determined were the thermal neutron fluxes, maximum period of operation at nominal ...
Dust remobilization in fusion plasmas under steady state conditions
Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S.; de Angeli, M.; De Temmerman, G.; Ripamonti, D.; Riva, G.; I. Bykov,; Shalpegin, A.; Vignitchouk, L.; Brochard, F.; Bystrov, K.; Bardin, S.; Litnovsky, A.
2016-01-01
The first combined experimental and theoretical studies of dust remobilization by plasma forces are reported. The main theoretical aspects of remobilization in fusion devices under steady state conditions are analyzed. In particular, the dominant role of adhesive forces is highlighted and generic
Stabilizing the border steady-state solution of two interacting ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, we have successfully developed a feedback control which has been used to stabilize an unstable steady-state solution (0, 3.3534). This convergence has occurred when the values of the final time are 190, 200, 210 and 220 which corresponds to the scenario when the value of the step length of our simulation ...
Solving fractal steady heat-transfer problems with the local fractional Sumudu transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Yi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the linear oscillator problem in fractal steady heat-transfer is studied within the local fractional theory. In particular, the local fractional Sumudu transform (LFST will be used to solve both the homogeneous and the non-homogeneous local fractional oscillator equations (LFOEs under fractal steady heat-transfer. It will be shown that the obtained non-differentiable solutions characterize the fractal phenomena with and without the driving force in fractal steady heat transfer at low excess temperatures.
Three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium as an ohmic steady state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, W.; Monticello, D.A.; Strauss, H.; Manickam, J.
1985-07-01
A stable three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium can be obtained numerically by a time-dependent relaxation method using small values of dissipation. The final state is an ohmic steady state which approaches an ohmic equilibrium in the limit of small dissipation coefficients. We describe a method to speed up the relaxation process and a method to implement the B vector . del p = 0 condition. These methods are applied to obtain three-dimensional heliac equilibria using the reduced heliac equations
Chlorine decay under steady and unsteady-state hydraulic conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stoianov, Ivan; Aisopou, Angeliki
2014-01-01
This paper describes a simulation framework for the scale-adaptive hydraulic and chlorine decay modelling under steady and unsteady-state flows. Bulk flow and pipe wall reaction coefficients are replaced with steady and unsteady-state reaction coefficients. An unsteady decay coefficient is defined...... which depends upon the absolute value of shear stress and the rate of change of shear stress for quasi-unsteady and unsteady-state flows. A preliminary experimental and analytical investigation was carried out in a water transmission main. The results were used to model monochloramine decay...... and these demonstrate that the dynamic hydraulic conditions have a significant impact on water quality deterioration and the rapid loss of disinfectant residual. © 2013 The Authors....
Steady State Dynamic Operating Behavior of Universal Motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Khan Burdi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A detailed investigation of the universal motor is developed and used for various dynamic steady state and transient operating conditions of loads. In the investigation, output torque, motor speed, input current, input/output power and efficiency are computed, compared and analyzed for different loads. While this paper discusses the steady-state behavior of the universal motor, another companion paper, ?Transient dynamic behavior of universal motor?, will discuss its transient behavior in detail. A non-linear generalized electric machine model of the motor is considered for the analysis. This study was essential to investigate effect of output load on input current, power, speed and efficiency of the motor during operations. Previously such investigation is not known
Hydrodynamics of stratified epithelium: Steady state and linearized dynamics
Yeh, Wei-Ting; Chen, Hsuan-Yi
2016-05-01
A theoretical model for stratified epithelium is presented. The viscoelastic properties of the tissue are assumed to be dependent on the spatial distribution of proliferative and differentiated cells. Based on this assumption, a hydrodynamic description of tissue dynamics at the long-wavelength, long-time limit is developed, and the analysis reveals important insights into the dynamics of an epithelium close to its steady state. When the proliferative cells occupy a thin region close to the basal membrane, the relaxation rate towards the steady state is enhanced by cell division and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, when the region where proliferative cells reside becomes sufficiently thick, a flow induced by cell apoptosis close to the apical surface enhances small perturbations. This destabilizing mechanism is general for continuous self-renewal multilayered tissues; it could be related to the origin of certain tissue morphology, tumor growth, and the development pattern.
Theory of minimum dissipation of energy for the steady state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, T.K.
1992-02-01
The magnetic configuration of an inductively driven steady-state plasma bounded by a surface (or two adjacent surfaces) on which B·n = 0 is force-free: ∇xB = 2αB, where α is a constant, in time and in space. α is the ratio of the Poynting flux to the magnetic helicity flux at the boundary. It is also the ratio of the dissipative rates of the magnetic energy to the magnetic helicity in the plasma. The spatial extent of the configuration is noninfinitesimal. This global constraint is a result of the requirement that, for a steady-state plasma, the rate of change of the vector potential, ∂A/∂t, is constant in time and uniform in space
Theoretical analysis of steady state operating forces in control valves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Basavaraj Hubballi
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The controlling components, such as valves are used to regulate controlled fluid power. It is not always possible to calculate valve forces accurately, and with some types of valves even the existence of certain types of forces cannot be predicted with certainty. In many cases, however, the analysis can be made fairly completely and accurately. The assumption of steady state conditions is valid for the valve alone, but transient effects in the rest of the system may be large. These effects are particularly important with regard to the instability of valves, where the system may react on the valve in such a way as to make it squeal or oscillate, sometimes with large amplitude. The origin of the steady state flow force understood from a brief qualitative explanation. The following paper will summarize much of what is known about valve forces in the spool type controlling element.
Optimal control of transitions between nonequilibrium steady states.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick R Zulkowski
Full Text Available Biological systems fundamentally exist out of equilibrium in order to preserve organized structures and processes. Many changing cellular conditions can be represented as transitions between nonequilibrium steady states, and organisms have an interest in optimizing such transitions. Using the Hatano-Sasa Y-value, we extend a recently developed geometrical framework for determining optimal protocols so that it can be applied to systems driven from nonequilibrium steady states. We calculate and numerically verify optimal protocols for a colloidal particle dragged through solution by a translating optical trap with two controllable parameters. We offer experimental predictions, specifically that optimal protocols are significantly less costly than naive ones. Optimal protocols similar to these may ultimately point to design principles for biological energy transduction systems and guide the design of artificial molecular machines.
Steady state operation of tokamaks. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2000-10-01
The first IAEA Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) on Steady State Operation of Tokamaks was organized to discuss the operations of present long-pulse tokamaks (TRIAM-1M, TORE SUPRA, MT-7, HT-7M, HL-1M) and the plans for future steady-state tokamaks such as SST-1, CIEL, and HT-7U. This meeting, held from 13-15 October 1998, was hosted by the Academia Sinica Institute of Plasma Physics (ASIPP), Hefei, China. Participants from China, France, India, Japan, the Russian Federation, and the IAEA participated in the meeting. There were 18 individual presentations plus general discussions on many topics, including superconducting magnet systems, cryogenics, plasma position control, non-inductive current drive, auxiliary heating, plasma-wall interactions, high heat flux components, particle control, and data acquisition
Theoretical studying the stability of steady-state regime of a channel with a coolant condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savikhin, O.G.
1987-01-01
Based on the boiling channel stability theory, the channel steady-state stability with the coolant condensation is studied. Condensable coolants are used in the NPP steam-separator superheaters as well as in cryogenic technique. Under certain conditions the coolant flow rate and temperature fluctuations may be excited in the parallel channel system with coolant condensation, which produce a sufficient effect on the heat exchange equipment operation reliability. To describe unsteady processes of heat and mass transfer in the channel, a homogeneous two-phase flow one dimensional model is used. The results obtained allow one to make a conclusion concerning the effect of some parameters on condensing channel steady-state regime stability: reduction of inlet and outlet unheated communication length, pressure drop increase at the outlet plate and its reduction at the inlet one lead to the increase of stability margin
Internal transport barrier physics for steady state operation in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wakatani, Masahiro [Kyoto Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Fukuda, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Connor, Jack W. [Culham Science Centre, EURATOM/UKAEA Association (United Kingdom); Garbet, Xavier [Culham Science Centre, EFDA-JET CSU (United Kingdom); Gormezano, Claude [Associazone EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione C.R. Frascati (Italy); Mukhovatov, Vladimir [ITER Naka Joint Work Site, ITER Physics Unit, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)
2003-07-01
Experimental results for the ITB (Internal Transport Barrier) formation and sustainment are compiled in a unified manner to find common features of ITBs in tokamaks. Global scaling laws for threshold power to obtain the ITBs are discussed. Theoretical models for plasmas with ITBs are summarized from stability and transport point of view. Finally possibility to obtain steady-state ITBs will be discussed in addition to extrapolation to ITER. (author)
Steady state magnetic field configurations for the earth's magnetotail
Hau, L.-N.; Wolf, R. A.; Voigt, G.-H.; Wu, C. C.
1989-01-01
A two-dimensional, force-balance magnetic field model is presented. The theoretical existence of a steady state magnetic field configuration that is force-balanced and consistent with slow, lossless, adiabatic, earthward convection within the limit of the ideal MHD is demonstrated. A numerical solution is obtained for a two-dimensional magnetosphere with a rectangular magnetopause and nonflaring tail. The results are consistent with the convection time sequences reported by Erickson (1985).
Exact fluctuations of nonequilibrium steady states from approximate auxiliary dynamics
Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T.
2017-01-01
We describe a framework to significantly reduce the computational effort to evaluate large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We do this by incorporating an auxiliary dynamics into trajectory based Monte Carlo calculations, through a transformation of the system's propagator using an approximate guiding function. This procedure importance samples the trajectories that most contribute to the large deviation function, mitigating the exponenti...
Maximum Entropy Production Is Not a Steady State Attractor for 2D Fluid Convection
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Stuart Bartlett
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Multiple authors have claimed that the natural convection of a fluid is a process that exhibits maximum entropy production (MEP. However, almost all such investigations were limited to fixed temperature boundary conditions (BCs. It was found that under those conditions, the system tends to maximize its heat flux, and hence it was concluded that the MEP state is a dynamical attractor. However, since entropy production varies with heat flux and difference of inverse temperature, it is essential that any complete investigation of entropy production allows for variations in heat flux and temperature difference. Only then can we legitimately assess whether the MEP state is the most attractive. Our previous work made use of negative feedback BCs to explore this possibility. We found that the steady state of the system was far from the MEP state. For any system, entropy production can only be maximized subject to a finite set of physical and material constraints. In the case of our previous work, it was possible that the adopted set of fluid parameters were constraining the system in such a way that it was entirely prevented from reaching the MEP state. Hence, in the present work, we used a different set of boundary parameters, such that the steady states of the system were in the local vicinity of the MEP state. If MEP was indeed an attractor, relaxing those constraints of our previous work should have caused a discrete perturbation to the surface of steady state heat flux values near the value corresponding to MEP. We found no such perturbation, and hence no discernible attraction to the MEP state. Furthermore, systems with fixed flux BCs actually minimize their entropy production (relative to the alternative stable state, that of pure diffusive heat transport. This leads us to conclude that the principle of MEP is not an accurate indicator of which stable steady state a convective system will adopt. However, for all BCs considered, the quotient of
Steady-state subcooled nucleate boiling on a downward facing hemispherical surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haddad, K.H.; Cheung, F.B.
1996-01-01
Steady-state nucleate boiling heat transfer experiments in saturated and subcooled water were conducted. The heating surface was a 0.305 m hemispherical aluminum vessel heated from the inside with water boiling on the outside. It was found that subcooling had very little effect on the nucleate boiling curve in the high heat flux regime where latent heat transport dominated. On the other hand, a relatively large effect of subcooling was observed in the low heat flux regime where sensible heat transport was important. Photographic records of the boiling phenomenon and the bubble dynamics indicated that in the high heat flux regime, boiling in the bottom center region of the vessel was cyclic in nature with a liquid heating phase, a bubble nucleation and growth phase, a bubble coalescence phase, and a large vapor mass ejection phase. At the same heat flux level, the size of the vapor masses was found to decrease from the bottom center toward the upper edge of the vessel, which was consistent with the observed increase in the critical heat flux in the flow direction along the curved heating surface
Steady state statistical correlations predict bistability in reaction motifs.
Chakravarty, Suchana; Barik, Debashis
2017-03-28
Various cellular decision making processes are regulated by bistable switches that take graded input signals and convert them to binary all-or-none responses. Traditionally, a bistable switch generated by a positive feedback loop is characterized either by a hysteretic signal response curve with two distinct signaling thresholds or by characterizing the bimodality of the response distribution in the bistable region. To identify the intrinsic bistability of a feedback regulated network, here we propose that bistability can be determined by correlating higher order moments and cumulants (≥2) of the joint steady state distributions of two components connected in a positive feedback loop. We performed stochastic simulations of four feedback regulated models with intrinsic bistability and we show that for a bistable switch with variation of the signal dose, the steady state variance vs. covariance adopts a signatory cusp-shaped curve. Further, we find that the (n + 1)th order cross-cumulant vs. nth order cross-cumulant adopts a closed loop structure for at least n = 3. We also propose that our method is capable of identifying systems without intrinsic bistability even though the system may show bimodality in the marginal response distribution. The proposed method can be used to analyze single cell protein data measured at steady state from experiments such as flow cytometry.
Steady-state oxygen-solubility in niobium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulze, K.; Jehn, H.
1977-01-01
During annealing of niobium in oxygen in certain temperature and pressure ranges steady states are established between the absorption of molecular oxygen and the evaporation of volatile oxides. The oxygen concentration in the niobium-oxygen α-solid solution is a function of oxygen pressure and temperature and has been redetermined in the ranges 10 -5 - 10 -2 Pa O 2 and 2,070 - 2,470 K. It follows differing from former results the equation csub(o) = 9.1 x 10 -6 x sub(po2) x exp (502000/RT) with csub(o) in at.-ppm, sub(po2) in Pa, T in K, R = 8.31 J x mol -1 x K -1 . The existence of steady states is limited to a temperature range from 1870 to 2470 K and to oxygen concentrations below the solubility limit given by solidus and solvus lines in the T-c diagram. In the experiments high-purity niobium wires with a specific electrical ratio rho (273 K)/rho(4.2 K) > 5,000 have been gassed under isothermal-isobaric conditions until the steady state has been reached. The oxygen concentration has been determined analytically by vacuum fusion extraction with platinum-flux technique as well as by electrical residual resistivity measurements at 4.2 K. (orig.) [de
Extracting Steady State Components from Synchrophasor Data Using Kalman Filters
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Farhan Mahmood
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Data from phasor measurement units (PMUs may be exploited to provide steady state information to the applications which require it. As PMU measurements may contain errors and missing data, the paper presents the application of a Kalman Filter technique for real-time data processing. PMU data captures the power system’s response at different time-scales, which are generated by different types of power system events; the presented Kalman Filter methods have been applied to extract the steady state components of PMU measurements that can be fed to steady state applications. Two KF-based methods have been proposed, i.e., a windowing-based KF method and “the modified KF”. Both methods are capable of reducing noise, compensating for missing data and filtering outliers from input PMU signals. A comparison of proposed methods has been carried out using the PMU data generated from a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL experimental setup. In addition, a performance analysis of the proposed methods is performed using an evaluation metric.
Understanding void fraction in steady state and dynamic environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chexal, B.; Maulbetsch, J.; Harrison, J.; Petersen, C.; Jensen, P.; Horowitz, J.
1997-01-01
Understanding void fraction behavior in steady-state and dynamic environments is important to accurately predict the thermal-hydraulic behavior of two-phase or two-component systems. The Chexal-Lellouche (C-L) void fraction mode described herein covers the full range of pressures, flows, void fractions, and fluid types (steam-water, air-water, and refrigerants). A drift flux model formulation is used which covers the complete range of concurrent and countercurrent flows. The (1996) model revises the earlier C-L void fraction correlation, improves the capability of the model in countercurrent flow based on the incorporation of additional data, and improves the characteristics of the correlation that are important in transient programs. The model has been qualified with data from a number of steady state two-phase and two-component tests, and has been incorporated into the transient analysis code RELAP5 and RETRAN-3D and evaluated with a variety of transient and steady state tests. A 'plug-in' module for the void fraction correlation has been developed and implemented in RELAP5 and RETRAN-3D. The module is available as source code for inclusion into other thermal-hydraulic programs and can be used in any program that utilizes the same interface variables
Toroidal visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic steady states contain vortices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bates, J.W.; Montgomery, D.C.
1998-01-01
Poloidal velocity fields seem to be a fundamental feature of resistive toroidal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) steady states. They are a consequence of force balance in toroidal geometry, do not require any kind of instability, and disappear in the open-quotes straight cylinderclose quotes (infinite aspect ratio) limit. If a current density j results from an axisymmetric toroidal electric field that is irrotational inside a torus, it leads to a magnetic field B such that ∇x(jxB) is nonvanishing, so that the Lorentz force cannot be balanced by the gradient of any scalar pressure in the equation of motion. In a steady state, finite poloidal velocity fields and toroidal vorticity must exist. Their calculation is difficult, but explicit solutions can be found in the limit of low Reynolds number. Here, existing calculations are generalized to the more realistic case of no-slip boundary conditions on the velocity field and a circular toroidal cross section. The results of this paper strongly suggest that discussions of confined steady states in toroidal MHD must include flows from the outset. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Transient and steady-state currents in epoxy resin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guillermin, Christophe; Rain, Pascal; Rowe, Stephen W
2006-01-01
Charging and discharging currents have been measured in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin with and without silica fillers, below and above its glass transition temperature T g = 65 deg. C. Both transient and steady-state current densities have been analysed. The average applied fields ranged from 3 to 35 kV mm -1 with a sample thickness of 0.5 mm. Above T g , transient currents suggested a phenomenon of charge injection forming trapped space charges even at low fields. Steady-state currents confirmed that the behaviour was not Ohmic and suggested Schottky-type injection. Below T g , the current is not controlled by the metal-dielectric interface but by the conduction in the volume: the current is Ohmic at low fields and both transient and steady-state currents suggest a phenomenon of space-charge limited currents at high fields. The field threshold is similar in the filler-free and the filled resin. Values in the range 12-17 kV mm -1 have been measured
Transient and steady-state currents in epoxy resin
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guillermin, Christophe [Schneider Electric Industries S.A.S., 37 quai Paul-Louis Merlin, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rain, Pascal [Laboratoire d' Electrostatique et de Materiaux Dielectriques (LEMD), CNRS, 25 avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rowe, Stephen W [Schneider Electric Industries S.A.S., 37 quai Paul-Louis Merlin, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)
2006-02-07
Charging and discharging currents have been measured in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin with and without silica fillers, below and above its glass transition temperature T{sub g} = 65 deg. C. Both transient and steady-state current densities have been analysed. The average applied fields ranged from 3 to 35 kV mm{sup -1} with a sample thickness of 0.5 mm. Above T{sub g}, transient currents suggested a phenomenon of charge injection forming trapped space charges even at low fields. Steady-state currents confirmed that the behaviour was not Ohmic and suggested Schottky-type injection. Below T{sub g}, the current is not controlled by the metal-dielectric interface but by the conduction in the volume: the current is Ohmic at low fields and both transient and steady-state currents suggest a phenomenon of space-charge limited currents at high fields. The field threshold is similar in the filler-free and the filled resin. Values in the range 12-17 kV mm{sup -1} have been measured.
Structural evaluation of FHX for PGSFR at steady state condition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Nak-Hyun; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, S. K. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
Liquid sodium flows inside the heat transfer tubes and atmospheric air flows over the finned tubes. The configuration and overall shape of the unit are shown in Figure 1. The unit is placed in the upper region of the reactor building and has function of dumping the system heat load into the final heat sink, i.e., the atmosphere. Heat is transmitted from the primary cold sodium pool into the ADHRS sodium loop via DHX (Decay Heat Exchanger), and a direct heat exchange occurs between the tube-side sodium and the shell-side air through the FHX tube wall. Cold atmospheric air is introduced into the air inlet duct at the lower part of the unit by using an electrically operated air blower or by the natural circulation force. Air flows across the finned tube bank rising upward direction to make uniform air flow with perfect mixing across the tubes. The finned tube bundle is placed inside a well-insulated casing. The air heated at the tube bank region is collected at the top of the unit and then is discharged through the air stack above the unit. Although a blower supplies atmospheric cooling air into the FHX unit, a tall air stack of 30 m in height is also provided to secure natural draft head of natural circulation air flow against a loss of power supply. The structural analysis of a FHX are carried out and its structural integrity under the given service levels is evaluated per ASME Code rule. The design loads according to design condition and normal operating steady condition are classified and stresses calculated from stress analyses are linearized and summarized in their stress components.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pankaj Thakur
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Thermal stress and strain rates in a thick walled rotating cylinder under steady state temperature has been derived by using Seth’s transition theory. For elastic-plastic stage, it is seen that with the increase of temperature, the cylinder having smaller radii ratios requires lesser angular velocity to become fully plastic as compared to cylinder having higher radii ratios The circumferential stress becomes larger and larger with the increase in temperature. With increase in thickness ratio stresses must be decrease. For the creep stage, it is seen that circumferential stresses for incompressible materials maximum at the internal surface as compared to compressible material, which increase with the increase in temperature and measure n.
Hu, J S; Sun, Z; Guo, H Y; Li, J G; Wan, B N; Wang, H Q; Ding, S Y; Xu, G S; Liang, Y F; Mansfield, D K; Maingi, R; Zou, X L; Wang, L; Ren, J; Zuo, G Z; Zhang, L; Duan, Y M; Shi, T H; Hu, L Q
2015-02-06
A critical challenge facing the basic long-pulse high-confinement operation scenario (H mode) for ITER is to control a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability, known as the edge localized mode (ELM), which leads to cyclical high peak heat and particle fluxes at the plasma facing components. A breakthrough is made in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak in achieving a new steady-state H mode without the presence of ELMs for a duration exceeding hundreds of energy confinement times, by using a novel technique of continuous real-time injection of a lithium (Li) aerosol into the edge plasma. The steady-state ELM-free H mode is accompanied by a strong edge coherent MHD mode (ECM) at a frequency of 35-40 kHz with a poloidal wavelength of 10.2 cm in the ion diamagnetic drift direction, providing continuous heat and particle exhaust, thus preventing the transient heat deposition on plasma facing components and impurity accumulation in the confined plasma. It is truly remarkable that Li injection appears to promote the growth of the ECM, owing to the increase in Li concentration and hence collisionality at the edge, as predicted by GYRO simulations. This new steady-state ELM-free H-mode regime, enabled by real-time Li injection, may open a new avenue for next-step fusion development.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pal, G.; MaarKandeya, S.G.; Raj, V.V.
1991-01-01
This paper deals with the calculation of radiative heat exchange in a rod array exposed to stagnant gaseous environment. a computer code has been developed for this purpose and has been used for predicting the steady state temperature distribution in a nuclear fuel sub-assembly. Nuclear fuels continue to generate heat even after their removal from the core. During the transfer of the nuclear fuel sub-assemblies from the core to the storage bay, they pass through stagnant gaseous environment and may remain there for extended periods under abnormal conditions. Radiative heat exchange will be the dominant mode within the sub-assembly involved, since axial heat conduction through the fuel pins needs to be accounted for. a computer code RHEINA-3D (Radiative Heat Exchange In Nuclear Assemblies -3D) has been developed based on a simplified numerical model which considers both the above-mentioned phenomena. The analytical model and the results obtained are briefly discussed in this paper
Heat transfer in turbocharger turbines under steady, pulsating and transient conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burke, R.D.; Vagg, C.R.M.; Chalet, D.; Chesse, P.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Compare turbine heat transfer correlations from different studies. • Compare heat transfer for a same turbine on-engine and on gas-stand. • Analyse heat transfer under steady and transient operating conditions. • Gas stand heat transfer correlations are transferrable to engine conditions. • Heat flows can be reversed compared to steady conditions during transients. - Abstract: Heat transfer is significant in turbochargers and a number of mathematical models have been proposed to account for the heat transfer, however these have predominantly been validated under steady flow conditions. A variable geometry turbocharger from a 2.2 L Diesel engine was studied, both on gas stand and on-engine, under steady and transient conditions. The results showed that heat transfer accounts for at least 20% of total enthalpy change in the turbine and significantly more at lower mechanical powers. A convective heat transfer correlation was derived from experimental measurements to account for heat transfer between the gases and the turbine housing and proved consistent with those published from other researchers. This relationship was subsequently shown to be consistent between engine and gas stand operation: using this correlation in a 1D gas dynamics simulation reduced the turbine outlet temperature error from 33 °C to 3 °C. Using the model under transient conditions highlighted the effect of housing thermal inertia. The peak transient heat flow was strongly linked to the dynamics of the turbine inlet temperature: for all increases, the peak heat flow was higher than under thermally stable conditions due to colder housing. For all decreases in gas temperature, the peak heat flow was lower and for temperature drops of more than 100 °C the heat flow was reversed during the transient
Preliminary design study of a steady state tokamak device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miya, Naoyuki; Nakajima, Shinji; Ushigusa, Kenkichi; and athors)
1992-09-01
Preliminary design study has been made for a steady tokamak with the plasma current of 10MA, as the next to the JT-60U experimental programs. The goal of the research program is the integrated study of steady state, high-power physics and technology. Present candidate design is to use superconducting TF and PF magnet systems and long pulse operation of 100's-1000's of sec with non inductive current drive mainly by 500keV negative ion beam injection of 60MW. Low activation material such as titanium alloy is chosen for the water tank type vacuum vessel, which is also the nuclear shield for the superconducting coils. The present preliminary design study shows that the device can meet the existing JT-60U facility capability. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Xiao-Jun
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this article we propose a new fractional derivative without singular kernel. We consider the potential application for modeling the steady heat-conduction problem. The analytical solution of the fractional-order heat flow is also obtained by means of the Laplace transform.
Progress Towards High Performance, Steady-state Spherical Torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Boedo, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Bush, C.; Choe, W.; Chrzanowski, J.; Darrow, D.S.; Diem, S.J.; Doerner, R.; Efthimion, P.C.; Ferron, J.R.; Fonck, R.J.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Garstka, G.D.; Gates, D.A.; Gray, T.; Grisham, L.R.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.W.; Hoffman, D.; Jarboe, T.R.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.M.; Kessel, C.; Kim, J.H.; Kissick, M.W.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.G.; Lewicki, B.T.; Luckhardt, S.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Maqueda, R.; Mau, T.K.; Mazzucato, E.; Medley, S.S.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B.A.; Neumeyer, C.; Nishino, N.; Ostrander, C.N.; Pacella, D.; Paoletti, F.; Park, H.K.; Park, W.; Paul, S.F.; Peng, Y.-K. M.; Phillips, C.K.; Pinsker, R.; Probert, P.H.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Redi, M.; Roquemore, A.L.; Rosenberg, A.; Ryan, P.M.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Schaffer, M.; Schooff, R.J.; Seraydarian, R.; Skinner, C.H.; Sontag, A.C.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Spaleta, J.; Stevenson, T.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.W.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Tang, X.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Tritz, K.L.; Unterberg, E.A.; Von Halle, A.; Wilgen, J.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J.R.; Xu, X.; Zweben, S.J.; Akers, R.; Barry, R.E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bialek, J.M.; Blagojevic, B.; Bonoli, P.T.; Carter, M.D.; Davis, W.; Deng, B.; Dudek, L.; Egedal, J.; Ellis, R.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Fredd, E.; Glasser, A.; Gibney, T.; Gilmore, M.; Goldston, R.J.; Hatcher, R.E.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Houlberg, W.; Harvey, R.; Jardin, S.C.; Hosea, J.C.; Ji, H.; Kalish, M.; Lowrance, J.; Lao, L.L.; Levinton, F.M.; Luhmann, N.C.; Marsala, R.; Mastravito, D.; Menon, M.M.; Mitarai, O.; Nagata, M.; Oliaro, G.; Parsells, R.; Peebles, T.; Peneflor, B.; Piglowski, D.; Porter, G.D.; Ram, A.K.; Rensink, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Roney, P.; Shaing, K.; Shiraiwa, S.; Sichta, P.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.C.; Vero, R.; Wampler, W.R.; Wurden, G.A.
2003-01-01
Research on the Spherical Torus (or Spherical Tokamak) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect-ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The Spherical Tours (ST) experiments are being conducted in various U.S. research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium-size ST research facilities: Pegasus at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the U.S., an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high-performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta (B), noninductive sustainment, ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values bT of up to 35% with the near unity central betaT have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where bT up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for noninductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta-poloidal regime, where discharges with a high noninductive fraction (∼60% bootstrap current + neutral-beam-injected current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency-based heating and current drive utilizing HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) and EBW (Electron Bernstein Wave) is also pursued on NSTX, Pegasus, and CDX-U. For noninductive start-up, the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI), developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been adopted
Formation of solar filaments by steady and nonsteady chromospheric heating
Xia, C.; Chen, P. F.; Keppens, R.; van Marle, A. J.
2011-01-01
It has been established that cold plasma condensations can form in a magnetic loop subject to localized heating of its footpoints. In this paper, we use grid-adaptive numerical simulations of the radiative hydrodynamic equations to investigate the filament formation process in a pre-shaped loop with
Formation of Solar Filaments by Steady and Nonsteady Chromospheric Heating
Xia, C.; Chen, P.F.; Keppens, R.; van Marle, A. -J
2011-01-01
It has been established that cold plasma condensations can form in a magnetic loop subject to localized heating of its footpoints. In this paper, we use grid-adaptive numerical simulations of the radiative hydrodynamic equations to investigate the filament formation process in a pre-shaped loop with
Steady 3D Numerical Simulation of the Evaporator and Compensation Chamber of a Loop Heat Pipe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Nedayvozov
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents results of a steady three-dimensional numerical simulation of a flat evaporator and compensation chamber (CC of a loop heat pipe (LHP and describes a procedure of the thermal state calculation of the evaporator and the compensation chamber.The LHP is an efficient heat transfer device operating on the principle of evaporation-condensation cycle. It is successfully used in space technology and also to cool the heat-stressed components of electronic devices and computer equipment. The authors carried out a numerical study of the influence of the condensate pipeline length, immersed in water, on the thermal state of the evaporator and the compensation chamber. The paper shows the influence of the mass forces field on the calculation results. Presents all the numerical studies carried out by the authors for a brass flat evaporator with a thermal load of 80 W. Water is used as a LHP heat-transfer fluid. Fields of temperature, pressure and velocity are presented for each design option.Based on the calculation results, the authors came to the following conclusions:Influence of the mass forces field for the LHP of this type is significant and leads to arising water vortex flow in the condensate pipeline and CC, thereby mixing and equalizing the water temperature in the CC and in the porous element, reducing the maximum temperature of the porous element;The increasing section length of the condensate pipeline in the CC leads to increasing velocity of the heat-transfer fluid in the CC and in the porous element, decreasing mixing zone of the condensate in the CC, and increasing temperature non-uniformity of the porous element.
Physical design of MW-class steady-state spherical tokamak, QUEST
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanada, K.; Sato, K.N.; Zushi, H.; Nakamura, K.; Sakamoto, M.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Higashizono, Y.; Yoshida, N.; Takase, Y.; Ejiri, A.; Ogawa, Y.; Ono, Y.; Yoshida, Z.; Mitarai, O.; Maekawa, T.; Kishimoto, Y.; Ishiguro, M.; Yoshinaga, T.; Igami, H.; Hirooka, Y.; Komori, A.; Motojima, O.; Sudo, S.; Yamada, H.; Ando, A.; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Matsukawa, Makoto; Ishida, A.; Ohno, N.; Peng, M.
2008-10-01
QUEST (R=0.68 m, a=0.4 m) focuses on the steady state operation of the spherical tokamak (ST) by controlled PWI and electron Bernstain wave (EBW) current drive (CD). The QUEST project will be developed along two phases, phase I: steady state operation with plasma current, I p =20-30 kA on open divertor configuration and phase II: steady state operation with I p = 100 kA and β of 10% in short pulse on closed divertor configuration. Feasibility of the missions on QUEST was investigated and the suitable machine size of QUEST was decided based on the physical view of plasma parameters. Electron Bernstein wave (EBW) current drive are planned to establish the maintenance of plasma current in steady state. Mode conversion efficiency to EBW was calculated and the conversion of 95% will be expected. A new type antenna for QUEST has been fabricated to excite EBW effectively. The situation of heat and particle handling is challenging, and W and high temperature wall is adopted. The start-up scenario of plasma current was investigated based on the driven current by energetic electron and the most favorable magnetic configuration for start-up is proposed. (author)
Steady-State-Preserving Simulation of Genetic Regulatory Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruqiang Zhang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A novel family of exponential Runge-Kutta (expRK methods are designed incorporating the stable steady-state structure of genetic regulatory systems. A natural and convenient approach to constructing new expRK methods on the base of traditional RK methods is provided. In the numerical integration of the one-gene, two-gene, and p53-mdm2 regulatory systems, the new expRK methods are shown to be more accurate than their prototype RK methods. Moreover, for nonstiff genetic regulatory systems, the expRK methods are more efficient than some traditional exponential RK integrators in the scientific literature.
A steady state tokamak operation by use of magnetic monopoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narihara, K.
1991-12-01
A steady state tokamak operation based on a magnetic monopole circuit is considered. Circulation of a chain of iron cubes which trap magnetic monopoles generates the needed loop voltage. The monopole circuit is enclosed by a series of solenoid coils in which magnetic field is feedback controlled so that the force on the circuit balance against the mechanical friction. The driving power is supplied through the current sources of poloidal, ohmic and solenoid coils. The current drive efficiency is same as that of the ohmic current drive. (author)
Feasibility study of steady state magnetic field measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawahata, Kazuo; Fujita, Junji; Matsuura, Kiyokata; Sakata, Masataka; Fujiwaka, Setsuya; Matoba, Tohru.
1995-08-01
A rotating magnetic probe testing system has been designed and constructed for the purpose of establishing a technique of the plasma current measurement on a steady state tokamak. An air turbine is employed to drive the rotating magnetic coil from the viewpoint of avoiding the use of an electric motor in the vicinity of the tokamak device. The signal induced on the rotating probe is transmitted to the amplifier through a transformer coupling. A long term testing on mechanical as well as electrical characteristics has been carried out to find key technical issues on this system. A continuous operation for more than one week has successfully been achieved. (author)
Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Horwitz, Anna; Dyhr Thomsen, Mia; Wiegand, Iris
2017-01-01
Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit) with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we...... examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR) in the alpha (8Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years) and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years). Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power...
Quantum-classical correspondence in steady states of nonadiabatic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujii, Mikiya; Yamashita, Koichi
2015-01-01
We first present nonadiabatic path integral which is exact formulation of quantum dynamics in nonadiabatic systems. Then, by applying the stationary phase approximations to the nonadiabatic path integral, a semiclassical quantization condition, i.e., quantum-classical correspondence, for steady states of nonadiabatic systems is presented as a nonadiabatic trace formula. The present quantum-classical correspondence indicates that a set of primitive hopping periodic orbits, which are invariant under time evolution in the phase space of the slow degree of freedom, should be quantized. The semiclassical quantization is then applied to a simple nonadiabatic model and accurately reproduces exact quantum energy levels
On the minimum circulating power of steady state tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Fukuyama, A.; Yagi, M.
