WorldWideScience

Sample records for steady heating observations

  1. Observations of steady anomalous magnetic heating in thin current sheets. [of solar corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, P. C. H.; Van Den Oord, G. H. J.; Hoyng, P.

    1985-01-01

    The Hard X-ray Imaging Spectrometer of the Solar Maximum Mission has yielded observations of a faint, steadily emitting loop-like structure, which have allowed the thermal evolution of this loop over a period of about 15 hr to be followed. Only 0.1 percent of the volume of the loop appears to be steadily heated, at the large rate of 0.6 erg/cu cm sec; this suggests that the heating represents the dissipation of magnetic fields in thin current sheets. Ion-kinetic tearing, as proposed by Galeev et al. (1981), is noted to be especially consonant with these observations. The source of the present X-ray emission is identified with the H-alpha filament in the same region. The present findings are held to constitute the first direct evidence for the steady dissipation of coronal magnetic fields via enhanced thin current sheet resistivity.

  2. Combined Steady-State and Dynamic Heat Exchanger Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal; Bader, Paul N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a heat-transfer experiment that combines steady-state analysis and dynamic control. A process-water stream is circulated through two tube-in-shell heat exchangers in series. In the first, the process water is heated by steam. In the second, it is cooled by cooling water. The equipment is pilot-plant size: heat-transfer areas…

  3. Application of Monte Carlo Method to Steady State Heat Conduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Monte Carlo method was used in modelling steady state heat conduction problems. The method uses the fixed and the floating random walks to determine temperature in the domain of the definition of the heat conduction equation, at a single point directly. A heat conduction problem with an irregular shaped geometry ...

  4. Non-steady-state heat transfer of finned surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Y.; Kameoka, T.

    1974-01-01

    For many purposes, the finned surface is being used to increase heat transfer. Heat exchangers and fuel elements of gas cooled nuclear reactors require the use of the finned surface for high flux heat transfer. The problem is analytically treated by deriving a non-steady-state equation of radiative and convective heat transfer of annular and radial fins in case of sudden change of the fin-root temperature or heat flux. The numerical solution of temperature distribution along the fin is obtained for several typical transient cases. (U.S.)

  5. Model study on steady heat capacity in driven stochastic systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pešek, Jiří; Boksenbojm, E.; Netočný, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2012), 692-701 ISSN 1895-1082 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nonequilibrium steady state * quasistatic process * heat capacity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.905, year: 2012

  6. Steady-state nucleate pool boiling mechanism at low heat fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, L.E.G.

    1979-01-01

    Heat is transfered in the steady state to a horizontal cooper disc inmersed in water at saturation temperature. Levels of heat flux are controlled so that convection and the nucleate boiling can be observed. The value of heat flux is determined experimentally and high speed film is used to record bubble growth. In order to explain the phenomenon the oretical model is proposed in which part of the heat is transfered by free convection during nucleate boiling regime. Agreement between the experiments and the theoretical model is good. (Author) [pt

  7. NASA Lewis Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Ye; Tower, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed the LERCHP code. The PC-based LERCHP code can be used to predict the steady-state performance of heat pipes, including the determination of operating temperature and operating limits which might be encountered under specified conditions. The code contains a vapor flow algorithm which incorporates vapor compressibility and axially varying heat input. For the liquid flow in the wick, Darcy s formula is employed. Thermal boundary conditions and geometric structures can be defined through an interactive input interface. A variety of fluid and material options as well as user defined options can be chosen for the working fluid, wick, and pipe materials. This report documents the current effort at GRC to update the LERCHP code for operating in a Microsoft Windows (Microsoft Corporation) environment. A detailed analysis of the model is presented. The programming architecture for the numerical calculations is explained and flowcharts of the key subroutines are given

  8. Exergy optimization in a steady moving bed heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Verdugo, A; Almendros-Ibáñez, J A; Ruiz-Rivas, U; Santana, D

    2009-04-01

    This work provides an energy and exergy optimization analysis of a moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE). The exchanger is studied as a cross-flow heat exchanger where one of the phases is a moving granular medium. The optimal MBHE dimensions and the optimal particle diameter are obtained for a range of incoming fluid flow rates. The analyses are carried out over operation data of the exchanger obtained in two ways: a numerical simulation of the steady-state problem and an analytical solution of the simplified equations, neglecting the conduction terms. The numerical simulation considers, for the solid, the convection heat transfer to the fluid and the diffusion term in both directions, and for the fluid only the convection heat transfer to the solid. The results are compared with a well-known analytical solution (neglecting conduction effects) for the temperature distribution in the exchanger. Next, the analytical solution is used to derive an expression for the exergy destruction. The optimal length of the MBHE depends mainly on the flow rate and does not depend on particle diameter unless they become very small (thus increasing sharply the pressure drop). The exergy optimal length is always smaller than the thermal one, although the difference is itself small.

  9. Fast Prediction Method for Steady-State Heat Convection

    KAUST Repository

    Wáng, Yì

    2012-03-14

    A reduced model by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and Galerkin projection methods for steady-state heat convection is established on a nonuniform grid. It was verified by thousands of examples that the results are in good agreement with the results obtained from the finite volume method. This model can also predict the cases where model parameters far exceed the sample scope. Moreover, the calculation time needed by the model is much shorter than that needed for the finite volume method. Thus, the nonuniform POD-Galerkin projection method exhibits high accuracy, good suitability, and fast computation. It has universal significance for accurate and fast prediction. Also, the methodology can be applied to more complex modeling in chemical engineering and technology, such as reaction and turbulence. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Locating CVBEM collocation points for steady state heat transfer problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromadka, T.V.

    1985-01-01

    The Complex Variable Boundary Element Method or CVBEM provides a highly accurate means of developing numerical solutions to steady state two-dimensional heat transfer problems. The numerical approach exactly solves the Laplace equation and satisfies the boundary conditions at specified points on the boundary by means of collocation. The accuracy of the approximation depends upon the nodal point distribution specified by the numerical analyst. In order to develop subsequent, refined approximation functions, four techniques for selecting additional collocation points are presented. The techniques are compared as to the governing theory, representation of the error of approximation on the problem boundary, the computational costs, and the ease of use by the numerical analyst. ?? 1985.

  11. Steady State Temperature Profile in a Cylinder Heated by Microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, H. W.; Barmatz, M.; Wagner, P.

    1995-01-01

    A new theory has been developed to calculate the steady state temperature profile in a cylindrical sample positioned along the entire axis of a cylindrical microwave cavity. Temperature profiles where computed for- alumina rods of various radii contained in a cavity excite in one of the TM(sub OnO) modes with n = 1, 2 or 3. Calculations where also performed with a concentric outer cylindrical tube surrounding the rod to investigate hybrid heating. The parameters studies of the sample center and surface temperature where performed as a function of the total power transmitted into the cavity. Also, the total hemispherical emissivity was varied at boundaries of the rod, surrounding tube, and cavity walls. The result are discussed in the context of controlling the average rod temperature and the temperature distribution in the rod during microwave processing.

  12. Visual observation of a heat pipe working characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuyuzaki, Noriyoshi; Saito, Takashi; Ishigami, Shinya; Kawada, Michitaka; Konno, Masanobu; Kaminaga, Fumito; Okamoto, Yoshizo.

    1988-10-01

    When the heat pipe is used in a nuclear engineering field, it is indispensable to understand transient characteristics of an accident condition as well as in a steady state at a normal operation. However there have been few informations about the transient characteristics of a heat pipe in case of rapid temperature or heat load change in an evaporator section. The purpose of this study is to examine transient and steady state characteristics of a gravity assisted heat pipe and variable conductance heat pipe(VCHP) which will be used in a neutron irradiation capsule. This report presents results of visual observation of boiling and condensation patterns on steady state or transient condition in a visible heat pipe made of a glass. The response time of the heat pipe is on the order of a few seconds when the temperature of the evaporator part is kept above the operating temperature. (author)

  13. Thermal performance and 3D analysis of advanced mechanically joined divertor plate for LHD under steady state high heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Y.; Noda, N.; Sagara, A.; Sakamoto, R.; Yamazaki, K.; Satow, T.; Motojima, O.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal performances of an advanced mechanically joined module (MJM) under steady state high heat fluxes of 2.0-4.25 MW/m 2 and thermo-mechanical analysis are described. The advanced MJM was designed to apply for a helical divertor plate of a large helical device (LHD) at the next experimental phase II. The advanced MJM has a unified armor/heat sink made of carbon/carbon composite different from the normal MJM with a separated copper heat sink. To evaluate the thermal performance of the advanced MJM, short pulse high heat flux test up to 5.4 MW/m 2 and steady state high heat flux tests up to 4.25 MW/m 2 have been carried out using a test facility ACT. Moreover, the thermal fatigue test of the advanced MJM up to 150 cycles under steady state high heat flux of 2.5 MW/m 2 has been performed. After theses tests, no apparent damage and no cracking on the armor tile were observed although there was a little increase in the armor/heat sink temperature during the thermal fatigue test. To evaluate the thermal stress in the armor/heat sink of the MJM during steady state high heat flux test and to optimize the structure, thermo-mechanical analyses are done using a 3D CAD

  14. Hair-triggered instability of radial steady states, spread and extinction in semilinear heat equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junping; Wang, Xuefeng

    We first study the initial value problem for a general semilinear heat equation. We prove that every bounded nonconstant radial steady state is unstable if the spatial dimension is low ( n⩽10) or if the steady state is flat enough at infinity: the solution of the heat equation either becomes unbounded as t approaches the lifespan, or eventually stays above or below another bounded radial steady state, depending on if the initial value is above or below the first steady state; moreover, the second steady state must be a constant if n⩽10. Using this instability result, we then prove that every nonconstant radial steady state of the generalized Fisher equation is a hair-trigger for two kinds of dynamical behavior: extinction and spreading. We also prove more criteria on initial values for these types of behavior. Similar results for a reaction-diffusion system modeling an isothermal autocatalytic chemical reaction are also obtained.

  15. Steady-state heat losses in pipes for low-energy district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    of low-energy DH systems. Various design concepts are considered in this paper: flexible pre-insulated twin pipes with symmetrical or asymmetrical insulation, double pipes, triple pipes. These technologies are potentially energyefficient and cost-effective solutions for DH networks in low-heat density...... areas. We start with a review of theories and methods for steady-state heat loss calculation. Next, the article shows how detailed calculations with 2D-modeling of pipes can be carried out by means of computer software based on the finite element method (FEM). The model was validated by comparison...... with analytical results and data from the literature. We took into account the influence of the temperature-dependent conductivity coefficient of polyurethane (PUR) insulation foam, which enabled to achieve a high degree of detail. We also illustrated the influence of the soil temperature throughout the year...

  16. Steady-state heat transfer in an inverted U-tube steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results are presented involving U-tube steam generator tube bundle local heat transfer and fluid conditions during steady-state, full-power operations performed at high temperatures and pressures with conditions typical of a pressurized water reactor (15.0 MPa primary pressure, 600 K hot-leg fluid temperatures, 6.2 MPa secondary pressure). The MOD-2C facility represents the state-of-the-art in measurement of tube local heat transfer data and average tube bundle secondary fluid density at several elevations, which allows an estimate of the axial heat transfer and void distributions during steady-state and transient operations. The method of heat transfer data reduction is presented and the heat flux, secondary convective heat transfer coefficient, and void fraction distributions are quantified for steady-state, full-power operations

  17. The integrating factor method for solving the steady heat transfer problems in fractal media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shan-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose the integrating factor method via local fractional derivative for the first time. We use the proposed method to handle the steady heat-transfer equations in fractal media with the constant coefficients. Finally, we discuss the non-differentiable behaviors of fractal heat-transfer problems.

  18. A new fractional derivative without singular kernel: Application to the modelling of the steady heat flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose a new fractional derivative without singular kernel. We consider the potential application for modeling the steady heat-conduction problem. The analytical solution of the fractional-order heat flow is also obtained by means of the Laplace transform.

  19. Seventh meeting of the ITER physics expert group on energetic particles, heating and steady state operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormezano, C.

    1999-01-01

    The seventh meeting of the ITER Physics Group on energetic particles, heating and steady state operation was held at CEN/Cadarache from 14 to 18 September 1999. This was the first meeting following the redefinition of the Expert Group structure and it was also the first meeting without participation of US physicists. The main topics covered were: 1. Energetic Particles, 2. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating, 3. Lower Hybrid Current Drive, 4. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating and Current Drive, 5. Neutral Beam Injection, 6. Steady-State Aspects

  20. Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Tiancheng; Bai, Xue; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T. L.; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. However, to realize one advanced control function of thermal flux, one needs to design one sophisticated, multilayered and inhomogeneous thermal structure with different composition/shape at different regions of one device....

  1. Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tiancheng; Bai, Xue; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T L; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2015-05-14

    The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. In this work, we employ one identical sensu-unit with facile natural composition to experimentally realize a new class of thermal metamaterials for controlling thermal conduction (e.g., thermal concentrator, focusing/resolving, uniform heating), only resorting to positioning and locating the same unit element of sensu-shape structure. The thermal metamaterial unit and the proper arrangement of multiple identical units are capable of transferring, redistributing and managing thermal energy in a versatile fashion. It is also shown that our sensu-shape unit elements can be used in manipulating dc currents without any change in the layout for the thermal counterpart. These could markedly enhance the capabilities in thermal sensing, thermal imaging, thermal-energy storage, thermal packaging, thermal therapy, and more domains beyond.

  2. Nanoscale steady-state temperature gradients within polymer nanocomposites undergoing continuous-wave photothermal heating from gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Somsubhra; Wu, Wei-Chen; Tracy, Joseph B; Clarke, Laura I; Bochinski, Jason R

    2017-08-17

    Anisotropically-shaped metal nanoparticles act as nanoscale heaters via excitation of a localized surface plasmon resonance, utilizing a photothermal effect which converts the optical energy into local heat. Steady-state temperatures within a polymer matrix embedded with gold nanorods undergoing photothermal heating using continuous-wave excitation are measured in the immediate spatial vicinity of the nanoparticle (referred to as the local temperature) from observing the rate of physical rotation of the asymmetric nanoparticles within the locally created polymer melt. Average temperatures across the entire (mostly solid) sample (referred to as the global temperature) are simultaneously observed using a fluorescence method from randomly dispersed molecular emitters. Comparing these two independent measurements in films having varying concentrations of nanorods reveals the interplay between the local and global temperatures, clearly demonstrating the capability of these material samples to sustain large steady-state spatial temperature gradients when experiencing continuous-wave excitation photothermal heating. These results are discussed quantitatively. Illustrative imaging studies of nanofibers under photothermal heating also support the presence of a large temperature gradient. Photothermal heating in this manner has potential utility in creating unique thermal processing conditions for outcomes such as driving chemical reactions, inducing crystallinity changes, or enhancing degradation processes in a manner unachievable by conventional heating methods.

  3. The thermodynamic quantity minimized in steady heat and fluid flow processes: A control volume approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Ahmet Z.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The optimality in both heat and fluid flow systems has been investigated. ► A new thermodynamic property has been introduced. ► The second law of thermodynamics was extended to present the temheat balance that included the temheat destruction. ► The principle of temheat destruction minimization was introduced. ► It is shown that the rate of total temheat destruction is minimized in steady heat conduction and fluid flow problems. - Abstract: Heat transfer and fluid flow processes exhibit similarities as they occur naturally and are governed by the same type of differential equations. Natural phenomena occur always in an optimum way. In this paper, the natural optimality that exists in the heat transfer and fluid flow processes is investigated. In this regard, heat transfer and fluid flow problems are treated as optimization problems. We discovered a thermodynamic quantity that is optimized during the steady heat transfer and fluid flow processes. Consequently, a new thermodynamic property, the so called temheat, is introduced using the second law of thermodynamics and the definition of entropy. It is shown, through several examples, that overall temheat destruction is always minimized in steady heat and fluid flow processes. The principle of temheat destruction minimization that is based on the temheat balance equation provides a better insight to understand how the natural flow processes take place.

  4. Dispersed flow film boiling heat transfer of flowing water in vertical tubes: CIAE steady state data and prediction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuzhou; Chen Haiyan

    2000-01-01

    In CIAE a great number of film boiling experimental data have been obtained at steady state by using directly heated hot patch technique, covering the range of pressure 0.1-6MPa and mass flux of 23-1462 (23-500 mainly) kg/m 2 s. It is observed that in dispersed flow film boiling significant thermal nonequilibrium exists, and the heat transfer coefficients exhibit strongly history-dependent nature. Based on the experimental results a mechanistic model and a tabular method are proposed, and the assessment of RELAP5/MOD2.5 is made. (author)

  5. Comparative analysis of steady state heat transfer in a TBC and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    - etry conforming to the NACA0012 is developed which is then used in a finite element algorithm to obtain a non-linear steady state solution to the heat equation for the blade under convection and radiation boundary conditions. The effects of.

  6. Steady-state and transient heat transfer through fins of complex geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taler Dawid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Various methods for steady-state and transient analysis of temperature distribution and efficiency of continuous-plate fins are presented. For a constant heat transfer coefficient over the fin surface, the plate fin can be divided into imaginary rectangular or hexangular fins. At first approximate methods for determining the steady-state fin efficiency like the method of equivalent circular fin and the sector method are discussed. When the fin geometry is complex, thus transient temperature distribution and fin efficiency can be determined using numerical methods. A numerical method for transient analysis of fins with complex geometry is developed. Transient temperature distributions in continuous fins attached to oval tubes is computed using the finite volume - finite element methods. The developed method can be used in the transient analysis of compact heat exchangers to calculate correctly the heat flow rate transferred from the finned tubes to the fluid.

  7. Transient and steady-state analyses of an electrically heated Topaz-II Thermionic Fuel Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Xue, H.

    1992-01-01

    Transient and steady-state analyses of electrically heated, Thermionic Fuel Elements (TFEs) for Topaz-II space power system are performed. The calculated emitter and collector temperatures, load electric power and conversion efficiency are in good agreement with reported data. In this paper the effects or Cs pressure, thermal power input, and load resistance on the steady-state performance of the TFE are also investigated. In addition, the thermal response of the ZrH moderator during a startup transient and following a change in the thermal power input is examined

  8. The steady-state modeling and optimization of a refrigeration system for high heat flux removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Rongliang; Zhang Tiejun; Catano, Juan; Wen, John T.; Michna, Gregory J.; Peles, Yoav; Jensen, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Steady-state modeling and optimization of a refrigeration system for high heat flux removal, such as electronics cooling, is studied. The refrigeration cycle proposed consists of multiple evaporators, liquid accumulator, compressor, condenser and expansion valves. To obtain more efficient heat transfer and higher critical heat flux (CHF), the evaporators operate with two-phase flow only. This unique operating condition necessitates the inclusion of a liquid accumulator with integrated heater for the safe operation of the compressor. Due to the projected incorporation of microchannels into the system to enhance the heat transfer in heat sinks, the momentum balance equation, rarely seen in previous vapor compression cycle heat exchangers modeling efforts, is utilized in addition to the mass and energy balance equations to capture the expected significant microchannel pressure drop witnessed in previous experimental investigations. Using the steady-state model developed, a parametric study is performed to study the effect of various external inputs on the system performance. The Pareto optimization is applied to find the optimal system operating conditions for given heat loads such that the system coefficient of performance (COP) is optimized while satisfying the CHF and other system operation constraints. Initial validation efforts show the good agreement between the experimental data and model predictions.

  9. Analytical and numerical solution of one- and two-dimensional steady heat transfer in a coldplate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.F.; Bennett, G.A.; Bultman, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    We develop analytical models for steady-state, one- and two-dimensional heat transfer in a single-material, flat-plate coldplate. Discrete heat sources are mounted on one side of the plate and heat transfer to a flowing fluid occurs on the other. The models are validated numerically using finite differences. We propose a simple procedure for estimating maximum coldplate temperature at the location of each heat source which includes thermal interaction among the sources. Results from one model are compared with data obtained for a composite coldplate operated in the laboratory. We demonstrate the utility of the models as diagnostic tools to be used for predicting the existence and extent of void volumes and delaminations in the composite material that can occur with coldplates of this type. Based on our findings, recommendations for effective coldplate design are given

  10. Steady flow and heat transfer analysis of third grade fluid with porous medium and heat generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbowale T. Akinshilo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, flow and heat transfer of a non Newtonian third grade fluid with porous medium and internal heat source conveyed through parallel plates held horizontally against each other are investigated. The nonlinear ordinary equations arising due to visco-elastic effects from the mechanics of the fluid are analysed using the adomian decomposition method (ADM adopting Vogel’s temperature dependent model based viscosity. Thermal fluidic parameters effects such as pressure gradient, heat generation parameter and porosity term are examined on the flow and heat transfer. Increasing porosity term shows slight decreasing effect on velocity distribution, as increasing heat generation term demonstrates significant increase on temperature distribution towards the upper plate. Obtained solutions in this paper may be used to advance studies in thin film flow, energy conservation, coal-water mixture, polymer solution and oil recovery application. Also Results from analyses compared against the fourth order Runge kutta numerical solution proves to be in satisfactory agreement.

  11. Fundamental aspects of steady-state conversion of heat to work at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio; Saito, Keiji; Whitney, Robert S.

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, the study of heat to work conversion has been re-invigorated by nanotechnology. Steady-state devices do this conversion without any macroscopic moving parts, through steady-state flows of microscopic particles such as electrons, photons, phonons, etc. This review aims to introduce some of the theories used to describe these steady-state flows in a variety of mesoscopic or nanoscale systems. These theories are introduced in the context of idealized machines which convert heat into electrical power (heat-engines) or convert electrical power into a heat flow (refrigerators). In this sense, the machines could be categorized as thermoelectrics, although this should be understood to include photovoltaics when the heat source is the sun. As quantum mechanics is important for most such machines, they fall into the field of quantum thermodynamics. In many cases, the machines we consider have few degrees of freedom, however the reservoirs of heat and work that they interact with are assumed to be macroscopic. This review discusses different theories which can take into account different aspects of mesoscopic and nanoscale physics, such as coherent quantum transport, magnetic-field induced effects (including topological ones such as the quantum Hall effect), and single electron charging effects. It discusses the efficiency of thermoelectric conversion, and the thermoelectric figure of merit. More specifically, the theories presented are (i) linear response theory with or without magnetic fields, (ii) Landauer scattering theory in the linear response regime and far from equilibrium, (iii) Green-Kubo formula for strongly interacting systems within the linear response regime, (iv) rate equation analysis for small quantum machines with or without interaction effects, (v) stochastic thermodynamic for fluctuating small systems. In all cases, we place particular emphasis on the fundamental questions about the bounds on ideal machines. Can magnetic-fields change the

  12. Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

  13. New analytical solution for solving steady-state heat conduction problems with singularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laraqi Najib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem of steady-state heat conduction which presents singularities is solved in this paper by using the conformal mapping method. The principle of this method is based on the Schwarz-Christoffel transformation. The considered problem is a semi-infinite medium with two different isothermal surfaces separated by an adiabatic annular disc. We show that the thermal resistance can be determined without solving the governing equations. We determine a simple and exact expression that provides the thermal resistance as a function of the ratio of annular disc radii.

  14. Direct expansion solar assisted heat pumps – A clean steady state approach for overall performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagliafico, Luca A.; Scarpa, Federico; Valsuani, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Traditional thermal solar panel technologies have limited efficiency and the required economic investments make them noncompetitive in the space heating market. The greatest limit to the diffusion of thermal solar systems is the characteristic temperatures they can reach: the strong connection between the user temperature and the collector temperature makes it possible to achieve high thermal (collector) efficiency only at low, often useless, user temperatures. By using solar collectors as thermal exchange units (evaporators) in a heat pump system (direct expansion solar assisted heat pump, DX-SAHP), the overall efficiency greatly increases with a significative cut of the associated investment in terms of pay-back time. In this study, an approach is proposed to the steady state analysis of DX-SAHP, which is based on the simplified inverse Carnot cycle and on the second law efficiency concept. This method, without the need of calculating the refrigerant fluid properties and the detailed processes occurring in the refrigeration device, allows us to link the main features of the plant to its relevant interactions with the surroundings. The very nature of the proposed method makes the relationship explicit and meaningful among all the involved variables. The paper, after the description of the method, presents an explanatory application of this technique by reviewing various aspects of the performance of a typical DX-SAHP in which the savings on primary energy consumption is regarded as the main feature of the plant and highlighted in a monthly averaged analysis. Results agree to those coming from a common standard steady state thermodynamic analysis. The application to a typical DX-SAHP system demonstrates that a mean saved primary energy of about 50% with respect to standard gas burner can be achieved for the same user needs. Such a result is almost independent from the type of flat plate solar panel used (double or single glazed, or even bare panels) as a result of

  15. Theoretical research of helium pulsating heat pipe under steady state conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, D; Liu, H M; Li, L F; Huang, R J; Wang, W

    2015-01-01

    As a new-type heat pipe, pulsating heat pipe (PHP) has several outstanding features, such as great heat transport ability, strong adjustability, small size and simple construction. PHP is a complex two-phase flow system associated with many physical subjects and parameters, which utilizes the pressure and temperature changes in volume expansion and contraction during phase changes to excite the pulsation motion of liquid plugs and vapor bubbles in the capillary tube between the evaporator and the condenser. At present time, some experimental investigation of helium PHP have been done. However, theoretical research of helium PHP is rare. In this paper, the physical and mathematical models of operating mechanism for helium PHP under steady state are established based on the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. Several important parameters are correlated and solved, including the liquid filling ratio, flow velocity, heat power, temperature, etc. Based on the results, the operational driving force and flow resistances of helium PHP are analysed, and the flow and heat transfer is further studied. (paper)

  16. Unconfined laminar nanofluid flow and heat transfer around a rotating circular cylinder in the steady regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouakkaz Rafik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, steady flow-field and heat transfer through a copper- water nanofluid around a rotating circular cylinder with a constant nondimensional rotation rate α varying from 0 to 5 was investigated for Reynolds numbers of 5–40. Furthermore, the range of nanoparticle volume fractions considered is 0–5%. The effect of volume fraction of nanoparticles on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are carried out by using a finite-volume method based commercial computational fluid dynamics solver. The variation of the local and the average Nusselt numbers with Reynolds number, volume fractions, and rotation rate are presented for the range of conditions. The average Nusselt number is found to decrease with increasing value of the rotation rate for the fixed value of the Reynolds number and volume fraction of nanoparticles. In addition, rotation can be used as a drag reduction technique.

  17. A Galerkin, finite-element analysis of steady-state flow and heat transport in the shallow hydrothermal system in the East Mesa area, Imperial Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    A steady-state simulation model was applied to the shallow hydrothermal system in the East Mesa area of Imperial Valley, Calif. The steady-state equations of flow and heat transport were solved by use of a Galerkin, finite-element method. A solution was obtained by iterating between the temperature and pressure equations, using updated densities and viscosities. Temperature and pressure were obtained for each node, and corresponding head values were calculated. The simulated temperature and pressure patterns correlated well with the observed patterns. Additional data, mainly from test drilling, would be required for construction of a similar model of the deep hydrothermal system.

  18. Modelling of Quench Limit for Steady State Heat Deposits in LHC Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bocian, D; Siemko, A

    2008-01-01

    A quench, the transition of a conductor from the superconducting to the normal conducting state, occurs irreversibly in the accelerator magnets if one of the three parameters: temperature, magnetic field or current density exceeds a critical value. Energy deposited in the superconductor by the particle beams provokes quenches detrimental for the accelerator operation. In particular if particles impacting on the vacuum chamber and their secondary showers depose energy in the magnet coils. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) nominal beam intensity is 3.2 ldr 10^14 protons. A quench occurs if a fraction of the order of 10^7 protons per second is lost locally. A network model is used to simulate the thermodynamic behaviour of the magnets. The heat flow in the network model was validated with measurements performed in the CERN magnet test facility. A steady state heat flow was introduced in the coil by using the quench heaters implemented in the LHC magnets. The value of the heat source current is determined by the ne...

  19. Thermo-economic analysis of steady state waste heat recovery in data centers using absorption refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, Khosrow; Jones, Gerard F.; Fleischer, Amy S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Absorption refrigeration is powered by data center waste heat. • Waste heat from 3 to 5 server racks produces cooling for an additional rack. • An economic analysis shows the payback period can be as short as 4–5 months. - Abstract: This paper addresses the technical and economic issues associated with waste heat recovery in data centers through the use of absorption cooling machines. The theoretical possibility of utilizing the heat dissipated by a server, or a number of servers, to power an absorption system, which in turn produces cooling for other servers in the data center, is investigated. For this purpose, a steady-state thermodynamic model is developed to perform energy balance and exergy analyses for a novel configuration of an on-chip two-phase cooling system and an absorption refrigeration system. This combination is created by replacing the condenser in the on-chip cooling circuit with the generator of an absorption refrigeration cycle. The performance of the developed model in simulating both LiBr–water and water–ammonia absorption cooling systems is examined through verification of the model results against the reference data available in the literature. The verification indicates the superiority of LiBr–water absorption system for data center/server operating conditions. Therefore, a LiBr–water absorption refrigeration system is modeled in the novel combined heat recovery system. For these systems it is shown that the traditional definition for the coefficient of performance (COP) is not appropriate to evaluate the performance and, in its place, introduce a new figure of merit. Through a sensitivity analysis, the effects of server waste heat quality, server coolant type, solution peak concentration, solution heat exchanger effectiveness, evaporator temperature, and operating pressures on the performance of the novel system are investigated. Finally, using the thermodynamic model and cost information provided by the

  20. Observer-based monitoring of heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga-Zaragoza, Carlos-Manuel; Alvarado-Martínez, Víctor-Manuel; Zavala-Río, Arturo; Méndez-Ocaña, Rafael-Maxim; Guerrero-Ramírez, Gerardo-Vicente

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this work is to provide a method for monitoring performance degradation in counter-flow double-pipe heat exchangers. The overall heat transfer coefficient is estimated by an adaptive observer and monitored in order to infer when the heat exchanger needs preventive or corrective maintenance. A simplified mathematical model is used to synthesize the adaptive observer and a more complex model is used for simulation. The reliability of the proposed method was demonstrated via numerical simulations and laboratory experiments with a bench-scale pilot plant.

  1. CORTES, Steady-State and Transient Heat Flow and Stress Analysis in Pipe Joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantayat, A. N.; Powell, G. H.; Textor, R. E.; Bass, B. R.; Bryson, J. W.; Moore, S. E.

    1996-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: CORTES is a package consisting of five finite element programs developed for the stress analysis of ANSI Bl6.9 tee joints. The five programs are: SA, the stress analysis program which analyzes pipe joints for the effects of internal pressure and arbitrary combinations of bending moment, torsional moment, axial force, and sheer force on the ends of the branch and run pipes. A limited temperature stress analysis capability is provided. EP, the elasto-plastic stress analysis program which analyzes pipe joints for the effects of internal pressure and arbitrary combinations of forces (including moments) and displacements including rotations imposed on the ends of the run and branch pipes. THFA, the transient heat flow analysis program which determines the time history of temperature variations in the pipe joints. The joint is assumed initially to be at a uniform temperature. Temperature changes are then specified at the inner surface, and a heat flow analysis is performed assuming a perfectly insulated outer surface. SHFA, the steady-state heat flow analysis program which determines the steady-state temperature distribution in pipe joints. Temperatures are specified on given cross-sections of the branch and run portions of the tee joint, and the temperature distribution throughout the remainder of the joint is calculated assuming the inner and outer surfaces are perfectly insulated. TSA, accepts as input, the output data from THFA or SHFA and performs the thermal stress analysis on the pipe joints. 2 - Method of solution: The joint is idealized as a system of 8-node hexahedral finite elements. A modified Zienkiewicz-Irons iso-parametric element which has superior bending properties compared with the unmodified iso-parametric element is used. The transient heat flow (THFA) problem is solved by a step-by-step integration procedure assuming linear variation of temperature with time within a step. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of

  2. Measurements of the effects of a wire-wrap spacer on the thermalhydraulics of heated annular upward flow of supercritical R134a in steady and transient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinink, S.; Copping, A.; Kedare, S.; Hovell, K.; Yaras, M.I. [Carleton University, Ottawa (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Experiments were conducted at supercritical pressures and temperatures on a vertically-oriented annular heating rod with a wire-wrap spacer using upward-flowing R134a to determine the effect of a wire-wrap spacer on heat transfer in proximity of the pseudocritical point. Measurements were taken at quasi-steady-state and pressure-transient conditions. During each instance of deteriorated heat transfer, the Nusselt number is greater than values predicted by the Dittus-Boelter correlation. Heat transfer during the pressure transients is observed to be insensitive to the time rate of change of the fluid pressure, which implies that the transience does not affect the instantaneous state of the heat-transfer process. (author)

  3. Iterative Observer-based Estimation Algorithms for Steady-State Elliptic Partial Differential Equation Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Majeed, Muhammad Usman

    2017-07-19

    Steady-state elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) are frequently used to model a diverse range of physical phenomena. The source and boundary data estimation problems for such PDE systems are of prime interest in various engineering disciplines including biomedical engineering, mechanics of materials and earth sciences. Almost all existing solution strategies for such problems can be broadly classified as optimization-based techniques, which are computationally heavy especially when the problems are formulated on higher dimensional space domains. However, in this dissertation, feedback based state estimation algorithms, known as state observers, are developed to solve such steady-state problems using one of the space variables as time-like. In this regard, first, an iterative observer algorithm is developed that sweeps over regular-shaped domains and solves boundary estimation problems for steady-state Laplace equation. It is well-known that source and boundary estimation problems for the elliptic PDEs are highly sensitive to noise in the data. For this, an optimal iterative observer algorithm, which is a robust counterpart of the iterative observer, is presented to tackle the ill-posedness due to noise. The iterative observer algorithm and the optimal iterative algorithm are then used to solve source localization and estimation problems for Poisson equation for noise-free and noisy data cases respectively. Next, a divide and conquer approach is developed for three-dimensional domains with two congruent parallel surfaces to solve the boundary and the source data estimation problems for the steady-state Laplace and Poisson kind of systems respectively. Theoretical results are shown using a functional analysis framework, and consistent numerical simulation results are presented for several test cases using finite difference discretization schemes.

  4. Steady subsidence of a repeatedly erupting caldera through InSAR observations: Aso, Japan

    KAUST Repository

    Nobile, Adriano

    2017-04-05

    The relation between unrest and eruption at calderas is still poorly understood. Aso caldera, Japan, shows minor episodic phreatomagmatic eruptions associated with steady subsidence. We analyse the deformation of Aso using SAR images from 1993 to 2011 and compare it with the eruptive activity. Although the dataset suffers from limitations (e.g. atmospheric effects, coherence loss, low signal-to-noise ratio), we observe a steady subsidence signal from 1996 to 1998, which suggests an overall contraction of a magmatic source below the caldera centre, from 4 to 5 km depth. We propose that the observed contraction may have been induced by the release of the magmatic fluids feeding the eruptions. If confirmed by further data, this hypothesis suggests that degassing processes play a crucial role in triggering minor eruptions within open conduit calderas, such as at Aso. Our study underlines the importance of defining any eruptive potential also from deflating magmatic systems with open conduit.

  5. Steady subsidence of a repeatedly erupting caldera through InSAR observations: Aso, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Adriano; Acocella, Valerio; Ruch, Joel; Aoki, Yosuke; Borgstrom, Sven; Siniscalchi, Valeria; Geshi, Nobuo

    2017-05-01

    The relation between unrest and eruption at calderas is still poorly understood. Aso caldera, Japan, shows minor episodic phreatomagmatic eruptions associated with steady subsidence. We analyse the deformation of Aso using SAR images from 1993 to 2011 and compare it with the eruptive activity. Although the dataset suffers from limitations (e.g. atmospheric effects, coherence loss, low signal-to-noise ratio), we observe a steady subsidence signal from 1996 to 1998, which suggests an overall contraction of a magmatic source below the caldera centre, from 4 to 5 km depth. We propose that the observed contraction may have been induced by the release of the magmatic fluids feeding the eruptions. If confirmed by further data, this hypothesis suggests that degassing processes play a crucial role in triggering minor eruptions within open conduit calderas, such as at Aso. Our study underlines the importance of defining any eruptive potential also from deflating magmatic systems with open conduit.

  6. Heat transfer and voidage measurements in steady state post-dryout at low quality and high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, R.A.; Archer, D.; Swinnerton, D.

    1992-01-01

    Steady state post-dryout heat transfer and voidage data have been obtained at pressures up to 70 bar and flows up to 1000 kg/m 2 s inside a vertical tube. The data were obtained with steam/water using a directly heated hot notch test section. Heat flux and voidage data are presented. The data are used to investigate aspects of the TRAC-PF1/MOD2 version 5.3 reflood model and are compared against heat transfer models used in it. (8 figures) (Author)

  7. Turbulence Heating ObserveR – satellite mission proposal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaivads, A.; Retinò, A.; Souček, Jan; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Valentini, F.; Escoubet, C. P.; Alexandrova, O.; André, M.; Bale, S. D.; Balikhin, M.; Burgess, D.; Camporeale, E.; Caprioli, D.; Chen, C. H. K.; Clacey, E.; Cully, C. M.; Keyser de, J.; Eastwood, J. P.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Eriksson, S.; Goldstein, M. L.; Graham, D. B.; Haaland, S.; Hoshino, M.; Ji, H.; Karimabadi, H.; Kucharek, H.; Lavraud, B.; Marcucci, F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Moore, T. E.; Nakamura, R.; Narita, Y.; Němeček, Z.; Norgren, C.; Opgenoorth, H.; Palmroth, M.; Perrone, D.; Pinçon, J.-L.; Rathsman, P.; Rothkaehl, H.; Sahraoui, F.; Servidio, S.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Vainio, L.; Vörös, Z.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 5 (2016), 905820501/1-905820501/16 ISSN 0022-3778 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : plasma heating * plasma properties * space plasma physics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.160, year: 2016 https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-plasma-physics/article/div-classtitleturbulence-heating-observer-satellite-mission-proposaldiv/01BB69B09206CE04C48BEDA8F24ED33C/core-reader

  8. Quasi-steady-state model of a counter flow air-to-air heat exchanger with phase change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Kragh, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    Using mechanical ventilation with highly efficient heat-recovery in northern European or arctic climates is a very efficient way of reducing the energy use for heating in buildings. However, it also presents a series of problems concerning condensation and frost formation in the heat......-exchanger. Developing highly efficient heat-exchangers and strategies to avoid/remove frost formation implies the use of detailed models to predict and evaluate different heat-exchanger designs and strategies. This paper presents a quasi-steady-state model of a counter-flow air-to-air heat-exchanger that takes...... into account the effects of condensation and frost formation. The model is developed as an Excel spreadsheet, and specific results are compared with laboratory measurements. As an example, the model is used to determine the most energy-efficient control strategy for a specific heat-exchanger under northern...

  9. Heat flux of driven granular mixtures at low density: Stability analysis of the homogeneous steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Nagi; Garzó, Vicente

    2018-02-01

    The Navier-Stokes order hydrodynamic equations for a low-density driven granular mixture obtained previously [Khalil and Garzó, Phys. Rev. E 88, 052201 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.88.052201] from the Chapman-Enskog solution to the Boltzmann equation are considered further. The four transport coefficients associated with the heat flux are obtained in terms of the mass ratio, the size ratio, composition, coefficients of restitution, and the driven parameters of the model. Their quantitative variation on the control parameters of the system is demonstrated by considering the leading terms in a Sonine polynomial expansion to solve the exact integral equations. As an application of these results, the stability of the homogeneous steady state is studied. In contrast to the results obtained in undriven granular mixtures, the stability analysis of the linearized Navier-Stokes hydrodynamic equations shows that the transversal and longitudinal modes are (linearly) stable with respect to long enough wavelength excitations. This conclusion agrees with a previous analysis made for single granular gases.

  10. STEADY-STATE HEAT REJECTION RATES FOR A COAXIAL BOREHOLE HEAT EXCHANGER DURING PASSIVE AND ACTIVE COOLING DETERMINED WITH THE NOVEL STEP THERMAL RESPONSE TEST METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Macenić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available At three locations in Zagreb, classical and extended thermal response test (TRT was conducted on installed coaxial heat exchangers. With classic TR test, thermogeological properties of the ground and thermal resistance of the borehole were determined at each location. It is seen that thermal conductivity of the ground varies, due to difference in geological profile of the sites. In addition, experimental research of steady-state thermal response step test (SSTRST was carried out to determine heat rejection rates for passive and active cooling in steady state regime. Results showed that heat rejection rate is only between 8-11 W/m, which indicates that coaxial system is not suitable for passive cooling demands. Furthermore, the heat pump in passive cooling mode uses additional plate heat exchanger where there is additional temperature drop of working fluid by approximately 1,5 °C. Therefore, steady-state rejection rate for passive cooling is even lower for a real case project. Coaxial heat exchanger should be always designed for an active cooling regime with an operation of a heat pump compressor in a classical vapour compression refrigeration cycle.

  11. Fouling detection in heat exchangers by Takagi-Sugeno observers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delrot, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of fouling in heat exchangers is currently an important topic. Indeed, the fouling is a costly issue that increases the energy loss (directly or indirectly through an over-sizing of the equipment), and therefore increases the water consumption. As a side effect, fouling increases CO 2 consumption that leads to environmental consequences. Fouling can be detected either on local scale, using expensive and specific sensors or on global scale. Global estimation of fouling can be done by measuring the variation of the mass of the exchanger, or by estimating the efficiency of the exchanger through the transfer coefficient. These two methods require very restricting conditions: a powered exchanger to measure mass variation and a steady state exchanger to estimate the efficiency. The work introduced in this thesis deals with the development of non-linear observers that detect fouling early enough to start an efficient cleaning process. As a beginning, a finite element model of a counter current tubular exchanger was proposed. Then three approaches, based on non-linear Takagi-Sugeno observers, were suggested to detect early fouling in heat exchangers. First approach consisted in a set of observers that estimated the parameters of fouling effect through an interpolation method. The second approach proposed a polynomial Takagi-Sugeno observer, using the theory of sums of squares. Finally, a observer of Takagi-Sugeno type with unknown inputs was developed. As a conclusion, a comparison between those different methods was done. (author)

  12. A principle for the noninvasive measurement of steady-state heat transfer parameters in living tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Makarov

    2014-01-01

    thermal field in biotissue (measuring procedure with the number i, dUiis a variation of a physical value U which unambiguously determines the steady-state thermal field, {pj} is a set of parameters to be measured.Theoretical analysis has shown that the implementation of the above principle leads to the equations that do not contain unknown values of blood temperature and power density of biological heat sources, unlike the starting Pennes equation [4]. This is the main advantage of the developed approach in comparison with non-stationary methods. In addition, there is no dynamic measurement error which is inevitably associated with the measurement procedure for the transient processes.Numerical and physical experiments have been carried out to validate the functionality of the above principle for noninvasive measuring the parameters of stationary heat transfer. For example, with use a thermophysical model of biological tissue [5] the procedure of measuring was simulated to obtain the values of two thermophysical parameters of model biological tissue, namely the blood perfusion (in absolute units and the thermal conductivity. Also, with use a specially designed probe the measurements were carried out for the natural biological tissue of human skin epithelium. The blood perfusion parameter estimation value is in good agreement with the literature data [6], despite the illustrative purpose of conducted measurements. These experiments have also demonstrated the possibility of simultaneous measuring the several thermophysical properties of biological tissue in a noninvasive manner, using a rather simple equipment.Formula (1 can contain not only thermophysical parameters of the living tissue, but any other parameters provided that each one unambiguously affects the heat transfer in a particular experiment. For example, it was shown that it is possible to recover the thicknesses of subcutaneous tissue layers of model of skin on the results of thermal measurements on the basis of

  13. Dispersed-flow film boiling in rod-bundle geometry: steady-state heat-transfer data and correlation comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoder, G.L.; Morris, D.G.; Mullins, C.B.; Ott, L.J.; Reed, D.A.

    1982-03-01

    Assessment of six film boiling correlations and one single-phase vapor correlation has been made using data from 22 steady state upflow rod bundle tests (series 3.07.9). Bundle fluid conditions were calculated using energy and mass conservation considerations. Results of the steady state film boiling tests support the conclusions reached in the analysis of prior transient tests 3.03.6AR, 3.06.6B, and 3.08.6C. Comparisons between experimentally determined and correlation-predicted heat transfer coefficients, are presented

  14. Replacement of unsteady heat transfer coefficient by equivalent steady-state one when calculating temperature oscillations in a thermal layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supel'nyak, M. I.

    2017-11-01

    Features of calculation of temperature oscillations which are damped in a surface layer of a solid and which are having a small range in comparison with range of temperature of the fluid medium surrounding the solid at heat transfer coefficient changing in time under the periodic law are considered. For the specified case the equations for approximate definition of constant and oscillating components of temperature field of a solid are received. The possibility of use of appropriately chosen steady-state coefficient when calculating the temperature oscillations instead of unsteady heat-transfer coefficient is investigated. Dependence for definition of such equivalent constant heat-transfer coefficient is determined. With its help the research of temperature oscillations of solids with canonical form for some specific conditions of heat transfer is undertaken. Comparison of the obtained data with results of exact solutions of a problem of heat conductivity by which the limits to applicability of the offered approach are defined is carried out.

  15. Computer simulation of steady-state performance of air-to-air heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, R D; Creswick, F A

    1978-03-01

    A computer model by which the performance of air-to-air heat pumps can be simulated is described. The intended use of the model is to evaluate analytically the improvements in performance that can be effected by various component improvements. The model is based on a trio of independent simulation programs originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Heat Transfer Laboratory. The three programs have been combined so that user intervention and decision making between major steps of the simulation are unnecessary. The program was further modified by substituting a new compressor model and adding a capillary tube model, both of which are described. Performance predicted by the computer model is shown to be in reasonable agreement with performance data observed in our laboratory. Planned modifications by which the utility of the computer model can be enhanced in the future are described. User instructions and a FORTRAN listing of the program are included.

  16. Analysis on the heating performance of a gas engine driven air to water heat pump based on a steady-state model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.R.; Lu, X.S.; Li, S.Z.; Lin, W.S.; Gu, A.Z.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the heating performance of a gas engine driven air to water heat pump was analyzed using a steady state model. The thermodynamic model of a natural gas engine is identified by the experimental data and the compressor model is created by several empirical equations. The heat exchanger models are developed by the theory of heat balance. The system model is validated by comparing the experimental and simulation data, which shows good agreement. To understand the heating characteristic in detail, the performance of the system is analyzed in a wide range of operating conditions, and especially the effect of engine waste heat on the heating performance is discussed. The results show that engine waste heat can provide about 1/3 of the total heating capacity in this gas engine driven air to water heat pump. The performance of the engine, heat pump and integral system are analyzed under variations of engine speed and ambient temperature. It shows that engine speed has remarkable effects on both the engine and heat pump, but ambient temperature has little influence on the engine's performance. The system and component performances in variable speed operating conditions is also discussed at the end of the paper

  17. Steady heat conduction-based thermal conductivity measurement of single walled carbon nanotubes thin film using a micropipette thermal sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R; Lee, K M; Chang, W S; Kim, D S; Rhee, G H; Choi, T Y

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the thermal conductivity measurement of single-walled carbon nanotubes thin film using a laser point source-based steady state heat conduction method. A high precision micropipette thermal sensor fabricated with a sensing tip size varying from 2 μm to 5 μm and capable of measuring thermal fluctuation with resolution of ±0.01 K was used to measure the temperature gradient across the suspended carbon nanotubes (CNT) film with a thickness of 100 nm. We used a steady heat conduction model to correlate the temperature gradient to the thermal conductivity of the film. We measured the average thermal conductivity of CNT film as 74.3 ± 7.9 W m(-1) K(-1) at room temperature.

  18. NASA Glenn Steady-State Heat Pipe Code GLENHP: Compilation for 64- and 32-Bit Windows Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Leonard K.; Geng, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    A new version of the NASA Glenn Steady State Heat Pipe Code, designated "GLENHP," is introduced here. This represents an update to the disk operating system (DOS) version LERCHP reported in NASA/TM-2000-209807. The new code operates on 32- and 64-bit Windows-based platforms from within the 32-bit command prompt window. An additional evaporator boundary condition and other features are provided.

  19. Thermal Conductivity of Advanced Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings Determined by a Steady-state Laser Heat-flux Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The development of low conductivity and high temperature capable thermal barrier coatings requires advanced testing techniques that can accurately and effectively evaluate coating thermal conductivity under future high-performance and low-emission engine heat-flux conditions. In this paper, a unique steady-state CO2 laser (wavelength 10.6 microns) heat-flux approach is described for determining the thermal conductivity and conductivity deduced cyclic durability of ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coating systems at very high temperatures (up to 1700 C) under large thermal gradients. The thermal conductivity behavior of advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings for metallic and Si-based ceramic matrix composite (CMC) component applications has also been investigated using the laser conductivity approach. The relationships between the lattice and radiation conductivities as a function of heat flux and thermal gradient at high temperatures have been examined for the ceramic coating systems. The steady-state laser heat-flux conductivity approach has been demonstrated as a viable means for the development and life prediction of advanced thermal barrier coatings for future turbine engine applications.

  20. Steady-state entanglement and thermalization of coupled qubits in two common heat baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Zhen; Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we study the steady-state entanglement and thermalization of two coupled qubits embedded in two common baths with different temperatures. The common bath is relevant when the two qubits are difficult to be isolated to only contact with their local baths. With the quantum master equation constructed in the eigenstate representation of the coupled qubits, we have demonstrated the variations of steady-state entanglement with respect to various parameters of the qubits' system in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium cases of the baths. The coupling strength and energy detuning of the qubits as well as the temperature gradient of the baths are found to be beneficial to the enhancement of the entanglement. We note a dark state of the qubits that is free from time-evolution and its initial population can greatly influence the steady-state entanglement. By virtues of effective temperatures, we also study the thermalization of the coupled qubits and their variations with energy detuning.

  1. Methodological framework for economical and controllable design of heat exchanger networks: Steady-state analysis, dynamic simulation, and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoud, Ibrahim T.; Abdel-Jabbar, Nabil; Qasim, Muhammad; Chebbi, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • HEN total annualized cost, heat recovery, and controllability are considered in the framework. • Steady-state and dynamic simulations are performed. • Effect of bypass on total annualized cost and controllability is reported. • Optimum bypass fractions are found from closed and open-loop efforts. - Abstract: The problem of interaction between economic design and control system design of heat exchanger networks (HENs) is addressed in this work. The controllability issues are incorporated in the classical design of HENs. A new methodological framework is proposed to account for both economics and controllability of HENs. Two classical design methods are employed, namely, Pinch and superstructure designs. Controllability measures such as relative gain array (RGA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) are used. The proposed framework also presents a bypass placement strategy for optimal control of the designed network. A case study is used to test the applicability of the framework and to assess both economics and controllability. The results indicate that the superstructure design is more economical and controllable compared to the Pinch design. The controllability of the designed HEN is evaluated using Aspen-HYSYS closed-loop dynamic simulator. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed to study the effect of bypass fractions on the total annualized cost and controllability of the designed HEN. The analysis shows that increasing any bypass fraction increases the total annualized cost. However, the trend with the total annualized cost was not observed with respect to the control effort manifested by minimizing the integral of the squared errors (ISE) between the controlled stream temperatures and their targets (set-points). An optimal ISE point is found at a certain bypass fraction, which does not correspond to the minimal total annualized cost. The bypass fractions are validated via open-loop simulation and the additional cooling and

  2. Thermal Conductivity of EB-PVD Thermal Barrier Coatings Evaluated by a Steady-State Laser Heat Flux Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Nagaraj, Ben A.; Bruce, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) Zr02-8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was determined by a steady-state heat flux laser technique. Thermal conductivity change kinetics of the EB-PVD ceramic coatings were also obtained in real time, at high temperatures, under the laser high heat flux, long term test conditions. The thermal conductivity increase due to micro-pore sintering and the decrease due to coating micro-delaminations in the EB-PVD coatings were evaluated for grooved and non-grooved EB-PVD coating systems under isothermal and thermal cycling conditions. The coating failure modes under the high heat flux test conditions were also investigated. The test technique provides a viable means for obtaining coating thermal conductivity data for use in design, development, and life prediction for engine applications.

  3. Thermal Conductivity Change Kinetics of Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings Determined by the Steady-State Laser Heat Flux Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    A steady-state laser heat flux technique has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to obtain critical thermal conductivity data of ceramic thermal barrier coatings under the temperature and thermal gradients that are realistically expected to be encountered in advanced engine systems. In this study, thermal conductivity change kinetics of a plasma-sprayed, 254-mm-thick ZrO2-8 wt % Y2O3 ceramic coating were obtained at high temperatures. During the testing, the temperature gradients across the coating system were carefully measured by the surface and back pyrometers and an embedded miniature thermocouple in the substrate. The actual heat flux passing through the coating system was determined from the metal substrate temperature drop (measured by the embedded miniature thermocouple and the back pyrometer) combined with one-dimensional heat transfer models.

  4. Post-CHF heat transfer during steady-state and transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, K.K.

    1978-06-01

    This review extends previous reviews of steady-state post-CHF literature by Groeneveld, Gardiner, and Fung by including more recent data. A review of the literature on transient post-CHF data is also included by extending the work of Yadigaroglu

  5. The Oak Ridge Heat Pump Models: I. A Steady-State Computer Design Model of Air-to-Air Heat Pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.K. Rice, C.K.

    1999-12-10

    The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model is a FORTRAN-IV computer program to predict the steady-state performance of conventional, vapor compression, electrically-driven, air-to-air heat pumps in both heating and cooling modes. This model is intended to serve as an analytical design tool for use by heat pump manufacturers, consulting engineers, research institutions, and universities in studies directed toward the improvement of heat pump performance. The Heat Pump Design Model allows the user to specify: system operating conditions, compressor characteristics, refrigerant flow control devices, fin-and-tube heat exchanger parameters, fan and indoor duct characteristics, and any of ten refrigerants. The model will compute: system capacity and COP (or EER), compressor and fan motor power consumptions, coil outlet air dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, air- and refrigerant-side pressure drops, a summary of the refrigerant-side states throughout the cycle, and overall compressor efficiencies and heat exchanger effectiveness. This report provides thorough documentation of how to use and/or modify the model. This is a revision of an earlier report containing miscellaneous corrections and information on availability and distribution of the model--including an interactive version.

  6. Diagnosis of Heat Exchanger Tube Failure in Fossil Fuel Boilers Through Estimation of Steady State Operating Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herszage, A.; Toren, M.

    1998-01-01

    Estimation of operating conditions for fossil fuel boiler heat exchangers is often required due to changes in working conditions, design modifications and especially for monitoring performance and failure diagnosis. Regular heat exchangers in fossil fuel boilers are composed of tube banks through which water or steam flow, while hot combustion (flue) gases flow outside the tubes. This work presents a top-down approach to operating conditions estimation based on field measurements. An example for a 350 MW unit superheater is thoroughly discussed. Integral calculations based on measurements for all unit heat exchangers (reheaters, superheaters) were performed first. Based on these calculations a scheme of integral conservation equations (lumped parameter) was then formulated at the single tube level. Steady state temperatures of superheater tube walls were obtained as a main output, and were compared to the maximum allowable operating temperatures of the tubes material. A combined lumped parameter - CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics, FLUENT code) approach constitutes an efficient tool in certain cases. A brief report of such a case is given for another unit superheater. We conclude that steady state evaluations based on both integral and detailed simulations are a valuable monitoring and diagnosis tool for the power generation industry

  7. Modified data analysis for thermal conductivity measurements of polycrystalline silicon microbridges using a steady state Joule heating technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, Robert A; Piekos, Edward S; Phinney, Leslie M

    2012-12-01

    Accurate knowledge of thermophysical properties is needed to predict and optimize the thermal performance of microsystems. Thermal conductivity is experimentally determined by measuring quantities such as voltage or temperature and then inferring a thermal conductivity from a thermal model. Thermal models used for data analysis contain inherent assumptions, and the resultant thermal conductivity value is sensitive to how well the actual experimental conditions match the model assumptions. In this paper, a modified data analysis procedure for the steady state Joule heating technique is presented that accounts for bond pad effects including thermal resistance, electrical resistance, and Joule heating. This new data analysis method is used to determine the thermal conductivity of polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) microbridges fabricated using the Sandia National Laboratories SUMMiT V™ micromachining process over the temperature range of 77-350 K, with the value at 300 K being 71.7 ± 1.5 W/(m K). It is shown that making measurements on beams of multiple lengths is useful, if not essential, for inferring the correct thermal conductivity from steady state Joule heating measurements.

  8. Optimization for steady-state and hybrid operations of ITER by using scaling models of divertor heat load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Yoshiki; Itami, Kiyoshi; Sugihara, Masayoshi; Fujieda, Hirobumi.

    1992-09-01

    Steady-state and hybrid mode operations of ITER are investigated by 0-D power balance calculations assuming no radiation and charge-exchange cooling in divertor region. Operation points are optimized with respect to divertor heat load which must be reduced to the level of ignition mode (∼5 MW/m 2 ). Dependence of the divertor heat load on the variety of the models, i.e., constant-χ model, Bohm-type-χ model and JT-60U empirical scaling model, is also discussed. The divertor heat load increases linearly with the fusion power (P FUS ) in all models. The possible highest fusion power much differs for each model with an allowable divertor heat load. The heat load evaluated by constant-χ model is, for example, about 1.8 times larger than that by Bohm-type-χ model at P FUS = 750 MW. Effect of reduction of the helium accumulation, improvements of the confinement capability and the current-drive efficiency are also investigated aiming at lowering the divertor heat load. It is found that NBI power should be larger than about 60 MW to obtain a burn time longer than 2000 s. The optimized operation point, where the minimum divertor heat load is achieved, does not depend on the model and is the point with the minimum-P FUS and the maximum-P NBI . When P FUS = 690 MW and P NBI = 110 MW, the divertor heat load can be reduced to the level of ignition mode without impurity seeding if H = 2.2 is achieved. Controllability of the current-profile is also discussed. (J.P.N.)

  9. Hydroxyl radical observations during the wintertime in Beijing and comparison with photochemical steady state predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Lisa; Woodward-Massey, Robert; Slater, Eloise; Ye, Chunxiang; Heard, Dwayne; Crilley, Leigh; Kramer, Louisa; Bloss, William; Squires, Freya; Dunmore, Rachel; Lee, James

    2017-04-01

    In Beijing, a megacity of more than 21 million inhabitants, poor urban air quality has a demonstrable effect on human health. During the wintertime, anthropogenic emissions from fossil fuel combustion can lead to high aerosol loadings and frequent haze events. A high oxidation capacity on hazy days has previously been inferred from the significant contribution secondary organic aerosol (SOA) make to total PM2.5 (Huang et al., 2014). The hydroxyl radical (OH) mediates virtually all of the oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere, being responsible for the transformation of primary emissions into secondary pollutants such as NO2, O3 and SOA. Understanding the sources and sinks of OH in the atmosphere is essential in improving predictions of the lifetimes and chemical processing of pollutants and spatial scales of their transport within urban areas. We will present OH measurements made in central Beijing during the recent 'An Integrated Study of AIR Pollution PROcesses in Beijing (AIRPRO)' project which took place in November and December 2016. We will compare the OH observations, made over a range of meteorological conditions including a number of haze episodes, to steady state calculations constrained to the total OH reactivity and key OH precursors that were measured alongside. Through this comparison we will identify the major OH sources which sustain the wintertime oxidation capacity.

  10. A multipoint flux approximation of the steady-state heat conduction equation in anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2013-03-20

    In this work, we introduce multipoint flux (MF) approximation method to the problem of conduction heat transfer in anisotropic media. In such media, the heat flux vector is no longer coincident with the temperature gradient vector. In this case, thermal conductivity is described as a second order tensor that usually requires, at least, six quantities to be fully defined in general three-dimensional problems. The two-point flux finite differences approximation may not handle such anisotropy and essentially more points need to be involved to describe the heat flux vector. In the framework of mixed finite element method (MFE), the MFMFE methods are locally conservative with continuous normal fluxes. We consider the lowest order Brezzi-Douglas-Marini (BDM) mixed finite element method with a special quadrature rule that allows for nodal velocity elimination resulting in a cell-centered system for the temperature. We show comparisons with some analytical solution of the problem of conduction heat transfer in anisotropic long strip. We also consider the problem of heat conduction in a bounded, rectangular domain with different anisotropy scenarios. It is noticed that the temperature field is significantly affected by such anisotropy scenarios. Also, the technique used in this work has shown that it is possible to use the finite difference settings to handle heat transfer in anisotropic media. In this case, heat flux vectors, for the case of rectangular mesh, generally require six points to be described. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

  11. Effects of design variables predicted by a steady - state thermal performance analysis model of a loop heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Eui Guk; Boo, Joon Hong

    2008-01-01

    This study deals with a mathematical modeling for the steady-state temperature characteristics of an entire loop heat pipe. The lumped layer model was applied to each node for temperature analysis. The flat type evaporator and condenser in the model had planar dimensions of 40 mm (W) x 50 mm (L). The wick material was a sintered metal and the working fluid was methanol. The molecular kinetic theory was employed to model the phase change phenomena in the evaporator and the condenser. Liquid-vapor interface configuration was expressed by the thin film theories available in the literature. Effects of design factors of loop heat pipe on the thermal performance were investigated by the modeling proposed in this study

  12. Summary report of NEPTUN investigations into the steady state thermal hydraulics of the passive decay heat removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, K.; Weinberg, D.; Hoffmann, H.; Frey, H.H.; Baumann, W.; Hain, K.; Leiling, W.; Hayafune, H.; Ohira, H.

    1995-12-01

    During the course of steady state NEPTUN investigations, the effects of different design and operating parameters were studied; in particular: The shell design of the above core sturcture, the core power, the number of decay heat exchangers put in operation, the complete flow path blockage at the primary side of the intermediate heat exchangers, and the fluid level in the primary vessel. The findings of the NEPTUN experiments indicate that the decay heat can be safely removed by natural convection. The interwrapper flow makes an essential contribution to that behavior. The decay heat exchangers installed in the upper plenum cause a thermal stratification associated with a pronounced gradient. The vertical extent of the stratification and the quantity of the gradient are depending on the fact whether a permeable or an impermeable shell covers the above core structure. An increase of the core power or a reduction of the number of decay heat exchangers being in operation leads to a higher temperature level in the primary system but does not alter the global temperature distribution. In the case that no coolant enters the inlet windows at the primary side of the intermediate and decay heat exchangers, the core remains coolable as far as the primary vessel is filled with fluid up to a minimum level. Cold water penetrates from the upper plenum into the core and removes the decay heat. The thermal hydraulic computer code FLUTAN was applied for the three-dimensional numerical simulation of the majority of NEPTUN tests reported here. The comparison of computed against experimental data indicates a qualitatively and quantitatively satisfying agreement of the findings with respect to the field of isotherms as well as the temperature profiles in the upper plenum and within the core region of very complex geometry. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Steady state in a gas of inelastic rough spheres heated by a uniform stochastic force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Reyes, Francisco, E-mail: fvega@unex.es; Santos, Andrés, E-mail: andres@unex.es [Departamento de Física and Instituto de Computación Científica Avanzada (ICCAEx), Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    We study here the steady state attained in a granular gas of inelastic rough spheres that is subject to a spatially uniform random volume force. The stochastic force has the form of the so-called white noise and acts by adding impulse to the particle translational velocities. We work out an analytical solution of the corresponding velocity distribution function from a Sonine polynomial expansion that displays energy non-equipartition between the translational and rotational modes, translational and rotational kurtoses, and translational-rotational velocity correlations. By comparison with a numerical solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation (by means of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method), we show that our analytical solution provides a good description that is quantitatively very accurate in certain ranges of inelasticity and roughness. We also find three important features that make the forced granular gas steady state very different from the homogeneous cooling state (attained by an unforced granular gas). First, the marginal velocity distributions are always close to a Maxwellian. Second, there is a continuous transition to the purely smooth limit (where the effects of particle rotations are ignored). And third, the angular translational-rotational velocity correlations show a preference for a quasiperpendicular mutual orientation (which is called “lifted-tennis-ball” behavior)

  14. Resonance scattering by auroral N2+: steady state theory and observations from Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Jokiaho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of auroral energy input at high latitudes often depend on observations of emissions from the first negative band of ionised nitrogen. However, these emissions are affected by solar resonance scattering, which makes photometric and spectrographic measurements difficult to interpret. This work is a statistical study from Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway, during the solar minimum between January and March 2007, providing a good coverage in shadow height position and precipitation conditions. The High Throughput Imaging Echelle Spectrograph (HiTIES measured three bands of N2+ 1N (0,1, (1,2 and (2,3, and one N2 2P band (0,3 in the magnetic zenith. The brightness ratios of the N2+ bands are compared with a theoretical treatment with excellent results. Balance equations for all important vibrational levels of the three lowest electronic states of the N2+ molecule are solved for steady-state, and the results combined with ion chemistry modelling. Brightnesses of the (0,1, (1,2 and (2,3 bands of N2+ 1N are calculated for a range of auroral electron energies, and different values of shadow heights. It is shown that in sunlit aurora, the brightness of the (0,1 band is enhanced, with the scattered contribution increasing with decreasing energy of precipitation (10-fold enhancements for energies of 100 eV. The higher vibrational bands are enhanced even more significantly. In sunlit aurora the observed 1N (1,2/(0,1 and (2,3/(0,1 ratios increase as a function of decreasing precipitation energy, as predicted by theory. In non-sunlit aurora the N2+ species have a constant proportionality to neutral N2. The ratio of 2P(0,3/1N(0,1 in the morning hours shows a pronounced decrease, indicating enhancement of N2+ 1N emission. Finally we study the relationship of all emissions and their ratios to rotational temperatures. A clear effect is observed on rotational development of the bands. It is possible that greatly enhanced rotational temperatures may be a

  15. Computer program MCAP-TOSS calculates steady-state fluid dynamics of coolant in parallel channels and temperature distribution in surrounding heat-generating solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A. Y.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program calculates the steady state fluid distribution, temperature rise, and pressure drop of a coolant, the material temperature distribution of a heat generating solid, and the heat flux distributions at the fluid-solid interfaces. It performs the necessary iterations automatically within the computer, in one machine run.

  16. Comparative analysis of steady state heat transfer in a TBC and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    presently used to control metal temperatures in gas turbine blades. Functionally graded materials ..... In (8) n is the gradient index that controls the average volume fraction of the constituents. Figure 4 shows a ... A FEM code was developed in MATLAB for simulating this heat transfer problem. For code validation in the ...

  17. Unified implicit kinetic scheme for steady multiscale heat transfer based on the phonon Boltzmann transport equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Guo, Zhaoli; Chen, Songze

    2017-12-01

    An implicit kinetic scheme is proposed to solve the stationary phonon Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) for multiscale heat transfer problem. Compared to the conventional discrete ordinate method, the present method employs a macroscopic equation to accelerate the convergence in the diffusive regime. The macroscopic equation can be taken as a moment equation for phonon BTE. The heat flux in the macroscopic equation is evaluated from the nonequilibrium distribution function in the BTE, while the equilibrium state in BTE is determined by the macroscopic equation. These two processes exchange information from different scales, such that the method is applicable to the problems with a wide range of Knudsen numbers. Implicit discretization is implemented to solve both the macroscopic equation and the BTE. In addition, a memory reduction technique, which is originally developed for the stationary kinetic equation, is also extended to phonon BTE. Numerical comparisons show that the present scheme can predict reasonable results both in ballistic and diffusive regimes with high efficiency, while the memory requirement is on the same order as solving the Fourier law of heat conduction. The excellent agreement with benchmark and the rapid converging history prove that the proposed macro-micro coupling is a feasible solution to multiscale heat transfer problems.

  18. Transverse heat transfer coefficient in the dual channel ITER TF CICCs. Part I: Analysis of steady state temperature profiles resulting from annular heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Monika; Herzog, Robert

    2011-10-01

    Two ITER TF dual channel Cable-in-Conduit Conductors (CICCs) have been tested in the SULTAN test facility. The samples were heated either by foil heaters mounted on the outside of the conductor jacket or by induced AC losses. The steady-state temperature response of several thermometers installed on the jacket surface as well as inside the cable were analyzed using the two-channel analytical model proposed by Renard et al. to obtain the equivalent transverse heat transfer coefficient between the bundle and central channel as a function of the mass flow rate. In addition, on the basis of the measured pressure drop and helium flow velocities, the friction factors for helium flow in the bundle and in the central channel were determined. The obtained results may serve as a reference for these cables.

  19. Hall and heat transfer effects on the steady flow of a Sisko fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Maqbool, Khadija [Dept. of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan); Asghar, Saleem [Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, COMSATS, Inst. of Information Tech., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2009-12-15

    This investigation is concerned with the flow and heat transfer analysis between two disks rotating about non-coaxial axes normal to the disks. The constitutive equation of an incompressible Sisko fluid is used. The fluid is electrically conducting and the Hall effect is taken into account. Analytic solutions of the governing nonlinear problem is obtained by homotopy analysis method (HAM). The graphs are presented and discussed. Finally a comparison is made between the results of viscous and Sisko fluids. (orig.)

  20. Hall and Heat Transfer Effects on the Steady Flow of a Sisko Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Maqbool, Khadija; Asghar, Saleem

    2009-12-01

    This investigation is concerned with the flow and heat transfer analysis between two disks rotating about non-coaxial axes normal to the disks. The constitutive equation of an incompressible Sisko fluid is used. The fluid is electrically conducting and the Hall effect is taken into account. Analytic solutions of the governing nonlinear problem is obtained by homotopy analysis method (HAM). The graphs are presented and discussed. Finally a comparison is made between the results of viscous and Sisko fluids

  1. A Methodology to Modify Steady State Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Equipment Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Weonchan; Davies, Patricia; Bolton, J Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Many people are exposed to sounds made by heating, ventilating, air conditioning and refrigeration equipment. These sounds can have a rich harmonic structure attributable to various rotating components: e.g., fans, motors and compressors. There are also broadband components arising from air motion, turbulence and fluid pulsations. Both sound components are also usually modified by acoustical and structural resonances. The design or modification of equipment to optimize sound quality is challe...

  2. Analytical method for steady state heat transfer in two-dimensional porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegal, R.; Goldstein, M.E.

    1970-07-01

    A general technique has been devised for obtaining exact solutions for the heat transfer behavior of a 2- dimensional porous cooled medium. Fluid flows through the porous medium from a reservoir at constant pressure and temperature to a second reservoir at a lower pressure. For the type of flow involved, the surfaces of the porous region that are each at constant pressure are boundaries of constant velocity potential. This fact is used to map the porous region into a strip bounded by parallel potential lines in a complex potential plane. The energy equation, derived by assuming the local matrix and fluid temperatures are equal, is transformed into a separable equation when its independent variables are changed to the coordinates of the potential plane. This allows the general solution for the temperature distribution to be found in the potential plane. The solution is then mapped into the physical plane to yield the heat transfer characteristics of the porous region. An example problem of a porous wall having a step in thickness and a specified surface temperature or heat flux is worked out in detail.

  3. Calculation of Heat-Bearing Agent’s Steady Flow in Fuel Bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosova, E. V.; Guba, G. G.

    2017-11-01

    This paper introduces the result of studying the heat exchange in the fuel bundle of the nuclear reactor’s fuel magazine. The article considers the fuel bundle of the infinite number of fuel elements, fuel elements are considered in the checkerboard fashion (at the tops of a regular triangle a fuel element is a plain round rod. The inhomogeneity of volume energy release in the rod forms the inhomogeneity of temperature and velocity fields, and pressure. Computational methods for studying hydrodynamics in magazines and cores with rod-shape fuel elements are based on a significant simplification of the problem: using basic (averaged) equations, isobaric section hypothesis, porous body model, etc. This could be explained by the complexity of math description of the three-dimensional fluid flow in the multi-connected area with the transfer coefficient anisotropy, curved boundaries and technical computation difficulties. Thus, calculative studying suggests itself as promising and important. There was developed a method for calculating the heat-mass exchange processes of inter-channel fuel element motions, which allows considering the contribution of natural convection to the heat-mass exchange based on the Navier-Stokes equations and Boussinesq approximation.

  4. Novel approach to analytical modelling of steady-state heat transfer from the exterior of TEFC induction motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimenta Dardan O.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel approach to analytical modelling of steady-state heat transfer from the exterior of totally enclosed fan-cooled induction motors. The proposed approach is based on the geometry simplification methods, energy balance equation, modified correlations for forced convection, the Stefan-Boltzmann law, air-flow velocity profiles, and turbulence factor models. To apply modified correlations for forced convection, the motor exterior is presented with surfaces of elementary 3-D shapes as well as the air-flow velocity profiles and turbulence factor models are introduced. The existing correlations for forced convection from a short horizontal cylinder and correlations for heat transfer from straight fins (as well as inter-fin surfaces in axial air-flows are modified by introducing the Prandtl number to the appropriate power. The correlations for forced convection from straight fins and inter-fin surfaces are derived from the existing ones for combined heat transfer (due to forced convection and radiation by using the forced-convection correlations for a single flat plate. Employing the proposed analytical approach, satisfactory agreement is obtained with experimental data from other studies.

  5. Hydroxyl radical observations during the wintertime in Beijing and comparison with steady state model calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, E.; Whalley, L.; Woodward-Massey, R.; Ye, C.; Crilley, L.; Kramer, L. J.; Vu, T.; Bloss, W.; Squires, F. A.; Dunmore, R.; Lee, J. D.; Heard, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    In Beijing poor urban air quality has a demonstrable effect on human health. During the wintertime, anthropogenic emissions from fossil fuel combustion can lead to high aerosol loadings and haze events. A high oxidation capacity on hazy days has previously been inferred from the significant contribution secondary organic aerosol (SOA) make to total PM2.5 (Huang et al., 2014). The hydroxyl radical (OH) mediates virtually all of the oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere, being responsible for the transformation of primary emissions into secondary pollutants such as NO2, O3 and SOA. Understanding the sources and sinks of OH in the atmosphere is essential in improving predictions of the lifetimes and chemical processing of pollutants and their transport within urban areas. We will present OH and HO2 measurements made in central Beijing during the recent `An Integrated Study of AIR Pollution PROcesses in Beijing (AIRPRO)' project which took place in November and December 2016. OH measurements were made using the FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion) technique, with the use of an inlet pre injector (IPI) which provides an alternative method to determine the background by injecting a scavenger (propane) to remove ambient OH. The OH measurements were made over a range of meteorological conditions including a number of haze days, with the average maximum OH concentration measured for the campaign being 2.5 x 106 cm-3 and for haze days the OH concentration reached levels of 3.5 x 106 cm-3 which is comparable to OH levels in non-haze days. We will compare the OH observations to steady state calculations constrained to the total OH reactivity and key OH precursors that were measured alongside OH. Through this comparison we will identify the major OH sources which sustain the wintertime oxidation capacity. The current understanding is that gas-phase oxidation via the OH radical becomes less important in haze events due to lower light and ozone levels, making photochemistry

  6. Effects of ohmic heating and viscous dissipation on steady MHD flow near a stagnation point on an isothermal stretching sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pushkar Raj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the paper is to investigate effects of ohmic heating and viscous dissipation on steady flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field and variable free stream near a stagnation point on a stretching non-conducting isothermal sheet. The governing equations of continuity, momentum, and energy are transformed into ordinary differential equations and solved numerically using Runge-Kutta fourth order with shooting technique. The velocity and temperature distributions are discussed numerically and presented through graphs. Skin-friction coefficient and the Nusselt number at the sheet are derived, discussed numerically, and their numerical values for various values of physical parameters are compared with earlier results and presented through tables.

  7. A new algorithm of global tightly-coupled transient heat transfer based on quasi-steady flow to the conjugate heat transfer problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanchao Meng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Concerning the specific demand on solving the long-term conjugate heat transfer (CHT problem, a new algorithm of the global tightly-coupled transient heat transfer based on the quasi-steady flow field is further put forward. Compared to the traditional loosely-coupled algorithm, the computational efficiency is further improved with the greatly reduced update frequency of the flow field, and moreover the update step of the flow field can be reasonably determined by using the engineering empirical formula of the Nusselt number based on the changes of the inlet and outlet boundary conditions. Taking a duct heated by inner forced air flow heating process as an example, the comparing results to the tightly-coupled transient calculation by Fluent software shows that the new algorithm can significantly improve the computational efficiency with a reasonable accuracy on the transient temperature distribution, such as the computing time is reduced to 22.8% and 40% while the duct wall temperature deviation are 7% and 5% respectively using two flow update time step of 100 s and 50 s on the variable inlet-flow rate conditions.

  8. Steady RANS methodology for calculating pressure drop in an in-line molten salt compact crossflow heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carasik, Lane B.; Shaver, Dillon R.; Haefner, Jonah B.; Hassan, Yassin A.

    2017-11-01

    The development of molten salt cooled reactors (MSR) and fluoride-salt cooled high temperature reactors (FHR) requires the use of advanced design tools for the primary heat exchanger design. Due to geometric and flow characteristics, compact (pitch to diameter ratios equal to or less than 1.25) heat exchangers with a crossflow flow arrangement can become desirable for these reactors. Unfortunately, the available experimental data is limited for compact tube bundles or banks in crossflow. Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used to alleviate the lack of experimental data in these tube banks. Previous computational efforts have been primarily focused on large S/D ratios (larger than 1.4) using unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes and Large Eddy Simulation frameworks. These approaches are useful, but have large computational requirements that make comprehensive design studies impractical. A CFD study was conducted with steady RANS in an effort to provide a starting point for future design work. The study was performed for an in-line tube bank geometry with FLiBe (LiF-BeF2), a frequently selected molten salt, as the working fluid. Based on the estimated pressure drops, the pressure and velocity distributions in the domain, an appropriate meshing strategy was determined and presented. Periodic boundaries in the spanwise direction transverse flow were determined to be an appropriate boundary condition for reduced computational domains. The domain size was investigated and a minimum of 2-flow channels for a domain is recommended to ensure the behavior is accounted for. Lastly, the standard low Re κ-ε (Lien) turbulence model was determined to be the most appropriate for steady RANS of this case at the time of writing.

  9. Observational Consequences of Coronal Heating Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan C.; Golub, Leon; Kobayashi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The coronal heating problem remains unsolved today, 80 years after its discovery, despite 50 years of suborbital and orbital coronal observatories. Tens of theoretical coronal heating mechanisms have been suggested, but only a few have been able to be ruled out. In this talk, we will explore the reasons for the slow progress and discuss the measurements that will be needed for potential breakthrough, including imaging the solar corona at small spatial scales, measuring the chromospheric magnetic fields, and detecting the presence of high temperature, low emission measure plasma. We will discuss three sounding rocket instruments developed to make these measurements: the High resolution Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectropolarimeter (CLASP), and the Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS).

  10. Development of a steady-state calculation model for the KALIMER PDRC(Passive Decay Heat Removal Circuit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Won Pyo; Ha, Kwi Seok; Jeong, Hae Yong; Kwon, Young Min; Eoh, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Yong Bum

    2003-06-01

    A sodium circuit has usually featured for a Liquid Metal Reactor(LMR) using sodium as coolant to remove the decay heat ultimately under accidental conditions because of its high reliability. Most of the system codes used for a Light Water Reactor(LWR) analysis is capable of calculating natural circulation within such circuit, but the code currently used for the LMR analysis does not feature stand alone capability to simulate the natural circulation flow inside the circuit due to its application limitation. To this end, the present study has been carried out because the natural circulation analysis for such the circuit is realistically raised for the design with a new concept. The steady state modeling is presented in this paper, development of a transient model is also followed to close the study. The incompressibility assumption of sodium which allow the circuit to be modeled with a single flow, makes the model greatly simplified. Models such as a heat exchanger developed in the study can be effectively applied to other system analysis codes which require such component models

  11. Steady-state heat and particle removal with the actively cooled Phase III outboard pump limiter in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.; Koski, J.; Lutz, T.; McGrath; Miller, J.; Watkins, J.; Guilhem, D.; Chappuis, P.; Cordier, J.; Loarer, T.

    1995-01-01

    Tore Supra's Phase III outboard pump limiter (OPL) is a modular actively-cooled mid-plane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long pulse operation. During its initial operation in 1993, the OPL successfully removed about 1 MW of power during ohmicly heated shots of up to 10 s duration and reached (steady state) thermal equilibrium. The particle pumping of the Phase III OPL was found to be about 50% greater than the Phase II OPL which had a radial distance between the last closed flux surface and the entrance of the pumping throat of 3.5 cm compared with only 2.5 cm for the Phase III OPL. This paper gives examples of power distribution over the limiter from IR measurements of surface temperature and from extensively calorimetry (34 thermocouples and 10 flow meters) and compares the distributions with values predicted by a 3D model (HF3D) with a detailed magnetic configuration (e.g., includes field ripple). ((orig.))

  12. User's manual for steady-state computer simulation for air-to-air heat pumps with selected examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-30

    A steady-state computer simulation model has been developed for conventional, vapor compression cycle, electrically driven air-to-air heat pumps. Comparison between the heat pump simulation model predictions and available data from three heat pump experiments indicate that the predictions generally are within accepted tolerances. A sensitivity analysis was made to assess the effect of possible variations in some of the input parameters on the system's thermal performance. The computer simulation model is briefly described for heating and cooling modes, and simulation model input data and output are given. (LEW)

  13. Coronal Heating Observed with Hi-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, Amy R.

    2013-01-01

    The recent launch of the High-Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) as a sounding rocket has offered a new, different view of the Sun. With approx 0.3" resolution and 5 second cadence, Hi-C reveals dynamic, small-scale structure within a complicated active region, including coronal braiding, reconnection regions, Alfven waves, and flows along active region fans. By combining the Hi-C data with other available data, we have compiled a rich data set that can be used to address many outstanding questions in solar physics. Though the Hi-C rocket flight was short (only 5 minutes), the added insight of the small-scale structure gained from the Hi-C data allows us to look at this active region and other active regions with new understanding. In this talk, I will review the first results from the Hi-C sounding rocket and discuss the impact of these results on the coronal heating problem.

  14. Approximate analytic solutions for steady MHD flow and heat transfer of a third grade fluid in wire coating process with constant viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinca, Vasile; Herisanu, Nicolae

    2017-07-01

    In the present paper, the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) is applied to determine approximate analytic solutions of steady MHD flow and heat transfer of a third grade fluid analysis, considering constant viscosity. The effect of the magnetic parameter is shown. Some examples are given and the results obtained reveal that the proposed method is effective and easy to use.

  15. Heat pumps barometer - EurObserv'ER - September 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-09-01

    Heat pumps have moved up the ranks of renewable energy - producing heating technologies since the mid-2000's. The EU Member States' individual market trends are characterised by the technologies used and their heating and cooling needs. More than 1.7 million systems were sold in the European Union in 2014. According to EurObserv'ER, several market factors were responsible for sales dipping slightly below their 2013 level of just under 2 million

  16. Measurement of the effective thermal conductivity of particulate materials by the steady-state heat flow method in a cuvette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyzov, Andrey M.; Shakhov, Fedor M.

    2014-12-01

    To measure the thermal conductivity of particle beds, a specially designed cuvette is inserted into the chamber of an ITP-MG4 device fitted with a vertical heat flux sensor. The cuvette with a transparent wall makes it possible to reduce the amount of test material to 25 cm3, to monitor visually the uniformity of a charge, to determine the bulk density of the particle bed (and to increase it if necessary using vibrocompaction) and to apply external pressure to the bed from 2.5 to 30 kPa. Using various continuous-solid and particulate materials as references, a calibration equation is obtained for thermal conductivity in the range of 0.03-1.1 W (m K)-1. To eliminate thermal contact resistance when measuring references, the end faces of glass specimens with a departure from flatness of up to 50 μm are wetted with water. To model the calibration, a calculation is carried out by the electrical circuit analogy. The calculated curve is close to the experimental points if a value for the contact thermal resistances r# = 2  ×  10-3 m2 K W-1 is taken. Values of r# calculated by the Yovanovich model, based on the known roughnesses of the contact surfaces of the cuvette and the solid specimens, are an order of magnitude lower due to the decisive influence of nonflatness and not surface roughness at the low pressures used. The conditions under which our measurements were made are compared with the instructions of Russian, American and international standards for the measurement of thermal conductivity by the steady-state heat flow method (specimen size, flatness of working surfaces, etc). The sources of measurement inaccuracy and ways to improve the technique are examined.

  17. A statistical study of ion frictional heating observed by EISCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Davies

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of a statistical survey of F-region ion frictional heating are presented, a survey which is based on over 4000 h of common programme observations taken by the European incoherent scatter (EISCAT UHF radar facility. The criterion adopted in this study for the identification of ion frictional heating was that defined by McCrea et al., requiring an enhancement in the F-region field-parallel ion temperature exceeding 100 K over two consecutive integration periods, which was itself based on a selection criterion for frictional heating derived for the study of high-latitude F-region ion temperature observations from the Atmospheric Explorer-C satellite. In the present study, the diurnal distribution of ion frictional heating observed by EISCAT is established and, furthermore, its dependence on geomagnetic activity and the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF is investigated; results are interpreted with reference to corresponding distributions of enhanced ion velocity, again derived from the extended set of EISCAT UHF common programme observations. The radar, due to its location relative to the large-scale convection pattern, observes ion frictional heating principally during the night, although preferentially during the post-midnight hours where there is reduced coupling between the ion and neutral populations. There is an increased preponderance of frictional heating during intervals of high geomagnetic activity and for a southward z component of the IMF and, moreover, evidence of asymmetries introduced by the y component of the IMF.

  18. Some observations on boiling heat transfer with surface oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, H.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of surface oscillation on pool boiling heat transfer are experimentally studied. Experiments were performed in saturated ethanol and distilled water, covering the range from nucleate to film boiling except in the transition region. Two different geometries were employed as the heating surface with the same wetting area, stainless steel pipe and molybdenum ribbon. The results confirm earlier work on the effect of surface oscillation especially in lower heat flux region of nucleate boiling. Interesting boiling behavior during surface oscillation is observed, which was not referred to in previous work. (2 figures) (Author)

  19. Some observations of heated gallium arsenide heteroface solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    GaAlAs/GaAs heteroface solar cells used in space offer advantages of higher operating temperatures and recovery from radiation damage using thermal annealing. Experiments were conducted to examine the effects on the room temperature photovoltaic properties of cells due to heating in a vacuum at temperatures encountered in radiation damage annealing. Some degradation of photovoltaic properties was observed for all the cells that were heated. The lifetime, due to heating, for a 20-percent degradation in output power was estimated for cells heated at 200 C and 400 C. The results for cells that were heated at 200 C for 1750 hours indicate a lifetime of at least 3 years. The results for cells that were heated at 400 C for 264 hours indicate that lifetimes in the range of 350 hours to 1400 hours may be expected. The results indicate that for cells that must be heated at 400 C the selection of fabrication techniques and materials is particularly important.

  20. Does Light from Steady Sources Bear Any Observable Imprint of the Dispersive Intergalactic Medium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Richard; Duan, Lingze

    2018-02-01

    There has recently been some interest in the prospect of detecting ionized intergalactic baryons by examining the properties of incoherent light from background cosmological sources, namely quasars. Although the paper by Lieu et al. proposed a way forward, it was refuted by the later theoretical work of Hirata & McQuinn and the observational study of Hales et al. In this paper we investigate in detail the manner in which incoherent radiation passes through a dispersive medium both from the frameworks of classical and quantum electrodynamics, leading us to conclude that the premise of Lieu et al. would only work if the pulses involved are genuinely classical ones containing many photons per pulse; unfortunately, each photon must not be treated as a pulse that is susceptible to dispersive broadening. We are nevertheless able to change the tone of the paper at this juncture by pointing out that because current technology allows one to measure the phase of individual modes of radio waves from a distant source, the most reliable way of obtaining irrefutable evidence of dispersion, namely via the detection of its unique signature of a quadratic spectral phase, may well be already accessible. We demonstrate how this technique is only applied to measure the column density of the ionized intergalactic medium.

  1. Steady state tests of high voltage ceramic feedthroughs and co-axial transmission line of ICRF heating system for the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutoh, Takashi; Kumazawa, Ryuhei; Seki, Tetsuo; Simpo, Fujio; Nomura, Goro; Ido, Tsuyoshi; Watari, Tetsuo; Norterdaeme, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    Steady state ICRF heating technologies have been developed to heat plasma for more than 30 minutes in the LHD. Steady state operation tests of high voltage up to 40 kV OP for more than 30 minutes were carried out on the RF vacuum feedthroughs and the co-axial transmission line in the test set. Four types of ceramic feedthroughs each having a diameter of 240 mm were tested. The cone-type alumina ceramic and the cylinder-type silicon nitride composite-ceramic feedthroughs produced good performances of 40 kV/30 minutes and 50 kV/10 seconds. The others had vacuum leaks when subjected to a long pulse duration. The temperature of the cone-type alumina ceramic feedthrough was measured during the ICRF operations. By using gas-cooling techniques, the temperature increase of the ceramic was substantially reduced and saturated within 20 minutes. Without gas-cooling, the temperature increased linearly and did not saturated. So, this approach could not be used for steady state. The RF dissipation on the ceramic was calculated using the finite element computer code (ANSYS). It was found that damaged feedthroughs had local high heat spots, which could result in vacuum leaks. A water-cooled co-axial transmission line of 240 mm diameter was designed and tested. The specially designed connector components and Teflon insulator disks were tested. During the test, the insulation gases of nitrogen, sulfur hexafluoride and carbon dioxide were used to compare the capability of insulation for steady state. For the duration of a 10-second pulse, these gases performed well up to 60 kV OP . However, for steady state operation, carbon dioxide gas could not withstand voltages above 40 kV OP . The connector components of the transmission line performed without problems below 50 kV OP and 1 kA OP for a 30-minute operation. The performance of the feedthroughs and transmission line exceeded the specifications for steady state heating in the LHD. (J.P.N.)

  2. HIGHTEX: a computer program for the steady-state simulation of steam-methane reformers used in a nuclear process heat plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadokoro, Yoshihiro; Seya, Toko

    1977-08-01

    This report describes a computational model and the input procedure of HIGHTEX, a computer program for steady-state simulation of the steam-methane reformers used in a nuclear process heat plant. The HIGHTEX program simulates rapidly a single reformer tube, and treats the reactant single-phase in the two-dimensional catalyst bed. Output of the computer program is radial distributions of temperature and reaction products in the catalyst-packed bed, pressure loss of the packed bed, stress in the reformer tube, hydrogen permeation rate through the reformer tube, heat rate of reaction, and heat-transfer rate between helium and process gas. The running time (cpu) for a 9m-long bayonet type reformer tube is 12 min with FACOM-230/75. (auth.)

  3. Steady state heat transfer experimental studies of LHC superconducting cables operating in cryogenic environment of superfluid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Santandrea, Dario; Tuccillo, Raffaele; Granieri, Pier Paolo

    The heat management is a basic and fundamental aspect of the superconducting magnets used in the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Indeed, the coil temperature must be kept below the critical value, despite the heat which can be generated or deposited in the magnet during the normal operations. Therefore, this thesis work aims at determining the heating power which can be extracted from the superconducting cables of the LHC, specially through their electrical insulation which represents the main thermal barrier. An experimental measurement campaign in superfluid helium bath was performed on several samples reproducting the main LHC magnets. The heating power was generated in the sample by Joule heating and the temperature increase was measured by means of Cernox bare chip and thermocouples. An innovative instrumentation technique which also includes the in-situ calibration of the thermocouples was developed. A thorough uncertainty analysis on the overall measurement chain concluded the experimental setup. The prese...

  4. Uhuru observations of 4U 1608-52 - The 'steady' X-ray source associated with the X-ray burst source in Norma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tananbaum, H.; Chaisson, L. J.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Matilsky, T. A.

    1976-01-01

    Data are presented for the X-ray source 4U 1608-52, summarizing its light curve, location, and spectral parameters. Evidence is presented showing that this source is the 'steady' X-ray counterpart of the X-ray burst source in Norma. The spectrum of the 'steady' source is compared with the spectrum observed during two bursts, and it is noted that there is substantially more low-energy absorption during the bursts. The 'steady' source spectral data are used to examine the optical data, and it is concluded that if the X-ray spectrum is thermal, then a globular-cluster counterpart probably would have been detected (whereas none has been). Further X-ray and optical observations are suggested for this source, since an optical identification may be central in determining whether all X-ray bursts have a common origin and if this origin requires a globular-cluster environment.

  5. Heat pumps barometer - EurObserv'ER - October 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    Demand on the European heat pump market has been a series of peaks and troughs since 2008 after several years of very strong growth. These fluctuations in annual sales affect the whole of Europe, and its individual countries. Sales have been hit by a blend of economic slowdown, financial uncertainties and low new construction figures. The 2012 trend pointed to further decline, because of tighter conditions in some of the key markets. The assessment made by EurObserv'ER of the air source and ground source HP market for domestic heating and cooling shows that sales decreased from 1.79 million units in 2011 to 1.65 million units in 2012, i.e. a 7.9% drop

  6. SAXS observation of structural evolution of heated olefin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Minhua; Mou Hongchen; Wang Yuxi; Li Demin; Wang Aiping; Ma Congxiao; Cheng Weidong; Wang Dan; Liu Jia

    2007-01-01

    Structural evolution of olefin during its heating process was observed with SAXS method at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The mean square fluctuation of electron density increased from 468.5 nm -2 at 22 degree C to 2416 nm -2 at 100 degree C, while the electronic gyration radius decreased from 11.61 nm at 22 degree C to 11.16 nm at 100 degree C. Therefore, the olefin softens as a result of the increased thermal motion of the molecules, rather than the shrinking size of fundamental structural units of olefin. (authors)

  7. Influence of internal and external boundary conditions on the decrement factor and time lag heat flux of building walls in steady periodic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzeo, D.; Oliveti, G.; Arcuri, N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic behaviour of building walls subjected to sinusoidal and actual loadings. • The joint action of more temperature and heat flux loadings has been considered. • Dynamic parameters were defined by the internal and external fluctuating heat flux. • Use of the Total Harmonic Distortion to determine the number of harmonics required. • Study of the influence of external and internal loadings on dynamic parameters. - Abstract: The dynamic behaviour of opaque components of the building envelope in steady periodic regime is investigated using parameters defined by the fluctuating heat flux that is transferred in the wall. The use of the heat flux allows for the joint action of the loadings that characterise both the outdoor environment and the indoor air-conditioned environment to be taken into account. The analysis was developed in sinusoidal conditions to determine the frequency response of the wall and in non-sinusoidal conditions to identify the actual dynamic behaviour of the wall. The use of non-dimensional periodic thermal transmittance is proposed for the sinusoidal analysis in order to evaluate the decrement factor and the time lag that the heat flux undergoes in crossing the wall as well as the efficiency of heat storage. In the presence of non-sinusoidal loadings, the identification of the dynamic behaviour of the wall is obtained using several dynamic parameters: the decrement factor in terms of energy, defined as the ratio between the energy in a semi-period entering and exiting the wall; the decrement factor and the time lag in terms of heat flux, considering the maximum peak and the minimum peak. These parameters allow for the identification of how the form of the heat flux trend crossing the wall is modified. The number of harmonics to be considered for an accurate representation of heat fluxes is determined by means of the introduction of the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), which quantifies the distortion of a non

  8. Steady natural convection heat transfer experiments in a horizontal annulus for the United States Spent Fuel Shipping Cask Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.D.

    1981-04-01

    This experimental study deals with the measurement of the heat transfer across a horizontal annulus which is formed by an inner hexagonal cylinder and an outer concentric circular cylinder. The geometry simulates, in two dimensions, a liquid metal fast breeder reactor radioactive fuel subassembly inside a shipping container. This geometry is also similar to a radioactive fuel pin inside a horizontal reactor subassembly. The objective of the experiments is to measure the local and mean heat transfer at the surface of the inner hexagonal cylinder

  9. Relationship Between Observed Heat Trends and Urban Heat Island in Manaus City, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, D. O.; Alvalá, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    In this work, the Urban Heat Island (UHI) of the city of Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, was evaluated. Initially, a statistical study of the evolution of temperature and precipitation fields in the past 50 years was performed. A heating trend of +0.74oC in the temperature dataset was observed, as well as an increase in the annual accumulated precipitation, which are possibly related to the intense urbanization of the study area. The impact of urbanization on the microclimate of Manaus was also evaluated with a comparison between NCEP reanalysis and data collected in the urban area. This comparison show that have a difference about +2.09oC, which could be related with the urbanization. Also, differences were observed in temperature and humidity between the urban area and adjacent forest, which provides evidence for an UHI. Analyses of the UHI showed that it has become more intense during the end of the dry season, having been observed that on average the city is up to 2.98oC warmer than the forest. The UHI intensity diurnal cycle presented distinct behavior from those found in various studies, exhibiting two peaks of highest intensity, one at 8 (LT) and one between the 15 and 17 (LT). It also highlighted that the urban area tends to heat first and more slowly and cool down later and faster than the forest, which explains the distinct behavior of the diurnal cycle of the UHI. Other characteristic of the microclimate of Manaus is that the local circulations, the river breeze, presented a pattern related with the UHI intensity. Furthermore, these heating extremes can possibly be associated with the liberation of heat from automobile and industrial sources, as well as with changes in the energy partitioning between the urban and forest areas. The obtained results provide evidence for the presence of an UHI in the city of Manaus and its influence on the local microclimate, showing that the process of urbanization is directly related with the heating trends observed in

  10. Steady State Heat Deposits Modeling in the Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnets for the Upgrade of the LHC Inner Triplet

    CERN Document Server

    Bocian, D; Barzi, E; Bossert, R; Caspi, S; Chlachidze, G; Dietderich, D; Feher, S; Felice, H; Ferracin, P; Hafalia, R; Kashikhin, V V; Lamm, M; Sabbi, G L; Turrioni, D; Wanderer, P; Zlobin, A V

    2012-01-01

    In hadron colliders such as the LHC, the energy deposited in the superconductors by the particles lost from the beams or coming from the collision debris may provoke quenches detrimental to the accelerator operation. In previous papers, a Network Model has been used to study the thermodynamic behavior of magnet coils and to calculate the quench levels in the LHC magnets for expected beam loss profiles. This model was subsequently used for thermal analysis and design optimization of Nb3Sn quadrupole magnets, which LARP (US LHC Accelerator Research Program) is developing for possible use in the LHC luminosity upgrade. For these new magnets, the heat transport efficiency from the coil to the helium bath needs to be determined and optimized. In this paper the study of helium cooling channels and the heat evacuation scheme are presented and discussed.

  11. Power handling of a liquid-metal based CPS structure under high steady-state heat and particle fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.W. Morgan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Liquid metal infused capillary porous structures (CPSs are considered as a potential divertor solution for DEMO due to their potential power handling capability and resilience to long term damage. In this work the power handling and performance of such Sn-based CPS systems is assessed both experimentally and via modelling. A Sn-CPS target was exposed to heat fluxes of up to 18.1 MW m−2 in He plasma in the Pilot-PSI linear device. Post-mortem the target showed no damage to nor any surface exposure of the underlying W-CPS felt. The small pore size (∼40µm employed resulted in no droplet formation from the target in agreement with calculated Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmoholtz instability thresholds. The temperature response of the Sn-target was used to determine the thermal conductivity of the mixed Sn-CPS material using COMSOL modelling. These values were then used via further finite element analysis to extrapolate to DEMO relevant monoblock designs and estimate the maximum power handling achievable based on estimated temperature windows for all component elements of the design. For an optimized design a heat-load of up to 20 MW m−2 may be received while the use of CPS also offers other potential design advantages such as the removal of interlayer requirements.

  12. Steady states in conformal theories

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    A novel conjecture regarding the steady state behavior of conformal field theories placed between two heat baths will be presented. Some verification of the conjecture will be provided in the context of fluid dynamics and holography.

  13. Steady and dynamic shear rheological behavior of semi dilute Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum solutions: influence of concentration, temperature and heating-cooling rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaeddini, Behzad; Koocheki, Arash; Mohammadzadeh Milani, Jafar; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Ghanbarzadeh, Babak

    2017-10-30

    Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum (AHSG) solution exhibits high viscosity at low shear rates and has anionic features. However there is no information regarding the flow and dynamic properties of this gum in semi-dilute solutions. The present study aimed to investigate the dynamic and steady shear behavior of AHSG in the semi-dilute region. The viscosity profile demonestrated a shear thinning behavior at all temperatures and concentrations. An increase in the AHSG concentration was acompanied by an increase in the pseudoplasticity degree, whereas, by increasing the temperature, the pseudoplasticity of AHSG decreased. At low gum concentration, solutions had more viscosity dependence on temperature. The mechanical spectra obtained from the frequency sweep experiment demonstrated viscoelastic properties for gum solutions. AHSG solutions showed typical weak gel-like behavior, revealing G' greater than G' within the experimental range of frequency (Hz), with slight frequency dependency. The influence of temperature on viscoelastic properties of AHSG solutions was studied during both heating (5-85 °C) and cooling (85-5 °C) processes. The complex viscosity of AHSG was greater compared to the apparent viscosity, indicating the disruption of AHSG network structure under continuous shear rates and deviation from the Cox-Merz rule. During the initial heating, the storage modulus showed a decreasing trend and, with a further increase in temperature, the magnitude of storage modulus increased. The influence of temperature on the storage modulus was considerable when a higher heating rate was applied. AHSG can be applied as a thickening and stabilizing agents in food products that require good stability against temperature. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Experimental observation for the heat transfer in fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas R, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    The heat transfer that occurs into a cavity with a relation 2/1 with constant heat supply in a vertical wall and on the opposed wall at constant temperature is studied. The energy transfer process causes the heat convection that occurs mainly due to energy transport that is present by means of the motion of the fluid itself. Also the heat conduction process by molecular exchange is obtained. During the fluid particle displacements, the high energy regions take contact with the low energy regions resulting by this way the free convection by density differences. The flow can be followed by means of tracers and the changes of density can be registered by optical techniques like interferometry. (Author)

  15. Development of a real-time steady state detector of a heat pump system to develop fault detection and diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Sung; Yoon, Seok Ho; Kim, Min Soo

    2008-01-01

    Identification of steady-state is the first step in developing a Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) system. In a complete FDD system, the steady-state detector will be included as a module in a self-learning algorithm which enables the working system's reference model to 'tune' itself to its particular installation. In this study, a steady-state detector of a residential air conditioner based on moving windows was designed. Seven representing measurements were selected as key features for steady-state detection. The optimized moving window size and the feature thresholds was suggested through startup transient test and no-fault steady-state test. Performance of the steady-state detector was verified during indoor load change test. From the research, the general methodology to design a moving window steady-state detector was provided for vapor compression applications

  16. Enceladus is not in Steady State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheunchitra, T.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Libration data tell us there is a global ocean. Topography and gravity tell us that there is substantial compensation at degree 2, meaning that the underside of the ice shell must have topography. This topography will decay, typically on a timescale of order a million years (fortuitously similar to thermal diffusion times through the ice shell), by viscous lateral flow of the ice. This could in principle be compensated in steady state by net melting beneath the poles and a compensating net freezing at the equator. In that model, the ice shell beneath the poles is partially melted with water being continuously produced and percolating to the base (or expelled if there are cracks, as at the South Pole). We have modeled this without an a priori assumption about the strength of tidal heating. We find that even if the tidal heating is zero on average around the equator, then the latent heat release from the required freezing can only be accommodated in steady state if the ice shell is 18km. The ice thickness must be even less at the poles in order to satisfy gravity and topography. Moreover, there must then be substantial tidal heating at the poles and it is physically unreasonable to have the volumetric tidal heating at the equator be enormously less than at the North Pole. For example, if the volumetric tidal heating at the equator is on average one quarter of that at the North Pole then marginal consistency with gravity and topography may be possible for a mean ice thickness at the equator of 12km. The global heat flow may exceed 40GW, much higher than the detectable IR excess (the observed south polar tiger stripe heat flow). Recent work (Fuller et al.) admits orbital evolutions with large heat flow at least for a recent part of the orbital history. However, this thin shell steady state model has difficulty reconciling observed gravity and topography as well as the libration data. We conclude that it is unlikely that Enceladus has no net melting or freezing. The ice

  17. Observations of the Dynamic Connectivity of the Non-Wetting Phase During Steady State Flow at the Pore Scale Using 3D X-ray Microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C. A.; Menke, H. P.; Blunt, M. J.; Krevor, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    We observe a new type of non-wetting phase flow using time-resolved pore scale imaging. The traditional conceptual model of drainage involves a non-wetting phase invading a porous medium saturated with a wetting phase as either a fixed, connected flow path through the centres of pores or as discrete ganglia which move individually through the pore space, depending on the capillary number. We observe a new type of flow behaviour at low capillary number in which the flow of the non-wetting phase occurs through networks of persistent ganglia that occupy the large pores but continuously rearrange their connectivity (Figure 1). Disconnections and reconnections occur randomly to provide short-lived pseudo-steady state flow paths between pores. This process is distinctly different to the notion of flowing ganglia which coalesce and break-up. The size distribution of ganglia is dependent on capillary number. Experiments were performed by co-injecting N2and 25 wt% KI brine into a Bentheimer sandstone core (4mm diameter, 35mm length) at 50°C and 10 MPa. Drainage was performed at three flow rates (0.04, 0.3 and 1 ml/min) at a constant fractional flow of 0.5 and the variation in ganglia populations and connectivity observed. We obtained images of the pore space during steady state flow with a time resolution of 43 s over 1-2 hours. Experiments were performed at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron. Figure 1. The position of N2 in the pore space during steady state flow is summed over 40 time steps. White indicates that N2 occupies the space over >38 time steps and red <5 time steps.

  18. Observed urban heat island characteristics in Akure, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A climatological analysis of the differences in air temperature between rural and urban areas (Tu-r) corroborates the existence of an urban heat island (UHI) in Akure (7º 25' N, 5º 20' E), a tropical city in the south western part of Nigeria. The investigations which have been conducted out of a year-long experiment from fixed ...

  19. Observer for heat equation with state-dependent switched parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Leth, John-Josef

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers estimation of an unknown state function in the heat equation with state-dependent parameter values. The work is motivated by phase transitions in physical media, e.g., thawing of water or foodstuff, welding and casting processes. We point out that known solution to standard...

  20. Upper ocean heat budget of western-north Pacific using satellite and ship observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Sugimori, Y.; Akiyama, M.

    heat loss, towards the south it decreases and have heat surplus. An evaluation of the satellite derived heat fluxes by comparing with flux estimates from in situ observations at ocean weather station-Tango are also found to be comparable. For net...

  1. Observation of contact area of bubbles with heating surface in pool boiling of water under microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Kawamura, H.; Suzuki, M.; Takahashi, S.; Abe, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Burnout heat flux was measured in subcooled pool boiling of water under attached boiling bubbles on heating surface with bubble holding plate in ground experiment. A thin stainless flat plate was employed for heating surface. The experimental setup and the heating procedures were same as used in reduced gravity experiment performed by a parabolic flight of jet aircraft. Same burnout heat flux as in the reduced gravity was obtained by adjusting the clearance between the bubble holder and the heating surface. They were 100 ∝ 400 percent higher than the widely accepted existing theories. As extending heating time longer than the reduced gravity duration until burnout occurred, burnout heat flux decreased gradually and became a constant value calculated from the existing theories. In a result of observing contact area of boiling bubbles with transparent heating surface, the contact area was smaller in quick heating time than that in long time heating at same heat flux. The experimental results suggest in microgravity that liquid layer is remained between rapidly expanded bubbles and heating surface. In microgravity experiment by a drop shaft facility, contact area of bubbles with heating surface increased considerably at starting of microgravity. (orig.)

  2. Observing the Vertical Dimensions of Singapore's Urban Heat Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, W. T. L.; Ho, D. X. Q.

    2015-12-01

    In numerous cities, measurements of urban warmth in most urban heat island (UHI) studies are generally constrained towards surface or near-surface (quadcopter platforms to measure urban temperature and humidity profiles in Singapore, which is a rapidly urbanizing major tropical metropolis. These profiles were measured from the surface to ~100 m above ground level, a height which includes all of the urban canopy and parts of the urban boundary layer. Initial results indicate significant variations in stability measured over different land uses (e.g. urban park, high-rise residential, commercial); these profiles are also temporally dynamic, depending on the time of day and larger-scale weather conditions.

  3. Observations of rotation in JET plasmas with electron heating by ion cyclotron resonance heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, T.; Johnson, T. J.; Van Eester, D.

    2012-01-01

    The rotation of L-mode plasmas in the JET tokamak heated by waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) damped on electrons, is reported. The plasma in the core is found to rotate in the counter-current direction with a high shear and in the outer part of the plasma with an almost cons...

  4. Basic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, D H

    2013-01-01

    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  5. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems

  6. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

  7. Experimental observation of current generation by asymmetrical heating of ions in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahl, J.; Ishihara, O.; Wong, K.L.; Kristiansen, M.; Hagler, M.

    1986-01-01

    The first experimental observation of current generation by asymmetrical heating of ions is reported. Ions were asymmetrically heated by a unidirectional fast Alfven wave launched by a slow wave antenna inside a tokamak. Current generation was detected by measuring the asymmetry of the toroidal plasma current with probes at the top and bottom of the toroidal plasma column

  8. Observer based Model Identification of Heat Pumps in a Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2012-01-01

    . A part of a solution can be to take advantage of floor heat capacity in single-family houses using heat pumps.This large heat capacity makes it possible to move consumption without compromising the comfort of house residents. In a Danish research project a virtual power plant using centralized control...... of a large number of houses with heat pumps is established. In order to make the control algorithm a vital part is a dynamic model of each house. The model predicts the house indoor temperature when heat pump power and outdoor temperature is known. The model must be able to describe a large variety of heat...... pumps and houses. In the paper a house model and a method to identify the model is presented. The Kalman observer models are optimized using measurements from real houses....

  9. High-frequency radar observations of PMSE modulation by radio heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Andrew; Rietveld, Michael; Mahmoudian, Alireza; La Hoz, Cesar; Kosch, Michael; Scales, Wayne; Pinedo, Henry

    The first observations using high-frequency (8 MHz) radar of modulation of polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) by radio heating of the ionosphere are presented. The experiment was performed at the EISCAT facility near Tromsø, Norway. The observations are compared with simultaneous radar measurements at 224 MHz and with a model of the dusty plasma response to electron heating. Agreement between the model and observations is good considering technical limitations on the 8 MHz radar measurements. Predictions made about the response of high-frequency PMSE to heating where dust charging dominates over diffusion, opposite to the situation at very high-frequencies are confirmed. Suggestions are made about improving the 8 MHz observations to overcome the current limitations.

  10. Utility of High Temporal Resolution Observations for Heat Health Event Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palecki, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Many heat health watch systems produce a binary on/off warning when conditions are predicted to exceed a given threshold during a day. Days with warnings and their mortality/morbidity statistics are analyzed relative to days not warned to determine the impacts of the event on human health, the effectiveness of warnings, and other statistics. The climate analyses of the heat waves or extreme temperature events are often performed with hourly or daily observations of air temperature, humidity, and other measured or derived variables, especially the maxima and minima of these data. However, since the beginning of the century, 5-minute observations are readily available for many weather and climate stations in the United States. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) has been collecting 5-minute observations from the NOAA Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) stations since 2000, and from the U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) stations since 2005. This presentation will demonstrate the efficacy of utilizing 5-minute environmental observations to characterize heat waves by counting the length of time conditions exceed extreme thresholds based on individual and multiple variables and on derived variables such as the heat index. The length and depth of recovery periods between daytime heating periods will also be examined. The length of time under extreme conditions will influence health outcomes for those directly exposed. Longer periods of dangerous conditions also could increase the chances for poor health outcomes for those only exposed intermittently through cumulative impacts.

  11. IRAS observations of dust heating and energy balance in the Rho Ophiuchi dark cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Thomas P.; Young, Erick T.

    1989-01-01

    The equilibrium process dust emission in the Rho Ophiuchi dark cloud is studied. The luminosity of the cloud is found to closely match the luminosity of the clouds's known embedded and external radiation sources. There is no evidence for a large population of undetected low-luminosity sources within the cloud and unknown external heating is also only a minor source of energy. Most of the cloud's luminosity is emitted in the mid-to-far-IR. Dust temperature maps indicate that the dust is not hot enough to heat the gas to observed temperatures. A simple cloud model with a radiation field composed of flux HD 147889, S1, and Sco OB2 associations predicts the observed IRAS 60 to 100 micron in-band flux ratios for a mean cloud density n(H2) = 1400. Flattened 12 and 25 micron observations show much extended emission in these bands, suggesting stochastic heating of very small grains or large molecules.

  12. Observations and Numerical Models of Solar Coronal Heating Associated with Spicules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontieu, B. De; Martinez-Sykora, J.; Moortel, I. De; McIntosh, S. W.

    2017-01-01

    Spicules have been proposed as significant contributors to the mass and energy balance of the corona. While previous observations have provided a glimpse of short-lived transient brightenings in the corona that are associated with spicules, these observations have been contested and are the subject of a vigorous debate both on the modeling and the observational side. Therefore, it remains unclear whether plasma is heated to coronal temperatures in association with spicules. We use high-resolution observations of the chromosphere and transition region (TR) with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and of the corona with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory to show evidence of the formation of coronal structures associated with spicular mass ejections and heating of plasma to TR and coronal temperatures. Our observations suggest that a significant fraction of the highly dynamic loop fan environment associated with plage regions may be the result of the formation of such new coronal strands, a process that previously had been interpreted as the propagation of transient propagating coronal disturbances. Our observations are supported by 2.5D radiative MHD simulations that show heating to coronal temperatures in association with spicules. Our results suggest that heating and strong flows play an important role in maintaining the substructure of loop fans, in addition to the waves that permeate this low coronal environment.

  13. Observations and Numerical Models of Solar Coronal Heating Associated with Spicules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontieu, B. De; Martinez-Sykora, J. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Org. A021S, Building 252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Moortel, I. De [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); McIntosh, S. W. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    Spicules have been proposed as significant contributors to the mass and energy balance of the corona. While previous observations have provided a glimpse of short-lived transient brightenings in the corona that are associated with spicules, these observations have been contested and are the subject of a vigorous debate both on the modeling and the observational side. Therefore, it remains unclear whether plasma is heated to coronal temperatures in association with spicules. We use high-resolution observations of the chromosphere and transition region (TR) with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and of the corona with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory to show evidence of the formation of coronal structures associated with spicular mass ejections and heating of plasma to TR and coronal temperatures. Our observations suggest that a significant fraction of the highly dynamic loop fan environment associated with plage regions may be the result of the formation of such new coronal strands, a process that previously had been interpreted as the propagation of transient propagating coronal disturbances. Our observations are supported by 2.5D radiative MHD simulations that show heating to coronal temperatures in association with spicules. Our results suggest that heating and strong flows play an important role in maintaining the substructure of loop fans, in addition to the waves that permeate this low coronal environment.

  14. Using forecast and observed weather data to assess performance of forecast products in identifying heat waves and estimating heat wave effects on mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Chen, Yeh-Hsin; Schwartz, Joel D; Rood, Richard B; O'Neill, Marie S

    2014-09-01

    Heat wave and health warning systems are activated based on forecasts of health-threatening hot weather. We estimated heat-mortality associations based on forecast and observed weather data in Detroit, Michigan, and compared the accuracy of forecast products for predicting heat waves. We derived and compared apparent temperature (AT) and heat wave days (with heat waves defined as ≥ 2 days of daily mean AT ≥ 95th percentile of warm-season average) from weather observations and six different forecast products. We used Poisson regression with and without adjustment for ozone and/or PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm) to estimate and compare associations of daily all-cause mortality with observed and predicted AT and heat wave days. The 1-day-ahead forecast of a local operational product, Revised Digital Forecast, had about half the number of false positives compared with all other forecasts. On average, controlling for heat waves, days with observed AT = 25.3°C were associated with 3.5% higher mortality (95% CI: -1.6, 8.8%) than days with AT = 8.5°C. Observed heat wave days were associated with 6.2% higher mortality (95% CI: -0.4, 13.2%) than non-heat wave days. The accuracy of predictions varied, but associations between mortality and forecast heat generally tended to overestimate heat effects, whereas associations with forecast heat waves tended to underestimate heat wave effects, relative to associations based on observed weather metrics. Our findings suggest that incorporating knowledge of local conditions may improve the accuracy of predictions used to activate heat wave and health warning systems.

  15. Mixed layer heat budget of Kuroshio-Tango Triangle using satellite and ship observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Akiyama, M.; Sugimori, Y.; Wuwa, J.; Okada, Y.; Siripong, A.

    system is obtained as the residual of these computed estimates of vertical and advective fluxes. The net heat loss of the system from heterogeneous data set (ship and satellite) is found to be 4.8 x 10 sup(13)) watt. Whereas using only ship observations...

  16. Whistler Mode Waves and the Electron Heat Flux in the Solar Wind: Cluster Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, C.; Alexandrova, O.; Matteini, L.; Santolík, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Mangeney, A.; de Conchy, Y.; Maksimovic, M.