1995-07-01
Circulating power for the sustenance and profile control of the steady state tokamak plasmas is discussed. The simultaneous fulfillment of the MHD stability at high beta value, the improved confinement and the stationary equilibrium requires the rotation drive as well as the current drive. In addition to the current drive efficiency, the efficiency for the rotation drive is investigated. The direct rotation drive by the external torque, such as the case of beam injection, is not efficient enough. The mechanism and the magnitude of the spontaneous plasma rotation are studied. (author)
Steady State Analysis of Stochastic Systems with Multiple Time Delays
Xu, W.; Sun, C. Y.; Zhang, H. Q.
In this paper, attention is focused on the steady state analysis of a class of nonlinear dynamic systems with multi-delayed feedbacks driven by multiplicative correlated Gaussian white noises. The Fokker-Planck equations for delayed variables are at first derived by Novikov's theorem. Then, under small delay assumption, the approximate stationary solutions are obtained by the probability density approach. As a special case, the effects of multidelay feedbacks and the correlated additive and multiplicative Gaussian white noises on the response of a bistable system are considered. It is shown that the obtained analytical results are in good agreement with experimental results in Monte Carlo simulations.
Steady-state capabilities for hydroturbines with OpenFOAM
Page, M.; Beaudoin, M.; Giroux, A. M.
2010-08-01
The availability of a high quality Open Source CFD simulation platform like OpenFOAM offers new R&D opportunities by providing direct access to models and solver implementation details. Efforts have been made by Hydro-Québec to adapt OpenFOAM to hydroturbines for the development of steady-state capabilities. The paper describes the developments that have been made to implement new turbomachinery related capabilities: Multiple Frame of Reference solver, domain coupling interfaces (GGI, cyclicGGI and mixing plane) and specialized boundary conditions. Practical use of the new turbomachinery capabilities are demonstrated for the analysis of a 195-MW Francis hydroturbine.
Steady-state capabilities for hydroturbines with OpenFOAM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Page, M; Beaudoin, M; Giroux, A M, E-mail: page.maryse@ireq.c [Hydro-Quebec, Institut de recherche 1800 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S1 (Canada)
2010-08-15
The availability of a high quality Open Source CFD simulation platform like OpenFOAM offers new R and D opportunities by providing direct access to models and solver implementation details. Efforts have been made by Hydro-Quebec to adapt OpenFOAM to hydroturbines for the development of steady-state capabilities. The paper describes the developments that have been made to implement new turbomachinery related capabilities: Multiple Frame of Reference solver, domain coupling interfaces (GGI, cyclicGGI and mixing plane) and specialized boundary conditions. Practical use of the new turbomachinery capabilities are demonstrated for the analysis of a 195-MW Francis hydroturbine.
Full steady state LH scenarios in Tore Supra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazarian-Vibert, F.; Litaudon, X.; Arslanbekov, R.; Hoang, G.T.; Moreau, D.; Peysson, Y.
1995-01-01
Lower Hybrid discharge have been realised in Tore Supra using feed-back control of the primary circuit voltage such that the loop voltage was maintained exactly to zero near the plasma surface. This new scenario allows the plasma current to float and quickly reach an equilibrium value determined by the current drive efficiency and Lower Hybrid power. Recent experimental results show that, with the new constant flux scenario the coupled plasma and primary currents reach a steady state in less than 10 s which is a good agreement with theoretical expectations. A complete analysis of this scenario is presented. (authors). 8 refs., 3 figs
Steady State Stokes Flow Interpolation for Fluid Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bhatacharya, Haimasree; Nielsen, Michael Bang; Bridson, Robert
2012-01-01
— suffer from a common problem. They fail to capture the rotational components of the velocity field, although extrapolation in the normal direction does consider the tangential component. We address this problem by casting the interpolation as a steady state Stokes flow. This type of flow captures......Fluid control methods often require surface velocities interpolated throughout the interior of a shape to use the velocity as a feedback force or as a boundary condition. Prior methods for interpolation in computer graphics — velocity extrapolation in the normal direction and potential flow...
Steady-state capabilities for hydroturbines with OpenFOAM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Page, M; Beaudoin, M; Giroux, A M
2010-01-01
The availability of a high quality Open Source CFD simulation platform like OpenFOAM offers new R and D opportunities by providing direct access to models and solver implementation details. Efforts have been made by Hydro-Quebec to adapt OpenFOAM to hydroturbines for the development of steady-state capabilities. The paper describes the developments that have been made to implement new turbomachinery related capabilities: Multiple Frame of Reference solver, domain coupling interfaces (GGI, cyclicGGI and mixing plane) and specialized boundary conditions. Practical use of the new turbomachinery capabilities are demonstrated for the analysis of a 195-MW Francis hydroturbine.
System studies for quasi-steady-state advanced physics tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reid, R.L.; Peng, Y.K.M.
1983-11-01
Parametric studies were conducted using the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) Tokamak Systems Code to investigate the impact of veriation in physics parameters and technology limits on the performance and cost of a low q/sub psi/, high beta, quasi-steady-state tokamak for the purpose of fusion engineering experimentation. The features and characteristics chosen from each study were embodied into a single Advanced Physics Tokamak design for which a self-consistent set of parameters was generated and a value of capital cost was estimated
Steady-state solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride
Peppin, S. S. L.; Huppert, Herbert E.; Worster, M. Grae
We report on a series of experiments in which a Hele-Shaw cell containing aqueous solutions of NH4Cl was translated at prescribed rates through a steady temperature gradient. The salt formed the primary solid phase of a mushy layer as the solution solidified, with the salt-depleted residual fluid driving buoyancy-driven convection and the development of chimneys in the mushy layer. Depending on the operating conditions, several morphological transitions occurred. A regime diagram is presented quantifying these transitions as a function of freezing rate and the initial concentration of the solution. In general, for a given concentration, increasing the freezing rate caused the steady-state system to change from a convecting mushy layer with chimneys to a non-convecting mushy layer below a relatively quiescent liquid, and then to a much thinner mushy layer separated from the liquid by a region of active secondary nucleation. At higher initial concentrations the second of these states did not occur. At lower concentrations, but still above the eutectic, the mushy layer disappeared. A simple mathematical model of the system is developed which compares well with the experimental measurements of the intermediate, non-convecting state and serves as a benchmark against which to understand some of the effects of convection. Movies are available with the online version of the paper.
Ideal MHD stability and performance of ITER steady-state scenarios with ITBs
Poli, F. M.; Kessel, C. E.; Chance, M. S.; Jardin, S. C.; Manickam, J.
2012-06-01
Non-inductive steady-state scenarios on ITER will need to operate with internal transport barriers (ITBs) in order to reach adequate fusion gain at typical currents of 9 MA. The large pressure gradients at the location of the internal barrier are conducive to the development of ideal MHD instabilities that may limit the plasma performance and may lead to plasma disruptions. Fully non-inductive scenario simulations with five combinations of heating and current drive sources are presented in this work, with plasma currents in the range 7-10 MA. For each configuration the linear, ideal MHD stability is analysed for variations of the Greenwald fraction and of the pressure peaking factor around the operating point, aiming at defining an operational space for stable, steady-state operations at optimized performance. It is shown that plasmas with lower hybrid heating and current drive maintain the minimum safety factor above 1.5, which is desirable in steady-state operations to avoid neoclassical tearing modes. Operating with moderate ITBs at 2/3 of the minor radius, these plasmas have a minimum safety factor above 2, are ideal MHD stable and reach Q ≳ 5 operating above the ideal no-wall limit.
STEADY-STATE RELATIVISTIC STELLAR DYNAMICS AROUND A MASSIVE BLACK HOLE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bar-Or, Ben; Alexander, Tal [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, P.O. Box 26, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)
2016-04-01
A massive black hole (MBH) consumes stars whose orbits evolve into the small phase-space volume of unstable orbits, the “loss cone,” which take them into the MBH, or close enough to interact strongly with it. The resulting phenomena, e.g., tidal heating and disruption, binary capture and hyper-velocity star ejection, gravitational wave (GW) emission by inspiraling compact remnants, or hydrodynamical interactions with an accretion disk, can produce observable signatures and thereby reveal the MBH, affect its mass and spin evolution, test strong gravity, and probe stars and gas near the MBH. These continuous stellar loss and resupply processes shape the central stellar distribution. We investigate relativistic stellar dynamics near the loss cone of a non-spinning MBH in steady state, analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations of the diffusion of the orbital parameters. These take into account Newtonian mass precession due to enclosed stellar mass, in-plane precession due to general relativity, dissipation by GW, uncorrelated two-body relaxation, correlated resonant relaxation (RR), and adiabatic invariance due to secular precession, using a rigorously derived description of correlated post-Newtonian dynamics in the diffusion limit. We argue that general maximal entropy considerations strongly constrain the orbital diffusion in steady state, irrespective of the relaxation mechanism. We identify the exact phase-space separatrix between plunges and inspirals, and predict their steady-state rates. We derive the dependence of the rates on the mass of the MBH, show that the contribution of RR in steady state is small, and discuss special cases where unquenched RR in restricted volumes of phase-space may affect the steady state substantially.
Steady state magnetic field configurations for the earth's magnetotail
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hau, L.N.; Wolf, R.A.; Voigt, G.H.; Wu, C.C.
1989-01-01
The authors present a two-dimensional, force-balanced magnetic field model in which flux tubes have constant pVγ throughout an extended region of the nightside plasma sheet, between approximately 36 R E geocentric distance and the region of the inner edge of the plasma sheet. They have thus demonstrated the theoretical existence of a steady state magnetic field configuration that is force-balanced and also consistent with slow, lossless, adiabatic, earthward convection within the limit of the ideal MHD (isotropic pressure, perfect conductivity). The numerical solution was constructed for a two-dimensional magnetosphere with a rectangular magnetopause and nonflaring tail. The primary characteristics of the steady state convection solution are (1) a pressure maximum just tailward of the inner edge of the plasma sheet and (2) a deep, broad minimum in equatorial magnetic field strength B ze , also just tailward of the inner edge. The results are consistent with Erickson's (1985) convection time sequences, which exhibited analogous pressure peaks and B ze minima. Observations do not indicate the existence of a B ze minimum, on the average. They suggest that the configurations with such deep minima in B ze may be tearing-mode unstable, thus leading to substorm onset in the inner plasma sheet
Steady-state operation of spheromaks by inductive techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janos, A.
1984-04-01
A method to maintain a steady-state spheromak configuration inductively using the S-1 Spheromak device is described. The S-1 Spheromak formation apparatus can be utilized to inject magnetic helicity continuously (C.W., not pulsed or D.C.) into the spheromak configuration after equilibrium is achieved in the linked mode of operation. Oscillation of both poloidal- and toroidal-field currents in the flux core (psi-phi Pumping), with proper phasing, injects a net time-averaged helicity into the plasma. Steady-state maintenance relies on flux conversion, which has been earlier identified. Relevant experimental data from the operation of S-1 are described. Helicity flow has been measured and the proposed injection scheme simulated. In a reasonable time practical voltages and frequencies can inject an amount of helicity comparable to that in the initial plasma. Plasma currents can be maintained or increased. This pumping technique is similar to F-THETA Pumping of a Reversed-Field-Pinch but is applied to this inverse-pinch formation
MARS input data for steady-state calculation of ATLAS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Hyun Sik; Euh, D. J.; Choi, K. Y.; Kwon, T. S.; Jeong, J. J.; Baek, W. P.
2004-12-01
An integral effect test loop for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), the ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), is under construction by Thermal-Hydraulics Safety Research Division in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). This report includes calculation sheets of the input for the best-estimate system analysis code, the MARS code, based on the ongoing design features of ATLAS. The ATLAS facility has been designed to have the length scale of 1/2 and area scale of 1/144 compared with the reference plant, APR1400. The contents of this report are divided into three parts: (1) core and reactor vessel, (2) steam generator and steam line, and (3) primary piping, pressurizer and reactor coolant pump. The steady-state analysis for the ATLAS facility will be performed based on these calculation sheets, and its results will be applied to the detailed design of ATLAS. Additionally, the calculation results will contribute to getting optimum test conditions and preliminary operational test conditions for the steady-state and transient experiments
Steady-state creep of discontinuous fibre composites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boecker Pedersen, O.
1975-07-01
A review is given of the relevant literature on creep of composites, including a presentation of existing models for the steady-state creep of composites containing aligned discontinuous fibres where creep of the matrix and fibres is assumed to follow a power law. A model is suggested for predicting the composite creep law from a matrix creep law given in a general form, in the case where the fibres do not creep. The composite creep law predicted by this model is compared with those predicted by previous models, when these are extended to comprise a general matrix creep law. Experimentally, pure copper and composites consisting of aligned discontinuous tungsten fibres in a copper matrix were creep tested at a temperature of 500 deg C. The results indicate a relatively low stress sensitivity of the steady-state creep-rate for pure copper and relatively high stress sensitivity for the composites. This may be explained by the creep models based upon a general matrix creep law. A quantitative prediction shows promising agreement with the present experimental results. (author)
Integrated stoichiometric, thermodynamic and kinetic modelling of steady state metabolism.
Fleming, R M T; Thiele, I; Provan, G; Nasheuer, H P
2010-06-07
The quantitative analysis of biochemical reactions and metabolites is at frontier of biological sciences. The recent availability of high-throughput technology data sets in biology has paved the way for new modelling approaches at various levels of complexity including the metabolome of a cell or an organism. Understanding the metabolism of a single cell and multi-cell organism will provide the knowledge for the rational design of growth conditions to produce commercially valuable reagents in biotechnology. Here, we demonstrate how equations representing steady state mass conservation, energy conservation, the second law of thermodynamics, and reversible enzyme kinetics can be formulated as a single system of linear equalities and inequalities, in addition to linear equalities on exponential variables. Even though the feasible set is non-convex, the reformulation is exact and amenable to large-scale numerical analysis, a prerequisite for computationally feasible genome scale modelling. Integrating flux, concentration and kinetic variables in a unified constraint-based formulation is aimed at increasing the quantitative predictive capacity of flux balance analysis. Incorporation of experimental and theoretical bounds on thermodynamic and kinetic variables ensures that the predicted steady state fluxes are both thermodynamically and biochemically feasible. The resulting in silico predictions are tested against fluxomic data for central metabolism in Escherichia coli and compare favourably with in silico prediction by flux balance analysis. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adaptively locating unknown steady states: Formalism and basin of attraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Yu; Lin, Wei
2011-01-01
The adaptive technique, which includes both dynamical estimators and coupling gains, has been recently verified to be practical for locating the unknown steady states numerically. This Letter, in the light of the center manifold theory for dynamical systems and the matrix spectrum principle, establishes an analytical formalism of this adaptive technique and reveals a connection between this technique and the original adaptive controller which includes only the dynamical estimator. More interestingly, in study of the well-known Lorenz system, the selections of the estimator parameters and initial values are found to be crucial to the successful application of the adaptive technique. Some Milnor-like basins of attraction with fractal structures are found quantitatively. All the results obtained in the Letter can be further extended to more general dynamical systems of higher dimensions. -- Highlights: → Establishing a new and rigorous formalism for the adaptive stabilization technique. → Showing a close connection between the adaptive technique and the original controller. → Providing feasible algorithms for simultaneous stabilization of multiple steady states. → Finding Milnor-like basins of attraction with fractal structures in adaptive control.
Importance sampling large deviations in nonequilibrium steady states. I
Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T.
2018-03-01
Large deviation functions contain information on the stability and response of systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states and in such a way are similar to free energies for systems at equilibrium. As with equilibrium free energies, evaluating large deviation functions numerically for all but the simplest systems is difficult because by construction they depend on exponentially rare events. In this first paper of a series, we evaluate different trajectory-based sampling methods capable of computing large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We illustrate some convergence criteria and best practices using a number of different models, including a biased Brownian walker, a driven lattice gas, and a model of self-assembly. We show how two popular methods for sampling trajectory ensembles, transition path sampling and diffusion Monte Carlo, suffer from exponentially diverging correlations in trajectory space as a function of the bias parameter when estimating large deviation functions. Improving the efficiencies of these algorithms requires introducing guiding functions for the trajectories.
Importance sampling large deviations in nonequilibrium steady states. I.
Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T
2018-03-28
Large deviation functions contain information on the stability and response of systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states and in such a way are similar to free energies for systems at equilibrium. As with equilibrium free energies, evaluating large deviation functions numerically for all but the simplest systems is difficult because by construction they depend on exponentially rare events. In this first paper of a series, we evaluate different trajectory-based sampling methods capable of computing large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We illustrate some convergence criteria and best practices using a number of different models, including a biased Brownian walker, a driven lattice gas, and a model of self-assembly. We show how two popular methods for sampling trajectory ensembles, transition path sampling and diffusion Monte Carlo, suffer from exponentially diverging correlations in trajectory space as a function of the bias parameter when estimating large deviation functions. Improving the efficiencies of these algorithms requires introducing guiding functions for the trajectories.
Plasma control issues for an advanced steady state tokamak reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreau, D.
2001-01-01
This paper deals with specific control issues related to the advanced tokamak scenarios in which rather accurate tailoring of the current density profile is a requirement in connection with the steady state operation of a reactor in a high confinement optimized shear mode. It is found that adequate current profile control can be performed if real-time magnetic flux reconstruction is available through a set of dedicated diagnostics and computers, with sufficient accuracy to deduce the radial profile of the safety factor and of the internal plasma loop voltage. It is also shown that the safety factor can be precisely controlled in the outer half of the plasma through the surface loop voltage and the off-axis current drive power, but that a compromise must be made between the accuracy of the core safety factor control and the total duration of the current and fuel density ramp-up phases, so that the demonstration of the steady state reactor potential of the optimized/reversed shear concept in the Next Step device will demand pulse lengths of the order of one thousand seconds (or more for an ITER-size machine). (author)
Plasma control issues for an advanced steady state tokamak reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreau, D.; Voitsekhovitch, I.
1999-01-01
This paper deals with specific control issues related to the advanced tokamak scenarios in which rather accurate tailoring of the current density profile is a requirement in connection with the steady state operation of a reactor in a high confinement optimized shear mode. It is found that adequate current profile control can be performed if real-time magnetic flux reconstruction is available through a set of dedicated diagnostics and computers, with sufficient accuracy to deduce the radial profile of the safety factor and of the internal plasma loop voltage. It is also shown that the safety factor can be precisely controlled in the outer half of the plasma through the surface loop voltage and the off-axis current drive power, but that a compromise must be made between the accuracy of the core safety factor control and the total duration of the current and fuel density ramp-up phases, so that the demonstration of the steady state reactor potential of the optimized/reversed shear concept in the Next Step device will demand pulse lengths of the order of one thousand seconds (or more for an ITER-size machine). (author)
Transient and steady-state selection in the striatal microcircuit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam eTomkins
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Although the basal ganglia have been widely studied and implicated in signal processing and action selection, little information is known about the active role the striatal microcircuit plays in action selection in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. To address this knowledge gap we use a large scale three dimensional spiking model of the striatum, combined with a rate coded model of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, to asses the computational role the striatum plays in action selection. We identify a robust transient phenomena generated by the striatal microcircuit, which temporarily enhances the difference between two competing cortical inputs. We show that this transient is sufficient to modulate decision making in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit. We also find that the transient selection originates from a novel adaptation effect in single striatal projection neurons, which is amenable to experimental testing. Finally, we compared transient selection with models implementing classical steady-state selection. We challenged both forms of model to account for recent reports of paradoxically enhanced response selection in Huntington's Disease patients. We found that steady-state selection was uniformly impaired under all simulated Huntington's conditions, but transient selection was enhanced given a sufficient Huntington's-like increase in NMDA receptor sensitivity. Thus our models provide an intriguing hypothesis for the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical cognitive improvements in manifest Huntington's patients.
MHD stability regimes for steady state and pulsed reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.E.; Pomphrey, N.
1994-02-01
A tokamak reactor will operate at the maximum value of β≡2μ 0 /B 2 that is compatible with MHD stability. This value depends upon the plasma current and pressure profiles, the plasma shape and aspect ratio, and the location of nearby conducting structures. In addition, a steady state reactor will minimize its external current drive requirements and thus achieve its maximum economic benefit with a bootstrap fraction near one, I bs /I p ∼ 1, which constrains the product of the inverse aspect ratio and the plasma poloidal beta to be near unity, ε β p ∼ 1. An inductively driven pulsed reactor has different constraints set by the steady-state Ohm's law which relates the plasma temperature and density profiles to the parallel current density. We present the results obtained during the ARIES I, II/IV, and III and the PULSAR reactor studies where these quantities were optimized subject to different design philosophies. The ARIES-II/IV and ARIES-III designs are both in the second stability regime, but differ in requirements on the form of the profiles at the plasma edge, and in the location of the conducting wall. The relation between these, as well as new attractive MHD regimes not utilized in the ARIES or PULSAR studies is also discussed
Magnetohydrodynamic stability regimes for steady state and pulsed reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.E.; Pomphrey, N.
1994-01-01
A tokamak reactor will operate at the maximum value of β≡2μ 0 left angle p right angle /B 2 that is compatible with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability. This value depends on the plasma current and pressure profiles, the plasma shape and aspect ratio, and the location of nearby conducting structures. In addition, a steady state reactor will minimize its external current drive requirements and thus achieve its maximum economic benefit with a bootstrap fraction near unity, I BS /I P ∼1, which constrains the product of the inverse aspect ratio and the plasma poloidal β to be near unity, arepsilonβ P ∼1. An inductively driven pulsed reactor has different constraints set by the steady-state Ohm's law which relates the plasma temperature and density profiles to the parallel current density. We present the results obtained during ARIES I, II/IV, and III and PULSAR reactor studies where these quantities were optimized subject to different design philosophies. The ARIES-II/IV and ARIES-III designs are both in the second stability regime, but differ in requirements in the form of the profiles at the plasma edge, and in the location of the conducting wall. The relation between these, as well as new attractive MHD regimes not utilized in the ARIES or PULSAR studies, is also discussed. ((orig.))
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Shinzaburo
2000-01-01
This paper reports on the progress of the fusion reactor technologies developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and expected to lead to a future steady state operation reactor. In particular, superconducting coil technology for plasma confinement, NBI and RF systems technology for plasma control and current drive, fueling and pumping systems technology for particle control, heat removal technology, and development of long life materials are highlighted as the important key elements for the future steady state operation. It will be discussed how these key technologies have already been developed by the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) technology R and D as well as by the Japanese domestic program, and which technologies are planned for the near future
Steady State Thermo-Hydrodynamic Analysis of Two-Axial groove and Multilobe Hydrodynamic Bearings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Bhagat
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Steady state thermo-hydrodynamic analysis of two axial groove and multi lobe oil journal bearings is performed in this paper. To study the steady state thermo-hydrodynamic characteristics Reynolds equation is solved simultaneously along with the energy equation and heat conduction equation in bush and shaft. The effect of groove geometry, cavitation in the fluid film, the recirculation of lubricant, shaft speed has also been taken into account. Film temperature in case of three-lobe bearing is found to be high as compared to other studied bearing configurations. The data obtained from this analysis can be used conveniently in the design of such bearings, which are presented in dimensionless form.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahin, Ahmet Z.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► The optimality in both heat and fluid flow systems has been investigated. ► A new thermodynamic property has been introduced. ► The second law of thermodynamics was extended to present the temheat balance that included the temheat destruction. ► The principle of temheat destruction minimization was introduced. ► It is shown that the rate of total temheat destruction is minimized in steady heat conduction and fluid flow problems. - Abstract: Heat transfer and fluid flow processes exhibit similarities as they occur naturally and are governed by the same type of differential equations. Natural phenomena occur always in an optimum way. In this paper, the natural optimality that exists in the heat transfer and fluid flow processes is investigated. In this regard, heat transfer and fluid flow problems are treated as optimization problems. We discovered a thermodynamic quantity that is optimized during the steady heat transfer and fluid flow processes. Consequently, a new thermodynamic property, the so called temheat, is introduced using the second law of thermodynamics and the definition of entropy. It is shown, through several examples, that overall temheat destruction is always minimized in steady heat and fluid flow processes. The principle of temheat destruction minimization that is based on the temheat balance equation provides a better insight to understand how the natural flow processes take place.
Steady-State Ion Beam Modeling with MICHELLE
Petillo, John
2003-10-01
There is a need to efficiently model ion beam physics for ion implantation, chemical vapor deposition, and ion thrusters. Common to all is the need for three-dimensional (3D) simulation of volumetric ion sources, ion acceleration, and optics, with the ability to model charge exchange of the ion beam with a background neutral gas. The two pieces of physics stand out as significant are the modeling of the volumetric source and charge exchange. In the MICHELLE code, the method for modeling the plasma sheath in ion sources assumes that the electron distribution function is a Maxwellian function of electrostatic potential over electron temperature. Charge exchange is the process by which a neutral background gas with a "fast" charged particle streaming through exchanges its electron with the charged particle. An efficient method for capturing this is essential, and the model presented is based on semi-empirical collision cross section functions. This appears to be the first steady-state 3D algorithm of its type to contain multiple generations of charge exchange, work with multiple species and multiple charge state beam/source particles simultaneously, take into account the self-consistent space charge effects, and track the subsequent fast neutral particles. The solution used by MICHELLE is to combine finite element analysis with particle-in-cell (PIC) methods. The basic physics model is based on the equilibrium steady-state application of the electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) approximation employing a conformal computational mesh. The foundation stems from the same basic model introduced in codes such as EGUN. Here, Poisson's equation is used to self-consistently include the effects of space charge on the fields, and the relativistic Lorentz equation is used to integrate the particle trajectories through those fields. The presentation will consider the complexity of modeling ion thrusters.
Recent results on steady state and confinement improvement research on JT-60U
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ide, Shunsuke
2000-01-01
On the JT-60U tokamak, fusion plasma research for realization of a steady state tokamak reactor has been pursued. Towards that goal, confinement improved plasmas such as H-mode, high β p , reversed magnetic shear (RS) and latter two combined with H-mode edge pedestal have been developed and investigated intensively. A key issue to achieve non-inductive current drive relevant to a steady state fusion reactor is to increase the fraction of the bootstrap current and match the spatial profile to the optimum. In 1999, as the result of the optimization, the equivalent deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion gain (Q DT eq ) of 0.5 was sustained for 0.8 s, which is roughly equal to the energy confinement time, in a RS plasma. In order to achieve a RS plasma in steady state two approach have been explored. One is to use external current driver such as lower hybrid current drive (LHCD), and by optimizing LHCD a quasi-steady RS discharge was obtained. The other approach is to utilize bootstrap current as much as possible, and with highly increased fraction of the bootstrap current, a confinement enhancement factor of 3.6 was maintained for 2.7 s in a RS plasma with H-mode edge. A heating and current drive system in the electron cyclotron range of frequency for localized heating and current drive has been installed on JT-60U, and in initial experiments a clear increase of the central electron temperature in a RS high density central region was confirmed only with injected power of 0.75 MW. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juwairia Obaid
2017-02-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the emissions of various industrial facilities under start-up, shut-down, and normal operations. The industries that have been investigated include power and/or heat generation, energy-from-waste generation, nuclear power generation, sulphuric acid production, ethylene production, petrochemical production, and waste incineration. The study investigated multiple facilities worldwide for each of these industrial categories. The different potential contaminants characteristic of each industry type have been investigated and the emissions of these contaminants under non-steady state have been compared to the steady state emissions. Where available, trends have been developed to identify the circumstances, i.e., the industrial sector and contaminant, under which the assessment and consideration of emissions from start-up and shut-down events is necessary for each industry. These trends differ by industrial sector and contaminant. For example, the study shows that sulphur dioxide (SO2 emissions should be assessed for the start-up operations of sulphuric acid production plants, but may not need to be assessed for the start-up operations of a conventional power generation facility. The trends developed as part of this research paper will help air permit applicants to effectively allocate their resources when assessing emissions related to non-steady state operations. Additionally, it will ensure that emissions are assessed for the worst-case scenario. This is especially important when emissions under start-up and shut-down operations have the potential to exceed enforceable emission limits. Thus, assessing emissions for the worst-case scenario can help in preventing the emissions from adversely impacting public health and the environment.
Steady-state optimization of ore-dressing plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niemi, A.J.
1989-01-01
The ore-dressing plant consists of the steps of grinding and flotation. Its optimization is based on steady state simulation of the mass balances with a plant model. The model data are obtained by tracer tests and analysis. An evaluation of performance of the plant has to observe the recovery of the valuable mineral, the throughput of the system and the grade of the concentrate which are outputs of the flotation plant. Simulation with the flotation plant model yields that combination of values of controllable inputs to flotation which corresponds to an optimal operation of the conditioning an flotation system, for a specified feed and its fractional composition. Simulations for other feeds and compositions advise how they should be chosen, for a better overall performance. (author)
Analysis of steady-state ductile crack growth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niordson, Christian
1999-01-01
The fracture strength under quasi-static steady-state crack growth in an elastic-plastic material joined by a laser weld is analyzed. Laser welding gives high mismatch between the yield stress within the weld and the yield stress in the base material. This is due to the fast termic cycle, which...... the finite element mesh remains fixed relative to the tip of the growing crack. Fracture is modelled using two different local crack growth criteria. One is a crack opening displacement criterion, while the other is a model in which a cohesive zone is imposed in front of the crack tip along the fracture zone....... Both models predict that in general a thinner laser weld gives higher interface strength. Furthermore, both fracture criteria show, that the preferred path of the crack is close outside the weld material; a phenomenon also observed in experiments....
Steady state and transient power handling in JET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matthews, G.F.
2002-01-01
Recent JET experiments and analysis have demonstrated the importance of edge collisionality for the physics of divertor power loading both during and between ELMs. Since collisionality decreases strongly with machine size, JET routinely operates in an ITER relevant regime which is difficult or impossible to access in smaller devices. This new understanding has enabled us to develop more physically justifiable scalings for static and transient power deposition in ITER and demonstrates a need for kinetic models when simulating edge behaviour in JET and ITER. Steady state power loading in ITER is likely to be within limits provided that the divertor plasma is kept in the high recycling or detached regime. Extrapolations of the typical type I ELMs found in JET to ITER highlight the importance of developing regimes characterised by small ELMs, if surface ablation is to be avoided. Disruptive power loads measured in the JET divertor appear far more benign than would be expected from current ITER assumptions. (author)
Fueling Requirements for Steady State high butane current fraction discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
R.Raman
2003-01-01
The CT injector originally used for injecting CTs into 1T toroidal field discharges in the TdeV tokamak was shipped PPPL from the Affiliated Customs Brokers storage facility in Montreal during November 2002. All components were transported safely, without damage, and are currently in storage at PPPL, waiting for further funding in order to begin advanced fueling experiments on NSTX. The components are currently insured through the University of Washington. Several technical presentations were made to investigate the feasibility of the CT injector installation on NSTX. These technical presentations, attached to this document, were: (1) Motivation for Compact Toroida Injection in NSTX; (2) Assessment of the Engineering Feasibility of Installing CTF-II on NSTX; (3) Assessment of the Cost for CT Installation on NSTX--A Peer Review; and (4) CT Fueling for NSTX FY 04-08 steady-state operation needs
Steady States in SIRS Epidemical Model of Mobile Individuals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Duanming; He Minhua; Yu Xiaoling; Pan Guijun; Sun Hongzhang; Su Xiangying; Sun Fan; Yin Yanping; Li Rui; Liu Dan
2006-01-01
We consider an epidemical model within socially interacting mobile individuals to study the behaviors of steady states of epidemic propagation in 2D networks. Using mean-field approximation and large scale simulations, we recover the usual epidemic behavior with critical thresholds δ c and p c below which infectious disease dies out. For the population density δ far above δ c , it is found that there is linear relationship between contact rate λ and the population density δ in the main. At the same time, the result obtained from mean-field approximation is compared with our numerical result, and it is found that these two results are similar by and large but not completely the same.
Active ideal sedimentation: exact two-dimensional steady states.
Hermann, Sophie; Schmidt, Matthias
2018-02-28
We consider an ideal gas of active Brownian particles that undergo self-propelled motion and both translational and rotational diffusion under the influence of gravity. We solve analytically the corresponding Smoluchowski equation in two space dimensions for steady states. The resulting one-body density is given as a series, where each term is a product of an orientation-dependent Mathieu function and a height-dependent exponential. A lower hard wall is implemented as a no-flux boundary condition. Numerical evaluation of the suitably truncated analytical solution shows the formation of two different spatial regimes upon increasing Peclet number. These regimes differ in their mean particle orientation and in their variation of the orientation-averaged density with height.
Transient and steady-state flows in shock tunnels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hannemann, K. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Goettingen (Germany); Jacobs, P.A. [Queensland Univ., Brisbane (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Thomas, A.; McIntyre, T.J. [Queensland Univ., Brisbane, QLD. (Australia). Dept. of Physics
1999-12-01
Due to the difficulty of measuring all necessary flow quantities in the nozzle reservoir and the test section of high enthalpy shock tunnels, indirect computational methods are necessary to estimate the required flow parameters. In addition to steady state flow computations of the nozzle flow and the flow past wind tunnel models it is necessary to investigate the transient flow in the facility in order to achieve a better understanding of its performance. These transient effects include the nozzle starting flow, the interaction of the shock tube boundary layers and the reflected shock, thermal losses in the shock reflection region and the developing boundary layers in the expanding section of the nozzle. Additionally, the nonequilibrium chemical and thermal relaxation models which are used to compute high enthalpy flows have to be validated with appropriate experimental data. (orig.)
Transient and steady-state flows in shock tunnels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hannemann, K. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Goettingen (Germany)); Jacobs, P.A. (Queensland Univ., Brisbane (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Thomas, A.; McIntyre, T.J. (Queensland Univ., Brisbane, QLD. (Australia). Dept. of Physics)
1999-01-01
Due to the difficulty of measuring all necessary flow quantities in the nozzle reservoir and the test section of high enthalpy shock tunnels, indirect computational methods are necessary to estimate the required flow parameters. In addition to steady state flow computations of the nozzle flow and the flow past wind tunnel models it is necessary to investigate the transient flow in the facility in order to achieve a better understanding of its performance. These transient effects include the nozzle starting flow, the interaction of the shock tube boundary layers and the reflected shock, thermal losses in the shock reflection region and the developing boundary layers in the expanding section of the nozzle. Additionally, the nonequilibrium chemical and thermal relaxation models which are used to compute high enthalpy flows have to be validated with appropriate experimental data. (orig.)
An Adsorption Equilibria Model for Steady State Analysis
Ismail, Azhar Bin
2016-02-29
The investigation of adsorption isotherms is a prime factor in the ongoing development of adsorption cycles for a spectrum of advanced, thermally-driven engineering applications, including refrigeration, natural gas storage, and desalination processes. In this work, a novel semi-empirical mathematical model has been derived that significantly enhances the prediction of the steady state uptake in adsorbent surfaces. This model, a combination of classical Langmuir and a novel modern adsorption isotherm equation, allows for a higher degree of regression of both energetically homogenous and heterogeneous adsorbent surfaces compared to several isolated classical and modern isotherm models, and has the ability to regress isotherms for all six types under the IUPAC classification. Using a unified thermodynamic framework, a single asymmetrical energy distribution function (EDF) has also been proposed that directly relates the mathematical model to the adsorption isotherm types. This fits well with the statistical rate theory approach and offers mechanistic insights into adsorption isotherms.
Nuclide Importance and the Steady-State Burnup Equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Atsushi
2000-01-01
Conventional methods for evaluating some characteristic values of nuclides relating to burnup in a given neutron spectrum are reviewed in a mathematically systematic way, and a new method based on the importance theory is proposed. In this method, these characteristic values of a nuclide are equivalent to the importances of the nuclide. By solving the equation adjoint to the steady-state burnup equation with a properly chosen source term, the importances for all nuclides are obtained simultaneously.The fission number importance, net neutron importance, fission neutron importance, and absorbed neutron importance are evaluated and discussed. The net neutron importance is a measure directly estimating neutron economy, and it can be evaluated simply by calculating the fission neutron importance minus the absorbed neutron importance, where only the absorbed neutron importance depends on the fission product. The fission neutron importance and absorbed neutron importance are analyzed separately, and detailed discussions of the fission product effects are given for the absorbed neutron importance
Conceptual design of the steady state tokamak reactor (SSTR)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oikawa, A.; Kikuchi, M.; Seki, Y.; Nishio, S.; Ando, T.; Ohara, Y.; Takizuka, Tani, K.; Ozeki, T.; Koizumi, K.; Ikeda, B.; Suzuki, Y.; Ueda, N.; Kageyama, T.; Yamada, M.; Mizoguchi, T.; Iida, F.; Ozawa, Y.; Mori, S.; Yamazaki, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Adachi, H.J.; Shinya, K.; Ozaki, A.; Asahara, M.; Konishi, K.; Yokogawa, N.
1992-01-01
This paper reports that on the basis of a high bootstrap current fraction observation with JT-60, the concept of steady state tokamak reactor , the SSTR, was conceived and was evolved with the design activity of the SSTR at JAERI. Also results of ITER/FER design activities has enhanced the SSTR design. Moreover the remarkable progress of R and D for fusion reactor engineering, especially in the development of superconducting coils and negative ion based NBI at JAERI have promoted the SSTR conceptual design as a realistic power reactor. Although present fusion power reactor designs are currently considered to be too large and costly, results of the SSTR conceptual design suggest that an efficient and promising tokamak reactor will be feasible. The conceptual design of the SSTR provides a realistic reference for a demo tokamak reactor
Determining "small parameters" for quasi-steady state
Goeke, Alexandra; Walcher, Sebastian; Zerz, Eva
2015-08-01
For a parameter-dependent system of ordinary differential equations we present a systematic approach to the determination of parameter values near which singular perturbation scenarios (in the sense of Tikhonov and Fenichel) arise. We call these special values Tikhonov-Fenichel parameter values. The principal application we intend is to equations that describe chemical reactions, in the context of quasi-steady state (or partial equilibrium) settings. Such equations have rational (or even polynomial) right-hand side. We determine the structure of the set of Tikhonov-Fenichel parameter values as a semi-algebraic set, and present an algorithmic approach to their explicit determination, using Groebner bases. Examples and applications (which include the irreversible and reversible Michaelis-Menten systems) illustrate that the approach is rather easy to implement.
Steady state thermal-hydraulic analyses of the MITICA cooling circuits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zaupa, M., E-mail: matteo.zaupa@igi.cnr.it [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 2, Padova 35122 (Italy); Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy); Sartori, E.; Dalla Palma, M.; Fellin, F.; Marcuzzi, D.; Pavei, M.; Rizzolo, A. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)
2016-02-15
Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advancement is the full scale prototype of the heating and current drive neutral beam injectors for ITER, to be built at Consorzio RFX (Padova). The engineering design of its components is challenging: the total heat loads they will be subjected to (expected between 2 and 19 MW), the high heat fluxes (up to 20 MW/m{sup 2}), and the beam pulse duration up to 1 h, set demanding requirements for reliable active cooling circuits. In support of the design, the thermo-hydraulic behavior of each cooling circuit under steady state condition has been investigated by using one-dimensional models. The final results, obtained considering a number of optimizations for the cooling circuits, show that all the requirements in terms of flow rate, temperature, and pressure drop are properly fulfilled.
Design criteria of the bolometer diagnostic for steady-state operation of the W7-X stellaratora
Zhang, D.; Burhenn, R.; König, R.; Giannone, L.; Grodzki, P.A.; Klein, B.; Grosser, K.; Baldzuhn, J.; Ewert, K.; Erckmann, V.; Hirsch, M.; Laqua, H.P.; Oosterbeek, J.W.
2010-01-01
A bolometric diagnostic system with features necessary for steady-state operation in the superconducting stellarator W7-X was designed. During a pulse length of 1800 s with an ECRH (electron cyclotron resonance heating) power of 10 MW, the components suffer not only from a large thermal load but
Effect of non-condensable gas on steady-state operation of a loop thermosyphon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Jiang; Lin, Guiping; Bai, Lizhan; Miao, Jianyin; Zhang, Hongxing; Wang, Lu
2014-01-01
Non-condensable gas (NCG) generated inside two-phase heat transfer devices can adversely affect the thermal performance and limit the lifetime of such devices. In this work, extensive experimental investigation of the effect of NCG on the steady-state operation of an ammonia-stainless steel loop thermosyphon was conducted. In the experiments, nitrogen was injected into the loop thermosyphon as NCG, and the thermal performance of the loop thermosyphon was tested at different NCG inventories, heat loads applied to the evaporator and condenser cooling conditions, i.e. natural air cooling or circulating ethanol cooling. Experimental results reveal that NCG elevates the steady-state operating temperature of the evaporator, especially when the loop thermosyphon is operating in the low temperature range; meanwhile, the more NCG exists in the loop thermosyphon, the higher the operating temperature of the evaporator, and the lower the reservoir temperature. In addition, the existence of NCG results in the decrease of the overall thermal conductance of the loop thermosyphon, and the overall thermal conductance under the ethanol cooling condition may be even lower than that under the air cooling condition when the heat load is smaller than a certain value. Finally, the experimental results are theoretically analysed and explained. (authors)
Steady state operation of a copper-water LHP with a flat-oval evaporator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becker, S.; Vershinin, S.; Sartre, V.; Laurien, E.; Bonjour, J.; Maydanik, Yu.F.
2011-01-01
In order to dissipate the heat generated by electronic boxes in avionic systems, a copper-water LHP with a flat-oval evaporator was fabricated and tested at steady state. The LHP consists of a flat shaped evaporator, 7 mm thick, including compensation chamber with attached heat exchanger. The condenser is cooled by forced convection of liquid. The variable parameters are the heat sink and ambient temperatures (20 and 55 o C), the orientation (-90 o to +90 o in two perpendicular planes) and the power input (0-100 W). Evaporator wall temperatures are higher when the evaporator is placed above the condenser. For heat sink and ambient temperature of 20 o C the evaporator wall temperature does not vary much with heat load for all measured elevations. But it fluctuates at heat sink and ambient temperature equal to 55 o C when the evaporator is placed below the condenser. The LHP total thermal resistance is governed by the condenser resistance. It decreases with increasing heat load, whatever the operating conditions, because the part of the condenser internal surface area used for condensation increases too. A minimum thermal resistance of 0.2 K/W was obtained. The maximum thermal resistance was 2.7 K/W.
Study of impurity effects on CFETR steady-state scenario by self-consistent integrated modeling
Shi, Nan; Chan, Vincent S.; Jian, Xiang; Li, Guoqiang; Chen, Jiale; Gao, Xiang; Shi, Shengyu; Kong, Defeng; Liu, Xiaoju; Mao, Shifeng; Xu, Guoliang
2017-12-01
Impurity effects on fusion performance of China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR) due to extrinsic seeding are investigated. An integrated 1.5D modeling workflow evolves plasma equilibrium and all transport channels to steady state. The one modeling framework for integrated tasks framework is used to couple the transport solver, MHD equilibrium solver, and source and sink calculations. A self-consistent impurity profile constructed using a steady-state background plasma, which satisfies quasi-neutrality and true steady state, is presented for the first time. Studies are performed based on an optimized fully non-inductive scenario with varying concentrations of Argon (Ar) seeding. It is found that fusion performance improves before dropping off with increasing {{Z}\\text{eff}} , while the confinement remains at high level. Further analysis of transport for these plasmas shows that low-k ion temperature gradient modes dominate the turbulence. The decrease in linear growth rate and resultant fluxes of all channels with increasing {{Z}\\text{eff}} can be traced to impurity profile change by transport. The improvement in confinement levels off at higher {{Z}\\text{eff}} . Over the regime of study there is a competition between the suppressed transport and increasing radiation that leads to a peak in the fusion performance at {{Z}\\text{eff}} (~2.78 for CFETR). Extrinsic impurity seeding to control divertor heat load will need to be optimized around this value for best fusion performance.
Steady-State and Transient Analysis for Design Validation of SMART-ITL Secondary System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yun, Eunkoo; Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Sung Uk; Jeon, Byong-Guk; Yang, Jin-Hwa; Yi, Sung-Jae; Park, Hyun-Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-15
SMART can prevent large-break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) inherently. SMART-ITL is an experimental simulation facility designed to perform integral effect tests for the SMART plant. In terms of the secondary system of SMART-ITL, the design has been simplified from that of reference plant by replacing several components, such as expansion device and condenser, with an appropriate device to be functional as the alternatives. In this paper, in order to understand the operational characteristics as well as design concept, the secondary system of SMRAT-ITL is analyzed in steady-state and transient aspects, and the results are compared with relevant experimental results. This study focuses on the understanding of thermal-hydraulic behavior of SMART-ITL secondary system, which is simplified from that of reference plant. To identify the behaviors of the secondary system, the steady-state and transient analysis were conducted based on experimental results. In steady-state analysis, the results clearly showed that the system pressure is related to the temperature of condensation tank which varies depending on mixture enthalpy. In transient analysis, the dynamic behavior during heat-up process has been investigated. The results reveal that we can reasonably assume the fluid filled in TK-CD-01 be in a saturated condition. The results showed that the design of SMART-ITL secondary system is appropriate, and the system is being properly operated to match the design intent.
Steady state quantum discord for circularly accelerated atoms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Jiawei, E-mail: hujiawei@nbu.edu.cn [Center for Nonlinear Science and Department of Physics, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Yu, Hongwei, E-mail: hwyu@hunnu.edu.cn [Center for Nonlinear Science and Department of Physics, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China)
2015-12-15
We study, in the framework of open quantum systems, the dynamics of quantum entanglement and quantum discord of two mutually independent circularly accelerated two-level atoms in interaction with a bath of fluctuating massless scalar fields in the Minkowski vacuum. We assume that the two atoms rotate synchronically with their separation perpendicular to the rotating plane. The time evolution of the quantum entanglement and quantum discord of the two-atom system is investigated. For a maximally entangled initial state, the entanglement measured by concurrence diminishes to zero within a finite time, while the quantum discord can either decrease monotonically to an asymptotic value or diminish to zero at first and then followed by a revival depending on whether the initial state is antisymmetric or symmetric. When both of the two atoms are initially excited, the generation of quantum entanglement shows a delayed feature, while quantum discord is created immediately. Remarkably, the quantum discord for such a circularly accelerated two-atom system takes a nonvanishing value in the steady state, and this is distinct from what happens in both the linear acceleration case and the case of static atoms immersed in a thermal bath.
Ising game: Nonequilibrium steady states of resource-allocation systems
Xin, C.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.
2017-04-01
Resource-allocation systems are ubiquitous in the human society. But how external fields affect the state of such systems remains poorly explored due to the lack of a suitable model. Because the behavior of spins pursuing energy minimization required by physical laws is similar to that of humans chasing payoff maximization studied in game theory, here we combine the Ising model with the market-directed resource-allocation game, yielding an Ising game. Based on the Ising game, we show theoretical, simulative and experimental evidences for a formula, which offers a clear expression of nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Interestingly, the formula also reveals a convertible relationship between the external field (exogenous factor) and resource ratio (endogenous factor), and a class of saturation as the external field exceeds certain limits. This work suggests that the Ising game could be a suitable model for studying external-field effects on resource-allocation systems, and it could provide guidance both for seeking more relations between NESSs and equilibrium states and for regulating human systems by choosing NESSs appropriately.
The technology and science of steady-state operation in magnetically confined plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becoulet, A; Hoang, G T
2008-01-01
The steady-state operation of magnetically confined fusion plasmas is considered as one of the 'grand challenges' of future decades, if not the ultimate goal of the research and development activities towards a new source of energy. Reaching such a goal requires the high-level integration of both science and technology aspects of magnetic fusion into self-consistent plasma regimes in fusion-grade devices. On the physics side, the first constraint addresses the magnetic confinement itself which must be made persistent. This means to either rely on intrinsically steady-state configurations, like the stellarator one, or turn the inductively driven tokamak configuration into a fully non-inductive one, through a mix of additional current sources. The low efficiency of the external current drive methods and the necessity to minimize the re-circulating power claim for a current mix strongly weighted by the internal 'pressure driven' bootstrap current, itself strongly sensitive to the heat and particle transport properties of the plasma. A virtuous circle may form as the heat and particle transport properties are themselves sensitive to the current profile conditions. Note that several other factors, e.g. plasma rotation profile, magneto-hydro-dynamics activity, also influence the equilibrium state. In the present tokamak devices, several examples of such 'advanced tokamak' physics research demonstrate the feasibility of steady-state regimes, though with a number of open questions still under investigation. The modelling activity also progresses quite fast in this domain and supports understanding and extrapolation. This high level of physics sophistication of the plasma scenario however needs to be combined with steady-state technological constraints. The technology constraints for steady-state operation are basically twofold: the specific technologies required to reach the steady-state plasma conditions and the generic technologies linked to the long pulse operation of a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hrehor, M.
1979-01-01
The paper deals with an application of the finite element method to the heat transfer study in seven-pin models of LMFBR fuel subassembly. The developed code NCEL solves two-dimensional steady state heat conduction equation in the whole subassembly model cross-section and enebles to perform the analysis of thermal behaviour in both normal and accidental operational conditions as eccentricity of the central rod or full or partial (porous) blockage of some part of the cross-flow area. The heat removal is simulated by heat sinks in coolant under conditions of subchannels slug flow approximation
Machine Control System of Steady State Superconducting Tokamak-1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masand, Harish, E-mail: harish@ipr.res.in; Kumar, Aveg; Bhandarkar, M.; Mahajan, K.; Gulati, H.; Dhongde, J.; Patel, K.; Chudasma, H.; Pradhan, S.
2016-11-15
Highlights: • Central Control System. • SST-1. • Machine Control System. - Abstract: Central Control System (CCS) of the Steady State Superconducting Tokamak-1 (SST-1) controls and monitors around 25 plant and experiment subsystems of SST-1 located remotely from the Central-Control room. Machine Control System (MCS) is a supervisory system that sits on the top of the CCS hierarchy and implements the CCS state diagram. MCS ensures the software interlock between the SST-1 subsystems with the CCS, any subsystem communication failure or its local error does not prohibit the execution of the MCS and in-turn the CCS operation. MCS also periodically monitors the subsystem’s status and their vital process parameters throughout the campaign. It also provides the platform for the Central Control operator to visualize and exchange remotely the operational and experimental configuration parameters with the sub-systems. MCS remains operational 24 × 7 from the commencement to the termination of the SST-1 campaign. The developed MCS has performed robustly and flawlessly during all the last campaigns of SST-1 carried out so far. This paper will describe various aspects of the development of MCS.
A Physics-Based Rock Friction Constitutive Law: Steady State Friction
Aharonov, Einat; Scholz, Christopher H.
2018-02-01
Experiments measuring friction over a wide range of sliding velocities find that the value of the friction coefficient varies widely: friction is high and behaves according to the rate and state constitutive law during slow sliding, yet markedly weakens as the sliding velocity approaches seismic slip speeds. We introduce a physics-based theory to explain this behavior. Using conventional microphysics of creep, we calculate the velocity and temperature dependence of contact stresses during sliding, including the thermal effects of shear heating. Contacts are assumed to reach a coupled thermal and mechanical steady state, and friction is calculated for steady sliding. Results from theory provide good quantitative agreement with reported experimental results for quartz and granite friction over 11 orders of magnitude in velocity. The new model elucidates the physics of friction and predicts the connection between friction laws to independently determined material parameters. It predicts four frictional regimes as function of slip rate: at slow velocity friction is either velocity strengthening or weakening, depending on material parameters, and follows the rate and state friction law. Differences between surface and volume activation energies are the main control on velocity dependence. At intermediate velocity, for some material parameters, a distinct velocity strengthening regime emerges. At fast sliding, shear heating produces thermal softening of friction. At the fastest sliding, melting causes further weakening. This theory, with its four frictional regimes, fits well previously published experimental results under low temperature and normal stress.
Experimental validation of a thermodynamic boiler model under steady state and dynamic conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlon, Elisa; Verma, Vijay Kumar; Schwarz, Markus; Golicza, Laszlo; Prada, Alessandro; Baratieri, Marco; Haslinger, Walter; Schmidl, Christoph
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Laboratory tests on two commercially available pellet boilers. • Steady state and a dynamic load cycle tests. • Pellet boiler model calibration based on data registered in stationary operation. • Boiler model validation with reference to both stationary and dynamic operation. • Validated model suitable for coupled simulation of building and heating system. - Abstract: Nowadays dynamic building simulation is an essential tool for the design of heating systems for residential buildings. The simulation of buildings heated by biomass systems, first of all needs detailed boiler models, capable of simulating the boiler both as a stand-alone appliance and as a system component. This paper presents the calibration and validation of a boiler model by means of laboratory tests. The chosen model, i.e. TRNSYS “Type 869”, has been validated for two commercially available pellet boilers of 6 and 12 kW nominal capacities. Two test methods have been applied: the first is a steady state test at nominal load and the second is a load cycle test including stationary operation at different loads as well as transient operation. The load cycle test is representative of the boiler operation in the field and characterises the boiler’s stationary and dynamic behaviour. The model had been calibrated based on laboratory data registered during stationary operation at different loads and afterwards it was validated by simulating both the stationary and the dynamic tests. Selected parameters for the validation were the heat transfer rates to water and the water temperature profiles inside the boiler and at the boiler outlet. Modelling results showed better agreement with experimental data during stationary operation rather than during dynamic operation. Heat transfer rates to water were predicted with a maximum deviation of 10% during the stationary operation, and a maximum deviation of 30% during the dynamic load cycle. However, for both operational regimes the
Yongky, Andrew; Lee, Jongchan; Le, Tung; Mulukutla, Bhanu Chandra; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Hu, Wei-Shou
2015-07-01
Continuous culture for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins offers the possibility of steady state operations and thus more consistent product quality and increased productivity. Under some conditions, multiplicity of steady states has been observed in continuous cultures of mammalian cells, wherein with the same dilution rate and feed nutrient composition, steady states with very different cell and product concentrations may be reached. At those different steady states, cells may exhibit a high glycolysis flux with high lactate production and low cell concentration, or a low glycolysis flux with low lactate and high cell concentration. These different steady states, with different cell concentration, also have different productivity. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the occurrence of steady state multiplicity and devising a strategy to steer the culture toward the desired steady state is critical. We establish a multi-scale kinetic model that integrates a mechanistic intracellular metabolic model and cell growth model in a continuous bioreactor. We show that steady state multiplicity exists in a range of dilution rate in continuous culture as a result of the bistable behavior in glycolysis. The insights from the model were used to devise strategies to guide the culture to the desired steady state in the multiple steady state region. The model provides a guideline principle in the design of continuous culture processes of mammalian cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
HEATHYD, Steady-State Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of Low-Enriched U Fuel Reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
NABBI, R.
1989-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: HEATHYD is a code for the steady-state heat transfer calculation of research nuclear reactors with forced convection. It models heat transfer and coolant flow for assemblies of parallel fuel plates of MTR type with any axial power distribution. The thermodynamic model accounts for single phase cooling and sub- cooled boiling condition using the transition criterion of Bergeles-Rosenow. In addition to the calculation of the channel flow velocities and coolant pressure drops, HEATHYD calculates axial distribution of the coolant and clad-surface temperatures. Safety margins to the critical heat flux as a result of burnout condition or flow instability are determined. 2 - Method of solution: Applying the finite difference method, HEATHYD solves the equations of heat conduction and heat transfer to the coolant. For the physical properties of the coolant as a function of the coolant temperature polynomials of degree 6 are used. Depending on the coolant condition, different correlations for the heat transfer coefficient can be applied. The analysis of the critical cooling conditions resulting in burnout or flow instability, is performed according to the correlations developed by Mirshak/ Labuntsov and Forgan/Whittle
Analysis of the steady state hydraulic behaviour of the ITER blanket cooling system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Di Maio, P.A., E-mail: pietroalessandro.dimaio@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Dell’Orco, G.; Furmanek, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Garitta, S. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Merola, M.; Mitteau, R.; Raffray, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Spagnuolo, G.A.; Vallone, E. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)
2015-10-15
Highlights: • Nominal steady state hydraulic behaviour of ITER blanket standard sector cooling system has been investigated. • Numerical simulations have been run adopting a qualified thermal-hydraulic system code. • Hydraulic characteristic functions and coolant mass flow rates, velocities and pressure drops have been assessed. • Most of the considered circuits are able to effectively cool blanket modules, meeting ITER requirements. - Abstract: The blanket system is the ITER reactor component devoted to providing a physical boundary for plasma transients and contributing to thermal and nuclear shielding of vacuum vessel, magnets and external components. It is expected to be subjected to significant heat loads under nominal conditions and its cooling system has to ensure an adequate cooling, preventing any risk of critical heat flux occurrence while complying with pressure drop limits. At the University of Palermo a study has been performed, in cooperation with the ITER Organization, to investigate the steady state hydraulic behaviour of the ITER blanket standard sector cooling system. A theoretical–computational approach based on the finite volume method has been followed, adopting the RELAP5 system code. Finite volume models of the most critical blanket cooling circuits have been set-up, realistically simulating the coolant flow domain. The steady state hydraulic behaviour of each cooling circuit has been investigated, determining its hydraulic characteristic function and assessing the spatial distribution of coolant mass flow rates, velocities and pressure drops under reference nominal conditions. Results obtained have indicated that the investigated cooling circuits are able to provide an effective cooling to blanket modules, generally meeting ITER requirements in term of pressure drop and velocity distribution, except for a couple of circuits that are being revised.
High Beta Steady State Research and Future Directions on JT-60U and JFT-2M
Ishida, Shinichi
2003-10-01
JT-60U and JFT-2M research is focused on high beta steady state operation towards economically and environmentally attractive reactors. In JT-60U, a high-βp H-mode plasma was sustained with βN 2.7 for 7.4 s in which neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) limited the attainable β_N. Real-time tracking NTM stabilization system using ECCD demonstrated complete suppression of NTM leading to recovery of βN before onset of NTM. Performance in a fully non-inductive H-mode plasma was improved up to n_i(0) τE T_i(0) = 3.1 x 10^20 keV s m-3 using N-NBCD with βN 2.4, HH_y,2=1.2 and bootstrap fraction f_BS 0.5. ECH experiments extended the confinement enhancement for dominantly electron heated reversed shear plasmas up to HH_y,2 2 at T_e/Ti 1.25. A world record ECCD efficiency, 4.2 x 10^18 A/W/m^2, was achieved at Te 23 keV with a highly localized central current density. Innovative initiation and current build-up without center solenoid currents were established by LHCD/ECH and bootstrap current up to f_BS 0.9. In JFT-2M, the inside of the vacuum vessel wall was fully covered with low-activation ferritic steel plates to investigate their use in plasmas near fusion conditions. High βN plasmas were produced up to βN = 3.3 with an internal transport barrier (ITB) and a steady H-mode edge. A new H-mode regime with steady high recycling (HRS) and an ITB was exploited leading to βN H_89P 6.2 at n_e/nG 0.7. In 2003, JT-60U will be able to operate for the duration up to 65 s at 1 MA/2.7 T and the heating/current-drive duration up to 30 s at 17 MW to prolong high-βN and/or high-f_BS discharges with feedback controls. JFT-2M is planning to implement wall stabilization experiments in 2004 to pursue plasmas above the ideal no-wall limit using a ferritic wall. The modification of JT-60 to a fully superconducting tokamak is under discussion to explore high-β steady state operation in collision-less plasmas well above no-wall limit with ferritic wall in a steady state.
Steady-state growth of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olson, R.J.; SooHoo, J.B.; Kiefer, D.A.
1980-01-01
Seasonal studies of the vertical distribution of nitrate, nitrite, and phytoplankton in the oceans and studies using 15 N as a tracer of nitrate metabolism indicate that the reduction of nitrate by phytoplankton is a source of nitrite in the upper waters of the ocean. To better understand this process, the relationship between nitrate uptake and nitrite production has been examined with continuous cultures of the small marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. In a turbidostat culture, the rates of nitrite production by T. Pseudonana increase with light intensity. This process is only loosely coupled to rates of nitrate assimilation since the ratio of net nitrite production to total nitrate assimilation increases with increased rates of growth. In continuous cultures where steady-state concentrations of nitrate and nitrite were varied, T. pseudonana produced nitrite at rates which increased with increasing concentrations of nitrate. Again, the rates of nitrite production were uncoupled from rates of nitrate assimilation. The study was used to derive a mathematical description of nitrate and nitrite metabolism by T. pseudonana. The validity of this model was supported by the results of a study in which 15 N-labeled nitrite was introduced into the continuous culture, and the model was used to examine patterns in distribution of nitrite in the Antarctic Ocean and the Sargasso Sea
Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail.
Patel, Amir; Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily
2016-08-15
During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Attentional Modulation of Auditory Steady-State Responses
Mahajan, Yatin; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun
2014-01-01
Auditory selective attention enables task-relevant auditory events to be enhanced and irrelevant ones suppressed. In the present study we used a frequency tagging paradigm to investigate the effects of attention on auditory steady state responses (ASSR). The ASSR was elicited by simultaneously presenting two different streams of white noise, amplitude modulated at either 16 and 23.5 Hz or 32.5 and 40 Hz. The two different frequencies were presented to each ear and participants were instructed to selectively attend to one ear or the other (confirmed by behavioral evidence). The results revealed that modulation of ASSR by selective attention depended on the modulation frequencies used and whether the activation was contralateral or ipsilateral. Attention enhanced the ASSR for contralateral activation from either ear for 16 Hz and suppressed the ASSR for ipsilateral activation for 16 Hz and 23.5 Hz. For modulation frequencies of 32.5 or 40 Hz attention did not affect the ASSR. We propose that the pattern of enhancement and inhibition may be due to binaural suppressive effects on ipsilateral stimulation and the dominance of contralateral hemisphere during dichotic listening. In addition to the influence of cortical processing asymmetries, these results may also reflect a bias towards inhibitory ipsilateral and excitatory contralateral activation present at the level of inferior colliculus. That the effect of attention was clearest for the lower modulation frequencies suggests that such effects are likely mediated by cortical brain structures or by those in close proximity to cortex. PMID:25334021
Steady state and transient power handling in JET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matthews, G.F.
2003-01-01
Steady state and transient power deposition profiles have been measured in the JET MIIGB divertor using improved diagnostics techniques involving the use of fast infra-red, thermocouples and Langmuir probe arrays. In unfuelled type I ELMy H-modes a very narrow power profile is observed at the outer target which we associate with the ion channel. Systematic parameter scans have been carried out and our analysis shows that the average power width scaling is consistent with a classical dependence of perpendicular transport in the SOL. Using the fast IR capability the factors such as rise time, broadening, variability and in/out asymmetry have been studied and lead to the conclusion that type I ELMs in ITER may fall just below the material ablation limits. JET disruptions are very different from type I ELMs in that only a small fraction of the thermal energy reaches the divertor and what does arrive is distributed uniformly over the divertor area. This is very different from the current ITER assumption which puts most of the energy from the thermal quench onto the divertor strike points. (author)
Steady-state VEP responses to uncomfortable stimuli.
O'Hare, Louise
2017-02-01
Periodic stimuli, such as op-art, can evoke a range of aversive sensations included in the term visual discomfort. Illusory motion effects are elicited by fixational eye movements, but the cortex might also contribute to effects of discomfort. To investigate this possibility, steady-state visually evoked responses (SSVEPs) to contrast-matched op-art-based stimuli were measured at the same time as discomfort judgements. On average, discomfort reduced with increasing spatial frequency of the pattern. In contrast, the peak amplitude of the SSVEP response was around the midrange spatial frequencies. Like the discomfort judgements, SSVEP responses to the highest spatial frequencies were lowest amplitude, but the relationship breaks down between discomfort and SSVEP for the lower spatial frequency stimuli. This was not explicable by gross eye movements as measured using the facial electrodes. There was a weak relationship between the peak SSVEP responses and discomfort judgements for some stimuli, suggesting that discomfort can be explained in part by electrophysiological responses measured at the level of the cortex. However, there is a breakdown of this relationship in the case of lower spatial frequency stimuli, which remains unexplained. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Attentional modulation of auditory steady-state responses.
Mahajan, Yatin; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun
2014-01-01
Auditory selective attention enables task-relevant auditory events to be enhanced and irrelevant ones suppressed. In the present study we used a frequency tagging paradigm to investigate the effects of attention on auditory steady state responses (ASSR). The ASSR was elicited by simultaneously presenting two different streams of white noise, amplitude modulated at either 16 and 23.5 Hz or 32.5 and 40 Hz. The two different frequencies were presented to each ear and participants were instructed to selectively attend to one ear or the other (confirmed by behavioral evidence). The results revealed that modulation of ASSR by selective attention depended on the modulation frequencies used and whether the activation was contralateral or ipsilateral. Attention enhanced the ASSR for contralateral activation from either ear for 16 Hz and suppressed the ASSR for ipsilateral activation for 16 Hz and 23.5 Hz. For modulation frequencies of 32.5 or 40 Hz attention did not affect the ASSR. We propose that the pattern of enhancement and inhibition may be due to binaural suppressive effects on ipsilateral stimulation and the dominance of contralateral hemisphere during dichotic listening. In addition to the influence of cortical processing asymmetries, these results may also reflect a bias towards inhibitory ipsilateral and excitatory contralateral activation present at the level of inferior colliculus. That the effect of attention was clearest for the lower modulation frequencies suggests that such effects are likely mediated by cortical brain structures or by those in close proximity to cortex.
3D steady-state MR cisternography in CSF rhinorrhoea
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jayakumar, P.N.; Kovoor, J.M.E.; Srikanth, S.G.; Praharaj, S.S.
2001-01-01
Purpose: To determine the utility of 3D steady-state MR cisternography in the demonstration and localisation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak in patients with clinically suspected CSF rhinorrhoea. Material and Methods: Six consecutive patients with clinically suspected CSF rhinorrhoea were examined with routine MR evaluation and MR cisternography (MRC). All MR examinations included fast spin-echo (SE) T1WI in axial and sagittal planes, fast SE T2WI in axial and coronal planes and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images in the axial plane. 3D evaluation was done using the CISS technique with 0.7-mm thickness in the sagittal and coronal planes. The site and extent of the defect, and any brain herniation detected on MRC were correlated with surgical findings. Results: In the 6 patients who underwent surgical exploration and repair, intraoperative findings correlated with the defect revealed by MRC in all cases. Conclusion: In clinically suspected CSF rhinorrhoea, MRC is highly accurate in localising the site and extent of CSF fistula and may be used as the first investigation due to its efficacy and non-invasive nature
Attentional modulation of auditory steady-state responses.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yatin Mahajan
Full Text Available Auditory selective attention enables task-relevant auditory events to be enhanced and irrelevant ones suppressed. In the present study we used a frequency tagging paradigm to investigate the effects of attention on auditory steady state responses (ASSR. The ASSR was elicited by simultaneously presenting two different streams of white noise, amplitude modulated at either 16 and 23.5 Hz or 32.5 and 40 Hz. The two different frequencies were presented to each ear and participants were instructed to selectively attend to one ear or the other (confirmed by behavioral evidence. The results revealed that modulation of ASSR by selective attention depended on the modulation frequencies used and whether the activation was contralateral or ipsilateral. Attention enhanced the ASSR for contralateral activation from either ear for 16 Hz and suppressed the ASSR for ipsilateral activation for 16 Hz and 23.5 Hz. For modulation frequencies of 32.5 or 40 Hz attention did not affect the ASSR. We propose that the pattern of enhancement and inhibition may be due to binaural suppressive effects on ipsilateral stimulation and the dominance of contralateral hemisphere during dichotic listening. In addition to the influence of cortical processing asymmetries, these results may also reflect a bias towards inhibitory ipsilateral and excitatory contralateral activation present at the level of inferior colliculus. That the effect of attention was clearest for the lower modulation frequencies suggests that such effects are likely mediated by cortical brain structures or by those in close proximity to cortex.
Fault Wear by Damage Evolution During Steady-State Slip
Lyakhovsky, Vladimir; Sagy, Amir; Boneh, Yuval; Reches, Ze'ev
2014-11-01
Slip along faults generates wear products such as gouge layers and cataclasite zones that range in thickness from sub-millimeter to tens of meters. The properties of these zones apparently control fault strength and slip stability. Here we present a new model of wear in a three-body configuration that utilizes the damage rheology approach and considers the process as a microfracturing or damage front propagating from the gouge zone into the solid rock. The derivations for steady-state conditions lead to a scaling relation for the damage front velocity considered as the wear-rate. The model predicts that the wear-rate is a function of the shear-stress and may vanish when the shear-stress drops below the microfracturing strength of the fault host rock. The simulated results successfully fit the measured friction and wear during shear experiments along faults made of carbonate and tonalite. The model is also valid for relatively large confining pressures, small damage-induced change of the bulk modulus and significant degradation of the shear modulus, which are assumed for seismogenic zones of earthquake faults. The presented formulation indicates that wear dynamics in brittle materials in general and in natural faults in particular can be understood by the concept of a "propagating damage front" and the evolution of a third-body layer.
Steady-state deformation of some lithium ceramics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poeppel, R.B.; Routbort, J.L.; Billone, M.C.; Applegate, D.S.; Buchmann, E.; Londschien, B.