    2014-11-01

    The nature of the magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind between the ion and electron scales is still under debate. Using the Cluster/STAFF instrument, we make a survey of the power spectral density and of the polarization of these fluctuations at frequencies f in [1, 400] Hz, during five years (2001-2005), when Cluster was in the free solar wind. In ~10% of the selected data, we observe narrowband, right-handed, circularly polarized fluctuations, with wave vectors quasi-parallel to the mean magnetic field, superimposed on the spectrum of the permanent background turbulence. We interpret these coherent fluctuations as whistler mode waves. The lifetime of these waves varies between a few seconds and several hours. Here, we present, for the first time, an analysis of long-lived whistler waves, i.e., lasting more than five minutes. We find several necessary (but not sufficient) conditions for the observation of whistler waves, mainly a low level of background turbulence, a slow wind, a relatively large electron heat flux, and a low electron collision frequency. When the electron parallel beta factor β e∥ is larger than 3, the whistler waves are seen along the heat flux threshold of the whistler heat flux instability. The presence of such whistler waves confirms that the whistler heat flux instability contributes to the regulation of the solar wind heat flux, at least for β e∥ >= 3, in slow wind at 1 AU.

  17. Whistler mode waves and the electron heat flux in the solar wind: cluster observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacombe, C.; Alexandrova, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Mangeney, A.; De Conchy, Y.; Maksimovic, M. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, UPMC Université Paris 06, Université Paris-Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Matteini, L. [Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Santolík, O. [Institute of Atmospheric Physics ASCR, 141 31 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-11-20

    The nature of the magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind between the ion and electron scales is still under debate. Using the Cluster/STAFF instrument, we make a survey of the power spectral density and of the polarization of these fluctuations at frequencies f in [1, 400] Hz, during five years (2001-2005), when Cluster was in the free solar wind. In ∼10% of the selected data, we observe narrowband, right-handed, circularly polarized fluctuations, with wave vectors quasi-parallel to the mean magnetic field, superimposed on the spectrum of the permanent background turbulence. We interpret these coherent fluctuations as whistler mode waves. The lifetime of these waves varies between a few seconds and several hours. Here, we present, for the first time, an analysis of long-lived whistler waves, i.e., lasting more than five minutes. We find several necessary (but not sufficient) conditions for the observation of whistler waves, mainly a low level of background turbulence, a slow wind, a relatively large electron heat flux, and a low electron collision frequency. When the electron parallel beta factor β {sub e∥} is larger than 3, the whistler waves are seen along the heat flux threshold of the whistler heat flux instability. The presence of such whistler waves confirms that the whistler heat flux instability contributes to the regulation of the solar wind heat flux, at least for β {sub e∥} ≥ 3, in slow wind at 1 AU.

  18. Fundamental Research in Engineering Education. Development of Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady-State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeant, Margot; Prince, Michael; Nottis, Katharyn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the use of inquiry-based instruction to promote the understanding of critical concepts in thermodynamics and heat transfer. Significant research shows that students frequently enter our courses with tightly held misconceptions about the physical world that are not effectively addressed through traditional instruction. Students'…

  19. Heat sources for bright-rimmed molecular clouds: CO observations of NGC 7822

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.; Dickinson, D.F.; Lada, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of the 2.6 mm carbon monoxide line in the bright rim NGC 7822 reveal that the peak excitation and column density of the molecule lie in a ridge ahead of the ionization front. Several possibilities for the excitation of this ridge are discussed. Cosmic rays are shown to provide an excellent heat source for Bok globules, but they can account for only approx.20% of the required heating in NGC 7822. Direct shock or compressional heating of the gas could be adequate only if the pressure inside the cloud is much larger than the thermal pressure. If, in fact, this internal pressure is determined by the source of line broadening (e.g., magnetic fields or turbulence), then shock or compressional heating could be important, and pressure equilibrium may exist between the neutral cloud and the bright rim. Heating by warm grains or by the photoelectric effect is also considered, but such mechanisms are probably not important if the only source of radiation is external to the cloud. This is primarily a result of the low cloud density (approx.10 3 cm -3 ) inferred from our observations. The extent to which unknown embedded stars may provide the required gaseous heating cannot be estimated from our observations of NGC 7822.An interesting and new heat source is suggested which may have important applications to bright-rimmed clouds or to any other predominantly neutral clouds that may have undergone some recent compression. We suggest that the heat input to neutral gas due to the relaxation of internal magnetic fields will be greatly enhanced during cloud compression (with or without a shock). We show that the power input to the gas will increase more with increasing density than will the cooling rate. As a result, cloud compression can lead to an increase in the gas temperature for a period lasting several million years, which is the decay time of the compressed field. The observed ridge in NGC 7822 may be due to stimulated release of internal magnetic energy

  20. Observations and Modeling of Transition Region and Coronal Heating Associated with Spicules

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pontieu, B.; Martinez-Sykora, J.; De Moortel, I.; Chintzoglou, G.; McIntosh, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    Spicules have been proposed as significant contributorsto the coronal energy and mass balance. While previous observationshave provided a glimpse of short-lived transient brightenings in thecorona that are associated with spicules, these observations have beencontested and are the subject of a vigorous debate both on the modelingand the observational side so that it remains unclear whether plasmais heated to coronal temperatures in association with spicules. We use high-resolution observations of the chromosphere and transition region with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and ofthe corona with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard theSolar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to show evidence of the formation of coronal structures as a result of spicular mass ejections andheating of plasma to transition region and coronaltemperatures. Our observations suggest that a significant fraction of the highly dynamic loop fan environment associated with plage regions may be the result of the formation of such new coronal strands, a process that previously had been interpreted as the propagation of transient propagating coronal disturbances (PCD)s. Our observationsare supported by 2.5D radiative MHD simulations that show heating tocoronal temperatures in association with spicules. Our results suggest that heating and strong flows play an important role in maintaining the substructure of loop fans, in addition to the waves that permeate this low coronal environment. Our models also matches observations ofTR counterparts of spicules and provides an elegant explanation forthe high apparent speeds of these "network jets".

  1. Heat Transfer and Observation of Droplet-Surface Interactions During Air-Mist Cooling at CSP Secondary System Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta L., Mario E.; Mejía G., M. Esther; Castillejos E., A. Humberto

    2016-04-01

    Air-mists are key elements in the secondary cooling of modern thin steel slab continuous casters. The selection of water, W, and air, A, flow rates, and pressures in pneumatic nozzles open up a wide spectrum of cooling possibilities by their influence on droplet diameter, d, droplet velocity, v, and water impact flux, w. Nonetheless, due to the harsh environment resulting from the high temperatures and dense mists involved, there is very little information about the correlation between heat flux extracted, - q, and mist characteristics, and none about the dynamics of drop-wall interactions. For obtaining both kinds of information, this work combines a steady-state heat flux measuring method with a visualization technique based on a high-speed camera and a laser illumination system. For wall temperatures, T w, between ~723 K and ~1453 K (~450 °C and ~1180 °C), which correspond to film boiling regime, it was confirmed that - q increases with increase in v, w, and T w and with decrease in d. It should be noticed, however, that the increase in w generally decreases the spray cooling effectiveness because striking drops do not evaporate efficiently due to the interference by liquid remains from previous drops. Visualization of the events happening close to the surface also reveals that the contact time of the liquid with the surface is very brief and that rebounding, splashing, sliding, and levitation of drops lead to ineffective contact with the surface. At the center of the mist footprint, where drops impinge nearly normal to the surface those with enough momentum establish intimate contact with it before forming a vapor layer that pushes away the remaining liquid. Also, some drops are observed sliding upon the surface or levitating close to it; these are drops with low momentum which are influenced by the deflecting air stream. At footprint positions where oblique impingement occurs, frequently drops are spotted sliding or levitating and liquid films flowing in

  2. Investigations of the radial propagation of blob-like structure in a non-confined electron cyclotron resonance heated plasma on Q-shu University Experiment with a Steady-State Spherical Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, R.; Liu, H. Q.; Ishiguro, M.; Ikeda, T. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Hanada, K.; Zushi, H.; Nakamura, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Nishino, N. [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University (Japan); Collaboration: QUEST Group

    2011-09-15

    A study of radial propagation and electric fields induced by charge separation in blob-like structures has been performed in a non-confined cylindrical electron cyclotron resonance heating plasma on Q-shu University Experiment with a Steady-State Spherical Tokamak using a fast-speed camera and a Langmuir probe. The radial propagation of the blob-like structures is found to be driven by E x B drift. Moreover, these blob-like structures were found to have been accelerated, and the property of the measured radial velocities agrees with the previously proposed model [C. Theiler et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 065001 (2009)]. Although the dependence of the radial velocity on the connection length of the magnetic field appeared to be different, a plausible explanation based on enhanced short-circuiting of the current path can be proposed.

  3. Effects of variable suction and thermophoresis on steady MHD combined free-forced convective heat and mass transfer flow over a semi-infinite permeable inclined plate in the presence of thermal radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M.S.; Rahman, M.M. [Department of Mathematics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Sattar, M.A. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, North South University, 12 Kemal Ataturk Avenue, Banani, Dhaka-1213 (Bangladesh)

    2008-06-15

    A two-dimensional steady MHD mixed convection and mass transfer flow over a semi-infinite porous inclined plate in the presence of thermal radiation with variable suction and thermophoresis has been analyzed numerically. The governing fundamental equations are approximated by a system of non-linear locally similar ordinary differential equations which are solved numerically by applying Nachtsheim-Swigert shooting iteration technique along with sixth-order Runge-Kutta integration scheme. Favorable comparison with previously published work is performed. Numerical results for the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as for the skin-friction coefficient, wall heat transfer and particle deposition rate are obtained and displayed graphically for pertinent parameters to show interesting aspects of the solutions. (author)

  4. TRANSITION REGION AND CHROMOSPHERIC SIGNATURES OF IMPULSIVE HEATING EVENTS. I. OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Reep, Jeffrey W. [National Research Council Postdoctoral Fellow, Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Crump, Nicholas A. [Naval Center for Space Technology, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Simões, Paulo J. A. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-20

    We exploit the high spatial resolution and high cadence of the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) to investigate the response of the transition region and chromosphere to energy deposition during a small flare. Simultaneous observations from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager provide constraints on the energetic electrons precipitating into the flare footpoints, while observations of the X-Ray Telescope , Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, and Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) allow us to measure the temperatures and emission measures from the resulting flare loops. We find clear evidence for heating over an extended period on the spatial scale of a single IRIS pixel. During the impulsive phase of this event, the intensities in each pixel for the Si iv 1402.770 Å, C ii 1334.535 Å, Mg ii 2796.354 Å, and O i 1355.598 Å emission lines are characterized by numerous small-scale bursts typically lasting 60 s or less. Redshifts are observed in Si iv, C ii, and Mg ii during the impulsive phase. Mg ii shows redshifts during the bursts and stationary emission at other times. The Si iv and C ii profiles, in contrast, are observed to be redshifted at all times during the impulsive phase. These persistent redshifts are a challenge for one-dimensional hydrodynamic models, which predict only short-duration downflows in response to impulsive heating. We conjecture that energy is being released on many small-scale filaments with a power-law distribution of heating rates.

  5. OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES OF CORONAL LOOP HEATING AND COOLING DRIVEN BY FOOTPOINT SHUFFLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlburg, R. B.; Taylor, B. D. [LCP and FD, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Einaudi, G. [Berkeley Research Associates, Inc., Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Ugarte-Urra, I. [College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Warren, H. P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Rappazzo, A. F. [Advanced Heliophysics, Pasadena, CA 91106 (United States); Velli, M., E-mail: rdahlbur@lcp.nrl.navy.mil [EPSS, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    The evolution of a coronal loop is studied by means of numerical simulations of the fully compressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations using the HYPERION code. The footpoints of the loop magnetic field are advected by random motions. As a consequence, the magnetic field in the loop is energized and develops turbulent nonlinear dynamics characterized by the continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets: energy is deposited at small scales where heating occurs. Dissipation is nonuniformly distributed so that only a fraction of the coronal mass and volume gets heated at any time. Temperature and density are highly structured at scales that, in the solar corona, remain observationally unresolved: the plasma of our simulated loop is multithermal, where highly dynamical hotter and cooler plasma strands are scattered throughout the loop at sub-observational scales. Numerical simulations of coronal loops of 50,000 km length and axial magnetic field intensities ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 T are presented. To connect these simulations to observations, we use the computed number densities and temperatures to synthesize the intensities expected in emission lines typically observed with the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode. These intensities are used to compute differential emission measure distributions using the Monte Carlo Markov Chain code, which are very similar to those derived from observations of solar active regions. We conclude that coronal heating is found to be strongly intermittent in space and time, with only small portions of the coronal loop being heated: in fact, at any given time, most of the corona is cooling down.

  6. Use of GLOBE Observations to Derive a Landsat 8 Split Window Algorithm for Urban Heat Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerstrom, L.; Czajkowski, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    Surface temperature has been studied to investigate the warming of urban climates, also known as urban heat islands, which can impact urban planning, public health, pollution levels, and energy consumption. However, the full potential of remotely sensed images is limited when analyzing land surface temperature due to the daunting task of correcting for atmospheric effects. Landsat 8 has two thermal infrared sensors. With two bands in the infrared region, a split window algorithm (SWA), can be applied to correct for atmospheric effects. This project used in situ surface temperature measurements from NASA's ground observation program, the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE), to derive the correcting coefficients for use in the SWA. The GLOBE database provided land surface temperature data that coincided with Landsat 8 overpasses. The land surface temperature derived from Landsat 8 SWA can be used to analyze for urban heat island effect.

  7. Ion Thermalization and Electron Heating across Quasi-Perpendicular Shocks Observed by the MMS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. J.; Wilson, L. B., III; Wang, S.; Bessho, N.; Figueroa-Vinas, A.; Lai, H.; Russell, C. T.; Schwartz, S. J.; Hesse, M.; Moore, T. E.; Burch, J.; Gershman, D. J.; Giles, B. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Ergun, R.; Dorelli, J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Paterson, W. R.; Lavraud, B.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.

    2017-12-01

    Collisionless shocks often involve intense plasma heating in space and astrophysical systems. Despite decades of research, a number of key questions concerning electron and ion heating across collisionless shocks remain unanswered. We `image' 20 supercritical quasi-perpendicular bow shocks encountered by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft with electron and ion distribution functions to address how ions are thermalized and how electrons are heated. The continuous burst measurements of 3D plasma distribution functions from MMS reveal that the primary thermalization phase of ions occurs concurrently with the main temperature increase of electrons as well as large-amplitude wave fluctuations. Approaching the shock from upstream, the ion temperature (Ti) increases due to the reflected ions joining the incoming solar wind population, as recognized by prior studies, and the increase of Ti precedes that of the electrons. Thermalization in the form of merging between the decelerated solar wind ions and the reflected component often results in a decrease in Ti. In most cases, the Ti decrease is followed by a gradual increase further downstream. Anisotropic, energy-dependent, and/or nongyrotropic electron energization are observed in association with large electric field fluctuations in the main electron temperature (Te) gradient, motivating a renewed scrutiny of the effects from the electrostatic cross-shock potential and wave fluctuations on electron heating. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are carried out to assist interpretations of the MMS observations. We assess the roles of instabilities and the cross-shock potential in thermalizing ions and heating electrons based on the MMS measurements and PIC simulation results. Challenges will be posted for future computational studies and laboratory experiments on collisionless shocks.

  8. Heat Storage in Urban Areas: Local-Scale Observations and Evaluation of a Simple Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmond, C. S. B.; Oke, T. R.

    1999-07-01

    The flux density of sensible heat to or from storage in the physical mass of the city is determined for seven cities (Chicago, Illinois; Los Angeles, California; Mexico City, Distrito Federal; Miami, Florida; Sacramento, California; Tucson, Arizona; and Vancouver, British Columbia) in North America across a 30° latitudinal range. These cities have a variety of synoptic-scale climates and surface cover and structural morphologies. In all cases the `measured' storage heat flux is determined as the energy balance residual from direct observations of net all-wave radiation, and sensible and latent heat fluxes conducted using the same radiometer and eddy correlation techniques. Databases describing the surface characteristics around each site are developed from analysis of aerial photography and field surveys. Results indicate that storage heat flux is a significant component of the surface energy balance at all sites and is greatest at downtown and light industrial sites. Hysteresis behavior, of varying degrees, is seen at all locations. A simple objective hysteresis model (OHM), which calculates storage heat flux as a function of net all-wave radiation and the surface properties of the site, is found to perform well in the mean for most cases, with the notable exception of Tucson; but considerable scatter is observed at some sites. Some of this is attributed to the moisture, wind, and synoptic controls at each of the sites, and to hour-to-hour variability in the convective fluxes that the OHM does not simulate. Averaging over 2 to 3 h may be a more appropriate way to use the model. Caution should be used when employing the OHM in windy environments.

  9. SPATIALLY DEPENDENT HEATING AND IONIZATION IN AN ICME OBSERVED BY BOTH ACE AND ULYSSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepri, Susan T. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States); Laming, J. Martin; Rakowski, Cara E. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7674L, Washington, DC 20375-5321 (United States); Von Steiger, Rudolf [International Space Science Institute, Bern CH-3012 (Switzerland)

    2012-12-01

    The 2005 January 21 interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) observed by multiple spacecraft at L1 was also observed from January 21-February 4 at Ulysses (5.3 AU). Previous studies of this ICME have found evidence suggesting that the flanks of a magnetic cloud like structure associated with this ICME were observed at L1 while a more central cut through the associated magnetic cloud was observed at Ulysses. This event allows us to study spatial variation across the ICME and relate it to the eruption at the Sun. In order to examine the spatial dependence of the heating in this ICME, we present an analysis and comparison of the heavy ion composition observed during the passage of the ICME at L1 and at Ulysses. Using SWICS, we compare the heavy ion composition across the two different observation cuts through the ICME and compare it with predictions for heating during the eruption based on models of the time-dependent ionization balance throughout the event.

  10. Design, fabrication and testing of an improved high heat flux element, experience feedback on steady state plasma facing components in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, J.; Chappuis, P.; Chatelier, M.; Durocher, A.; Guilheim, D.; Lipa, M.; Mitteau, R.; Tonon, G.; Tsitrone, E.

    1998-01-01

    Actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC) have been developed and used in Tore Supra since 1985. One of the main technological problem is due to the expansion mismatch between graphite armour and metallic heat sink material. A first technology used graphite tiles with or without a reinforcement and a compliant layer, brazed with titanium copper-silver (TiCuAg) alloy. The next technology used carbon fiber material (CFC) tiles with a 2 mm pure copper compliant layer, since the good mechanical strength of the CFC allowed the reinforcement layer to be suppressed. No destructive inspection during the manufacturing procedure was found to be essential to insure a good reliability of the elements. (orig.)

  11. Critical issues for steady state operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi

    1994-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the toroidal magnetic fusion research, achieving high quality plasmas which satisfy the breakeven condition. As the next step, such plasmas need to be maintained in a steady state or a longer period. Critical issues for the steady state operation have been discussed briefly, such as high heat load on the divertor plates, deterioration of the energy confinement with increasing power, impurity contamination, including helium (ash), maintaining of the magnetic configuration, erosion of the plasma facing material. (author)

  12. Comparison of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes over the Tibetan Plateau from reanalysis and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin; Yu, Ye; Li, Jiang-lin; Ge, Jun; Liu, Chuan

    2018-02-01

    Surface sensible and latent heat fluxes (SH and LE) over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) have been under research since 1950s, especially for recent several years, by mainly using observation, reanalysis, and satellite data. However, the spatiotemporal changes are not consistent among different studies. This paper focuses on the spatiotemporal variation of SH and LE over the TP from 1981 to 2013 using reanalysis data sets (ERA-Interim, JRA-55, and MERRA) and observations. Results show that the spatiotemporal changes from the three reanalysis data sets are significantly different and the probable causes are discussed. Averaged for the whole TP, both SH and LE from MERRA are obviously higher than the other two reanalysis data sets. ERA-Interim shows a significant downward trend for SH and JRA-55 shows a significant increase of LE during the 33 years with other data sets having no obvious changes. By comparing the heat fluxes and some climate factors from the reanalysis with observations, it is found that the differences of heat fluxes among the three reanalysis data sets are closely related to their differences in meteorological conditions as well as the different parameterizations for surface transfer coefficients. In general, the heat fluxes from the three reanalysis have a better representation in the western TP than that in the eastern TP under inter-annual scale. While in terms of monthly variation, ERA-Interim may have better applicability in the eastern TP with dense vegetation conditions, while SH of JRA-55 and LE of MERRA are probably more representative for the middle and western TP with poor vegetation conditions.

  13. Observations of the thermal environment on Red Sea platform reefs: a heat budget analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Davis, K. A.

    2011-03-11

    Hydrographic measurements were collected on nine offshore reef platforms in the eastern Red Sea shelf region, north of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The data were analyzed for spatial and temporal patterns of temperature variation, and a simple heat budget analysis was performed with the goal of advancing our understanding of the physical processes that control temperature variability on the reef. In 2009 and 2010, temperature variability on Red Sea reef platforms was dominated by diurnal variability. The daily temperature range on the reefs, at times, exceeded 5°C-as large as the annual range of water temperature on the shelf. Additionally, our observations reveal the proximity of distinct thermal microclimates within the bounds of one reef platform. Circulation on the reef flat is largely wave driven. The greatest diurnal variation in water temperature occurs in the center of larger reef flats and on reefs protected from direct wave forcing, while smaller knolls or sites on the edges of the reef flat tend to experience less diurnal temperature variability. We found that both the temporal and spatial variability in water temperature on the reef platforms is well predicted by a heat budget model that includes the transfer of heat at the air-water interface and the advection of heat by currents flowing over the reef. Using this simple model, we predicted the temperature across three different reefs to within 0.4°C on the outer shelf using only information about bathymetry, surface heat flux, and offshore wave conditions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Steady flow and heat transfer analysis of Phan-Thein-Tanner fluid in double-layer optical fiber coating analysis with Slip Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zeeshan; Shah, Rehan Ali; Islam, Saeed; Jan, Bilal; Imran, Muhammad; Tahir, Farisa

    2016-01-01

    Modern optical fibers require double-layer coating on the glass fiber to provide protection from signal attenuation and mechanical damage. The most important plastic resins used in wires and optical fibers are plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and low-high density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE), nylon and Polysulfone. In this paper, double-layer optical fiber coating is performed using melt polymer satisfying PTT fluid model in a pressure type die using wet-on-wet coating process. The assumption of fully developed flow of Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) fluid model, two-layer liquid flows of an immiscible fluid is modeled in an annular die, where the fiber is dragged at a higher speed. The equations characterizing the flow and heat transfer phenomena are solved exactly and the effects of emerging parameters (Deborah and slip parameters, characteristic velocity, radii ratio and Brinkman numbers on the axial velocity, flow rate, thickness of coated fiber optics, and temperature distribution) are reported in graphs. It is shown that an increase in the non-Newtonian parameters increase the velocity in the absence or presence of slip parameters which coincides with related work. The comparison is done with experimental work by taking λ → 0 (non-Newtonian parameter). PMID:27708412

  15. Responses of Lithium-Modified Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/Output Balance and Observation of Freeze-Lining Formation During the Heat Balance Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2018-02-01

    In the aluminum electrolysis process, new industrial aluminum/electricity power markets demand a new cell technology to extend the cell heat balance and amperage operating window of smelters by shifting the steady states. The current work investigates the responses of lithium-modified bath system when the input/output balance is shifted in a laboratory analogue to the industrial heat balance shift. Li2CO3 is added to the cryolite-AlF3-CaF2-Al2O3 system as a bath modifier. A freeze deposit is formed on a `cold finger' dipped into the bath and investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The macro- and micro-structure of the freeze lining varies with the bath superheat (bath temperature minus bath liquidus temperature) and an open crystalline layer with entrapped liquid dominates the freeze thickness. Compared with the cryolite-AlF3-CaF2-Al2O3 bath system, the lithium-modified bath freeze is more sensitive to the heat balance shift. This freeze investigation provides primary information to understand the variation of the side ledge in an industrial cell when the lithium-modified bath system is used.

  16. Experimental observations of the microlayer in vapor bubble growth on a heated solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koffman, L.D.; Plesset, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental measurements of microlayer formation and of the time history of microlayer thickness change have been obtained for nucleate boiling of water and ethanol. These detailed measurements were obtained using laser interometry combined with high-speed cinematography. The measurement technique is discussed in detail with emphasis on the difficulties encountered in interpretation of the fringe patterns. The measurements for water can be reasonably applied to the data of Gunther and Kreith, in which case it is concluded that microlayer evaporate alone cannot account for the increased heat transfer rates observed in highly subcooled nucleate boiling. It appears that microconvection must play at least an equal role

  17. Data Assimilation of SMAP Observations and the Impact on Weather Forecasts and Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Case, Jonathan; Blankenship, Clay; Crosson, William; White, Khristopher

    2014-01-01

    SPoRT produces real-time LIS soil moisture products for situational awareness and local numerical weather prediction over CONUS, Mesoamerica, and East Africa ?Currently interact/collaborate with operational partners on evaluation of soil moisture products ?Drought/fire ?Extreme heat ?Convective initiation ?Flood and water borne diseases ?Initial efforts to assimilate L2 soil moisture observations from SMOS (as a precursor for SMAP) have been successful ?Active/passive blended product from SMAP will be assimilated similarly and higher spatial resolution should improve on local-scale processes

  18. Nonequilibrium steady states in correlated electron systems - Photoinduced insulator-metal transition and optical response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Naoto; Oka, Takashi; Aoki, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    To reveal the nature of the photoinduced insulator-metal transition, we show that an exact analysis of the Falicov-Kimball model subject to external ac electric fields becomes possible with Floquet's method combined with the nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory. The nonequilibrium steady state that appears during irradiation of a pump light is shown to be determined if the dissipation in a certain heat-bath model is introduced. This has enabled us to predict that novel features characteristic of the photoexcited steady states, i.e., negative weight (gain) in the low-energy region and dip structures around the photon energy of the pump light, should be observed in the optical conductivity. Special emphasis is put on the role of dissipation, for which we elaborate the dependence of the steady state on the strength of dissipation and the temperature of the heat bath.

  19. Stationary Distribution and Thermodynamic Relation in Nonequilibrium Steady States

    KAUST Repository

    Komatsu, Teruhisa S.

    2010-01-01

    We describe our recent attempts toward statistical mechanics and thermodynamics for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) realized, e.g., in a heat conducting system. Our first result is a simple expression of the probability distribution (of microscopic states) of a NESS. Our second result is a natural extension of the thermodynamic Clausius relation and a definition of an accompanying entropy in NESS. This entropy coincides with the normalization constant appearing in the above mentioned microscopic expression of NESS, and has an expression similar to the Shannon entropy (with a further symmetrization). The NESS entropy proposed here is a clearly defined measurable quantity even in a system with a large degrees of freedom. We numerically measure the NESS entropy in hardsphere fluid systems with a heat current, by observing energy exchange between the system and the heat baths when the temperatures of the baths are changed according to specified protocols.

  20. Study of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in fusion tokamak plasmas. Application to the modelling of steady state and fast burn termination scenarios for the international experimental fusion reactor ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar Colome, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee]|[Universitat Polytechnica de Catalunya (Spain)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give a global scope of the problem of energy transport within a thermonuclear plasma in the context of its power balance and the implications when modelling ITER operating scenarios. This is made in two phases. First, by furnishing new elements to the existing models of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in a thermonuclear plasma. Second, by applying the improved models to plasma engineering studies of ITER operating scenarios. The scenarios modelled are the steady state operating point and the transient that appears to have the biggest technological implications: the fast burn termination. The conduction-convection losses are modelled through the energy confinement time. This parameter is empirically obtained from the existing experimental data, since the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In chapter 2 an expression for the energy confinement time is semi-analytically deduced from the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins local transport model. The current estimates of the synchrotron radiation losses are made with expressions of the dimensionless transparency factor deduced from a 0-dimensional cylindrical model proposed by Trubnikov in 1979. In chapter 3 realistic hypothesis for the cases of cylindrical and toroidal geometry are included in the model to deduce compact explicit expressions for the fast numerical computation of the synchrotron radiation losses. Numerical applications are provided for the cylindrical case. The results are checked against the existing models. In chapter 4, the nominal operating point of ITER and its thermal stability is studied by means of a 0-dimensional burn model of the thermonuclear plasma in ignition. This model is deduced by the elements furnished by the plasma particle and power balance. Possible heat overloading on the plasma facing components may provoke severe structural damage, implying potential safety problems related to tritium inventory and metal activation. In chapter 5, the assessment

  1. Heat

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Is it possible to make heat by rubbing your hands together? Why does an ice cube melt when you hold it? In this title, students will conduct experiments to help them understand what heat is. Kids will also investigate concepts such as which materials are good at conducting heat and which are the best insulators. Using everyday items that can easily be found around the house, students will transform into scientists as they carry out step-by-step experiments to answer interesting questions. Along the way, children will pick up important scientific skills. Heat includes seven experiments with detailed, age-appropriate instructions, surprising facts and background information, a "conclusions" section to pull all the concepts in the book together, and a glossary of science words. Colorful, dynamic designs and images truly put the FUN into FUN-damental Experiments.

  2. Influence of hydrogen on the behaviour of metals - Mechanical and kinetic properties of fatigue cracking of steady (ZXNCTD-26-15) and unsteady (Z2CN-18-10) austenitic stainless steels. Role of heat treatments and of cathodic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huwarts, Pascale; Habashi, Mahmoud

    1984-01-01

    In a context which is characterized by an increased demand in high resistance stainless steels, austenitic stainless steels with structural hardening have been notably studied. These are ductile materials in over-hardened state, therefore machinable, and can be hardened by ageing heat treatment after machining. The author reports the study of the tensile and resilience mechanical behaviour, and of the kinetic fatigue cracking of three austenitic stainless steels in presence of hydrogen. One of them is unsteady and belongs to the 300 family, whereas the two others are grades of a steady steel with structural hardening (26 pc Ni - 15 pc Cr). The author more particularly focused on the influence of thermal treatments and of phase transformation on hydrogen-induced embrittlement of these steels. After a bibliographical study on austenitic stainless steels and on their behaviour with respect to hydrogen, the author reports a detailed analysis of the studied steels. He reports tests and their results, and discusses the role of microstructure in the mechanical behaviour of these steels in presence and in absence of cathodic hydrogen [fr

  3. Observational constraints on Arctic boundary-layer clouds, surface moisture and sensible heat fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D. L.; Boisvert, L.; Klaus, D.; Dethloff, K.; Ganeshan, M.

    2016-12-01

    The dry, cold environment and dynamic surface variations make the Arctic a unique but difficult region for observations, especially in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Spaceborne platforms have been the key vantage point to capture basin-scale changes during the recent Arctic warming. Using the AIRS temperature, moisture and surface data, we found that the Arctic surface moisture flux (SMF) had increased by 7% during 2003-2013 (18 W/m2 equivalent in latent heat), mostly in spring and fall near the Arctic coastal seas where large sea ice reduction and sea surface temperature (SST) increase were observed. The increase in Arctic SMF correlated well with the increases in total atmospheric column water vapor and low-level clouds, when compared to CALIPSO cloud observations. It has been challenging for climate models to reliably determine Arctic cloud radiative forcing (CRF). Using the regional climate model HIRHAM5 and assuming a more efficient Bergeron-Findeisen process with generalized subgrid-scale variability for total water content, we were able to produce a cloud distribution that is more consistent with the CloudSat/CALIPSO observations. More importantly, the modified schemes decrease (increase) the cloud water (ice) content in mixed-phase clouds, which help to improve the modeled CRF and energy budget at the surface, because of the dominant role of the liquid water in CRF. Yet, the coupling between Arctic low clouds and the surface is complex and has strong impacts on ABL. Studying GPS/COSMIC radio occultation (RO) refractivity profiles in the Arctic coldest and driest months, we successfully derived ABL inversion height and surface-based inversion (SBI) frequency, and they were anti-correlated over the Arctic Ocean. For the late summer and early fall season, we further analyzed Japanese R/V Mirai ship measurements and found that the open-ocean surface sensible heat flux (SSHF) can explain 10 % of the ABL height variability, whereas mechanisms such as cloud

  4. Scaling Flux Tower Observations of Sensible Heat Flux Using Weighted Area-to-Area Regression Kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maogui Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensible heat flux (H plays an important role in characterizations of land surface water and heat balance. There are various types of H measurement methods that depend on observation scale, from local-area-scale eddy covariance (EC to regional-scale large aperture scintillometer (LAS and remote sensing (RS products. However, methods of converting one H scale to another to validate RS products are still open for question. A previous area-to-area regression kriging-based scaling method performed well in converting EC-scale H to LAS-scale H. However, the method does not consider the path-weighting function in the EC- to LAS-scale kriging with the regression residue, which inevitably brought about a bias estimation. In this study, a weighted area-to-area regression kriging (WATA RK model is proposed to convert EC-scale H to LAS-scale H. It involves path-weighting functions of EC and LAS source areas in both regression and area kriging stages. Results show that WATA RK outperforms traditional methods in most cases, improving estimation accuracy. The method is considered to provide an efficient validation of RS H flux products.

  5. FEL induced electron bunch heating observed by a method based on synchronous phase detection

    CERN Document Server

    Hosaka, M; Katoh, M; Yamazaki, J; Hama, H

    2001-01-01

    A new method for monitoring instantaneous bunch length has been developed on the UVSOR storage ring. Based on the bunch length dependence of the loss factor, the bunch length can be derived from the synchronous phase shift. Experiments using this method were performed to observe the bunch lengthening associated with the free electron laser (FEL) power variation. From the detuning dependence of the bunch heating, it was found that additional energy spread mostly has a constant ratio to the intracavity laser power normalized by the beam current. However, at the best synchronism region, the induced energy spread exhibits a strong non-linearity against the normalized FEL power and hence the power saturation is accomplished.

  6. Exponential Stability of the Monotubular Heat Exchanger Equation with Time Delay in Boundary Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Lian Jin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The exponential stability of the monotubular heat exchanger equation with boundary observation possessing a time delay and inner control was investigated. Firstly, the close-loop system was translated into an abstract Cauchy problem in the suitable state space. A uniformly bounded C0-semigroup generated by the close-loop system, which implies that the unique solution of the system exists, was shown. Secondly, the spectrum configuration of the closed-loop system was analyzed and the eventual differentiability and the eventual compactness of the semigroup were shown by the resolvent estimates on some resolvent sets. This implies that the spectrum-determined growth assumption holds. Finally, a sufficient condition, which is related to the physical parameters in the system and is independent of the time delay, of the exponential stability of the closed-loop system was given.

  7. Observation of Electron Energy Pinch in HT-7 ICRF Heated Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Siye; Wan Baonian; Ti Ang; Zhang Xinjun; Liu Zixi; Qian Jinping; Zhong Guoqiang; Duan Yanmin; Wang Lu

    2014-01-01

    Inward energy transport (pinch phenomenon) in the electron channel is observed in HT-7 plasmas using off-axis ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating. Experimental results and power balance transport analysis by TRANSP code are presented in this article. With the aids of GLF23 and Chang-Hinton transport models, which predict energy diffusivity in experimental conditions, the estimated electron pinch velocity is obtained by experimental data and is found reasonably comparable to the results in the previous study, such as Song on Tore Supra. Density scanning shows that the energy convective velocity in the electron channel has a close relation to density scale length, which is qualitatively in agreement with Wang's theoretical prediction. The parametric dependence of electron energy convective velocity on plasma current is still ambiguous and is worthy of future research on EAST. (magnetically confined plasma)

  8. Nonlinear observer-based Lyapunov boundary control of distributed heat transfer mechanisms for membrane distillation plant

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi

    2016-09-19

    This paper presents a nonlinear observer-based Lyapunov control for a membrane distillation (MD) process. The control considers the inlet temperatures of the feed and the permeate solutions as inputs, transforming it to boundary control process, and seeks to maintain the temperature difference along the membrane boundaries around a sufficient level to promote water production. MD process is modeled with advection diffusion equation model in two dimensions, where the diffusion and convection heat transfer mechanisms are best described. Model analysis, effective order reduction and parameters physical interpretation, are provided. Moreover, a nonlinear observer has been designed to provide the control with estimates of the temperature evolution at each time instant. In addition, physical constraints are imposed on the control to have an acceptable range of feasible inputs, and consequently, better energy consumption. Numerical simulations for the complete process with real membrane parameter values are provided, in addition to detailed explanations for the role of the controller and the observer. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Photoelectric heating of interstellar gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draine, B.T.

    1978-01-01

    Photoelectric emission from interstellar grains is reexamined, and it is argued that some of the assumptions made by other authors lead to an overestimate of the heating rate associated with this process, particularly at temperatures T> or approx. =3000 K. Steady-state solutions for the temperature of diffuse gas (including radiative cooling and recombination, cosmic ray or X-ray heating and ionization, grain photoelectric heating, and other heating mechanisms) are found. Grains do not contribute significantly to the heating of the ''hot'' (Tapprox. =8000 K) phase, although they dominate the heating of the ''cold'' (Tapprox. =100 K) phase. The minimum pressure for which the ''cold'' phase can exist is sensitive to the choice of grain properties and grain abundance, and under some circumstances the coexistence of two distinct phases in pressure equilibrium is forbidden. A steady-state model with intercloud H I heated by soft X-rays and clouds heated by grain photoemission is in accord with some observations but lacks intermediate-temperature H I. The time-dependent cooling of a fossil H II region is calculated; grain photoelectric heating significantly prolongs the time required for the gas to cool. Fossil H II in the wakes of runaway O stars may produce significant amounts of the intermediate temperatue (500> or approx. =T> or approx. =3000 K) H I inferred from 21 cm observations

  10. Method development for detecting divertor failures during steady state operation of Wendelstein 7X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodatos, Alexander; Jakubowski, Marcin; Sunn Pedersen, Thomas [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Wendelsteinstr. 1, Greifswald (Germany); Greuner, Henri [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is stellarator fusion experiment, which will start operation in 2015. One of its goals is the demonstration of the stellarator concepts steady state capability while operating with fusion relevant plasma parameters. For particle and heat exhaust from the plasma a set of 10 island divertor units is installed in the machine. During the steady state operation they are exposed to a heat flux of up to 10MW/m{sup 2} for up to 30 min. Transient, even higher heat fluxes are possible. To guarantee the save operation of W7-X a continues surveillance of the divertor is mandatory, which is realized by a set of 10 infrared cameras observing the divertor surface. These data needs to be evaluated during the experiment identifying defects, surface layers and actual hot spots caused by overheating.

  11. Vapor flux and recrystallization during dry snow metamorphism under a steady temperature gradient as observed by time-lapse micro-tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Pinzer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dry snow metamorphism under an external temperature gradient is the most common type of recrystallization of snow on the ground. The changes in snow microstructure modify the physical properties of snow, and therefore an understanding of this process is essential for many disciplines, from modeling the effects of snow on climate to assessing avalanche risk. We directly imaged the microstructural changes in snow during temperature gradient metamorphism (TGM under a constant gradient of 50 K m−1, using in situ time-lapse X-ray micro-tomography. This novel and non-destructive technique directly reveals the amount of ice that sublimates and is deposited during metamorphism, in addition to the exact locations of these phase changes. We calculated the average time that an ice volume stayed in place before it sublimated and found a characteristic residence time of 2–3 days. This means that most of the ice changes its phase from solid to vapor and back many times in a seasonal snowpack where similar temperature conditions can be found. Consistent with such a short timescale, we observed a mass turnover of up to 60% of the total ice mass per day. The concept of hand-to-hand transport for the water vapor flux describes the observed changes very well. However, we did not find evidence for a macroscopic vapor diffusion enhancement. The picture of {temperature gradient metamorphism} produced by directly observing the changing microstructure sheds light on the micro-physical processes and could help to improve models that predict the physical properties of snow.

  12. Internal magnetic fluctuations and electron heat transport in the TORE SUPRA Tokamak. Observation by cross polarisation scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas, L.; Paume, M.; Zou, X.L.; Chareau, J.M.; Guiziou, L.; Hoang, G.T.; Michelot, Y.; Gresillon, D.

    1997-03-01

    Magnetic fluctuations (radial size ∼ 5 mm) are measured by a cross polarisation scattering (CPS) diagnostic in TORE SUPRA. These fluctuations are investigated quantitatively in the ohmic and low confinement regimes over a wide range of plasma currents, densities and additional heating powers. Simultaneously, electron heat diffusivities expected from these fluctuations are compared to those obtained by profile analysis. A radial profile of the magnetic fluctuations in the gradient region ( 0.3 e mag = πqRv th (δ B r / B) 2 . Both the order of magnitude and the parametric dependence of χ e mag show similarities with electron diffusivities determined by transport analysis. In particular, a threshold is observed for the dependence of fluctuation-induced heat fluxes on the local temperature gradient, which is close to the critical gradient observed for the measured heat fluxes. (author)

  13. Cooperative observation of solar atmospheric heating by Hida observatory and Hinode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitai, R.; Hashimoto, Y.; Anan, T.; Watanabe, H.; Ishii, T. T.; Kawate, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Otsuji, K.; Nakamura, T.; Morita, S.; Nishizuka, N.; Nishida, K.; Ueno, S.; Nagata, S.; Ichimoto, K.; Shibata, K.

    2008-12-01

    At Hida observatory of Kyoto University, we continue to study solar activities and fine structures with Domeless Solar Telescope (DST) and Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope (SMART). In this work, we will report some recent cooperative observational results with Hinode on the following topics: (1) Plage heating and waves Analysis of a long time series of CaII K spectrograms at a plage area showed us a clear co-existence of 3- and 5-min oscillation in Doppler velocity. We simulated the response of the VAL model atmosphere to the input of 3-min/5-min acoustic disturbances, in 1-D geometry and found that plage chromosphere is heated unsteadily by acoustic shock waves as was proposed by Carlsson and Stein (1997). (2) Disk spicules in and around plage regions We clearly identified numerous ejecting features in a plage area. Their morphological shapes of thin tapered cylinder and their dynamics strongly suggest that they are spicules in plage area. Plage spicules were observed to move under constant deceleration, which are driven by acoustic shock waves predicted by Shibata and Suematsu (1980) and Hansteen et al. (2007). Our results will be discussed from the view point of Type I, II classification of limb spicules ( de Pontieu et al. 2007). (3) Umbral dots We have confirmed that umbral dots are manifestation of magneto-convection in strong magnetic filed from the analysis of Hinode/SOT/BFI&SP. We will discuss the plausibility of monolithic umbral model from the oscillatory brightening of umbral dots. (4) X-ray brightenings in the supergranular network XRT showed us numerous bright points in solar quiet regions. Possible relation between these XBPs and supergranular network pattern in quiet chromosphere was studied. XBPs were found to be located in the network not in the cell center. Many of network bright XBPs were consisted of magnetically bipolar loops. (5) Ellerman bombs By studying the fine structure of Ellerman bomb, we have found core-halo structure and

  14. Observations of Near-Surface Heat-Flux and Temperature Profiles Through the Early Evening Transition over Contrasting Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Derek D.; Nadeau, Daniel F.; Hoch, Sebastian W.; Pardyjak, Eric R.

    2016-06-01

    Near-surface turbulence data from the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) program are used to study countergradient heat fluxes through the early evening transition. Two sites, subjected to similar large-scale forcing, but with vastly different surface and sub-surface characteristics, are considered. The Playa site is situated at the interior of a large dry lakebed desert with high sub-surface soil moisture, shallow water table, and devoid of vegetation. The Sagebrush site is located in a desert steppe region with sparse vegetation and little soil moisture. Countergradient sensible heat fluxes are observed during the transition at both sites. The transition process is both site and height dependent. At the Sagebrush site, the countergradient flux at 5 m and below occurs when the sign change of the sensible heat flux precedes the local temperature gradient sign change. For 10 m and above, the countergradient flux occurs when the sign change of the sensible heat flux follows the local temperature gradient sign change. At the Playa site, the countergradient flux at all tower levels occurs when the sign change of the sensible heat flux follows the local temperature gradient sign change. The phenomenon is explained in terms of the mean temperature and heat-flux evolution. The temperature gradient sign reversal is a top-down process while the flux reversal occurs nearly simultaneously at all heights. The differing countergradient behaviour is primarily due to the different subsurface thermal characteristics at the two sites. The combined high volumetric heat capacity and high thermal conductivity at the Playa site lead to small vertical temperature gradients that affect the relative magnitude of terms in the heat-flux tendency equation. A critical ratio of the gradient production to buoyant production of sensible heat flux is suggested so as to predict the countergradient behaviour.

  15. ELECTRON HEAT FLUX IN THE SOLAR WIND: ARE WE OBSERVING THE COLLISIONAL LIMIT IN THE 1 AU DATA?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Università degli Studi di Firenze Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Matteini, L. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Pantellini, F. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, Université Paris-Diderot 5, place J. Janssen, F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France)

    2014-07-20

    Using statistically significant data at 1 AU, it has recently been shown (Bale et al.) that in the solar wind, when the Knudsen number K {sub T} (the ratio between the electron mean free path and the electron temperature scale height) drops below about 0.3, the electron heat flux q intensity rapidly approaches the classical collisional Spitzer-Härm limit. Using a fully kinetic model including the effect of Coulomb collisions and the expansion of the solar wind with heliocentric distance, we observe that the heat flux strength does indeed approach the collisional value for Knudsen numbers smaller than about 0.3 in very good agreement with the observations. However, closer inspection of the heat flux properties, such as its variation with the heliocentric distance and its dependence on the plasma parameters, shows that for Knudsen numbers between 0.02 and 0.3 the heat flux is not conveniently described by the Spitzer-Härm formula. We conclude that even though observations at 1 AU seem to indicate that the electron heat flux intensity approaches the collisional limit when the Knudsen drops below ∼0.3, the collisional limit is not a generally valid closure for a Knudsen larger than 0.01. Moreover, the good agreement between the heat flux from our model and the heat flux from solar wind measurements in the high-Knudsen number regime seems to indicate that the heat flux at 1 AU is not constrained by electromagnetic instabilities as both wave-particle and wave-wave interactions are neglected in our calculations.

  16. Sensor fault detection and isolation via high-gain observers: application to a double-pipe heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, R F; Astorga-Zaragoza, C M; Téllez-Anguiano, A C; Juárez-Romero, D; Hernández, J A; Guerrero-Ramírez, G V

    2011-07-01

    This paper deals with fault detection and isolation (FDI) in sensors applied to a concentric-pipe counter-flow heat exchanger. The proposed FDI is based on the analytical redundancy implementing nonlinear high-gain observers which are used to generate residuals when a sensor fault is presented (as software sensors). By evaluating the generated residual, it is possible to switch between the sensor and the observer when a failure is detected. Experiments in a heat exchanger pilot validate the effectiveness of the approach. The FDI technique is easy to implement allowing the industries to have an excellent alternative tool to keep their heat transfer process under supervision. The main contribution of this work is based on a dynamic model with heat transfer coefficients which depend on temperature and flow used to estimate the output temperatures of a heat exchanger. This model provides a satisfactory approximation of the states of the heat exchanger in order to allow its implementation in a FDI system used to perform supervision tasks. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantum steady computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnoli, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that current conceptions of quantum mechanical computers inherit from conventional digital machines two apparently interacting features, machine imperfection and temporal development of the computational process. On account of machine imperfection, the process would become ideally reversible only in the limiting case of zero speed. Therefore the process is irreversible in practice and cannot be considered to be a fundamental quantum one. By giving up classical features and using a linear, reversible and non-sequential representation of the computational process - not realizable in classical machines - the process can be identified with the mathematical form of a quantum steady state. This form of steady quantum computation would seem to have an important bearing on the notion of cognition

  18. Steady Secondary Flows Generated by Periodic Compression and Expansion of an Ideal Gas in a Pulse Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeffrey M.

    1999-01-01

    This study establishes a consistent set of differential equations for use in describing the steady secondary flows generated by periodic compression and expansion of an ideal gas in pulse tubes. Also considered is heat transfer between the gas and the tube wall of finite thickness. A small-amplitude series expansion solution in the inverse Strouhal number is proposed for the two-dimensional axisymmetric mass, momentum and energy equations. The anelastic approach applies when shock and acoustic energies are small compared with the energy needed to compress and expand the gas. An analytic solution to the ordered series is obtained in the strong temperature limit where the zeroth-order temperature is constant. The solution shows steady velocities increase linearly for small Valensi number and can be of order I for large Valensi number. A conversion of steady work flow to heat flow occurs whenever temperature, velocity or phase angle gradients are present. Steady enthalpy flow is reduced by heat transfer and is scaled by the Prandtl times Valensi numbers. Particle velocities from a smoke-wire experiment were compared with predictions for the basic and orifice pulse tube configurations. The theory accurately predicted the observed steady streaming.

  19. An observational heat budget analysis of a coral reef, Heron Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKellar, Mellissa C.; McGowan, Hamish A.; Phinn, Stuart R.

    2013-03-01

    Measurements of the surface energy balance, the structure and evolution of the convective atmospheric reef layer (CARL), and local meteorology and hydrodynamics were made during June 2009 and February 2010 at Heron Reef, Australia, to establish the relative partitioning of heating within the water and atmosphere. Horizontal advection was shown to moderate temperature in the CARL and the water, having a cooling influence on the atmosphere, and providing an additional source or sink of energy to the water overlying the reef, depending on tide. The key driver of atmospheric heating was surface sensible heat flux, while heating of the reef water was primarily due to solar radiation, and thermal conduction and convection from the reef substrate. Heating and cooling processes were more defined during winter due to higher sensible and latent heat fluxes and strong diurnal evolution of the CARL. Sudden increases in water temperature were associated with inundation of warmer oceanic water during the flood tide, particularly in winter due to enhanced nocturnal cooling of water overlying the reef. Similarly, cooling of the water over the reef occurred during the ebb tide as heat was transported off the reef to the surrounding ocean. While these results are the first to shed light on the heat budget of a coral reef and overlying CARL, longer-term, systematic measurements of reef thermal budgets are needed under a range of meteorological and hydrodynamic conditions, and across various reef types to elucidate the influence on larger-scale oceanic and atmospheric processes. This is essential for understanding the role of coral reefs in tropical and sub-tropical meteorology; the physical processes that take place during coral bleaching events, and coral and algal community dynamics on coral reefs.

  20. Observation of excess heat during electrolysis of 1M LiOD in a fuel cell type closed cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Norifumi; Kunimatsu, Keiji; Ohi, Tamio; Terasawa, Toshihisa.

    1993-01-01

    Measurement of the excess heat generation during electrolysis of 1M LiOD has been conducted in a closed cell pressurerized by deuterium gas in which a fuel cell type gas diffusion electrode was employed as an anode, and a platinized platinum electrode served as the RHE for determination of hydrogen overvoltage at the palladium cathode. This has allowed us simultaneous determination of both excess heat generation and deuterium loading ratio, D/Pd, in the course of long term electrolysis which lasted for nearly two months. Dependence of excess heat generation on D/Pd has been observed up to D/Pd=0.88 with the maximum output/input ratio of 1.35. The minimum D/Pd to produce the excess heat has been found around 0.83-0.84. Dependence of D/Pd on the overvoltage and the dependence of the excess heat generation on the D/Pd suggest that the dependence of the excess heat generation on the current density reported originally by Fleischmann and Pons and later by Storms can be interpreted in terms of the dependence of the loading ratio on the electrolysis current density. In other words, higher current density is necessary to maintain the high loading ratio. (author)

  1. Increasing heat waves and warm spells in India, observed from a multiaspect framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Dileep Kumar; AghaKouchak, Amir; Ambast, Sunil Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Recent heat waves have been a matter of serious concern for India because of potential impacts on agriculture, food security, and socioeconomic progress. This study examines the trends and variability in frequency, duration, and intensity of hot episodes during three time periods (1951-2013, 1981-2013 and 1998-2013) by defining heat waves based on the percentile of maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures. The study also explores heat waves and their relationships with hydroclimatic variables, such as rainfall, terrestrial water storage, Palmer drought severity index, and sea surface temperature. Results reveal that the number, frequency, and duration of daytime heat waves increased considerably during the post-1980 dry and hot phase over a large area. The densely populated and agriculturally dominated northern half of India stands out as a key region where the nighttime heat wave metrics reflected the most pronounced amplifications. Despite the recent warming hiatus in India and other parts of the world, we find that both daytime and nighttime extreme measures have undergone substantial changes during or in the year following a dry year since 2002, with the probability distribution functions manifesting a hotter-than-normal climate during 1998-2013. This study shows that a few months preceding the 2010 record-breaking heat wave in Russia, India experienced the largest hot episode in the country's history. Interestingly, both these mega events are comparable in terms of their evolution and amplification. These findings emphasize the importance of planning for strategies in the context of the rising cooccurrence of dry and hot events.

  2. Temperature Observation Time and Type Influence Estimates of Heat-Related Mortality in Seven U.S. Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert E; Hondula, David M; Patel, Anjali P

    2016-06-01

    Extreme heat is a leading weather-related cause of mortality in the United States, but little guidance is available regarding how temperature variable selection impacts heat-mortality relationships. We examined how the strength of the relationship between daily heat-related mortality and temperature varies as a function of temperature observation time, lag, and calculation method. Long time series of daily mortality counts and hourly temperature for seven U.S. cities with different climates were examined using a generalized additive model. The temperature effect was modeled separately for each hour of the day (with up to 3-day lags) along with different methods of calculating daily maximum, minimum, and mean temperature. We estimated the temperature effect on mortality for each variable by comparing the 99th versus 85th temperature percentiles, as determined from the annual time series. In three northern cities (Boston, MA; Philadelphia, PA; and Seattle, WA) that appeared to have the greatest sensitivity to heat, hourly estimates were consistent with a diurnal pattern in the heat-mortality response, with strongest associations for afternoon or maximum temperature at lag 0 (day of death) or afternoon and evening of lag 1 (day before death). In warmer, southern cities, stronger associations were found with morning temperatures, but overall the relationships were weaker. The strongest temperature-mortality relationships were associated with maximum temperature, although mean temperature results were comparable. There were systematic and substantial differences in the association between temperature and mortality based on the time and type of temperature observation. Because the strongest hourly temperature-mortality relationships were not always found at times typically associated with daily maximum temperatures, temperature variables should be selected independently for each study location. In general, heat-mortality was more closely coupled to afternoon and maximum

  3. Preliminary observations of heat treatment to control Phytophthora ramorum in infected wood species: an extended abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.M. Tubajika; R. Singh; Shelly J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Identification of appropriate phytosanitary treatments that can be used for certifying solid wood packing material movement from areas infested or threatened by actionable plant pests and pathogens into uninfested areas is mportant. Heat treatment has been used on commodities to control fungal diseases and insect infestations for many years. The restricted use of...

  4. Turbulent fluxes of momentum and heat over land in the High-Arctic summer: the influence of observation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sjöblom

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Different observation techniques for atmospheric turbulent fluxes of momentum and sensible heat were tested in a High-Arctic valley in Svalbard during two consecutive summers (June–August in 2010 and 2011. The gradient method (GM and the bulk method (BM have been compared to the more direct eddy covariance method (ECM in order to evaluate if relatively robust and cheap instrumentation with low power consumption can be used as a means to increase the number of observations, especially at remote locations where instruments need to be left unattended for extended periods. Such campaigns increase knowledge about the snow-free surface exchange processes, an area which is relatively little investigated compared to snow-covered ground. The GM agreed closely to the ECM, especially for momentum flux where the two methods agree within 5%. For sensible heat flux, the GM produces, on average, approximately 40% lower values for unstable stratification and 67% lower for stable stratification. However, this corresponds to only 20 and 12 W m−2, respectively. The BM, however, shows a greater scatter and larger differences for both parameters. In addition to testing these methods, radiation properties were measured and the surface albedo was found to increase through the summer, from approximately 0.1 to 0.2. The surface energy budget shows that the sensible heat flux is usually directed upwards for the whole summer, while the latent heat flux is upwards in June, but becomes downward in July and August.

  5. Observation of a current-limited double layer in a linear turbulent-heating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inuzuka, H.; Torii, Y.; Nagatsu, M.; Tsukishima, T.

    1985-01-01

    Time- and space-resolved measurements of strong double layers (DLs) have been carried out for the first time on a linear turbulent-heating device, together with those of fluctuation spectra and precise current measurements. A stable stong DL is formed even when the electric current through the DL is less than the so-called Bohm value. Discussion of the formation and decay processes is given, indicating a transition from an ion-acoustic DL to a monotonic DL

  6. Observation of trapped gas during electrical resistance heating of trichloroethylene under passive venting conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E. J.; Kueper, B. H.

    2011-11-01

    A two-dimensional experiment employing a heterogeneous sand pack incorporating two pools of trichloroethylene (TCE) was performed to assess the efficacy of electrical resistance heating (ERH) under passive venting conditions. Temperature monitoring displayed the existence of a TCE-water co-boiling plateau at 73.4 °C, followed by continued heating to 100 °C. A 5 cm thick gas accumulation formed beneath a fine-grained capillary barrier during and after co-boiling. The capillary barrier did not desaturate during the course of the experiment; the only pathway for gas escape being through perforated wells traversing the barrier. The thickness of the accumulation was dictated by the entry pressure of the perforated well. The theoretical maximum TCE soil concentration within the region of gas accumulation, following gas collapse, was estimated to be 888 mg/kg. Post-heating soil sampling revealed TCE concentrations in this region ranging from 27 mg/kg to 96.7 mg/kg, indicating removal of aqueous and gas phase TCE following co-boiling as a result of subsequent boiling of water. The equilibrium concentrations of TCE in water corresponding to the range of post-treatment concentrations in soil (6.11 mg/kg to 136 mg/kg) are calculated to range from 19.8 mg/l to 440 mg/l. The results of this experiment illustrate the importance of providing gas phase venting during the application of ERH in heterogeneous porous media.

  7. Quantum thermodynamics of nanoscale steady states far from equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Nobuhiko

    2018-04-01

    We develop an exact quantum thermodynamic description for a noninteracting nanoscale steady state that couples strongly with multiple reservoirs. We demonstrate that there exists a steady-state extension of the thermodynamic function that correctly accounts for the multiterminal Landauer-Büttiker formula of quantum transport of charge, energy, or heat via the nonequilibrium thermodynamic relations. Its explicit form is obtained for a single bosonic or fermionic level in the wide-band limit, and corresponding thermodynamic forces (affinities) are identified. Nonlinear generalization of the Onsager reciprocity relations are derived. We suggest that the steady-state thermodynamic function is also capable of characterizing the heat current fluctuations of the critical transport where the thermal fluctuations dominate. Also, the suggested nonequilibrium steady-state thermodynamic relations seemingly persist for a spin-degenerate single level with local interaction.

  8. Ground-source heat pump barometer - EurObserv'ER - September 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    2,9% slide by the GHSP market in the EU between 2009 and 2010. The double whammy dealt by the economic crisis and housing slump has stifled expansion of the ground-source heat pump market in many European countries. The European Union market contracted for the second year running (by 2.9% between 2009 and 2010), and this despite the fact that more than 100 000 units were sold over the twelve-month period, taking the number of installed units past the one million mark

  9. Observations of electron heating during 28 GHz microwave power application in proto-MPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewer, T. M.; Bigelow, T. S.; Caneses, J. F.; Diem, S. J.; Green, D. L.; Kafle, N.; Rapp, J.; Proto-MPEX Team

    2018-02-01

    The Prototype Material Plasma Exposure Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory utilizes a variety of power systems to generate and deliver a high heat flux plasma onto the surface of material targets. In the experiments described here, a deuterium plasma is produced via a ˜100 kW, 13.56 MHz RF helicon source, to which ˜20 kW of 28 GHz microwave power is applied. The electron density and temperature profiles are measured using a Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic, and indicate that the electron density is centrally peaked. In the core of the plasma column, the electron density is higher than the cut-off density (˜0.9 × 1019 m-3) for the launched mixture of X- and O-mode electron cyclotron heating waves to propagate. TS measurements indicate electron temperature increases from ˜5 eV to ˜20 eV during 28 GHz power application when the neutral deuterium pressure is reduced below 0.13 Pa (˜1 mTorr.).