1987-05-01
The stress-strain behavior of Li 2 O, LiAlO 2 and Li 2 ZrO 3 polycrystals, with densities varying from 0.70 to 0.95 of the theoretical, has been measured in constant-crosshead-speed compression tests at temperatures of 700 to 1000 0 C with strain rates ranging from about 10 -6 to 10 -4 s -1 . A steady-state stress, σ/sub s/, for which the work-hardening rate becomes zero, was achieved. These results, therefore, yield information equivalent to that obtained from creep experiments. Limited data on LiAlO 2 and Li 2 ZrO 3 were obtained. Nevertheless, under comparable conditions the lithium aluminate and zirconate were considerably stronger than the Li 2 O. This finding may be related to differences in crystal structure. It is, however, likely that in operation as a function breeder blanket material, the oxide will swell whereas the aluminate and the zirconate will crack. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab
Steady-state operation requirements of tokamak fusion reactor concepts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knobloch, A.F.
1991-06-01
In the last two decades tokamak conceptual reactor design studies have been deriving benefit from progressing plasma physics experiments, more depth in theory and increasing detail in technology and engineering. Recent full-scale reactor extrapolations such as the US ARIES-I and the EC Reference Reactor study provide information on rather advanced concepts that are called for when economic boundary conditions are imposed. The ITER international reactor design activity concentrated on defining the next step after the JET generation of experiments. For steady-state operation as required for any future commercial tokamak fusion power plants it is essential to have non-inductive current drive. The current drive power and other internal power requirements specific to magnetic confinement fusion have to be kept as low as possible in order to attain a competitive overall power conversion efficiency. A high plasma Q is primarily dependent on a high current drive efficiency. Since such conditions have not yet been attained in practice, the present situation and the degree of further development required are characterized. Such development and an appropriately designed next-step tokamak reactor make the gradual realization of high-Q operation appear feasible. (orig.)
Models of steady state cooling flows in elliptical galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vedder, P.W.; Trester, J.J.; Canizares, C.R.
1988-01-01
A comprehensive set of steady state models for spherically symmetric cooling flows in early-type galaxies is presented. It is found that a reduction of the supernova (SN) rate in ellipticals produces a decrease in the X-ray luminosity of galactic cooling flows and a steepening of the surface brightness profile. The mean X-ray temperature of the cooling flow is not affected noticeably by a change in the SN rate. The external pressure around a galaxy does not markedly change the luminosity of the gas within the galaxy but does change the mean temperature of the gas. The presence of a dark matter halo in a galaxy only changes the mean X-ray temperature slightly. The addition of a distribution of mass sinks which remove material from the general accretion flow reduces L(X) very slightly, flattens the surface brightness profile, and reduces the central surface brightness level to values close to those actually observed. A reduction in the stellar mass-loss rate only slightly reduces the X-ray luminosity of the cooling flow and flattens the surface brightness by a small amount. 37 references
Continuous cryopump for steady state mirror fusion reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.
1983-01-01
The characteristics of mirror fusion reactors, i.e., steady state operation, a low neutral gas density, and a large gas throughput require unique vacuum pumping capabilities. One approach that appears to meet these requirements is a liquid helium-cooled cryopump system in which a fixed portion can be isolated and degassed while the remainder continues to pump. The time to degas a rotating, fixed portion of the pumping area and the ratio of that area to the total area fixes the gas inventory in the chamber. It follows that the active pump area maintains the required neutral gas density and the time-averaged degassing rate equals the gas throughput. We have built such a cryopump whereby the gas condensed (deuterium) on the liquid helium-cooled panel can be transferred to a collector pump and subsequently to an exterior mechanical pump and exhausted. At panel loadings as high as 0.55 Torr-/lcm 2 the gas leakage during degassing is less than 8% and the degassing time is less than 10 min. Scaling to reactor size appears to be feasible
Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amir Patel
2016-08-01
Full Text Available During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities.
Steady State Turbulent Transport in Magnetic Fusion Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, W.W.; Ethier, S.; Kolesnikov, R.; Wang, W.X.; Tang, W.M.
2007-01-01
For more than a decade, the study of microturbulence, driven by ion temperature gradient (ITG) drift instabilities in tokamak devices, has been an active area of research in magnetic fusion science for both experimentalists and theorists alike. One of the important impetus for this avenue of research was the discovery of the radial streamers associated the ITG modes in the early nineties using a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. Since then, ITG simulations based on the codes with increasing realism have become possible with the dramatic increase in computing power. The notable examples were the demonstration of the importance of nonlinearly generated zonal flows in regulating ion thermal transport and the transition from Bohm to GyroBoham scaling with increased device size. In this paper, we will describe another interesting nonlinear physical process associated with the parallel acceleration of the ions, that is found to play an important role for the steady state turbulent transport. Its discovery is again through the use of the modern massively parallel supercomputers
Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function.
Horwitz, Anna; Dyhr Thomsen, Mia; Wiegand, Iris; Horwitz, Henrik; Klemp, Marc; Nikolic, Miki; Rask, Lene; Lauritzen, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina
2017-01-01
Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit) with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR) in the alpha (8Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years) and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years). Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power (ΔRV) with cognitive scores for the older adults. We find that ΔRV decrease with age by just over one standard deviation when comparing young with old participants (pintelligence is significantly negatively correlated with ΔRV in the older adult cohort, even when processing speed, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (pincrease in ΔRV of one standard deviation is associated with a reduction in intelligence of 48% of a standard deviation (p<0.01). Finally, we conclude that the difference in cerebral rhythmic activity between the alpha and gamma bands is associated with age and cognitive status, and that ΔRV therefore provide a non-subjective clinical tool with which to examine cognitive status in old age.
Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Horwitz
Full Text Available Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR in the alpha (8Hz and gamma (36Hz bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years. Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power (ΔRV with cognitive scores for the older adults. We find that ΔRV decrease with age by just over one standard deviation when comparing young with old participants (p<0.01. Furthermore, intelligence is significantly negatively correlated with ΔRV in the older adult cohort, even when processing speed, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (p<0.05. In our preferred specification, an increase in ΔRV of one standard deviation is associated with a reduction in intelligence of 48% of a standard deviation (p<0.01. Finally, we conclude that the difference in cerebral rhythmic activity between the alpha and gamma bands is associated with age and cognitive status, and that ΔRV therefore provide a non-subjective clinical tool with which to examine cognitive status in old age.
Sensitivity Analysis for Steady State Groundwater Flow Using Adjoint Operators
Sykes, J. F.; Wilson, J. L.; Andrews, R. W.
1985-03-01
Adjoint sensitivity theory is currently being considered as a potential method for calculating the sensitivity of nuclear waste repository performance measures to the parameters of the system. For groundwater flow systems, performance measures of interest include piezometric heads in the vicinity of a waste site, velocities or travel time in aquifers, and mass discharge to biosphere points. The parameters include recharge-discharge rates, prescribed boundary heads or fluxes, formation thicknesses, and hydraulic conductivities. The derivative of a performance measure with respect to the system parameters is usually taken as a measure of sensitivity. To calculate sensitivities, adjoint sensitivity equations are formulated from the equations describing the primary problem. The solution of the primary problem and the adjoint sensitivity problem enables the determination of all of the required derivatives and hence related sensitivity coefficients. In this study, adjoint sensitivity theory is developed for equations of two-dimensional steady state flow in a confined aquifer. Both the primary flow equation and the adjoint sensitivity equation are solved using the Galerkin finite element method. The developed computer code is used to investigate the regional flow parameters of the Leadville Formation of the Paradox Basin in Utah. The results illustrate the sensitivity of calculated local heads to the boundary conditions. Alternatively, local velocity related performance measures are more sensitive to hydraulic conductivities.
The steady-state ECRH-system at Wendelstein7-X
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laqua, H.P.; Erckmann, V.; Brakel, R.; Braune, H.; Maassberg, H.; Marushchenko, N.; Michel, G.; Turkin, Y.; Ullrich, S.; Dammertz, G.; Thumm, M.; Brand, P.; Gantenbein, G.; Kasparek, W.
2005-01-01
Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) is the main heating system for the Wendelstein7-X (W7-X) stellarator and the only one for CW-operation in the first stage. The mission of W7-X, which is presently under construction at IPP-Greifswald, is to demonstrate the inherent steady state capability of stellarators at reactor relevant plasma parameters. A modular 10 MW ECRH plant at 140 GHz with 1 MW CW-capability power for each module is under construction to meet the scientific objectives. Simulations of different ECRH scenarios, which are foreseen for W7-X operation and base on ray- tracing calculations and confinement studies, will be presented. A steady state ECRH has specific requirements on the stellarator machine itself, on the ECRH-sources, transmissions elements and on the experimental environment. In particular all elements have to be sufficiently cooled, screened and armoured against microwaves. The commissioning of the ECRH plant is well under way, the strategy and status of the project will be reported. First full power, CW integral tests of one ECRH module have been performed. A large microwave stray radiation chamber for integrated in-vessel component tests had been brought into operation. A bi-axially movable, motor driven ECRH antenna mock-up was build and is tested for reliability now. A strategy for the commissioning and the first experimental campaign at W7-X has been developed. (author)
Parametric study of the primary and secondary systems of the CAREM-25 reactor on steady state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halpert, Silvia; Vazquez, Luis
2000-01-01
In the CAREM-25 reactor the primary coolant flows by natural convection that's why the flow is established when the balance between the buoyancy force and friction pressure drop through circuit is obtained. This paper presents a parametric study on primary and secondary systems of the reactor on steady state, for different values of some thermohydraulics parameters: safety factor on friction loss pressure calculations (f), steam generator heat transfer area (A T ) and primary pressure (P P ). The ESCAREM 2.08 thermohydraulic code, which calculates the primary system behavior for steady state conditions, was used for this study. The conclusions of this study are: -) There was a variation of the 15% on the primary coolant flow when the safety factor was changed a 50 %; -) The primary and secondary systems conditions do not change when the power is less than 100 MW; -) Between 100 and 110 MW the decrease of the heat transfer area produces an important change on the secondary systems conditions: the outlet steam generator temperature decrease and there is an important rice in the flow; -) The primary pressure could decrease up to 11.4 MPa without violating turbine requirements. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kudariyawar, J.Y. [Homi Bhabha National Institue, Mumbai (India); Vaidya, A.M.; Maheshwari, K.K.; Srivastava, A.K. [Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India); Satyamurthy, P. [ATDS, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India)
2015-03-15
The steady state and transient characteristics of a molten salt natural circulation loop (NCL) are obtained by 3D CFD simulations. The working fluid is a mixture of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} in 60:40 ratio. Simulation is performed using PHOENICS CFD software. The computational domain is discretized by a body fitted grid generated using in-built mesh generator. The CFD model includes primary side. Primary side fluid is subjected to heat addition in heater section, heat loss to ambient (in piping connecting heater and cooler) and to secondary side (in cooler section). Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations are solved along with the standard k-ε turbulence model. Validation of the model is done by comparing the computed steady state Reynolds number with that predicted by various correlations proposed previously. Transient simulations were carried out to study the flow initiations transients for different heater powers and different configurations. Similarly the ''power raising'' transient is computed and compared with in-house experimental data. It is found that, using detailed information obtained from 3D transient CFD simulations, it is possible to understand the physics of oscillatory flow patterns obtained in the loop under certain conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gou Junli; Qiu Suizheng; Su Guanghui; Jia Dounan
2006-01-01
This article presents a theoretical investigation on the steady-state natural circulation characteristics of a new type of pressurized water reactor. Through numerically solving the one-dimensional steady-state single-phase conservative equations for the primary circuit and the steady-state two-phase drift-flux conservative equations for the secondary side of the steam generator, the natural circulation characteristics were studied. On the basis of the preliminary calculation analysis, it was found that natural circulation mass flow rate was proportional to the exponential function of the power and that the value of the exponent is related to the operating conditions of the secondary side of the steam generator. The higher the outlet pressure of the secondary side of the steam generator, the higher the primary natural circulation mass flow rate. The larger height difference between the core center and the steam generator center is favorable for the heat removal capacity of the natural circulation. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bizon Katarzyna
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Steady-state characteristics of a catalytic fluidised bed reactor and its dynamical consequences are analyzed. The occurrence of an untypical steady-state structure manifesting in a form of multiple isolas is described. A two-phase bubbling bed model is used for a quantitative description of the bed of catalyst. The influence of heat exchange intensity and a fluidisation ratio onto the generation of isolated solution branches is presented for two kinetic schemes. Dynamical consequences of the coexistence of such untypical branches of steady states are presented. The impact of linear growth of the fluidisation ratio and step change of the cooling medium temperature onto the desired product yield is analyzed. The results presented in this study confirm that the identification of a region of the occurrence of multiple isolas is important due to their strong impact both on the process start-up and its control.
Superconducting magnets and cryogenics for the steady state superconducting tokamak SST-1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saxena, Y.C.
2000-01-01
SST-1 is a steady state superconducting tokamak for studying the physics of the plasma processes in tokamak under steady state conditions and to learn technologies related to the steady state operation of the tokamak. SST-1 will have superconducting magnets made from NbTi based conductors operating at 4.5 K temperature. The design of the superconducting magnets and the cryogenic system of SST-1 tokamak are described. (author)
Qin, Tao; Hofstetter, Walter
2018-03-01
Time-periodically driven systems are a versatile toolbox for realizing interesting effective Hamiltonians. Heating, caused by excitations to high-energy states, is a challenge for experiments. While most setups so far address the relatively weakly interacting regime, it is of general interest to study heating in strongly correlated systems. Using Floquet dynamical mean-field theory, we study nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) in the Falicov-Kimball model, with time-periodically driven kinetic energy or interaction. We systematically investigate the nonequilibrium properties of the NESS. For a driven kinetic energy, we show that resonant tunneling, where the interaction is an integer multiple of the driving frequency, plays an important role in the heating. In the strongly correlated regime, we show that this can be well understood using Fermi's golden rule and the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation for a time-periodically driven system. We furthermore demonstrate that resonant tunneling can be used to control the population of Floquet states to achieve "photodoping." For driven interactions introduced by an oscillating magnetic field near a widely adopted Feshbach resonance, we find that the double occupancy is strongly modulated. Our calculations apply to shaken ultracold-atom systems and to solid-state systems in a spatially uniform but time-dependent electric field. They are also closely related to lattice modulation spectroscopy. Our calculations are helpful to understand the latest experiments on strongly correlated Floquet systems.
LANSCE steady state unperturbed thermal neutron fluxes at 100 μA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Russell, G.J.
1989-01-01
The ''maximum'' unperturbed, steady state thermal neutron flux for LANSCE is calculated to be 2 /times/ 10 13 n/cm 2 -s for 100 μA of 800-MeV protons. This LANSCE neutron flux is a comparable entity to a steady state reactor thermal neutron flux. LANSCE perturbed steady state thermal neutron fluxes have also been calculated. Because LANSCE is a pulsed neutron source, much higher ''peak'' (in time) neutron fluxes can be generated than at a steady state reactor source. 5 refs., 5 figs
Ho, Pang-Yen; Chuang, Guo-Syong; Chao, An-Chong; Li, Hsing-Ya
2005-05-01
The capacity of complex biochemical reaction networks (consisting of 11 coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations) to show multiple steady states, was investigated. The system involved esterification of ethanol and oleic acid by lipase in an isothermal continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The Deficiency One Algorithm and the Subnetwork Analysis were applied to determine the steady state multiplicity. A set of rate constants and two corresponding steady states are computed. The phenomena of bistability, hysteresis and bifurcation are discussed. Moreover, the capacity of steady state multiplicity is extended to the family of the studied reaction networks.
Power exhaust and edge control in steady state Tore Supra plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitteau, R.
2002-01-01
Tore Supra is operated since 2001 with a flat limiter which is designed for 10 MW/m 2 . The limiter is located in the bottom of the vacuum vessel. It was only partial in 2001, but it is now fully toroidal without poloidal leading edges. Part of the experimental campaign of 2001 was devoted to the physical as well as technological qualification of the limiter. For 4 MW injected, the limiter extracted 2.5 MW and heat flux densities reached 2.5 MW/m 2 . It is still modest compared to the design value, but nonetheless enables a comparison to the modelling as surface temperature increased locally to 400 deg C. Thermal steady state is reached in 5-8 seconds. The values of heat flux and the deposition pattern are in very good accordance with design simulations. The heat flux pattern is a combination of parallel and perpendicular flow components which are roughly of equal magnitude. Insights on the heat flux deposition pattern as well as on the tiles behaviour are given. Operation with such a large size high heat flux component sets renewed emphasis on issues such as feed back systems, active security, cooling parameter and in situ assessment of the elements. They are dealt with in the paper. (author)
Experimental Observations of Natural Circulation Flow in the NSTF at Steady-State Conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lisowski, Darius D.; Farmer, Mitch T.
2014-01-01
A ½ scale test facility has been constructed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study the heat removal performance and natural circulation flow patterns in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). Our test facility, the Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF), supports the broader goal of developing an inherently safe and fully passive ex-vessel decay heat removal for advanced reactor designs. The project, initiated in 2010 to support the Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC), Small Modular Reactor (SMR), and Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) programs, has been conducting experimental operations since early 2014. The following paper provides a summary of some primary design features of the 26-m tall test facility along with a description of the data acquisition suite that guides our experimental practices. Specifics of the distributed fiber optic temperature measurements will be discussed, which introduces an unparalleled level of data density that has never before been implemented in a large scale natural circulation test facility. Results from our first test series will then be presented, which provide insight into the thermal hydraulic behavior at steady-state conditions for varying heat flux levels and exhaust chimney configuration states. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayazuddin, S.K.; Qureshi, A.A.; Hayat, T.
1997-11-01
The Primary Water Inlet Pipeline (PW-IPL) is of stainless steel conveying demineralized water from hold-up tank to the reactor pool of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1). The section of the pipeline from heat exchangers to the valve pit is hanger supported in the pump room and the rest of the section from valve pit to the reactor pool is embedded. The PW-IPL is subjected to steady state and transient vibrations. The reactor pumps, which drive the coolant through various circuits mainly contribute the steady state vibrations, while transient vibrations arise due to instant closure of the check valve (water hammer). The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code provides data about the acceptable limits of stresses related to the primary static stress due to steady state vibrations. However, due to complexity in the pipe structure, stresses related to the transient vibrations are neglected in the code. In this report attempt has been made to analyzed both steady state and transient vibrations of PW-IPL of PARR-1. Since, both the steady state and transient vibrations affect the hanger-supported section of the PW-IPL, therefore, it was selected for vibration test measurements. In the analysis vibration data was compared with the allowable limits and estimations of maximum pressure build-up, eflection, natural frequency, tensile and shear load on hanger support, and the ratio of maximum combine stress to the allowable load were made. (author)
Phencyclidine Disrupts the Auditory Steady State Response in Rats.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emma Leishman
Full Text Available The Auditory Steady-State Response (ASSR in the electroencephalogram (EEG is usually reduced in schizophrenia (SZ, particularly to 40 Hz stimulation. The gamma frequency ASSR deficit has been attributed to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR hypofunction. We tested whether the NMDAR antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP, produced similar ASSR deficits in rats. EEG was recorded from awake rats via intracranial electrodes overlaying the auditory cortex and at the vertex of the skull. ASSRs to click trains were recorded at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 55 Hz and measured by ASSR Mean Power (MP and Phase Locking Factor (PLF. In Experiment 1, the effect of different subcutaneous doses of PCP (1.0, 2.5 and 4.0 mg/kg on the ASSR in 12 rats was assessed. In Experiment 2, ASSRs were compared in PCP treated rats and control rats at baseline, after acute injection (5 mg/kg, following two weeks of subchronic, continuous administration (5 mg/kg/day, and one week after drug cessation. Acute administration of PCP increased PLF and MP at frequencies of stimulation below 50 Hz, and decreased responses at higher frequencies at the auditory cortex site. Acute administration had a less pronounced effect at the vertex site, with a reduction of either PLF or MP observed at frequencies above 20 Hz. Acute effects increased in magnitude with higher doses of PCP. Consistent effects were not observed after subchronic PCP administration. These data indicate that acute administration of PCP, a NMDAR antagonist, produces an increase in ASSR synchrony and power at low frequencies of stimulation and a reduction of high frequency (> 40 Hz ASSR activity in rats. Subchronic, continuous administration of PCP, on the other hand, has little impact on ASSRs. Thus, while ASSRs are highly sensitive to NMDAR antagonists, their translational utility as a cross-species biomarker for NMDAR hypofunction in SZ and other disorders may be dependent on dose and schedule.
Very high flux steady state reactor and accelerator based sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Simos, N.; Shapiro, S.; Hastings, J.
2004-01-01
With the number of steady state neutron sources in the US declining (including the demise of the Bnl HFBR) the remaining intense sources are now in Europe (i.e. reactors - ILL and FMR, accelerator - PSI). The intensity of the undisturbed thermal flux for sources currently in operation ranges from 10 14 n/cm 2 *s to 10 15 n/cm 2 *s. The proposed Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) was to be a high power reactor (about 350 MW) with a projected undisturbed thermal flux of 7*10 15 n/cm 2 *s but never materialized. The objective of the current study is to explore the requirements and implications of two source concepts with an undisturbed flux of 10 16 n/cm 2 *s. The first is a reactor based concept operating at high power density (10 MW/l - 15 MW/l) and a total power of 100 MW - 250 MW, depending on fissile enrichment. The second is an accelerator based concept relying on a 1 GeV - 1.5 GeV proton Linac with a total beam power of 40 MW and a liquid lead-bismuth eutectic target. In the reactor source study, the effects of fissile material enrichment, coolant temperature and pressure drop, and estimates of pressure vessel stress levels will be investigated. The fuel form for the reactor will be different from all other operating source reactors in that it is proposed to use an infiltrated graphitic structure, which has been developed for nuclear thermal propulsion reactor applications. In the accelerator based source the generation of spallation products and their activation levels, and the material damage sustained by the beam window will be investigated. (authors)
Human auditory steady state responses to binaural and monaural beats.
Schwarz, D W F; Taylor, P
2005-03-01
Binaural beat sensations depend upon a central combination of two different temporally encoded tones, separately presented to the two ears. We tested the feasibility to record an auditory steady state evoked response (ASSR) at the binaural beat frequency in order to find a measure for temporal coding of sound in the human EEG. We stimulated each ear with a distinct tone, both differing in frequency by 40Hz, to record a binaural beat ASSR. As control, we evoked a beat ASSR in response to both tones in the same ear. We band-pass filtered the EEG at 40Hz, averaged with respect to stimulus onset and compared ASSR amplitudes and phases, extracted from a sinusoidal non-linear regression fit to a 40Hz period average. A 40Hz binaural beat ASSR was evoked at a low mean stimulus frequency (400Hz) but became undetectable beyond 3kHz. Its amplitude was smaller than that of the acoustic beat ASSR, which was evoked at low and high frequencies. Both ASSR types had maxima at fronto-central leads and displayed a fronto-occipital phase delay of several ms. The dependence of the 40Hz binaural beat ASSR on stimuli at low, temporally coded tone frequencies suggests that it may objectively assess temporal sound coding ability. The phase shift across the electrode array is evidence for more than one origin of the 40Hz oscillations. The binaural beat ASSR is an evoked response, with novel diagnostic potential, to a signal that is not present in the stimulus, but generated within the brain.
Majeed, Muhammad Usman
2017-01-01
the problems are formulated on higher dimensional space domains. However, in this dissertation, feedback based state estimation algorithms, known as state observers, are developed to solve such steady-state problems using one of the space variables as time
Development of steady-state scenarios compatible with ITER-like wall conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Litaudon, X [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC-Cadarache 13108, St Paul Durance (France); Arnoux, G [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC-Cadarache 13108, St Paul Durance (France); Beurskens, M [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)] (and others)
2007-12-15
A key issue for steady-state tokamak operation is to determine the edge conditions that are compatible both with good core confinement and with the power handling and plasma exhaust capabilities of the plasma facing components (PFCs) and divertor systems. A quantitative response to this open question will provide a robust scientific basis for reliable extrapolation of present regimes to an ITER compatible steady-state scenario. In this context, the JET programme addressing steady-state operation is focused on the development of non-inductive, high confinement plasmas with the constraints imposed by the PFCs. A new beryllium main chamber wall and tungsten divertor together with an upgrade of the heating/fuelling capability are currently in preparation at JET. Operation at higher power with this ITER-like wall will impose new constraints on non-inductive scenarios. Recent experiments have focused on the preparation for this new phase of JET operation. In this paper, progress in the development of advanced tokamak (AT) scenarios at JET is reviewed keeping this long-term objective in mind. The approach has consisted of addressing various critical issues separately during the 2006-2007 campaigns with a view to full scenario integration when the JET upgrades are complete. Regimes with internal transport barriers (ITBs) have been developed at q{sub 95} {approx} 5 and high triangularity, {delta} (relevant to the ITER steady-state demonstration) by applying more than 30 MW of additional heating power reaching {beta}{sub N} {approx} 2 at B{sub o} {approx} 3.1 T. Operating at higher {delta} has allowed the edge pedestal and core densities to be increased pushing the ion temperature closer to that of the electrons. Although not yet fully integrated into a performance enhancing ITB scenario, Neon seeding has been successfully explored to increase the radiated power fraction (up to 60%), providing significant reduction of target tile power fluxes (and hence temperatures) and
Major progress on tore supra toward steady state operation of tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saoutic, Y.
2003-01-01
During winter 2000-2001, a major upgrade of the internal components of Tore Supra has been completed that increased the heat extraction capability to 25 MW in steady state. Operating Tore Supra in this new configuration has produced a wealth of new results. The highlights of the 2002 long duration discharges campaign are: 4 minutes 25 seconds long discharges with an integrated energy of 0.75 GJ, which is three time higher than the old Tore Supra world record; recharge of the primary transformer by Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) for about 1 minute; 4 minutes long LHCD pulses; 1 minute long Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ICRH) pulse (0.11 GJ of ICRH injected energy). Beyond the quantitative step, significant qualitative progress in the steady state nature of the discharge has been accomplished: contrary to the situation in the old Tore Supra configuration, the plasma density is perfectly controlled by active pumping over the overall shot duration. The duration of Tore Supra discharges is sufficient to allow the complete diffusion of the resistive current. Surprising new physics is revealed in such discharges when approaching zero loop voltage. Slow central electron temperature oscillations have been observed in a variety of situations. Such oscillations are not likely to be linked to any MHD instabilities and probably results from an interplay between current profile shape, LHCD power deposition and transport. Analysis of the temperature gradient in the core region shows a very interesting behaviour and the normalised temperature gradient length is compared to the critical thresholds. Finally, the performance of heating and current drive systems and the observations made of the interior of Tore Supra after the long duration discharges campaign are reported. (author)
Tore-Supra infrared thermography system, a real steady-state diagnostic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guilhem, D.; Bondil, J.L.; Bertrand, B.; Desgranges, C.; Lipa, M.; Messina, P.; Missirlian, M.; Portafaix, C.; Reichle, R.; Roche, H.; Saille, A.
2005-01-01
Tore-Supra Tokamak (I p = 1.5 MA, B t = 4 T) has been constructed with a steady-state magnetic field using super-conducting magnets and water-cooled plasma facing components (PFCs) for high-performance long pulse plasma discharges. When not actively cooled, plasma facing components can only accumulate a limited amount of energy since the temperature increases continuously during the discharge until radiation cooling equals the incoming heat flux. Such an environment is found in the JET Tokamak [JET Team, IAEA-CN-60/A1-3, Seville, 1994] and on TRIAM [M. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, S. Kawasaki, A. Iyomasa, S.V. Kulkarni, M. Hasegawa, E. Jotaki, H. Zushi, K. Nakamura, K. Hanada, S. Itoh, Static and dynamic properties of wall recycling in TRIAM-1M, J. Nucl. Mater. 313-316 (2003) 519-523] [Y. Kamada, et al., Nucl. Fusion 3 (1999) 1845]. In Tore-Supra, the surface temperature of the actively cooled plasma facing components reach steady state within a second. We present here the Tore-Supra thermographic system, made of seven endoscope bodies equipped so far with eight infrared (IR) cameras. It has to be noted that this diagnostic is the first diagnostic to be actively cooled, as required for steady state. The main purpose of such a diagnostic is to prevent the plasma to damage the actively cooled plasma facing components (ACPFCs), which consist of the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL), 7 m 2 , and of five radio-frequency antennae, 1.5 m 2 each
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shoubin Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The compound variable inverse problem which comprises boundary temperature distribution and surface convective heat conduction coefficient of two-dimensional steady heat transfer system with inner heat source is studied in this paper applying the conjugate gradient method. The introduction of complex variable to solve the gradient matrix of the objective function obtains more precise inversion results. This paper applies boundary element method to solve the temperature calculation of discrete points in forward problems. The factors of measuring error and the number of measuring points zero error which impact the measurement result are discussed and compared with L-MM method in inverse problems. Instance calculation and analysis prove that the method applied in this paper still has good effectiveness and accuracy even if measurement error exists and the boundary measurement points’ number is reduced. The comparison indicates that the influence of error on the inversion solution can be minimized effectively using this method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Xiaoliang; Lei, Bo; Bi, Haiquan; Yu, Tao
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A simplified method for evaluating thermal performance of UTC is developed. • Experiments, numerical simulations, dimensional analysis and data fitting are used. • The correlation of absorber plate temperature for UTC is established. • The empirical correlation of heat exchange effectiveness for UTC is proposed. - Abstract: Due to the advantages of low investment and high energy efficiency, unglazed transpired solar collectors (UTC) have been widely used for heating in buildings. However, it is difficult for designers to quickly evaluate the thermal performance of UTC based on the conventional methods such as experiments and numerical simulations. Therefore, a simple and fast method to determine the thermal performance of UTC is indispensable. The objective of this work is to provide a simplified calculation method to easily evaluate the thermal performance of UTC under steady state. Different parameters are considered in the simplified method, including pitch, perforation diameter, solar radiation, solar absorptivity, approach velocity, ambient air temperature, absorber plate temperature, and so on. Based on existing design parameters and operating conditions, correlations for the absorber plate temperature and the heat exchange effectiveness are developed using dimensional analysis and data fitting, respectively. Results show that the proposed simplified method has a high accuracy and can be employed to evaluate the collector efficiency, the heat exchange effectiveness and the air temperature rise. The proposed method in this paper is beneficial to directly determine design parameters and operating status for UTC.
40 CFR 86.1363-2007 - Steady-state testing with a discrete-mode cycle.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-state testing with a discrete-mode cycle. 86.1363-2007 Section 86.1363-2007 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1363-2007 Steady-state testing with a discrete-mode cycle. This section...
40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1042 - Steady-State Duty Cycles
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Duty Cycles II Appendix..., App. II Appendix II to Part 1042—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply as specified in § 1042.505(b)(1): (1) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing: E3 mode No...
40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1039 - Steady-State Duty Cycles
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Duty Cycles II Appendix... Appendix II to Part 1039—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply for constant-speed engines: (1) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing: D2 mode number Engine speed...
Steady-state models in electrophoresis: from isotachophoresis to capillary zone electrophoresis
Beckers, J.L.
1995-01-01
Although all electrophoretic techniques are closely allied and controlled by the same rules, we often distinguish between steady-state and dynamic models in the modeling of electrophoretic processes, whereby steady-state models are applied for isotachophoresis (ITP) and dynamic models are applied
Numerical method for three dimensional steady-state two-phase flow calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raymond, P.; Toumi, I.
1992-01-01
This paper presents the numerical scheme which was developed for the FLICA-4 computer code to calculate three dimensional steady state two phase flows. This computer code is devoted to steady state and transient thermal hydraulics analysis of nuclear reactor cores 1,3 . The first section briefly describes the FLICA-4 flow modelling. Then in order to introduce the numerical method for steady state computations, some details are given about the implicit numerical scheme based upon an approximate Riemann solver which was developed for calculation of flow transients. The third section deals with the numerical method for steady state computations, which is derived from this previous general scheme and its optimization. We give some numerical results for steady state calculations and comparisons on required CPU time and memory for various meshing and linear system solvers
Development of synchronous generator saturation model from steady-state operating data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jadric, Martin; Despalatovic, Marin; Terzic, Bozo [FESB University of Split, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Split (Croatia)
2010-11-15
A new method to estimate and model the saturated synchronous reactances of hydroturbine generators from operating data is presented. For the estimation process, measurements of only the generator steady-state variables are required. First, using a specific procedure, the field to armature turns ratio is estimated from measured steady-state variables at constant power generation and various excitation conditions. Subsequently, for each set of steady-state operating data, saturated synchronous reactances are identified. Fitting surfaces, defined as polynomial functions in two variables, are later used to model these saturated reactances. It is shown that the simpler polynomial functions may be used to model saturation at the steady-state than at the dynamic conditions. The developed steady-state model is validated with measurements performed on the 34 MVA hydroturbine generator. (author)
Dynamical tides in highly eccentric binaries: chaos, dissipation, and quasi-steady state
Vick, Michelle; Lai, Dong
2018-05-01
Highly eccentric binary systems appear in many astrophysical contexts, ranging from tidal capture in dense star clusters, precursors of stellar disruption by massive black holes, to high-eccentricity migration of giant planets. In a highly eccentric binary, the tidal potential of one body can excite oscillatory modes in the other during a pericentre passage, resulting in energy exchange between the modes and the binary orbit. These modes exhibit one of three behaviours over multiple passages: low-amplitude oscillations, large-amplitude oscillations corresponding to a resonance between the orbital frequency and the mode frequency, and chaotic growth, with the mode energy reaching a level comparable to the orbital binding energy. We study these phenomena with an iterative map that includes mode dissipation, fully exploring how the mode evolution depends on the orbital and mode properties of the system. The dissipation of mode energy drives the system towards a quasi-steady state, with gradual orbital decay punctuated by resonances. We quantify the quasi-steady state and the long-term evolution of the system. A newly captured star around a black hole can experience significant orbital decay and heating due to the chaotic growth of the mode amplitude and dissipation. A giant planet pushed into a high-eccentricity orbit may experience a similar effect and become a hot or warm Jupiter.
Steady state and linear stability analysis of a supercritical water natural circulation loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, Manish; Pilkhwal, D.S.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.
2010-01-01
Supercritical water (SCW) has excellent heat transfer characteristics as a coolant for nuclear reactors. Besides it results in high thermal efficiency of the plant. However, the flow can experience instabilities in supercritical water reactors, as the density change is very large for the supercritical fluids. A computer code SUCLIN using supercritical water properties has been developed to carry out the steady state and linear stability analysis of a SCW natural circulation loop. The conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy have been linearized by imposing small perturbation in flow rate, enthalpy, pressure and specific volume. The equations have been solved analytically to generate the characteristic equation. The roots of the equation determine the stability of the system. The code has been qualitatively assessed with published results and has been extensively used for studying the effect of diameter, height, heater inlet temperature, pressure and local loss coefficients on steady state and stability behavior of a Supercritical Water Natural Circulation Loop (SCWNCL). The present paper describes the linear stability analysis model and the results obtained in detail.
Relative contributions of transient and steady state infiltration during ephemeral streamflow
Blasch, Kyle W.; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Hoffmann, John P.; Fleming, John B.
2006-01-01
Simulations of infiltration during three ephemeral streamflow events in a coarse‐grained alluvial channel overlying a less permeable basin‐fill layer were conducted to determine the relative contribution of transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow to cumulative infiltration for the event. Water content, temperature, and piezometric measurements from 2.5‐m vertical profiles within the alluvial sediments were used to constrain a variably saturated water flow and heat transport model. Simulated and measured transient infiltration rates at the onset of streamflow were about two to three orders of magnitude greater than steady state infiltration rates. The duration of simulated transient infiltration ranged from 1.8 to 20 hours, compared with steady state flow periods of 231 to 307 hours. Cumulative infiltration during the transient period represented 10 to 26% of the total cumulative infiltration, with an average contribution of approximately 18%. Cumulative infiltration error for the simulated streamflow events ranged from 9 to 25%. Cumulative infiltration error for typical streamflow events of about 8 hours in duration in is about 90%. This analysis indicates that when estimating total cumulative infiltration in coarse‐grained ephemeral stream channels, consideration of the transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow will improve predictions of the total volume of infiltration that may become groundwater recharge.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan, Zhaoguang; Guo, Qinglai; Sun, Hongbin
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Interaction mechanisms of district electricity and heating systems are analyzed. • The interaction process is divided into four quasi-steady stages. • A quasi-steady multi-energy flow model is proposed and calculated. • A heating network node type transformation technique is developed. • Attention should be paid on the fast hydraulic process and slow thermal process. - Abstract: Integrated energy systems (IESs) are under development for a variety of benefits. District electricity and heating systems (DEHSs) deliver electricity and heat, the most common energy demands, to end-users. This paper studies the interactions in a DEHS considering the time-scale characteristics. Interaction mechanisms of a DEHS are analyzed. A disturbance in one system influences another system through coupling components, depending on the disturbance, operating characteristics, and control strategies. A model of the main components in DEHSs is presented. The time scale characteristics are studied based on a dynamic comparison of the different components. Then the interaction process is divided into four stages; each is a quasi-steady state. A quasi-steady multi-energy flow model is proposed and calculated, with a heating network node type transformation technique developed. A case study with detailed results and discussion of 3 types of disturbance is presented to verify the methods. The results present the interactions between the electricity and the system. It is suggested that attention should be paid both on the fast hydraulic process and slow thermal process for system security and economic operation.
Buhagiar, Daniel; Sant, Tonio
2014-01-01
A system for using offshore wind energy to generate electricity and simultaneously extract thermal energy is proposed. This concept is based on an offshore wind turbine driven hydraulic pump supplying deep seawater under high pressure to a land based plant consisting of a hydroelectric power generation unit and heat exchanger. A steady-state system model is developed using empirical formulae. The mathematical model comprises the fundamental system sub-models that are categoris...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thingna, Juzar; Zhou, Hangbo; Wang, Jian-Sheng
2014-01-01
We present a general theory to calculate the steady-state heat and electronic currents for nonlinear systems using a perturbative expansion in the system-bath coupling. We explicitly demonstrate that using the truncated Dyson-series leads to divergences in the steady-state limit, thus making it impossible to be used for actual applications. In order to resolve the divergences, we propose a unique choice of initial condition for the reduced density matrix, which removes the divergences at each order. Our approach not only allows us to use the truncated Dyson-series, with a reasonable choice of initial condition, but also gives the expected result that the steady-state solutions should be independent of initial preparations. Using our improved Dyson series we evaluate the heat and electronic currents up to fourth-order in system-bath coupling, a considerable improvement over the standard quantum master equation techniques. We then numerically corroborate our theory for archetypal settings of linear systems using the exact nonequilibrium Green's function approach. Finally, to demonstrate the advantage of our approach, we deal with the nonlinear spin-boson model to evaluate heat current up to fourth-order and find signatures of cotunnelling process
Steady-state resistive toroidal-field coils for tokamak reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalnavarns, J.; Jassby, D.L.
1979-12-01
If spatially-averaged values of the beta ratio can reach 5 to 10% in tokamaks, as now seems likely, resistive toroidal-field coils may be advantageous for use in reactors intended for fusion-neutron applications. The present investigation has parameterized the design of steady-state water-cooled copper coils of rectangular cross section in order to maximize figures of merit such as the ratio of fusion neutron wall loading to coil power dissipation. Four design variations distinguished by different ohmic-heating coil configurations have been examined. For a wall loading of 0.5 MW/m 2 , minimum TF-coil lifetime costs (including capital and electricity costs) are found to occur with coil masses in the range 2400 to 4400 tons, giving 200 to 250 MW of resistive dissipation, which is comparable with the total power drain of the other reactor subsystems
Application of piezodetectors for diagnostics of pulsed and quasi-steady-state plasma streams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bandura, A.N.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Tereshin, V.I.; Ladygina, M.S. [NSC KIPT, Kharkov (Ukraine). Inst. of Plasma Physics
2006-04-15
The paper reports on studies of the plasma streams generated by two experimental devices: the quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator (QSPA) Kh-50 and the pulsed plasma gun PROSVET. The radial distributions of the plasma pressure for different times and varied distances from the accelerator output have been used for investigation of the plasma stream dynamics and study the plasma compression in the focus region for different operational regimes of plasma accelerators. In experiments for the application of pulsed plasma streams for surface modification of different industrial steels, optimal regimes of surface processing have been chosen on the basis of the plasma pressure measurements. Examples of application of the piezodetectors in simulation experiments on plasma surface interaction under high heat loads are presented.
Tungsten dust remobilization under steady-state and transient plasma conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Ratynskaia
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Remobilization is one of the most prominent unresolved fusion dust-relevant issues, strongly related to the lifetime of dust in plasma-wetted regions, the survivability of dust on hot plasma-facing surfaces and the formation of dust accumulation sites. A systematic cross-machine study has been initiated to investigate the remobilization of tungsten micron-size dust from tungsten surfaces implementing a newly developed technique based on controlled pre-adhesion by gas dynamics methods. It has been utilized in a number of devices and has provided new insights on remobilization under steady-state and transient conditions. The experiments are interpreted with contact mechanics theory and heat conduction models.
Overview of steady-state tokamak operation and current drive experiments in TRIAM-1M
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zushi, H.; Nakamura, K.; Hanada, K.
2005-01-01
Experiments aiming at 'day long operation at high performance' have been carried out. The record value of the discharge duration was updated to 5 h and 16 min. Steady-state tokamak operation (SSTO) is studied under the localized PWI conditions. The distributions of the heat load, the particle recycling flux and impurity source are investigated to understand the co-deposition and wall pumping. Formation and sustainment of an internal transport barrier ITB in enhanced current drive mode (ECD) has been investigated by controlling the lower hybrid driven current profile by changing the phase spectrum. An ITER relevant remote steering antenna for electron cyclotron wave ECW injection was installed and a relativistic Doppler resonance of the oblique propagating extraordinary wave with energetic electrons driven by lower hybrid waves was studied. (author)
Steady-state and transient simulations of gas cooled reactor with the computer code CATHARE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tauveron, N.; Saez, M.; Marchand, M.; Chataing, T.; Geffraye, G.; Cherel, J. M.
2003-01-01
This work concerns the design and safety analysis of Gas Cooled Reactors. The CATHARE code is used to test the design and safety of two different concepts, a High Temperature Gas Reactor concept (HTGR) and a Gas Fast Reactor concept (GFR). Relative to the HTGR concept, three transient simulations are performed and described in this paper: loss of electrical load without turbomachine trip, 10 inch cold duct break, 10 inch cold duct break combined with a tube rupture of a cooling exchanger. A second step consists in modelling a GFR concept. A nominal steady state situation at a power of 600 MW is obtained and first transient simulations are carried out to study decay heat removal situations after primary loop depressurisation
Application of piezodetectors for diagnostics of pulsed and quasi-steady-state plasma streams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bandura, A.N.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Tereshin, V.I.; Ladygina, M.S.
2006-01-01
The paper reports on studies of the plasma streams generated by two experimental devices: the quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator (QSPA) Kh-50 and the pulsed plasma gun PROSVET. The radial distributions of the plasma pressure for different times and varied distances from the accelerator output have been used for investigation of the plasma stream dynamics and study the plasma compression in the focus region for different operational regimes of plasma accelerators. In experiments for the application of pulsed plasma streams for surface modification of different industrial steels, optimal regimes of surface processing have been chosen on the basis of the plasma pressure measurements. Examples of application of the piezodetectors in simulation experiments on plasma surface interaction under high heat loads are presented
Recent progresses on high performance steady-state plasmas in the superconducting tokamak TRIAM-1M
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Satoshi; Sato, Kohnosuke; Nakamura, Kazuo
1999-01-01
The overview of TRIAM-1M experiments is described. The up-to-date issues for steady-state operation are presented through the experience of the achievement of super ultra long tokamak discharges (SULD) sustained by lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) over 2 hours. The importance of the control of an initial phase of plasma, the avoidance of the concentration of huge heat load, the wall conditioning, and abrupt stop of the long discharges are proposed as the indispensable issues for the achievement of the steady-state operation of tokamak. A high ion temperature (HIT) discharge fully sustained by 2.45 GHz LHCD with both high ion temperature and steep temperature gradient is successfully demonstrated for longer than 1 min in the limiter configuration. The HIT discharges can be obtained in the narrow window of density and position. Moreover, the avoidance of the concentration of heat load on a limiter is the key point for the achievement and its long sustainment. As the effective thermal insulation between the wall and the plasma is improved on the single null configuration, HIT discharges with peak ion temperature > 5keV and steeper gradient up to 85 keV/m can be achieved by the exquisite control of density and position. The plasmas with high κ ∼1.5 can be also demonstrated for longer than 1 min. The current profile is also well-controlled for about 2 orders in magnitude longer than the current diffusion time using combined LHCD. The serious damage to the material of the first wall caused by energetic neutral particles produced via charge exchange process is also described. As the neutral particles cannot be affected by magnetic field, this damage by neutral particles must be avoided by the new technique. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bouakkaz Rafik
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In this work, steady flow-field and heat transfer through a copper- water nanofluid around a rotating circular cylinder with a constant nondimensional rotation rate α varying from 0 to 5 was investigated for Reynolds numbers of 5–40. Furthermore, the range of nanoparticle volume fractions considered is 0–5%. The effect of volume fraction of nanoparticles on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are carried out by using a finite-volume method based commercial computational fluid dynamics solver. The variation of the local and the average Nusselt numbers with Reynolds number, volume fractions, and rotation rate are presented for the range of conditions. The average Nusselt number is found to decrease with increasing value of the rotation rate for the fixed value of the Reynolds number and volume fraction of nanoparticles. In addition, rotation can be used as a drag reduction technique.
Steady state simulation of a double-effect steam absorption chiller
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmed, M.S.A.M.S.; Gilani, S.I.U.H. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
2011-07-01
Absorption cooling systems have become increasingly popular in recent years from the viewpoint of energy and environment. Despite a lower coefficient of performance (COP) as compared to the vapor compression, absorption refrigeration systems are attractive for using inexpensive waste heat, solar, geothermal or biomass energy sources for which the cost of supply is negligible in many cases. In addition absorption refrigeration uses natural substances which do not contribute towards ozone depletion and global warming. Owing to the serious environmental problems and the price of the traditional energy resources, the use of industrial waste heat or renewable energy as the driving force for vapor absorption cooling systems is continuously increasing. A steady-state model is developed to predict the performance of an absorption refrigeration system using LiBr-water as working pair. Each component of the cycle is modelled based on mass and energy balances. The design point parameters are determined. The refrigeration effect, coefficient of performance and load factor are analyzed for different heat input. Simulation is carried out and the results are compared with actual data and showed good agreement.
Recent developments towards steady state physics and technology of tokamaks in Cadarache
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacquinot, J.G.
2002-01-01
Recently, Tore Supra has undergone a total change of internal components in order to upgrade the heat extraction capability to 25 MW for 1000 s, and address long pulse operation of a tokamak at a level of power density owing through the separatrix relevant for next step. The present paper will both give an overview of the experimental results obtained during the last campaigns and highlight the related technology developments: industrial realisation and tests with plasma of about 600 actively cooled plasma limiter components, new experimental results concerning heating and current drive systems (ECRH, ICRH, LHCD), injection of matter for long pulses (supersonic injection, high repetition rate pellet injection), stability and control of high confinement steady-state discharges sustained by the LH wave, theoretical and experimental investigations of electron heat transport. Highlights of technology developments directly applicable to ITER are also presented. Finally, a brief account is given of the European studies for validating Cadarache as a possible site for ITER, concluding that all ITER technical site requests are fully met. (author)
Steady state model for the thermal regimes of shells of airships and hot air balloons
Luchev, Oleg A.
1992-10-01
A steady state model of the temperature regime of airships and hot air balloons shells is developed. The model includes three governing equations: the equation of the temperature field of airships or balloons shell, the integral equation for the radiative fluxes on the internal surface of the shell, and the integral equation for the natural convective heat exchange between the shell and the internal gas. In the model the following radiative fluxes on the shell external surface are considered: the direct and the earth reflected solar radiation, the diffuse solar radiation, the infrared radiation of the earth surface and that of the atmosphere. For the calculations of the infrared external radiation the model of the plane layer of the atmosphere is used. The convective heat transfer on the external surface of the shell is considered for the cases of the forced and the natural convection. To solve the mentioned set of the equations the numerical iterative procedure is developed. The model and the numerical procedure are used for the simulation study of the temperature fields of an airship shell under the forced and the natural convective heat transfer.
Assessing Quasi-Steady State in Evaporation of Sessile Drops by Diffusion Models
Martin, Cameron; Nguyen, Hoa; Kelly-Zion, Peter; Pursell, Chris
2017-11-01
The vapor distributions surrounding sessile drops of methanol are modeled as the solutions of the steady-state and transient diffusion equations using Matlab's PDE Toolbox. The goal is to determine how quickly the transient diffusive transport reaches its quasi-steady state as the droplet geometry is varied between a Weber's disc, a real droplet shape, and a spherical cap with matching thickness or contact angle. We assume that the only transport mechanism at work is diffusion. Quasi-steady state is defined using several metrics, such as differences between the transient and steady-state solutions, and change in the transient solution over time. Knowing the vapor distribution, the gradient is computed to evaluate the diffusive flux. The flux is integrated along the surface of a control volume surrounding the drop to obtain the net rate of diffusion out of the volume. Based on the differences between the transient and steady-state diffusive fluxes at the discrete points along the control-volume surface, the time to reach quasi-steady state evaporation is determined and is consistent with other proposed measurements. By varying the dimensions of the control volume, we can also assess what regimes have equivalent or different quasi-steady states for different droplet geometries. Petroleum Research Fund.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yajima, M., E-mail: yajima.miyuki@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, 509-5292 Japan (Japan); Ohno, N. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kajita, S. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); De Temmerman, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 046-13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Bystrov, K.; Bardin, S.; Morgan, T.W. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Masuzaki, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, 509-5292 Japan (Japan)
2016-11-15
Arcing on fiber-formed nanostructured tungsten samples during ELM-like pulses was investigated using the superimposition of high power pulsed plasma on a steady state plasma with hydrogen gas in the linear plasma device Pilot-PSI. The ignition of arcing was observed when the floating potential of the samples was less than −75 V with sufficient heat flux. The surface observation showed that the arc spots were not in the center, but in the peripheral area of the plasma column. Considering the plasma potential profile in the Pilot-PSI, the arcing occurred at the position where the heat flux and the sheath potential drop are sufficiently large.
X-Ray Spectral Analysis of the Steady States of GRS1915+105
Peris, Charith S.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Steiner, James F.; Vrtilek, Saeqa D.; Varnière, Peggy; Rodriguez, Jerome; Pooley, Guy
2016-05-01
We report on the X-ray spectral behavior within the steady states of GRS1915+105. Our work is based on the full data set of the source obtained using the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and 15 GHz radio data obtained using the Ryle Telescope. The steady observations within the X-ray data set naturally separated into two regions in the color-color diagram and we refer to these regions as steady-soft and steady-hard. GRS1915+105 displays significant curvature in the coronal component in both the soft and hard data within the RXTE/PCA bandpass. A majority of the steady-soft observations displays a roughly constant inner disk radius ({R}{{in}}), while the steady-hard observations display an evolving disk truncation which is correlated to the mass accretion rate through the disk. The disk flux and coronal flux are strongly correlated in steady-hard observations and very weakly correlated in the steady-soft observations. Within the steady-hard observations, we observe two particular circumstances when there are correlations between the coronal X-ray flux and the radio flux with log slopes η ˜ 0.68+/- 0.35 and η ˜ 1.12+/- 0.13. They are consistent with the upper and lower tracks of Gallo et al. (2012), respectively. A comparison of the model parameters to the state definitions shows that almost all of the steady-soft observations match the criteria of either a thermal or steep power-law state, while a large portion of the steady-hard observations match the hard-state criteria when the disk fraction constraint is neglected.
Nonequilibrium steady state of biochemical cycle kinetics under non-isothermal conditions
Jin, Xiao; Ge, Hao
2018-04-01
The nonequilibrium steady state of isothermal biochemical cycle kinetics has been extensively studied, but that under non-isothermal conditions has been much less extensively investigated. When the heat exchange between subsystems is slow, the isothermal assumption of the whole system breaks down, as is true for many types of living organisms. Here, starting with a four-state model of molecular transporter across the cell membrane, we generalize the nonequilibrium steady-state theory of isothermal biochemical cycle kinetics to the circumstances with non-uniform temperatures of subsystems in terms of general master equation models. We obtain a new thermodynamic relationship between the chemical reaction rates and thermodynamic potentials in non-isothermal circumstances, based on the overdamped dynamics along the continuous reaction coordinate. We show that the entropy production can vary up to 3% in real cells, even when the temperature difference across the cell membrane is only approximately 1 K. We then decompose the total thermodynamic driving force into its thermal and chemical components and predict that the net flux of molecules transported by the molecular transporter can potentially go against the temperature gradient in the absence of a chemical driving force. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the simple application of the isothermal transition-state rate formula for each chemical reaction in terms of only the reactant’ temperature is not thermodynamically consistent. Therefore, we mathematically derive several revised reaction rate formulas that are not only consistent with the new thermodynamic relationship but also approximate the exact reaction rate better than Kramers’ rate formula under isothermal conditions.
A new perspective on steady-state cosmology: from Einstein to Hoyle
O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; Mitton, Simon
2015-01-01
We recently reported the discovery of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted a 'steady-state' model of the universe, i.e., a cosmic model in which the expanding universe remains essentially unchanged due to a continuous formation of matter from empty space. The manuscript was apparently written in early 1931, many years before the steady-state models of Fred Hoyle, Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold. We compare Einstein’s steady-state cosmology with that of Hoyle, Bondi...
Advances in multi-megawatt lower hybrid technology in support of steady-state tokamak operation
Delpech, L.; Achard, J.; Armitano, A.; Artaud, J. F.; Bae, Y. S.; Belo, J. H.; Berger-By, G.; Bouquey, F.; Cho, M. H.; Corbel, E.; Decker, J.; Do, H.; Dumont, R.; Ekedahl, A.; Garibaldi, P.; Goniche, M.; Guilhem, D.; Hillairet, J.; Hoang, G. T.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, H.; Kwak, J. G.; Magne, R.; Mollard, P.; Na, Y. S.; Namkung, W.; Oh, Y. K.; Park, S.; Park, H.; Peysson, Y.; Poli, S.; Prou, M.; Samaille, F.; Yang, H. L.; The Tore Supra Team
2014-10-01
It has been demonstrated that lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) systems play a crucial role for steady-state tokamak operation, owing to their high current drive (CD) efficiency and hence their capability to reduce flux consumption. This paper describes the extensive technology programmes developed for the Tore Supra (France) and the KSTAR (Korea) tokamaks in order to bring continuous wave (CW) LHCD systems into operation. The Tore Supra LHCD generator at 3.7 GHz is fully CW compatible, with RF power PRF = 9.2 MW available at the generator to feed two actively water-cooled launchers. On Tore Supra, the most recent and novel passive active multijunction (PAM) launcher has sustained 2.7 MW (corresponding to its design value of 25 MW m-2 at the launcher mouth) for a 78 s flat-top discharge, with low reflected power even at large plasma-launcher gaps. The fully active multijunction (FAM) launcher has reached 3.8 MW of coupled power (24 MW m-2 at the launcher mouth) with the new TH2103C klystrons. By combining both the PAM and FAM launchers, 950 MJ of energy, using 5.2 MW of LHCD and 1 MW of ICRH (ion cyclotron resonance heating), was injected for 160 s in 2011. The 3.7 GHz CW LHCD system will be a key element within the W (for tungsten) environment in steady-state Tokamak (WEST) project, where the aim is to test ITER technologies for high heat flux components in relevant heat flux density and particle fluence conditions. On KSTAR, a 2 MW LHCD system operating at 5 GHz is under development. Recently the 5 GHz prototype klystron has reached 500 kW/600 s on a matched load, and studies are ongoing to design a PAM launcher. In addition to the studies of technology, a combination of ray-tracing and Fokker-Planck calculations have been performed to evaluate the driven current and the power deposition due to LH waves, and to optimize the N∥ spectrum for the future launcher design. Furthermore, an LHCD system at 5 GHz is being considered for a future upgrade of the ITER
Steady-State Thermal-Hydraulics Analyses for the Conversion of the BR2 Reactor to LEU
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Licht, J. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bergeron, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dionne, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Van den Branden, G. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Kalcheva, S [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Sikik, E [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Koonen, E [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium)
2016-09-01
BR2 is a research reactor used for radioisotope production and materials testing. It’s a tank-in-pool type reactor cooled by light water and moderated by beryllium and light water. The reactor core consists of a beryllium moderator forming a matrix of 79 hexagonal prisms in a hyperboloid configuration; each having a central bore that can contain a variety of different components such as a fuel assembly, a control or regulating rod, an experimental device, or a beryllium or aluminum plug. Based on a series of tests, the BR2 operation is currently limited to a maximum allowable heat flux of 470 W/cm^{2} to ensure fuel plate integrity during steady-state operation and after a loss-of-flow/loss-of-pressure accident. A feasibility study for the conversion of the BR2 reactor from highly-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel was previously performed to verify it can operate safely at the same maximum nominal steady-state heat flux. An assessment was also performed to quantify the heat fluxes at which the onset of flow instability and critical heat flux occur for each fuel type. This document updates and expands these results for the current representative core configuration (assuming a fresh beryllium matrix) by evaluating the onset of nucleate boiling (ONB), onset of fully developed nucleate boiling (FDNB), onset of flow instability (OFI) and critical heat flux (CHF).
Steady States in SIRS Epidemical Model of Mobile Individuals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Duan-Ming; LIU Dan; HE Min-Hua; YU Xiao-Ling; PAN Gui-Jun; SUN Hong-Zhang; SU Xiang-Ying; SUN Fan; YIN Yan-Ping; LI Rui
2006-01-01
We consider an epidemical model within socially interacting mobile individuals to study the behaviors of steady statesof epidemic propagation in 2D networks. Using mean-field approximation and large scale simulations, we recover the usual epidemic behavior with critical thresholds δc and pc below which infectious disease dies out. For the population density δ far above δc, it is found that there is linear relationship between contact rate λ and the population density δ in the main. At the same time, the result obtained from mean-field approximation is compared with our numerical result, and it is found that these two results are similar by and large but not completely the same.
Kraemer, D; Chen, G
2014-02-01
Accurate measurements of thermal conductivity are of great importance for materials research and development. Steady-state methods determine thermal conductivity directly from the proportionality between heat flow and an applied temperature difference (Fourier Law). Although theoretically simple, in practice, achieving high accuracies with steady-state methods is challenging and requires rather complex experimental setups due to temperature sensor uncertainties and parasitic heat loss. We developed a simple differential steady-state method in which the sample is mounted between an electric heater and a temperature-controlled heat sink. Our method calibrates for parasitic heat losses from the electric heater during the measurement by maintaining a constant heater temperature close to the environmental temperature while varying the heat sink temperature. This enables a large signal-to-noise ratio which permits accurate measurements of samples with small thermal conductance values without an additional heater calibration measurement or sophisticated heater guards to eliminate parasitic heater losses. Additionally, the differential nature of the method largely eliminates the uncertainties of the temperature sensors, permitting measurements with small temperature differences, which is advantageous for samples with high thermal conductance values and/or with strongly temperature-dependent thermal conductivities. In order to accelerate measurements of more than one sample, the proposed method allows for measuring several samples consecutively at each temperature measurement point without adding significant error. We demonstrate the method by performing thermal conductivity measurements on commercial bulk thermoelectric Bi2Te3 samples in the temperature range of 30-150 °C with an error below 3%.
On the steady state temperature profiles of biological tissues during ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The Maxwell equations are solved together with the Pennes Bio-heat equation analytically. The procedure of solution is provoked by the solution to the Maxwell equation. The result revealed the effect of the model parameters such as: the thermal conductivity, blood perfusion coefficient, and the thickness of the tissues and ...
Progress Toward Steady State Tokamak Operation Exploiting the high bootstrap current fraction regime
Ren, Q.
2015-11-01
Recent DIII-D experiments have advanced the normalized fusion performance of the high bootstrap current fraction tokamak regime toward reactor-relevant steady state operation. The experiments, conducted by a joint team of researchers from the DIII-D and EAST tokamaks, developed a fully noninductive scenario that could be extended on EAST to a demonstration of long pulse steady-state tokamak operation. Fully noninductive plasmas with extremely high values of the poloidal beta, βp >= 4 , have been sustained at βT >= 2 % for long durations with excellent energy confinement quality (H98y,2 >= 1 . 5) and internal transport barriers (ITBs) generated at large minor radius (>= 0 . 6) in all channels (Te, Ti, ne, VTf). Large bootstrap fraction (fBS ~ 80 %) has been obtained with high βp. ITBs have been shown to be compatible with steady state operation. Because of the unusually large ITB radius, normalized pressure is not limited to low βN values by internal ITB-driven modes. βN up to ~4.3 has been obtained by optimizing the plasma-wall distance. The scenario is robust against several variations, including replacing some on-axis with off-axis neutral beam injection (NBI), adding electron cyclotron (EC) heating, and reducing the NBI torque by a factor of 2. This latter observation is particularly promising for extension of the scenario to EAST, where maximum power is obtained with balanced NBI injection, and to a reactor, expected to have low rotation. However, modeling of this regime has provided new challenges to state-of-the-art modeling capabilities: quasilinear models can dramatically underpredict the electron transport, and the Sauter bootstrap current can be insufficient. The analysis shows first-principle NEO is in good agreement with experiments for the bootstrap current calculation and ETG modes with a larger saturated amplitude or EM modes may provide the missing electron transport. Work supported in part by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC52-07NA
Engelbrecht, Nicolaas; Chiuta, Steven; Bessarabov, Dmitri G.
2018-05-01
The experimental evaluation of an autothermal microchannel reactor for H2 production from NH3 decomposition is described. The reactor design incorporates an autothermal approach, with added NH3 oxidation, for coupled heat supply to the endothermic decomposition reaction. An alternating catalytic plate arrangement is used to accomplish this thermal coupling in a cocurrent flow strategy. Detailed analysis of the transient operating regime associated with reactor start-up and steady-state results is presented. The effects of operating parameters on reactor performance are investigated, specifically, the NH3 decomposition flow rate, NH3 oxidation flow rate, and fuel-oxygen equivalence ratio. Overall, the reactor exhibits rapid response time during start-up; within 60 min, H2 production is approximately 95% of steady-state values. The recommended operating point for steady-state H2 production corresponds to an NH3 decomposition flow rate of 6 NL min-1, NH3 oxidation flow rate of 4 NL min-1, and fuel-oxygen equivalence ratio of 1.4. Under these flows, NH3 conversion of 99.8% and H2 equivalent fuel cell power output of 0.71 kWe is achieved. The reactor shows good heat utilization with a thermal efficiency of 75.9%. An efficient autothermal reactor design is therefore demonstrated, which may be upscaled to a multi-kW H2 production system for commercial implementation.
A steady-state fluid model of the coaxial plasma gun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herziger, G.; Krompholz, H.; Schneider, W.; Schoenbach, K.
1979-01-01
The plasma layer in a coaxial plasma gun is considered as a shock front driven by expanding magnetic fields. Analytical steady-state solutions of the fluid equations yield the plasma properties, allowing the scaling of plasma focus devices. (Auth.)
Quasi steady-state aerodynamic model development for race vehicle simulations
Mohrfeld-Halterman, J. A.; Uddin, M.
2016-01-01
Presented in this paper is a procedure to develop a high fidelity quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for use in race car vehicle dynamic simulations. Developed to fit quasi steady-state wind tunnel data, the aerodynamic model is regressed against three independent variables: front ground clearance, rear ride height, and yaw angle. An initial dual range model is presented and then further refined to reduce the model complexity while maintaining a high level of predictive accuracy. The model complexity reduction decreases the required amount of wind tunnel data thereby reducing wind tunnel testing time and cost. The quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for the pitch moment degree of freedom is systematically developed in this paper. This same procedure can be extended to the other five aerodynamic degrees of freedom to develop a complete six degree of freedom quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for any vehicle.
Navier-Stokes Predictions of Dynamic Stability Derivatives: Evaluation of Steady-State Methods
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
DeSpirito, James; Silton, Sidra I; Weinacht, Paul
2008-01-01
The prediction of the dynamic stability derivatives-roll-damping, Magnus, and pitch-damping moments-were evaluated for three spin-stabilized projectiles using steady-state computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calculations...
A Review of Fusion and Tokamak Research Towards Steady-State Operation: A JAEA Contribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mitsuru Kikuchi
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Providing a historical overview of 50 years of fusion research, a review of the fundamentals and concepts of fusion and research efforts towards the implementation of a steady state tokamak reactor is presented. In 1990, a steady-state tokamak reactor (SSTR best utilizing the bootstrap current was developed. Since then, significant efforts have been made in major tokamaks, including JT-60U, exploring advanced regimes relevant to the steady state operation of tokamaks. In this paper, the fundamentals of fusion and plasma confinement, and the concepts and research on current drive and MHD stability of advanced tokamaks towards realization of a steady-state tokamak reactor are reviewed, with an emphasis on the contributions of the JAEA. Finally, a view of fusion energy utilization in the 21st century is introduced.
Rowan, D J
2013-07-01
Steady state approaches, such as transfer coefficients or bioaccumulation factors, are commonly used to model the bioaccumulation of (137)Cs in aquatic foodwebs from routine operations and releases from nuclear generating stations and other nuclear facilities. Routine releases from nuclear generating stations and facilities, however, often consist of pulses as liquid waste is stored, analyzed to ensure regulatory compliance and then released. The effect of repeated pulse releases on the steady state assumption inherent in the bioaccumulation factor approach has not been evaluated. In this study, I examine the steady state assumption for aquatic biota by analyzing data for two cesium isotopes in the same biota, one isotope in steady state (stable (133)Cs) from geologic sources and the other released in pulses ((137)Cs) from reactor operations. I also compare (137)Cs bioaccumulation factors for similar upstream populations from the same system exposed solely to weapon test (137)Cs, and assumed to be in steady state. The steady state assumption appears to be valid for small organisms at lower trophic levels (zooplankton, rainbow smelt and 0+ yellow perch) but not for older and larger fish at higher trophic levels (walleye). Attempts to account for previous exposure and retention through a biokinetics approach had a similar effect on steady state, upstream and non-steady state, downstream populations of walleye, but were ineffective in explaining the more or less constant deviation between fish with steady state exposures and non-steady state exposures of about 2-fold for all age classes of walleye. These results suggest that for large, piscivorous fish, repeated exposure to short duration, pulse releases leads to much higher (137)Cs BAFs than expected from (133)Cs BAFs for the same fish or (137)Cs BAFs for similar populations in the same system not impacted by reactor releases. These results suggest that the steady state approach should be used with caution in any
Poiseuille flow of soft glasses in narrow channels: from quiescence to steady state.
Chaudhuri, Pinaki; Horbach, Jürgen
2014-10-01
Using numerical simulations, the onset of Poiseuille flow in a confined soft glass is investigated. Starting from the quiescent state, steady flow sets in at a time scale which increases with a decrease in applied forcing. At this onset time scale, a rapid transition occurs via the simultaneous fluidization of regions having different local stresses. In the absence of steady flow at long times, creep is observed even in regions where the local stress is larger than the bulk yielding threshold. Finally, we show that the time scale to attain steady flow depends strongly on the history of the initial state.
Accuracy of the calculations of the ionization-state densities in a steady-state plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salzmann, D.
1980-01-01
A quantitative definition is given to the accuracy of the computation of the partial densities of the ionization states in a steady-state plasma when there is an inaccuracy in the rate coefficients used in the rate equation. It is found that the partial density of the most abundant ion species is almost independent of the exact form of the rate coefficients, but large errors may occur for the rare species. The effect of the variation of the total ion density on the partial densities is also calculated. For low-ion densities the partial ionization-state densities grow proportionally to the change of the total density, but at high densities there is an alteration of the charge-state distribution as well
Shaparin, Naum; Mehta, Neel; Kunkel, Frank; Stripp, Richard; Borg, Damon; Kolb, Elizabeth
2017-11-01
Interpretation limitations of urine drug testing and the invasiveness of blood toxicology have motivated the desire for the development of simpler methods to assess biologically active drug levels on an individualized patient basis. Oral fluid is a matrix well-suited for the challenge because collections are based on simple noninvasive procedures and drug concentrations better correlate to blood drug levels as oral fluid is a filtrate of the blood. Well-established pharmacokinetic models were utilized to generate oral fluid steady state concentration ranges to assess the interpretive value of the alternative matrix to monitor steady state plasma oxycodone levels. Paired oral fluid and plasma samples were collected from patients chronically prescribed oxycodone and quantitatively analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Steady state plasma concentration ranges were calculated for each donor and converted to an equivalent range in oral fluid. Measured plasma and oral fluid oxycodone concentrations were compared with respective matrix-matched steady state ranges, using each plasma steady state classification as the control. A high degree of correlation was observed between matrices when classifying donors according to expected steady state oxycodone concentration. Agreement between plasma and oral fluid steady state classifications was observed in 75.6% of paired samples. This study supports novel application of basic pharmacokinetic knowledge to the pain management industry, simplifying and improving individualized drug monitoring and risk assessment through the use of oral fluid drug testing. Many benefits of established therapeutic drug monitoring in plasma can be realized in oral fluid for patients chronically prescribed oxycodone at steady state. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamai, H.; Kurita, G.; Matsukawa, M.; Urata, K.; Sakurai, S.; Tsuchiya, K.; Morioka, A.; Miura, Y.M.; Kizu, K.; Kamada, Y.; Sakasai, A.; Ishida, S.