  10. Observations of temperature rise during electron cyclotron heating application in Proto-MPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewer, T. M.; Bigelow, T.; Caneses, J. F.; Diem, S. J.; Rapp, J.; Reinke, M.; Kafle, N.; Ray, H. B.; Showers, M.

    2017-10-01

    The Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) at ORNL utilizes a variety of power systems to generate and deliver a high heat flux plasma (1 MW/m2 for these discharges) onto the surface of material targets. In the experiments described here, up to 120 kW of 13.56 MHz ``helicon'' waves are combined with 20 kW of 28 GHz microwaves to produce Deuterium plasma discharges. The 28 GHz waves are launched in a region of the device where the magnetic field is axially varying near 0.8 T, resulting in the presence of a 2nd harmonic electron cyclotron heating (ECH) resonance layer that transects the plasma column. The electron density and temperature profiles are measured using a Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic, and indicate that the electron density is radially peaked. In the core of the plasma column the electron density is higher than the cut-off density (0.9x1019 m-3) for ECH waves to propagate and O-X-B mode conversion into electron Bernstien waves (EBW) is expected. TS measurements indicate electron temperature increases during 28 GHz wave application, rising (from 5 eV to 20 eV) as the neutral Deuterium pressure is reduced below 1 mTorr. This work was supported by the US. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  11. The Effects of Heat Advection on UK Weather and Climate Observations in the Vicinity of Small Urbanized Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Richard; Cai, Xiaoming; Chapman, Lee; Heaviside, Clare; Thornes, John E.

    2017-10-01

    Weather and climate networks traditionally follow rigorous siting guidelines, with individual stations located away from frost hollows, trees or urban areas. However, the diverse nature of the UK landscape suggests that the feasibility of siting stations that are truly representative of regional climate and free from distorting local effects is increasingly difficult. Whilst the urban heat island is a well-studied phenomenon and usually accounted for, the effect of warm urban air advected downwind is rarely considered, particularly at rural stations adjacent to urban areas. Until recently, urban heat advection (UHA) was viewed as an urban boundary-layer process through the formation of an urban plume that rises above the surface as it is advected. However, these dynamic UHA effects are shown to also have an impact on surface observations. Results show a significant difference in temperatures anomalies (p careful interpretation of long-term temperature data taken near small urban areas.

  12. Heat stress risk in India under the observed and projected 1.5 and 2.0ºC warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, V.; Kumar, R.; Mukherjee, S.; AghaKouchak, A.; Stone, D. A.; Huber, M.

    2017-12-01

    India has witnessed some of the unprecedented heat waves that caused substantial mortality. Despite the implications of heat stress on labor efficiency, human health, and mortality, the risk of heat stress under the warming climate is largely unexplored in India. Here, using the observations, reanalysis products, and data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate models (GCMs), we show that the risk of heatwaves and heat stress has increased in India during the period of 1979-2017. Both heat waves and heat stress events have become more frequent in the majority of India except the Indo-Gangetic Plain region. In the Indo-Gangetic Plain region, the heat stress has increased while the frequency of heat waves has declined during the observed record of 1979-2017. This contrasting response of heat waves and heat stress in the Gangetic Plain region can be attributed to irrigation and atmospheric aerosols. The risk of heat stress is projected to increase manifold in the majority of India and in the Indo-Gangetic Plain under the 1.5 and 2.0ºC warming scenarios.

  13. Validation of a heat conduction model for finite domain, non-uniformly heated, laminate bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgrosseilliers, Louis; Kabbara, Moe; Groulx, Dominic; White, Mary Anne

    2016-07-01

    Infrared thermographic validation is shown for a closed-form analytical heat conduction model for non-uniformly heated, laminate bodies with an insulated domain boundary. Experiments were conducted by applying power to rectangular electric heaters and cooled by natural convection in air, but also apply to constant-temperature heat sources and forced convection. The model accurately represents two-dimensional laminate heat conduction behaviour giving rise to heat spreading using one-dimensional equations for the temperature distributions and heat transfer rates under steady-state and pseudo-steady-state conditions. Validation of the model with an insulated boundary (complementing previous studies with an infinite boundary) provides useful predictions of heat spreading performance and simplified temperature uniformity calculations (useful in log-mean temperature difference style heat exchanger calculations) for real laminate systems such as found in electronics heat sinks, multi-ply stovetop cookware and interface materials for supercooled salt hydrates. Computational determinations of implicit insulated boundary condition locations in measured data, required to assess model equation validation, were also demonstrated. Excellent goodness of fit was observed (both root-mean-square error and R 2 values), in all cases except when the uncertainty of low temperatures measured via infrared thermography hindered the statistical significance of the model fit. The experimental validation in all other cases supports use of the model equations in design calculations and heat exchange simulations.

  14. Excitation of Alfvén waves by modulated HF heating of the ionosphere, with application to FAST observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kolesnikova

    Full Text Available During the operation of the EISCAT high power facility (heater at Tromsø, Norway, on 8 October 1998, the FAST spacecraft made electric field and particle observations in the inner magnetosphere at 0.39 Earth radii above the heated ionospheric region. Measurements of the direct current electric field clearly exhibit oscillations with a frequency close to the modulated frequency of heater ( ~ 3 Hz and an amplitude of ~ 2 - 5 mV m-1. Thermal electron data from the electrostatic analyser show the modulation at the same frequency of the downward electron fluxes. During this period the EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar, sited also at Tromsø, measured a significant enhancement of the electron density in E-layer up to 2 · 1012 m-3. These observations have prompted us to make quantitative estimates of the expected pulsations in the inner magnetosphere caused by the modulated HF heating of lower ionosphere. Under the conditions of the strong electron precipitation in the ionosphere, which took place during the FAST observations, the primary current caused by the perturbation of the conductivity in the heated region is closed entirely by the parallel current which leaks into the magnetosphere. In such circumstances the conditions at the ionosphere-magnetosphere boundary are most favourable for the launching of an Alfvén wave: it is launched from the node in the gradient of the scalar potential which is proportional to the parallel current. The parallel electric field of the Alfvén wave is significant in the region where the electron inertial length is of order of the transverse wavelength of the Alfvén wave or larger and may effectively accelerate superthermal electrons downward into the ionosphere.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; ionosphere – magnetosphere interactions; particle acceleration

  15. Excitation of Alfvén waves by modulated HF heating of the ionosphere, with application to FAST observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kolesnikova

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available During the operation of the EISCAT high power facility (heater at Tromsø, Norway, on 8 October 1998, the FAST spacecraft made electric field and particle observations in the inner magnetosphere at 0.39 Earth radii above the heated ionospheric region. Measurements of the direct current electric field clearly exhibit oscillations with a frequency close to the modulated frequency of heater ( ~ 3 Hz and an amplitude of ~ 2 - 5 mV m-1. Thermal electron data from the electrostatic analyser show the modulation at the same frequency of the downward electron fluxes. During this period the EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar, sited also at Tromsø, measured a significant enhancement of the electron density in E-layer up to 2 · 1012 m-3. These observations have prompted us to make quantitative estimates of the expected pulsations in the inner magnetosphere caused by the modulated HF heating of lower ionosphere. Under the conditions of the strong electron precipitation in the ionosphere, which took place during the FAST observations, the primary current caused by the perturbation of the conductivity in the heated region is closed entirely by the parallel current which leaks into the magnetosphere. In such circumstances the conditions at the ionosphere-magnetosphere boundary are most favourable for the launching of an Alfvén wave: it is launched from the node in the gradient of the scalar potential which is proportional to the parallel current. The parallel electric field of the Alfvén wave is significant in the region where the electron inertial length is of order of the transverse wavelength of the Alfvén wave or larger and may effectively accelerate superthermal electrons downward into the ionosphere.Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; ionosphere – magnetosphere interactions; particle acceleration

  16. Novelties in Material Development for Massive Concrete Structures: Reduction in Heat of Hydration Observed in Ternary Replacement Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiwa Hamid

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As the size of modern infrastructure increases, novelties related to mass concrete mixtures including supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs become critical. The effects of binary and ternary cement replacement mixtures including metakaolin, silica fume, ground calcium carbonate, granulated blast furnace slag, and fly ash on the rate and amount of heat generated in concrete mixtures are investigated. Twenty three binary and ternary mixtures with a water-to-cementitious binder ratio of 0.43 are evaluated. Between 15% and 45% cement replacement by weight is considered. Results indicate that binary mixtures containing metakaolin or silica fume offer no advantage in reducing the amount of heat but increase compressive strength by 20%. On contrary, ternary mixtures, including two pozzolanic materials, provide 15% reduction in the amount of heat evolution without compromising strength. This reduction is observed regardless of alumina (Al or silica (Si content in pozzolanic materials when 45% cement is replaced with a combination of slag and metakaolin, or slag and silica fume. Furthermore, the effect of increased calcium (Ca content is investigated. It is concluded that ternary mixtures with decreased Ca/(Al+Si ratio reduce internal temperature in mass concrete structures and are less likely to be exposed to the threshold temperature for delayed ettringite formation.

  17. Comparison of Heat and Moisture Fluxes from a Modified Soil-plant-atmosphere Model with Observations from BOREAS. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Mahrt, L.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluates the prediction of heat and moisture fluxes from a new land surface scheme with eddy correlation data collected at the old aspen site during the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) in 1994. The model used in this study couples a multilayer vegetation model with a soil model. Inclusion of organic material in the upper soil layer is required to adequately simulate exchange between the soil and subcanopy air. Comparisons between the model and observations are discussed to reveal model misrepresentation of some aspects of the diurnal variation of subcanopy processes. Evapotranspiration

  18. Observations of Crassostrea virginica cultured in the heated effluent and discharged radionuclides of a nuclear power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, A.H.; Hess, C.T.; Smith, C.W.

    1976-06-01

    American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were rafted for 26 months at four sites in the effluent waters near Maine Yankee Nuclear Power Reactor in Montsweag Bay and at a control site in the adjacent Damariscotta River. In an evaluation of the thermal effluent for aquaculture, comparisons are made among the sites of the effects of heated effluent on oyster growth and condition, and the uptake and retention of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides. Growth and uptake of radionuclides were observed to be accelerated at the warmer water sites. Both experimental results and calculations for 58 Co and 54 Mn are presented

  19. Observations of Crassostrea virginica cultured in the heated effluent and discharged radionuclides of a nuclear power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, A.H.; Hess, C.T.; Smith, C.W.

    1976-06-01

    American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were rafted for 26 months at four sites in the effluent waters near Maine Yankee Nuclear Power Reactor in Montsweag Bay and at a control site in the adjacent Damariscotta River. In an evaluation of the thermal effluent for aquaculture, comparisons are made among the sites of the effects of heated effluent on oyster growth and condition, and the uptake and retention of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides. Growth and uptake of radionuclides were observed to be accelerated at the warmer water sites. Both experimental results and calculations for /sup 58/Co and /sup 54/Mn are presented.

  20. Algorithm development for safeguarding the Wendelstein 7-X divertor during steady state operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodatos, A.; Jakubowski, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Greuner, H.; Sunn Pedersen, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wurden, G.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The divertor of Wendelstein 7X is designed to withstand steady state heat fluxes of 10 MW/m{sup 2} and 15 MW/m{sup 2} transiently. However higher local heat fluxes are possible. 10 thermographic infrared (IR) observation systems will be installed to monitor the divertor and its center goal is the detection of overheated areas in real time. Besides an increased plasma heat flux, there are at least two potential causes of an elevated diverter surface temperature. First, redeposited eroded material forming surface layers with a poor thermal connection to the underlying water-cooled tiles. Second, delaminated CFC tiles will exhibit an elevated surface temperature relative to properly bonded tiles. Using the measured characteristic time scales for the thermal response, gained from experiments at GLADIS, we have concluded that it is possible to distinguish between healthy, delaminated, surface-coated and delaminated surface-coated tiles.

  1. Observed structure of mesoscale convective systems and implications for large-scale heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houze, Robert A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The model for the idealized tropical mesoscale convective system proposed by Houze (1982) is examined. Observations of the structure of mesoscale convective systems are used to determine the applicability of the conceptual model. Data on the vertical distribution of vertical air motion in the convective and stratiform regions of mesoscale convective systems are discussed and the treatment of this distribution in Houze's model is considered.

  2. Simulating ITER steady-state operation scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Casper, T.A.; Campbell, D.J.; Snipes, J.A.; Bulmer, R.; LoDestro, L.L.; Meyer, W.H.; Pearlstein, L.D.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. ITER steady-state operation aims at demonstrating fully non-inductive plasma operation at a moderate fusion power multiplication factor (Q) of about 5, for long burn durations of up to 3000 s. In this work, this operational capability is studied using an advanced free-boundary transport simulation code, CORSICA [1-3], including relevant physics and engineering constraints. The tokamak discharge modelling capability of the CORSICA code has been improved by integrating realistic source modules for heating and current drive and a parameterized EPED1 pedestal model. The electro-magnetic ITER machine description is computed using the recent design parameters and the latest source configurations are taken into account. This work has been performed to study the feasibility of the ITER steady-state operation. Although the evolution of internal transport barriers (ITBs) are not yet included in this study, a higher energy confinement over the H-mode confinement (H98>1) is assumed by maintaining a reversed safety factor (q) profile during the flat-top phase. This paper presents several ITER steady-state operation scenarios, including a reference 9 MA case, and also suggests a potential approach for achieving fully non-inductive ITER steady-state operation with Q>5. References: [1] Crotinger, J.A. et al, 1997 LLNL Report UCRL-ID-126284; NTIS PB2005-102154; [2] Casper, T.A. et al, 2010 23. Int. Conf. on Fusion Energy (Daejeon, Korea) ITR/P1-19 accepted for publication in Nuclear Fusion; [3] Kim, S.H. et al, 2012 24. Int. Conf. on Fusion Energy (San Diego, USA) ITR/P1-13. (authors)

  3. Observation of Anomalous Potential Electric Energy in Distilled Water Under Solar Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin; Christianto, V.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a very simple experiment with distilled water which could exhibit anomalous potential electrical energy with very minimum preparation energy. While this observed excess energy here is less impressive than J-P. Beberian's and M. Porringa's, and the material used is also far less exotic than common LENR-CANR experiments, from the viewpoint of minimum preparation requirement --and therefore less barrier for rapid implementation--, it seems that further experiments could be recommended in order to verify and also to explore various implications of this new proposition.

  4. H-modes under steady-state conditions in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.J.; Arshad, S.A.; Gondhalekar, A.; Thomas, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Two H-mode regimes have been identified in JET in which edge localized modes (ELMs) maintain steady-state conditions. In the first regime, strong gas puffing was used in combined (ICRF plus NBI) heating experiments at powers of up to 20 MW. Rapid ELM activity occurred and at moderate powers (∼ 8 MW) steady-state H-modes with durations of up to 18s and energy confinement times of up to 95% of the JET/D-IIID scaling were established. At high toroidal beta (β N ≥ 1.5) H-mode plasmas were also found to exhibit regular ELM behaviour which resulted in steady-state H-modes with confinement enhancement of ∼ 90% of the JET/D-IIID scaling. This paper examines the plasma properties of these regimes and assesses their implications for steady-state H-mode operation in ignited plasmas. (author)

  5. Enceladus' Enigmatic Heat Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howett, C.; Spencer, J. R.; Spencer, D.; Verbiscer, A.; Hurford, T.; Segura, M.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate knowledge of Enceladus' heat flow is important because it provides a vital constraint on Enceladus' tidal dissipation mechanisms, orbital evolution, and the physical processes that generate the plumes. In 2011 we published an estimate of the current heat flow from Enceladus' active south polar terrain: 15.8 +/- 3.1 GW (Howett et al., 2011). This value was calculated by first estimating by modeling, and then removing, the passive component from 17 to 1000 micron observations made of the entire south polar terrain by Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS). The heat flow was then directly calculated from the residual, assumed endogenic, component. The derived heat flow of 15.8 GW was surprisingly high, about 10 times greater than that predicted by steady-state tidal heating (Meyer and Wisdom, 2007). CIRS has also returned high spatial resolution observations of Enceladus' active south polar terrain. Two separate observations are used: 9 to 16 micron observations taken over nearly the complete south polar terrain and a single 17 to 1000 micron scan over Damascus, Baghdad and Cairo. The shorter wavelength observations are only sensitive to high temperature emission (>70 K), and so longer wavelength observations are required (despite their limited spatial coverage) to estimate the low temperature emission from the stripes. Analysis of these higher resolution observations tells a different story of Enceladus' endogenic heat flow: the preliminary estimate of the heat flow from the active tiger stripes using these observations is 4.2 GW. An additional 0.5 GW must be added to this number to account for the latent heat release by the plumes (Ingersoll and Pankine 2009), giving a total preliminary estimate of 4.9 GW. The discrepancy in these two numbers is significant and we are currently investigating the cause. One possible reason is that there is significantly higher endogenic emission from the regions between the tiger stripes than we currently estimate

  6. CAlorimetric observation of excess heat during electrochemical insertion of deuterium into palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, T.M.; Schreiber, M.; Huggins, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    In order to address the energy break-even issue, the thermal behavior of the Pd-D system was studied during electrolysis of heavy water in a thermodynamically closed cell. A specially designed isoperibolic calorimeter was developed for this purpose and was fully characterized. Eleven pretreated, fresh Pd cathodes were individually tested in identically designed calorimeters and their thermal behavior were monitored starting from time zero. In two of the cases, excess power was observed in which the overall energy balance became positive after a relatively short period, leading to the generation of significant amounts of excess energy. In one case, excess power was maintained over a period of ten days, and produced over 23 MJ of excess energy per mole of palladium

  7. The Asymptotic Solution for the Steady Variable-Viscosity Free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under an arbitrary time-dependent heating of an infinite vertical plate (or wall), the steady viscosity-dependent free convection flow of a viscous incompressible fluid is investigated. Using the asymptotic method of solution on the governing equations of motion and energy, the resulting Ordinary differential equations were ...

  8. [Clinical Observation of Heat-sensitive Moxibustion Combined with Kegel Exercise Therapy for Female Stress Urinary Incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dan; Deng, Peng; Jiao, Lin; Xiong, Jun; Xie, Ding-Yi; Chen, Ri-Xin

    2017-08-25

    To compare the clinical effects of heat-sensitive moxibustion combined with kegel exercise therapy and simple kegel exercise therapy on female stress urinary incontinence. Forty-five female patients with stress urinary incontinence were randomly divided into a treatment group ( n =23) and a control group ( n =22). Kegel exercise therapy was applied in the two groups. Heat-sensitive moxibustion was used at Zhongji (CV 3), Qihai (CV 6), Ciliao (BL 32) and Shen-shu (BL 23) in the treatment group, once a day for the first 10 times, and once every other day until 5 sessions were given, 10 times as one session. 1-hour pad test, International Incontinence Advisory Board questionnaire (ICIQ-SF) and the number of urine leakage were observed before and after treatment. And the clinical effect was evaluated. The curative rate of 43.48%(10/23) and the total effective rate of 95.65%(22/23) in the treatment group were respectively better than those of 18.18% (4/22) and 63.64%(14/22) in the control group (both P kegel exercise therapy achieves better effect than simple kegel exercise therapy on female stress urinary incontinence.

  9. Interface observation of heat-treated Co/Mo{sub 2}C multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yanyan; Le Guen, Karine; André, Jean-Michel [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); CNRS UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Mény, Christian; Ulhaq, Corinne [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504 CNRS-Université De Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg (France); Galtayries, Anouk [PSL, Research University, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, CNRS – Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75005 Paris (France); Zhu, Jingtao; Wang, Zhanshan [Institute of Precision Optical Engineering, Department of Physics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Jonnard, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.jonnard@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); CNRS UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Interface modification of a series of periodic Co/Mo{sub 2}C multilayers as a function of the annealing temperature up to 600 °C. • Complementary techniques to characterize the stack interfaces: ToF-SIMS, NMR, XRD, TEM. • Periodical structure of Co/Mo{sub 2}C and formation of an oxide layer at both air/stack and stack/substrate interfaces. • Intermixing phenomenon of Co and C atoms for the as-deposited sample, and after annealing above 300 °C, Co and C atoms separate from their mixed regions. • Calculation of the Co–C, Co–Mo and Mo–C mixing enthalpy using Miedema's model confirms the demixing of Co and C atoms above 300 °C. - Abstract: We study the interface evolution of a series of periodic Co/Mo{sub 2}C multilayers as a function of the annealing temperature up to 600 °C. Different complementary techniques are implemented to get information on the phenomenon taking place at the interfaces of the stack. The periodical structure of Co/Mo{sub 2}C multilayer is proven by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) depth profiles which demonstrate the formation of an oxide layer at both air/stack and stack/substrate interfaces. From Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, we observed the intermixing phenomenon of Co and C atoms for the as-deposited sample, and then at annealing temperature above 300 °C Co and C atoms separate from their mixed regions. Comparison of NMR results between Co/Mo{sub 2}C and Co/C references confirms this phenomenon. This is in agreement with X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) measurements. Furthermore the calculation of the Co–C, Co–Mo and Mo–C mixing enthalpy using Miedema's model gives a proof of the demixing of Co and C atoms present within the stacks above 300 °C. From the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, we found the presence of some crystallites within the as-deposited sample as well as the mainly amorphous nature of all layers

  10. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score assessed with an isotropic three-dimensional true fast imaging with steady-state precession sequence at 3.0 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Goetz H; Zak, Lukas; Mamisch, Tallal C; Resinger, Christoph; Marlovits, Stefan; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2009-09-01

    Cartilage defects are common pathologies and surgical cartilage repair shows promising results. In its postoperative evaluation, the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score, using different variables to describe the constitution of the cartilage repair tissue and the surrounding structures, is widely used. High-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 3-dimensional (3D) isotropic sequences may combine ideal preconditions to enhance the diagnostic performance of cartilage imaging.Aim of this study was to introduce an improved 3D MOCART score using the possibilities of an isotropic 3D true fast imaging with steady-state precession (True-FISP) sequence in the postoperative evaluation of patients after matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) as well as to compare the results to the conventional 2D MOCART score using standard MR sequences. The study had approval by the local ethics commission. One hundred consecutive MR scans in 60 patients at standard follow-up intervals of 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 60 months after MACT of the knee joint were prospectively included. The mean follow-up interval of this cross-sectional evaluation was 21.4 +/- 20.6 months; the mean age of the patients was 35.8 +/- 9.4 years. MRI was performed at a 3.0 Tesla unit. All variables of the standard 2D MOCART score where part of the new 3D MOCART score. Furthermore, additional variables and options were included with the aims to use the capabilities of isotropic MRI, to include the results of recent studies, and to adapt to the needs of patients and physician in a clinical routine examination. A proton-density turbo spin-echo sequence, a T2-weighted dual fast spin-echo (dual-FSE) sequence, and a T1-weighted turbo inversion recovery magnitude (TIRM) sequence were used to assess the standard 2D MOCART score; an isotropic 3D-TrueFISP sequence was prepared to evaluate the new 3D MOCART score. All 9 variables of the 2D MOCART score were compared

  11. Global patterns of land-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide, latent heat, and sensible heat derived from eddy covariance, satellite, and meteorological observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J.; Reichstein, M.

    2012-12-01

    We upscaled FLUXNET observations of carbon dioxide, water and energy fluxes to the global scale using the machine learning technique, Model Tree Ensembles (MTE). We trained MTE to predict site-level gross primary productivity (GPP), terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), latent energy (LE), and sensible heat (H) based on remote sensing indices, climate and meteorological data, and information on land use. We applied the trained MTEs to generate global flux fields at a 0.5° x 0.5o spatial resolution and a monthly temporal resolution from 1982-2008. Cross-validation analyses revealed good performance of MTE in predicting among-site flux variability with modeling efficiencies (MEf) between 0.64 and 0.84, except for NEE (MEf = 0.32). Performance was also good for predicting seasonal patterns (MEf between 0.84 and 0.89, except for NEE (0.64)). By comparison, predictions of monthly anomalies were weak. Our products are increasingly used to evaluate global land surface models. However, depending on the flux of interest (e.g. gross primary production, terrestrial ecosystem respiration, net ecosystem exchange, evapotranspiration) and the pattern of interest (mean annual map, seasonal cycles, interannual variability, trends) the robustness and uncertainty of these products varies considerably. To avoid pitfalls, this talk also aims at providing an overview of uncertainties associated with these products, and to provide recommendations on the usage for land surface model evaluations. Finally, we present FLUXCOM - an ongoing activity that aims at generating an ensemble of data-driven FLUXNET based products based on diverse approaches.

  12. STEADY-STATE RELATIVISTIC STELLAR DYNAMICS AROUND A MASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Or, Ben; Alexander, Tal

    2016-01-01

    A massive black hole (MBH) consumes stars whose orbits evolve into the small phase-space volume of unstable orbits, the “loss cone,” which take them into the MBH, or close enough to interact strongly with it. The resulting phenomena, e.g., tidal heating and disruption, binary capture and hyper-velocity star ejection, gravitational wave (GW) emission by inspiraling compact remnants, or hydrodynamical interactions with an accretion disk, can produce observable signatures and thereby reveal the MBH, affect its mass and spin evolution, test strong gravity, and probe stars and gas near the MBH. These continuous stellar loss and resupply processes shape the central stellar distribution. We investigate relativistic stellar dynamics near the loss cone of a non-spinning MBH in steady state, analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations of the diffusion of the orbital parameters. These take into account Newtonian mass precession due to enclosed stellar mass, in-plane precession due to general relativity, dissipation by GW, uncorrelated two-body relaxation, correlated resonant relaxation (RR), and adiabatic invariance due to secular precession, using a rigorously derived description of correlated post-Newtonian dynamics in the diffusion limit. We argue that general maximal entropy considerations strongly constrain the orbital diffusion in steady state, irrespective of the relaxation mechanism. We identify the exact phase-space separatrix between plunges and inspirals, and predict their steady-state rates. We derive the dependence of the rates on the mass of the MBH, show that the contribution of RR in steady state is small, and discuss special cases where unquenched RR in restricted volumes of phase-space may affect the steady state substantially

  13. Steady State Shift Damage Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekjær, Claus; Bull, Thomas; Markvart, Morten Kusk

    2017-01-01

    The steady state shift damage localization (S3DL) method localizes structural deterioration, manifested as either a mass or stiffness perturbation, by interrogating the damage-induced change in the steady state vibration response with damage patterns cast from a theoretical model. Damage is, thus...... the required accuracy when examining complex structures, an extensive amount of degrees of freedom (DOF) must often be utilized. Since the interrogation matrix for each damage pattern depends on the size of the system matrices constituting the FE-model, the computational time quickly becomes of first...

  14. Simulation of Radiation Heat Transfer in a VAR Furnace Using an Electrical Resistance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    The use of electrical resistance networks to simulate heat transfer is a well known analytical technique that greatly simplifies the solution of radiation heat transfer problems. In a VAR furnace, radiative heat transfer occurs between the ingot, electrode, and crucible wall; and the arc when the latter is present during melting. To explore the relative heat exchange between these elements, a resistive network model was developed to simulate the heat exchange between the electrode, ingot, and crucible with and without the presence of an arc. This model was then combined with an ingot model to simulate the VAR process and permit a comparison between calculated and observed results during steady state melting. Results from simulations of a variety of alloys of different sizes have demonstrated the validity of the model. Subsequent simulations demonstrate the application of the model to the optimization of both steady state and hot top melt practices, and raises questions concerning heat flux assumptions at the ingot top surface.

  15. Cluster observations of ELF/VLF signals generated by modulated heating of the lower ionosphere with the HAARP HF transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Platino

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available It is now well known that amplitude modulated HF transmissions into the ionosphere can be used to generate ELF/VLF signals using the so-called "electrojet antenna". Although most observations of the generated ELF/VLF signals have been made on the ground, several low and high-altitude satellite observations have also been reported (James et al., 1990. One of the important unknowns in the physics of ELF/VLF wave generation by ionospheric heating is the volume of the magnetosphere illuminated by the ELF/VLF waves. In an attempt to investigate this question further, ground-satellite conjunction experiments have recently been conducted using the four Cluster satellites and the HF heater of the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP facility in Gakona, Alaska. Being located on largely closed field lines at L≈4.9, HAARP is currently also being used for ground-to-ground type of ELF/VLF wave-injection experiments, and will be increasingly used for this purpose as it is now being upgraded for higher power operation. In this paper, we describe the HAARP installation and present recent results of the HAARP-Cluster experiments. We give an overview of the detected ELF/VLF signals at Cluster, and a possible explanation of the spectral signature detected, as well as the determination of the location of the point of injection of the HAARP ELF/VLF signals into the magnetosphere using ray tracing.

  16. Steady-State Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    illustrate the “equation oriented” approach as well as the “sequential modular” approach to solving complex flowsheets for steady state applications. The applications include the Williams-Otto plant, the hydrodealkylation (HDA) of toluene, conversion of ethylene to ethanol and a bio-ethanol process....

  17. Einstein's steady-state cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    O Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2014-01-01

    Last year, a team of Irish scientists discovered an unpublished manuscript by Einstein in which he attempted to construct a “steady-state” model of the universe. Cormac O’Raifeartaigh describes the excitement of finding this previously unknown work

  18. Latent Heating Profiles Derived from ARM Radar Observations in MC3E and GoAmazon Field Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Q.; Li, R.; Mu, Z.; Giangrande, S. E.; Wang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Atmosphere latent heating (LH) is released through water phase change processes in the atmosphere. There is a physical connection between LH rate and updraft velocity (ω) inside clouds. In this study, we develop a new LH algorithm based on a quantified LH-ω relationship found in cloud resolving model (CRM) simulations. The self-consistency check with CRM simulations shows that the retrievals correctly replicate the main features of LH profiles, including their total and individual components (i.e. condensation-evaporation heating rate, deposition-sublimation heating rate, and freezing-melting heating rate). Further, the algorithm is applied to real cases from the DOE-ARM MC3E and GoAmazon2014/6 Field Campaigns using available UHF (915 and 1290 MHz) zenith radar retrievals of vertical velocity and rain rate as input. The retrieved LH profiles in the deep convective rains show positive heating throughout the column, the LH profiles in the stratiform rains with well-defined bright-band showing clear dipole patterns with positive heating above and negative cooling below the freezing level. The altitudes of maximum heating in the widespread stratiform regimes are clearly higher than those found within deep convective regions. Overall, these Latent heating rate profiles, as an important geophysical quantity of interest, can provide useful climate diagnostic data, and ultimately, constraints for model-based analyses of large-scale heating distributions.

  19. Thermodynamic Analysis of Closed Steady or Cyclic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim McGovern

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Closed, steady or cyclic thermodynamic systems, which have temperature variations over their boundaries, can represent an extremely large range of plants, devices or natural objects, such as combined heating, cooling and power plants, computers and data centres, and planets. Energy transfer rates can occur across the boundary, which are characterized as heat or work. We focus on the finite time thermodynamics aspects, on energy-based performance parameters, on rational efficiency and on the environmental reference temperature. To do this, we examine the net work rate of a closed, steady or cyclic system bounded by thermal resistances linked to isothermal reservoirs in terms of the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Citing relevant references from the literature, we propose a methodology that can improve the thermodynamic analysis of an energy-transforming or an exergy-destroying plant. Through the reflections and analysis presented, we have found an explanation of the second law that clarifies the link between the Clausius integral of heat over temperature and the reference temperature of the Gouy–Stodola theorem. With this insight and approach, the specification of the environmental reference temperature in exergy analysis becomes more solid. We have explained the relationship between the Curzon Ahlborn heat engine and an irreversible Carnot heat engine. We have outlined the nature of subsystem rational efficiencies and have found Rant’s anergy to play an important role. We postulate that heat transfer through thermal resistance is the sole basis of irreversibility.

  20. Features of the seasonal variation of the semidiurnal, terdiurnal and 6-h components of ozone heating evaluated from Aura/MLS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the thermal forcing of the semidiurnal, terdiurnal, and 6-h components of the migrating tide induced by ozone heating in stratosphere and lower mesosphere. The heating as a function of local time is determined from the global ozone observed by the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Aura satellite. The harmonic components of the heating rates of the semidiurnal, terdiurnal and the 6-h periodicities are calculated using the Strobel/Zhu parameterized model and then decomposed into Hough modes. Seasonal variations of each harmonic component and its Hough modes are presented. For all three tidal components, the majority of the annual mean O3 heating projects onto symmetric modes. The semiannual variation is a prominent signal in almost all of the symmetric Hough modes near the stratopause. The strongest annual variation takes place in the asymmetric modes. The results also show that, during the solstice season, the maximum forcing of the diurnal and terdiurnal component occurs in the summer hemisphere while the maximum forcing of the semidiurnal and 6-h components occurs in the winter hemisphere. The global mean ozone density and the tidal components of the ozone heating rate are different between December–January and June–July. The asymmetry in the heating is primarily due to the 6.6% annual variation in the solar energy input into the Earth's atmosphere due to the annual variation of the Sun-Earth distance.

  1. Enhancing Extreme Heat Health-Related Intervention and Preparedness Activities Using Remote Sensing Analysis of Daily Surface Temperature, Surface Observation Networks and Ecmwf Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R. L.; Booth, J.; Hondula, D.; Ross, K. W.; Stuyvesant, A.; Alm, G.; Baghel, E.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme heat causes more human fatalities in the United States than any other natural disaster, elevating the concern of heat-related mortality. Maricopa County Arizona is known for its high heat index and its sprawling metropolitan complex which makes this region a perfect candidate for human health research. Individuals at higher risk are unequally spatially distributed, leaving the poor, homeless, non-native English speakers, elderly, and the socially isolated vulnerable to heat events. The Arizona Department of Health Services, Arizona State University and NASA DEVELOP LaRC are working to establish a more effective method of placing hydration and cooling centers in addition to enhancing the heat warning system to aid those with the highest exposure. Using NASA's Earth Observation Systems from Aqua and Terra satellites, the daily spatial variability within the UHI was quantified over the summer heat seasons from 2005 - 2014, effectively establishing a remotely sensed surface temperature climatology for the county. A series of One-way Analysis of Variance revealed significant differences between daily surface temperature averages of the top 30% of census tracts within the study period. Furthermore, synoptic upper tropospheric circulation patterns were classified to relate surface weather types and heat index. The surface weather observation networks were also reviewed for analyzing the veracity of the other methods. The results provide detailed information regarding nuances within the UHI effect and will allow pertinent recommendations regarding the health department's adaptive capacity. They also hold essential components for future policy decision-making regarding appropriate locations for cooling centers and efficient warning systems.

  2. Dissipative dark matter halos: The steady state solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, R.

    2018-02-01

    Dissipative dark matter, where dark matter particle properties closely resemble familiar baryonic matter, is considered. Mirror dark matter, which arises from an isomorphic hidden sector, is a specific and theoretically constrained scenario. Other possibilities include models with more generic hidden sectors that contain massless dark photons [unbroken U (1 ) gauge interactions]. Such dark matter not only features dissipative cooling processes but also is assumed to have nontrivial heating sourced by ordinary supernovae (facilitated by the kinetic mixing interaction). The dynamics of dissipative dark matter halos around rotationally supported galaxies, influenced by heating as well as cooling processes, can be modeled by fluid equations. For a sufficiently isolated galaxy with a stable star formation rate, the dissipative dark matter halos are expected to evolve to a steady state configuration which is in hydrostatic equilibrium and where heating and cooling rates locally balance. Here, we take into account the major cooling and heating processes, and numerically solve for the steady state solution under the assumptions of spherical symmetry, negligible dark magnetic fields, and that supernova sourced energy is transported to the halo via dark radiation. For the parameters considered, and assumptions made, we were unable to find a physically realistic solution for the constrained case of mirror dark matter halos. Halo cooling generally exceeds heating at realistic halo mass densities. This problem can be rectified in more generic dissipative dark matter models, and we discuss a specific example in some detail.

  3. Surface Observation and Pore Size Analyses of Polypropylene/Low-Melting Point Polyester Filter Materials: Influences of Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jia-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes making filter materials with polypropylene (PP and low-melting point (LPET fibers. The influences of temperatures and times of heat treatment on the morphology of thermal bonding points and average pore size of the PP/LPET filter materials. The test results indicate that the morphology of thermal bonding points is highly correlated with the average pore size. When the temperature of heat treatment is increased, the fibers are joined first with the thermal bonding points, and then with the large thermal bonding areas, thereby decreasing the average pore size of the PP/LPET filter materials. A heat treatment of 110 °C for 60 seconds can decrease the pore size from 39.6 μm to 12.0 μm.

  4. Major progress on tore supra toward steady state operation of tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saoutic, Y.

    2003-01-01

    During winter 2000-2001, a major upgrade of the internal components of Tore Supra has been completed that increased the heat extraction capability to 25 MW in steady state. Operating Tore Supra in this new configuration has produced a wealth of new results. The highlights of the 2002 long duration discharges campaign are: 4 minutes 25 seconds long discharges with an integrated energy of 0.75 GJ, which is three time higher than the old Tore Supra world record; recharge of the primary transformer by Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) for about 1 minute; 4 minutes long LHCD pulses; 1 minute long Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ICRH) pulse (0.11 GJ of ICRH injected energy). Beyond the quantitative step, significant qualitative progress in the steady state nature of the discharge has been accomplished: contrary to the situation in the old Tore Supra configuration, the plasma density is perfectly controlled by active pumping over the overall shot duration. The duration of Tore Supra discharges is sufficient to allow the complete diffusion of the resistive current. Surprising new physics is revealed in such discharges when approaching zero loop voltage. Slow central electron temperature oscillations have been observed in a variety of situations. Such oscillations are not likely to be linked to any MHD instabilities and probably results from an interplay between current profile shape, LHCD power deposition and transport. Analysis of the temperature gradient in the core region shows a very interesting behaviour and the normalised temperature gradient length is compared to the critical thresholds. Finally, the performance of heating and current drive systems and the observations made of the interior of Tore Supra after the long duration discharges campaign are reported. (author)

  5. quasi-steady state thermal performances of a solar air heater with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-01-17

    Jan 17, 2017 ... For low temperature solar heating applications two kind of solar air ... very low heat transfer rate because of small exchange surfaces ... In the study, mean temperatures and thermal performances of the solar air heater are modelled in quasi-steady state and compared to experimental data. Nomenclature.

  6. Analysis on temperature distribution in density lock on steady state without disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Pei; Yan Changqi; Gu Haifeng; Chen Wei

    2010-01-01

    Temperature distribution on steady state without disturbance in density lock is simulated experimentally in this paper, and the temperature stratification end point is discovered on the temperature curve on steady state. It separated the heat conduction layer and homoiothermy layer. Only when the temperature stratification end point is in the density lock, heat can be restrained effectually. The temperature field is simulated with three methods. The first one is a method of semi-infinite flat-panel heat conduction, the second one is a method of one dimensional steady state conduction in constant cross-section straight-fin, and the last one is calculated using Fluent calculation software. The results indicated that the method of semi-infinite flat-panel heat conduction is the best one to calculate the distribution of temperature and location of temperature stratification end point. (authors)

  7. Water and heat exchanges on the Tibetan Plateau: observation and modeling of the yellow river source region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Donghai

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the water and heat exchanges across the Tibetan ecosystem is of great importance for management of the Asian water towers that originate from the Tibetan Plateau and projection of water and energy dynamics within various climate scenarios. The study presented in this book contributes

  8. [On the terminology of auditory steady-state responses. What differentiates steady-state and transient potentials?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühler, R

    2012-05-01

    Recording human auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) at different frequencies allows objective assessment of auditory thresholds. Common practice has been to record ASSR to pure tones that are sinusoidally modulated in amplitude and frequency. Recently, optimized chirp stimuli have been proposed to evoke transient as well as steady-state responses. Because of the resulting uncertainty about the different methods, this paper aims to reconsider the terminology of transient and steady-state responses. Two experiments demonstrate the smooth transition between transient and steady-state responses. In experiment 1, click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were recorded over a wide range of stimulus repetition rates (24/s to 72/s). In experiment 2, auditory steady-state responses were recorded for the same stimulus repetition rates, using three different stimulus types: an amplitude modulated 1-kHz tone (AM), a 1-kHz tone-burst (TB) and a flat-spectrum chirp. Experiment 1 demonstrates the merging of the typical ABR wave complexes at higher repetition rates, forming a steady-state response. This effect can only be observed if the time window is extended far beyond the window traditionally used for clinical ABR recordings. Experiment 2 reveals similar ASSR amplitude spectra regardless of the stimulus type and repetition rate used. Steady-state responses can be evoked for a large variety of stimulus types and repetition rates. Thus, from a clinician's point of view, steady-state responses cannot be considered a new type of evoked responses. They differ from transient responses primarily in the frequency response method and the longer timeframe required.

  9. Steady state temperature profile in a sphere heated by microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M.; Jackson, H. W.

    1992-01-01

    A new theory has been developed to calculate the microwave absorption and resultant temperature profile within a sphere positioned in a single mode rectangular cavity. This theory is an extension of a total absorption model based on Mie scattering results. Temperature profiles have been computed for alumina spheres at the center of a rectangular cavity excited in the TM354 mode. Parametric studies reveal significant structure in those profiles under special conditions that are associated with electromagnetic resonances inside the spheres. Anomalous behavior similar to thermal runaway occurs at moderate temperatures when there is enhanced absorption associated with resonant conditions in the sphere.

  10. Thermalhydraulic behavior of electrically heated rod during a critical heat flux transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Rita de Cassia Fernandes de; Carajilescov, Pedro

    1997-01-01

    In nuclear reactors, the occurrence of critical heat flux leads to fuel rod overheating with clad fusion and radioactive products leakage. To predict the effects of such phenomenon, experiments are performed using electrically heated rods to simulate operational and accidental conditions of nuclear fuel rods. In the present work, a theoretical analysis of the drying and rewetting front propagation is performed during a critical heat flux experiment, starting with the application of slope of electrical power from steady state condition. After the occurrence of critical heat flux, the drying front propagation is predicted. After a few seconds, a power cut is considered and the rewetting front behavior is analytically observed. Studies done with several values of coolant mass flow rate show that this variable has more influence on the drying front velocity than on the rewetting one. (author)

  11. Analysis of heat and mass transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, E.R.G.; Drake, R.M. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Theory of Heat Conduction and Heat-conduction Equations; Thermal Conductivity; Steady Heat Conduction; Unsteady Heat Conduction; Forced Convection in Laminar Flow; Forced Convection in Turbulent Flow; Dimensional Analysis; Forced Convection in Separated Flow; Natural Convection; Radiation of Strongly Absorbing Media; and Radiation of Weakly Absorbing Media

  12. X-Ray Spectral Analysis of the Steady States of GRS1915+105

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Charith S.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Steiner, James F.; Vrtilek, Saeqa D.; Varnière, Peggy; Rodriguez, Jerome; Pooley, Guy

    2016-05-01

    We report on the X-ray spectral behavior within the steady states of GRS1915+105. Our work is based on the full data set of the source obtained using the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and 15 GHz radio data obtained using the Ryle Telescope. The steady observations within the X-ray data set naturally separated into two regions in the color-color diagram and we refer to these regions as steady-soft and steady-hard. GRS1915+105 displays significant curvature in the coronal component in both the soft and hard data within the RXTE/PCA bandpass. A majority of the steady-soft observations displays a roughly constant inner disk radius ({R}{{in}}), while the steady-hard observations display an evolving disk truncation which is correlated to the mass accretion rate through the disk. The disk flux and coronal flux are strongly correlated in steady-hard observations and very weakly correlated in the steady-soft observations. Within the steady-hard observations, we observe two particular circumstances when there are correlations between the coronal X-ray flux and the radio flux with log slopes η ˜ 0.68+/- 0.35 and η ˜ 1.12+/- 0.13. They are consistent with the upper and lower tracks of Gallo et al. (2012), respectively. A comparison of the model parameters to the state definitions shows that almost all of the steady-soft observations match the criteria of either a thermal or steep power-law state, while a large portion of the steady-hard observations match the hard-state criteria when the disk fraction constraint is neglected.

  13. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C; Maroo, Shalabh C

    2016-02-03

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.

  14. Effects of Short-Term Thermal Alteration on Organic Matter in Experimentally-Heated Tagish Lake Observed by Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Nakato, A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Nakamura, T.; Kebukawa, Y.; Maisano, J.; Colbert, M.; Martinez, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites exhibit a wide range of aqueous and thermal alteration characteristics, while some are known to demonstrate mineralogical and petrologic evidence of having been thermally metamorphosed after aqueous alteration. This group of meteorites are commonly referred as thermally met-amorphosed carbonaceous chondrites (TMCCs), and their reflectance spectra show resemblances to that of C-type asteroids which typically have low albedos. This suggests that the surfaces of the C-type asteroids are also composed of both hydrous and dehydrated minerals, and thus TMCCs are among the best samples that can be studied in laboratory to reveal the true nature of the C-type asteroids. Although TMCCs are usually meteorites that were previously categorized as CI and CM chondrites, they are not strictly CI/CM because they exhibit isotopic and petrographic characteristics that significantly deviate from typical CI/CM. More appropriately, they are called CI-like and/or CM-like chondrites. Typical examples of TMCCs include the C2-ung/CM2TIV Belgica (B)-7904 and Yamato (Y) 86720. Thermal alteration is virtually complete in these meteorites and thus they are considered typical end-members of TMCCs exhibiting complete dehydration of matrix phyllosilicates. The estimated heating conditions are 10 to 103 days at 700 C to 1 to 100 hours at 890 C, i.e. short-term heating induced by impact and/or solar radiation. While the petrology and chemistry of TMCCs have only recently been extensively characterized, we have just begun to study in detail their organic contents. In order to understand how short-term heating affects the maturity of insoluble organic matter (IOM) in hydrous chondrites, we investigated experimentally-heated Tagish Lake meteorite using Raman spectroscopy, as the chemical and bulk oxygen isotopic compositions of the matrix of the carbonate (CO3)-poor lithology of the Tagish Lake (hereafter Tag) meteorite bears similarities to the TMCCs.

  15. Constraining Parameter Uncertainty in Simulations of Water and Heat Dynamics in Seasonally Frozen Soil Using Limited Observed Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousong Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Water and energy processes in frozen soils are important for better understanding hydrologic processes and water resources management in cold regions. To investigate the water and energy balance in seasonally frozen soils, CoupModel combined with the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE method was used. Simulation work on water and heat processes in frozen soil in northern China during the 2012/2013 winter was conducted. Ensemble simulations through the Monte Carlo sampling method were generated for uncertainty analysis. Behavioral simulations were selected based on combinations of multiple model performance index criteria with respect to simulated soil water and temperature at four depths (5 cm, 15 cm, 25 cm, and 35 cm. Posterior distributions for parameters related to soil hydraulic, radiation processes, and heat transport indicated that uncertainties in both input and model structures could influence model performance in modeling water and heat processes in seasonally frozen soils. Seasonal courses in water and energy partitioning were obvious during the winter. Within the day-cycle, soil evaporation/condensation and energy distributions were well captured and clarified as an important phenomenon in the dynamics of the energy balance system. The combination of the CoupModel simulations with the uncertainty-based calibration method provides a way of understanding the seasonal courses of hydrology and energy processes in cold regions with limited data. Additional measurements may be used to further reduce the uncertainty of regulating factors during the different stages of freezing–thawing.

  16. Producing a steady-state population inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, R.K.; Griffin, D.C.

    1986-03-01

    An observed steady-state transition at 17.5 nm is identified as the 2p 5 3s3p 4 S/sub 3/2/ → 2p 6 3p 2 P/sub 3/2/ transition in Na-like aluminum. The upper level is populated by electron inner shell ionization of metastable Mg-like aluminum. From the emission intensity, the rate coefficient for populating the upper level is calculated to be approximately 5 x 10 -10 ) cm 3 /sec. Since the upper level is quasimetastable with a lifetime 22 times longer than the lower level, it may be possible to produce a population inversion, if a competing process to populate the lower level can be reduced

  17. Magnetic sensor for steady state tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neyatani, Yuzuru; Mori, Katsuharu; Oguri, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Mitsuru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1996-06-01

    A new type of magnetic sensor has been developed for the measurement of steady state magnetic fields without DC-drift such as integration circuit. The electromagnetic force induced to the current which leads to the sensor was used for the measurement. For the high frequency component which exceeds higher than the vibration frequency of sensor, pick-up coil was used through the high pass filter. From the results using tokamak discharges, this sensor can measure the magnetic field in the tokamak discharge. During {approx}2 hours measurement, no DC drift was observed. The sensor can respond {approx}10ms of fast change of magnetic field during disruptions. We confirm the extension of measured range to control the current which leads to the sensor. (author).

  18. Technical challenges in the construction of the steady-state stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, H.-S.; Wolf, R. C.; Andreeva, T.; Baldzuhn, J.; Birus, D.; Bluhm, T.; Bräuer, T.; Braune, H.; Bykov, V.; Cardella, A.; Durodié, F.; Endler, M.; Erckmann, V.; Gantenbein, G.; Hartmann, D.; Hathiramani, D.; Heimann, P.; Heinemann, B.; Hennig, C.; Hirsch, M.; Holtum, D.; Jagielski, J.; Jelonnek, J.; Kasparek, W.; Klinger, T.; König, R.; Kornejew, P.; Kroiss, H.; Krom, J. G.; Kühner, G.; Laqua, H.; Laqua, H. P.; Lechte, C.; Lewerentz, M.; Maier, J.; McNeely, P.; Messiaen, A.; Michel, G.; Ongena, J.; Peacock, A.; Pedersen, T. S.; Riedl, R.; Riemann, H.; Rong, P.; Rust, N.; Schacht, J.; Schauer, F.; Schroeder, R.; Schweer, B.; Spring, A.; Stäbler, A.; Thumm, M.; Turkin, Y.; Wegener, L.; Werner, A.; Zhang, D.; Zilker, M.; Akijama, T.; Alzbutas, R.; Ascasibar, E.; Balden, M.; Banduch, M.; Baylard, Ch.; Behr, W.; Beidler, C.; Benndorf, A.; Bergmann, T.; Biedermann, C.; Bieg, B.; Biel, W.; Borchardt, M.; Borowitz, G.; Borsuk, V.; Bozhenkov, S.; Brakel, R.; Brand, H.; Brown, T.; Brucker, B.; Burhenn, R.; Buscher, K.-P.; Caldwell-Nichols, C.; Cappa, A.; Cardella, A.; Carls, A.; Carvalho, P.; Ciupiński, Ł.; Cole, M.; Collienne, J.; Czarnecka, A.; Czymek, G.; Dammertz, G.; Dhard, C. P.; Davydenko, V. I.; Dinklage, A.; Drevlak, M.; Drotziger, S.; Dudek, A.; Dumortier, P.; Dundulis, G.; Eeten, P. v.; Egorov, K.; Estrada, T.; Faugel, H.; Fellinger, J.; Feng, Y.; Fernandes, H.; Fietz, W. H.; Figacz, W.; Fischer, F.; Fontdecaba, J.; Freund, A.; Funaba, T.; Fünfgelder, H.; Galkowski, A.; Gates, D.; Giannone, L.; García Regaña, J. M.; Geiger, J.; Geißler, S.; Greuner, H.; Grahl, M.; Groß, S.; Grosman, A.; Grote, H.; Grulke, O.; Haas, M.; Haiduk, L.; Hartfuß, H.-J.; Harris, J. H.; Haus, D.; Hein, B.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Helander, P.; Heller, R.; Hidalgo, C.; Hildebrandt, D.; Höhnle, H.; Holtz, A.; Holzhauer, E.; Holzthüm, R.; Huber, A.; Hunger, H.; Hurd, F.; Ihrke, M.; Illy, S.; Ivanov, A.; Jablonski, S.; Jaksic, N.; Jakubowski, M.; Jaspers, R.; Jensen, H.; Jenzsch, H.; Kacmarczyk, J.; Kaliatk, T.; Kallmeyer, J.; Kamionka, U.; Karaleviciu, R.; Kern, S.; Keunecke, M.; Kleiber, R.; Knauer, J.; Koch, R.; Kocsis, G.; Könies, A.; Köppen, M.; Koslowski, R.; Koshurinov, J.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Krampitz, R.; Kravtsov, Y.; Krychowiak, M.; Krzesinski, G.; Ksiazek, I.; Kubkowska, M.; Kus, A.; Langish, S.; Laube, R.; Laux, M.; Lazerson, S.; Lennartz, M.; Li, C.; Lietzow, R.; Lohs, A.; Lorenz, A.; Louche, F.; Lubyako, L.; Lumsdaine, A.; Lyssoivan, A.; Maaßberg, H.; Marek, P.; Martens, C.; Marushchenko, N.; Mayer, M.; Mendelevitch, B.; Mertens, Ph.; Mikkelsen, D.; Mishchenko, A.; Missal, B.; Mizuuchi, T.; Modrow, H.; Mönnich, T.; Morizaki, T.; Murakami, S.; Musielok, F.; Nagel, M.; Naujoks, D.; Neilson, H.; Neubauer, O.; Neuner, U.; Nocentini, R.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Nührenberg, C.; Obermayer, S.; Offermanns, G.; Oosterbeek, H.; Otte, M.; Panin, A.; Pap, M.; Paquay, S.; Pasch, E.; Peng, X.; Petrov, S.; Pilopp, D.; Pirsch, H.; Plaum, B.; Pompon, F.; Povilaitis, M.; Preinhaelter, J.; Prinz, O.; Purps, F.; Rajna, T.; Récsei, S.; Reiman, A.; Reiter, D.; Remmel, J.; Renard, S.; Rhode, V.; Riemann, J.; Rimkevicius, S.; Riße, K.; Rodatos, A.; Rodin, I.; Romé, M.; Roscher, H.-J.; Rummel, K.; Rummel, Th.; Runov, A.; Ryc, L.; Sachtleben, J.; Samartsev, A.; Sanchez, M.; Sano, F.; Scarabosio, A.; Schmid, M.; Schmitz, H.; Schmitz, O.; Schneider, M.; Schneider, W.; Scheibl, L.; Scholz, M.; Schröder, G.; Schröder, M.; Schruff, J.; Schumacher, H.; Shikhovtsev, I. V.; Shoji, M.; Siegl, G.; Skodzik, J.; Smirnow, M.; Speth, E.; Spong, D. A.; Stadler, R.; Sulek, Z.; Szabó, V.; Szabolics, T.; Szetefi, T.; Szökefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Tereshchenko, A.; Thomsen, H.; Thumm, M.; Timmermann, D.; Tittes, H.; Toi, K.; Tournianski, M.; Toussaint, U. v.; Tretter, J.; Tulipán, S.; Turba, P.; Uhlemann, R.; Urban, J.; Urbonavicius, E.; Urlings, P.; Valet, S.; Van Eester, D.; Van Schoor, M.; Vervier, M.; Viebke, H.; Vilbrandt, R.; Vrancken, M.; Wauters, T.; Weissgerber, M.; Weiß, E.; Weller, A.; Wendorf, J.; Wenzel, U.; Windisch, T.; Winkler, E.; Winkler, M.; Wolowski, J.; Wolters, J.; Wrochna, G.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Yamada, H.; Yokoyama, M.; Zacharias, D.; Zajac, J.; Zangl, G.; Zarnstorff, M.; Zeplien, H.; Zoletnik, S.; Zuin, M.

    2013-12-01

    The next step in the Wendelstein stellarator line is the large superconducting device Wendelstein 7-X, currently under construction in Greifswald, Germany. Steady-state operation is an intrinsic feature of stellarators, and one key element of the Wendelstein 7-X mission is to demonstrate steady-state operation under plasma conditions relevant for a fusion power plant. Steady-state operation of a fusion device, on the one hand, requires the implementation of special technologies, giving rise to technical challenges during the design, fabrication and assembly of such a device. On the other hand, also the physics development of steady-state operation at high plasma performance poses a challenge and careful preparation. The electron cyclotron resonance heating system, diagnostics, experiment control and data acquisition are prepared for plasma operation lasting 30 min. This requires many new technological approaches for plasma heating and diagnostics as well as new concepts for experiment control and data acquisition.

  19. Ion cyclotron heating experiments in EBT-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baity, F.W.; Davis, W.A.; Eldridge, O.C.; Glowienka, J.C.; Hillis, D.L.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Richards, R.K.; Mullen, J.H.; Owens, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    Fast-wave heating and propagation experiments in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) have been carried out on EBT-S under steady-state conditions at power levels up to 20 kW and under pulsed conditions at power levels up to 100 kW. The waves were launched using a single Faraday-shielded loop antenna installed on the midplane of one of the 24 cavity sectors. Substantial ion heating was observed at frequencies above the second harmonic for hydrogen plasmas and at frequencies above the third harmonic for deuterium plasmas, corresponding with the onset of wave propagation around the torus. The heating under these conditions is anomalous. In the case of deuterium plasmas, a small residual concentration (2 to 5%) of hydrogen was heated, but this component did not appear to affect the deuterium heating

  20. Coefficient of Performance Optimization of Single-Effect Lithium-Bromide Absorption Cycle Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Just Nielsen, Rene; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the coefficient of performance (COP) of a LiBr absorption cycle heat pump under different operating conditions. The investigation is carried out using a dynamical model fitted against data recorded from an actual heat pump used for district heating in S......⊘nderborg, Denmark. Since the model is too complex to study analytically, we vary different input variables within the permissible operating range of the heat pump and evaluate COP at the resulting steady-state operating points. It is found that the best set-point for each individual input is located at an extreme...... value of the investigated permissible range, and that the COP optimization is likely to be a convex problem. Further, we exploit this observation to propose a simple offline set-point optimization algorithm, which can be used as an automated assistance for the plant operator to optimize steady...

  1. Response of tungsten surfaces to helium and hydrogen plasma exposure under ITER relevant steady state and repetitive transient conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzi, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Huisman, A. E.; Bardin, S.; Morgan, T. W.; Rasinski, M.; Pitts, R. A.; Van Oost, G.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of helium (He) plasma exposure, and associated surface modifications, on the thermal shock resistance of tungsten (W) under ITER relevant steady state and transient heat and particle loads was studied. W samples were exposed to steady state and pulsed He plasmas at surface base

  2. Heat conduction boundary layers of condensed clumps in cooling flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, H.; Fabian, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    The structure of heat conduction boundary layers of gaseous condensations embedded in the hot intergalactic gas in clusters of galaxies is investigated by means of steady, one-dimensional, hydrodynamic models. It is assumed that heat conduction is effective only on scales much smaller than the total region of the cooling flow. Models are calculated for an arbitrary scaling factor, accounting for the reduction in heat conduction efficiency compared to the classical Spitzer case. The results imply a lower limit to the size spectrum of the condensations. The enhancement of cooling in the ambient medium due to heat conduction losses is calculated for a range of clump parameters. The luminosity of several observable emission lines, the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray emission spectrum, and the column density of some important ions are determined for the model boundary layers and compared with observations. (author)

  3. Steady state flow evaluations for passive auxiliary feedwater system of APR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongha; Kim, Jaeyul; Seong, Hoje; Kang, Kyoungho

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces a methodology to evaluate steady state flow of APR+ Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS). The PAFS is being developed as a safety grade passive system to completely replace the existing active Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS). Natural circulation cooling can be generally classified into the single-phase, two-phase, and boiling-condensation modes. The PAF is designed to be operated in a boiling-condensation natural circulation mode. The steady-state flow rate should be equal to the steady-state boiling/condensation rate determined by the steady-state energy and momentum balances in the PAFS. The determined steady-state flow rate can be used in the design optimization for the natural circulation loop of the PAFS through the steady-state momentum balance. Since the retarding force, which is to be balanced by the driving force in the natural circulation system design depends on the reliable evaluation of the success of a natural circulation system design depends on the reliable evaluation of the pressure loss coefficients. In PAFS, the core decay heat is released by natural circulation flow between the S G secondary side and the Passive Condensation Heat Exchanger (PCHX) that is immersed in the Passive Condensation Cooling Tank (PCCT). The PCCT is located on the top of Auxiliary building The driving force is determined by the difference between the S/G (heat Source) secondary water level and condensation liquid (heat sink) level. It will overcome retarding force at flowrate in the system, which is determined by vaporization and condensation of the steam which is generated at the S/G by the latent heat in system. In this study, the theoretical method to estimate the steady state flow rate in boiling-condensation natural circulation system is developed and compared with test results

  4. SYNCHROTRON HEATING BY A FAST RADIO BURST IN A SELF-ABSORBED SYNCHROTRON NEBULA AND ITS OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Dai, Zi-Gao; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are mysterious transient sources. If extragalactic, as suggested by their relative large dispersion measures, their brightness temperatures must be extremely high. Some FRB models (e.g., young pulsar model, magnetar giant flare model, or supra-massive neutron star collapse model) suggest that they may be associated with a synchrotron nebula. Here we study a synchrotron-heating process by an FRB in a self-absorbed synchrotron nebula. If the FRB frequency is below the synchrotron self-absorption frequency of the nebula, electrons in the nebula would absorb FRB photons, leading to a harder electron spectrum and enhanced self-absorbed synchrotron emission. In the meantime, the FRB flux is absorbed by the nebula electrons. We calculate the spectra of FRB-heated synchrotron nebulae, and show that the nebula spectra would show a significant hump in several decades near the self-absorption frequency. Identifying such a spectral feature would reveal an embedded FRB in a synchrotron nebula

  5. Observations of high-energy jets in the corona above the quiet sun, the heating of the corona, and the acceleration of the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueckner, G. E.; Bartoe, J.-D. F.

    1983-01-01

    High spatial resolution observations of the ultraviolet solar spectrum which reveal high-energy events in the quiet sun are presented. The tandem Wadsworth spectrograph used to make the observations is described along with the observing techniques, and a brief description of the characteristics of high-resolution transition zone spectra is given. The sizes, velocities, line profiles, time behavior, temperature range, differential emission measures, densities, masses, energies, and birthrates of turbulent events and jets in the quiet sun are derived from the observations and discussed. Possible accelerating mechanisms for these events are discussed, and the consequences of these events for the heating of the solar corona are discussed. A cloud model of the solar wind is proposed and possible correlations between the high-energy events and other solar fine-structure features are discussed.

  6. Electromagnetic scattering from large steady breaking waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coakley, D.B.; Haldeman, P.M.; Morgan, D.G.; Nicolas, K.R.; Penndorf, D.R.; Wetzel, L.B.; Weller, C.S. [David Taylor Model Basin, Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Div., West Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2001-05-01

    A submerged hydrofoil generated large steady breaking waves of 0.3 m and 0.4 m height in a circulating water channel. We measured water fraction in the breakers with conductivity probes. We observed the radar cross-section of the breakers at X-band with a pulsed step-frequency instrumentation radar with high spatial resolution in the downstream direction. The normalized radar cross-section increases with increasing elevation angle of observation for both vertical and horizontal polarization. This variation is consistent with a simple interpretation of the breaking wave as a diffuse (Lambertian) surface. However, the observed sizes and shapes of fluid elements in the breakers clearly show that construction of a theory for electromagnetic scattering from first principles will be challenging. We also obtained the velocity spectrum of the scattering features within the breakers. This spectrum indicates that slower moving small liquid elements rather than the faster moving large disturbances are responsible for most of the electromagnetic scattering. (orig.)

  7. Doppler lidar observations of sensible heat flux and intercomparisons with a ground-based energy balance station and WRF model output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Davis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available During the Convective and Orographically induced Precipitation Study (COPS, a scanning Doppler lidar was deployed at Achern, Baden-Wüttemberg, Germany from 13th June to 16th August 2007. Vertical velocity profiles ('rays' through the boundary layer were measured every 3 seconds with vertical profiles of horizontal wind velocity being derived from performing azimuth scans every 30 minutes. During Intense Observation Periods radiosondes were launched from the site. In this paper, a case study of convective boundary layer development on 15th July 2007 is investigated. Estimates of eddy dissipation rate are made from the vertically pointing lidar data and used as one input to the velocity-temperature co-variance equation to estimate sensible heat flux. The sensible heat flux values calculated from Doppler lidar data are compared with a surface based energy balance station and output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model.

  8. Knowledge of coronal heating and solar-wind acceleration obtained from observations of the solar wind near 1 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, M.

    1992-01-01

    Clues to the nature of the mechanisms responsible for heating the corona and accelerating the solar wind can be obtained by contrasting the properties of the quasi-stationary and transient states of the solar wind. Substantial differences exist in the proton temperatures and anisotropies, the entropy, the field strength, the Alfvenicity of fluctuations in the field, the distribution of MHD discontinuities, and the helium abundance of the two types of flow. Those differences are displayed as a function of the solar wind speed. Several signals of wave acceleration can be found in the data for quasi-stationary flows. The relatively smooth velocity dependences of proton temperature, helium abundance, and frequency of occurrence of rotational discontinuities suggest that the acceleration mechanisms for flow from coronal holes, coronal streamers, and the quasi-stationary low-speed flows between them may be basically the same, differing only in degree.

  9. Steady propagation of delamination events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Peter; Baumgardner, John

    1981-06-01

    Delamination of the lithospheric thermal boundary from overlying continental crust propagates laterally from the line of initiation, accelerating as the sinking slab of detached lithosphere grows longer. This propagation has been numerically modeled with steady state equations in a moving reference frame by matching an interior finite element solution to flexible boundary conditions which represent the mechanical and thermal response of the surroundings. The form of the solution depends on the shear coupling of intruding asthenosphere to the top of the sinking slab across a thin layer of crustal material. Without coupling, the tip of the intrusion cools and stiffens to form a wedge dividing the crust (cold mode). With coupling, the intrusion is forced to convect and remains ductile (hot mode). The cold mode can propagate at all velocities; the hot mode has a lower limiting velocity of 1-2 cm/year but offers less resistance at higher speeds. Resistance to delamination includes a constant term from the buoyant crustal downwarp, plus a velocity-proportional term representing viscous deformation. However, the proportionality constant of the latter term is only weakly dependent on crust and lithosphere viscosities. Matching this resistance to loading lines of 100- to 800-km slabs sinking in a mantle of 1022 P, velocities of 0.3-8.0 cm/year are obtained. Changes in viscosity affect this rate, but cold mode delamination is unstoppable except at continental margins or by failure in the sinking slab. The surface expression of delamination is a leading `outer rise' followed by a submarine trough with a large negative free-air anomaly, which finally evolves into a 1-km plateau. If crustal viscosity and velocity are both low, however, there is a montonic crustal uplift with no trough. Thus the present lack of linear supracontinental oceans does not preclude delamination at up to 4 cm/year driven by slabs up to 400 km in length.

  10. Steady turbulent flow in curved rectangular channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    After the study of fully developed and developing steady laminar flow in curved channels of shallow rectangular wet cross-section (see earlier reports in this series), steady turbulent flow in such channels is investigated as a next step towards a mathematical model of the flow in shallow river

  11. New Tore Supra steady state operating scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Parlange, F.; van Houtte, D.; Wijnands, T.

    1995-01-01

    This document deals with plasma control in steady state conditions. A new plasma control systems enabling feedback control of global plasma equilibrium parameters has been developed. It also enables to operate plasma discharge in steady state regime. (TEC). 4 refs., 5 figs

  12. Steady motions exhibited by Duffing's equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yoshisuke

    1980-01-01

    Various types of steady states take place in the system exhibited by Duffing's equation. Among them harmonic, higher harmonic and subharmonic motions are popularly known. Then ultrasubharmonic motions of different orders are fairly known. However chaotic motions are scarcely known. By using analog and digital computers, this report makes a survey of the whole aspect of steady motions exhibited by Duffing's equation. (author)

  13. In-situ heating TEM observation of microscopic structural changes of size-controlled metallic copper/gelatin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narushima, Takashi; Hyono, Atsushi; Nishida, Naoki; Yonezawa, Tetsu

    2012-10-01

    Copper/gelatin composite particles with controlled sizes were prepared at room temperature from cupric sulfate pentahydrate in the presence of gelatin as a protective reagent by using hydrazine monohydrate as a reducing agent. The formed particles with the size between 190-940 nm were secondary aggregated particles which were composed of smaller nanosized particles ("particle-in-particle"), the presence of which was established by XRD patterns and a cross-sectional TEM image. The sintering behavior of these copper/gelatin composite particles was demonstrated by in-situ heating TEM under a high vacuum (approximately 10(-5) Pa) and separately with the oxygen partial pressure controlled at the 10(-4) Pa level. It was established that the particles began to sinter at about 330 degrees C with the oxygen and that they sublimate above 450 degrees C both in the vacuum and oxygen conditions. This result shows that the introduction of an adequate amount of oxygen was effective to remove the gelatin surrounding the particles. It can also be concluded that the sintering of the copper/gelatin composite particles occurred even in the absence of a reducing agent such as hydrogen gas.

  14. Comparison of current density profiles based on particle orbit-driven current in steady-state plasma on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Md Mahbub, E-mail: m.alam@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [IGSES, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Nakamura, Kazuo [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Xia, Fan [CFS, SWIP, P.O. Box 432, 610041 Chengdu (China); Mitarai, Osamu [Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Hasegawa, Makoto; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Araki, Kuniaki; Zushi, Hideki; Hanada, Kazuaki; Fujisawa, Akihide; Idei, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Kawasaki, Shoji; Nakashima, Hisatoshi; Higashijima, Aki; Nagata, Takahiro [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) of QUEST. • Particle guiding center orbit calculation. • Orbit-driven current density profile. • Hollow current density. • Equilibrium condition for steady-state operation of QUEST. - Abstract: In the present RF-driven divertor plasma of QUEST, it has been observed that orbit-driven current flows in the open magnetic surfaces outside of the closed magnetic surfaces. To observe this phenomenon and the characteristics of the orbit-driven current, current density profiles have been calculated on two different equilibrium conditions. We calculated current density profiles from particle guiding center orbits both for the fundamental and the second harmonic resonances for the 8.2 GHz electron cyclotron current drive. From this calculation, hollow current density profiles have been obtained with significant characteristics on both conditions. Only positive current distribution has been observed in the open magnetic surfaces outside of the closed magnetic surfaces.

  15. Development of a plasma assisted ITER level controlled heat source and observation of novel micro/nanostructures produced upon exposure of tungsten targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aomoa, N.; Sarmah, Trinayan; Sah, Puspalata [CIMPLE-PSI Laboratory, Centre of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 Assam (India); Chaudhuri, P.; Khirwarker, S.; Ghosh, J. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 Gujarat (India); Satpati, B. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Kakati, M., E-mail: mayurkak@rediffmail.com [CIMPLE-PSI Laboratory, Centre of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 Assam (India); De Temmerman, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046 Saint Paul Lez Durance, Cedex (France)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Developed a plasma assisted ITER level high heat flux device for material testing. • The beam deposits over 10 MW/m{sup 2} flux uniformly over a remote material target. • Hopper micro-crystals were growing while exposing Plansee tungsten in the device. • CIMPLE-PSI being developed for exact reproduction of Tokomak Divertor conditions. - Abstract: This paper reports on the development of a simple, low-cost, segmented plasma torch assisted high-heat flux device for material testing, which can simulate the extreme heat flux expected in future fusion devices. Calorimetric measurements confirmed uniform heat deposition by the well collimated argon plasma beam over a target surface with power fluxes in excess of 10 MW/m{sup 2} during high current, high gas flow rate operations. To understand the outcome of possible melting of first wall material in an ITER like machine, an Plansee tungsten target was exposed in this device, which witnessed growth of micrometer level Hopper crystals and their aggregation to vertical grains in central exposed region. Increase in viscosity of the metal during high under-cooling is believed to have lead to the skeletal patterns, observed for the first time for tungsten here. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that re-solidified grains on the target actually had crystalline substructures in the nanometer level. This laboratory is in the process of developing an exact linear Tokamak Divertor simulator, where a magnetized hydrogen/helium collimated plasma jet will be produced at higher vacuum, for plasma material interaction studies with direct relevance to modern plasma fusion machines.

  16. Progress and prospect of true steady state operation with RF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquinot Jean

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of fusion confinement experiments in full steady state is a major challenge for the development towards fusion energy. Critical to achieving this goal is the availability of actively cooled plasma facing components and auxiliary systems withstanding the very harsh plasma environment. Equally challenging are physics issues related to achieving plasma conditions and current drive efficiency required by reactor plasmas. RF heating and current drive systems have been key instruments for obtaining the progress made until today towards steady state. They hold all the records of long pulse plasma operation both in tokamaks and in stellarators. Nevertheless much progress remains to be made in particular for integrating all the requirements necessary for maintaining in steady state the density and plasma pressure conditions of a reactor. This is an important stated aim of ITER and of devices equipped with superconducting magnets. After considering the present state of the art, this review will address the key issues which remain to be solved both in physics and technology for reaching this goal. They constitute very active subjects of research which will require much dedicated experimentation in the new generation of superconducting devices which are now in operation or becoming close to it.

  17. Confronting the WRF and RAMS mesoscale models with innovative observations in the Netherlands: Evaluating the boundary layer heat budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G. J.; Tolk, L. F.; Moene, A. F.; Hartogensis, O. K.; Peters, W.; Holtslag, A. A. M.

    2011-01-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and the Regional Atmospheric Mesoscale Model System (RAMS) are frequently used for (regional) weather, climate and air quality studies. This paper covers an evaluation of these models for a windy and calm episode against Cabauw tower observations

  18. ICRF heating on helical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, D.A.; Lyon, J.F.; Hoffman, D.J.; Murakami, M.; England, A.C.; Wilgen, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    Ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating is currently in use on CHS and W7-AS and is a major element of the heating planned for steady state helical devices. In helical devices, the lack of a toroidal current eliminates both disruptions and the need for ICFR current drive, simplifying the design of antenna structures as compared to tokamak applications. However the survivability of plasma facing components and steady state cooling issues are directly applicable to tokamak devices. Results from LHD steady state experiments should be available on a time scale to strongly influence the next generation of steady state tokamak experiments. the helical plasma geometry provides challenges not faced with tokamak ICRF heating, including the potential for enhanced fast ion losses, impurity accumulation, limited access for antenna structures, and open magnetic field lines in the plasma edge. The present results and near term plans provide the basis for steady state ICRF heating of larger helical devices. An approach which includes direct electron, mode conversion, ion minority and ion Bernstein wave heating addresses these issues. 12 refs

  19. BR2 reactor core steady state transient modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarenko, A.; Petrova, T.

    2000-01-01

    A coupled neutronics/hydraulics/heat-conduction model of the BR2 reactor core is under development at SCK-CEN. The neutron transport phenomenon has been implemented as steady state and time dependent nodal diffusion. The non-linear heat conduction equation in-side fuel elements is solved with a time dependent finite element method. To allow coupling between functional modules and to simulate subcooled regimes, a simple single-phase hydraulics has been introduced, while the two-phase hydraulics is under development. Multiple tests, general benchmark cases as well as calculation/experiment comparisons demonstrated a good accuracy of both neutronic and thermal hydraulic models, numerical reliability and full code portability. A refinement methodology has been developed and tested for better neutronic representation in hexagonal geometry. Much effort is still needed to complete the development of an extended cross section library with kinetic data and two-phase flow representation. (author)

  20. Modular first wall concept for steady state operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzlowski, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of the limiter design proposed for ZEPHYR a first wall concept has been developed which can also be used as a large area limiter, heat shield or beam pump. Its specific feature is the thermal contact of the wall armour elements with the water-cooled base plates. The combination of radiation and contact cooling, compared with radiation only, helps to lower the steady state temperatures of the first wall by approximately 50 % and to reduce the cooling-time between discharges. Particulary the lower wall temperature give a larger margin for additional heating of the wall by plasma disruption or neutral beams until excessive erosion or damage of the armour takes place

  1. Thermalhydraulic behavior of electrically heated rods during critical heat flux transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Rita de Cassia Fernandes de

    1997-01-01

    In nuclear reactors, the occurrence of critical heat flux leads to fuel rod overheating with clad fusion and radioactive products leakage. To predict the effects of such phenomenon, experiments are performed utilizing heated rods to simulate operational and accidental conditions of nuclear fuel rods, with special attention to the phenomenon of boiling crisis. The use of mechanisms which detect the abrupt temperature rise allows the electric power switch off. These facts prevent the test section from damage. During the critical heat flux phenomenon the axial heat conduction becomes very important. The study of the dryout and rewetting fronts yields the analysis, planning and following of critical heat flux experiments. These facts are important during the reflooding of nuclear cores at severe accidents. In the present work it is performed a theoretical analysis of the drying and rewetting front propagation during a critical heat flux experiment, starting with the application of an electrical power step or power slope from steady state condition. After the occurrence of critical heat flux, it is predicted the drying front propagation. After a few seconds, a power cut is considered and the rewetting front behavior is analytically observed. In all these transients the coolant pressure is 13,5 MPa. For one of them, comparisons are done with a pressure of 8,00 MPa. Mass flow and enthalpy influences on the fronts velocities are also analysed. These results show that mass flow has more importance on the drying front velocities whereas the pressure alters strongly the rewetting ones. (author)

  2. Observation of beat oscillation generation by coupled waves associated with parametric decay during radio frequency wave heating of a spherical tokamak plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Oosako, Takuya; Takase, Yuichi; Ejiri, Akira; Watanabe, Osamu; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Adachi, Yuuki; Tojo, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kurashina, Hiroki; Yamada, Kotaro; An, Byung Il; Kasahara, Hiroshi; Shimpo, Fujio; Kumazawa, Ryuhei; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Matsuzawa, Haduki; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Hanashima, Kentaro; Kakuda, Hidetoshi; Sakamoto, Takuya; Wakatsuki, Takuma

    2010-06-18

    We present an observation of beat oscillation generation by coupled modes associated with parametric decay instability (PDI) during radio frequency (rf) wave heating experiments on the Tokyo Spherical Tokamak-2. Nearly identical PDI spectra, which are characterized by the coexistence of the rf pump wave, the lower-sideband wave, and the low-frequency oscillation in the ion-cyclotron range of frequency, are observed at various locations in the edge plasma. A bispectral power analysis was used to experimentally discriminate beat oscillation from the resonant mode for the first time. The pump and lower-sideband waves have resonant mode components, while the low-frequency oscillation is exclusively excited by nonlinear coupling of the pump and lower-sideband waves. Newly discovered nonlocal transport channels in spectral space and in real space via PDI are described.

  3. Triple echo steady-state (TESS) relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heule, Rahel; Ganter, Carl; Bieri, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Rapid imaging techniques have attracted increased interest for relaxometry, but none are perfect: they are prone to static (B0 ) and transmit (B1 ) field heterogeneities, and commonly biased by T2 /T1 . The purpose of this study is the development of a rapid T1 and T2 relaxometry method that is completely (T2 ) or partly (T1 ) bias-free. A new method is introduced to simultaneously quantify T1 and T2 within one single scan based on a triple echo steady-state (TESS) approach in combination with an iterative golden section search. TESS relaxometry is optimized and evaluated from simulations, in vitro studies, and in vivo experiments. It is found that relaxometry with TESS is not biased by T2 /T1 , insensitive to B0 heterogeneities, and, surprisingly, that TESS-T2 is not affected by B1 field errors. Consequently, excellent correspondence between TESS and reference spin echo data is observed for T2 in vitro at 1.5 T and in vivo at 3 T. TESS offers rapid T1 and T2 quantification within one single scan, and in particular B1 -insensitive T2 estimation. As a result, the new proposed method is of high interest for fast and reliable high-resolution T2 mapping, especially of the musculoskeletal system at high to ultra-high fields. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Bridging the Gap: Capturing the Lyα Counterpart of a Type-II Spicule and its Heating Evolution with VAULT2.0 and IRIS Campaign Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintzoglou, G.; De Pontieu, B.; Martinez-Sykora, J.; Mendes Domingos Pereira, T.; Vourlidas, A.; Tun Beltran, S.

    2017-12-01

    We present the analysis of data from the observing campaign in support to the VAULT2.0 sounding rocket launch on September 30, 2014. VAULT2.0 is a Lyα (1216 Å) spectroheliograph capable of providing fast cadence spectroheliograms of high-spectral purity. High resolution Lyα observations are highly complementary with the IRIS observations of the upper chromosphere and the low transition region but have previously been unavailable. The VAULT2.0 data provide critical, new upper-chromospheric constraints for numerical models. The observing campaign was closely coordinated with the IRIS mission. Taking advantage of this simultaneous multi-wavelength coverage of target AR 12172 and by using state-of-the-art radiative-MHD simulations of spicules, we are able to perform a detailed investigation of a type-II spicule associated with a fast apparent network jet recorded in the campaign observations during the VAULT2.0 flight. Our unique analysis suggests that spicular material exists suspended in lower temperatures until it rapidly gets heated and becomes visible in transition-region temperatures as an apparent network jet.

  5. Enthalpy damping for the steady Euler equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    For inviscid steady flow problems where the enthalpy is constant at steady state, it was previously proposed to use the difference between the local enthalpy and the steady state enthalpy as a driving term to accelerate convergence of iterative schemes. This idea is analyzed, both on the level of the partial differential equation and on the level of a particular finite difference scheme. It is shown that for the two-dimensional unsteady Euler equations, a hyperbolic system with eigenvalues on the imaginary axis, there is no enthalpy damping strategy which moves all the eigenvalues into the open left half plane. For the numerical scheme, however, the analysis shows and examples verify that enthalpy damping is potentially effective in accelerating convergence to steady state.

  6. The steady state in toroidal traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R.

    1997-01-01

    Experiments at the JET, TORE SUPRA, TFTR and DIII-D reactors have corroborated calculations showing that an advanced tokamak configuration with an important self-generated current, a large plasma pressure and thus a large thermonuclear power density, could allow for the construction of fusion steady state reactors with reduced size and cost. Stellarators only need external superconductive coils for reaching the steady state, but it is essential to reduce in a large proportion the plasma self-generated current

  7. Steady-state magnetohydrodynamic clump turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetreault, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    The turbulent steady state of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) clump instability [Phys. Fluids 31, 2122 (1988)] is investigated. The steady state is determined by the balance between clump growth by turbulent mixing and clump decay by field line stochasticity. The turbulent fields driving the mixing are generated self-consistently from Ampere's law and conserve the magnetic helicity. In the steady state, the mean current and magnetic field satisfy J 0 = μB 0 , where μ depends on the mean-square fluctuation level. Above this critical point (J 0 >μB 0 ), the plasma is MHD clump unstable. MHD clump instability is a dynamical route to the force-free, Taylor state. For the steady state to exist, μ must exceed a threshold on the order of that required for B 0 /sub z/ field reversal. Steady-state MHD clump turbulence corresponds to field reversed Taylor states. From the μ threshold condition, the steady-state fluctuation spectrum (δB/sub rms//B) is calculated and shown to increase with mean driving current as θ 3 , where θ is the pinch parameter

  8. Feedback stabilization of semilinear heat equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Barbu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the internal and boundary stabilization of the steady-state solutions to quasilinear heat equations via internal linear feedback controllers provided by an LQ control problem associated with the linearized equation.

  9. Solar pond for heating anaerobic digesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Kehui; Li Shensheng

    1991-10-01

    A theoretical analysis and numerical results calculated for solar pond heating anaerobic digesters in Beijing area in China are presented. The effect of temperature rise is evident and rather steady. 3 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. X-Ray, UV and Optical Observations of Classical Cepheids: New Insights into Cepheid Evolution, and the Heating and Dynamics of Their Atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott G. Engle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To broaden the understanding of classical Cepheid structure, evolution and atmospheres, we have extended our continuing secret lives of Cepheids program by obtaining XMM/Chandra X-ray observations, and Hubble space telescope (HST / cosmic origins spectrograph (COS FUV-UV spectra of the bright, nearby Cepheids Polaris, δ Cep and β Dor. Previous studies made with the international ultraviolet explorer (IUE showed a limited number of UV emission lines in Cepheids. The wellknown problem presented by scattered light contamination in IUE spectra for bright stars, along with the excellent sensitivity & resolution combination offered by HST/COS, motivated this study, and the spectra obtained were much more rich and complex than we had ever anticipated. Numerous emission lines, indicating 104 K up to ~3 × 105 K plasmas, have been observed, showing Cepheids to have complex, dynamic outer atmospheres that also vary with the photospheric pulsation period. The FUV line emissions peak in the phase range φ ≈ 0.8-1.0 and vary by factors as large as 10×. A more complete picture of Cepheid outer atmospheres is accomplished when the HST/COS results are combined with X-ray observations that we have obtained of the same stars with XMM-Newton & Chandra. The Cepheids detected to date have X-ray luminosities of log LX ≈ 28.5-29.1 ergs/sec, and plasma temperatures in the 2–8 × 106 K range. Given the phase-timing of the enhanced emissions, the most plausible explanation is the formation of a pulsation-induced shocks that excite (and heat the atmospheric plasmas surrounding the photosphere. A pulsation-driven α2 equivalent dynamo mechanism is also a viable and interesting alternative. However, the tight phase-space of enhanced emission (peaking near 0.8-1.0 φ favor the shock heating mechanism hypothesis.

  11. Investigation of detailed spatial structure of the Moscow urban heat island with application of the newest meteorological observations and regional climate modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varentsov, Mikhail; Pavel, Konstantinov; Timofey, Samsonov

    2016-04-01

    During the last years, the network of metrological observation in Moscow megacity and its neighborhoods, forming the biggest urban agglomeration in Europe, was significantly extended. Several new weather stations and completely new dense network of air-quality monitoring appears during the last decade. In addition, several microwave meteorological profilers MTP 5, which are available to measure temperature at the heights from 0 to 1000 meters with 50-m resolution, were installed in the city and its surrounding. All these measurements allow revealing undiscovered features of Moscow urban climate and urban heat island (UHI). In our research, bases on this data, we covered several topics related to urban climatology: - Investigation of detailed spatial structure of Moscow UHI and its relationships with building features, such as land use and morphology of the street canyons, obtained by GIS-algorithms according (Samsonov et. al, 2015); - Investigation of three-dimensional structure of the UHI, including its vertical extend and influence on the stratification of the atmosphere, and three-dimensional structure of the urban heat island advection and urban heat plumes; - Application of the newest data for validation of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM, coupled with TEB urban scheme (Masson, 2000; Trusilova et. al., 2013), launched for Moscow region with 1-km spatial resolution. References: 1. Masson V. A. Physically-Based Scheme for the Urban Energy Budget in Atmospheric models. Bound. Layer Meteor. 2000. V. 94 (3). P. 357-397. 2. Trusilova K., Früh B., Brienen S., Walter A., Masson V., Pigeon G., Becker P. Implementation of an Urban Parameterization Scheme into the Regional Climate Model COSMO-CLM. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. V. 52. P. 2296-2311. 3. Samsonov T.E., Konstantinov P.I., Varentsov M.I. Object-oriented approach to urban canyon analysis and its applications in meteorological modeling. Urban Climate. 2015. Vol. 13. P. 122-139.

  12. Study of heat flux deposition in the Tore Supra Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.

    2009-02-01

    Accurate measurements of heat loads on internal tokamak components is essential for protection of the device during steady state operation. The optimisation of experimental scenarios also requires an in depth understanding of the physical mechanisms governing the heat flux deposition on the walls. The objective of this study is a detailed characterisation of the heat flux to plasma facing components (PFC) of the Tore Supra tokamak. The power deposited onto Tore Supra PFCs is calculated using an inverse method, which is applied to both the temperature maps measured by infrared thermography and to the enthalpy signals from calorimetry. The derived experimental heat flux maps calculated on the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) are then compared with theoretical heat flux density distributions from a standard SOL-model. They are two experimental observations that are not consistent with the model: significant heat flux outside the theoretical wetted area, and heat load peaking close to the tangency point between the TPL and the last closed field surface (LCFS). An experimental analysis for several discharges with variable security factors q is made. In the area consistent with the theoretical predictions, this parametric study shows a clear dependence between the heat flux length λ q (estimated in the SOL (scrape-off layer) from the IR measurements) and the magnetic configuration. We observe that the spreading of heat fluxes on the component is compensated by a reduction of the power decay length λ q in the SOL when q decreases. On the other hand, in the area where the derived experimental heat loads are not consistent with the theoretical predictions, we observe that the spreading of heat fluxes outside the theoretical boundary increases when q decreases, and is thus not counterbalanced. (author)

  13. Observation of SOL Current Correlated with MHD Activity in NBI-heated DIII-D Tokamak Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Schaffer, M.J.; Austin, M.E.; Evans, T.E.; Lao, L.L.; Watkins, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    This work investigates the potential roles played by the scrape-off-layer current (SOLC) in MHD activity of tokamak plasmas, including effects on stability. SOLCs are found during MHD activity that are: (1) slowly growing after a mode-locking-like event, (2) oscillating in the several kHz range and phase-locked with magnetic and electron temperature oscillations, (3) rapidly growing with a sub-ms time scale during a thermal collapse and a current quench, and (4) spiky in temporal behavior and correlated with spiky features in Da signals commonly identified with the edge localized mode (ELM). These SOLCs are found to be an integral part of the MHD activity, with a propensity to flow in a toroidally non-axisymmetric pattern and with magnitude potentially large enough to play a role in the MHD stability. Candidate mechanisms that can drive these SOLCs are identified: (a) toroidally non-axisymmetric thermoelectric potential, (b) electromotive force (EMF) from MHD activity, and (c) flux swing, both toroidal and poloidal, of the plasma column. An effect is found, stemming from the shear in the field line pitch angle, that mitigates the efficacy of a toroidally non-axisymmetric SOLC to generate a toroidally non-axisymmetric error field. Other potential magnetic consequences of the SOLC are identified: (i) its error field can introduce complications in feedback control schemes for stabilizing MHD activity and (ii) its toroidally non-axisymmetric field can be falsely identified as an axisymmetric field by the tokamak control logic and in equilibrium reconstruction. The radial profile of a SOLC observed during a quiescent discharge period is determined, and found to possess polarity reversals as a function of radial distance

  14. Observation of SOL Current Correlated with MHD Activity in NBI-heated DIII-D Tokamak Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Takahashi; E.D. Fredrickson; M.J. Schaffer; M.E. Austin; T.E. Evans; L.L. Lao; J.G. Watkins

    2004-03-26

    This work investigates the potential roles played by the scrape-off-layer current (SOLC) in MHD activity of tokamak plasmas, including effects on stability. SOLCs are found during MHD activity that are: (1) slowly growing after a mode-locking-like event, (2) oscillating in the several kHz range and phase-locked with magnetic and electron temperature oscillations, (3) rapidly growing with a sub-ms time scale during a thermal collapse and a current quench, and (4) spiky in temporal behavior and correlated with spiky features in Da signals commonly identified with the edge localized mode (ELM). These SOLCs are found to be an integral part of the MHD activity, with a propensity to flow in a toroidally non-axisymmetric pattern and with magnitude potentially large enough to play a role in the MHD stability. Candidate mechanisms that can drive these SOLCs are identified: (a) toroidally non-axisymmetric thermoelectric potential, (b) electromotive force (EMF) from MHD activity, and (c) flux swing, both toroidal and poloidal, of the plasma column. An effect is found, stemming from the shear in the field line pitch angle, that mitigates the efficacy of a toroidally non-axisymmetric SOLC to generate a toroidally non-axisymmetric error field. Other potential magnetic consequences of the SOLC are identified: (i) its error field can introduce complications in feedback control schemes for stabilizing MHD activity and (ii) its toroidally non-axisymmetric field can be falsely identified as an axisymmetric field by the tokamak control logic and in equilibrium reconstruction. The radial profile of a SOLC observed during a quiescent discharge period is determined, and found to possess polarity reversals as a function of radial distance.

  15. MHD natural convection in a laterally and volumetrically heated square cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarris, I.E.; Kakarantzas, S.C.; Grecos, A.P.; Vlachos, N.S. [University of Thessaly, Volos (Greece). Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and Turbomachines

    2005-07-01

    A numerical study is presented of unsteady two-dimensional natural convection of an electrically conducting fluid in a laterally and volumetrically heated square cavity under the influence of a magnetic field. The flow is characterized by the external Rayleigh number, Ra{sub E}, determined from the temperature difference of the side walls, the internal Rayleigh number, Ra{sub I}, determined from the volumetric heat rate, and the Hartmann number, Ha, determined from the strength of the imposed magnetic field. Starting from given values of Ra{sub E} and Ha, for which the flow has a steady unicellular pattern, and gradually increasing the ratio S = Ra{sub I}/Ra{sub E}, oscillatory convective flow may occur. The initial steady unicellular flow for S = 0 may undergo transition to steady or unsteady multicellular flow up to a threshold value, Ra{sub I,cr}, of the internal Rayleigh number depending on Ha. Oscillatory multicellular flow fields were observed for S values up to 100 for the range 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} of Ra{sub E} studied. The increase of the ratio S results usually in a transition from steady to unsteady flow but there have also been cases where the increase of S results in an inverse transition from unsteady to steady flow. Moreover, the usual damping effect of increasing Hartmann number is not found to be straightforward connected with the resulting flow patterns in the present flow configuration. (author)

  16. Investigating relationships between the air temperature urban heat island effect and land use characteristics in the Los Angeles basin using high density observations and mobile transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohegh, M.; Taha, H.; Levinson, R.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    temperature and land-cover properties were undetectable in DLA. In SFV, impervious fraction has positive correlation with air temperature, likely due to the effect of heat capacity on decreasing DTR. Building heights have negative correlation with air temperatures at night, the opposite of the relationship observed during the day.

  17. Influence of acute erythrocythemia on temperature regulation during exercise-heat stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawka, M.N.; Gonzalez, R.R.; Dennis, R.C.; Young, A.J.; Muza, S.R.; Martin, J.W.; Francesconi, R.P.; Pandolf, K.B.; Valeri, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    We studied the effects of acute erythrocythemia on temperature regulation responses during exercise in the heat. In a double blind study, 6 subjects (Ss) received a 700-ml solution of autologous red blood cells at a 60% Hct, and 3 Ss (control) received a 700-ml saline solution. All Ss attempted a Heat Stress Test (HST) two weeks prior to and 48-h post-transfusion during summer months. After 30 min of rest in a 20 0 C antechamber, the HST consisted of a 120-min exposure (two repeats of 15-min rest and 45-min treadmill walk) in a 35 0 C, 45% rh environment while euhydrated. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) and red cell volume (RCV, 51 Cr) were measured approximately 24 h before each HST. For experimental Ss, an increase in RCV (11%, P 2 max (11%, P < 0.05) was found following transfusion, whereas, differences were not observed in the control Ss. During the HSTs for experimental Ss, metabolic rate as well as steady state rectal and esophageal temperatures were similar, but heat storage tended (P = 0.13) to be lower post-transfusion. Steady state local arm (R + C) was reduced (P < 0.05) with no change in total body sweating rate or local arm evaporative heat loss post-transfusion. For control Ss, thermoregulatory responses were generally not altered post-transfusion. Erythrocythemia may improve steady state sensible heat exchange by allowing a greater volume of blood to be directed to the cutaneous vasculature

  18. Advanced steady-state operating scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevins, W.M.; Bulmer, R.H.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Haney, S.W.; Manickam, J.

    1993-01-01

    The goal for advanced steady-state operation in ITER should be to demonstrate the operation of the plasma core for a steady-state fusion reactor. To accomplish this the authors must develop steady-state operating scenarios at high beta for high fusion power density, low auxiliary power requirements (Q CD ≥ 25, where Q CD triple-bond P fusion/P CD and P DC is the power required for sustaining the plasma current) for low recirculating power requirements, and at moderate safety factor (q ψ ≤ 4.5) to minimize the cost for the tokamak core of a steady-state demonstration power reactor based on the operating modes demonstrated in ITER. The key to achieving steady-state operation at high fusion power in ITER will be the development of operating scenarios with very high bootstrap current fractions (f BS ≥ 90%) in which the radial profile of the bootstrap current density is well aligned with that of the total plasma current density, and for which the MHD β-limit exceeds β n * = 0.05 T-m/MA. They are in the process of developing such operating modes for ITER. In section 1 they propose two advanced steady-state operating points; a preliminary operating point that was the basis for the MHD studies reported in section 2, and a second operating point that has been optimized based on the authors studies to date. In section 2 they present calculations indicating that the initial operating point is stable to MHD ballooning and low-n kink modes (with a conducting wall at r = 1.25a) up to β n * ∼ 6 x 10 -2 T - m/MA. In section 3 they present a free-boundary MHD equilibrium, and show that advanced steady-state operating modes are compatible with the ITER poloidal field system and diverter

  19. Steady state HNG combustion modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louwers, J.; Gadiot, G.M.H.J.L. [TNO Prins Maurits Lab., Rijswijk (Netherlands); Brewster, M.Q. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Son, S.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Parr, T.; Hanson-Parr, D. [Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Two simplified modeling approaches are used to model the combustion of Hydrazinium Nitroformate (HNF, N{sub 2}H{sub 5}-C(NO{sub 2}){sub 3}). The condensed phase is treated by high activation energy asymptotics. The gas phase is treated by two limit cases: the classical high activation energy, and the recently introduced low activation energy approach. This results in simplification of the gas phase energy equation, making an (approximate) analytical solution possible. The results of both models are compared with experimental results of HNF combustion. It is shown that the low activation energy approach yields better agreement with experimental observations (e.g. regression rate and temperature sensitivity), than the high activation energy approach.

  20. Comparison of structural re-organisations observed on pre-patterned vicinal Si(1 1 1) and Si(1 0 0) surfaces during heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, A.; Neddermeyer, H.; Wulfhekel, W.; Sander, D.; Maroutian, T.; Dulot, F.; Martinez-Gil, A.; Hanbuecken, M.

    2004-01-01

    The creation of distinct, periodically structured vicinal Si(1 1 1) and (1 0 0) substrates has been studied using scanning tunnelling microscopy at various temperatures. The vicinal Si(1 1 1) and (1 0 0) surfaces transform under heat treatment in a self-organised way into flat and stepped regions. Optical and electron beam lithography is used to produce a regular hole pattern on the surfaces, which interferes with the temperature-driven morphological changes. The step motions are strongly influenced by this pre-patterning. Pre-patterned Si(1 1 1) surfaces transform into regular one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) morphologies, which consist of terraces and arrangements of step bunches and facets. On pre-patterned Si(1 0 0) substrates different re-organisations were observed where checkerboard-like 2D structures are obtained

  1. Critical heat flux experimentation in an annular test section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.D.; Levin, A.E.

    1978-01-01

    Steady-state critical heat flux experiments have been performed in the Forced Convection Test Facility (FCTF), an annular test section containing a single electrically heated rod, for the purpose of testing the applicability of existing critical heat flux correlations. Good accuracy has been obtained using the MacBeth-Barnett critical heat flux correlation for annuli, corrected for the ''stepped cosine'' power profile of the heater. The equivalent diameter of the test section, based on the wetted perimeter, is 2.1 cm (0.83 in.); the heated-to-wetted-perimeter ratio is 0.252. The heated length of the heater rod is 366 cm (144 in.). Nominal pressures for the tests have ranged from 7.2 to 15.5 MN/m 2 (1044 to 2250 psia); coolant flow rates have been 0.32 dm 3 /sec (5 gpm), 0.63 dm 3 /sec (10 gpm), and 1.26 dm 3 /sec (20 gpm); and heater powers of 72 kW, 122 kW, and 144 kW have been used. Maximum error in prediction of first observed critical heat flux is 21 percent; rms error is 11.7 percent. Attempts have also been made to predict the occurrence of critical heat flux during blowdowns (depressurization transients) of the FCTF. The results of these predictions are inconclusive at this time

  2. A steady state theory for processive cellulases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Olsen, Jens Elmerdahl; Præstgaard, Eigil

    2013-01-01

    remains to be fully developed. In this paper, we suggest a deterministic kinetic model that relies on a processive set of enzyme reactions and a quasi steady-state assumption. It is shown that this approach is practicable in the sense that it leads to mathematically simple expressions for the steady......-state rate, and only requires data from standard assay techniques as experimental input. Specifically, it is shown that the processive reaction rate at steady state may be expressed by a hyperbolic function related to the conventional Michaelis–Menten equation. The main difference is a ‘kinetic processivity......Processive enzymes perform sequential steps of catalysis without dissociating from their polymeric substrate. This mechanism is considered essential for efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of insoluble cellulose (particularly crystalline cellulose), but a theoretical framework for processive kinetics...

  3. Practical steady-state enzyme kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorsch, Jon R

    2014-01-01

    Enzymes are key components of most biological processes. Characterization of enzymes is therefore frequently required during the study of biological systems. Steady-state kinetics provides a simple and rapid means of assessing the substrate specificity of an enzyme. When combined with site-directed mutagenesis (see Site-Directed Mutagenesis), it can be used to probe the roles of particular amino acids in the enzyme in substrate recognition and catalysis. Effects of interaction partners and posttranslational modifications can also be assessed using steady-state kinetics. This overview explains the general principles of steady-state enzyme kinetics experiments in a practical, rather than theoretical, way. Any biochemistry textbook will have a section on the theory of Michaelis-Menten kinetics, including derivations of the relevant equations. No specific enzymatic assay is described here, although a method for monitoring product formation or substrate consumption over time (an assay) is required to perform the experiments described. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Heat Transfer Analogies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, A.

    1965-11-01

    This report contains descriptions of various analogues utilised to study different steady-state and unsteady-state heat transfer problems. The analogues covered are as follows: 1 . Hydraulic: a) water flow b) air flow 2. Membrane 3. Geometric Electrical: a) Electrolytic-tank b) Conducting sheet 4. Network; a) Resistance b) R-C A comparison of the different analogues is presented in the form of a table

  5. STEADY DISBALANCE ASPECT IN POSITION GRADING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potascheva Galina Anatol’evna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the steady system disbalance from the standpoint of getting resources from the outside and Chaos (Entropy to Order transformation. It has been demonstrated that all live beings and the System reach for steadiness and effectiveness, which are essential properties and qualities of activities. Maintaining such properties and qualities in public life requires continuous life quality improvement of the population. One of the basic measures to ensure the life quality growth is distributing incomes using the Position Grading System.

  6. On Steady-State Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    heating in the inner-core region and the radiative cooling provide a pattern of net diabatic heating that forces an overturning, in-up-and- out...momentum (or M-) surfaces (see section 2). In the upward branch of the secondary circulation, the diabatic heating rate associated with moist convection...such as the diabatic heating rate and frictional and eddy processes (Shapiro and Willoughby, 1982; Shapiro and Montgomery, 1993; Vigh and Schubert, 2009

  7. THERMAL NON-EQUILIBRIUM REVISITED: A HEATING MODEL FOR CORONAL LOOPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Mikić, Zoran; Winebarger, Amy R.; Mok, Yung

    2013-01-01

    The location and frequency of events that heat the million-degree corona are still a matter of debate. One potential heating scenario is that the energy release is effectively steady and highly localized at the footpoints of coronal structures. Such an energy deposition drives thermal non-equilibrium solutions in the hydrodynamic equations in longer loops. This heating scenario was considered and discarded by Klimchuk et al. on the basis of their one-dimensional simulations as incapable of reproducing observational characteristics of loops. In this paper, we use three-dimensional simulations to generate synthetic emission images, from which we select and analyze six loops. The main differences between our model and that of Klimchuk et al. concern (1) dimensionality, (2) resolution, (3) geometrical properties of the loops, (4) heating function, and (5) radiative function. We find evidence, in this small set of simulated loops, that the evolution of the light curves, the variation of temperature along the loops, the density profile, and the absence of small-scale structures are compatible with the characteristics of observed loops. We conclude that quasi-steady footpoint heating that drives thermal non-equilibrium solutions cannot yet be ruled out as a viable heating scenario for EUV loops

  8. 7. IAEA Technical Meeting on Steady State Operation of Magnetic Fusion Devices - Booklet of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This meeting has provided an appropriate forum to discuss current issues covering a wide range of technical topics related to the steady state operation issues and also to encourage forecast of the ITER performances. The technical meeting includes invited and contributed papers. The topics that have been dealt with are: 1) Superconducting devices (ITER, KSTAR, Tore-Supra, HT-7U, EAST, LHD, Wendelstein-7-X,...); 2) Long-pulse operation and advanced tokamak physics; 3) steady state fusion technologies; 4) Long pulse heating and current drive; 5) Particle control and power exhaust, and 6) ITER-related research and development issues. This document gathers the abstracts

  9. Heat and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Karwa, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents the classical treatment of the problems of heat transfer in an exhaustive manner with due emphasis on understanding of the physics of the problems. This emphasis is especially visible in the chapters on convective heat transfer. Emphasis is laid on the solution of steady and unsteady two-dimensional heat conduction problems. Another special feature of the book is a chapter on introduction to design of heat exchangers and their illustrative design problems. A simple and understandable treatment of gaseous radiation has been presented. A special chapter on flat plate solar air heater has been incorporated that covers thermo-hydraulic modeling and simulation. The chapter on mass transfer has been written looking specifically at the needs of the students of mechanical engineering. The book includes a large number and variety of solved problems with supporting line diagrams. The author has avoided duplicating similar problems, while incorporating more application-based examples. All the end-...

  10. Concept study of the Steady State Tokamak Reactor (SSTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Steady State Tokamak Reactor (SSTR) concept has been proposed as a realistic fusion power reactor to be built in the near future. An overall concept of SSTR is introduced which is based on a small extension of the present day physics and technologies. The major feature of SSTR is the maximum utilization of a bootstrap current in order to reduce the power required for the steady state operation. This requirement leads to the choice of moderate current (12 MA), and high βp (2.0) for the device, which are achieved by selecting high aspect ratio (A=4) and high toroidal magnetic field (16.5 T). A negative-ion-based neutral beam injection system is used both for heating and central current drive. Notable engineering features of SSTR are: the use of a uniform vacuum vessel and periodical replacements of the first wall and blanket layers and significant reduction of the electromagnetic force with the use of functionally gradient material. It is shown that a tokamak machine comparable to ITER in size can become a power reactor capable of generating about 1 GW of electricity with a plant efficiency of ∼30%. (author)

  11. The Steady State Distribution of the Master Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Sano, Mitsusada M.

    2008-01-01

    The steady states of the master equation are investigated. We give two expressions for the steady state distribution of the master equation a la the Zubarev-McLennan steady state distribution, i.e., the exact expression and an expression near equilibrium. The latter expression obtained is consistent with recent attempt of constructing steady state theormodynamics.

  12. Steady State Thermal Analyses of SCEPTOR X-57 Wingtip Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnulo, Sydney L.; Chin, Jeffrey C.; Smith, Andrew D.; Dubois, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Electric aircraft concepts enable advanced propulsion airframe integration approaches that promise increased efficiency as well as reduced emissions and noise. NASA's fully electric Maxwell X-57, developed under the SCEPTOR program, features distributed propulsion across a high aspect ratio wing. There are 14 propulsors in all: 12 high lift motor that are only active during take off and climb, and 2 larger motors positioned on the wingtips that operate over the entire mission. The power electronics involved in the wingtip propulsion are temperature sensitive and therefore require thermal management. This work focuses on the high and low fidelity heat transfer analysis methods performed to ensure that the wingtip motor inverters do not reach their temperature limits. It also explores different geometry configurations involved in the X-57 development and any thermal concerns. All analyses presented are performed at steady state under stressful operating conditions, therefore predicting temperatures which are considered the worst-case scenario to remain conservative.

  13. Energy repartition in the nonequilibrium steady state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Peng; Bauer, G.E.; Zhang, Huaiwu

    2017-01-01

    The concept of temperature in nonequilibrium thermodynamics is an outstanding theoretical issue. We propose an energy repartition principle that leads to a spectral (mode-dependent) temperature in steady-state nonequilibrium systems. The general concepts are illustrated by analytic solutions of

  14. Steady-state spheromak reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    After summarizing the essential elements of a gun-sustained spheromak, the potential for a steady-state is explored by means of a comprehensive physics/engineering/costing model. A range of cost-optimized reactor design points is presented, and the sensitivity of cost to key physics, engineering, and operational variables is reported

  15. Steady state statistics of driven diffusions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel; Wynants, B.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 387, č. 12 (2008), s. 2675-2689 ISSN 0378-4371 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/07/J051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nonequilibrium fluctuations * steady state * diffusion Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.441, year: 2008

  16. Marketing aspects of steady growth business strategy

    OpenAIRE

    GONCHAR V.; KALININ O.

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzed the importance of marketing to achieve steady business growth, the main strategy of internal development and marketing of its level of development, achieving competitive advantage and the main directions of marketing management. The examples of marketing strategies for leading corporations were described. The problems and prospects of the business strategy of extensive growth and diversification were made.

  17. Factorised steady states and condensation transitions in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Scotland. E-mail: martin@ph.ed.ac.uk. Abstract. Systems driven out of equilibrium can often exhibit behaviour not seen in systems in thermal equilibrium – for example phase ... weights rather it will be a nonequilibrium steady state. ... particular cases are: if u(m) = m then the dynamics of each particle is independent.

  18. Steady-state spheromak reactor studies. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    After summarizing the essential elements of a gun-sustained spheromak, the potential for a steady-state is explored by means of a comprehensive physics/engineering/costing model. A range of cost-optimized reactor design point is presented, and the sensitivity of cost to key physics, engineering, and operational variables is reported

  19. Factorised steady states and condensation transitions in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I will then consider a more general class of mass trans- port models, encompassing continuous mass variables and discrete time updating, and present a necessary and sufficient condition for the steady state to factorise. The prop- erty of factorisation again allows an analysis of the condensation transitions which may occur.

  20. Steady state modeling of desiccant wheels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2014-01-01

    systems. A steady state two-dimensional model is formulated and implemented aiming to obtain good accuracy and short computational times. Comparison with experimental data from the literature shows that the model reproduces the physical behavior of desiccant wheels. Mass diffusion in the desiccant should...

  1. Intermediates, Catalysts, Persistence, and Boundary Steady States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcondes de Freitas, Michael; Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    as cascades of a large class of post-translational modification systems (of which the MAPK cascade and the n-site futile cycle are prominent examples). Since one of the aforementioned sufficient conditions for persistence precludes the existence of boundary steady states, our method also provides a graphical...

  2. Steady-State Creep of Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alibai Iskakbayev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental investigation of the steady-state creep process for fine-grained asphalt concrete at a temperature of 20 ± 2 °С and under stress from 0.055 to 0.311 MPa under direct tension and was found to occur at a constant rate. The experimental results also determined the start, the end point, and the duration of the steady-state creep process. The dependence of these factors, in addition to the steady-state creep rate and viscosity of the asphalt concrete on stress is satisfactorily described by a power function. Furthermore, it showed that stress has a great impact on the specific characteristics of asphalt concrete: stress variation by one order causes their variation by 3–4.5 orders. The described relations are formulated for the steady-state of asphalt concrete in a complex stressed condition. The dependence is determined between stress intensity and strain rate intensity.

  3. Urban Heat Islands of the World's Major Cities Revealed at Multiple Scales Using Both Station Observations and Complementary Remotely Sensed Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L. H.; Krehbiel, C.; Henebry, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) have long been studied using both ground-based observations of air temperature and remotely sensed data. In the rapidly urbanizing world, cross-comparison between various datasets will allow us to characterize and model UHI effects more generally. Here we analyze UHIs of the world's major cities using station observations from the Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN), surface air temperatures derived from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometers (AMSRs), and land surface temperatures (LST) estimated from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We compute the two measurements of thermal time (accumulated diurnal degree-days or ADDD and nocturnal degree-days or ANDD) and the normalized difference accumulated thermal time index (NDATTI) to characterize urban and rural thermal differences and day-night dynamics over multiple growing seasons. Our preliminary results for 27 major cities and 83 urban-rural groupings in the USA and Canada indicate that daytime urban thermal accumulations from the passive microwave data (AMSRs) were generally lower than in adjacent rural areas, with only 18% of urban-rural groupings showing higher thermal accumulations in cities. In contrast, station observations and MODIS LST showed consistently higher ADDD in cities (82% and 93% for GHCN and MODIS data respectively). UHIs are more pronounced at night, with 55% (AMSR), 93% (GHCN) and 100% (MODIS) of urban-rural groupings showing higher ANDD in cities. Humidity appears to be a common factor driving the day-night thermal dynamics throughout all three datasets (Figure 1). Normalized day-night differences in thermal time metrics were consistently lower (>90% of urban-rural groupings) in urban than rural areas for both air temperature datasets (GHCN and AMSRs). With MODIS LST, only 70% of urban-rural groupings show lower NDATTI in cities. We will present results for the rest of the globe.

  4. Deadzones, Dying Eddies, and the Loop Current: Stability, Ventilation, and Heat Content from Buoyancy Glider Observations in the Northwest Gulf of Mexico in Spring and Summer 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMarco, S. F.; Knap, A. H.; Wang, Z.; Walpert, J.; Dreger, K.

    2016-02-01

    The northwestern Gulf of Mexico is host to a myriad of physical and biochemical processes, which govern the exchange and transport of material and volume between the coastal and offshore environments. We report on five G2 Slocum glider deployments in the northwestern Gulf during the spring and summer of 2015. The gliders were deployed in shallow (20 m) and deep (greater than 1000 m) water for a total of about 200 days. During this time, the gliders encountered a variety of environmental conditions that impact the circulation, biology, chemistry of the shelf and slope. The shallow gliders encountered coastal waters influenced by extensive flooding in terrestrial Texas that vertically stratified the water-column and was coincident with sub-pycnocline low dissolved oxygen concentration, at times below the hypoxic threshold of 2 mg/L, and elevated CDOM concentrations. These gliders also reveal high spatial variability with bottom boundary oxygen and biomass scales on the order of a few kilometers. The deep gliders were tasked to investigate shelf/slope exchange at two locations 94W and 91W. The western glider encountered a mature mesoscale circulation eddy that was actively weakening. The eastern glider simultaneously encountered a freshly separated Loop Current eddy. The vertical structure of hydrographic and dissolved oxygen parameters shows significant and distinguishable variability in each feature. The vertical structure of both features show significant departures from that which is expected based on sea surface height determined from satellite altimetry. Additionally, glider observations are compared to operational high-resolution regional numerical model output. These observations emphasize the importance of direct observations over satellite-derived products for applications that include upper ocean heat content for hurricane intensification and vertical mixing and ventilation of the oceanic interior.

  5. Pregnant women maintain body temperatures within safe limits during moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic classes conducted in pools heated up to 33 degrees Celsius: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Brearley

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Question: What is the body temperature response of healthy pregnant women exercising at moderate intensity in an aqua-aerobics class where the water temperature is in the range of 28 to 33 degrees Celsius, as typically found in community swimming pools? Design: An observational study. Participants: One hundred and nine women in the second and third trimester of pregnancy who were enrolled in a standardised aqua-aerobics class. Outcome measures: Tympanic temperature was measured at rest pre-immersion (T1, after 35 minutes of moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic exercise (T2, after a further 10 minutes of light exercise while still in the water (T3 and finally on departure from the facility (T4. The range of water temperatures in seven indoor community pools was 28.8 to 33.4 degrees Celsius. Results: Body temperature increased by a mean of 0.16 degrees Celsius (SD 0.35, p < 0.001 at T2, was maintained at this level at T3 and had returned to pre-immersion resting values at T4. Regression analysis demonstrated that the temperature response was not related to the water temperature (T2 r = –0.01, p = 0.9; T3 r = –0.02, p = 0.9; T4 r = 0.03, p = 0.8. Analysis of variance demonstrated no difference in body temperature response between participants when grouped in the cooler, medium and warmer water temperatures (T2 F = 0.94, p = 0.40; T3 F = 0.93, p = 0.40; T4 F = 0.70, p = 0.50. Conclusions: Healthy pregnant women maintain body temperatures within safe limits during moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic exercise conducted in pools heated up to 33 degrees Celsius. The study provides evidence to inform guidelines for safe water temperatures for aqua-aerobic exercise during pregnancy. [Brearley AL, Sherburn M, Galea MP, Clarke SJ, (2015 Pregnant women maintain body temperatures within safe limits during moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic classes conducted in pools heated up to 33 degrees Celsius: an observational study. Journal of

  6. Steady state performance of subcritical and supercritical pressure natural circulation in the same test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swapnalee, B.T.; Vijayan, P.K; Sharma, Manish; Pilkhwal, D.S.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    For supercritical pressure natural circulation loops, explicit correlation for steady state flow are not available. While using the subcritical natural circulation flow correlation for supercritical pressure data, it has been observed that subcritical flow correlation is not able to predict the steady state flow accurately near supercritical pressure condition. A generalized correlation has been proposed to estimate the steady state flow in supercritical pressure natural circulation loop based on a relationship between dimensionless density and dimensionless enthalpy reported in literature. This generalized correlation has been tested with the steady state supercritical pressure CO 2 data and found to be in good agreement. Subsequently supercritical pressure data for different working fluids reported in literature has also been compared with the proposed correlation. It is observed that the same generalized correlation is applicable for other fluids also. The present paper deals with the details of the test facility, the derivation of the generalized correlation and comparison with experimental data. (author)

  7. Resistive Heating and Ion Drag in Saturn's Thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriesema, Jess William; Koskinen, Tommi; Yelle, Roger V.