2004-01-01
Plasma control on high-β N steady-state operation for JT-60 superconducting modification is discussed. Accessibility to high-β N exceeding the free-boundary limit is investigated with the stabilising wall of reduced-activated ferritic steel and the active feedback control of the in-vessel non-axisymmetric field coils. Taking the merit of superconducting magnet, advanced plasma control for steady-state high performance operation could be expected. (authors)
Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel
2016-01-01
Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization.
Finite element modelling of creep process - steady state stresses and strains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sedmak Aleksandar S.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Finite element modelling of steady state creep process has been described. Using an analogy of visco-plastic problem with a described procedure, the finite element method has been used to calculate steady state stresses and strains in 2D problems. An example of application of such a procedure have been presented, using real life problem - cylindrical pipe with longitudinal crack at high temperature, under internal pressure, and estimating its residual life, based on the C*integral evaluation.
Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari
2015-01-01
High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ...
Burn cycle requirements comparison of pulsed and steady-state tokamak reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.
1983-12-01
Burn cycle parameters and energy transfer system requirements were analyzed for an 8-m commercial tokamak reactor using four types of cycles: conventional, hybrid, internal transformer, and steady state. Not surprisingly, steady state is the best burn mode if it can be achieved. The hybrid cycle is a promising alternative to the conventional. In contrast, the internal transformer cycle does not appear attractive for the size tokamak in question
Evidence for forcing-dependent steady states in a turbulent swirling flow.
Saint-Michel, B; Dubrulle, B; Marié, L; Ravelet, F; Daviaud, F
2013-12-06
We study the influence on steady turbulent states of the forcing in a von Karman flow, at constant impeller speed, or at constant torque. We find that the different forcing conditions change the nature of the stability of the steady states and reveal dynamical regimes that bear similarities to low-dimensional systems. We suggest that this forcing dependence may be applicable to other turbulent systems.
Determination of the Steady State Leakage Current in Structures with Ferroelectric Ceramic Films
Podgornyi, Yu. V.; Vorotilov, K. A.; Sigov, A. S.
2018-03-01
Steady state leakage currents have been investigated in capacitor structures with ferroelectric solgel films of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) formed on silicon substrates with a lower Pt electrode. It is established that Pt/PZT/Hg structures, regardless of the PZT film thickness, are characterized by the presence of a rectifying contact similar to p-n junction. The steady state leakage current in the forward direction increases with a decrease in the film thickness and is determined by the ferroelectric bulk conductivity.
Cycle kinetics, steady state thermodynamics and motors-a paradigm for living matter physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qian, Hong
2005-01-01
An integration of the stochastic mathematical models for motor proteins with Hill's steady state thermodynamics yields a rather comprehensive theory for molecular motors as open systems in the nonequilibrium steady state. This theory, a natural extension of Gibbs' approach to isothermal molecular systems in equilibrium, is compared with other existing theories with dissipative structures and dynamics. The theory of molecular motors might be considered as an archetype for studying more complex open biological systems such as biochemical reaction networks inside living cells
Steady states of a diode with counterstreaming electron and positron beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ender, A. Ya.; Kuznetsov, V. I., E-mail: victor.kuznetsov@mail.ioffe.ru; Gruzdev, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation)
2016-10-15
Steady states of a plasma layer with counterstreaming beams of oppositely charged particles moving without collisions in a self-consistent electric field are analyzed. The study is aimed at clarifying the mechanism of generation and reconstruction of pulsar radiation. Such a layer also models the processes occurring in Knudsen plasma diodes with counterstreaming electron and ion beams. The steady-state solutions are exhaustively classified. The existence of several solutions at the same external parameters is established.
Constructive interference in steady-state/FIESTA-C clinical applications in neuroimaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulkami, Makarand
2011-01-01
Full text: High spatial resolution is one of the major problems in neuroimaging, par ticularly in cranial and spinal nerve imaging. Constructive interference in steady-state/fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition with phase cycling is a robust sequence in imaging the cranial and spinal nerve patholo gies. This pictorial review is a concise article about the applications of this sequence in neuroimaging with clinical examples.
Diagnostics Development towards Steady State Operation in Fusion Devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burhenn, R.; Baldzuhn, J.; Dreier, H.; Endler, M.; Hartfuss, H.J.; Hildebrandt, D.; Hirsch, M.; Koenig, R.; Kornejev, P.; Krychowiak, M.; Laqua, H.P.; Laux, M.; Oosterbeek, J.W.; Pasch, E.; Schneider, W.; Thomsen, H.; Weller, A.; Werner, A.; Wolf, R.; Zhang, D. [Max-Planck-Institute fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Biel, W. [Institut fuer Energieforschung - Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH EURATOM Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)
2011-07-01
The stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is being presently under construction and is already equipped with superconducting coil systems and principally is capable of quasi-continuous operation. However, W7-X is faced with new enhanced technical requirements which have to be met by plasma facing components as well as the diagnostic systems in general. Depending on the available heating power, the continuous heat flux to plasma facing components during long pulse operation might lead to unacceptable local thermal overload and necessitates sufficient but often complicate active cooling precautions. Fusion devices with electron cyclotron frequency heating (ECRH) are concerned with significant stray radiation, depending on the chosen heating scheme and the plasma parameters. The required shielding is often not compatible with optimal UHV-consistent design and high intensity throughput. For machine safety, diagnostics are required which are able to identify enhanced plasma wall interaction on a fast time scale in order to prevent damage in time. For W7-X, video camera systems covering most of the inner wall, fast IR-camera systems with coating-resistant pinhole-optics for the observation of the divertor surface temperature and spectrometers with large spectral survey covering relevant spectral lines of all intrinsic impurities with sufficient spectral resolution and sensitivity are necessary. In combination with energy integrating but spatially resolving diagnostics like bolometers and soft-X cameras slow impurity accumulation phenomena on a time scale much larger than flat-top times typically achieved in short-pulse operation can be identified and a radiative plasma collapse possibly be avoided by counteractive measures. Longer port dimensions due to thermal insulation of the cryogenic coil system and high density operation with strong density gradients necessitate the choice of shorter wavelengths for interferometer laser beams. This complicates the avoidance of fringe
Scaling laws for steady-state fusion plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Husseiny, A A [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA)
1975-12-01
Experimental and semi-theoretical scaling laws are extrapolated to include the effect of fusion burn on the lifetime of plasma ions. Fractional burnups are also reconsidered on the same basis. The actual lifetime of fusion plasma ions and the estimated time necessary for feasible reactors, provide a correlation between the laboratory data and the hypothesis of reactor feasibility conditions. Based on these correlations criteria for the realization of self-heated plasmas are established.
COOLOD-N2: a computer code, for the analyses of steady-state thermal-hydraulics in research reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaminaga, Masanori
1994-03-01
The COOLOD-N2 code provides a capability for the analyses of the steady-state thermal-hydraulics of research reactors. This code is revised version of the COOLOD-N code, and is applicable not only for research reactors in which plate-type fuel is adopted, but also for research reactors in which rod-type fuel is adopted. In the code, subroutines to calculate temperature distribution in rod-type fuel have been newly added to the COOLOD-N code. The COOLOD-N2 code can calculate fuel temperatures under both forced convection cooling mode and natural convection cooling mode as well as COOLOD-N code. In the COOLOD-N2 code, a 'Heat Transfer package' is used for calculating heat transfer coefficient, DNB heat flux etc. The 'Heat Transfer package' is subroutine program and is especially developed for research reactors in which plate-type fuel is adopted. In case of rod-type fuel, DNB heat flux is calculated by both the 'Heat Transfer package' and Lund DNB heat flux correlation which is popular for TRIGA reactor. The COOLOD-N2 code also has a capability of calculating ONB temperature, the heat flux at onset of flow instability as well as DNB heat flux. (author)
Fast Prediction Method for Steady-State Heat Convection
Wá ng, Yì
2012-01-01
, the nonuniform POD-Galerkin projection method exhibits high accuracy, good suitability, and fast computation. It has universal significance for accurate and fast prediction. Also, the methodology can be applied to more complex modeling in chemical engineering
Differences between automatically detected and steady-state fractional flow reserve.
Härle, Tobias; Meyer, Sven; Vahldiek, Felix; Elsässer, Albrecht
2016-02-01
Measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR) has become a standard diagnostic tool in the catheterization laboratory. FFR evaluation studies were based on pressure recordings during steady-state maximum hyperemia. Commercially available computer systems detect the lowest Pd/Pa ratio automatically, which might not always be measured during steady-state hyperemia. We sought to compare the automatically detected FFR and true steady-state FFR. Pressure measurement traces of 105 coronary lesions from 77 patients with intermediate coronary lesions or multivessel disease were reviewed. In all patients, hyperemia had been achieved by intravenous adenosine administration using a dosage of 140 µg/kg/min. In 42 lesions (40%) automatically detected FFR was lower than true steady-state FFR. Mean bias was 0.009 (standard deviation 0.015, limits of agreement -0.02, 0.037). In 4 lesions (3.8%) both methods lead to different treatment recommendations, in all 4 cases instantaneous wave-free ratio confirmed steady-state FFR. Automatically detected FFR was slightly lower than steady-state FFR in more than one-third of cases. Consequently, interpretation of automatically detected FFR values closely below the cutoff value requires special attention.
Works preparatory to long-pulse/steady-state experiments in LHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noda, Nobuaki; Sato, Motoyasu; Shimozuma, Takashi
1998-01-01
A steady state discharge for more than 1 hour with 3 MW heating power is a goal in the early stage of the LHD project. All the coils are superconducting, the vacuum vessel and the divertor plates are cooled by water, and a long pulse operation in heating devices (ECH, ICRF, NBI) is available. One of the concerns for this operation is an impact of residual microwave power upon rubber gaskets and windows, because the gaskets and/or the windows could be damaged by absorbing the microwave power. In order to avoid an unexpected catastrophe during the experiments due to the microwave effect, a series of tests has been carried out for several types of gate valves and windows with 84 GHz microwave incidence. The results suggest that (1) a gap in a SS flange as narrow as 0.2 mm in front of the gaskets is sufficient to prevent the power penetrating into the gasket region, (2) a fused quartz window absorbs much less power than a kovar-seal window does, (3) a mesh of 100 wires/inch is effective to reduce the power flow to the windows or the gate valves. A simplified detector for the microwave is developed in order to measure the residual power distribution outside a plasma in the vacuum vessel. (author)
Development of steady-state model for MSPT and detailed analyses of receiver
Yuasa, Minoru; Sonoda, Masanori; Hino, Koichi
2016-05-01
Molten salt parabolic trough system (MSPT) uses molten salt as heat transfer fluid (HTF) instead of synthetic oil. The demonstration plant of MSPT was constructed by Chiyoda Corporation and Archimede Solar Energy in Italy in 2013. Chiyoda Corporation developed a steady-state model for predicting the theoretical behavior of the demonstration plant. The model was designed to calculate the concentrated solar power and heat loss using ray tracing of incident solar light and finite element modeling of thermal energy transferred into the medium. This report describes the verification of the model using test data on the demonstration plant, detailed analyses on the relation between flow rate and temperature difference on the metal tube of receiver and the effect of defocus angle on concentrated power rate, for solar collector assembly (SCA) development. The model is accurate to an extent of 2.0% as systematic error and 4.2% as random error. The relationships between flow rate and temperature difference on metal tube and the effect of defocus angle on concentrated power rate are shown.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewis, A.E.; Khodabocus, F.; Dhokun, V.; Khalife, M.
2010-01-01
In a sugar refinery, the juice is concentrated through evaporation, with the objective of concentrating the juice to syrup as rapidly as possible. Because the heat of vaporization of water is relatively high, the evaporation process can be highly energy intensive, and therefore the economical use of steam is important in the refinery. This paper reports on the development of a simulation model for the evaporation sections of two Mauritian sugar refineries. The first objective was to use the simulation model to carry out an energy balance over the evaporators in order to assess the economy of steam usage over the refinery. The second objective was to examine to what extent a fundamental steady state model, based on thermodynamics (not kinetics) was capable of predicting the material and energy flows in two operating sugar refineries and thereby to evaluate the applicability of the modelling framework. The simulation model was validated using historical data as well as data from the plant DCS system. The simulation results generally correlated well with the measured values, except for one of the evaporators on one refinery. Some suggestions were made as to the cause of the discrepancy. On balance, it was found that both refineries are extremely efficient in terms of steam and equipment usage and that there is not much scope for energy optimisation within the present configuration - nor for much spare steam capacity for an additional refinery. It was also shown that steady state process simulation, using thermodynamic models, can generate a very useful representation of a working refinery. Besides being able to use the model to 'benchmark' the operation and thus evaluate its performance as a whole as well as across individual units, it could also be used to evaluate refinery performance across refineries, nationally as well as globally.
40 CFR 1033.515 - Discrete-mode steady-state emission tests of locomotives and locomotive engines.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrete-mode steady-state emission... Procedures § 1033.515 Discrete-mode steady-state emission tests of locomotives and locomotive engines. This... a warm-up followed by a sequence of nominally steady-state discrete test modes, as described in...
Exploration of one-dimensional plasma current density profile for K-DEMO steady-state operation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, J.S. [Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, L. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, C.-S.; Na, D.H.; Na, Y.-S. [Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y.S., E-mail: yhwang@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-11-01
Highlights: • One-dimensional current density and its optimization for the K-DEMO are explored. • Plasma current density profile is calculated with an integrated simulation code. • The impact of self and external heating profiles is considered self-consistently. • Current density is identified as a reference profile by minimizing heating power. - Abstract: Concept study for Korean demonstration fusion reactor (K-DEMO) is in progress, and basic design parameters are proposed by targeting high magnetic field operation with ITER-sized machine. High magnetic field operation is a favorable approach to enlarge relative plasma performance without increasing normalized beta or plasma current. Exploration of one-dimensional current density profile and its optimization process for the K-DEMO steady-state operation are reported in this paper. Numerical analysis is conducted with an integrated plasma simulation code package incorporating a transport code with equilibrium and current drive modules. Operation regimes are addressed with zero-dimensional system analysis. One-dimensional plasma current density profile is calculated based on equilibrium, bootstrap current analysis, and thermal transport analysis. The impact of self and external heating profiles on those parameters is considered self-consistently, where thermal power balance and 100% non-inductive current drive are the main constraints during the whole exploration procedure. Current and pressure profiles are identified as a reference steady-state profile by minimizing the external heating power with desired fusion power.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faluomi, V.; Aksan, S.N.
2000-01-01
This paper summarizes the results of the qualification activity of RELAP5/Mod3.2 code performed using PANDA steady state and integral test experimental data. The steady state tests evaluate the PCC performances in removing decay heat power in presence and in absence of non-condensable gases, while the considered integral test (M3) simulates the transient following a break in the main steam line of the SBWR, using, as nominal initial conditions, those calculated for the SBWR under SSAR assumptions at one hour into the LOCA. The results obtained simulating both types of tests show a rather good and robust overall code behavior both in the simulation of steady state test and in the representation of the integral test considered: most of the main experimental results (WW/DW pressures, PCC heat exchange) were well represented by the code. The different studies performed indicated that: Different models of PCC pool lead a different trend of system pressure, and sometimes to an opening of vacuum breaker valves, that does not occur in the transient; The code underestimate the heat exchanged between PCC pool and tubes: n the considered test the system pressure is slightly overestimated (maximum 2% more than the experimental value). This fact is also proved by the differences in the temperature of the condensing mixture in the PCC, quite large in all the performed studies; The treatment of the non condensable gases, as implemented in the code, lead some errors in the calculation of the heat transfer coefficient in the PCC components and generally slow down the overall calculation. In general terms, the RELAP5/Mod3.2 was found to be suitable to represent the SBWR containment behavior under the conditions specified in the experimental side. (author)
Steady state operation and control experiments on Tore Supra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saint-Laurent, F.
2000-01-01
The main programme of the Tore Supra tokamak is to investigate the route towards long pulse plasma discharges. Tore Supra is thus equipped with a superconducting toroidal magnet, a full set of actively cooled plasma facing components, and a heating and current drive capability based on high power RF systems connected to actively cooled antennas. After pioneering investigations using the LHCD system alone (2 min and zero loop voltage discharges), recent efforts have concentrated on finding scenarios to couple the two RF heating systems in order to perform high power, long duration discharges. To this aim, 6.5 MW, 25 s as well as 4 MW, 60 s discharges have been successfully achieved. At these high power levels, the plasma-wall interaction becomes a critical issue, and recycling fluxes must be controlled to maintain density and to avoid plasma contamination. All these results contributed to the validation of the upgrade of the Tore Supra first wall components (CIEL project) scheduled for 2000. (author)
Fiedler, Anna; Raeth, Sebastian; Theis, Fabian J; Hausser, Angelika; Hasenauer, Jan
2016-08-22
Ordinary differential equation (ODE) models are widely used to describe (bio-)chemical and biological processes. To enhance the predictive power of these models, their unknown parameters are estimated from experimental data. These experimental data are mostly collected in perturbation experiments, in which the processes are pushed out of steady state by applying a stimulus. The information that the initial condition is a steady state of the unperturbed process provides valuable information, as it restricts the dynamics of the process and thereby the parameters. However, implementing steady-state constraints in the optimization often results in convergence problems. In this manuscript, we propose two new methods for solving optimization problems with steady-state constraints. The first method exploits ideas from optimization algorithms on manifolds and introduces a retraction operator, essentially reducing the dimension of the optimization problem. The second method is based on the continuous analogue of the optimization problem. This continuous analogue is an ODE whose equilibrium points are the optima of the constrained optimization problem. This equivalence enables the use of adaptive numerical methods for solving optimization problems with steady-state constraints. Both methods are tailored to the problem structure and exploit the local geometry of the steady-state manifold and its stability properties. A parameterization of the steady-state manifold is not required. The efficiency and reliability of the proposed methods is evaluated using one toy example and two applications. The first application example uses published data while the second uses a novel dataset for Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. The proposed methods demonstrated better convergence properties than state-of-the-art methods employed in systems and computational biology. Furthermore, the average computation time per converged start is significantly lower. In addition to the theoretical results, the
SYNTH-C, Steady-State and Time-Dependent 3-D Neutron Diffusion with Thermohydraulic Feedback
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brega, E [ENEL-CRTN, Bastioni di Porta Volta 10, Milan (Italy); Salina, E [A.R.S. Spa, Viale Maino 35, Milan (Italy)
1980-04-01
1 - Description of problem or function: SYNTH-C-STEADY and SYNTH-C- TRANS solve respectively the steady-state and time-dependent few- group neutron diffusion equations in three dimensions x,y,z in the presence of fuel temperature and thermal-hydraulic feedback. The neutron diffusion and delayed precursor equations are approximated by a space-time (z,t) synthesis method with axially discontinuous trial functions. Three thermal-hydraulic and fuel heat transfer models are available viz. COBRA-3C/MIT model, lumped parameter (WIGL) model and adiabatic fuel heat-up model. 2 - Method of solution: The steady-state and time-dependent synthesis equations are solved respectively by the Wielandt's power method and by the theta-difference method (in time), both coupled with a block factorization technique and double precision arithmetic. The thermal-hydraulic model equations are solved by fully implicit finite differences (WIGL) or explicit-implicit difference techniques with iterations (COBRA-EC/MIT). 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Except for the few- group limitation, the programs have no other fixed limitation so the ability to run a problem depends only on the available computer storage.
Materials for the plasma-facing components of steady state stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolt, H.; Boscary, J.; Greuner, H.; Grigull, P.; Maier, H.; Streibl, B.
2005-01-01
The specific advantage of current-free stellarators is their inherent capability for full steady-state operation. This will lead to long discharges and the corresponding stationary plasma exposure of the plasma-facing materials. Further to this, the absence of disruptions relaxes the requirements to the plasma-facing materials in terms of thermal shock stability, although ELM activity occurs also in stellarators and leads to fast transient surface loads on the ms-time scale. Another aspect regarding the plasma-material interactions in stellarators is the sensitivity to impurity accumulation in the core plasma. Thus, it is preferred to apply low-Z materials until operation scenarios are established which do not lead to this accumulation process. In the case of high-Z materials impurity accumulation will lead to a radiative plasma collapse. For the stellarator W7-X low-Z plasma-facing materials have been selected to protect the divertor and the wall surfaces. Due to the stationary operation, the plasma-facing materials have to be bonded or clamped to actively water-cooled substrates to remove the incident heat fluxes. The following materials have been selected to fulfil the operational requirements: 1. A three directionally carbon fibre reinforced carbon composite (CFC) with very high thermal conductivity bonded to a water cooled CuCrZr heat sink for the divertor which will be exposed to heat fluxes up to 10MW/m 2 . 2. Isotropic fine grain graphite tiles mechanically clamped to a CuCrZr heat sink which is brazed to a stainless steel cooling tube for the areas of moderate heat fluxes up to 0.5 MW/m 2 (baffles, inner wall). 3. Thick boron carbide coating on water cooled steel panels for the outer wall surfaces with low heat fluxes up to 0.2 MW/m 2 . This coating would be applied on most surfaces only after the initial operation. In the presentation the properties of these materials will be discussed with a view to the plasma-wall interaction in W7-X. In fusion reactors
Veliz-Cuba, Alan; Aguilar, Boris; Hinkelmann, Franziska; Laubenbacher, Reinhard
2014-06-26
A key problem in the analysis of mathematical models of molecular networks is the determination of their steady states. The present paper addresses this problem for Boolean network models, an increasingly popular modeling paradigm for networks lacking detailed kinetic information. For small models, the problem can be solved by exhaustive enumeration of all state transitions. But for larger models this is not feasible, since the size of the phase space grows exponentially with the dimension of the network. The dimension of published models is growing to over 100, so that efficient methods for steady state determination are essential. Several methods have been proposed for large networks, some of them heuristic. While these methods represent a substantial improvement in scalability over exhaustive enumeration, the problem for large networks is still unsolved in general. This paper presents an algorithm that consists of two main parts. The first is a graph theoretic reduction of the wiring diagram of the network, while preserving all information about steady states. The second part formulates the determination of all steady states of a Boolean network as a problem of finding all solutions to a system of polynomial equations over the finite number system with two elements. This problem can be solved with existing computer algebra software. This algorithm compares favorably with several existing algorithms for steady state determination. One advantage is that it is not heuristic or reliant on sampling, but rather determines algorithmically and exactly all steady states of a Boolean network. The code for the algorithm, as well as the test suite of benchmark networks, is available upon request from the corresponding author. The algorithm presented in this paper reliably determines all steady states of sparse Boolean networks with up to 1000 nodes. The algorithm is effective at analyzing virtually all published models even those of moderate connectivity. The problem for
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pietro Alessandro Di Maio; Valerio Tomarchio; Giuseppe Vella; Irene Zammuto; Giovanni Dell'Orco
2005-01-01
gas bubbles. Due to the complex flow scheme of the hydraulic circuit, a pure theoretical study does not appears sufficient to address all the above mentioned items and an experimental validation of the models is mandatory. In addition to that, the assembly of the PFCs onto the cassette body as well as their integration by welding the coolant connections of the PFCs, also represent a critical step to be investigated. In order to investigate the aforementioned critical issues a theoretical and experimental research activity has been launched by the ENEA-Brasimone labs, in cooperation with the Department of Nuclear Engineering of the University of Palermo, with the specific aim of investigating the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the whole divertor cassette both in steady state and operational or accidental transient conditions. The theoretical study, based on a computational approach, has been carried out with the RELAP5 code and the results obtained are herewith presented and critically discussed. In particular, the paper presents steady state and transient theoretical analyses intended to characterise the steady state behaviour of the cassette, determining flow distribution, pressure drop and CHF margin for each cooling channels, and to investigate the cassette behaviour during the draining and drying procedure, respectively. (authors)
JET steady state ITB operation with active control of the pressure profile
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crisanti, F.; Litaudon, X.; Mailloux, J. [and others
2002-07-01
Stationary operations have been achieved at JET in ITBs scenarios, with the discharge time limited only by plant constraints. Full current drive was obtained, all over the high performance phase, with the current density profile frozen by using Lower Hybrid current drive. For the first time a feed-back control on the total pressure and on the electron temperature profile was implemented by using respectively the Neutral Beams and the Ion Cyclotron waves. Although impurity accumulation could be a problem in steady state ITBs, these experiments bring some elements to answer to it. Tokamak operation in enhanced confinement regimes, characterized by edge and/or Internal Transport Barriers (respectively known as H-mode and ITB), is attractive as it represents an important step towards the approach of ignition conditions. Moreover, the necessity of steady state operation in a Tokamak reactor, has led to the concept of the Advanced Tokamak, in which the current density profile is no longer tied to the plasma conductivity and is non inductively driven. Since the bootstrap current is a consequence of the pressure gradient, one of the primary goal of the Advanced Tokamak studies is to maximize the bootstrap fraction, with a proper alignment, both in H mode and in ITB regimes. However, for several reasons, it is difficult to envisage an operational situation in which the bootstrap fraction is close to 100%: for instance, there are few chances of pressure or/and current profile control to optimize the MHD stability. So far, various experiments have been performed with improved confinement regimes lasting up to tens of the confinement time and up to some current relaxation times. In some experiments a large non inductive plasma current (< 75%) was obtained with about 50% from bootstrap and 25% from Neutral Beam Injection (NBI); however, no full current drive operation was achieved and, moreover, with the available heating systems, no active feedback control of the current
Synergistic effects of ELMs and steady state H and H/He irradiation on tungsten
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemahieu, Nathan; Greuner, Henri; Linke, Jochen; Maier, Hans; Pintsuk, Gerald; Van Oost, Guido; Wirtz, Marius
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Tungsten was first exposed to H or H/He fluxes and then to ELM-like transients. • The influence of particle exposure on the thermal shock behaviour was studied. • There was no deterioration of thermal shock behaviour compared to reference material. • Some combinations of loading conditions resulted in an improved material behaviour. - Abstract: To investigate synergistic effects of high heat flux loading on H and H/He loaded tungsten surfaces, specimens were exposed to a 30 keV steady-state H or H/He beam and subsequently loaded with an electron beam to simulate ELMs. The heat flux during the H and H/He loading was 10.5 MW m"−"2, while a 2 × 10"2"5 m"−"2 fluence was reached. After exposure, all specimens exhibited an altered surface morphology. The H/He samples with a surface temperature of 1000 °C and 1500 °C had a multitude of surface extrusions. Afterwards the particle loaded samples were exposed to 100 ELM-like pulses around the material's damage threshold. Transient heat fluxes of 190 MW m"−"2 and 380 MW m"−"2 were applied at room temperature and 400 °C for a duration of 1 ms. Post-mortem analysis showed no deterioration of thermal shock resistance in comparison with polished material. For some tests the reference specimens roughened or cracked while the H or H/He exposed material had no damage. The H-content and the H/He-induced cavities and/or extrusions are suggested as two potential causes for this change in material behaviour.
Synergistic effects of ELMs and steady state H and H/He irradiation on tungsten
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemahieu, Nathan, E-mail: n.lemahieu@fz-juelich.de [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Institute of Interfacial Process Engineering and Plasma Technology IGVP, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Greuner, Henri [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Linke, Jochen [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Maier, Hans [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Pintsuk, Gerald [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Van Oost, Guido [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Wirtz, Marius [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany)
2015-10-15
Highlights: • Tungsten was first exposed to H or H/He fluxes and then to ELM-like transients. • The influence of particle exposure on the thermal shock behaviour was studied. • There was no deterioration of thermal shock behaviour compared to reference material. • Some combinations of loading conditions resulted in an improved material behaviour. - Abstract: To investigate synergistic effects of high heat flux loading on H and H/He loaded tungsten surfaces, specimens were exposed to a 30 keV steady-state H or H/He beam and subsequently loaded with an electron beam to simulate ELMs. The heat flux during the H and H/He loading was 10.5 MW m{sup −2}, while a 2 × 10{sup 25} m{sup −2} fluence was reached. After exposure, all specimens exhibited an altered surface morphology. The H/He samples with a surface temperature of 1000 °C and 1500 °C had a multitude of surface extrusions. Afterwards the particle loaded samples were exposed to 100 ELM-like pulses around the material's damage threshold. Transient heat fluxes of 190 MW m{sup −2} and 380 MW m{sup −2} were applied at room temperature and 400 °C for a duration of 1 ms. Post-mortem analysis showed no deterioration of thermal shock resistance in comparison with polished material. For some tests the reference specimens roughened or cracked while the H or H/He exposed material had no damage. The H-content and the H/He-induced cavities and/or extrusions are suggested as two potential causes for this change in material behaviour.
Steady-state organization of binary mixtures by active impurities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sabra, Mads Christian; Gilhøj, Henriette; Mouritsen, Ole G.
1998-01-01
The structural reorganization of a phase-separated binary mixture in the presence of an annealed dilution of active impurities is studied by computer-simulation techniques via a simple two-dimensional lattice-gas model. The impurities, each of which has two internal states with different affinity...
Zaher, Ashraf A
2008-03-01
A technique is introduced for identifying uncertain and/or unknown parameters of chaotic dynamical systems via using simple state feedback. The proposed technique is based on bringing the system into a stable steady state and then solving for the unknown parameters using a simple algebraic method that requires access to the complete or partial states of the system depending on the dynamical model of the chaotic system. The choice of the state feedback is optimized in terms of practicality and causality via employing a single feedback signal and tuning the feedback gain to ensure both stability and identifiability. The case when only a single scalar time series of one of the states is available is also considered and it is demonstrated that a synchronization-based state observer can be augmented to the state feedback to address this problem. A detailed case study using the Lorenz system is used to exemplify the suggested technique. In addition, both the Rössler and Chua systems are examined as possible candidates for utilizing the proposed methodology when partial identification of the unknown parameters is considered. Finally, the dependence of the proposed technique on the structure of the chaotic dynamical model and the operating conditions is discussed and its advantages and limitations are highlighted via comparing it with other methods reported in the literature.
The Preliminary GAMMA Code Thermal hydraulic Analysis for the Steady State of HTR-10 Initial Core
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jun, Ji Su; Lim, Hong Sik; Lee, Won Jae
2006-07-15
This report describes the preliminary thermalhydraulic analysis of HTR-10 steady state full power initial core to provide a benchmark calculation of VHTGR(Very High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors) safety analysis code of GAMMA(GAs Multicomponent Mixture Analysis). The input data of GAMMA code are produced for the models of fluid block, wall block, radiation heat transfer and each component material properties in HTR-10 reactor. The temperature and flow distributions of HTR-10 steady state 10 MW{sub th} full power initial core are calculated by GAMMA code with boundary conditions of total reactor inlet flow rate of 4.32 kg/s, inlet temperature of 250 .deg. C, inlet pressure of 3 MPa, outlet pressure of 2.992 MPa and the fixed temperature at RCCS water cooling tube of 50 .deg C. The calculation results are compared with the measured solid material temperatures at 22 fixed instrumentation positions in HTR-10. The wall temperature distribution in pebble bed core shows that the minimum temperature of 358 .deg. C is located at upper core, a higher temperature zone than 829 .deg. C is located at the inner region of 0.45 m radius at the bottom of core centre, and the maximum wall temperature is 897 .deg. C. The wall temperatures linearly decreases at radially and axially farther side from the bottom of core centre. The maximum temperature of RPV is 230 .deg. C, and the maximum values of fuel average temperature and TRISO centreline temperature are 907 .deg. C and 929 .deg. C, respectively and they are much lower than the fuel temperature limitation of 1230 .deg. C. The comparsion between the GAMMA code predictions and the measured temperature data shows that the calculation results are very close to the measured values in top and side reflector region, but a great difference is appeared in bottom reflector region. Some measured data are abnormally high in bottom reflector region, and so the confirmation of data is necessary in future. Fifteen of twenty two data have a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsiang, J.-T.; Hu, B.L.
2015-01-01
The existence and uniqueness of a steady state for nonequilibrium systems (NESS) is a fundamental subject and a main theme of research in statistical mechanics for decades. For Gaussian systems, such as a chain of classical harmonic oscillators connected at each end to a heat bath, and for classical anharmonic oscillators under specified conditions, definitive answers exist in the form of proven theorems. Answering this question for quantum many-body systems poses a challenge for the present. In this work we address this issue by deriving the stochastic equations for the reduced system with self-consistent backaction from the two baths, calculating the energy flow from one bath to the chain to the other bath, and exhibiting a power balance relation in the total (chain + baths) system which testifies to the existence of a NESS in this system at late times. Its insensitivity to the initial conditions of the chain corroborates to its uniqueness. The functional method we adopt here entails the use of the influence functional, the coarse-grained and stochastic effective actions, from which one can derive the stochastic equations and calculate the average values of physical variables in open quantum systems. This involves both taking the expectation values of quantum operators of the system and the distributional averages of stochastic variables stemming from the coarse-grained environment. This method though formal in appearance is compact and complete. It can also easily accommodate perturbative techniques and diagrammatic methods from field theory. Taken all together it provides a solid platform for carrying out systematic investigations into the nonequilibrium dynamics of open quantum systems and quantum thermodynamics. -- Highlights: •Nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) for interacting quantum many-body systems. •Derivation of stochastic equations for quantum oscillator chain with two heat baths. •Explicit calculation of the energy flow from one bath to the
The Markov process admits a consistent steady-state thermodynamic formalism
Peng, Liangrong; Zhu, Yi; Hong, Liu
2018-01-01
The search for a unified formulation for describing various non-equilibrium processes is a central task of modern non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In this paper, a novel steady-state thermodynamic formalism was established for general Markov processes described by the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. Furthermore, corresponding formalisms of steady-state thermodynamics for the master equation and Fokker-Planck equation could be rigorously derived in mathematics. To be concrete, we proved that (1) in the limit of continuous time, the steady-state thermodynamic formalism for the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation fully agrees with that for the master equation; (2) a similar one-to-one correspondence could be established rigorously between the master equation and Fokker-Planck equation in the limit of large system size; (3) when a Markov process is restrained to one-step jump, the steady-state thermodynamic formalism for the Fokker-Planck equation with discrete state variables also goes to that for master equations, as the discretization step gets smaller and smaller. Our analysis indicated that general Markov processes admit a unified and self-consistent non-equilibrium steady-state thermodynamic formalism, regardless of underlying detailed models.