    2017-10-01

    One of the most puzzling observations of the jovian planets is that the thermospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are all several times hotter than solar heating can account for (Strobel and Smith 1973; Yelle and Miller 2004; Muller-Wodarg et al. 2006). On Saturn, resistive heating appears sufficient to explain these temperatures in auroral regions, but the particular mechanism(s) responsible for heating the lower latitudes remains unclear. The most commonly proposed heating mechanisms are breaking gravity waves and auroral heating at the poles followed by redistribution of energy to mid-and low latitudes. Both of these energy sources are potentially important but also come with significant problems. Wave heating would have to be continuous and global to produce consistently elevated temperatures and the strong Coriolis forces coupled with polar ion drag appear to hinder redistribution of auroral energy (see Strobel et al. 2016 for review). Here we explore an alternative: wind-driven electrodynamics that can alter circulation and produce substantial heating outside of the auroral region. Smith (2013) showed this in-situ mechanism to be potentially significant in Jupiter’s thermosphere. We present new results from an axisymmetric, steady-state model that calculates resistive (Joule) heating rates through rigorous solutions of the electrodynamic equations for the coupled neutral atmosphere and ionosphere of Saturn. At present, we assume a dipole magnetic field and neglect any contributions from the magnetosphere. We use ion mixing ratios from the model of Kim et al. (2014) and the observed temperature-pressure profile from Koskinen et al. (2015) to calculate the generalized conductivity tensor as described by Koskinen et al. (2014). We calculate the current density under the assumption that it has no divergence and use it to calculate the resistive heating rates and ion drag. Our results suggest that resistive heating and ion drag at low latitudes likely

  8. Non-existence of Steady State Equilibrium in the Neoclassical Growth Model with a Longevity Trend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Mikkel Nørlem

    of steady state equilibrium when considering the empirically observed trend in longevity. We extend a standard continuous time overlapping generations model by a longevity trend and are thereby able to study the properties of mortality-driven population growth. This turns out to be exceedingly complicated...... to handle, and it is shown that in general no steady state equilibrium exists. Consequently analytical results and long run implications cannot be obtained in a setting with a realistic demographic setup....

  9. Analytical solutions for heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    Green's functions are found for steady state heat conduction in a composite rectangular parallelepiped (RPP) and in a composite right circular cylinder (RCC) assuming no contact resistance. These Green's functions may then be used to provide analytical solutions for arbitrary internal source distributions and surface temperature distributions within the RPP or RCC

  10. Numerical Study on Heat Transfer to an Arc Absorber Designed for a Waste Heat Recovery System around a Cement Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mirhosseini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study on combined free convection, forced convection, and radiation heat transfers from an industrial isothermal rotating cylinder (cement kiln is carried out in this work. The investigation is done by the study of two-dimensional (2D incompressible turbulent flow around the kiln under steady- and unsteady-state solutions. The results of this study show that the average Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers around the cylindrical kiln are 647,812.1 and 1.75986 × 1011, respectively. A heat absorber is specifically designed around the kiln, according to the available space around the kiln, in a sample cement factory. The study investigates the effect of an added absorber on the heat transfer features, for both constant heat flux and constant temperature, on the kiln. The temperature distribution along the absorber circumference is obtained for designing an efficient thermoelectric waste heat recovery system as a future study. It is observed that the contribution of the radiative heat transfer is significant in the total heat transferred from the kiln to the absorber.

  11. Enhancing the ABAQUS Thermomechanics Code to Simulate Steady and Transient Fuel Rod Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, R.L.; Knoll, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    A powerful multidimensional fuels performance capability, applicable to both steady and transient fuel behavior, is developed based on enhancements to the commercially available ABAQUS general-purpose thermomechanics code. Enhanced capabilities are described, including: UO2 temperature and burnup dependent thermal properties, solid and gaseous fission product swelling, fuel densification, fission gas release, cladding thermal and irradiation creep, cladding irradiation growth, gap heat transfer, and gap/plenum gas behavior during irradiation. The various modeling capabilities are demonstrated using a 2D axisymmetric analysis of the upper section of a simplified multi-pellet fuel rod, during both steady and transient operation. Computational results demonstrate the importance of a multidimensional fully-coupled thermomechanics treatment. Interestingly, many of the inherent deficiencies in existing fuel performance codes (e.g., 1D thermomechanics, loose thermo-mechanical coupling, separate steady and transient analysis, cumbersome pre- and post-processing) are, in fact, ABAQUS strengths.

  12. Comments on "The "Elevated Heat Pump" Hypothesis for the Aerosol-Monsoon Hydroclimate Link: "Grounded" in Observations?" by S. Nigam and M. Bollasina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, K. M.; Kim, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    In their recent paper Nigam and Bollasina [2010, hereafter NB] claimed to have found observational evidences that are at variance with the Elevated Heat Pump (EHP) hypothesis regarding the possible impacts of absorbing aerosols on the South Asian summer monsoon [Lau et al., 2006; Lau and Km 2006). We found NB's arguments and inferences against the EHP hypothesis flawed, stemming from a lack of understanding and an out-of-context interpretation of the hypothesis. It was argued that the simultaneous negative correlation of aerosol with rainfall, and correlations with other quantities in May as evidences against the EHP hypothesis. They cannot be more wrong in that argument. First, Lau and Kim [2006, hereafter, LKO6] never stated that the main rainfall response to EHP is in May. Second, the EHP is about responses of the entire Indian monsoon system that are non-local in space and time with respect to the aerosol forcing. Third, the correlation maps shown in NB, including the increased convection over the Bay of Bengal is not the response to EHP but rather represents the large-scale circulation that provides the build-up of the aerosols, before the onset of the monsoon rainfall over India. Because aerosol can only accumulate where there is little or no wash-out by rain, the negative correlation is a necessary condition for increased atmospheric loading of aerosols.

  13. Transport processes: Momentum, heat and mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geankoplis, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    This book discusses basic transport processes including mass transport. Topics covered are as follows: an introduction to engineering principles and units; principles of momentum transfer and overall balances; principles of momentum transfer and applications; principles of steady-state heat transfer; principles of unsteady-state heat transfer; principles of mass transfer; principles of unsteady-state and convective mass transfer

  14. Cyclic injection, storage, and withdrawal of heated water in a sandstone aquifer at St. Paul, Minnesota: Field observations, preliminary model analysis, and aquifer thermal efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert T.

    1989-01-01

    In May 1980, the University of Minnesota began a project to evaluate the feasibility of storing heated (150 °C (degree Celsius)) water in the deep (180 to 240 m (meters)) Franconia-Ironton-Galesville aquifer and later recovering it for space heating. The Aquifer Thermal-Energy Storage (ATES) system was doublet-well design in which the injection/withdrawal wells were spaced approximately 250 m apart. High-temperature water from the University's steam-generation facilities supplied heat for injection. Water was pumped from one of the wells through a heat exchanger, where heat was added or removed. Water then was injected back into the aquifer through the other well. The experimental plan for testing the ATES system consisted of a series of short-term hot-water injection, storage, and withdrawal cycles. Each cycle was 24-days long, and each injection, storage, and withdrawal step of the cycle was 8 days.

  15. Experimental Study of Single Phase Flow in a Closed-Loop Cooling System with Integrated Mini-Channel Heat Sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The flow and heat transfer characteristics of a closed-loop cooling system with a mini-channel heat sink for thermal management of electronics is studied experimentally. The heat sink is designed with corrugated fins to improve its heat dissipation capability. The experiments are performed using variable coolant volumetric flow rates and input heating powers. The experimental results show a high and reliable thermal performance using the heat sink with corrugated fins. The heat transfer capability is improved up to 30 W/cm2 when the base temperature is kept at a stable and acceptable level. Besides the heat transfer capability enhancement, the capability of the system to transfer heat for a long distance is also studied and a fast thermal response time to reach steady state is observed once the input heating power or the volume flow rate are varied. Under different input heat source powers and volumetric flow rates, our results suggest potential applications of the designed mini-channel heat sink in cooling microelectronics.

  16. Steady state compact toroidal plasma production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William C.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.

  17. Steady laminar flow of fractal fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balankin, Alexander S., E-mail: abalankin@ipn.mx [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Mena, Baltasar [Laboratorio de Ingeniería y Procesos Costeros, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sisal, Yucatán, 97355 (Mexico); Susarrey, Orlando; Samayoa, Didier [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico)

    2017-02-12

    We study laminar flow of a fractal fluid in a cylindrical tube. A flow of the fractal fluid is mapped into a homogeneous flow in a fractional dimensional space with metric induced by the fractal topology. The equations of motion for an incompressible Stokes flow of the Newtonian fractal fluid are derived. It is found that the radial distribution for the velocity in a steady Poiseuille flow of a fractal fluid is governed by the fractal metric of the flow, whereas the pressure distribution along the flow direction depends on the fractal topology of flow, as well as on the fractal metric. The radial distribution of the fractal fluid velocity in a steady Couette flow between two concentric cylinders is also derived. - Highlights: • Equations of Stokes flow of Newtonian fractal fluid are derived. • Pressure distribution in the Newtonian fractal fluid is derived. • Velocity distribution in Poiseuille flow of fractal fluid is found. • Velocity distribution in a steady Couette flow is established.

  18. Lagrangian chaos in three- dimensional steady buoyancy-driven flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Sebastian; Speetjens, Michel; Clercx, Herman

    2016-11-01

    Natural convection plays a key role in fluid dynamics owing to its ubiquitous presence in nature and industry. Buoyancy-driven flows are prototypical systems in the study of thermal instabilities and pattern formation. The differentially heated cavity problem has been widely studied for the investigation of buoyancy-induced oscillatory flow. However, far less attention has been devoted to the three-dimensional Lagrangian transport properties in such flows. This study seeks to address this by investigating Lagrangian transport in the steady flow inside a cubic cavity differentially-heated from the side. The theoretical and numerical analysis expands on previously reported similarities between the current flow and lid-driven flows. The Lagrangian dynamics are controlled by the Péclet number (Pe) and the Prandtl number (Pr). Pe controls the behaviour qualitatively in that growing Pe progressively perturbs the integable state (Pe =0), thus paving the way to chaotic dynamics. Pr plays an entirely quantitative role in that Pr1 amplifies and diminishes, respectively, the perturbative effect of non-zero Pe. S.C. acknowledges financial support from Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT).

  19. Fitting Boolean networks from steady state perturbation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almudevar, Anthony; McCall, Matthew N; McMurray, Helene; Land, Hartmut

    2011-10-05

    Gene perturbation experiments are commonly used for the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks. Typical experimental methodology imposes persistent changes on the network. The resulting data must therefore be interpreted as a steady state from an altered gene regulatory network, rather than a direct observation of the original network. In this article an implicit modeling methodology is proposed in which the unperturbed network of interest is scored by first modeling the persistent perturbation, then predicting the steady state, which may then be compared to the observed data. This results in a many-to-one inverse problem, so a computational Bayesian approach is used to assess model uncertainty. The methodology is first demonstrated on a number of synthetic networks. It is shown that the Bayesian approach correctly assigns high posterior probability to the network structure and steady state behavior. Further, it is demonstrated that where uncertainty of model features is indicated, the uncertainty may be accurately resolved with further perturbation experiments. The methodology is then applied to the modeling of a gene regulatory network using perturbation data from nine genes which have been shown to respond synergistically to known oncogenic mutations. A hypothetical model emerges which conforms to reported regulatory properties of these genes. Furthermore, the Bayesian methodology is shown to be consistent in the sense that multiple randomized applications of the fitting algorithm converge to an approximately common posterior density on the space of models. Such consistency is generally not feasible for algorithms which report only single models. We conclude that fully Bayesian methods, coupled with models which accurately account for experimental constraints, are a suitable tool for the inference of gene regulatory networks, in terms of accuracy, estimation of model uncertainty, and experimental design.

  20. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  1. District heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The papers presented at this meeting dealt with an international comparison of district heating, the Swiss district heating network, political aspects of nuclear district heating, nuclear and non-nuclear sources for district heating. 17 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Heat Transfer Basics and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Böckh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The book provides an easy way to understand the fundamentals of heat transfer. The reader will acquire the ability to design and analyze heat exchangers. Without extensive derivation of the fundamentals, the latest correlations for heat transfer coefficients and their application are discussed. The following topics are presented - Steady state and transient heat conduction - Free and forced convection - Finned surfaces - Condensation and boiling - Radiation - Heat exchanger design - Problem-solving After introducing the basic terminology, the reader is made familiar with the different mechanisms of heat transfer. Their practical application is demonstrated in examples, which are available in the Internet as MathCad files for further use. Tables of material properties and formulas for their use in programs are included in the appendix. This book will serve as a valuable resource for both students and engineers in the industry. The author’s experience indicates that students, after 40 lectures and exercises ...

  3. Three-Dimensional Unsteady Simulation of a Modern High Pressure Turbine Stage Using Phase Lag Periodicity: Analysis of Flow and Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali; Luk, Daniel F.; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Unsteady three-dimensional RANS simulations have been performed on a highly loaded transonic turbine stage and results are compared to steady calculations as well as experiment. A low Reynolds number k- turbulence model is employed to provide closure for the RANS system. A phase-lag boundary condition is used in the periodic direction. This allows the unsteady simulation to be performed by using only one blade from each of the two rows. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of unsteadiness on rotor heat transfer and to glean any insight into unsteady flow physics. The role of the stator wake passing on the pressure distribution at the leading edge is also studied. The simulated heat transfer and pressure results agreed favorably with experiment. The time-averaged heat transfer predicted by the unsteady simulation is higher than the heat transfer predicted by the steady simulation everywhere except at the leading edge. The shock structure formed due to stator-rotor interaction was analyzed. Heat transfer and pressure at the hub and casing were also studied. Thermal segregation was observed that leads to the heat transfer patterns predicted by steady and unsteady simulations to be different.

  4. A Novel Chronic Opioid Monitoring Tool to Assess Prescription Drug Steady State Levels in Oral Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaparin, Naum; Mehta, Neel; Kunkel, Frank; Stripp, Richard; Borg, Damon; Kolb, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Interpretation limitations of urine drug testing and the invasiveness of blood toxicology have motivated the desire for the development of simpler methods to assess biologically active drug levels on an individualized patient basis. Oral fluid is a matrix well-suited for the challenge because collections are based on simple noninvasive procedures and drug concentrations better correlate to blood drug levels as oral fluid is a filtrate of the blood. Well-established pharmacokinetic models were utilized to generate oral fluid steady state concentration ranges to assess the interpretive value of the alternative matrix to monitor steady state plasma oxycodone levels. Paired oral fluid and plasma samples were collected from patients chronically prescribed oxycodone and quantitatively analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Steady state plasma concentration ranges were calculated for each donor and converted to an equivalent range in oral fluid. Measured plasma and oral fluid oxycodone concentrations were compared with respective matrix-matched steady state ranges, using each plasma steady state classification as the control. A high degree of correlation was observed between matrices when classifying donors according to expected steady state oxycodone concentration. Agreement between plasma and oral fluid steady state classifications was observed in 75.6% of paired samples. This study supports novel application of basic pharmacokinetic knowledge to the pain management industry, simplifying and improving individualized drug monitoring and risk assessment through the use of oral fluid drug testing. Many benefits of established therapeutic drug monitoring in plasma can be realized in oral fluid for patients chronically prescribed oxycodone at steady state. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. NCEL: two dimensional finite element code for steady-state temperature distribution in seven rod-bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrehor, M.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with an application of the finite element method to the heat transfer study in seven-pin models of LMFBR fuel subassembly. The developed code NCEL solves two-dimensional steady state heat conduction equation in the whole subassembly model cross-section and enebles to perform the analysis of thermal behaviour in both normal and accidental operational conditions as eccentricity of the central rod or full or partial (porous) blockage of some part of the cross-flow area. The heat removal is simulated by heat sinks in coolant under conditions of subchannels slug flow approximation

  6. Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Houze, Robert, A., Jr.; Zeng, Xiping

    2013-03-14

    were compared with three reanalyses (MERRA, ERA-Interim and CFSR). Although the MMF tends to produce a higher precipitation rate over some topical regions, it actually well captures the variations in the zonal and meridional means. Among the three reanalyses, ERA-Interim seems to have values close to those of the satellite retrievals especially for GPCP. It is interesting to note that the MMF obtained the best results in the rain forest of Africa even better than those of CFSR and ERA-Interim, when compared to CMORPH. MERRA fails to capture the precipitation in this region. We are now collaborating with Steve Rutledge (CSU) to validate the model results for AMMA 6. MC3E and the diurnal variation of precipitation processes The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) was a joint field campaign between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. It took place in central Oklahoma during the period April 22 _ June 6, 2011. Some of its major objectives involve the use of CRMs in precipitation science such as: (1) testing the fidelity of CRM simulations via intensive statistical comparisons between simulated and observed cloud properties and latent heating fields for a variety of case types, (2) establishing the limits of CRM space-time integration capabilities for quantitative precipitation estimates, and (3) supporting the development and refinement of physically-based GMI, DPR, and DPR-GMI combined retrieval algorithms using ground-based GPM GV Ku-Ka band radar and CRM simulations. The NASA unified WRF model (nu-WRF) was used for real time forecasts during the field campaign, and ten precipitation events were selected for post mission simulations. These events include well-organized squall lines, scattered storms and quasi-linear storms. A paper focused on the diurnal variation of precipitation will be

  7. Steady State Analysis of Multiple Effect Evaporation (MEE) Desalination Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.

    2012-01-01

    Life without water is not possible. Like other natural resources, the global resources of fresh water are unevenly distributed. The world population is increasing at very rapid rate while the natural water resources remain constant. This gap is expected to widen dramatically in the near future. Our country like most countries in the east suffer from water stressed condition. Desalination is only the logical or available solution. In MED units, the feed seawater sprayed individually in each effect is heated to form pure vapors, which condense to form product water. Irrespective of the continuous development of the desalination industry the thermal desalination is still expensive. The study presented in this thesis is motivated by, to study the impact of various cost controlling parameters on the performance of MEE desalination process. KANUPP has two desalination plants (RO and NDDP). The NDDP has parallel feed cross flow multiple effect evaporation (MEE-PC) configurations. The study presented in this thesis describes a simplified steady state mathematical model to analyze the MED systems. The results obtained by the model are compared with the NDDP data. The developed model is used to investigate the effect of the parameters controlling the product water cost. These parameters includes thermal performance ratio, cooling water flow rate and heat transfer area. It can also be used to study the effect of variation in the operating conditions of the plant on the plant performance. The effect of the process variables on the performance of MED is carried out. This includes the effect of number of effects, intake seawater salinity and heating stream temperature, vacuum condition in term of vapor temperature of last effect. (author)

  8. A simple heat transfer model for a heat flux plate under transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, L.; Dale, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Heat flux plates are used for measuring rates of heat transfer through surfaces under steady state and transient conditions. Their usual construction is to have a resistive layer bounded by thermopiles and an exterior layer for protection. If properly designed and constructed a linear relationship between the thermopile generated voltage and heat flux results and calibration under steady state conditions is straight forward. Under transient conditions however the voltage output from a heat flux plate cannot instantaneously follow the heat flux because of the thermal capacitance of the plate and the resulting time lag. In order to properly interpret the output of a heat flux plate used under transient conditions a simple heat transfer model was constructed and tested. (author)

  9. Finite element simulation of heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bergheau, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    This book introduces the finite element method applied to the resolution of industrial heat transfer problems. Starting from steady conduction, the method is gradually extended to transient regimes, to traditional non-linearities, and to convective phenomena. Coupled problems involving heat transfer are then presented. Three types of couplings are discussed: coupling through boundary conditions (such as radiative heat transfer in cavities), addition of state variables (such as metallurgical phase change), and coupling through partial differential equations (such as electrical phenomena).? A re

  10. Formulation and validation of a two-dimensional steady-state model of desiccant wheels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    systems. A steady-state two-dimensional model is formulated and implemented, aiming to obtain good accuracy and short computational times with the purpose of inclusion in complete system models. The model includes mass and energy balances and correlations for heat and mass transfer based on empirical...... relations from the scientific literature. Convective heat and mass transfer coefficients are computed locally accounting for the entrance length effects. Mass diffusion inside the desiccant material is neglected. Comparison with experimental data from the literature shows that the model reproduces...

  11. Quasi-steady model for predicting temperature of aqueous foams circulating in geothermal wellbores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell, B.F.; Ortega, A.

    1983-01-01

    A quasi-steady model has been developed for predicting the temperature profiles of aqueous foams circulating in geothermal wellbores. The model assumes steady one-dimensional incompressible flow in the wellbore; heat transfer by conduction from the geologic formation to the foam is one-dimensional radially and time-dependent. The vertical temperature distribution in the undisturbed geologic formation is assumed to be composed of two linear segments. For constant values of the convective heat-transfer coefficient, a closed-form analytical solution is obtained. It is demonstrated that the Prandtl number of aqueous foams is large (1000 to 5000); hence, a fully developed temperature profile may not exist for representative drilling applications. Existing convective heat-transfer-coefficient solutions are adapted to aqueous foams. The simplified quasi-steady model is successfully compared with a more-sophisticated finite-difference computer code. Sample temperature-profile calculations are presented for representative values of the primary parameters. For a 5000-ft wellbore with a bottom hole temperature of 375{sup 0}F, the maximum foam temperature can be as high as 300{sup 0}F.

  12. South Pacific convergence zone and global scale circulations (Jul. 1987 - Jul. 1991). Observational and modeling studies of heat, moisture, precipitation, and global-scale circulation patterns (Jul. 1990 - Jul. 1993)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Dayton G.; Robertson, Franklin R.

    1991-01-01

    Several research projects were worked on between August 1990 and May 1991. Topics covered included observational and modeling studies of relationships between tropical heat sources and subtropical jet streams, the intraseasonal (30 to 60 day) oscillation near the equator, and precipitation over tropical oceans. Current research activities and plans for the coming year are outlined.

  13. Experimental investigations on an axial grooved cryogenic heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar Muniappan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with development and studies of a trapezoidal axial grooved nitrogen heat pipe. A special liquid nitrogen cryostat has been designed and developed for evaluating the performance of heat pipe where the condenser portion is connected to the cold sink externally. Experiments have been performed on the heat pipe as well as on an equivalent diameter copper rod at different heat loads. The steady state performance of the heat pipe is compared with that of copper rod.

  14. Program listing for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM). [CNHSPM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-30

    The computer program CNHSPM is listed which predicts heat pump seasonal energy consumption (including defrost, cyclic degradation, and supplementary heat) using steady state rating point performance and binned weather data. (LEW)

  15. A study of forced convective boiling heat transfer under power transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Isao; Serizawa, Akimi; Sakurai, Akira

    1984-01-01

    Experimental investigation has been carried out on forced convective boiling heat transfer under exponentially increasing heat generation rate using Platinum wire heater located parrallel to flow direction. Effects of inlet velocity, subcooling, pressure, exponential period and heater geometry on the transient boiling have been examined. Two types of transient boiling are observed. In one type, the transient boiling curve coincides with steady-state boiling curve and/or its extrapolation (A-type) while in the other type the transient boiling curve does not show the coincidence (B-type). Transient maximum heat flux increases with increasing velocity, subcooling, pressure and with decreasing exponential period for A-type boiling. Finally, the experimental correlation has been obtained for the transient maximum heat flux. (author)

  16. District heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    By request of the Dutch Lower House the Netherlands Court of Audit examined the profitability or loss-making of district heating projects between 2001 and 2003. District heating supplies heat to consumers for heating their houses and providing warm tap water. The heat is supplied via warm water that runs through a network of pipes. In the Netherlands, about 250,000 households use district heating. The request by the Dutch Lower House to conduct research on district heating coheres with the initiative District Heating Bill. The bill aims to legally guarantee the supply and affordability of heat for consumers of district heating. [mk] [nl

  17. Numerical calculation of unsteady turbulent heat transfer in a circular tube considering for heat dissipation in a wale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groshev, A.I.; Slobodchuk, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    The results of numerical calculation of the conjugated problem of convective heat transfer under unsteady conditions are presented. The equations describing heat transfer take into account longitudinal heat diffusion in liquid and in a wall. The formulae for calculating local heat flows at the wall-liquid surface in the case of an arbitrary law of temperature variation at the outer wall surface along the channel length are proposed for steady-state heat transfer conditions

  18. Precessive sand ripples in intense steady shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan M.; Moulton, Derek E.; Uys, Hermann

    2011-03-01

    We describe experimental observations of fully developed, large-amplitude bars under the action of a shearing fluid. The experiments were performed in an annular tank filled with water and sheared above by a steady motor source. The same steady shearing flow can produce a variety of different erodible bed manifestations: advective or precessive bars, which refer to bar structures with global regularity and a near-steady precession velocity; interactive bars, the structure of which depends on local rearrangements, which are in turn a response to complex background topography; and dispersive bars, which are created when an initially isolated mound of sand evolves into a train of sand ripples. Of these, the most amenable to analysis are the precessive bars. For precession bars, we find that the skin depth, which is the nondimensionalized mean-field transport rate, grows exponentially as a function of the shear velocity. From this, we arrive at an analytical expression that approximates the precession speed of the bars as a function of shear velocity. We use this to obtain a formula for sediment transport rate. However, in intense flows, the bars can get large engendering boundary layer separation, leading to a different dynamic for bar formation and evolution. Numerical flow calculations over an experimentally obtained set of precessive bars are presented and show that classical parametrizations of mass flux in terms of bottom gradients have shortcomings. Within the range of shear rates considered, a quantity that does not change appreciably in time is the aspect ratio, which is defined as the ratio of the average bar amplitude, with respect to a mean depth, to the average bar length.

  19. Significant enhancement of metal heat dissipation from mechanically exfoliated graphene nanosheets through thermal radiation effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiong Hu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a facile approach to significantly enhance the heat dissipation potential of conventional aluminum (Al heat sinks by mechanically coating graphene nanosheets. For Al and graphene-coated Al heat sinks, the change in temperature with change in coating coverage, coating thickness and heat flux are studied. It is found that with the increase in coating coverage from 0 to 100%, the steady-state temperature is decreased by 5 °C at a heat flux of 1.8 W cm-1. By increasing the average thickness of graphene coating from 480 nm to 1900 nm, a remarkable temperature reduction up to 7 °C can be observed. Moreover, with the increase in heat flux from 1.2 W cm-1 to 2.4 W cm-1, the temperature difference between uncoated and graphene-coated samples increases from 1 °C to 6 °C. The thermal analysis and finite element simulation reveal that the thermal radiation plays a key role in enhancing the heat dissipation performance. The effect of heat convection remains weak owing to the low air velocity at surface-air boundary. This work provides a technological innovation in improving metal heat dissipation using graphene nanosheets.

  20. Comment on "'Elevated Heat Pump' Hypothesis for the Aerosol-Monsoon Hydroclimate Link: 'Grounded' in Observations?" by S. Nigam and M. Bollasina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, K. M.; Kim, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    In their recent paper, Nigam and Bollasina [2010] (hereinafter NB) claimed to have found observational evidences that are at variance with the elevated heat pump (EHP) hypothesis regarding the possible impacts of absorbing aerosols on the South Asian summer monsoon [Lau et al., 2006; Lau and Kim, 2006]. We found NB's arguments and inferences against the EHP hypothesis flawed, stemming from their own out of context interpretation of the hypothesis. NB argued that the simultaneous negative correlation of aerosol with rainfall, and correlations with other quantities in May, are evidence against the EHP hypothesis. Their argument cannot be justified. First, Lau and Kim [2006] (hereinafter LK06) never stated that the main rainfall response to EHP is in May. Second, the EHP is about responses of the entire Indian monsoon system that are nonlocal in space and time with respect to the aerosol forcing. As shown in Figure 4 of LK06, while the aerosol anomalies are strongest in April-May, the strongest rainfall response is in June-July, with the enhanced rainfall fed by an induced thermally driven circulation which brings additional moisture from the ocean to the Indian subcontinent. Third, the increased rainfall over the Bay of Bengal as shown in Figure 1a of NB and the increased low-level convergence in Figure 1f of NB do not necessarily reflect responses associated with EHP but rather the large ]scale circulation that provides the buildup of the aerosols before the onset of the monsoon rainfall over India. Because aerosol can only accumulate where there is little or no washout by rain, the negative correlation is a necessary condition for increased atmospheric loading of aerosols. For the same reason, the spatial distributions of rainfall and aerosol generally are offset with each other, i.e., high aerosol in regions of low rainfall. This is evident in Figure 1, which shows the climatological mean of the MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD), and TRMM rainfall over India in

  1. Characterization of the Long-term Subsurface Warming Observed at the Apollo 15 and 17 Sites Utilizing the Newly Restored Heat Flow Experiment Data from 1975 to 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, S.; Kiefer, W. S.; Taylor, P. T.; Williams, D. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Krell, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Apollo Heat Flow Experiment (HFE) was conducted at landing sites 15 and 17 as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP) program. At each site, the astronauts drilled 2 holes, 10-m apart, and installed a probe in each. The probes monitored surface and subsurface temperatures. The Apollo 15 probes operated from July 1971 to January 1977. The Apollo 17 probes operated from December 1972 to September 1977. For both sites, only data from the beginning to December 1974 were archived previously. We have restored major portions of the 1975-1977 HFE data for both sites from two sets of sources recently recovered. One was the original ALSEP archival data tapes, from which raw HFE data were extracted and processed according to the procedure and the calibration data specified by the original investigators. The other was the ALSEP Performance Summary Reports, which included weekly logs of temperature readings from the deepest sensor of each of the probes. The original HFE investigators noted that temperature of the regolith well below the thermal skin depth ( 1 m) rose gradually through December 1974 at both sites. Possible causes of the warming have been debated since. The restored 1975-1977 HFE data allow more detailed characterization of this phenomenon, especially for the Apollo 17 site, for which the duration of data availability has more than doubled. For both sites, the subsurface warming continued till the end of observations. Simultaneously, thermal gradient decreased. Such behavior is consistent with one of the hypotheses proposed by the original investigators; temperature of the lunar surface around the probe increased by 2 to 4 K at the time of deployment. Consequently, the subsurface thermal regime gradually adjusted to the new boundary condition. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images taken over the Apollo landing sites suggest that astronaut-induced surface disturbance resulted in lower albedo, and that should have raised average

  2. Internally Heated Screw Pyrolysis Reactor (IHSPR) heat transfer performance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, S. H.; Gan, H. L.; Alias, A.; Gan, L. M.

    2018-04-01

    1.5 billion end-of-life tyres (ELT) were discarded globally each year and pyrolysis is considered the best solution to convert the ELT into valuable high energy-density products. Among all pyrolysis technologies, screw reactor is favourable. However, conventional screw reactor risks plugging issue due to its lacklustre heat transfer performance. An internally heated screw pyrolysis reactor (IHSPR) was developed by local renewable energy industry, which serves as the research subject for heat transfer performance study of this particular paper. Zero-load heating test (ZLHT) was first carried out to obtain the operational parameters of the reactor, followed by the one dimensional steady-state heat transfer analysis carried out using SolidWorks Flow Simulation 2016. Experiments with feed rate manipulations and pyrolysis products analyses were conducted last to conclude the study.

  3. Statistical steady states in turbulent droplet condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bec, Jeremie; Krstulovic, Giorgio; Siewert, Christoph

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the general problem of turbulent condensation. Using direct numerical simulations we show that the fluctuations of the supersaturation field offer different conditions for the growth of droplets which evolve in time due to turbulent transport and mixing. This leads to propose a Lagrangian stochastic model consisting of a set of integro-differential equations for the joint evolution of the squared radius and the supersaturation along droplet trajectories. The model has two parameters fixed by the total amount of water and the thermodynamic properties, as well as the Lagrangian integral timescale of the turbulent supersaturation. The model reproduces very well the droplet size distributions obtained from direct numerical simulations and their time evolution. A noticeable result is that, after a stage where the squared radius simply diffuses, the system converges exponentially fast to a statistical steady state independent of the initial conditions. The main mechanism involved in this convergence is a loss of memory induced by a significant number of droplets undergoing a complete evaporation before growing again. The statistical steady state is characterised by an exponential tail in the droplet mass distribution.

  4. Steady state magnetic field configurations for the earth's magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau, L.N.; Wolf, R.A.; Voigt, G.H.; Wu, C.C.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a two-dimensional, force-balanced magnetic field model in which flux tubes have constant pVγ throughout an extended region of the nightside plasma sheet, between approximately 36 R E geocentric distance and the region of the inner edge of the plasma sheet. They have thus demonstrated the theoretical existence of a steady state magnetic field configuration that is force-balanced and also consistent with slow, lossless, adiabatic, earthward convection within the limit of the ideal MHD (isotropic pressure, perfect conductivity). The numerical solution was constructed for a two-dimensional magnetosphere with a rectangular magnetopause and nonflaring tail. The primary characteristics of the steady state convection solution are (1) a pressure maximum just tailward of the inner edge of the plasma sheet and (2) a deep, broad minimum in equatorial magnetic field strength B ze , also just tailward of the inner edge. The results are consistent with Erickson's (1985) convection time sequences, which exhibited analogous pressure peaks and B ze minima. Observations do not indicate the existence of a B ze minimum, on the average. They suggest that the configurations with such deep minima in B ze may be tearing-mode unstable, thus leading to substorm onset in the inner plasma sheet

  5. Radial fast interrupted steady-state (FISS) magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koktzoglou, Ioannis; Edelman, Robert R

    2018-04-01

    To report a highly interrupted radial variant of balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging, termed fast interrupted steady-state (FISS), for decreasing flow artifact as well as fat signal conspicuity with respect to bSSFP, and saturation effects vis-à-vis fast low-angle shot (FLASH) imaging. Numerical simulations, phantom studies, and human studies were conducted to examine the imaging contrast, off-resonance behavior, and flow properties of FISS. Human studies applied FISS for cine cardiac imaging and ungated nonenhanced MR angiography (MRA) of the legs, neck, and brain. Comparisons were made with bSSFP and FLASH imaging. Simulations revealed that FISS retains the high signal levels of bSSFP for stationary on-resonant spins, while reducing undesirable signal heterogeneity from flowing spins. Phantom studies agreed with the simulations, and showed that FISS reduces fat signal and flow artifact with respect to bSSFP imaging. FISS imaging in human subjects agreed with the simulations and phantom studies, and showed reduced saturation artifact compared with FLASH imaging. FISS imaging reduces flow artifact and fat signal conspicuity with respect to bSSFP imaging, and ameliorates arterial signal saturation observed with FLASH imaging. Potential clinical applications include fat-suppressed cine imaging and ungated nonenhanced MRA. Magn Reson Med 79:2077-2086, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Experimental and numerical study of a printed circuit heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Minghui; Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard N.; Shi, Shanbin; Skavdahl, Isaac; Utgikar, Vivek; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic model is developed for transient analysis of the straight-channel PCHE. • Transient scenarios of the straight-channel PCHE subject to helium temperature and mass flow rate variations are numerically investigated. • Steady-state temperature distribution inside the straight-channel PCHE is obtained in calculation. • Experiments are conducted to study the dynamic behavior of the straight-channel PCHE. - Abstract: Printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) are promising to be employed in very-high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTRs) due to their high robustness for high-temperature, high-pressure applications and high compactness. PCHEs typically serve as intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) that isolate the secondary loop from the reactor’s primary system and hence must be sufficiently robust to maintain the system integrity during normal and off-normal conditions. In addition, the performance of the PCHE-type IHX could considerably affect the nuclear power plant overall operation since any transients on the secondary side would be propagated back to the reactor’s primary coolant system via the IHX. It is therefore imperative to understand how the PCHE would dynamically respond to a variety of transients. In the current study, experiments were first conducted to examine the steady-state thermal performance of a reduced-scale straight-channel PCHE. A dynamic model benchmarked in a previous study was then used to predict the steady-state and transient behavior of the PCHE. The steady-state temperature profiles of the working fluids on both the hot and cold sides and in the solid plates of the heat exchanger were obtained, which served as the initial condition for the transient simulations. The detailed dynamic response of the straight-channel PCHE, subject to inlet temperature variations, helium mass flow variations, and combinations of the two, was simulated and analyzed. In addition, two sets of transient tests, one for helium inlet

  7. Assessment and simulation of global terrestrial latent heat flux by synthesis of CMIP5 climate models and surface eddy covariance observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunjun Yao; Shunlin Liang; Xianglan Li; Shaomin Liu; Jiquan Chen; Xiaotong Zhang; Kun Jia; Bo Jiang; Xianhong Xie; Simon Munier; Meng Liu; Jian Yu; Anders Lindroth; Andrej Varlagin; Antonio Raschi; Asko Noormets; Casimiro Pio; Georg Wohlfahrt; Ge Sun; Jean-Christophe Domec; Leonardo Montagnani; Magnus Lund; Moors Eddy; Peter D. Blanken; Thomas Grunwald; Sebastian Wolf; Vincenzo Magliulo

    2016-01-01

    The latent heat flux (LE) between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere is a major driver of the globalhydrological cycle. In this study, we evaluated LE simulations by 45 general circulation models (GCMs)in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) by a comparison...

  8. Characterizing the Heat Flow from Between Enceladus' Tiger Stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howett, C.; Spencer, J. R.; Verbiscer, A.

    2017-12-01

    Enceladus' heat flow provides a fundamental constraint on its tidal dissipation mechanisms, orbital evolution, and the physical processes that generate the plumes. Determining the total amount of emission is proving difficult, as different techniques produce differing constraints. For example, an initial estimate of this value, 5.8±1.3 GW, was made by Spencer et al. (2006) using Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) 600 to 1100 cm-1 observations, which was refined using 10 to 600 cm-1 CIRS observations to 15.8±3.1 GW by Howett et al. (2011). However, recent reanalysis of high-spatial resolution 10 to 1100 cm-1 CIRS observations of Enceladus' active south polar region conducted by Spencer and Howett gives a heat flow of 4.64±0.23 GW. Whilst all of these heat flow estimates are much larger than those expected in a steady state, 1.1 GW (Meyer and Wisdom, 2007), their obvious discrepancy is a puzzle. In this work we seek to help understand these discrepancies by determining how much endogenic heat flow is coming from the funiscular terrain between Enceladus active tiger stripes.

  9. Cosmic-ray heating of cooling flows - A critical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Michael; Zweibel, Ellen G.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that a combination of MHD wave-mediated cosmic ray heating and thermal conduction could balance cooling in intracluster media and substantially reduce the rate of inflow. The appropriate system of steady state equations is solved, including a new self-consistent formulation for the cosmic-ray diffusivity. Models which can produce substantial positive temperature gradients in static configurations are found when conduction is reduced by a factor of 10 or more. These models have too-flat thermal pressure profiles compared with observations. It is found that cosmic-ray heating is unlikely either to stabilize positive density perturbations against condensation or to contribute appreciably to the powering of the optical filaments.

  10. Characteristics of various confinement regimes obtained with EC and LH heating on the TdeV tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacher, G.W.; Decoste, R.; Demers, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Steady-state H-modes in type III ELM regime on TdeV with electron cyclotron and lower hybrid heating are investigated with respect to lower hybrid wave coupling, threshold power, helium pumping and separation between separatrix and surrounding structures. Energy confinement is found to improve as the distance between separatrix and divertor baffle is reduced. With off-axis EC heating, reduced particle transport is observed inside the deposition zone, but no energy transport barrier is obtained. New measurements on compact toroid fuelling are reported which indicate that further optimization of the injector is required. (author)

  11. Characteristics of various confinement regimes obtained with EC and LH heating on the TdeV tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacher, G.W.; Decoste, R.; Demers, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Steady-state H-modes in type III ELM regime on TdeV with electron cyclotron and lower hybrid heating are investigated with respect to lower hybrid wave coupling, threshold power, helium pumping and separation between separatrix and surrounding structures. Energy confinement is found to improve as the distance between separatrix and divertor baffle is reduced. With off-axis EC heating, reduced particle transport is observed inside the deposition zone, but no energy transport barrier is obtained. New measurements on compact toroid fuelling are reported which indicate that further optimization of the injector is required. (author)

  12. Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NEW OSHA- ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  13. Neutral gas heating by X-rays in primitive galaxies: Infrared observations of the blue compact dwarf I Zw 18 with Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebouteiller, V.; Péquignot, D.; Cormier, D.; Madden, S.; Pakull, M. W.; Kunth, D.; Galliano, F.; Chevance, M.; Heap, S. R.; Lee, M.-Y.; Polles, F. L.

    2017-06-01

    Context. The neutral interstellar medium of galaxies acts as a reservoir to fuel star formation. The dominant heating and cooling mechanisms in this phase are uncertain in extremely metal-poor star-forming galaxies. The low dust-to-gas mass ratio and low polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundance in such objects suggest that the traditional photoelectric effect heating may not be effective. Aims: Our objective is to identify the dominant thermal mechanisms in one such galaxy, I Zw 18 (1/30Z⊙), assess the diagnostic value of fine-structure cooling lines, and estimate the molecular gas content. Even though molecular gas is an important catalyst and tracer of star formation, constraints on the molecular gas mass remain elusive in the most metal-poor galaxies. Methods: Building on a previous photoionization model describing the giant H II region of I Zw 18-NW within a multi-sector topology, we provide additional constraints using, in particular, the [C II] 157 μm and [O I] 63 μm lines and the dust mass recently measured with the Herschel Space Telescope. Results: The heating of the H I region appears to be mainly due to photoionization by radiation from a bright X-ray binary source, while the photoelectric effect is negligible. Significant cosmic ray heating is not excluded. Inasmuch as X-ray heating dominates in the H I gas, the infrared fine-structure lines provide an average X-ray luminosity of order 4 × 1040 erg s-1 over the last few 104 yr in the galaxy. The upper limits to the [Ne v] lines provide strong constraints on the soft X-ray flux arising from the binary. A negligible mass of H2 is predicted. Nonetheless, up to 107 M⊙ of H2 may be hidden in a few sufficiently dense clouds of order ≲5 pc (≲0.05'') in size. Regardless of the presence of significant amounts of H2 gas, [C II] and [O I] do not trace the so-called "CO-dark gas", but they trace the almost purely atomic medium. Although the [C II]+[O I] to total infrared ratio in I Zw 18 is similar to

  14. Alternating bending-steady torque fatigue reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kececioglu, D.; Chester, L. B.; Dodge, T. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results generated by three unique fatigue reliability research machines which can apply alternating-bending loads combined with steady torque are presented. Six-inch long, AISI steel, grooved specimens with a stress concentration factor of 1.42 and Rockwell C 35/40 hardness were subjected to various combinations of these loads and cycled to failure. The generated cycles-to-failure and staircase-testing data are statistically analyzed to develop distributional S-N and Goodman diagrams. Various failure theories are investigated to determine which one best represents the data. The effect of the groove and of the various combined bending-torsion loads on the finite and endurance life strength of such components, as well as on the Goodman diagram, are determined. Design applications are presented.

  15. Asymptotic stability of steady compressible fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Padula, Mariarosaria

    2011-01-01

    This volume introduces a systematic approach to the solution of some mathematical problems that arise in the study of the hyperbolic-parabolic systems of equations that govern the motions of thermodynamic fluids. It is intended for a wide audience of theoretical and applied mathematicians with an interest in compressible flow, capillarity theory, and control theory. The focus is particularly on recent results concerning nonlinear asymptotic stability, which are independent of assumptions about the smallness of the initial data. Of particular interest is the loss of control that sometimes results when steady flows of compressible fluids are upset by large disturbances. The main ideas are illustrated in the context of three different physical problems: (i) A barotropic viscous gas in a fixed domain with compact boundary. The domain may be either an exterior domain or a bounded domain, and the boundary may be either impermeable or porous. (ii) An isothermal viscous gas in a domain with free boundaries. (iii) A h...

  16. The effect of clustering on the mobility of dislocations during aging in Nb-microalloyed strip cast steels: In situ heating TEM observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Sachin L.; Xie, Kelvin Y.; Ringer, Simon P.; Carpenter, Kristin R.; Smith, David R.; Killmore, Chris R.; Cairney, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    Cluster-strengthened Nb-microalloyed strip cast steels are of interest as clustering during aging leads to an enhancement in strength without compromising ductility, resulting in desirable mechanical properties. However, the precise strengthening mechanism is not well understood. Using in situ heating transmission electron microscopy, clustering was found to impede the movement of dislocations during aging. The attractive combination of ductility and strength was attributed to the effects of recovery and the restricted movement of dislocations through clustering

  17. Microwave dielectric heating of drops in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issadore, David; Humphry, Katherine J; Brown, Keith A; Sandberg, Lori; Weitz, David A; Westervelt, Robert M

    2009-06-21

    We present a technique to locally and rapidly heat water drops in microfluidic devices with microwave dielectric heating. Water absorbs microwave power more efficiently than polymers, glass, and oils due to its permanent molecular dipole moment that has large dielectric loss at GHz frequencies. The relevant heat capacity of the system is a single thermally isolated picolitre-scale drop of water, enabling very fast thermal cycling. We demonstrate microwave dielectric heating in a microfluidic device that integrates a flow-focusing drop maker, drop splitters, and metal electrodes to locally deliver microwave power from an inexpensive, commercially available 3.0 GHz source and amplifier. The temperature change of the drops is measured by observing the temperature dependent fluorescence intensity of cadmium selenide nanocrystals suspended in the water drops. We demonstrate characteristic heating times as short as 15 ms to steady-state temperature changes as large as 30 degrees C above the base temperature of the microfluidic device. Many common biological and chemical applications require rapid and local control of temperature and can benefit from this new technique.

  18. Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukhanovskii, V A; Maingi, R; Gates, D A; Menard, J E; Paul, S F; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Bell, M G; Bell, R E; Boedo, J A; Bush, C E; Kaita, R; Kugel, H W; LeBlanc, B P; Mueller, D

    2008-08-04

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for both ITER and spherical torus-based devices with compact high power density divertors. Significant reduction of heat flux to the divertor plate has been achieved simultaneously with favorable core and pedestal confinement and stability properties in a highly-shaped lower single null configuration in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 2000] using high magnetic flux expansion at the divertor strike point and the radiative divertor technique. A partial detachment of the outer strike point was achieved with divertor deuterium injection leading to peak flux reduction from 4-6 MW m{sup -2} to 0.5-2 MW m{sup -2} in small-ELM 0.8-1.0 MA, 4-6 MW neutral beam injection-heated H-mode discharges. A self-consistent picture of outer strike point partial detachment was evident from divertor heat flux profiles and recombination, particle flux and neutral pressure measurements. Analytic scrape-off layer parallel transport models were used for interpretation of NSTX detachment experiments. The modeling showed that the observed peak heat flux reduction and detachment are possible with high radiated power and momentum loss fractions, achievable with divertor gas injection, and nearly impossible to achieve with main electron density, divertor neutral density or recombination increases alone.

  19. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation; Weitzel, E. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation

    2017-03-03

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  20. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  1. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-11-22

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  2. Analysis of steady-state ductile crack growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian

    1999-01-01

    The fracture strength under quasi-static steady-state crack growth in an elastic-plastic material joined by a laser weld is analyzed. Laser welding gives high mismatch between the yield stress within the weld and the yield stress in the base material. This is due to the fast termic cycle, which...... the finite element mesh remains fixed relative to the tip of the growing crack. Fracture is modelled using two different local crack growth criteria. One is a crack opening displacement criterion, while the other is a model in which a cohesive zone is imposed in front of the crack tip along the fracture zone....... Both models predict that in general a thinner laser weld gives higher interface strength. Furthermore, both fracture criteria show, that the preferred path of the crack is close outside the weld material; a phenomenon also observed in experiments....

  3. Streambed temperature dynamics and corresponding heat fluxes in small streams experiencing seasonal ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caissie, Daniel; Kurylyk, Barret L.; St-Hilaire, André; El-Jabi, Nassir; MacQuarrie, Kerry T. B.

    2014-11-01

    Streambed temperature and heat fluxes are important for aquatic habitats as well as in the development and improvement of water temperature models. In the present study, measured streambed temperatures at different depths were used as a tracer to predict the magnitude and direction of groundwater flow using an advection-conduction heat transport model. This analysis was carried out under different conditions, namely under natural surface water temperature conditions (i.e., as measured in the field), under steady-state conditions (e.g. under stream ice cover) and for conditions where the surface water temperatures followed a sinusoidal function. In Catamaran Brook, results from the advection-conduction numerical model showed good agreement between predicted and observed streambed temperatures with root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) ranging between 0.07 °C to 0.6 °C. A comparison of streambed fluxes showed that the heat flux by conduction was more important during the summer period for upwelling conditions (mean value 96 W m-2 at 25 °C), but was also present in winter (-20 W m-2). Variability in heat flux by conduction was also greater when the diel surface water temperature variability was high (e.g. range of 6 °C). The heat flux by advection varied between -120 and 145 W m-2 (for typical water temperatures and vertical flow conditions within Catamaran Brook, 0-25 °C and ±0.005 m h-1). Short-term heat exchange (diel) occurred within the thermally active depth, typically <0.7 m. The long-term annual streambed heat flux by conduction was also calculated and daily mean was generally less than ±11 W m-2. Winter conditions provided a unique opportunity to analyse streambed heat fluxes under steady-state conditions when both conduction and advection fluxes were present.

  4. Steady State Transportation Cooling in Porous Media Under Local, Non-Thermal Equilibrium Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Alvaro Che

    2002-01-01

    An analytical solution to the steady-state fluid temperature for 1-D (one dimensional) transpiration cooling has been derived. Transpiration cooling has potential use in the aerospace industry for protection against high heating environments for re-entry vehicles. Literature for analytical treatments of transpiration cooling has been largely confined to the assumption of thermal equilibrium between the porous matrix and fluid. In the present analysis, the fundamental fluid and matrix equations are coupled through a volumetric heat transfer coefficient and investigated in non-thermal equilibrium. The effects of varying the thermal conductivity of the solid matrix and the heat transfer coefficient are investigated. The results are also compared to existing experimental data.

  5. ANALYZING NUMERICAL ERRORS IN DOMAIN HEAT TRANSPORT MODELS USING THE CVBEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromadka, T.V.

    1987-01-01

    Besides providing an exact solution for steady-state heat conduction processes (Laplace-Poisson equations), the CVBEM (complex variable boundary element method) can be used for the numerical error analysis of domain model solutions. For problems where soil-water phase change latent heat effects dominate the thermal regime, heat transport can be approximately modeled as a time-stepped steady-state condition in the thawed and frozen regions, respectively. The CVBEM provides an exact solution of the two-dimensional steady-state heat transport problem, and also provides the error in matching the prescribed boundary conditions by the development of a modeling error distribution or an approximate boundary generation.

  6. Mechanism of Non-Steady State Dissolution of Goethite in the Presence of Siderophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, P. U.; Kretzschmar, R.; Kraemer, S. M.

    2003-12-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for almost all known organisms. Bacteria, fungi, and graminaceous plants are capable of exuding siderophores as part of an iron acquisition strategy. The production of these strong iron chelating ligands is induced by iron limited conditions. Grasses under iron stress, for example, exude phytosiderophores into the rhizosphere in a special diurnal rhythm (Roemheld and Marschner 1986). A few hours after sunrise the exudation starts, culminates around noon and is shut down again until about 4 hours after noon. The phytosiderophores diffuse into the rhizosphere (Marschner et al. 1986) and are passively back transported to the plants by advective flow induced by high transpiration around noon. Despite a fairly short residence time of the phytosiderophores in the rhizosphere, it is a very effective strategy for iron acquisition. To investigate the effect of such pulse inputs of siderophores on iron acquisition, we studied the dissolution mechanism of goethite (alpha-FeOOH), a mineral phase common in soils, under non-steady state conditions. In consideration of the chemical complexity of the rhizosphere, we also investigated the effect of other organic ligands commonly found in the rhizosphere (e. g. oxalate) on the dissolution kinetics. The dissolution experiments were conducted in batch reactors with a constant goethite solids concentration of 2.5 g/l, an ionic strength of 0.01 M, a pH of 6 and 100 microM oxalate. To induce non-steady state conditions, 3 mM phytosiderophores were added to a batch after the goethite-oxalate suspension reacted for a certain time period. Before the siderophore was added to the goethite-oxalate suspension, no dissolution of iron was observed. But, with the addition of the siderophore, a high rate was observed for the iron mobilization under these non-steady state conditions that subsequently was followed by a slow steady state dissolution rate. The results of these non-steady state experiments are very

  7. Occurrence of critical heat flux during blowdown with flow reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, J.C.M.

    1976-04-01

    A small-scale experiment using Freon-11 at 130 0 F and 65 psia in a well-instrumented transparent annular test section was used to study the occurrence of critical heat flux (CHF) during blowdown with flow reversal. The inner stainless steel tube of the annulus was uniformly heated over its 2 ft length. Inlet and exit void fractions were measured by a capacitance technique. Flow regime transition was observed with high speed photography. A 1-hr contact time between Freon-11 and nitrogen at 130 0 F and 60 psig was found to greatly affect the steady-state subcooled boiling initial conditions. Delay in bubble growth was observed in adiabatic blowdown runs. This was caused by the thermodynamic nonequilibrium conditions required for the unstable bubble growth. For the diabatic runs, equilibrium was more closely approached in the test section during the early phase of blowdown. Critical heat flux did not occur immediately during the flow decay in an approximately 60 msec reversal period. The first or early CHF which occurred at about 400 msec was independent of the blowdown volume and did not propagate upward. An annular flow pattern appeared at the onset of this CHF which occurred only at the lower 8 in. of the heated zone

  8. Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different tablet formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Bonde, J; Rasmussen, S N

    1992-01-01

    Single-dose and steady state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different oral formulations were assessed with particular reference to rate and extent of absorption. Following single dose administration a significant difference in tmax was observed (2.9 +/- 1.9 and 6.8 +/- 2.6 hr r...

  9. Creep measurements confirm steady flow after stress maximum in extension of branched polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javier Alvarez, Nicolas; Román Marín, José Manuel; Huang, Qian

    2013-01-01

    the possibility of the overshoot being an experimental artifact by confirming the existence of steady flow after a maximum in the ratio of stress to strain rate versus strain under both constant stress and constant strain-rate kinematics. This observation indicates the omission of important physics from current...

  10. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  11. PEBBLE: a two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1981-09-01

    This report documents the local implementation of the PEBBLE code to treat the two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics problem. This code is implemented as a module of a computation system used for reactor core history calculations. Given power density data, the geometric description in (RZ), and basic heat removal conditions and thermal properties, the coolant properties, flow conditions, and temperature distributions in the pebble fuel elements are predicted. The calculation is oriented to the continuous fueling, steady state condition with consideration of the effect of the high energy neutron flux exposure and temperature history on the thermal conductivity. The coolant flow conditions are calculated for the same geometry as used in the neutronics calculation, power density and fluence data being used directly, and temperature results are made available for subsequent use.

  12. Steady State Thermo-Hydrodynamic Analysis of Two-Axial groove and Multilobe Hydrodynamic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bhagat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Steady state thermo-hydrodynamic analysis of two axial groove and multi lobe oil journal bearings is performed in this paper. To study the steady state thermo-hydrodynamic characteristics Reynolds equation is solved simultaneously along with the energy equation and heat conduction equation in bush and shaft. The effect of groove geometry, cavitation in the fluid film, the recirculation of lubricant, shaft speed has also been taken into account. Film temperature in case of three-lobe bearing is found to be high as compared to other studied bearing configurations. The data obtained from this analysis can be used conveniently in the design of such bearings, which are presented in dimensionless form.

  13. Local wettability reversal during steady-state two-phase flow in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Santanu; Grøva, Morten; Ødegården, Torgeir Bryge; Skjetne, Erik; Hansen, Alex

    2011-09-01

    We study the effect of local wettability reversal on remobilizing immobile fluid clusters in steady-state two-phase flow in porous media. We consider a two-dimensional network model for a porous medium and introduce a wettability alteration mechanism. A qualitative change in the steady-state flow patterns, destabilizing the percolating and trapped clusters, is observed as the system wettability is varied. When capillary forces are strong, a finite wettability alteration is necessary to move the system from a single-phase to a two-phase flow regime. When both phases are mobile, we find a linear relationship between fractional flow and wettability alteration.

  14. Two stable steady states in the Hodgkin-Huxley axons

    OpenAIRE

    Aihara, K.; Matsumoto, G.

    1983-01-01

    Two stable steady states were found in the numerical solution of the Hodgkin-Huxley equations for the intact squid axon bathed in potassium-rich sea water with an externally applied inward current. Under the conditions the two stable steady-states exist, the Hodgkin-Huxley equations have a complex bifurcation structure including, in addition to the two stable steady-states, a stable limit cycle, two unstable equilibrium points, and one asymptotically stable equilibrium point. It was also conc...

  15. Modelling of Thermal Behavior of Borehole Heat Exchangers of Geothermal Heat Pump Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gornov V.F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports results of comparing the accuracy of the software package “INSOLAR.GSHP.12”, modeling non-steady thermal behavior of geothermal heat pump heating systems (GHCS and of the similar model “conventional” using finite difference methods for solving spatial non-steady problems of heat conductivity. The software package is based on the method of formulating mathematical models of thermal behavior of ground low-grade heat collection systems developed by INSOLAR group of companies. Equations of mathematical model of spatial non-steady thermal behavior of ground mass of low-grade heat collection system obtained by the developed method have been solved analytically that significantly reduced computing time spent by the software complex “INSOLAR.GSHP.12” for calculations. The method allows to turn aside difficulties associated with information uncertainty of mathematical models of the ground thermal behavior and approximation of external factors affecting the ground. Use of experimentally obtained information about the ground natural thermal behavior in the software package allows to partially take into account the whole complex of factors (such as availability of groundwater, their velocity and thermal behavior, structure and arrangement of ground layers, the Earth’s thermal background, precipitation, phase transformations of moisture in the pore space, and more, significantly influencing the formation of thermal behavior of the ground mass of a low-grade geothermal heat collection system. Numerical experiments presented in the article confirmed the high convergence of the results obtained through the software package “INSOLAR.GSHP.12” with solutions obtained by conventional finite-difference methods.

  16. Evaluation of uncertainties in best estimate accident analysis preparation of input deck for PSB WWER and steady state qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordanov, A.

    2010-01-01

    An input deck of the PSB-WWER facility has been prepared using the delivered input data. The input deck has been stabilized using the steady state option. A qualification of the steady state has been performed. The results show that: 1) A steady state is reached; 2) The calculated values for the main parameters (pressures, temperatures) are within the accuracy band of the measured values. Bigger differences are observed for pressure differences and the possible source of the difference is identified. The input deck is ready for beginning of transient calculations. The first run of the SBO scenario will be ready by the end of 2009. (authors)

  17. Low-Temperature Fault Creep: Strong vs. Weak, Steady vs. Episodic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Gao, X.