Steady state security assessment in deregulated power systems
Manjure, Durgesh Padmakar
Power system operations are undergoing changes, brought about primarily due to deregulation and subsequent restructuring of the power industry. The primary intention of the introduction of deregulation in power systems was to bring about competition and improved customer focus. The underlying motive was increased economic benefit. Present day power system analysis is much different than what it was earlier, essentially due to the transformation of the power industry from being cost-based to one that is price-based and due to open access of transmission networks to the various market participants. Power is now treated as a commodity and is traded in an open market. The resultant interdependence of the technical criteria and the economic considerations has only accentuated the need for accurate analysis in power systems. The main impetus in security analysis studies is on efficient assessment of the post-contingency status of the system, accuracy being of secondary consideration. In most cases, given the time frame involved, it is not feasible to run a complete AC load flow for determining the post-contingency state of the system. Quite often, it is not warranted as well, as an indication of the state of the system is desired rather than the exact quantification of the various state variables. With the inception of deregulation, transmission networks are subjected to a host of multilateral transactions, which would influence physical system quantities like real power flows, security margins and voltage levels. For efficient asset utilization and maximization of the revenue, more often than not, transmission networks are operated under stressed conditions, close to security limits. Therefore, a quantitative assessment of the extent to which each transaction adversely affects the transmission network is required. This needs to be done accurately as the feasibility of the power transactions and subsequent decisions (execution, curtailment, pricing) would depend upon the
The non-local Fisher–KPP equation: travelling waves and steady states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berestycki, Henri; Nadin, Grégoire; Perthame, Benoit; Ryzhik, Lenya
2009-01-01
We consider the Fisher–KPP equation with a non-local saturation effect defined through an interaction kernel φ(x) and investigate the possible differences with the standard Fisher–KPP equation. Our first concern is the existence of steady states. We prove that if the Fourier transform φ-circumflex(ξ) is positive or if the length σ of the non-local interaction is short enough, then the only steady states are u ≡ 0 and u ≡ 1. Next, we study existence of the travelling waves. We prove that this equation admits travelling wave solutions that connect u = 0 to an unknown positive steady state u ∞ (x), for all speeds c ≥ c * . The travelling wave connects to the standard state u ∞ (x) ≡ 1 under the aforementioned conditions: φ-circumflex(ξ) > 0 or σ is sufficiently small. However, the wave is not monotonic for σ large
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawashima, H.; Sakurai, S.; Shimizu, K.; Takizuka, T.; Tamai, H.; Matsukawa, M.; Fujita, T.; Miura, Y.
2006-01-01
The modification of the JT-60U to a fully superconducting coil tokamak, National Centralized Tokamak (NCT) facility, has been programmed to accomplish the high beta steady-state plasma research. A 2D divertor simulation code, SOLDOR/NEUT2D, is applied to the construction of a database for optimum design of the divertor. A semi-closed divertor configuration with vertical target is adopted as the first conceptual divertor design on NCT. With an anticipated SOL power flux of 12 MW at the high beta steady-state operation, the peak heat load on the divertor target is evaluated to be ∼16 MW/m 2 . Effects of divertor geometry and intense gas puffing are demonstrated with a view to reduce the heat load. For the simulation of divertor pumping, we find that the pumping efficiency increases by a factor of 2∼3 by narrowing the divertor gap from 20 to 5 cm. An attractive feature in reducing the heat load and improving the particle controllability has been obtained for a new divertor design due to a recent progress in NCT design
Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T; Porcari, John P
2015-12-01
High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. There were significant (p Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key pointsSteady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained studentsMild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state trainingHIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval trainingEnjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program.
Feasibility study for improved steady-state initialization algorithms for the RELAP5 computer code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paulsen, M.P.; Peterson, C.E.; Katsma, K.R.
1993-04-01
A design for a new steady-state initialization method is presented that represents an improvement over the current method used in RELAP5. Current initialization methods for RELAP5 solve the transient fluidflow balance equations simulating a transient to achieve steady-state conditions. Because the transient solution is used, the initial conditions may change from the desired values requiring the use of controllers and long transient running times to obtain steady-state conditions for system problems. The new initialization method allows the user to fix thermal-hydraulic values in volumes and junctions where the conditions are best known and have the code compute the initial conditions in other areas of the system. The steady-state balance equations and solution methods are presented. The constitutive, component, and specialpurpose models are reviewed with respect to modifications required for the new steady-state initialization method. The requirements for user input are defined and the feasibility of the method is demonstrated with a testbed code by initializing some simple channel problems. The initialization of the sample problems using, the old and the new methods are compared
A quaternionic map for the steady states of the Heisenberg spin-chain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mehta, Mitaxi P., E-mail: mitaxi.mehta@ahduni.edu.in [IICT, Ahmedabad University, Opp. IIM, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad (India); Dutta, Souvik; Tiwari, Shubhanshu [BITS-Pilani, K.K. Birla Goa campus, Goa (India)
2014-01-17
We show that the steady states of the classical Heisenberg XXX spin-chain in an external magnetic field can be found by iterations of a quaternionic map. A restricted model, e.g., the xy spin-chain is known to have spatially chaotic steady states and the phase space occupied by these chaotic states is known to go through discrete changes as the field strength is varied. The same phenomenon is studied for the xxx spin-chain. It is seen that in this model the phase space volume varies smoothly with the external field.
A quaternionic map for the steady states of the Heisenberg spin-chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehta, Mitaxi P.; Dutta, Souvik; Tiwari, Shubhanshu
2014-01-01
We show that the steady states of the classical Heisenberg XXX spin-chain in an external magnetic field can be found by iterations of a quaternionic map. A restricted model, e.g., the xy spin-chain is known to have spatially chaotic steady states and the phase space occupied by these chaotic states is known to go through discrete changes as the field strength is varied. The same phenomenon is studied for the xxx spin-chain. It is seen that in this model the phase space volume varies smoothly with the external field.
Cell kinetics of GM-CFC in the steady state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagan, M.P.; MacVittie, T.J.; Dodgen, D.P.
1985-01-01
The kinetics of cell turnover for myeloid/monocyte cells that form colonies in agar (GM-CFC) were measured through the progressive increase in their sensitivity to 313-nm light during a period of cell labeling with BrdCyd. Two components of cell killing with distinctly separate labeling kinetics revealed both the presence of two generations within the GM-CFC compartment and the properties of the kinetics of the precursors of the GM-CFC. These precursors of the GM-CFC were not assayable in a routine GM-CFC assay when pregnant mouse uterus extract and mouse L-cell-conditioned medium were used to stimulate colony formation but were revealed by the labeling kinetics of the assayable GM-CFC. Further, these precursor cells appeared to enter the assayable GM-CFC population from a noncycling state. This was evidenced by the failure of the majority of these cells to incorporate BrdCyd during five days of infusion. The half-time for cell turnover within this precursor compartment was measured to be approximately 5.5 days. Further, these normally noncycling cells proliferated rapidly in response to endotoxin. High-proliferative-potential colony-forming cells (HPP-CFC) were tested as a candidate for this precursor population. The results of the determination of the kinetics for these cells showed that the HPP-CFC exist largely in a Go state, existing at an average rate of once every four days. The slow turnover time for these cells and their response to endotoxin challenge are consistent with a close relationship between the HPP-CFC and the Go pool of cells that is the direct precursor of the GM-CFC
Unsteady steady-states: central causes of unintentional force drift.
Ambike, Satyajit; Mattos, Daniela; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L
2016-12-01
We applied the theory of synergies to analyze the processes that lead to unintentional decline in isometric fingertip force when visual feedback of the produced force is removed. We tracked the changes in hypothetical control variables involved in single fingertip force production based on the equilibrium-point hypothesis, namely the fingertip referent coordinate (R FT ) and its apparent stiffness (C FT ). The system's state is defined by a point in the {R FT ; C FT } space. We tested the hypothesis that, after visual feedback removal, this point (1) moves along directions leading to drop in the output fingertip force, and (2) has even greater motion along directions that leaves the force unchanged. Subjects produced a prescribed fingertip force using visual feedback and attempted to maintain this force for 15 s after the feedback was removed. We used the "inverse piano" apparatus to apply small and smooth positional perturbations to fingers at various times after visual feedback removal. The time courses of R FT and C FT showed that force drop was mostly due to a drift in R FT toward the actual fingertip position. Three analysis techniques, namely hyperbolic regression, surrogate data analysis, and computation of motor-equivalent and non-motor-equivalent motions, suggested strong covariation in R FT and C FT stabilizing the force magnitude. Finally, the changes in the two hypothetical control variables {R FT ; C FT } relative to their average trends also displayed covariation. On the whole, the findings suggest that unintentional force drop is associated with (a) a slow drift of the referent coordinate that pulls the system toward a low-energy state and (b) a faster synergic motion of R FT and C FT that tends to stabilize the output fingertip force about the slowly drifting equilibrium point.
Tokamak burn cycle study: a data base for comparing long pulse and steady-state power reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ehst, D.A.; Brooks, J.N.; Cha, Y.; Evans, K. Jr.; Hassanein, A.; Kim, S.; Majumdar, S.; Misra, B.; Stevens, H.C.
1983-11-01
Several distinct operating modes (conventional ohmic, noninductive steady state, internal transformer, etc.) have been proposed for tokamaks. Our study focuses on capital costs and lifetime limitations of reactor subsystems in an attempt to quantify sensitivity to pulsed operation. Major problem areas considered include: thermal fatigue on first wall, limiter/divertor; thermal energy storage; fatigue and eddy current heating in toroidal field coils; electric power supply costs; and noninductive driver costs. We assume a high availability and low cost of energy will be mandatory for a commercial fusion reactor, and we characterize improvements in physics (current drive efficiency) and engineering (superior materials) which will help achieve these goals for different burn cycles
Design criteria of the bolometer diagnostic for steady-state operation of the W7-X stellarator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, D.; Burhenn, R.; Koenig, R.; Giannone, L.; Grodzki, P. A.; Klein, B.; Grosser, K.; Baldzuhn, J.; Ewert, K.; Erckmann, V.; Hirsch, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Oosterbeek, J. W.
2010-01-01
A bolometric diagnostic system with features necessary for steady-state operation in the superconducting stellarator W7-X was designed. During a pulse length of 1800 s with an ECRH (electron cyclotron resonance heating) power of 10 MW, the components suffer not only from a large thermal load but also from stray radiation of the nonabsorbed isotropic microwaves. This paper gives an overview of the technical problems encountered during the design work and the solutions to individual problems to meet the special requirements in W7-X, e.g., component thermal protection, detector offset thermal drift suppression, as well as a microwave shielding technique.
Design criteria of the bolometer diagnostic for steady-state operation of the W7-X stellaratora)
Zhang, D.; Burhenn, R.; Koenig, R.; Giannone, L.; Grodzki, P. A.; Klein, B.; Grosser, K.; Baldzuhn, J.; Ewert, K.; Erckmann, V.; Hirsch, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Oosterbeek, J. W.
2010-10-01
A bolometric diagnostic system with features necessary for steady-state operation in the superconducting stellarator W7-X was designed. During a pulse length of 1800 s with an ECRH (electron cyclotron resonance heating) power of 10 MW, the components suffer not only from a large thermal load but also from stray radiation of the nonabsorbed isotropic microwaves. This paper gives an overview of the technical problems encountered during the design work and the solutions to individual problems to meet the special requirements in W7-X, e.g., component thermal protection, detector offset thermal drift suppression, as well as a microwave shielding technique.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popescu, C.; Biro, L.; Iftode, I.; Turcu, I.
1975-10-01
The RAP-3A computer code is designed for calculating the main steady state thermo-hydraulic parameters of multirod fuel clusters with liquid metal cooling. The programme provides a double accuracy computation of temperatures and axial enthalpy distributions of pressure losses and axial heat flux distributions in fuel clusters before boiling conditions occur. Physical and mathematical models as well as a sample problem are presented. The code is written in FORTRAN-4 language and is running on a IBM-370/135 computer
Coagulation profile of children with sickle cell anemia in steady state ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background: Sickle cell anemia is associated with a hypercoagulable state that may lead to alterations in a coagulation profile. Measurements of coagulation factors are known to have some predictive value for clinical outcome. Objectives: To determine the coagulation profile of children with SCA in steady state and crisis ...
Steady-state emission of blazars at very high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoehne-Moench, Daniel
2010-01-01
One key scientific program of the MAGIC telescope project is the discovery and detection of blazars. They constitute the most prominent extragalactic source class in the very high energy (VHE) γ-ray regime with 29 out of 34 known objects. Therefore a major part of the available observation time was spent in the last years on high-frequency peaked blazars. The selection criteria were chosen to increase the detection probability. As the X-ray flux is believed to be correlated to the VHE γ-ray flux, only X-ray selected sources with a flux F X >2 μJy at 1 keV were considered. To avoid strong attenuation of the -rays in the extragalactic infrared background, the redshift was restricted to values between z X-γ between the X-ray range at 1 keV and the VHE γ-ray regime at 200 GeV were calculated. The majority of objects show a spectral behaviour as expected from the source class of HBLs: The energy output in the VHE regime is in general lower than in X-rays. For the stacked blazar sample the broad-band spectral index was calculated to α X-γ =1.09, confirming the result found for the individual objects. Another evidence for the revelation of the baseline emission is the broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) comprising archival as well as contemporaneous multi-wavelength data from the radio to the VHE band. The SEDs of known VHE γ-ray sources in low flux states matches well the SED of the stacked blazar sample. (orig.)
Thermal Hydraulic Fortran Program for Steady State Calculations of Plate Type Fuel Research Reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khedr, H.
2008-01-01
The safety assessment of Research and Power Reactors is a continuous process over their life and that requires verified and validated codes. Power Reactor codes all over the world are well established and qualified against a real measuring data and qualified experimental facilities. These codes are usually sophisticated, require special skills and consume much more running time. On the other hand, most of the Research Reactor codes still requiring more data for validation and qualification. Therefore it is benefit for a regulatory body and the companies working in the area of Research Reactor assessment and design to have their own program that give them a quick judgment. The present paper introduces a simple one dimensional Fortran program called THDSN for steady state best estimate Thermal Hydraulic (TH) calculations of plate type fuel RRs. Beside calculating the fuel and coolant temperature distribution and pressure gradient in an average and hot channel the program calculates the safety limits and margins against the critical phenomena encountered in RR such as the burnout heat flux and the onset of flow instability. Well known TH correlations for calculating the safety parameters are used. THDSN program is verified by comparing its results for 2 and 10 MW benchmark reactors with that published in IAEA publications and good agreement is found. Also the program results are compared with those published for other programs such as PARET and TERMIC. An extension for this program is underway to cover the transient TH calculations
Fission gas behaviour in UO2 under steady state and transient conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimmermann, H.
1980-01-01
Fission gas behaviour in UO 2 is determined by the limited capacity of the fuel to retain fission gas. This capacity depends primarily on temperature, but also on fission rate, pressure loading, and fuel microstructure. Under steady state irradiation conditions fission gas behaviour can be described qualitatively as follows: At the beginning of the irradiation most of the fission gas remains in the grains in irradiation-induced solution. With increasing gas content in the grains the gas transport to the grain boundaries increases, too. The fission gas release from the grain boundaries occurs primarily by interlinkage of inter-granular bubbles. The fission gas release without noticeable fuel swelling during the short-term heating in the LOCA tests and the powdering of the high burnup UO 2 in the annealing tests can only be accounted for by formation of inter-granular separations, which are caused by the fission gas accumulated in the grain boundaries. Besides this short-term effect there are diffusion-controlled long-term effects, such as growth and coalescence of bubbles and formation of inter-connected porosity, which result in time-dependent fission gas release and fuel swelling
Design of long pulse/steady state negative hydrogen ion sources for fusion applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prelec, K.
1980-01-01
By using parameters of ion sources when operating in a pulsed mode and without cooling (pulse length 2 . For the range of cathode power densities between 0.2 kW/cm 2 and 1 Kw/cm 2 , nucleated boiling has to be used for heat removal; below 0.2 kW/cm 2 water flow cooling suffices. Although this source should deliver 0.3 to 0.5 A of H - ions in a steady state operation and at full power, the other source, which has a magnetron geometry, is more promising. The latter incorporates two new features compared to first designs, geometrical focusing of fast, primary negative hydrogen ions from the cathode into the extraction slit, and a wider discharge gap in the back of the source. These two changes have resulted in an improvement of the power and gas efficiencies by a factor of 3 to 4 and in a reduction of the cathode power density by an order of magnitude. The source has water cooling for all the electrodes, because maximum power densities will not be higher than 0.2 kW/cm 2 . Very recently a modification of this magnetron source is being considered; it consists of plasma injection into the source from a hollow cathode discharge
Diagnostics development for steady state operation of the stellarator wendelstein 7-x
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burhenn, R.; Baldzuhn, J.; Dreier, H.; Endler, M.; Jimenez-Gomez, R.; Grosser, K.; Hartfuss, H.J.; Hildebrandt, D.; Hirsch, M.; Koenig, R.; Kornejew, P.; Krychowiak, M.; Laqua, H.P.; Laux, M.; Oosterbeek, J.W.; Pasch, E.; Schneider, W.; Thomsen, H.; Weller, A.; Werner, A.; Wolf, R.; Zhang, D. [Max-Planck-Institute fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-17491, Greifswald (Germany); Biel, W. [Institut fuer Energieforschung - Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)
2011-03-15
The gain in experience with long-pulse operation under fusion relevant plasma conditions is an important step towards successful sustainment of future steady state reactor plasmas. The stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) [1], presently being under construction, is already equipped with a superconducting coil system and principally capable of quasi-continuous operation. Like other long pulse devices, W7-X is faced with new enhanced technical requirements which have to be met by plasma facing components as well as the diagnostic systems in general. Water-cooled windows were qualified up to 60 kW/m{sup 2} thermal load, and shutters against evaporation of sensitive elements outside the attended time of the diagnostic as well as for baseline control had been developed. Shielding of in-vessel components against damage by absorption of microwave stray radiation originating from the heating systems appears to be one of the most challenging tasks. Experiments using a microwave test chamber identify critical materials and approved the necessity for careful shielding of both, sensitive diagnostics and cables. Spectroscopic systems for monitoring the impurity content and divertor load as well as for robust density measurement are presented (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Development of MARS-LMR and Steady-state Calculation for KALIMER-600
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ha, K. S.; Jeong, H. Y.; Chang, W. P.; Lee, Y. B.; Jo, C. H
2007-05-15
MARS code which has been developed by coupling the RELAP and COBRA-TF in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been improved in the aspects of hydraulically multi-dimensional modeling and data processing of common block using a dynamic memory allocation of FORTRAN. To use the code in the area of safety analysis of liquid metal reactor, several parts of the code have to be improved further. (1) Sodium property table including dynamic properties, such as, conductivity and viscosity, was generated to fit for the MARS code. (2) The heat transfer correlations for the liquid metal were implemented in the code. (3) The models describing the flow resistance by wire-wrap spacer in the core of LMR were applied. A MARS input data for KALIMER-600 is generated and steady-state calculation at the rated power is successfully performed. The input data can be used as a base input deck for the various transient analysis of a of PHTS, IHTS, and Tertiary system with minor revision of initial conditions and control system models.
Overview of time synchronization system of steady state superconducting tokamak SST-1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, A., E-mail: aveg@ipr.res.in; Masand, H.; Dhongde, J.; Patel, K.; Mahajan, K.; Gulati, H.; Bhandarkar, M.; Chudasama, H.; Pradhan, S.
2016-11-15
The Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) consists of many distributed and heterogeneous plant/experiment systems viz. Water-Cooling, Power Supplies, Cryogenics, Vacuum, Magnets, Auxiliary-Heating sources, Diagnostics, Front End Electronics (FEE) & Data Acquisition systems, having their own data acquisition & control systems and control & monitor by Central Control System (CCS) during the machine operation. With distributed computing and interdependent systems, it is essential that all the data/event acquired must be with disciplined & precise time-base, so as to make the co-relation of the data/event from various plant and experiment systems easy. Hence it is important to have accurate and precise Time Synchronization in place. The two systems fulfill the requirement of the time synchronization in SST-1. The VME based Timing System (TS) provides synchronization amongst various experiment systems during the plasma discharges and works as discharge control system (DCS) while the GPS based Time Synchronization System (TSS) caters the requirement of synchronization during the continuous operation of various plant systems by feeding a central clock to all the plant systems. This paper presents the Time Synchronization System of SST-1, the results of the integrated testing and engineering validation with various SST-1 subsystems.
Pellet acceleration studies relating to the refuelling of a steady-state fusion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimock, D.; Jensen, K.; Jensen, V.O.; Joergensen, L.W.; Pecseli, H.L.; Soerensen, H.; Oester, F.
1975-11-01
Several methods for refuelling a steady state-fusion reactor have been proposed, and the pellet method seems advantageous if the pellet can be accelerated to the necessary velocity. A study group was formed to analyze this acceleration problem. Two pellet velocity values were considered: 10 4 m/s and 300 m/s. A pellet velocity of 10 4 m/s may be suitable in the case of a reactor, whereas 300 m/s is believed to be a reasonable velocity at which to perform realistic ablation experiments in the near future. A pneumatic acceleration method was found promising. The pressure is either supplied separately or by evaporation of a part of the pellet. In the latter case, a spark behind the pellet should provide the evoporation and the necessary heating of the driving gas. A preliminary test at room temperature with pellets made of beeswax (the density being ten times that of solid hydrogen, and plastic properties similar to those of solid hydrogen) resulted in a pellet velocity of 100 m/s at a modest value of the energy supplied to the spark. (Auth.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Franklin D. Rincón
2015-04-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel steady-state identification (SSI method based on the auto-regressive model with exogenous inputs (ARX. This method allows the SSI with reduced tuning by analyzing the identifiability properties of the system. In particular, the singularity of the model matrices is used as an index for steady-state determination. In this contribution, the novel SSI method is compared to other available techniques, namely the F-like test, wavelet transform and a polynomial-based approach. These methods are implemented for SSI of three different case studies. In the first case, a simulated dataset is used for calibrating the output-based SSI methods. The second case corresponds to a literature nonlinear continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR example running at different steady states in which the ARX-based approach is tuned with the available input-output data. Finally, an industrial case with real data of a depropanizer column from PETROBRAS S.A. considering different pieces of equipment is analyzed. The results for a reflux drum case indicate that the wavelet and the F-like test can satisfactorily detect the steady-state periods after careful tuning and when respecting their hypothesis, i.e., smooth data for the wavelet method and the presence of variance in the data for the F-like test. Through a heat exchanger case with different measurement frequencies, we demonstrate the advantages of using the ARX-based method over the other techniques, which include the aspect of online implementation.
Steady-state emission of blazars at very high energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoehne-Moench, Daniel
2010-07-01
One key scientific program of the MAGIC telescope project is the discovery and detection of blazars. They constitute the most prominent extragalactic source class in the very high energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray regime with 29 out of 34 known objects. Therefore a major part of the available observation time was spent in the last years on high-frequency peaked blazars. The selection criteria were chosen to increase the detection probability. As the X-ray flux is believed to be correlated to the VHE {gamma}-ray flux, only X-ray selected sources with a flux F{sub X}>2 {mu}Jy at 1 keV were considered. To avoid strong attenuation of the -rays in the extragalactic infrared background, the redshift was restricted to values between z<0.15 and z<0.4, depending on the declination of the objects. The latter determines the zenith distance during culmination which should not exceed 30 (for z<0.4) and 45 (for z<0.15), respectively. Between August 2005 and April 2009, a sample of 24 X-ray selected high-frequency peaked blazars has been observed with the MAGIC telescope. Three of them were detected including 1ES 1218+304 being the first high-frequency peaked BL Lacertae object (HBL) to be discovered with MAGIC in VHE {gamma}-rays. One previously detected object was not confirmed as VHE emitter in this campaign by MAGIC. A set of 20 blazars previously not detected is treated more closely in this work. In this campaign, during almost four years {proportional_to}450 hrs or {proportional_to}22% of the available observation time for extragalactic objects were dedicated to investigate the baseline emission of blazars and their broadband spectral properties in this emission state. For the sample of 20 objects in a redshift range of 0.018
Time Reversibility, Correlation Decay and the Steady State Fluctuation Relation for Dissipation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Denis J. Evans
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Steady state fluctuation relations for nonequilibrium systems are under intense investigation because of their important practical implications in nanotechnology and biology. However the precise conditions under which they hold need clarification. Using the dissipation function, which is related to the entropy production of linear irreversible thermodynamics, we show time reversibility, ergodic consistency and a recently introduced form of correlation decay, called T-mixing, are sufficient conditions for steady state fluctuation relations to hold. Our results are not restricted to a particular model and show that the steady state fluctuation relation for the dissipation function holds near or far from equilibrium subject to these conditions. The dissipation function thus plays a comparable role in nonequilibrium systems to thermodynamic potentials in equilibrium systems.
Pre-steady-state Kinetics for Hydrolysis of Insoluble Cellulose by Cellobiohydrolase Cel7A
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Olsen, Jens Elmerdahl; Præstgaard, Eigil
2012-01-01
The transient kinetic behavior of enzyme reactions prior to the establishment of steady state is a major source of mechanistic information, yet this approach has not been utilized for cellulases acting on their natural substrate, insoluble cellulose. Here, we elucidate the pre-steady-state regime...... for the exo-acting cellulase Cel7A using amperometric biosensors and an explicit model for processive hydrolysis of cellulose. This analysis allows the identification of a pseudo-steady-state period and quantification of a processivity number as well as rate constants for the formation of a threaded enzyme...... to unveil fundamental reasons for the distinctive variability in hydrolytic activity found in different cellulase-substrate systems....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gastrup, Sandra; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Fruekilde, Palle Bach Nielsen
2016-01-01
AIM: Patients receiving lamotrigine therapy frequently use paracetamol concomitantly. While one study suggests a possible, clinically relevant drug-drug interaction, practical recommendations of the concomitant use are inconsistent. We performed a systematic pharmacokinetic study in healthy...... volunteers to quantify the effect of 4-day treatment of paracetamol on the metabolism of steady-state lamotrigine. METHODS: Twelve healthy, male volunteers participated in an open-label, sequential interaction study. Lamotrigine was titrated to steady state (100 mg daily) over 36 days, and blood and urine...... sampling was performed in a non-randomised order with and without paracetamol (1 g four times daily). The primary endpoint was change in steady-state area under the plasma concentration-time curve of lamotrigine. Secondary endpoints were changes in total apparent oral clearance, renal clearance...
Kitazumi, Yuki; Hamamoto, Katsumi; Noda, Tatsuo; Shirai, Osamu; Kano, Kenji
2015-01-01
The fabrication of ultrathin-ring electrodes with a diameter of 2 mm and a thickness of 100 nm is established. The ultrathin-ring electrodes provide a large density of pseudo-steady-state currents, and realize pseudo-steady-state amperometry under quiescent conditions without a Faraday cage. Under the limiting current conditions, the current response at the ultrathin-ring electrode can be well explained by the theory of the microband electrode response. Cyclic voltammograms at the ultrathin-ring electrode show sigmoidal characteristics with some hysteresis. Numerical simulation reveals that the hysteresis can be ascribed to the time-dependence of pseudo-steady-state current. The performance of amperometry with the ultrathin-ring electrode has been verified in its application to redox enzyme kinetic measurements.
Rapid mixing and short storage timescale in the magma dynamics of a steady-state volcano
Petrone, Chiara Maria; Braschi, Eleonora; Francalanci, Lorella; Casalini, Martina; Tommasini, Simone
2018-06-01
Steady-state volcanic activity implies equilibrium between the rate of magma replenishment and eruption of compositionally homogeneous magmas, lasting for tens to thousands of years in an open conduit system. The Present-day activity of Stromboli volcano (Aeolian Islands, Southern Italy) has long been recognised as typical of a steady-state volcano, with a shallow magmatic reservoir (highly porphyritic or hp-magma) continuously refilled by more mafic magma (with low phenocryst content or lp-magma) at a constant rate and accompanied by mixing, crystallisation and eruption. Our aim is to clarify the timescale and dynamics of the plumbing system at the establishment of the Present-day steady-state activity (volcanoes.
Exact steady state manifold of a boundary driven spin-1 Lai–Sutherland chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilievski, Enej; Prosen, Tomaž
2014-01-01
We present an explicit construction of a family of steady state density matrices for an open integrable spin-1 chain with bilinear and biquadratic interactions, also known as the Lai–Sutherland model, driven far from equilibrium by means of two oppositely polarizing Markovian dissipation channels localized at the boundary. The steady state solution exhibits n+1 fold degeneracy, for a chain of length n, due to existence of (strong) Liouvillian U(1) symmetry. The latter can be exploited to introduce a chemical potential and define a grand canonical nonequilibrium steady state ensemble. The matrix product form of the solution entails an infinitely-dimensional representation of a non-trivial Lie algebra (semidirect product of sl 2 and a non-nilpotent radical) and hints to a novel Yang–Baxter integrability structure
Exact steady state manifold of a boundary driven spin-1 Lai–Sutherland chain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ilievski, Enej; Prosen, Tomaž
2014-05-15
We present an explicit construction of a family of steady state density matrices for an open integrable spin-1 chain with bilinear and biquadratic interactions, also known as the Lai–Sutherland model, driven far from equilibrium by means of two oppositely polarizing Markovian dissipation channels localized at the boundary. The steady state solution exhibits n+1 fold degeneracy, for a chain of length n, due to existence of (strong) Liouvillian U(1) symmetry. The latter can be exploited to introduce a chemical potential and define a grand canonical nonequilibrium steady state ensemble. The matrix product form of the solution entails an infinitely-dimensional representation of a non-trivial Lie algebra (semidirect product of sl{sub 2} and a non-nilpotent radical) and hints to a novel Yang–Baxter integrability structure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stojanovic, B.; Hallberg, D.; Akander, J. [Building Materials Technology, KTH Research School, Centre for Built Environment, University of Gaevle, SE-801 76 Gaevle (Sweden)
2010-10-15
This paper presents the thermal modelling of an unglazed solar collector (USC) flat panel, with the aim of producing a detailed yet swift thermal steady-state model. The model is analytical, one-dimensional (1D) and derived by a fin-theory approach. It represents the thermal performance of an arbitrary duct with applied boundary conditions equal to those of a flat panel collector. The derived model is meant to be used for efficient optimisation and design of USC flat panels (or similar applications), as well as detailed thermal analysis of temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations at steady-state conditions; without requiring a large amount of computational power and time. Detailed surface temperatures are necessary features for durability studies of the surface coating, hence the effect of coating degradation on USC and system performance. The model accuracy and proficiency has been benchmarked against a detailed three-dimensional Finite Difference Model (3D FDM) and two simpler 1D analytical models. Results from the benchmarking test show that the fin-theory model has excellent capabilities of calculating energy performances and fluid temperature profiles, as well as detailed material temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations (at steady-state conditions), while still being suitable for component analysis in junction to system simulations as the model is analytical. The accuracy of the model is high in comparison to the 3D FDM (the prime benchmark), as long as the fin-theory assumption prevails (no 'or negligible' temperature gradient in the fin perpendicularly to the fin length). Comparison with the other models also shows that when the USC duct material has a high thermal conductivity, the cross-sectional material temperature adopts an isothermal state (for the assessed USC duct geometry), which makes the 1D isothermal model valid. When the USC duct material has a low thermal conductivity, the heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mbagwu, J.S.C.
1993-10-01
A knowledge of physical properties influencing the steady-state infiltration rates (ic) of soils is needed for the hydrologic modelling of the infiltration process. In this study evidence is provided to show that effective porosity (Pe) (i.e. the proportion of macro pore spaces with equivalent radius of > 15 μm) and dry bulk density are the most important soil physical properties controlling the steady-state infiltration rates on a tropical savannah with varying land use histories. At a macro porosity value of ≤ 5.0% the steady-state infiltration rate is zero. Total porosity and the proportion of water-retaining pores explained only a small fraction of the variation in this property. Steady-state infiltration rates can also be estimated from either the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) by the equation, i c = 31.1 + 1.06 (Ks), (R 2 = 0.8104, p ≤ 0.001) or the soil water transmissivity (A) by the equation, i c = 30.0 + 29.9(A), (R 2 = 0.8228, ρ ≤ 0.001). The Philip two-parameter model under predicted steady-state infiltration rates generally. Considering the ease of determination and reliability it is suggested that effective porosity be used to estimate the steady-state infiltration rates of these other soils with similar characteristics. The model is, i c 388.7(Pe) - 10.8(R 2 = 0.7265, p ≤ 0.001) where i c is in (cm/hr) and Pe in (cm 3 /cm 3 ). (author). 20 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs
Current drive efficiency requirements for an attractive steady-state reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tonon, G
1994-12-31
The expected values of the figure of merit and the electrical efficiency of various non-inductive current drive methods are considered. The main experimental results achieved today with neutral beams and radiofrequency systems are summarized. Taking into account the simplified energy flow diagram of a steady state reactor, the figure of merit and the electrical efficiency values which are necessary in order to envisage an attractive steady-state reactor are determined. These values are compared to the theoretical predictions. (author). 16 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.
SUPERENERGY-2: a multiassembly, steady-state computer code for LMFBR core thermal-hydraulic analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Basehore, K.L.; Todreas, N.E.
1980-08-01
Core thermal-hydraulic design and performance analyses for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) require repeated detailed multiassembly calculations to determine radial temperature profiles and subchannel outlet temperatures for various core configurations and subassembly structural analyses. At steady-state, detailed core-wide temperature profiles are required for core restraint calculations and subassembly structural analysis. In addition, sodium outlet temperatures are routinely needed for each reactor operating cycle. The SUPERENERGY-2 thermal-hydraulic code was designed specifically to meet these designer needs. It is applicable only to steady-state, forced-convection flow in LMFBR core geometries.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, M H; Andersen, U B; Wachtell, K
1999-01-01
We wanted to investigate whether time to steady state was reached within 2 h of insulin infusion during isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, comparing the glucose uptake index (M/IG) with Bergman's insulin sensitivity index (Sip). We performed a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test and a 3-h isoglycemic....... Because the 2-h M/IG correlated strongly with the 3-h Sip with relatively narrow limits of agreement, it is a good measure of insulin sensitivity. However, a 2-h clamp results in lower insulin sensitivity values in elderly, hypertensive patients due to the fact that steady state is not reached...
Local wettability reversal during steady-state two-phase flow in porous media.
Sinha, Santanu; Grøva, Morten; Ødegården, Torgeir Bryge; Skjetne, Erik; Hansen, Alex
2011-09-01
We study the effect of local wettability reversal on remobilizing immobile fluid clusters in steady-state two-phase flow in porous media. We consider a two-dimensional network model for a porous medium and introduce a wettability alteration mechanism. A qualitative change in the steady-state flow patterns, destabilizing the percolating and trapped clusters, is observed as the system wettability is varied. When capillary forces are strong, a finite wettability alteration is necessary to move the system from a single-phase to a two-phase flow regime. When both phases are mobile, we find a linear relationship between fractional flow and wettability alteration.
ATC calculation with steady-state security constraints using Benders decomposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaaban, M.; Yan, Z.; Ni, Y.; Wu, F.; Li, W.; Liu, H.
2003-01-01
Available transfer capability (ATC) is an important indicator of the usable amount of transmission capacity accessible by assorted parties for commercial trading, ATC calculation is nontrivial when steady-state security constraints are included. In hie paper, Benders decomposition method is proposed to partition the AC problem with steady-state security constraints into a base case master problem and a series of subproblems relevant to various contingencies to include their impacts on ATC. The mathematical model is formulated and the two solution schemes are presented. Computer testing on the 4-bus system and IEEE 30-bus system shows the effectiveness of the proposed method and the solution schemes. (Author)
S3C: EBT Steady-State Shooting code description and user's guide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Downum, W.B.