    2017-12-01

    Unless we understand how faults creep, we do not fully understand how they produce earthquakes. However, most of the physics and geology of low-temperature creep is not known. There are two end-member types of low-temperature creep: weak creep of smooth faults and strong creep of rough faults, with a spectrum of intermediate modes in between. Most conceptual and numerical models deal with weak creep, assuming a very smooth fault with a gouge typically weakened by hydrous minerals (Harris, 2017). Less understood is strong creep. For subduction zones, strong creep appears to be common and is often associated with the subduction of large geometrical irregularities such as seamounts and aseismic ridges (Wang and Bilek, 2014). These irregularities generate fracture systems as they push against the resistance of brittle rocks. The resultant heterogeneous stress and structural environment makes it very difficult to lock the fault. The geodetically observed creep under such conditions is accomplished by the complex deformation of a 3D damage zone. Strong-creeping faults dissipate more heat than faults that produce great earthquakes (Gao and Wang, 2014). Although an integrated frictional strength of the fault is still a useful concept, the creeping mechanism is very different from frictional slip of a velocity-strengthening smooth fault. Cataclasis and pressure-solution creep in the fracture systems must be important processes in strong creep. Strong creep is necessarily non-steady and produces small and medium earthquakes. Strong creep of a megathrust can also promote the occurrence of a very special type of weak creep - episodic slow slip around the mantle wedge corner accompanied with tremor (ETS). An example is Hikurangi, where strong creep causes the frictional-viscous transition along the plate interface to occur much shallower than the mantle wedge corner, a necessary condition for ETS (Gao and Wang, 2017). Gao and Wang (2014), Strength of stick-slip and creeping

  18. Study of the hovering period and bubble size in fully developed pool nucleate boiling of saturated liquid with a time-dependent heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Nelson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, the bubble behavior in saturated pool boiling with a time-dependent heat source is analyzed. The study is restricted to the period from fully developed nucleate boiling until critical heat flux occurs. The hovering period and the departure volume of the bubble are selected as the characteristic parameters for bubble behavior. These parameters are quantified by solving the equation of motion for an idealized bubble. This equation is solved for cases in which the surface heat flux changes linearly and exponentially as a function of time. After nondimensionalization, the results are compared directly with the results of the steady-state problem. The comparison shows that the transient heat input has practically no effect on the hovering period. However, the transient heat flux causes a decreased volume at bubble departure. The volume decrease is dependent on the severity of the transient. These results are in qualitative agreement with the experimental observation quoted in the literature

  19. Steady Particle States of Revised Electromagnetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A revised Lorentz invariant electromagnetic theory leading beyond Maxwell’s equations, and to a form of extended quantum electrodynamics, has been elaborated on the basis of a nonzero electric charge density and a nonzero electric field divergence in the vacuum state. Among the applications of this theory, there are steady electromagnetic states having no counterpart in conventional theory and resulting in models of electrically charged and neutral leptons, such as the electron and the neutrino. The analysis of the electron model debouches into a point-charge-like geometry with a very small characteristic radius but having finite self-energy. This provides an alternative to the conventional renormalization procedure. In contrast to conventional theory, an integrated radial force balance can further be established in which the electron is prevented from “exploding” under the action of its net self-charge. Through a combination of variational analysis and an investigation of the radial force balance, a value of the electronic charge has been deduced which deviates by only one percent from that obtained in experiments. This deviation requires further investigation. A model of the neutrino finally reproduces some of the basic features, such as a small but nonzero rest mass, an angular momentum but no magnetic moment, and long mean free paths in solid matter.

  20. Steady progress toward a malaria vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyke, Kirsten E

    2017-10-01

    Great progress has been made in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality, yet the parasite continues to cause a startling 200 million infections and 500 000 deaths annually. Malaria vaccine development is pushing new boundaries by steady advancement toward a licensed product. Despite 50 years of research, the complexity of Plasmoidum falciparum confounds all attempts to eradicate the organism. This very complexity has pushed the boundaries of vaccine development to new heights, yet it remains to be seen if an affordable vaccine can provide durable and high-level protection. Novel vaccines such as RTS,S/AS01E are on the edge of licensure, but old techniques have resurged with the ability to deliver vialed, whole organism vaccines. Novel adjuvants, multistage/multiantigen approaches and transmission blocking vaccines all contribute to a multipronged battle plan to conquer malaria. Vaccines are the most cost-effective tools to control infectious diseases, yet the complexity of malaria has frustrated all attempts to develop an effective product. This review concentrates on recent advances in malaria vaccine development that lend hope that a vaccine can be produced and malaria eradicated.

  1. Mechanisms of Coronal Heating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Sun is a mysterious star. The high temperature of the chromosphere and corona present one of the most puzzling problems of solar physics. Observations show that the solar coronal heating problem is highly complex with many different facts. It is likely that different heating mechanisms are at work in solar corona.

  2. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicine's Front Line Observation Emergency Care Fact Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can ...

  3. Heat and mass transfer boundary conditions at the surface of a heated sessile droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung, Anna-Lena; Lundström, T. Staffan

    2017-12-01

    This work numerically investigates how the boundary conditions of a heated sessile water droplet should be defined in order to include effects of both ambient and internal flow. Significance of water vapor, Marangoni convection, separate simulations of the external and internal flow, and influence of contact angle throughout drying is studied. The quasi-steady simulations are carried out with Computational Fluid Dynamics and conduction, natural convection and Marangoni convection are accounted for inside the droplet. For the studied conditions, a noticeable effect of buoyancy due to evaporation is observed. Hence, the inclusion of moisture increases the maximum velocities in the external flow. Marangoni convection will, in its turn, increase the velocity within the droplet with up to three orders of magnitude. Results furthermore show that the internal and ambient flow can be simulated separately for the conditions studied, and the accuracy is improved if the internal temperature gradient is low, e.g. if Marangoni convection is present. Simultaneous simulations of the domains are however preferred at high plate temperatures if both internal and external flows are dominated by buoyancy and natural convection. The importance of a spatially resolved heat and mass transfer boundary condition is, in its turn, increased if the internal velocity is small or if there is a large variation of the transfer coefficients at the surface. Finally, the results indicate that when the internal convective heat transport is small, a rather constant evaporation rate may be obtained throughout the drying at certain conditions.

  4. Curl flux, coherence, and population landscape of molecular systems: Nonequilibrium quantum steady state, energy (charge) transport, and thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z. D.; Wang, J.

    2014-01-01

    We established a theoretical framework in terms of the curl flux, population landscape, and coherence for non-equilibrium quantum systems at steady state, through exploring the energy and charge transport in molecular processes. The curl quantum flux plays the key role in determining transport properties and the system reaches equilibrium when flux vanishes. The novel curl quantum flux reflects the degree of non-equilibriumness and the time-irreversibility. We found an analytical expression for the quantum flux and its relationship to the environmental pumping (non-equilibriumness quantified by the voltage away from the equilibrium) and the quantum tunneling. Furthermore, we investigated another quantum signature, the coherence, quantitatively measured by the non-zero off diagonal element of the density matrix. Populations of states give the probabilities of individual states and therefore quantify the population landscape. Both curl flux and coherence depend on steady state population landscape. Besides the environment-assistance which can give dramatic enhancement of coherence and quantum flux with high voltage at a fixed tunneling strength, the quantum flux is promoted by the coherence in the regime of small tunneling while reduced by the coherence in the regime of large tunneling, due to the non-monotonic relationship between the coherence and tunneling. This is in contrast to the previously found linear relationship. For the systems coupled to bosonic (photonic and phononic) reservoirs the flux is significantly promoted at large voltage while for fermionic (electronic) reservoirs the flux reaches a saturation after a significant enhancement at large voltage due to the Pauli exclusion principle. In view of the system as a quantum heat engine, we studied the non-equilibrium thermodynamics and established the analytical connections of curl quantum flux to the transport quantities such as energy (charge) transfer efficiency, chemical reaction efficiency, energy

  5. Steady Method for the Analysis of Evaporation Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günay, A Alperen; Sett, Soumyadip; Oh, Junho; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2017-10-31

    Droplet evaporation is an important phenomenon governing many man-made and natural processes. Characterizing the rate of evaporation with high accuracy has attracted the attention of numerous scientists over the past century. Traditionally, researchers have studied evaporation by observing the change in the droplet size in a given time interval. However, the transient nature coupled with the significant mass-transfer-governed gas dynamics occurring at the droplet three-phase contact line makes the classical method crude. Furthermore, the intricate balance played by the internal and external flows, evaporation kinetics, thermocapillarity, binary-mixture dynamics, curvature, and moving contact lines makes the decoupling of these processes impossible with classical transient methods. Here, we present a method to measure the rate of evaporation of spatially and temporally steady droplets. By utilizing a piezoelectric dispenser to feed microscale droplets (R ≈ 9 μm) to a larger evaporating droplet at a prescribed frequency, we can both create variable-sized droplets on any surface and study their evaporation rate by modulating the piezoelectric droplet addition frequency. Using our steady technique, we studied water evaporation of droplets having base radii ranging from 20 to 250 μm on surfaces of different functionalities (45° ≤ θ a,app ≤ 162°, where θ a,app is the apparent advancing contact angle). We benchmarked our technique with the classical unsteady method, showing an improvement of 140% in evaporation rate measurement accuracy. Our work not only characterizes the evaporation dynamics on functional surfaces but also provides an experimental platform to finally enable the decoupling of the complex physics governing the ubiquitous droplet evaporation process.

  6. Experimental study of conjugate heat transfer from liquid metal layer cooled by overlying freon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, J.S.; Suh, K.Y.; Chung, C.H.; Park, R.J.; Kim, S.B.

    2001-01-01

    Steady-state and transient experiments were performed for the heat transfer from the liquid metal pool with overlying Freon (R113) coolant in the process of boiling. The simulant molten pool material is tin (Sn) with the melting temperature of 232 Celsius degrees. The metal pool is heated from the bottom surface and the coolant is injected onto the molten metal pool. Tests were conducted under the condition of the bottom surface heating in the test section and the forced convection of the R113 coolant being injected onto the molten metal pool. The bottom heating condition was varied from 8 kW to 14 kW. The temperature distributions of the metal layer and coolant were obtained in the steady-state experiment. The boiling mechanism of the R113 coolant was changed from the nucleate boiling to film boiling in the transient experiment. The critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon was observed during the transition from the nucleate boiling to the film boiling. Also, the Nusselt (Nu) number and the Rayleigh (Ra) number in the molten metal pool region were obtained as functions of time. Analysis was done for the relationship between the heat flux and the temperature difference between the metal layer surface and the boiling coolant. In this experiment, the heat transfer is achieved with accompanying solidification in the molten metal pool by the boiling R113 coolant there above. The present test results of the natural convection heat transfer on the molten metal pool are higher than those of the liquid metal natural convection heat transfer without coolant boiling. It can be interpreted that the heat transfer rate is enhanced by the overlying boiling coolant having the high heat removal rate. Analysis of the relationship between the heat flux and the difference between the metal layer surface temperature and the coolant bulk boiling temperature revealed that the CHF occurs when the temperature difference reaches a neighborhood of 50 Celsius degrees. Also, if the temperature

  7. Pre-steady state transients in the Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzed reaction: isotope effects and stereospecificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, A.R.; Eccleston, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isolated from Drosophila is unique among alcohol metabolizing enzymes by not requiring metals for catalysis, by showing 4-pro-S (B-sided) hydride transfer stereospecificity, and by possessing a greater catalytic turnover rate for secondary alcohols than for primary alcohols. They have extended their studies on the kinetic mechanism for this enzyme by examining the pre-steady state transients of ternary complex interconversion using stopped-flow fluorescence methods. When enzyme and a 30-fold molar excess of NADH is mixed with excess acetadehyde, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), or cyclohexanone a rapid (> 100 s -1 ) transient is observe before the steady-state. The rates are insensitive to isotope substitution. With the substrate MEK, the rate and amplitude suggests a single turnover of the enzyme. Similar pre-steady state transients are observed when enzyme and a 50-fold molar excess of NAD + is mixed with ethanol, 2-propanol, and cyclohexanol. The rates show a hyperbolic concentration dependence and a deuterium isotope effect. With d 6 -deuteroethanol the transient no longer occurs in the pre-steady state. When the optical isomers of secondary alcohols are used as substrates, transients are observed only in the R-(-) isomers for all chain lengths. With 2-S(+)-heptanol and 2-S(+)-octanol no transients occur

  8. Transient heat transfer characteristics of liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Osami

    1976-01-01

    The transient heat transfer characteristics of liquid helium are investigated. The critical burnout heat fluxes for pulsive heating are measured, and empirical relations between the critical burnout heat flux and the length of the heat pulse are given. The burnout is detected by observing the super-to-normal transition of the temperature sensor which is a thin lead film prepared on the heated surface by vacuum evaporation. The mechanism of boiling heat transfer for pulsive heating is discussed, and theoretical relations between the critical burnout heat flux and the length of the heat pulse are derived. The empirical data satisfy the theoretical relations fairly well. (auth.)

  9. Mathematical Modeling of Loop Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Tarik; Ku, Jentung; Hoang, Triem T.; Cheung, Mark L.

    1998-01-01

    The primary focus of this study is to model steady-state performance of a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP). The mathematical model is based on the steady-state energy balance equations at each component of the LHP. The heat exchange between each LHP component and the surrounding is taken into account. Both convection and radiation environments are modeled. The loop operating temperature is calculated as a function of the applied power at a given loop condition. Experimental validation of the model is attempted by using two different LHP designs. The mathematical model is tested at different sink temperatures and at different elevations of the loop. Tbc comparison of the calculations and experimental results showed very good agreement (within 3%). This method proved to be a useful tool in studying steady-state LHP performance characteristics.

  10. RF Pulsed Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritzkau, David P.

    2002-01-03

    RF pulsed heating is a process by which a metal is heated from magnetic fields on its surface due to high-power pulsed RF. When the thermal stresses induced are larger than the elastic limit, microcracks and surface roughening will occur due to cyclic fatigue. Pulsed heating limits the maximum magnetic field on the surface and through it the maximum achievable accelerating gradient in a normal conducting accelerator structure. An experiment using circularly cylindrical cavities operating in the TE{sub 011} mode at a resonant frequency of 11.424 GHz is designed to study pulsed heating on OFE copper, a material commonly used in normal conducting accelerator structures. The high-power pulsed RF is supplied by an X-band klystron capable of outputting 50 MW, 1.5 {micro}s pulses. The test pieces of the cavity are designed to be removable to allow testing of different materials with different surface preparations. A diagnostic tool is developed to measure the temperature rise in the cavity utilizing the dynamic Q change of the resonant mode due to heating. The diagnostic consists of simultaneously exciting a TE{sub 012} mode to steady-state in the cavity at 18 GHz and measuring the change in reflected power as the cavity is heated from high-power pulsed RF. Two experimental runs were completed. One run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 120 K for 56 x 10{sup 6} pulses. The second run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 82 K for 86 x 10{sup 6} pulses. Scanning electron microscope pictures show extensive damage occurring in the region of maximum temperature rise on the surface of the test pieces.

  11. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  12. Large-scale vertical velocity, diabatic heating and drying profiles associated with seasonal and diurnal variations of convective systems observed in the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Shuaiqi; Xie, Shaocheng; Zhang, Yunyan; Zhang, Minghua; Schumacher, Courtney; Upton, Hannah; Jensen, Michael P.; Johnson, Karen L.; Wang, Meng; Ahlgrimm, Maike; Feng, Zhe; Minnis, Patrick; Thieman, Mandana

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of large-scale vertical velocity, apparent heating source (Q1) and apparent moisture sink (Q2) profiles associated with seasonal and diurnal variations of convective systems observed during the two intensive operational periods (IOPs) that were conducted from 15 February to 26 March 2014 (wet season) and from 1 September to 10 October 2014 (dry season) near Manaus, Brazil, during the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) experiment. The derived large-scale fields have large diurnal variations according to convective activity in the GoAmazon region and the morning profiles show distinct differences between the dry and wet seasons. In the wet season, propagating convective systems originating far from the GoAmazon region are often seen in the early morning, while in the dry season they are rarely observed. Afternoon convective systems due to solar heating are frequently seen in both seasons. Accordingly, in the morning, there is strong upward motion and associated heating and drying throughout the entire troposphere in the wet season, which is limited to lower levels in the dry season. In the afternoon, both seasons exhibit weak heating and strong moistening in the boundary layer related to the vertical convergence of eddy fluxes. A set of case studies of three typical types of convective systems occurring in Amazonia – i.e., locally occurring systems, coastal-occurring systems and basin-occurring systems – is also conducted to investigate the variability of the large-scale environment with different types of convective systems.

  13. Dynamical and technological consequences of multiple isolas of steady states in a catalytic fluidised-bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizon Katarzyna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Steady-state characteristics of a catalytic fluidised bed reactor and its dynamical consequences are analyzed. The occurrence of an untypical steady-state structure manifesting in a form of multiple isolas is described. A two-phase bubbling bed model is used for a quantitative description of the bed of catalyst. The influence of heat exchange intensity and a fluidisation ratio onto the generation of isolated solution branches is presented for two kinetic schemes. Dynamical consequences of the coexistence of such untypical branches of steady states are presented. The impact of linear growth of the fluidisation ratio and step change of the cooling medium temperature onto the desired product yield is analyzed. The results presented in this study confirm that the identification of a region of the occurrence of multiple isolas is important due to their strong impact both on the process start-up and its control.

  14. Heat transfer characteristics and limitations analysis of heat-pipe-cooled thermal protection structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guangming, Xiao; Yanxia, Du; Yewei, Gui; Lei, Liu; Xiaofeng, Yang; Dong, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The theories of heat transfer, thermodynamics and fluid dynamics are employed to develop the coupled heat transfer analytical methods for the heat-pipe-cooled thermal protection structure (HPC TPS), and a three-dimensional numerical method considering the sonic limit of heat pipe is proposed. To verify the calculation correctness, computations are carried out for a typical heat pipe and the results agree well with experimental data. Then, the heat transfer characteristics and limitations of HPC TPS are mainly studied. The studies indicate that the use of heat pipe can reduce the temperature at high heat flux region of structure efficiently. However, there is a frozen startup period before the heat pipe reaching a steady operating state, and the sonic limit will be a restriction on the heat transfer capability. Thus, the effects of frozen startup must be considered for the design of HPC TPS. The simulation model and numerical method proposed in this paper can predict the heat transfer characteristics of HPC TPS quickly and exactly, and the results will provide important references for the design or performance evaluation of HPC TPS. - Highlights: • Numerical methods for the heat-pipe-cooled thermal protection structure are studied. • Three-dimensional simulation model considering sonic limit of heat pipe is proposed. • The frozen startup process of the embedded heat pipe can be predicted exactly. • Heat transfer characteristics of TPS and limitations of heat pipe are discussed

  15. Natural convective heat transfer in a walled CCPC with PV cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The natural convective heat transfer phenomenon in an isolated, walled CCPC with PV cell is studied experimentally at 1000 W/m2 irradiance and 28.5 °C ambient temperature as well as 0°, 10°, 20°, 30° and 40° incidences in indoor laboratory by using solar simulator. Then a series of numerical simulations are launched to estimate the CCPC natural heat transfer behaviour and optical performance based on steady heat transfer and laminar flow models with grey optical option. It is identified that the heat transfer and optical performances of CCPC are dependent on the incidence. Especially, the PV cell is subject to the highest temperature at an incidence less than 20°, and otherwise the top glass cover is with the highest temperature. The predicted temperatures, Nusselt numbers and heat loss ratios are consistent with the experimental observations basically, especially at the incidence less than 20° with (−10.1~+3 % error in temperature, (−35.6~+12.6 % in Nusselt number, and (−1.2~+20.5 % in CCPC wall heat loss ratio. The optical parameters predicted agree very well with the measurements. The heat loss from the CCPC walls accounts for nearly 60% of the total incoming solar irradiance and should be paid significant attention in the design of CCPC.

  16. Transient Natural Convection in Porous Square Cavity Heated and Cooled on Adjacent Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Selamat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient natural convection in a square cavity filled with a porous medium is studied numerically. The cavity is assumed heated from one vertical wall and cooled at the top, while the other walls are kept adiabatic. The governing equations are solved numerically by a finite difference method. The effects of Rayleigh number on the initial transient state up to the steady state are investigated for Rayleigh number ranging from 10 to 2×102. The evolutions of flow patterns and temperature distributions were presented for Rayleigh numbers, Ra=102 and 103. It is observed that the time taken to reach the steady state is longer for low Rayleigh number and shorter for high Rayleigh number.

  17. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicine's Front Line Observation Emergency Care Fact Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Emergencies A-Z Share ... Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can ...

  18. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Waiting So Long? Admission to the Hospital Heroes on Medicine's Front Line Observation ... illness can be caused by overexposure to the sun or any situation that involves extreme heat. Young children and the elderly are most at risk, but ...

  19. steady – state performance of induction and transfer state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This paper presents paper presents paper presents the steady the steady the steady–state performance state performance state performance comparison comparison comparison between polyphase induction motor and polyphase between polyphase induction motor and polyphase. TF motor operating in. TF motor ...

  20. Experimental validation of a thermodynamic boiler model under steady state and dynamic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlon, Elisa; Verma, Vijay Kumar; Schwarz, Markus; Golicza, Laszlo; Prada, Alessandro; Baratieri, Marco; Haslinger, Walter; Schmidl, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Laboratory tests on two commercially available pellet boilers. • Steady state and a dynamic load cycle tests. • Pellet boiler model calibration based on data registered in stationary operation. • Boiler model validation with reference to both stationary and dynamic operation. • Validated model suitable for coupled simulation of building and heating system. - Abstract: Nowadays dynamic building simulation is an essential tool for the design of heating systems for residential buildings. The simulation of buildings heated by biomass systems, first of all needs detailed boiler models, capable of simulating the boiler both as a stand-alone appliance and as a system component. This paper presents the calibration and validation of a boiler model by means of laboratory tests. The chosen model, i.e. TRNSYS “Type 869”, has been validated for two commercially available pellet boilers of 6 and 12 kW nominal capacities. Two test methods have been applied: the first is a steady state test at nominal load and the second is a load cycle test including stationary operation at different loads as well as transient operation. The load cycle test is representative of the boiler operation in the field and characterises the boiler’s stationary and dynamic behaviour. The model had been calibrated based on laboratory data registered during stationary operation at different loads and afterwards it was validated by simulating both the stationary and the dynamic tests. Selected parameters for the validation were the heat transfer rates to water and the water temperature profiles inside the boiler and at the boiler outlet. Modelling results showed better agreement with experimental data during stationary operation rather than during dynamic operation. Heat transfer rates to water were predicted with a maximum deviation of 10% during the stationary operation, and a maximum deviation of 30% during the dynamic load cycle. However, for both operational regimes the

  1. Heat-Conducting Anchors for Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdavid, Kenton S.

    1987-01-01

    Metal particles in adhesive aid heat transfer. Aluminum caps containing silver-filled epoxy used as high-thermal-conductance anchors for thermocouples, epoxy providing thermal path between mounting surfaces and thermocouple measuring junctions. Normally, epoxy-filled aluminum caps used when measuring steady-state temperatures. Silver-filled epoxy used when thermocouple not isolated electrically from surface measured.

  2. Scale model test results for an inverted U-tube steam generator with comparisons to heat transfer correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    To provide data for assessment and development of thermal-hydraulic computer codes, bottom main feedwater-line-break transient simulations were performed in a scale model (Semiscale Mod-2C) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) with conditions typical of a PWR (15.0 MPa primary pressure, 600 K steam generator inlet plenum fluid temperatures, 6.2 MPa secondary pressure). The state-of-the-art measurements in the scale model (Type III) steam generator allow for the determination of U-tube steam generator allow for the determination of U-tube steam generator secondary component interactions, tube bundle local radial heat transfer, and tube bundle and riser vapor void fractions for steady state and transient operations. To enhance the understanding of the observed phenomena, the component interactions, local heat fluxes, local secondary convective heat transfer coefficients and local vapor void fractions are discussed for steady state, full-power and transient operations. Comparisons between the measurement-derived secondary convective heat transfer coefficients and those predicted by a number of correlations, including the Chen correlation currently used in thermal-hydraulic computer codes, show that none of the correlations adequately predict the data and points out the need for the formulation of a new correlation based on this experimental data. The unique information presented herein should be of the interest to anyone involved in modeling inverted U-tube steam generator thermal-hydraulics for forced convection boiling/vaporization heat transfer. 5 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  3. Overview of observations of water coverage on the AP600 tests for passive containment cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodcock, J.; Spencer, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Because the ability of the AP600 Passive Containment Cooling System to remove heat at a given containment pressure (temperature) is largely dependent on the amount of water applied to the outer shell and the surface area that is wetted, the method of water application and the behavior and stability of the liquid film are important. The total evaporation rate from the external shell is the dominant means of removing heat from the containment. Total evaporation rate is equal to the integral of the mass flux over the covered, or wetted, area. Since the containment response evaluation model conservatively neglects credit for evaporation until a quasi-steady coverage is achieved, the focus for evaluation model validation is the influence of surface temperature and heat flux on steady-state coverage. This paper describes observations of the wetted area of the external heated shell surface of the AP600 PCCS Large Scale Test, and places the observations into the context of stability effects of flowing liquid films. A summary of the most relevant literature findings on film stability is provided. A discussion of the contact wetting angle shows that the liquid film stability of the coated surface is much improved relative to polished surfaces typically studied in the literature. (author)

  4. Critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon on a downward facing curved surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-06-01

    This report describes a theoretical and experimental study of the boundary layer boiling and critical heat flux phenomena on a downward facing curved heating surface, including both hemispherical and toroidal surfaces. A subscale boundary layer boiling (SBLB) test facility was developed to measure the spatial variation of the critical heat flux and observe the underlying mechanisms. Transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were performed in the SBLB facility under both saturated and subcooled conditions to obtain a complete database on the critical heat flux. To complement the experimental effort, an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model was developed from the conservation laws along with sound physical arguments. The model provides a clear physical explanation for the spatial variation of the CHF observed in the SBLB experiments and for the weak dependence of the CHF data on the physical size of the vessel. Based upon the CHF model, a scaling law was established for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water. The scaling law, which compares favorably with all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes, can be used to predict the local CHF limits on large commercial-size vessels. This technical information represents one of the essential elements that is needed in assessing the efficacy of external cooling of core melt by cavity flooding as a severe accident management strategy. 83 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon on a downward facing curved surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes a theoretical and experimental study of the boundary layer boiling and critical heat flux phenomena on a downward facing curved heating surface, including both hemispherical and toroidal surfaces. A subscale boundary layer boiling (SBLB) test facility was developed to measure the spatial variation of the critical heat flux and observe the underlying mechanisms. Transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were performed in the SBLB facility under both saturated and subcooled conditions to obtain a complete database on the critical heat flux. To complement the experimental effort, an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model was developed from the conservation laws along with sound physical arguments. The model provides a clear physical explanation for the spatial variation of the CHF observed in the SBLB experiments and for the weak dependence of the CHF data on the physical size of the vessel. Based upon the CHF model, a scaling law was established for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water. The scaling law, which compares favorably with all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes, can be used to predict the local CHF limits on large commercial-size vessels. This technical information represents one of the essential elements that is needed in assessing the efficacy of external cooling of core melt by cavity flooding as a severe accident management strategy. 83 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Output Regulation of Large-Scale Hydraulic Networks with Minimal Steady State Power Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tom Nørgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal; De Persis, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    that the system is overactuated is exploited for minimizing the steady state electrical power consumption of the pumps in the system, while output regulation is maintained. The proposed control actions are decentralized in order to make changes in the structure of the hydraulic network easy to implement.......An industrial case study involving a large-scale hydraulic network is examined. The hydraulic network underlies a district heating system, with an arbitrary number of end-users. The problem of output regulation is addressed along with a optimization criterion for the control. The fact...

  7. Classical Lie Point Symmetry Analysis of a Steady Nonlinear One-Dimensional Fin Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Moitsheki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the one-dimensional steady fin problem with the Dirichlet boundary condition at one end and the Neumann boundary condition at the other. Both the thermal conductivity and the heat transfer coefficient are given as arbitrary functions of temperature. We perform preliminary group classification to determine forms of the arbitrary functions appearing in the considered equation for which the principal Lie algebra is extended. Some invariant solutions are constructed. The effects of thermogeometric fin parameter and the exponent on temperature are studied. Also, the fin efficiency is analyzed.

  8. Comparison of Models for the Steady-State Analysis of Tilting-Pad Thrust Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrichson, Niels; Santos, Ilmar

    2005-01-01

    distribution the deflection of the pad due to pressure and thermal bending can be calculated using a flat plate approximation. At the five free sides of the pad heat transfer can be modelled. The temperature distribution at the inlet to the pad can be calculated through equilibrium of thermal energy...... for the groove between pads and the oil bath temperature from energy equilibrium for the entire bearing. The main theoretical contribution of this paper is the elaboration and comparison of 7 different mathematical models of increasing complexity. The results are compared to experimental data for steady...

  9. Steady thermal convection from a concentrated source in a porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickox, C.E.; Watts, H.A.

    1976-11-01

    Numerical and approximate analytical solutions are presented for the steady thermal convection in a porous medium resulting from a point source located on the lower boundary of a semi-infinite region. The approximate analytical solution is found to be adequate for Rayleigh numbers greater than 100. Below this value, it is necessary to use numerical techniques to obtain accurate representations of the temperature and flow fields. The results are useful for the preliminary analysis of heat transfer and fluid flow effects due to the implantation of encapsulated nuclear waste material in the seabed. 11 figures

  10. Study of heat flux deposition in the Tore Supra Tokamak; Etude des depots de chaleur dans le tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, S.

    2009-02-15

    Accurate measurements of heat loads on internal tokamak components is essential for protection of the device during steady state operation. The optimisation of experimental scenarios also requires an in depth understanding of the physical mechanisms governing the heat flux deposition on the walls. The objective of this study is a detailed characterisation of the heat flux to plasma facing components (PFC) of the Tore Supra tokamak. The power deposited onto Tore Supra PFCs is calculated using an inverse method, which is applied to both the temperature maps measured by infrared thermography and to the enthalpy signals from calorimetry. The derived experimental heat flux maps calculated on the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) are then compared with theoretical heat flux density distributions from a standard SOL-model. They are two experimental observations that are not consistent with the model: significant heat flux outside the theoretical wetted area, and heat load peaking close to the tangency point between the TPL and the last closed field surface (LCFS). An experimental analysis for several discharges with variable security factors q is made. In the area consistent with the theoretical predictions, this parametric study shows a clear dependence between the heat flux length lambda{sub q} (estimated in the SOL (scrape-off layer) from the IR measurements) and the magnetic configuration. We observe that the spreading of heat fluxes on the component is compensated by a reduction of the power decay length lambda{sub q} in the SOL when q decreases. On the other hand, in the area where the derived experimental heat loads are not consistent with the theoretical predictions, we observe that the spreading of heat fluxes outside the theoretical boundary increases when q decreases, and is thus not counterbalanced. (author)

  11. FORMULATION OF NON-STEADY-STATE DUST FORMATION PROCESS IN ASTROPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Takaya; Kozasa, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The non-steady-state formation of small clusters and the growth of grains accompanied by chemical reactions are formulated under the consideration that the collision of key gas species (key molecule) controls the kinetics of dust formation process. The formula allows us to evaluate the size distribution and condensation efficiency of dust formed in astrophysical environments. We apply the formulation to the formation of C and MgSiO 3 grains in the ejecta of supernovae, as an example, to investigate how the non-steady effect influences the formation process, condensation efficiency f con, ∞ , and average radius a ave, ∞ of newly formed grains in comparison with the results calculated with the steady-state nucleation rate. We show that the steady-state nucleation rate is a good approximation if the collision timescale of key molecule τ coll is much smaller than the timescale τ sat with which the supersaturation ratio increases; otherwise the effect of the non-steady state becomes remarkable, leading to a lower f con, ∞ and a larger a ave, ∞ . Examining the results of calculations, we reveal that the steady-state nucleation rate is applicable if the cooling gas satisfies Λ ≡ τ sat /τ coll ∼> 30 during the formation of dust, and find that f con, ∞ and a ave, ∞ are uniquely determined by Λ on at the onset time t on of dust formation. The approximation formulae for f con, ∞ and a ave, ∞ as a function of Λ on could be useful in estimating the mass and typical size of newly formed grains from observed or model-predicted physical properties not only in supernova ejecta but also in mass-loss winds from evolved stars

  12. Current Pressure Transducer Application of Model-based Prognostics Using Steady State Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubert, Christopher; Daigle, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Prognostics is the process of predicting a system's future states, health degradation/wear, and remaining useful life (RUL). This information plays an important role in preventing failure, reducing downtime, scheduling maintenance, and improving system utility. Prognostics relies heavily on wear estimation. In some components, the sensors used to estimate wear may not be fast enough to capture brief transient states that are indicative of wear. For this reason it is beneficial to be capable of detecting and estimating the extent of component wear using steady-state measurements. This paper details a method for estimating component wear using steady-state measurements, describes how this is used to predict future states, and presents a case study of a current/pressure (I/P) Transducer. I/P Transducer nominal and off-nominal behaviors are characterized using a physics-based model, and validated against expected and observed component behavior. This model is used to map observed steady-state responses to corresponding fault parameter values in the form of a lookup table. This method was chosen because of its fast, efficient nature, and its ability to be applied to both linear and non-linear systems. Using measurements of the steady state output, and the lookup table, wear is estimated. A regression is used to estimate the wear propagation parameter and characterize the damage progression function, which are used to predict future states and the remaining useful life of the system.

  13. Conjugate heat transfer in a porous cavity filled with nano-fluids and heated by a triangular thick wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamkha, Ali J.; Ismael, Muneer A.

    2013-01-01

    The conjugate natural convection-conduction heat transfer in a square domain composed of nano-fluids filled porous cavity heated by a triangular solid wall is studied under steady-state conditions. The vertical and horizontal walls of the triangular solid wall are kept isothermal and at the same hot temperature Th. The other boundaries surrounding the porous cavity are kept adiabatic except the right vertical wall where it is kept isothermally at the lower temperature T c . Equations governing the heat transfer in the triangular wall and heat and nano-fluid flow, based on the Darcy model, in the nano-fluid-saturated porous medium together with the derived relation of the interface temperature are solved numerically using the over-successive relaxation finite-difference method. A temperature independent nano-fluids properties model is adopted. Three nano-particle types dispersed in one base fluid (water) are investigated. The investigated parameters are the nano-particles volume fraction φ (0-0.2), Rayleigh number Ra (10-1000), solid wall to base-fluid saturated porous medium thermal conductivity ratio K ro (0.44, 1, 23.8), and the triangular wall thickness D (0.1-1). The results are presented in the conventional form; contours of streamlines and isotherms and the local and average Nusselt numbers. At a very low Rayleigh number Ra = 10, a significant enhancement in heat transfer within the porous cavity with φ is observed. Otherwise, the heat transfer may be enhanced or deteriorated with φ depending on the wall thickness D and the Rayleigh number Ra. At high Rayleigh numbers and low conductivity ratios, critical values of D, regardless of 4, are observed and accounted. (authors)

  14. Thermosolutal MHD flow and radiative heat transfer with viscous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    porous plate in a chemically active fluid with radiative heat transfer in the presence of viscous work and heat source. The resulting nonlinear dimensionless equations are solved by asymptotic analysis technique giving approximate analytic solutions for the steady velocity, temperature and concentration. The parameters ...

  15. Heating-related flows in cool solar loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Mariska, J. T.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of spatial and temporal variations in the heating of cool loop models are investigated in an attempt to explain the net redshifts that are observed on the sun. The response of initially static cool loops to changes in the energy input is simulated. For hot loops, it is found that spatially asymmetric changes produce a final steady state that is dynamic, and that spatially symmetric changes produce a final state that is static. Some general properties of cool loop equilibria are discussed, emphasizing the relationship between structure and energy input. The results are unable to explain the net redshifts observed in emission lines formed near 100,000 K on the sun.

  16. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Patel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities.

  17. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amir; Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily

    2016-08-15

    During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. A Poisson-like closed-form expression for the steady-state wealth distribution in a kinetic model of gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jane Bernadette Denise M.; Esguerra, Jose Perico H.

    2017-08-01

    An approximate but closed-form expression for a Poisson-like steady state wealth distribution in a kinetic model of gambling was formulated from a finite number of its moments, which were generated from a βa,b(x) exchange distribution. The obtained steady-state wealth distributions have tails which are qualitatively similar to those observed in actual wealth distributions.

  19. HEAT RECUPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat recovery is an effective method of shortening specific energy consumption. new constructions of recuperators for heating and cupola furnaces have been designed and successfully introduced. two-stage recuperator with computer control providing blast heating up to 600 °C and reducing fuel consumption by 30% is of special interest.

  20. The influence of urban heat island phenomenon on PM concentration: an observation study during the summer half-year in metropolitan Taipei, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Li-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Air circulation due to the urban heat island (UHI) effect can influence the dispersion of air pollutants in a metropolis. This study focusses on the influence of the UHI effect on particulate matter (PM; including PM2.5 and PM2.5-10) between May and September 2010-2012 in the Taipei basin. Meteorological and PM data were obtained from the sites, owned by the governmental authorities. The analysis was carried out using t test, relative indices (RIs), Pearson product-moment correlation and stepwise regression. The results show that the RI values for PM were the highest at moderate UHI intensity (MUI; 2 °C ≤ UHI air dispersion. Poor horizontal air dispersion, with subsidence, caused an increase in PM at MUI. However, the updraft motion diluted the PM at SUI. The stepwise regression models show that the cloud index and surface air pressure determined the variation in PM2.5-10, while cloud index, wind speed and mixing height influenced the variation in PM2.5. In conclusion, a direct relationship between UHI effect and PM was not obvious.

  1. [Scanning electron microscopy observation of the growth of osteoblasts on Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn modified by micro-arc oxidation and alkali-heat treatment and implant-bone interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Liu, Hong-Chen; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Li, Shu-Jun; Yang, Rui

    2011-01-01

    To observe the efficacy of micro-arc oxidation and alkali-heat treatment (MAH) on Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn (Ti2448). Disks (diameter of 14.5 mm, thickness of 1 mm) and cylinders (diameter of 3 mm, height of 10 mm) were fabricated from Ti2448 alloy. Samples were divided into three groups: polished (Ti2448), micro-arc oxidation(MAO-Ti2448), micro-arc oxidation and alkali-heat treatment (MAH-Ti2448). MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells were cultured on the disks and cell morphology was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) aftre 3 days. The cylinder samples were implanted in the tibia of dogs and implant-bone interface was observed with SEM after 3 months. A rough and porous structure was shown in both MAO and MAH group. The MC3T3-E1 cells on the MAH-Ti2448 discs spread fully in intimate contact with the underlying coarse surface through active cytoskeletal extentions. Osseointegration was formed in the implant-bone interface in MAH samples. MAH treatment can provide a more advantageous Ti2448 surface to osteoblastic cells than MAO treatment does, and the former can improve the implant-bone integration.

  2. Vibration analysis of primary inlet pipe line during steady state and transient conditions of Pakistan research reactor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayazuddin, S.K.; Qureshi, A.A.; Hayat, T.

    1997-11-01

    The Primary Water Inlet Pipeline (PW-IPL) is of stainless steel conveying demineralized water from hold-up tank to the reactor pool of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1). The section of the pipeline from heat exchangers to the valve pit is hanger supported in the pump room and the rest of the section from valve pit to the reactor pool is embedded. The PW-IPL is subjected to steady state and transient vibrations. The reactor pumps, which drive the coolant through various circuits mainly contribute the steady state vibrations, while transient vibrations arise due to instant closure of the check valve (water hammer). The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code provides data about the acceptable limits of stresses related to the primary static stress due to steady state vibrations. However, due to complexity in the pipe structure, stresses related to the transient vibrations are neglected in the code. In this report attempt has been made to analyzed both steady state and transient vibrations of PW-IPL of PARR-1. Since, both the steady state and transient vibrations affect the hanger-supported section of the PW-IPL, therefore, it was selected for vibration test measurements. In the analysis vibration data was compared with the allowable limits and estimations of maximum pressure build-up, eflection, natural frequency, tensile and shear load on hanger support, and the ratio of maximum combine stress to the allowable load were made. (author)

  3. Power exhaust and edge control in steady state Tore Supra plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitteau, R.

    2002-01-01

    Tore Supra is operated since 2001 with a flat limiter which is designed for 10 MW/m 2 . The limiter is located in the bottom of the vacuum vessel. It was only partial in 2001, but it is now fully toroidal without poloidal leading edges. Part of the experimental campaign of 2001 was devoted to the physical as well as technological qualification of the limiter. For 4 MW injected, the limiter extracted 2.5 MW and heat flux densities reached 2.5 MW/m 2 . It is still modest compared to the design value, but nonetheless enables a comparison to the modelling as surface temperature increased locally to 400 deg C. Thermal steady state is reached in 5-8 seconds. The values of heat flux and the deposition pattern are in very good accordance with design simulations. The heat flux pattern is a combination of parallel and perpendicular flow components which are roughly of equal magnitude. Insights on the heat flux deposition pattern as well as on the tiles behaviour are given. Operation with such a large size high heat flux component sets renewed emphasis on issues such as feed back systems, active security, cooling parameter and in situ assessment of the elements. They are dealt with in the paper. (author)

  4. Study of impurity effects on CFETR steady-state scenario by self-consistent integrated modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Nan; Chan, Vincent S.; Jian, Xiang; Li, Guoqiang; Chen, Jiale; Gao, Xiang; Shi, Shengyu; Kong, Defeng; Liu, Xiaoju; Mao, Shifeng; Xu, Guoliang

    2017-12-01

    Impurity effects on fusion performance of China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR) due to extrinsic seeding are investigated. An integrated 1.5D modeling workflow evolves plasma equilibrium and all transport channels to steady state. The one modeling framework for integrated tasks framework is used to couple the transport solver, MHD equilibrium solver, and source and sink calculations. A self-consistent impurity profile constructed using a steady-state background plasma, which satisfies quasi-neutrality and true steady state, is presented for the first time. Studies are performed based on an optimized fully non-inductive scenario with varying concentrations of Argon (Ar) seeding. It is found that fusion performance improves before dropping off with increasing {{Z}\\text{eff}} , while the confinement remains at high level. Further analysis of transport for these plasmas shows that low-k ion temperature gradient modes dominate the turbulence. The decrease in linear growth rate and resultant fluxes of all channels with increasing {{Z}\\text{eff}} can be traced to impurity profile change by transport. The improvement in confinement levels off at higher {{Z}\\text{eff}} . Over the regime of study there is a competition between the suppressed transport and increasing radiation that leads to a peak in the fusion performance at {{Z}\\text{eff}} (~2.78 for CFETR). Extrinsic impurity seeding to control divertor heat load will need to be optimized around this value for best fusion performance.

  5. Potentialities of steady-state and transient thermography in breast tumour depth detection: A numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Amina; Pulko, Susan Helen; Wilkinson, Anthony James

    2016-01-01

    Breast thermography still has inherent limitations that prevent it from being fully accepted as a breast screening modality in medicine. The main challenges of breast thermography are to reduce false positive results and to increase the sensitivity of a thermogram. Further, it is still difficult to obtain information about tumour parameters such as metabolic heat, tumour depth and diameter from a thermogram. However, infrared technology and image processing have advanced significantly and recent clinical studies have shown increased sensitivity of thermography in cancer diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to study numerically the possibilities of extracting information about the tumour depth from steady state thermography and transient thermography after cold stress with no need to use any specific inversion technique. Both methods are based on the numerical solution of Pennes bioheat equation for a simple three-dimensional breast model. The effectiveness of two approaches used for depth detection from steady state thermography is assessed. The effect of breast density on the steady state thermal contrast has also been studied. The use of a cold stress test and the recording of transient contrasts during rewarming were found to be potentially suitable for tumour depth detection during the rewarming process. Sensitivity to parameters such as cold stress temperature and cooling time is investigated using the numerical model and simulation results reveal two prominent depth-related characteristic times which do not strongly depend on the temperature of the cold stress or on the cooling period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancing the ABAQUS thermomechanics code to simulate multipellet steady and transient LWR fuel rod behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The ABAQUS thermomechanics code is enhanced to enable simulation of nuclear fuel behavior. → Comparisons are made between discrete and smeared fuel pellet analysis. → Multidimensional and multipellet analysis is important for accurate prediction of PCMI. → Fully coupled thermomechanics results in very smooth prediction of fuel-clad gap closure. → A smeared-pellet approximation results in significant underprediction of clad radial displacements and plastic strain. - Abstract: A powerful multidimensional fuels performance analysis capability, applicable to both steady and transient fuel behavior, is developed based on enhancements to the commercially available ABAQUS general-purpose thermomechanics code. Enhanced capabilities are described, including: UO 2 temperature and burnup dependent thermal properties, solid and gaseous fission product swelling, fuel densification, fission gas release, cladding thermal and irradiation creep, cladding irradiation growth, gap heat transfer, and gap/plenum gas behavior during irradiation. This new capability is demonstrated using a 2D axisymmetric analysis of the upper section of a simplified multipellet fuel rod, during both steady and transient operation. Comparisons are made between discrete and smeared-pellet simulations. Computational results demonstrate the importance of a multidimensional, multipellet, fully-coupled thermomechanical approach. Interestingly, many of the inherent deficiencies in existing fuel performance codes (e.g., 1D thermomechanics, loose thermomechanical coupling, separate steady and transient analysis, cumbersome pre- and post-processing) are, in fact, ABAQUS strengths.

  7. Magnetic heating in the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiuderi, C.

    1981-01-01

    The observational evidence for magnetic heating in the solar corona is presented. The possible ways of investigating theoretically the nature of the heating processes are critically discussed. Merits and disadvantages of the basic mechanisms so far proposed are reviewed. Finally, a preliminary application of the magnetic heating concept to stellar coronae is presented. (orig.)

  8. High intensity heat pulse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalamanchili, R.

    1977-01-01

    The use of finite-difference methods for the solution of partial differential equations is common in both design and research and development because of the advance of computers. The numerical methods for the unsteady heat diffusion equation received most attention not only because of heat transfer problems but also happened to be the basis for any study of parabolic partial differential equations. It is common to test the heat equation first even the methods developed for complex nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations arising in fluid mechanics or convective heat transfer. It is concluded that the finite-element method is conservative in both stability and monoscillation characteristics than the finite-difference method but not as conservative as the method of weighted-residuals. Since the finite-element is unique because of Gurtin's variational principle and numerous finite-differences can be constructed, it is found that some finite-difference schemes are better than the finite-element scheme in accuracy also. Therefore, further attention is focused here on finite-difference schemes only. Various physical problems are considered in the field of heat transfer. These include: numerous problems in steady and unsteady heat conduction; heat pulse problems, such as, plasma torch; problems arising from machining operations, such as, abrasive cut-off and surface grinding. (Auth.)

  9. Heat fluctuations and initial ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangmoo; Kwon, Chulan; Park, Hyunggyu

    2014-09-01

    Time-integrated quantities such as work and heat increase incessantly in time during nonequilibrium processes near steady states. In the long-time limit, the average values of work and heat become asymptotically equivalent to each other, since they only differ by a finite energy change in average. However, the fluctuation theorem (FT) for the heat is found not to hold with the equilibrium initial ensemble, while the FT for the work holds. This reveals an intriguing effect of everlasting initial memory stored in rare events. We revisit the problem of a Brownian particle in a harmonic potential dragged with a constant velocity, which is in contact with a thermal reservoir. The heat and work fluctuations are investigated with initial Boltzmann ensembles at temperatures generally different from the reservoir temperature. We find that, in the infinite-time limit, the FT for the work is fully recovered for arbitrary initial temperatures, while the heat fluctuations significantly deviate from the FT characteristics except for the infinite initial-temperature limit (a uniform initial ensemble). Furthermore, we succeed in calculating finite-time corrections to the heat and work distributions analytically, using the modified saddle point integral method recently developed by us. Interestingly, we find noncommutativity between the infinite-time limit and the infinite-initial-temperature limit for the probability distribution function (PDF) of the heat.

  10. Measurement of non-steady-state free fatty acid turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.D.; Heiling, V.; Miles, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The accuracy of non-steady-state equations for measuring changes in free fatty acid rate of appearance (Ra) is unknown. In the present study, endogenous lipolysis (traced with [ 14 C]-linoleate) was pharmacologically suppressed in six conscious mongrel dogs. A computer-responsive infusion pump was then used to deliver an intravenous oleic acid emulsion in both constant and linear gradient infusion modes. Both non-steady-state equations with various effective volumes of distribution (V) and steady-state equations were used to measure oleate Ra [( 14 C]oleate). Endogenous lipolysis did not change during the experiment. When oleate Ra increased in a linear gradient fashion, only non-steady-state equations with a large (150 ml/kg) V resulted in erroneous values (9% overestimate, P less than 0.05). In contrast, when oleate Ra decreased in a similar fashion, steady-state and standard non-steady-state equations (V = plasma volume = 50 ml/kg) overestimated total oleate Ra (18 and 7%, P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.05, respectively). Overall, non-steady-state equations with an effective V of 90 ml/kg (1.8 x plasma volume) allowed the most accurate estimates of oleate Ra

  11. High Beta Steady State Research and Future Directions on JT-60U and JFT-2M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Shinichi

    2003-10-01

    JT-60U and JFT-2M research is focused on high beta steady state operation towards economically and environmentally attractive reactors. In JT-60U, a high-βp H-mode plasma was sustained with βN 2.7 for 7.4 s in which neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) limited the attainable β_N. Real-time tracking NTM stabilization system using ECCD demonstrated complete suppression of NTM leading to recovery of βN before onset of NTM. Performance in a fully non-inductive H-mode plasma was improved up to n_i(0) τE T_i(0) = 3.1 x 10^20 keV s m-3 using N-NBCD with βN 2.4, HH_y,2=1.2 and bootstrap fraction f_BS 0.5. ECH experiments extended the confinement enhancement for dominantly electron heated reversed shear plasmas up to HH_y,2 2 at T_e/Ti 1.25. A world record ECCD efficiency, 4.2 x 10^18 A/W/m^2, was achieved at Te 23 keV with a highly localized central current density. Innovative initiation and current build-up without center solenoid currents were established by LHCD/ECH and bootstrap current up to f_BS 0.9. In JFT-2M, the inside of the vacuum vessel wall was fully covered with low-activation ferritic steel plates to investigate their use in plasmas near fusion conditions. High βN plasmas were produced up to βN = 3.3 with an internal transport barrier (ITB) and a steady H-mode edge. A new H-mode regime with steady high recycling (HRS) and an ITB was exploited leading to βN H_89P 6.2 at n_e/nG 0.7. In 2003, JT-60U will be able to operate for the duration up to 65 s at 1 MA/2.7 T and the heating/current-drive duration up to 30 s at 17 MW to prolong high-βN and/or high-f_BS discharges with feedback controls. JFT-2M is planning to implement wall stabilization experiments in 2004 to pursue plasmas above the ideal no-wall limit using a ferritic wall. The modification of JT-60 to a fully superconducting tokamak is under discussion to explore high-β steady state operation in collision-less plasmas well above no-wall limit with ferritic wall in a steady state.

  12. Experimental validation data for CFD of steady and transient mixed convection on a vertical flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Blake W.

    Simulations are becoming increasingly popular in science and engineering. One type of simulation is Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) that is used when closed forms solutions are impractical. The field of Verification & Validation emerged from the need to assess simulation accuracy as they often contain approximations and calibrations. Validation involves the comparison of experimental data with simulation outputs and is the focus of this work. Errors in simulation predictions may be assessed in this way. Validation requires highly-detailed data and description to accompany these data, and uncertainties are very important. The purpose of this work is to provide highly complete validation data to assess the accuracy of CFD simulations. This aim is fundamentally different from the typical discovery experiments common in research. The measurement of these physics was not necessarily original but performed with modern, high-fidelity methods. Data were tabulated through an online database for direct use in Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations. Detailed instrumentation and documentation were used to make the data more useful for validation. This work fills the validation data gap for steady and transient mixed convection. The physics in this study included mixed convection on a vertical flat plate. Mixed convection is a condition where both forced and natural convection influence fluid momentum and heat transfer phenomena. Flow was forced over a vertical flat plate in a facility built for validation experiments. Thermal and velocity data were acquired for steady and transient flow conditions. The steady case included both buoyancy-aided and buoyancy-opposed mixed convection while the transient case was for buoyancy-opposed flow. The transient was a ramp-down flow transient, and results were ensemble-averaged for improved statistics. Uncertainty quantification was performed on all results with bias and random sources. An independent method of measuring heat flux was

  13. The technology and science of steady-state operation in magnetically confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becoulet, A; Hoang, G T

    2008-01-01

    The steady-state operation of magnetically confined fusion plasmas is considered as one of the 'grand challenges' of future decades, if not the ultimate goal of the research and development activities towards a new source of energy. Reaching such a goal requires the high-level integration of both science and technology aspects of magnetic fusion into self-consistent plasma regimes in fusion-grade devices. On the physics side, the first constraint addresses the magnetic confinement itself which must be made persistent. This means to either rely on intrinsically steady-state configurations, like the stellarator one, or turn the inductively driven tokamak configuration into a fully non-inductive one, through a mix of additional current sources. The low efficiency of the external current drive methods and the necessity to minimize the re-circulating power claim for a current mix strongly weighted by the internal 'pressure driven' bootstrap current, itself strongly sensitive to the heat and particle transport properties of the plasma. A virtuous circle may form as the heat and particle transport properties are themselves sensitive to the current profile conditions. Note that several other factors, e.g. plasma rotation profile, magneto-hydro-dynamics activity, also influence the equilibrium state. In the present tokamak devices, several examples of such 'advanced tokamak' physics research demonstrate the feasibility of steady-state regimes, though with a number of open questions still under investigation. The modelling activity also progresses quite fast in this domain and supports understanding and extrapolation. This high level of physics sophistication of the plasma scenario however needs to be combined with steady-state technological constraints. The technology constraints for steady-state operation are basically twofold: the specific technologies required to reach the steady-state plasma conditions and the generic technologies linked to the long pulse operation of a

  14. On steady two-dimensional Carreau fluid flow over a wedge in the presence of infinite shear rate viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Masood; Sardar, Humara

    2018-03-01

    This paper investigates the steady two-dimensional flow over a moving/static wedge in a Carreau viscosity model with infinite shear rate viscosity. Additionally, heat transfer analysis is performed. Using suitable transformations, nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations and solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta Fehlberg method coupled with the shooting technique. The effects of various physical parameters on the velocity and temperature distributions are displayed graphically and discussed qualitatively. A comparison with the earlier reported results has been made with an excellent agreement. It is important to note that the increasing values of the wedge angle parameter enhance the fluid velocity while the opposite trend is observed for the temperature field for both shear thinning and thickening fluids. Generally, our results reveal that the velocity and temperature distributions are marginally influenced by the viscosity ratio parameter. Further, it is noted that augmented values of viscosity ratio parameter thin the momentum and thermal boundary layer thickness in shear thickening fluid and reverse is true for shear thinning fluid. Moreover, it is noticed that the velocity in case of moving wedge is higher than static wedge.

  15. Parametrization of the feedback Hamiltonian realizing a pure steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    Feedback control is expected to considerably protect quantum states against decoherence caused by interaction between the system and environment. Especially, Markovian feedback scheme developed by Wiseman can modify the properties of decoherence and eventually recover the purity of the steady state of the corresponding master equation. This paper provides a condition for which the modified master equation has a pure steady state. By applying this condition to a two-qubit system, we obtain a complete parametrization of the feedback Hamiltonian such that the steady state becomes a maximally entangled state

  16. Steady electric fields and currents elementary electromagnetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Kilmister, C W

    2013-01-01

    Steady Electric Fields and Currents, Volume 1 is an introductory text to electromagnetism and potential theory. This book starts with the fields associated with stationary charges and unravels the stationary condition to allow consideration of the flow of steady currents in closed circuits. The opening chapter discusses the experimental results that require mathematical explanation and discussion, particularly those referring to phenomena that question the validity of the simple Newtonian concepts of space and time. The subsequent chapters consider steady-state fields, electrostatics, dielectr

  17. Performance testing of a hydrogen heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alario, J.; Kosson, R.

    1980-01-01

    Test results are presented for a reentrant groove heat pipe with hydrogen working fluid. The heat pipe became operational between 20 and 30 K after a cooldown from 77 K without any difficulty. Steady-state performance data taken over a 19 to 23 K temperature range indicated the following: (1) maximum heat transport capacity 5.4 W-m (2) static wicking height 1.42 cm and (3) overall heat pipe conductance 1.7 W/C. These data agreed remarkably well with extrapolations made from comparable ammonia test results. The maximum heat transport capacity is 9.5% larger than the extrapolated value, but the static wicking height is the same. The overall conductance is 29% of the ammonia value, which is close to the ratio of liquid thermal conductivities (24%). Also, recovery from a completely frozen condition was accomplished within 5 min by simply applying an evaporater heat load of 1.8 W

  18. RF heating and current drive in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litaudon, X.

    1995-01-01

    Recent RF heating and current drive experiments in the Lower Hybrid (LH) and Ion Cyclotron (IC) frequency ranges are reported. In the 4T improved confinement LHEP regime, steady-state LHCD operation has been realized with a new ''constant-flux'' scenario. A new, reversed shear, 2T improved confinement plasma regime has also been investigated when the core plasma is inaccessible to the LH waves. Stable, LH driven 0.4 MA discharges were obtained with H rlw = 2 at βp = 0.8, q o above 2 and with a reduced electron thermal diffusivity in the central reversed shear region. Efficient direct coupling of the fast magnetosonic wave to the electrons for heating and current drive is observed during 48 MHz/2T operation. Fast wave electron heating has produced improved confinement with H rlw = 2 at βp = 1.6, and a bootstrap current fraction up to 45%. Fast wave current drive has been observed at the level of 80 kA in a 0.4 MA discharge. (authors). 28 refs., 7 figs

  19. Comparing Non-Steady State Emissions under Start-Up and Shut-Down Operating Conditions with Steady State Emissions for Several Industrial Sectors: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwairia Obaid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the emissions of various industrial facilities under start-up, shut-down, and normal operations. The industries that have been investigated include power and/or heat generation, energy-from-waste generation, nuclear power generation, sulphuric acid production, ethylene production, petrochemical production, and waste incineration. The study investigated multiple facilities worldwide for each of these industrial categories. The different potential contaminants characteristic of each industry type have been investigated and the emissions of these contaminants under non-steady state have been compared to the steady state emissions. Where available, trends have been developed to identify the circumstances, i.e., the industrial sector and contaminant, under which the assessment and consideration of emissions from start-up and shut-down events is necessary for each industry. These trends differ by industrial sector and contaminant. For example, the study shows that sulphur dioxide (SO2 emissions should be assessed for the start-up operations of sulphuric acid production plants, but may not need to be assessed for the start-up operations of a conventional power generation facility. The trends developed as part of this research paper will help air permit applicants to effectively allocate their resources when assessing emissions related to non-steady state operations. Additionally, it will ensure that emissions are assessed for the worst-case scenario. This is especially important when emissions under start-up and shut-down operations have the potential to exceed enforceable emission limits. Thus, assessing emissions for the worst-case scenario can help in preventing the emissions from adversely impacting public health and the environment.

  20. Variational principles in terms of entransy for heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Mingtian

    2012-01-01

    A variational principle for heat conduction is formulated which results in the steady state heat conduction equation established from the Fourier law. Furthermore based on the thermodynamics in terms of entransy a more general functional is defined for incompressible fluids. We show that extremizing this functional gives rise to the state described by the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations with vanishing substantive derivatives of the temperature and velocity field. In this sense one may conclude that this variational principle is consistent with the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations. Therefore the variational principle developed in the present work demonstrates a great advantage over the minimum entropy production principle. -- Highlights: ► A variational principle for heat transfer of incompressible fluid is established in terms of entransy. ► For pure heat conduction the variational principle leads to the classical steady state heat conduction equation. ► For heat convection the variational principle is consistent with the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations.

  1. Modeling transverse heating and outflow of ionospheric ions from the dayside cusp/cleft. 2 Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bouhram

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider major ion energization mechanisms in the dayside cusp/cleft region. This includes transverse ion heating by ion cyclotron resonance (ICR, ion energization through structures of field-aligned electric potential drops, and transverse heating by lower hybrid (LH waves. First, we present and discuss three typical cusp/cleft crossings associated with one of the first two mechanisms mentioned above. Then, we develop a procedure for finding the altitude dependence of ICR heating for any data set in the high-altitude cusp/cleft under the absence of field-aligned potential drops. This has been accomplished using a large set of numerical simulations from a two-dimensional, steady-state, Monte Carlo, trajectory-based code, as discussed in detail in the first companion paper (Bouhram et al., 2003. The procedure is applied and tested successfully for the first two events, by using patterns of ion moments along the satellite track as constraints. Then, we present a statistical study that uses 25 cusp/cleft crossings associated with steady IMF conditions, where ICR heating is expected to occur alone. It is pointed out that the ICR heating increases gradually versus geocentric distance as s 3.3 ± 1.8 . The inferred values of the wave power and the spectral index associated with the component responsible for ICR heating are lower than those characterizing the broad-band, extremely low-frequency (BBELF turbulence usually observed in the cusp/cleft. This strengthens the idea that more than one wave-mode is contained in the BBELF turbulence, and only a small fraction of the observed turbulence is responsible for ICR heating. Then, we study the occurrence versus magnetic local time (MLT of field-aligned potential drops. According to previous statistical studies, such structures are not common in the cusp and tend to be associated with the cleft region. We also discuss the effects of LH heating in the cusp on the observed ion distributions

  2. Analysis of steady state creep of southeastern New Mexico bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, W.; Wawersik, W.R.; Lauson, H.S.

    1980-03-01

    Steady state creep rates have been obtained from a large suite of existing experimental creep data relating to bedded rock salt from the Salado formation of S.E. New Mexico. Experimental conditions covered an intermediate temperature range from 22 0 C to 200 0 C, and shear stresses from 1000 psi (7 MPa) to 6000 psi (31 MPa). An expression, based on a single diffusion controlled dislocation climb mechanism, has been found to fit the observed dependence of steady state creep rate on shear stress and temperature, yielding an activation energy of 12 kcal/mole (50 kJ/mole) and a stress exponent of 4.9. Multiple regression analysis revealed a dependence on stratigraphy, but no statistically significant dependence on pressure of specimen size. No consistent dilatancy or compaction associated with steady state creep was found, although some individual specimens dilated or compacted during creep. The steady state creep data were found to agree very well with creep data for both bedded and dome salt from a variety of other locations

  3. A Physics-Based Rock Friction Constitutive Law: Steady State Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonov, Einat; Scholz, Christopher H.

    2018-02-01

    Experiments measuring friction over a wide range of sliding velocities find that the value of the friction coefficient varies widely: friction is high and behaves according to the rate and state constitutive law during slow sliding, yet markedly weakens as the sliding velocity approaches seismic slip speeds. We introduce a physics-based theory to explain this behavior. Using conventional microphysics of creep, we calculate the velocity and temperature dependence of contact stresses during sliding, including the thermal effects of shear heating. Contacts are assumed to reach a coupled thermal and mechanical steady state, and friction is calculated for steady sliding. Results from theory provide good quantitative agreement with reported experimental results for quartz and granite friction over 11 orders of magnitude in velocity. The new model elucidates the physics of friction and predicts the connection between friction laws to independently determined material parameters. It predicts four frictional regimes as function of slip rate: at slow velocity friction is either velocity strengthening or weakening, depending on material parameters, and follows the rate and state friction law. Differences between surface and volume activation energies are the main control on velocity dependence. At intermediate velocity, for some material parameters, a distinct velocity strengthening regime emerges. At fast sliding, shear heating produces thermal softening of friction. At the fastest sliding, melting causes further weakening. This theory, with its four frictional regimes, fits well previously published experimental results under low temperature and normal stress.

  4. Integrated modeling of high βN steady state scenario on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. M.; Ferron, J. R.; Holcomb, C. T.; Buttery, R. J.; Solomon, W. M.; Batchelor, D. B.; Elwasif, W.; Green, D. L.; Kim, K.; Meneghini, O.; Murakami, M.; Snyder, P. B.

    2018-01-01

    Theory-based integrated modeling validated against DIII-D experiments predicts that fully non-inductive DIII-D operation with βN > 4.5 is possible with certain upgrades. IPS-FASTRAN is a new iterative numerical procedure that integrates models of core transport, edge pedestal, equilibrium, stability, heating, and current drive self-consistently to find steady-state (d/dt = 0) solutions and reproduces most features of DIII-D high βN discharges with a stationary current profile. Projecting forward to scenarios possible on DIII-D with future upgrades, the high qmin > 2 scenario achieves stable operation at βN as high as 5 by using a very broad current density profile to improve the ideal-wall stabilization of low-n instabilities along with confinement enhancement from low magnetic shear. This modeling guides the necessary upgrades of the heating and current drive system to realize reactor-relevant high βN steady-state scenarios on DIII-D by simultaneous optimization of the current and pressure profiles.

  5. The steady-state ECRH-system at Wendelstein7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laqua, H.P.; Erckmann, V.; Brakel, R.; Braune, H.; Maassberg, H.; Marushchenko, N.; Michel, G.; Turkin, Y.; Ullrich, S.; Dammertz, G.; Thumm, M.; Brand, P.; Gantenbein, G.; Kasparek, W.

    2005-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) is the main heating system for the Wendelstein7-X (W7-X) stellarator and the only one for CW-operation in the first stage. The mission of W7-X, which is presently under construction at IPP-Greifswald, is to demonstrate the inherent steady state capability of stellarators at reactor relevant plasma parameters. A modular 10 MW ECRH plant at 140 GHz with 1 MW CW-capability power for each module is under construction to meet the scientific objectives. Simulations of different ECRH scenarios, which are foreseen for W7-X operation and base on ray- tracing calculations and confinement studies, will be presented. A steady state ECRH has specific requirements on the stellarator machine itself, on the ECRH-sources, transmissions elements and on the experimental environment. In particular all elements have to be sufficiently cooled, screened and armoured against microwaves. The commissioning of the ECRH plant is well under way, the strategy and status of the project will be reported. First full power, CW integral tests of one ECRH module have been performed. A large microwave stray radiation chamber for integrated in-vessel component tests had been brought into operation. A bi-axially movable, motor driven ECRH antenna mock-up was build and is tested for reliability now. A strategy for the commissioning and the first experimental campaign at W7-X has been developed. (author)

  6. Parametric study of the primary and secondary systems of the CAREM-25 reactor on steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpert, Silvia; Vazquez, Luis

    2000-01-01

    In the CAREM-25 reactor the primary coolant flows by natural convection that's why the flow is established when the balance between the buoyancy force and friction pressure drop through circuit is obtained. This paper presents a parametric study on primary and secondary systems of the reactor on steady state, for different values of some thermohydraulics parameters: safety factor on friction loss pressure calculations (f), steam generator heat transfer area (A T ) and primary pressure (P P ). The ESCAREM 2.08 thermohydraulic code, which calculates the primary system behavior for steady state conditions, was used for this study. The conclusions of this study are: -) There was a variation of the 15% on the primary coolant flow when the safety factor was changed a 50 %; -) The primary and secondary systems conditions do not change when the power is less than 100 MW; -) Between 100 and 110 MW the decrease of the heat transfer area produces an important change on the secondary systems conditions: the outlet steam generator temperature decrease and there is an important rice in the flow; -) The primary pressure could decrease up to 11.4 MPa without violating turbine requirements. (author)

  7. Characterizing the relationship between steady state and response using analytical expressions for the steady states of mass action models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loriaux, Paul Michael; Tesler, Glenn; Hoffmann, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The steady states of cells affect their response to perturbation. Indeed, diagnostic markers for predicting the response to therapeutic perturbation are often based on steady state measurements. In spite of this, no method exists to systematically characterize the relationship between steady state and response. Mathematical models are established tools for studying cellular responses, but characterizing their relationship to the steady state requires that it have a parametric, or analytical, expression. For some models, this expression can be derived by the King-Altman method. However, King-Altman requires that no substrate act as an enzyme, and is therefore not applicable to most models of signal transduction. For this reason we developed py-substitution, a simple but general method for deriving analytical expressions for the steady states of mass action models. Where the King-Altman method is applicable, we show that py-substitution yields an equivalent expression, and at comparable efficiency. We use py-substitution to study the relationship between steady state and sensitivity to the anti-cancer drug candidate, dulanermin (recombinant human TRAIL). First, we use py-substitution to derive an analytical expression for the steady state of a published model of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Next, we show that the amount of TRAIL required for cell death is sensitive to the steady state concentrations of procaspase 8 and its negative regulator, Bar, but not the other procaspase molecules. This suggests that activation of caspase 8 is a critical point in the death decision process. Finally, we show that changes in the threshold at which TRAIL results in cell death is not always equivalent to changes in the time of death, as is commonly assumed. Our work demonstrates that an analytical expression is a powerful tool for identifying steady state determinants of the cellular response to perturbation. All code is available at http://signalingsystems.ucsd.edu/models-and-code/ or

  8. Steady-state ozone concentrations in radiation induced noble gas-oxygen discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed-Ali, H.E.; Miley, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of steady-state ozone concentrations in continuous radiation induced noble gas-O/sub 2/ and noble gas-o/sub 2/-SF/sub 6/ mixtures has been accomplished. The discharges were created through the bombardment of the gases with energetic particles from the boron-10 (n,α) lithium-7 nuclear reaction. Three noble gases were studied, He, Ne, and Ar at partial pressures of few hundred Torr. The dose rates studied were in the order of 10/sup 15/ eV . cm/sup -3/ . s/sup -1/. The experimental apparatus and procedure were previously described. The experimentally observed steady-state ozone concentrations in noble gas-O/sub 2/ discharges were about an order of magnitude lower than that observed for oxygen radiolysis at similar dose rates. These results were physically explained by an enhanced role of negative ionic reactions with ozone causing its destruction. In noble gas-O/sub 2/-SF/sub 6/ mixtures, the steady-state ozone concentrations were found to be significantly higher (3-6 times) than that without the SF/sub 6/ addition. This observation was contrary to only a small increase observed after SF/sub 6/ addition to a few hundred Torr oxygen and is explained by an enhanced rate of electron dissociative attachment of ozone in noble gas-O/sub 2/ discharges

  9. Steady-State Thermal-Hydraulics Analyses for the Conversion of the BR2 Reactor to LEU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, J. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bergeron, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dionne, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Van den Branden, G. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Kalcheva, S [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Sikik, E [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Koonen, E [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium)

    2016-09-01

    BR2 is a research reactor used for radioisotope production and materials testing. It’s a tank-in-pool type reactor cooled by light water and moderated by beryllium and light water. The reactor core consists of a beryllium moderator forming a matrix of 79 hexagonal prisms in a hyperboloid configuration; each having a central bore that can contain a variety of different components such as a fuel assembly, a control or regulating rod, an experimental device, or a beryllium or aluminum plug. Based on a series of tests, the BR2 operation is currently limited to a maximum allowable heat flux of 470 W/cm2 to ensure fuel plate integrity during steady-state operation and after a loss-of-flow/loss-of-pressure accident. A feasibility study for the conversion of the BR2 reactor from highly-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel was previously performed to verify it can operate safely at the same maximum nominal steady-state heat flux. An assessment was also performed to quantify the heat fluxes at which the onset of flow instability and critical heat flux occur for each fuel type. This document updates and expands these results for the current representative core configuration (assuming a fresh beryllium matrix) by evaluating the onset of nucleate boiling (ONB), onset of fully developed nucleate boiling (FDNB), onset of flow instability (OFI) and critical heat flux (CHF).

  10. A theory of nonequilibrium steady states in quantum chaotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei

    2017-09-01

    Nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) is a quasistationary state, in which exist currents that continuously produce entropy, but the local observables are stationary everywhere. We propose a theory of NESS under the framework of quantum chaos. In an isolated quantum system whose density matrix follows a unitary evolution, there exist initial states for which the thermodynamic limit and the long-time limit are noncommutative. The density matrix \\hat ρ of these states displays a universal structure. Suppose that \\renewcommand{\\ket}[1]{{\\vert #1 >}} \\ketα and \\renewcommand{\\ket}[1]{{\\vert #1 >}} \\ketβ are different eigenstates of the Hamiltonian with energies E_α and E_β , respectively. \\renewcommand{\\bra}[1]{} \\braα\\hat ρ \\ketβ behaves as a random number which has zero mean. In thermodynamic limit, the variance of \\renewcommand{\\bra}[1]{} \\braα\\hat ρ \\ketβ is a smooth function of ≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert , scaling as 1/≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert 2 in the limit ≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert \\to 0 . If and only if this scaling law is obeyed, the initial state evolves into NESS in the long time limit. We present numerical evidence of our hypothesis in a few chaotic models. Furthermore, we find that our hypothesis indicates the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) for current operators in a bipartite system.

  11. Heat transfer coefficient as parameter describing ability of insulating liquid to heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolny, Zbigniew; Gościński, Przemysław; Bródka, Bolesław

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of the measurements of heat transfer coefficient of insulating liquids used in transformers. The coefficient describes an ability of the liquid to heat transport. On the basis of the coefficient, effectiveness of cooling system of electric power devices can be estimated. Following liquids were used for the measurements: mineral oil, synthetic ester and natural ester. It was assumed that surface heat load is about 2500 W·m-2, which is equal the load of transformer windings. A height of heat element was 1.6 m, because it makes possible steady distribution of temperature on its surface. The measurements of heat transfer coefficient was made as a function of various position of heat element (vertical, horizontal). In frame of horizontal position of heat element, three suppositions were analysed: top, bottom, and side.

  12. Unsteady heat transfer performance of heat pipe with axially swallow-tailed microgrooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R. P.

    2017-04-01

    A mathematical model is developed for predicting the transient heat transfer and fluid flow of heat pipe with axially swallow-tailed microgrooves. The effects of liquid convective heat transfer in the microgrooves, liquid-vapor interfacial phase-change heat transfer and liquid-vapor interfacial shear stress are accounted for in the present model. The coupled non-linear control equations are solved numerically. Mass flow rate at the interface is obtained from the application of kinetic theory. Time variation of wall temperature is studied from the initial startup to steady state. The numerical results are verified by experiments. Time constants for startup and shutdown operation are defined to determine how fast a heat pipe responds to an applied input heat flux, which slightly decreases with increasing heat load.

  13. Properties of the steady state distribution of electrons in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscato, Orazio; Di Stefano, Vincenza [Catania Univ. degli Studi (Italy). Dipt. di Matematica e Informatica; Wagner, Wolfgang [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper studies a Boltzmann transport equation with several electronphonon scattering mechanisms, which describes the charge transport in semiconductors. The electric field is coupled to the electron distribution function via Poisson's equation. Both the parabolic and the quasi-parabolic band approximations are considered. The steady state behaviour of the electron distribution function is investigated by a Monte Carlo algorithm. More precisely, several nonlinear functionals of the solution are calculated that quantify the deviation of the steady state from a Maxwellian distribution with respect to the wave-vector. On the one hand, the numerical results illustrate known theoretical statements about the steady state and indicate possible directions for future studies. On the other hand, the nonlinear functionals provide tools that can be used in the framework of Monte Carlo algorithms for detecting regions in which the steady state distribution has a relatively simple structure, thus providing a basis for domain decomposition methods. (orig.)

  14. A steady state solution to a field reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, M.

    1987-01-01

    To find a steady state field reversed configuration, a method is considered for sustaining the diamagnetic plasma current by a seed current externally driven at the field null point. The steady state solution is obtained by solving the one-dimensional fluid equations including equilibrium and transport. It is found that the amount of seed current necessary to maintain a steady field reversal depends strongly on τ B /τ N , where τ B and τ N are the magnetic diffusion times and the particle confinement time, respectively. As τ B /τ N increases, more flux is excluded from the plasma. The steady state solution is applied to a D-T ignited plasma. (author)

  15. The association between client type and condom use with steady ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association between client type and condom use with steady and unsteady partners among persons seeking HIV testing and counseling services in Kenya. Elizabeth Broel, Larissa Brunner Huber, Jan Warren-Findlow, Elizabeth Racine ...

  16. Stabilizing unstable steady states using extended time-delay autosynchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Austin; Bienfang, Joshua C.; Hall, G. Martin; Gardner, Jeff R.; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    1998-12-01

    We describe a method for stabilizing unstable steady states in nonlinear dynamical systems using a form of extended time-delay autosynchronization. Specifically, stabilization is achieved by applying a feedback signal generated by high-pass-filtering in real time the dynamical state of the system to an accessible system parameter or variables. Our technique is easy to implement, does not require knowledge of the unstable steady state coordinates in phase space, automatically tracks changes in the system parameters, and is more robust to broadband noise than previous schemes. We demonstrate the controller's efficacy by stabilizing unstable steady states in an electronic circuit exhibiting low-dimensional temporal chaos. The simplicity and robustness of the scheme suggests that it is ideally suited for stabilizing unstable steady states in ultra-high-speed systems. (c) 1998 American Institute of Physics.

  17. Phase Change Material Systems for High Temperature Heat Storage

    OpenAIRE

    David Perraudin; Selmar Binder; Ehsan Rezai; Alberto Ortona; Sophia Haussener

    2015-01-01

    Efficient, cost effective, and stable high-temperature heat storage material systems are important in applications such as high-temperature industrial processes (metal processing, cement and glass manufacturing, etc.), or electricity storage using advanced adiabatic compressed air. Incorporating phase change media into heat storage systems provides an advantage of storing and releasing heat at nearly constant temperature, allowing steady and optimized operation of the downstream processes. Th...

  18. A Study of the Oklahoma City Urban Heat Island Effect Using a WRF/Single-Layer Urban Canopy Model, a Joint Urban 2003 Field Campaign, and MODIS Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyue Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island effect (UHI for inner land regions was investigated using satellite data, ground observations, and simulations with an Single-Layer Urban Canopy Parameterization (SLUCP coupled into the regional Weather Research Forecasting model (WRF, http://wrf-model.org/index.php. Specifically, using the satellite-observed surface skin temperatures (Tskin, the intensity of the UHI was first compared for two inland cities (Xi’an City, China, and Oklahoma City (OKC, which have different city populations and building densities. The larger population density and larger building density in Xi’an lead to a stronger skin-level UHI by 2 °C. However, the ground observed 2 m surface air temperature (Tair observations showed an urban cooling island effect (UCI over the downtown region in OKC during the daytime of 19 July 2003, from a DOE field campaign (Joint Urban 2003. To understand this contrast between satellite-based Tskin and ground-based Tair, a sensitivity study using WRF/SLUCP was analyzed. The model reproduced a UCI in OKC. Furthermore, WRF/Noah/SLUCM simulations were also compared with the Joint Urban 2003 ground observations, including wind speeds, wind directions, and energy fluxes. Although the WRF/SLUCM model failed to simulate these variables accurately, it reproduced the diurnal variations of surface temperatures, wind speeds, wind directions, and energy fluxes reasonably well.

  19. Robust Steady State Analysis of the Power Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Amritanshu; Jereminov, Marko; Wagner, Martin R.; Bromberg, David M.; Hug, Gabriela; Pileggi, Larry

    2018-01-01

    A robust methodology for obtaining the steady-state solution of the power grid is essential for reliable operation as well as planning of the future transmission and distribution grid. At present, disparate methods exist for steady-state analysis of the transmission (power flow) and distribution power grid (three-phase power flow). All existing alternating current (AC) power flow and three-phase power flow analyses formulate a non-linear problem that generally lacks the ability to ensure conv...

  20. Steady-state leaching of tritiated water from silica gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, H.A.; Hou, Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion.......Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion....

  1. Selection of steady states in planar Darcy convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsybulin, V.G.; Karasoezen, B.; Ergenc, T.

    2006-01-01

    The planar natural convection of an incompressible fluid in a porous medium is considered. We study the selection of steady states under temperature perturbations on the boundary. A selection map is introduced in order to analyze the selection of a steady state from a continuous family of equilibria which exists under zero boundary conditions. The results of finite-difference modeling for a rectangular enclosure are presented

  2. Chlorine decay under steady and unsteady-state hydraulic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoianov, Ivan; Aisopou, Angeliki

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation framework for the scale-adaptive hydraulic and chlorine decay modelling under steady and unsteady-state flows. Bulk flow and pipe wall reaction coefficients are replaced with steady and unsteady-state reaction coefficients. An unsteady decay coefficient is defined...... and these demonstrate that the dynamic hydraulic conditions have a significant impact on water quality deterioration and the rapid loss of disinfectant residual. © 2013 The Authors....

  3. Numerical Modeling of Fin and Tube Heat Exchanger for Waste Heat Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shobhana; Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph

    In the present work, multiphysics numerical modeling is carried out to predict the performance of a liquid-gas fin and tube heat exchanger design. Three-dimensional (3D) steady-state numerical model using commercial software COMSOL based on finite element method (FEM) is developed. The study...

  4. Heat Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Sofie Søndergaard; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren; Bestle, Morten Heiberg

    2017-01-01

    and mortality. This case report describes two Danish patients diagnosed with heat stroke syndrome during a heat wave in the summer of 2014. Both patients were morbidly obese and had several predisposing illnesses. However since heat stroke is a rare condition in areas with temperate climate, they were...... not diagnosed until several days after admittance; hence treatment with cooling was delayed. Both patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, where they were treated with an external cooling device and received treatment for complications. Both cases ended fatally. As global warming continues, more heat...

  5. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Ichiro.

    1996-01-01

    An inner cylinder is disposed coaxially in a vertical vessel, and a plurality of heat transfer pipes are wound spirally on the outer circumference of the inner cylinder. High temperature sodium descends on the outer side of the inner cylinder while exchanging heat with water in the heat transfer pipes and becomes low temperature sodium. The low temperature sodium turns at the lower portion of the vessel, rises in a sodium exit pipe inserted to the inner cylinder and is discharged from the top of the vessel to the outside of the vessel. A portion of a cover gas (an inert gas such as argon) filled to the upper portion of the vessel intrudes into the space between the outer circumference of the sodium exit pipe and the inner circumference of the inner cylinder to form a heat insulation layer of the inert gas. This prevents heat exchange between the high temperature sodium before heat exchange and low temperature sodium after heat exchange. The heat exchanger is used as a secondary heat exchanger for coolants (sodium) of an FBR type reactor. (I.N.)

  6. Diagnostics of Coronal Heating in Solar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludra, Andrzej; Hornsey, Christopher; Nakariakov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    We aim to develop a diagnostic method for the coronal heating mechanism in active region loops. Observational constraints on coronal heating models have been sought using measurements in the X-ray and EUV wavelengths. Statistical analysis, using EUV emission from many active regions, was done by Fludra and Ireland (2008) who studied power-law relationships between active region integrated magnetic flux and emission line intensities. A subsequent study by Fludra and Warren (2010) for the first time compared fully resolved images in an EUV spectral line of OV 63.0 nm with the photospheric magnetic field, leading to the identification of a dominant, ubiquitous variable component of the transition region EUV emission and a discovery of a steady basal heating, and deriving the dependence of the basal heating rate on the photospheric magnetic flux density. In this study, we compare models of single coronal loops with EUV observations. We assess to what degree observations of individual coronal loops made in the EUV range are capable of providing constraints on the heating mechanism. We model the coronal magnetic field in an active region using an NLFF extrapolation code applied to a photospheric vector magnetogram from SDO/HMI and select several loops that match an SDO/AIA 171 image of the same active region. We then model the plasma in these loops using a 1D hydrostatic code capable of applying an arbitrary heating rate as a function of magnetic field strength along the loop. From the plasma parameters derived from this model, we calculate the EUV emission along the loop in AIA 171 and 335 bands, and in pure spectral lines of Fe IX 17.1 nm and Fe XVI 33.5 nm. We use different spatial distributions of the heating function: concentrated near the loop top, uniform and concentrated near the footpoints, and investigate their effect on the modelled EUV intensities. We find a diagnostics based on the dependence of the total loop intensity on the shape of the heating function

  7. Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear Rheology of Living Fibroblasts: Path-Dependent Steady States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Mathias; Dobicki, Heike; Ott, Albrecht

    2017-10-03

    Mechanical properties of biological cells play a role in cell locomotion, embryonic tissue formation, and tumor migration among many other processes. Cells exhibit a complex nonlinear response to mechanical cues that is not understood. Cells may stiffen as well as soften, depending on the exact type of stimulus. Here we apply large-amplitude oscillatory shear to a monolayer of separated fibroblast cells suspended between two plates. Although we apply identical steady-state excitations, in response we observe different typical regimes that exhibit cell softening or cell stiffening to varying degrees. This degeneracy of the cell response can be linked to the initial paths that the instrument takes to go from cell rest to steady state. A model of cross-linked, force-bearing filaments submitted to steady-state excitation renders the different observed regimes with minor changes in parameters if the filaments are permitted to self-organize and form different spatially organized structures. We suggest that rather than a complex viscoelastic or plastic response, the different observed regimes reflect the emergence of different steady-state cytoskeletal conformations. A high sensitivity of the cytoskeletal rheology and structure to minor changes in parameters or initial conditions enables a cell to respond to mechanical requirements quickly and in various ways with only minor biochemical intervention. Probing path-dependent rheological changes constitutes a possibly very sensitive assessment of the cell cytoskeleton as a possible tool for medical diagnosis. Our observations show that the memory of subtle differences in earlier deformation paths must be taken into account when deciphering the cell mechanical response to large-amplitude deformations. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Steady-state experiments on high performance, current profile control and long sustainment of LHCD plasmas on the superconducting tokamak TRIAM-1M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zushi, H.; Itoh, S.; Nakamura, K.; Sakamoto, M.; Hanada, K.; Jotaki, E.; Hasegawa, M.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Pan, Y.D.

    2001-01-01

    TRIAM-1M (R 0 =0.8m, axb=0.12mx0.18m and B=8T) has the main mission to study the route toward a high field compact steady state fusion reactor. We have advanced steady state operation (SSO) programme in tokamaks, studied a heating mechanism for the high ion temperature (HIT) mode with an internal transport barrier, obtained an enhanced current drive (ECD) mode in an extended (higher power and higher density) operation regime, performed current density profile control experiments using multi-current drive systems and investigated effects of wall recycling, wall pumping and wall saturation on particle control. In HIT mode a hysteresis relation between T i and n e is found to be ascribed to different timescales for T i and n e to change. Excitation of plasma waves corresponding to ion heating is studied by both measurements of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves and their analysis. Achieved plasma parameters in ECD are as follows; n e is 4.3x10 19 m -3 , I LHCD is ∼70kA, T e and T i are 0.8 keV and 0.5 keV, respectively, and the stored energy is 1.9 kJ. The energy confinement time τ E of 8-10 ms, H ITER89-P ∼ 1.4, is achieved and the current drive efficiency η CD =n-bar e I CD R 0 /P LH reaches 1x10 19 Am -2 /W at B=7 T under the fully non-inductive condition. Power threshold and hysteresis nature are studied. Bi-directional current drive and superposed current drive experiments have been carried out. In the former steady current reduction and peaking of j(r) are observed, but it is noticed that self-organization of j(r) occurs above a certain power ratio. In the latter broadening of j(r) can be obtained by increasing superposed RF power, however, self-organization of j(r) also occurs again at a certain power. Temporal behaviour of the recycling coefficient with two different time constants (∼3 s and ∼30 s) is analysed. The wall pumping rates are evaluated to be ∼1.5x10 16 atoms/s/m 2 for low n e and ∼4x10 17 atoms/s/m 2 for high n e , respectively

  9. Progress Towards High Performance, Steady-state Spherical Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Boedo, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Bush, C.; Choe, W.; Chrzanowski, J.; Darrow, D.S.; Diem, S.J.; Doerner, R.; Efthimion, P.C.; Ferron, J.R.; Fonck, R.J.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Garstka, G.D.; Gates, D.A.; Gray, T.; Grisham, L.R.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.W.; Hoffman, D.; Jarboe, T.R.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.M.; Kessel, C.; Kim, J.H.; Kissick, M.W.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.G.; Lewicki, B.T.; Luckhardt, S.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Maqueda, R.; Mau, T.K.; Mazzucato, E.; Medley, S.S.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B.A.; Neumeyer, C.; Nishino, N.; Ostrander, C.N.; Pacella, D.; Paoletti, F.; Park, H.K.; Park, W.; Paul, S.F.; Peng, Y.-K. M.; Phillips, C.K.; Pinsker, R.; Probert, P.H.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Redi, M.; Roquemore, A.L.; Rosenberg, A.; Ryan, P.M.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Schaffer, M.; Schooff, R.J.; Seraydarian, R.; Skinner, C.H.; Sontag, A.C.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Spaleta, J.; Stevenson, T.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.W.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Tang, X.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Tritz, K.L.; Unterberg, E.A.; Von Halle, A.; Wilgen, J.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J.R.; Xu, X.; Zweben, S.J.; Akers, R.; Barry, R.E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bialek, J.M.; Blagojevic, B.; Bonoli, P.T.; Carter, M.D.; Davis, W.; Deng, B.; Dudek, L.; Egedal, J.; Ellis, R.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Fredd, E.; Glasser, A.; Gibney, T.; Gilmore, M.; Goldston, R.J.; Hatcher, R.E.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Houlberg, W.; Harvey, R.; Jardin, S.C.; Hosea, J.C.; Ji, H.; Kalish, M.; Lowrance, J.; Lao, L.L.; Levinton, F.M.; Luhmann, N.C.; Marsala, R.; Mastravito, D.; Menon, M.M.; Mitarai, O.; Nagata, M.; Oliaro, G.; Parsells, R.; Peebles, T.; Peneflor, B.; Piglowski, D.; Porter, G.D.; Ram, A.K.; Rensink, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Roney, P.; Shaing, K.; Shiraiwa, S.; Sichta, P.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.C.; Vero, R.; Wampler, W.R.; Wurden, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    Research on the Spherical Torus (or Spherical Tokamak) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect-ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The Spherical Tours (ST) experiments are being conducted in various U.S. research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium-size ST research facilities: Pegasus at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the U.S., an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high-performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta (B), noninductive sustainment, ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values bT of up to 35% with the near unity central betaT have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where bT up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for noninductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta-poloidal regime, where discharges with a high noninductive fraction (∼60% bootstrap current + neutral-beam-injected current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency-based heating and current drive utilizing HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) and EBW (Electron Bernstein Wave) is also pursued on NSTX, Pegasus, and CDX-U. For noninductive start-up, the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI), developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been adopted

  10. Intracellular CHO Cell Metabolite Profiling Reveals Steady-State Dependent Metabolic Fingerprints in Perfusion Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst, Daniel J; Steinhoff, Robert F; Kopp, Marie R G; Serra, Elisa; Soos, Miroslav; Zenobi, Renato; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2017-07-01

    Perfusion cell culture processes allow the steady-state culture of mammalian cells at high viable cell density, which is beneficial for overall product yields and homogeneity of product quality in the manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. In this study, the extent of metabolic steady state and the change of the metabolite profile between different steady states of an industrial Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line producing a monoclonal antibody (mAb) was investigated in stirred tank perfusion bioreactors. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) of daily cell extracts revealed more than a hundred peaks, among which 76 metabolites were identified by tandem MS (MS/MS) and high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) MS. Nucleotide ratios (Uridine (U)-ratio, nucleotide triphosphate (NTP)-ratio and energy charge (EC)) and multivariate analysis of all features indicated a consistent metabolite profile for a stable culture performed at 40 × 10 6 cells/mL over 26 days of culture. Conversely, the reactor was operated continuously so as to reach three distinct steady states one after the other at 20, 60, and 40 × 10 6 cells/mL. In each case, a stable metabolite profile was achieved after an initial transient phase of approximately three days at constant cell density when varying between these set points. Clear clustering according to cell density was observed by principal component analysis, indicating steady-state dependent metabolite profiles. In particular, varying levels of nucleotides, nucleotide sugar, and lipid precursors explained most of the variance between the different cell density set points. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:879-890, 2017. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  11. Observation of Sensible and Latent Heat Fluxes Over a Mixed Savanna - Agricultural Catchment in the Semi-Arid Sudanian Savanna, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Van De Giesen, N.; Tyler, S. W.; Rinaldo, A.; Parlange, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    Evaporation and the surface energy balance over two land cover types in Sudanian savanna were investigated in terms of their seasonal and interannual variability using four years of eddy covariance measurement (2009-2013). The observations demonstrate the strong controls on evaporation by vegetation through modification of the surface roughness, albedo, and available moisture related to seasonal variations in land cover and topography. Two characteristic land uses of semi-arid West Africa (Burkina Faso) were monitored: agricultural fields and gallery forest. The sites receive around 800 mm of rain most years, typically between the months of May and October, with up to approximately 20% being transferred to runoff. Seasonal variation in all components of the energy balance was found to be greater over the agricultural landscape, the total latent energy flux over the gallery forest was higher by approximately 30%, and the evaporative fraction was more dependent on soil moisture in the agricultural fields. According to the diurnal behavior of the evaporative fraction, we isolate constant periods that we compare with measures of cloudy sky, NDVI and soil moisture. We identify predictors of diurnal variation of the evaporative fraction according to land cover, which allows incorporation of remote sensing and satellite data. Improved understanding of the variability of fluxes over diverse land cover will allow us to improve the estimation of evaporation to the atmosphere over the entire watershed. Ongoing outreach projects accompany this research to integrate findings with local knowledge to improve resilience of small-scale rain fed agriculture.

  12. Heat Pumps in Subarctic Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal heat pumps use the temperature difference between inside and outside areas to modify a refrigerant, either for heating or cooling. Doing so can lower the need for external heating energy for a household to some extent. The eventual impact depends on various factors, such as the external...... source for heating or cooling and the temperature difference. The use of geothermal heat pumps, and eventual benefits has not been studied in the context of frigid areas, such as in Iceland. In Iceland, only remote areas do not have access to district heating from geothermal energy where households may...... therefor benefit from using geothermal heat pumps. It is the intent of this study to explore the observed benefits of using geothermal heat pumps in Iceland, both financially and energetically. This study further elaborates on incentives provided by the Icelandic government. Real data was gathered from...

  13. Energy and exergy analysis of low temperature district heating network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    is designed to supply heating for 30 low energy detached residential houses. The network operational supply/return temperature is set as 55 °C/25 °C, which is in line with a pilot project carried out in Denmark. Two types of in-house substations are analyzed to supply the consumer domestic hot water demand......Low temperature district heating with reduced network supply and return temperature provides better match of the low quality building heating demand and the low quality heating supply from waste heat or renewable energy. In this paper, a hypothetical low temperature district heating network....... The space heating demand is supplied through floor heating in the bathroom and low temperature radiators in the rest of rooms. The network thermal and hydraulic conditions are simulated under steady state. A district heating network design and simulation code is developed to incorporate the network...

  14. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement described relates particularly to heat exchangers for use in fast reactor power plants, in which heat is extracted from the reactor core by primary liquid metal coolant and is then transferred to secondary liquid metal coolant by means of intermediate heat exchangers. One of the main requirements of such a system, if used in a pool type fast reactor, is that the pressure drop on the primary coolant side must be kept to a minimum consistent with the maintenance of a limited dynamic head in the pool vessel. The intermediate heat exchanger must also be compact enough to be accommodated in the reactor vessel, and the heat exchanger tubes must be available for inspection and the detection and plugging of leaks. If, however, the heat exchanger is located outside the reactor vessel, as in the case of a loop system reactor, a higher pressure drop on the primary coolant side is acceptable, and space restriction is less severe. An object of the arrangement described is to provide a method of heat exchange and a heat exchanger to meet these problems. A further object is to provide a method that ensures that excessive temperature variations are not imposed on welded tube joints by sudden changes in the primary coolant flow path. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  15. Direct Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Potential resources and applications of earth heat in the form of geothermal energy are large. United States direct uses amount to 2,100 MWt thermal and worldwide 8,850 MWt above a reference temperature of 35 degrees Celsius. Space and district heating are the major direct uses of geothermal energy. Equipment employed in direct use projects is of standard manufacture and includes downhole and circulation pumps, transmission and distribution pipelines, heat exchangers and convectors, heat pumps and chillers. Direct uses of earth heat discussed are space and district heating, greenhouse heating and fish farming, process and industrial applications. The economic feasibility of direct use projects is governed by site specific factors such as location of user and resource, resource quality, system load factor and load density, as well as financing. Examples are presented of district heating in Klamath Falls, and Elko. Further developments of direct uses of geothermal energy will depend on matching user needs to the resource, and improving load factors and load density.

  16. Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houze, Jr., Robert A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2013-11-13

    We examined cloud radar data in monsoon climates, using cloud radars at Darwin in the Australian monsoon, on a ship in the Bay of Bengal in the South Asian monsoon, and at Niamey in the West African monsoon. We followed on with a more in-depth study of the continental MCSs over West Africa. We investigated whether the West African anvil clouds connected with squall line MCSs passing over the Niamey ARM site could be simulated in a numerical model by comparing the observed anvil clouds to anvil structures generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model at high resolution using six different ice-phase microphysical schemes. We carried out further simulations with a cloud-resolving model forced by sounding network budgets over the Niamey region and over the northern Australian region. We have devoted some of the effort of this project to examining how well satellite data can determine the global breadth of the anvil cloud measurements obtained at the ARM ground sites. We next considered whether satellite data could be objectively analyzed to so that their large global measurement sets can be systematically related to the ARM measurements. Further differences were detailed between the land and ocean MCS anvil clouds by examining the interior structure of the anvils with the satellite-detected the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR). The satellite survey of anvil clouds in the Indo-Pacific region was continued to determine the role of MCSs in producing the cloud pattern associated with the MJO.

  17. Microwave emission above steady and moving sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, F. Chiuderi; Alissandrakis, C.; Hagyard, M.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional maps of radio brightness temperature and polarization, computed assuming thermal emission with free-free and gyroresonance absorption, are compared with observations of active region 2502, performed at Westerbork at lambda = 6.16 cm during a period of 3 days in June 1980. The computation is done assuming a homogeneous model in the whole field of view and a force-free extrapolation of the photospheric magnetic field observed at MSFC with a resolution of 2.34 arcsec. The mean results are the following: (1) a very good agreement is found above the large leading sunspot of the group, assuming a potential extrapolation of the magnetic field and a constant conductive flux in the transition region ranging from .2 x 10 to the 6th to 10 to the 7th erg/sq cm 5; (2) a strong radio source, associated with a new-born moving sunspot, cannot be ascribed to thermal emission. It is suggested that this source may be due to synchrotron radiation by mildly relativistic electrons accelerated by resistive instabilities occurring in the evolving magnetic configuration. An order-of-magnitude computation of the expected number of accelerated particles seems to confirm this hypothesis.

  18. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschliman, Dave [Indiana Inst. of Technology, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Lubbehusen, Mike [Indiana Inst. of Technology, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States)

    2015-06-30

    This project was initiated at a time when ground coupled heat pump systems in this region were limited in size and quantity. There were economic pressures with costs for natural gas and electric utilities that had many organizations considering ground coupled heat pumps; The research has added to the understanding of how ground temperatures fluctuate seasonally and how this affects the performance and operation of the heat pumps. This was done by using a series of temperature sensors buried within the middle of one of the vertical bore fields with sensors located at various depths below grade. Trending of the data showed that there is a lag in ground temperature with respect to air temperatures in the shoulder months, however as full cooling and heating season arrives, the heat rejection and heat extraction from the ground has a significant effect on the ground temps; Additionally it is better understood that while a large community geothermal bore field serving multiple buildings does provide a convenient central plant to use, it introduces complexity of not being able to easily model and predict how each building will contribute to the loads in real time. Additional controllers and programming were added to provide more insight into this real time load profile and allow for intelligent shedding of load via a dry cooler during cool nights in lieu of rejecting to the ground loop. This serves as a means to ‘condition’ the ground loop and mitigate thermal creep of the field, as is typically observed; and It has been observed when compared to traditional heating and cooling equipment, there is still a cost premium to use ground source heat pumps that is driven mostly by the cost for vertical bore holes. Horizontal loop systems are less costly to install, but do not perform as well in this climate zone for heating mode

  19. Muscle dynamics in fish during steady swimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shadwick, RE; Steffensen, JF; Katz, SL

    1998-01-01

    SYNOPSIS. Recent research in fish locomotion has been dominated by an interest in the dynamic mechanical properties of the swimming musculature. Prior observations have indicated that waves of muscle activation travel along the body of an undulating fish faster than the resulting waves of muscular...... position in swimming fish. Quantification of muscle contractile properties in cyclic contractions relies on in vitro experiments using strain and activation data collected in vivo. In this paper we discuss the relation between these parameters and body kinematics. Using videoradiographic data from swimming...... constant cross-section of red muscle along much of the body suggests that positive power for swimming is generated fairly uniformly along the length of the fish....

  20. Electron density measurement for steady state plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Yasunori; Chiba, Shinichi; Inoue, Akira

    2000-01-01

    Electron density of a large tokamak has been measured successfully by the tangential CO 2 laser polarimeter developed in JT-60U. The tangential Faraday rotation angles of two different wavelength of 9.27 and 10.6 μm provided the electron density independently. Two-color polarimeter concept for elimination of Faraday rotation at vacuum windows is verified for the first time. A system stability for long time operation up to ∼10 hours is confirmed. A fluctuation of a signal baseline is observed with a period of ∼3 hours and an amplitude of 0.4 - 0.7deg. In order to improve the polarimeter, an application of diamond window for reduction of the Faraday rotation at vacuum windows and another two-color polarimeter concept for elimination of mechanical rotation component are proposed. (author)

  1. Modeling Non-Steady Isotopologue and Isotopomer Speciation and Fractionation during Denitrification in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, F.; Riley, W. J.

    2009-12-01

    The composition and location of 15N atoms on N2O isotopomers and isotopologues during isotope speciation has been used to characterize soil biological N cycling and N2O surface emissions. Although there exist few experimental observations, no attempt has been made to model N2O isotopomer speciation. The mathematical treatment of biological kinetic reactions in isotopic applications normally makes use of first-order and quasi steady-state complexation assumptions without taking into account changes in enzyme concentration, reaction stoichiometry, and isotopologue and isotopomer speciation. When multiatomic isotopically-labeled reactants are used in a multi-molecurar reaction, these assumptions may fail since they always lead to a constant fractionation factor and cannot describe speciation of isotopologues and isotopomers. We have developed a mathematical framework that is capable of describing isotopologue and isotopmer speciation and fractionation under the assumption of non-steady complexation during biological kinetic reactions that overcome the limitations mentioned above. This framework was applied to a case study of non-steady (variable and inverse) isotopic effects observed during N2O production and consumption in soils. Our mathematical treatment has led to generalized kinetic equations which replicate experimental observations with high accuracy and help interpret non-steady isotopic effects and isotopologue and isotopomer speciation. The kinetic equations introduced and applied here have general validity in describing isotopic effects in any biochemical reactions by considering: changing enzyme concentrations, mass and isotope conservation, and reaction stoichiometry. The equations also describe speciation of any isotopologue and isotopomer product from any isotopologue and isotopmer reactant.

  2. Heat transfer analysis of underground U-type heat exchanger of ground source heat pump system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Guihong; Zhang, Liyin

    2016-01-01

    Ground source heat pumps is a building energy conservation technique. The underground buried pipe heat exchanging system of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) is the basis for the normal operation of an entire heat pump system. Computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation software, ANSYS-FLUENT17.0 have been performed the calculations under the working conditions of a continuous and intermittent operation over 7 days on a GSHP with a single-well, single-U and double-U heat exchanger and the impact of single-U and double-U buried heat pipes on the surrounding rock-soil temperature field and the impact of intermittent operation and continuous operation on the outlet water temperature. The influence on the rock-soil temperature is approximately 13 % higher for the double-U heat exchanger than that of the single-U heat exchanger. The extracted energy of the intermittent operation is 36.44 kw·h higher than that of the continuous mode, although the running time is lower than that of continuous mode, over the course of 7 days. The thermal interference loss and quantity of heat exchanged for unit well depths at steady-state condition of 2.5 De, 3 De, 4 De, 4.5 De, 5 De, 5.5 De and 6 De of sidetube spacing are detailed in this work. The simulation results of seven working conditions are compared. It is recommended that the side-tube spacing of double-U underground pipes shall be greater than or equal to five times of outer diameter (borehole diameter: 180 mm).

  3. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ-, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  4. Transient heat transfer for forced convection flow of helium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qiusheng; Fukuda, Katsuya; Sasaki, Kenji; Yamamoto, Manabu

    1999-01-01

    Transient heat transfer coefficients for forced convection flow of helium gas over a horizontal cylinder were measured using a forced convection test loop. The platinum heater with a diameter of 1.0 mm was heated by electric current with an exponential increase of Q 0 exp(t/τ). It was clarified that the heat transfer coefficient approaches the steady-state one for the period τ over 1 s, and it becomes higher for the period of τ shorter than 1 s. The transient heat transfer shows less dependent on the gas flowing velocity when the period becomes very shorter. Semi-empirical correlations for steady-state and transient heat transfer were developed based on the experimental data. (author)

  5. A mathematical model and numerical solution of interface problems for steady state heat conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Muradoglu Seyidmamedov

    2006-01-01

    (isolation Ωδ tends to zero. For each case, the local truncation errors of the used conservative finite difference scheme are estimated on the nonuniform grid. A fast direct solver has been applied for the interface problems with piecewise constant but discontinuous coefficient k=k(x. The presented numerical results illustrate high accuracy and show applicability of the given approach.

  6. Steady state temperature distribution in a circular corrugated domain with heat generation in the inner core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laura, P.A.A.; Bergmann, A.; Cortinez, V.H.

    1988-01-01

    The title problem is solved using two independent techniques: an approximate analytical solution based on conformal mapping of the thermally composite domain, a finite element formulation. Good agreement is found between the results predicted by both approaches. (orig.)

  7. Effect of steady-state faldaprevir on the pharmacokinetics of steady-state methadone and buprenorphine-naloxone in subjects receiving stable addiction management therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, David; Schobelock, Michael J; Riesenberg, Robert R; Vince, Bradley D; Webster, Lynn R; Adeniji, Abidemi; Elgadi, Mabrouk; Huang, Fenglei

    2015-01-01

    The effects of steady-state faldaprevir on the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of steady-state methadone and buprenorphine-naloxone were assessed in 34 healthy male and female subjects receiving stable addiction management therapy. Subjects continued receiving a stable oral dose of either methadone (up to a maximum dose of 180 mg per day) or buprenorphine-naloxone (up to a maximum dose of 24 mg-6 mg per day) and also received oral faldaprevir (240 mg) once daily (QD) for 8 days following a 480-mg loading dose. Serial blood samples were taken for pharmacokinetic analysis. The pharmacodynamics of the opioid maintenance regimens were evaluated by the objective and subjective opioid withdrawal scales. Coadministration of faldaprevir with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone resulted in geometric mean ratios for the steady-state area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC(0-24,ss)), the steady-state maximum concentration of the drug in plasma (C(max,ss)), and the steady-state concentration of the drug in plasma at 24 h (C(24,ss)) of 0.92 to 1.18 for (R)-methadone, (S)-methadone, buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and naloxone, with 90% confidence intervals including, or very close to including, 1.00 (no effect), suggesting a limited overall effect of faldaprevir. Although individual data showed moderate variability in the exposures between subjects and treatments, there was no evidence of symptoms of opiate overdose or withdrawal either during the coadministration of faldaprevir with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone or after faldaprevir dosing was stopped. Similar faldaprevir exposures were observed in the methadone- and buprenorphine-naloxone-treated subjects. In conclusion, faldaprevir at 240 mg QD can be coadministered with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone without dose adjustment, although given the relatively narrow therapeutic windows of these agents, monitoring for opiate overdose and withdrawal may still be appropriate. (This

  8. Thermodynamics and heat power

    CERN Document Server

    Granet, Irving

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental ConceptsIntroductionThermodynamic SystemsTemperatureForce and MassElementary Kinetic Theory of GasesPressureReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsWork, Energy, and HeatIntroductionWorkEnergyInternal EnergyPotential EnergyKinetic EnergyHeatFlow WorkNonflow WorkReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsFirst Law of ThermodynamicsIntroductionFirst Law of ThermodynamicsNonflow SystemSteady-Flow SystemApplications of First Law of ThermodynamicsReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsThe Second Law of ThermodynamicsIntroductionReversibility-Second Law of ThermodynamicsThe Carnot CycleEntropyReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsProperties of Liquids and GasesIntroductionLiquids and VaporsThermodynamic Properties of SteamComputerized PropertiesThermodynamic DiagramsProcessesReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsThe Ideal GasIntroductionBasic ConsiderationsSpecific Hea...

  9. Acoustically enhanced heat transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, Kar M.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K., E-mail: tan.ming.kwang@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor (Malaysia); Yeo, Leslie Y. [Micro/Nanophysics Research Laboratory, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Friend, James R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ∼ 10{sup 6} Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −9} m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −8} m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10{sup −8} m with 10{sup 6} Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.

  10. Acoustically enhanced heat transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Kar M.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ˜ 106 Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξs ˜ 10-9 m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξs ˜ 10-8 m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10-8 m with 106 Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.

  11. Paste heat exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-07-30

    The subject of coal paste heat exchangers is discussed in this letter report from Gelsenberg A.G. to I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G. Gelsenberg had given little consideration to the heating of coal paste by means of regeneration (heat exchange) because of the lack of experience in paste regeneration with bituminous coal, especially at 700 atmospheres. At the I.G. Farben plant at Poelitz, paste regeneration was carried out so that low concentration coal paste was heated in the regenerator together with the process gas, and the remaining coal was fed into the cold pass of the preheater in a thicker paste. Later tests proved this process viable. Gelsenberg heated normal coal paste and the gas in heat exchangers with the goal of relieving the preheater. Good results were achieved without change in design. The coal paste was heated with process gas in the regenerator at up to 315 degrees with constant pressure difference, so that after three months no decrease in K-values and no deposition or thickening was observed. Through the omission of paste gas, the pressure difference of the system became more constant and did not rise above the former level. The temperature also was more controllable, the chamber smoother running. Principal thermal data are given in a table. 1 table, 1 graph.

  12. Heat source versus heat sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aussourd, P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper is a presentation of the method by which Electricite de France proposes to satisfy industrial, urban or agricultural heat needs if these prove economically justified. The arguments in the paper demonstrate the usefulness of studies on heat take-off from standardised nuclear units. General principles for extracting heat from nuclear power stations and the limit to the amount of steam that may be tapped off each unit are discussed. A diagram describes the heat production from a nuclear power station and shows the steam take-off where it emerges from the steam generators with or without back-pressure turbine. The connection principle for heat production from several nuclear units, separate nuclear-unit circuits and one common user circuit, is presented. (M.S.)

  13. Validation of RSG-GAS Cooling System Model at Steady-State for the RELAP5.Mod3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukmanto-Dibyo; Endiah Puji-Hastuti

    2005-01-01

    To analyze the RSG-GAS system reactor could be performed by modelization of steady-state condition that is valid as a basic for transient condition. Validation step of RSG-GAS cooling system model is used for the RELAP5.Mod3. The validation is performed by comparing of experimental data with calculation result. The parameter in which compared are the primary cooling temperature, core temperature, secondary cooling temperature and cooling flow rate. Those data were taken on steady-state reactor operation of 25 MW. In modelization divided the Reactor core to be node of sub-channel, channel average heat flux and channel of by-pass. Meanwhile the secondary cooling systems are consisting of 2 lines. The steady-state condition has been obtained after convergent calculation achieved. Steady-state convergence of the RSG-GAS reactor coolant model achieved at the time of 3000 seconds. The result of validation model obtained and proven accurately with range deviation of 0.2 until 6.6%. (author)

  14. Effects of governing parameters on steady-state inter-wrapper flow in an LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Shoichi

    2001-01-01

    Hydraulic experiments were performed using a 1/8th scale rectangular model, based on a Japanese demonstration fast breeder reactor design, in order to study fundamental characteristics of interwrapper flows occurring under steady state conditions in an LMFBR. The steady state interwrapper flow of which direction was downward in the center region and upward in the peripheral region of a core barrel was observed because of the radial static pressure gradient in the upper part of the core barrel, produced by a core blockage effect resulting from an above core structure with a perforated skirt. Thermal stratification phenomena were moreover observed in the interwrapper region, created by the hot steady state interwrapper flow from an upper plenum and the cold leakage flow through the separated plate of the core barrel. The thermal interface was generated in higher part of the core barrel when the core blockage effect was smaller and Richardson number and the leakage flow rate ratio were larger. Significant temperature fluctuations occurred in the peripheral region of the core barrel, when the difference between the interface elevations in the center and peripheral regions of the core barrel was enough large. (author)

  15. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  16. Helicity of Convective Flows from Localized Heat Source in a Rotating Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanovskii A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and numerical study of the steady-state cyclonic vortex from isolated heat source in a rotating fluid layer is described. The structure of laboratory cyclonic vortex is similar to the typical structure of tropical cyclones from observational data and numerical modelling including secondary flows in the boundary layer. Differential characteristics of the flow were studied by numerical simulation using CFD software FlowVision. Helicity distribution in rotating fluid layer with localized heat source was analysed. Two mechanisms which play role in helicity generation are found. The first one is the strong correlation of cyclonic vortex and intensive upward motion in the central part of the vessel. The second one is due to large gradients of velocity on the periphery. The integral helicity in the considered case is substantial and its relative level is high.

  17. Mixed convection heat transfer simulation in a rectangular channel with a variable speed rotational cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Imran; Billah, Md. Mamun; Rahman, Mohammed Mizanur; Hasan, Mohammad Nasim

    2017-12-01

    Numerical simulation of steady two-dimensional heat transfer in a rectangular channel with a centered variable speed cylinder has been performed in this paper. In this setup, an isoflux heater is placed at the bottom wall of the channel while the upper wall is kept isothermal with a low temperature. The cylinder's peripheral speed to maximum inlet fluid velocity ratio (ξ) is varied from 0.5 to 1.5 for both clockwise and anticlockwise rotational cases. Air has been considered as working fluid while other system parameters such as Grashof and Reynolds numbers are varied. The effects of rotational speed, Grashof and Reynolds numbers on the streamline pattern, isothermal lines, local and average Nusselt number are analyzed and presented. It is observed the cylinder's rotational direction and speed has a significant effect on the flow pattern, temperature distribution as well as heat transfer characteristics.

  18. A steady-state model of the lunar ejecta cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Apostolos

    2014-05-01

    Every airless body in the solar system is surrounded by a cloud of ejecta produced by the impact of interplanetary meteoroids on its surface [1]. Such ``dust exospheres'' have been observed around the Galilean satellites of Jupiter [2,3]. The prospect of long-term robotic and human operations on the Moon by the US and other countries has rekindled interest on the subject [4]. This interest has culminated with the - currently ongoing - investigation of the Moon's dust exosphere by the LADEE spacecraft [5]. Here a model is presented of a ballistic, collisionless, steady state population of ejecta launched vertically at randomly distributed times and velocities and moving under constant gravity. Assuming a uniform distribution of launch times I derive closed form solutions for the probability density functions (pdfs) of the height distribution of particles and the distribution of their speeds in a rest frame both at the surface and at altitude. The treatment is then extended to particle motion with respect to a moving platform such as an orbiting spacecraft. These expressions are compared with numerical simulations under lunar surface gravity where the underlying ejection speed distribution is (a) uniform (b) a power law. I discuss the predictions of the model, its limitations, and how it can be validated against near-surface and orbital measurements.[1] Gault, D. Shoemaker, E.M., Moore, H.J., 1963, NASA TN-D 1767. [2] Kruger, H., Krivov, A.V., Hamilton, D. P., Grun, E., 1999, Nature, 399, 558. [3] Kruger, H., Krivov, A.V., Sremcevic, M., Grun, E., 2003, Icarus, 164, 170. [4] Grun, E., Horanyi, M., Sternovsky, Z., 2011, Planetary and Space Science, 59, 1672. [5] Elphic, R.C., Hine, B., Delory, G.T., Salute, J.S., Noble, S., Colaprete, A., Horanyi, M., Mahaffy, P., and the LADEE Science Team, 2014, LPSC XLV, LPI Contr. 1777, 2677.

  19. High heat flux tests on beryllium and beryllium-copper joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedig, M.; Duwe, R.; Linke, J.; Schuster, A.

    1997-01-01

    A large test program has been set up to evaluate the performance of beryllium as a plasma facing material for the divertor in thermonuclear fusion devices. Simulation of steady state heat loads of 5 MWm -2 and above on actively cooled divertor modules, and off-normal plasma conditions with energy densities in the range 1-7 MJm -2 , have been investigated. Thermal shock tests were carried out with the ITER reference grade S65-C and several Russian grades of beryllium. At incident energies up to 7 MJm -2 the best erosion behaviour is observed for S65-C and for TGP-56. Steady state heating tests with actively cooled Be/Cu mock-ups were performed at incident powers of up to 5.8 MWm -2 . All samples investigated in these tests did not show any indications of failure. A Be/Cu mock-ups with Incusil braze was loaded in thermal fatigue up to 500 cycles at an incident power of 4.8 MWm -2 . Up to the end of the experiment no temperature increase of the surface and no indication of failure was observed. (orig.)

  20. Heat and spin interconversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Yuichi; Matsuo, Mamoru; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Saitoh, Eeiji

    2017-01-01

    Spin Seebeck and spin Peltier effects, which are mutual conversion phenomena of heat and spin, are discussed on the basis of the microscopic theory. First, the spin Seebeck effect, which is the spin-current generation due to heat current, is discussed. The recent progress in research on the spin Seebeck effect are introduced. We explain the origin of the observed sign changes of the spin Seebeck effect in compensated ferromagnets. Next, the spin Peltier effect, which is the heat-current generation due to spin current, is discussed. Finally, we show that the spin Seebeck and spin Peltier effects are summarized by Onsager's reciprocal relation and derive Kelvin's relation for the spin and heat transports. (author)