1983-09-01
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) one-dimensional (1-D) Steady-State Shooting code (S3C) for ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) plasmas is described. Benchmark calculations finding the steady-state density and electron and ion temperature profiles for a known neutral density profile and known external energy sources are carried out. Good agreement is obtained with results from the ORNL Radially Resolved Time Dependent 1-D Transport code for an EBT-Q type reactor. The program logic is described, along with the physics models in each code block and the variable names used. Sample input and output files are listed, along with the main code
Analysis on the steady-state coherent synchrotron radiation with strong shielding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, R.; Bohn, C.L.; Bisognano, J.J.
1997-01-01
There are several papers concerning shielding of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by a Gaussian line charge on a circular orbit centered between two parallel conducting plates. Previous asymptotic analyses in the frequency domain show that shielded steady-state CSR mainly arises from harmonics in the bunch frequency exceeding the threshold harmonic for satisfying the boundary conditions at the plates. In this paper the authors extend the frequency-domain analysis into the regime of strong shielding, in which the threshold harmonic exceeds the characteristic frequency of the bunch. The result is then compared to the shielded steady-state CSR power obtained using image charges
Current drive efficiency requirements for an attractive steady-state reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tonon, G.
1994-01-01
The expected values of the figure of merit and the electrical efficiency of various non-inductive current drive methods are considered. The main experimental results achieved today with neutral beams and radiofrequency systems are summarized. Taking into account the simplified energy flow diagram of a steady state reactor, the figure of merit and the electrical efficiency values which are necessary in order to envisage an attractive steady-state reactor are determined. These values are compared to the theoretical predictions. (author). 16 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faiz, J.; Shafagh, E.
1999-01-01
In order to obtain more accurate predicted dynamic steady-state performance with shorter computation time, an available mathematical model is modified and presented. Using this modified model, performance of a typical switched reluctance motor under a wide range of variations of operating conditions is obtained and discussed. These include variations of speed, voltage, load and switching angle. The static test characteristics of the motor are carefully measured and measured flux-linkage data are then used to predict the steady-state performance
SUPERENERGY-2: a multiassembly, steady-state computer code for LMFBR core thermal-hydraulic analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basehore, K.L.; Todreas, N.E.
1980-08-01
Core thermal-hydraulic design and performance analyses for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) require repeated detailed multiassembly calculations to determine radial temperature profiles and subchannel outlet temperatures for various core configurations and subassembly structural analyses. At steady-state, detailed core-wide temperature profiles are required for core restraint calculations and subassembly structural analysis. In addition, sodium outlet temperatures are routinely needed for each reactor operating cycle. The SUPERENERGY-2 thermal-hydraulic code was designed specifically to meet these designer needs. It is applicable only to steady-state, forced-convection flow in LMFBR core geometries
Steady-state evoked potentials possibilities for mental-state estimation
Junker, Andrew M.; Schnurer, John H.; Ingle, David F.; Downey, Craig W.
1988-01-01
The use of the human steady-state evoked potential (SSEP) as a possible measure of mental-state estimation is explored. A method for evoking a visual response to a sum-of-ten sine waves is presented. This approach provides simultaneous multiple frequency measurements of the human EEG to the evoking stimulus in terms of describing functions (gain and phase) and remnant spectra. Ways in which these quantities vary with the addition of performance tasks (manual tracking, grammatical reasoning, and decision making) are presented. Models of the describing function measures can be formulated using systems engineering technology. Relationships between model parameters and performance scores during manual tracking are discussed. Problems of unresponsiveness and lack of repeatability of subject responses are addressed in terms of a need for loop closure of the SSEP. A technique to achieve loop closure using a lock-in amplifier approach is presented. Results of a study designed to test the effectiveness of using feedback to consciously connect humans to their evoked response are presented. Findings indicate that conscious control of EEG is possible. Implications of these results in terms of secondary tasks for mental-state estimation and brain actuated control are addressed.
An equation oriented approach to steady state flowsheeting of methanol synthesis loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fathikalajahi, J.; Baniadam, M.; Rahimpour, M.R.
2008-01-01
An equation-oriented approach was developed for steady state flowsheeting of a commercial methanol plant. The loop consists of fixed bed reactor, flash separator, preheater, coolers, and compressor. For steady sate flowsheeting of the plant mathematical model of reactor and other units are needed. Reactor used in loop is a Lurgi type and its configuration is rather complex. Previously reactor and flash separator are modeled as two important units of plant. The model is based on mass and energy balances in each equipment and utilizing some auxiliary equations such as rate of reaction and thermodynamics model for activity coefficients of liquid. In order to validate the mathematical model for the synthesis loop, some simulation data were performed using operating conditions and characteristics of the commercial plant. The good agreement between the steady state simulation results and the plant data shows the validity of the model
Zhang, Chuang; Guo, Zhaoli; Chen, Songze
2017-12-01
An implicit kinetic scheme is proposed to solve the stationary phonon Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) for multiscale heat transfer problem. Compared to the conventional discrete ordinate method, the present method employs a macroscopic equation to accelerate the convergence in the diffusive regime. The macroscopic equation can be taken as a moment equation for phonon BTE. The heat flux in the macroscopic equation is evaluated from the nonequilibrium distribution function in the BTE, while the equilibrium state in BTE is determined by the macroscopic equation. These two processes exchange information from different scales, such that the method is applicable to the problems with a wide range of Knudsen numbers. Implicit discretization is implemented to solve both the macroscopic equation and the BTE. In addition, a memory reduction technique, which is originally developed for the stationary kinetic equation, is also extended to phonon BTE. Numerical comparisons show that the present scheme can predict reasonable results both in ballistic and diffusive regimes with high efficiency, while the memory requirement is on the same order as solving the Fourier law of heat conduction. The excellent agreement with benchmark and the rapid converging history prove that the proposed macro-micro coupling is a feasible solution to multiscale heat transfer problems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vijayan, P.K.; Bhojwani, V.K.; Bade, M.H.; Sharma, M.; Nayak, A.K.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.
2002-01-01
An instability demonstration facility has been in operation in the heat transfer laboratory of the Reactor Engineering Div. for the past few years. This report deals with the investigations carried out in this facility so far. The facility is essentially a rectangular loop designed to generate single-phase natural circulation data on the steady state and stability behaviour for different orientations of the heat source and the heat sink. Effect of different heat addition paths (i.e. start-up from rest, power raising from initial stable steady and decay of instability due to power step back) and flow direction on the stability behaviour was also studied. The stability map of the system was generated both by the linear and the nonlinear methods
Recent advancement in research and planning toward high beta steady state operation in KSTAR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Hyeon Keo; Hong, S.; Humphreys, D.
2015-01-01
The goal of Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) research is to explore stable improved confinement regimes and technical challenge for superconducting tokamak operation and thus, to establish the basis for predictable high beta steady state tokamak plasma operation. To fulfil the goal, the current KSTAR research program is composed of three elements: 1) Exploration of anticipated engineering and technology for a stable long pulse operation of high beta plasmas including Edge Localized Mode (ELM) control with the low n (=1, 2) Resonant Magnetic Perturbation (RMP) using in-vessel control coils and innovative non-inductive current drives. The achieved long pulse operation up to ∼50s and fully non-inductive current drive will be combined in the future. Study of efficient heat exhaust will be combined with an innovative divertor design/operation. 2) Exploration of the operation boundary through establishment of true stability limits of the harmful MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) instabilities and confinement of the tokamak plasmas in KSTAR, making use of the lowest error field and magnetic ripple simultaneously achieved among all tokamaks ever built. The intrinsic machine error field has a long history of research as the source of MHD instabilities and magnetic ripple is known to be a cause of energy loss in the plasma. The achieved high beta discharges at β N ∼4 and stable discharges at q 95 (∼2) will be further improved. 3) Validation of theoretical modeling of MHD instabilities and turbulence toward predictive capability of stable high beta plasmas. In support of these research goals, the state of the art diagnostic systems, such as Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) system in addition to accurate profile diagnostics, are deployed not only to provide precise 2D/3D information of the MHD instabilities and turbulence but also to challenge unresolved physics problems such as the nature of ELMs, ELM-crash dynamics and the role of the core
Liang, Zhi; Keblinski, Pawel
2018-02-01
Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study evaporation and condensation of fluid Ar in the presence of a non-condensable Ne gas in a nanochannel. The evaporation and condensation are driven by the temperature difference, ΔTL, between the evaporating and condensing liquid surfaces. The steady-state evaporation and condensation fluxes (JMD) are also affected by the Ne concentration, ρNe, and the nanochannel length. We find that across a wide range of ΔTL and ρNe, JMD is in good agreement with the prediction from Stefan's law and from Schrage relationships. Furthermore, for ΔTL less than ˜20% of the absolute average temperature, we find that both steady-state heat and mass fluxes are proportional to ΔTL. This allows us to determine the interfacial resistance to the heat and mass transfer and compare it with the corresponding resistances in the gas phase. In this context, we derive an analytical expression for the effective thermal conductivity of the gas region in the nanochannel and the mass transport interfacial resistance equivalent length, i.e., the length of the nanochannel for which the resistance to the mass flow is the same as the interfacial resistance to the mass flow.
Spear, Tyler J; Stromp, Tori A; Leung, Steve W; Vandsburger, Moriel H
2017-11-01
Emerging quantitative cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) techniques use cine balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) to measure myocardial signal intensity and probe underlying physiological parameters. This correlation assumes that steady-state is maintained uniformly throughout the heart in space and time. To determine the effects of longitudinal cardiac motion and initial slice position on signal deviation in cine bSSFP imaging by comparing two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) acquisitions. Nine healthy volunteers completed cardiac MRI on a 1.5-T scanner. Short axis images were taken at six slice locations using both 2D and 3D cine bSSFP. 3D acquisitions spanned two slices above and below selected slice locations. Changes in myocardial signal intensity were measured across the cardiac cycle and compared to longitudinal shortening. For 2D cine bSSFP, 46% ± 9% of all frames and 84% ± 13% of end-diastolic frames remained within 10% of initial signal intensity. For 3D cine bSSFP the proportions increased to 87% ± 8% and 97% ± 5%. There was no correlation between longitudinal shortening and peak changes in myocardial signal. The initial slice position significantly impacted peak changes in signal intensity for 2D sequences ( P cine bSSFP that is only restored at the center of a 3D excitation volume. During diastole, a transient steady-state is established similar to that achieved with 3D cine bSSFP regardless of slice location.
Ashworth, J. R.; Birdi, J. J.; Emmett, T. F.
1992-01-01
Retrograde coronas of Caledonian age, between clinopyroxene and plagioclase in the Jotun Nappe Complex, Norway, illustrate the effects of diffusion kinetics on mineral distributions among layers and on the compositions of hornblende-actinolite. One corona type comprises a symplectite of epidote + quartz adjacent to plagioclase, and a less well-organized intergrowth of amphibole + quartz replacing clinopyroxene. The observed mineral proportions imply an open-system reaction, but the similarity of Al/Si ratios in reactant plagioclase and product symplectite indicates approximate conservation of Al2O3 and SiO2. The largest inferred open-system flux is a loss of CaO, mostly derived from consumption of clinopyroxene. The approximate layer structure, Pl|Ep + Qtz|Hbl + Qtz|Act±Hbl + Qtz|Cpx, is modelled using the theory of steady-state diffusion-controlled growth with local equilibrium. To obtain a solution, it is necessary to use a reactant plagioclase composition which takes into account aluminous (epidote) inclusions. The results indicate that, in terms of Onsager diffusion coefficients L ii , Ca is more mobile than AL ( L CaCa/ L AlAl≳3.) (where ≳ means greater than or approximately equal to). This behaviour of Ca is comparable with that of Mg in previously studied coronas around olivine. Si is non-diffusing in the present modelling, because of silica saturation. Oxidation of some Fe2+ to Fe3+ occurs within the corona. Mg diffuses towards its source (clinopyroxene) to maintain local equilibrium. Other coronas consist of two layers, hornblende adjacent to plagioclase and zoned amphibole + quartz adjacent to clinopyroxene. In the zoned layer, actinolitic hornblende forms relict patches, separated from quartz blebs by more aluminous hornblende. A preliminary steady-state, local-equilibrium model of grain-boundary diffusion explains the formation of low-Al and high-Al layers as due to Al immobility. Zoning and replacement are qualitatively explained in terms of
Steady-state pharmacokinetics of pravastatin in children with familial hypercholesterolaemia
Wiersma, Heleen E.; Wiegman, Albert; Koopmans, Richard P.; Bakker, Henk D.; Kastelein, John J. P.; van Boxtel, Chris J.
2004-01-01
Objective: To determine pharmacokinetic data for pravastatin in children, since current data are insufficient in this age group. Subjects and methods: A 2-week, multiple-dose, steady-state pharmacokinetic study was carried out with pravastatin 20mg daily in 24 children with familial
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christrup, Lona Louring; Bonde, J; Rasmussen, S N
1992-01-01
Single-dose and steady state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different oral formulations were assessed with particular reference to rate and extent of absorption. Following single dose administration a significant difference in tmax was observed (2.9 +/- 1.9 and 6.8 +/- 2.6 hr r...
Walkway Length Determination for Steady State Walking in Young and Older Adults
Macfarlane, Pamela A.; Looney, Marilyn A.
2008-01-01
The primary purpose of this study was to determine acceleration (AC) and deceleration (DC) distances that would accommodate young and older adults walking at their preferred and fast speeds. A secondary purpose was to determine the minimal walkway length needed to record six steady state (SS) steps (three full gait cycles) for younger and older…
Parallel shooting methods for finding steady state solutions to engine simulation models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Thomsen, Per Grove; Carlsen, Henrik
2007-01-01
Parallel single- and multiple shooting methods were tested for finding periodic steady state solutions to a Stirling engine model. The model was used to illustrate features of the methods and possibilities for optimisations. Performance was measured using simulation of an experimental data set...
Algorithm for determining two-periodic steady-states in AC machines directly in time domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sobczyk Tadeusz J.
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This paper describes an algorithm for finding steady states in AC machines for the cases of their two-periodic nature. The algorithm enables to specify the steady-state solution identified directly in time domain despite of the fact that two-periodic waveforms are not repeated in any finite time interval. The basis for such an algorithm is a discrete differential operator that specifies the temporary values of the derivative of the two-periodic function in the selected set of points on the basis of the values of that function in the same set of points. It allows to develop algebraic equations defining the steady state solution reached in a chosen point set for the nonlinear differential equations describing the AC machines when electrical and mechanical equations should be solved together. That set of those values allows determining the steady state solution at any time instant up to infinity. The algorithm described in this paper is competitive with respect to the one known in literature an approach based on the harmonic balance method operated in frequency domain.
Linked tandem mirror configuration as a possible steady state high β plasma container
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuta, Kazunari.
1982-04-01
A possibility of achieving steady state high β plasma confinement in toroidal geometry is considered in detail by closing off the ends of tandem mirrors entirely by flux bridges, where β is the ratio of plasma pressure to the magnetic pressure. The key problem of this approach seems to be the magnetic design of magneto-hydrodynamically stabilized, preferentially leaky bridges. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
HU TA
2009-10-26
Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.
System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fisch, N.J.
1981-01-01
A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave rf energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected rf energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected rf energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range delta . The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width delta in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma
Radioactivity computation of steady-state and pulsed fusion reactors operation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Attaya, H.
1994-06-01
Different mathematical methods are used to calculate the nuclear transmutation in steady-state and pulsed neutron irradiation. These methods are the Schuer decomposition, the eigenvector decomposition, and the Pade approximation of the matrix exponential function. In the case of the linear decay chain approximation, a simple algorithm is used to evaluate the transition matrices
Yatskou, M.M.; Koehorst, R.B.M.; Donker, H.; Schaafsma, T.J.
2001-01-01
Aggregation of zinc mono-(4-pyridyl)-triphenylporphyrin (ZnPyP) in toluene and polystyrene/toluene mixtures has been investigated by steady-state optical spectroscopy. The Q-band absorption spectra, as well as the fluorescence spectra, show a temperature-dependent red shift as a result of ligation
Analysis of steady state creep of southeastern New Mexico bedded salt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrmann, W.; Wawersik, W.R.; Lauson, H.S.
1980-03-01
Steady state creep rates have been obtained from a large suite of existing experimental creep data relating to bedded rock salt from the Salado formation of S.E. New Mexico. Experimental conditions covered an intermediate temperature range from 22 0 C to 200 0 C, and shear stresses from 1000 psi (7 MPa) to 6000 psi (31 MPa). An expression, based on a single diffusion controlled dislocation climb mechanism, has been found to fit the observed dependence of steady state creep rate on shear stress and temperature, yielding an activation energy of 12 kcal/mole (50 kJ/mole) and a stress exponent of 4.9. Multiple regression analysis revealed a dependence on stratigraphy, but no statistically significant dependence on pressure of specimen size. No consistent dilatancy or compaction associated with steady state creep was found, although some individual specimens dilated or compacted during creep. The steady state creep data were found to agree very well with creep data for both bedded and dome salt from a variety of other locations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guerreiro, J.N.C.; Loula, A.F.D.
1988-12-01
The mixed Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation is applied to transiente and steady state creep problems. Numerical analysis has shown additional stability of this method compared to classical Galerkin formulations. The accuracy of the new formulation is confirmed in some representative examples of two dimensional and axisymmetric problems. (author) [pt
Technical challenges in the construction of the steady-state stellarator Wendelstein 7-X
Bosch, H. S.; R C Wolf,; Andreeva, T.; Baldzuhn, J.; Birus, D.; Bluhm, T.; Brauer, T.; Braune, H.; Bykov, V.; Cardella, A.; Durodie, F.; Endler, M.; Erckmann, V.; Gantenbein, G.; Hartmann, D.; Hathiramani, D.; Heimann, P.; Heinemann, B.; Hennig, C.; Hirsch, M.; Holtum, D.; Jagielski, J.; Jelonnek, J.; Kasparek, W.; Klinger, T.; Konig, R.; Kornejew, P.; Kroiss, H.; Krom, J. G.; Kuhner, G.; Laqua, H.; Laqua, H. P.; Lechte, C.; Lewerentz, M.; Maier, J.; McNeely, P.; Messiaen, A.; Michel, G.; Ongena, J.; Peacock, A.; Pedersen, T. S.; Riedl, R.; Riemann, H.; Rong, P.; Rust, N.; Schacht, J.; Schauer, F.; Schroeder, R.; Schweer, B.; Spring, A.; Stabler, A.; Thumm, M.; Turkin, Y.; Wegener, L.; Werner, A.; Zhang, D.; Zilker, M.; Akijama, T.; Alzbutas, R.; Ascasibar, E.; Balden, M.; Banduch, M.; Baylard, C.; Behr, W.; Beidler, C.; Benndorf, A.; Bergmann, T.; Biedermann, C.; Bieg, B.; Biel, W.; Borchardt, M.; Borowitz, G.; Borsuk, V.; Bozhenkov, S.; Brakel, R.; Brand, H.; Brown, T.; Brucker, B.; Burhenn, R.; Buscher, K. P.; Caldwell-Nichols, C.; Cappa, A.; Cardella, A.; Carls, A.; Carvalho, P.; Ciupinski, L.; Cole, M.; Collienne, J.; Czarnecka, A.; Czymek, G.; Dammertz, G.; Dhard, C. P.; Davydenko, V. I.; Dinklage, A.; Drevlak, M.; Drotziger, S.; Dudek, A.; Dumortier, P.; Dundulis, G.; von Eeten, P.; Egorov, K.; Estrada, T.; Faugel, H.; Fellinger, J.; Feng, Y.; Fernandes, H.; Fietz, W. H.; Figacz, W.; Fischer, F.; Fontdecaba, J.; Freund, A.; Funaba, T.; Funfgelder, H.; Galkowski, A.; Gates, D.; Giannone, L.; Regana, J. M. G.; Geiger, J.; Geissler, S.; Greuner, H.; Grahl, M.; Gross, S.; Grosman, A.; Grote, H.; Grulke, O.; R. Jaspers,; Szabo, V.
2013-01-01
The next step in the Wendelstein stellarator line is the large superconducting device Wendelstein 7-X, currently under construction in Greifswald, Germany. Steady-state operation is an intrinsic feature of stellarators, and one key element of the Wendelstein 7-X mission is to demonstrate
Transient and Steady-State Responses of an Asymmetric Nonlinear Oscillator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alex Elías-Zúñiga
2013-01-01
oscillator that describes the motion of a damped, forced system supported symmetrically by simple shear springs on a smooth inclined bearing surface. We also use the percentage overshoot value to study the influence of damping and nonlinearity on the transient and steady-state oscillatory amplitudes.
Non-existence of Steady State Equilibrium in the Neoclassical Growth Model with a Longevity Trend
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hermansen, Mikkel Nørlem
of steady state equilibrium when considering the empirically observed trend in longevity. We extend a standard continuous time overlapping generations model by a longevity trend and are thereby able to study the properties of mortality-driven population growth. This turns out to be exceedingly complicated...
Einstein's steady-state theory: an abandoned model of the cosmos
O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; McCann, Brendan; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon
2014-09-01
We present a translation and analysis of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted to construct a `steady-state' model of the universe. The manuscript, which appears to have been written in early 1931, demonstrates that Einstein once explored a cosmic model in which the mean density of matter in an expanding universe is maintained constant by the continuous formation of matter from empty space. This model is very different to previously known Einsteinian models of the cosmos (both static and dynamic) but anticipates the later steady-state cosmology of Hoyle, Bondi and Gold in some ways. We find that Einstein's steady-state model contains a fundamental flaw and suggest that it was abandoned for this reason. We also suggest that he declined to explore a more sophisticated version because he found such theories rather contrived. The manuscript is of historical interest because it reveals that Einstein debated between steady-state and evolving models of the cosmos decades before a similar debate took place in the cosmological community.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramzan, Naveed; Faheem, Muhammad; Gani, Rafiqul
2010-01-01
A packed reactive distillation column producing ethyl tert-butyl ether from tert-butyl alcohol and ethanol was simulated for detection of multiple steady states using Aspen Plus®. A rate-based approach was used to make the simulation model more realistic. A base-case was first developed and fine...
Efficient decoding with steady-state Kalman filter in neural interface systems.
Malik, Wasim Q; Truccolo, Wilson; Brown, Emery N; Hochberg, Leigh R
2011-02-01
The Kalman filter is commonly used in neural interface systems to decode neural activity and estimate the desired movement kinematics. We analyze a low-complexity Kalman filter implementation in which the filter gain is approximated by its steady-state form, computed offline before real-time decoding commences. We evaluate its performance using human motor cortical spike train data obtained from an intracortical recording array as part of an ongoing pilot clinical trial. We demonstrate that the standard Kalman filter gain converges to within 95% of the steady-state filter gain in 1.5±0.5 s (mean ±s.d.). The difference in the intended movement velocity decoded by the two filters vanishes within 5 s, with a correlation coefficient of 0.99 between the two decoded velocities over the session length. We also find that the steady-state Kalman filter reduces the computational load (algorithm execution time) for decoding the firing rates of 25±3 single units by a factor of 7.0±0.9. We expect that the gain in computational efficiency will be much higher in systems with larger neural ensembles. The steady-state filter can thus provide substantial runtime efficiency at little cost in terms of estimation accuracy. This far more efficient neural decoding approach will facilitate the practical implementation of future large-dimensional, multisignal neural interface systems.
Robust periodic steady state analysis of autonomous oscillators based on generalized eigenvalues
Mirzavand, R.; Maten, ter E.J.W.; Beelen, T.G.J.; Schilders, W.H.A.; Abdipour, A.
2011-01-01
In this paper, we present a new gauge technique for the Newton Raphson method to solve the periodic steady state (PSS) analysis of free-running oscillators in the time domain. To find the frequency a new equation is added to the system of equations. Our equation combines a generalized eigenvector
Robust periodic steady state analysis of autonomous oscillators based on generalized eigenvalues
Mirzavand, R.; Maten, ter E.J.W.; Beelen, T.G.J.; Schilders, W.H.A.; Abdipour, A.; Michielsen, B.; Poirier, J.R.
2012-01-01
In this paper, we present a new gauge technique for the Newton Raphson method to solve the periodic steady state (PSS) analysis of free-running oscillators in the time domain. To find the frequency a new equation is added to the system of equations. Our equation combines a generalized eigenvector
Molecular control of steady-state dendritic cell maturation and immune homeostasis.
Hammer, Gianna Elena; Ma, Averil
2013-01-01
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized sentinels responsible for coordinating adaptive immunity. This function is dependent upon coupled sensitivity to environmental signs of inflammation and infection to cellular maturation-the programmed alteration of DC phenotype and function to enhance immune cell activation. Although DCs are thus well equipped to respond to pathogens, maturation triggers are not unique to infection. Given that immune cells are exquisitely sensitive to the biological functions of DCs, we now appreciate that multiple layers of suppression are required to restrict the environmental sensitivity, cellular maturation, and even life span of DCs to prevent aberrant immune activation during the steady state. At the same time, steady-state DCs are not quiescent but rather perform key functions that support homeostasis of numerous cell types. Here we review these functions and molecular mechanisms of suppression that control steady-state DC maturation. Corruption of these steady-state operatives has diverse immunological consequences and pinpoints DCs as potent drivers of autoimmune and inflammatory disease.
Marenduzzo, D; Orlandini, E; Cates, M E; Yeomans, J M
2007-09-01
We report hybrid lattice Boltzmann (HLB) simulations of the hydrodynamics of an active nematic liquid crystal sandwiched between confining walls with various anchoring conditions. We confirm the existence of a transition between a passive phase and an active phase, in which there is spontaneous flow in the steady state. This transition is attained for sufficiently "extensile" rods, in the case of flow-aligning liquid crystals, and for sufficiently "contractile" ones for flow-tumbling materials. In a quasi-one-dimensional geometry, deep in the active phase of flow-aligning materials, our simulations give evidence of hysteresis and history-dependent steady states, as well as of spontaneous banded flow. Flow-tumbling materials, in contrast, rearrange themselves so that only the two boundary layers flow in steady state. Two-dimensional simulations, with periodic boundary conditions, show additional instabilities, with the spontaneous flow appearing as patterns made up of "convection rolls." These results demonstrate a remarkable richness (including dependence on anchoring conditions) in the steady-state phase behavior of active materials, even in the absence of external forcing; they have no counterpart for passive nematics. Our HLB methodology, which combines lattice Boltzmann for momentum transport with a finite difference scheme for the order parameter dynamics, offers a robust and efficient method for probing the complex hydrodynamic behavior of active nematics.
A asymptotic numerical method for the steady-state convection diffusion equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Qiguang
1988-01-01
In this paper, A asymptotic numerical method for the steady-state Convection diffusion equation is proposed, which need not take very fine mesh size in the neighbourhood of the boundary layer. Numerical computation for model problem show that we can obtain the numerical solution in the boundary layer with moderate step size
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kwok, Kawai; Boccaccini, Dino; Persson, Åsa Helen
2016-01-01
The effective steady-state creep response of porous metals is studied by numerical homogenization and analytical modeling in this paper. The numerical homogenization is based on finite element models of three-dimensional microstructures directly reconstructed from tomographic images. The effects ...... model, and closely matched by the Gibson-Ashby compression and the Ramakrishnan-Arunchalam creep models. [All rights reserved Elsevier]....
Analysis of steady state and transient two-phase flows in downwardly inclined lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crawford, T.J.
1983-01-01
A study of steady-state and transient two-phase flows in downwardly inclined lines is described. Steady-state flow patterns maps are presented using Freon-113 as the working fluid to provide new high density vapors. These flow maps with high density vapor serve to significantly extend the investigations of steady-state downward two-phase flow patterns. Physical models developed which successfully predicted the onset or location of various flow pattern transitions. A new simplified criterion that would be useful to designers and experimenters is offered for the onset of dispersed flow. A new empirical holdup correlation and a new bubble diameter/flow rate correlation are also proposed. Flow transients in vertical downward lines were studied to investigate the possible formation of intermediate or spurious flow patterns that would not be seen at steady-state conditions. Void fraction behavior during the transients was modeled by using the dynamic slip equation from the transient analysis code RETRAN. Physical models of interfacial area were developed and compared with models and data from literature. There was satisfactory agreement between the models of the present study and the literature models and data. The concentration parameter of the drift flux model was evaluated for vertical downward flow. These new values of the flow dependent parameter were different from those previously proposed in the literature for use in upward flows, and made the drift flux model suitable for use in upward or downward flow lines
Steady-State PMU Compliance Test under C37.118.1a-2014
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ghiga, Radu; Wu, Qiuwei; Martin, Kenneth E.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a flexible testing method and the steady-state compliance of PMUs under the C37.118.1a amendment. The work is focused on the changes made to the standard for the harmonic rejection and out-of-band interference tests for which the ROCOF Error limits have been suspended. The paper...
Theory of life time measurements with the scanning electron microscope: steady state
Berz, F.; Kuiken, H.K.
1976-01-01
A theoretical steady state analysis is given of the scanning electron microscope method of measuring bulk life time in diodes, where the plane of the junction is perpendicular to the surface. The current in the junction is obtained as a function of the beam power, the beam penetration into the
System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bers, A.
1981-01-01
A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave rf energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected rf energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected rf energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range delta . The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width delta in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma
Reliable and Efficient Procedure for Steady-State Analysis of Nonautonomous and Autonomous Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Dobes
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The majority of contemporary design tools do not still contain steady-state algorithms, especially for the autonomous systems. This is mainly caused by insufficient accuracy of the algorithm for numerical integration, but also by unreliable steady-state algorithms themselves. Therefore, in the paper, a very stable and efficient procedure for the numerical integration of nonlinear differential-algebraic systems is defined first. Afterwards, two improved methods are defined for finding the steady state, which use this integration algorithm in their iteration loops. The first is based on the idea of extrapolation, and the second utilizes nonstandard time-domain sensitivity analysis. The two steady-state algorithms are compared by analyses of a rectifier and a C-class amplifier, and the extrapolation algorithm is primarily selected as a more reliable alternative. Finally, the method based on the extrapolation naturally cooperating with the algorithm for solving the differential-algebraic systems is thoroughly tested on various electronic circuits: Van der Pol and Colpitts oscillators, fragment of a large bipolar logical circuit, feedback and distributed microwave oscillators, and power amplifier. The results confirm that the extrapolation method is faster than a classical plain numerical integration, especially for larger circuits with complicated transients.
40 CFR 86.1362-2007 - Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle.
2010-07-01
...-modal cycle. 86.1362-2007 Section 86.1362-2007 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1362-2007 Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle. This section...
40 CFR 86.1362-2010 - Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle.
2010-07-01
...-modal cycle. 86.1362-2010 Section 86.1362-2010 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1362-2010 Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle. This section...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagner, Manfred H.; Rolon-Garrido, Victor H.; Nielsen, Jens Kromann
2008-01-01
The transient and steady-state elongational viscosity data of three bidisperse polystyrene blends were investigated recently by Nielsen et al. [J. Rheol. 50, 453-476 (2006)]. The blends contain a monodisperse high molar mass component (M-L= 390 kg/ mol) in a matrix of a monodisperse small molar m...
Steady State Crack Propagation in Layered Material Systems Displaying Visco-plastic Behaviour
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kim Lau
2012-01-01
The steady state fracture toughness of elastic visco-plastic materials is studied numerically, using both a conventional and a higher order model. Focus is on the combined effect of strain hardening, strain gradient hardening and strain rate hardening on cracking in layered material systems...
H.R. Barnard; C.B. Graham; W.J. van Verseveld; J.R. Brooks; B.J. Bond; J.J. McDonnell
2010-01-01
Mechanistic assessment of how transpiration influences subsurface flow is necessary to advance understanding of catchment hydrology. We conducted a 24-day, steady-state irrigation experiment to quantify the relationships among soil moisture, transpiration and hillslope subsurface flow. Our objectives were to: (1) examine the time lag between maximum transpiration and...
Steady state drift vortices in plasmas with shear flow in equilibrium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chakrabarti, N.
1999-01-01
The Hasegawa-Mima equation in the presence of sheared poloidal flow is solved for two-dimensional steady state vortex. It is shown that when the phase velocity of the vortex is the same as the diamagnetic drift velocity, an exact solution in the form of counter-rotating vortices may appear...
Quasi-steady state thermal performances of a solar air heater with ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Quasi-steady state thermal performance of a solar air heater with a combined absorber is studied. The whole energy balance equations related to the system were articulated as a linear system of temperature equations. Solutions to this linear system were assessed from program based on an iterative process. The mean ...
A comparison of steady-state ARIES and pulsed PULSAR tokamak power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bathke, C.G.
1994-01-01
The multi-institutional ARIES study has completed a series of three steady-state and two pulsed cost-optimized conceptual designs of commercial tokamak fusion power plants that vary the level of assumed advances in technology and physics. The cost benefits of various design options are compared quantitatively. Possible means to improve the economic competitiveness of fusion are suggested
The total quasi-steady-state approximation for complex enzyme reactions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Morten Gram; Bersani, A. M.; Bersani, E.
2008-01-01
) approximation (or standard quasi-steady-state approximation (sQSSA)), which is valid when the enzyme concentration is sufficiently small. This condition is usually fulfilled for in vitro experiments, but often breaks down in vivo. The total QSSA (tQSSA), which is valid for a broader range of parameters covering...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Place, A.R.; Eccleston, J.F.
1987-01-01
The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isolated from Drosophila is unique among alcohol metabolizing enzymes by not requiring metals for catalysis, by showing 4-pro-S (B-sided) hydride transfer stereospecificity, and by possessing a greater catalytic turnover rate for secondary alcohols than for primary alcohols. They have extended their studies on the kinetic mechanism for this enzyme by examining the pre-steady state transients of ternary complex interconversion using stopped-flow fluorescence methods. When enzyme and a 30-fold molar excess of NADH is mixed with excess acetadehyde, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), or cyclohexanone a rapid (> 100 s -1 ) transient is observe before the steady-state. The rates are insensitive to isotope substitution. With the substrate MEK, the rate and amplitude suggests a single turnover of the enzyme. Similar pre-steady state transients are observed when enzyme and a 50-fold molar excess of NAD + is mixed with ethanol, 2-propanol, and cyclohexanol. The rates show a hyperbolic concentration dependence and a deuterium isotope effect. With d 6 -deuteroethanol the transient no longer occurs in the pre-steady state. When the optical isomers of secondary alcohols are used as substrates, transients are observed only in the R-(-) isomers for all chain lengths. With 2-S(+)-heptanol and 2-S(+)-octanol no transients occur
Steady-state response of periodically supported structures to a moving load
Metrikine, A.V.; Wolfert, A.R.M.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.
1999-01-01
Steady-state vibrations of periodically supported structures under a moving load are analytically investigated. The following three structures are considered: an overhead power line for a train, a long suspended bridge and a railway track. The study is based on the application of so-called