International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karpp, R.R.
1984-01-01
The particle solution of the problem of the symmetric impact of two compressible fluid stream is derived. The plane two-dimensional flow is assumed to be steady, and the inviscid compressible fluid is of the Chaplygin (tangent gas) type. The equations governing this flow are transformed to the hodograph plane where an exact, closed-form solution for the stream function is obtained. The distribution of fluid properties along the plane of symmetry and the shape of free surface streamlines are determined by transformation back to the physical plane. The problem of a compressible fluid jet penetrating an infinite target of similar material is also solved by considering a limiting case of this solution. Differences between compressible and incompressible flows of the type considered are illustrated
Lee, Jeffrey M.
1999-01-01
This study establishes a consistent set of differential equations for use in describing the steady secondary flows generated by periodic compression and expansion of an ideal gas in pulse tubes. Also considered is heat transfer between the gas and the tube wall of finite thickness. A small-amplitude series expansion solution in the inverse Strouhal number is proposed for the two-dimensional axisymmetric mass, momentum and energy equations. The anelastic approach applies when shock and acoustic energies are small compared with the energy needed to compress and expand the gas. An analytic solution to the ordered series is obtained in the strong temperature limit where the zeroth-order temperature is constant. The solution shows steady velocities increase linearly for small Valensi number and can be of order I for large Valensi number. A conversion of steady work flow to heat flow occurs whenever temperature, velocity or phase angle gradients are present. Steady enthalpy flow is reduced by heat transfer and is scaled by the Prandtl times Valensi numbers. Particle velocities from a smoke-wire experiment were compared with predictions for the basic and orifice pulse tube configurations. The theory accurately predicted the observed steady streaming.
Introduction to compressible fluid flow
Oosthuizen, Patrick H
2013-01-01
IntroductionThe Equations of Steady One-Dimensional Compressible FlowSome Fundamental Aspects of Compressible FlowOne-Dimensional Isentropic FlowNormal Shock WavesOblique Shock WavesExpansion Waves - Prandtl-Meyer FlowVariable Area FlowsAdiabatic Flow with FrictionFlow with Heat TransferLinearized Analysis of Two-Dimensional Compressible FlowsHypersonic and High-Temperature FlowsHigh-Temperature Gas EffectsLow-Density FlowsBibliographyAppendices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karpp, R.R.
1980-10-01
This report treats analytically the problem of the symmetric impact of two compressible fluid streams. The flow is assumed to be steady, plane, inviscid, and subsonic and that the compressible fluid is of the Chaplygin (tangent gas) type. In the analysis, the governing equations are first transformed to the hodograph plane where an exact, closed-form solution is obtained by standard techniques. The distributions of fluid properties along the plane of symmetry as well as the shapes of the boundary streamlines are exactly determined by transforming the solution back to the physical plane. The problem of a compressible fluid jet penetrating into an infinite target of similar material is also exactly solved by considering a limiting case of this solution. This new compressible flow solution reduces to the classical result of incompressible flow theory when the sound speed of the fluid is allowed to approach infinity. Several illustrations of the differences between compressible and incompressible flows of the type considered are presented
Computation of steady and unsteady compressible quasi-axisymmetric vortex flow and breakdown
Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.
1991-01-01
The unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations are used to compute and analyze compressible quasi-axisymmetric isolated vortices. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting finite-volume scheme. The developed three-dimensional solver has been verified by comparing its solution profiles with those of a slender, quasi-axisymmetric vortex solver for a subsonic, isolated quasi-axisymmetric vortex in an unbounded domain. The Navier-Stokes solver is then used to solve for a supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex flow in a configured circular duct. Steady and unsteady vortex-shock interactions and breakdown have been captured. The problem has also been calculated using the Euler solver of the same code and the results are compared with those of the Navier-Stokes solver. The effect of the initial swirl has been tentatively studied.
On some Approximation Schemes for Steady Compressible Viscous Flow
Bause, M.; Heywood, J. G.; Novotny, A.; Padula, M.
This paper continues our development of approximation schemes for steady compressible viscous flow based on an iteration between a Stokes like problem for the velocity and a transport equation for the density, with the aim of improving their suitability for computations. Such schemes seem attractive for computations because they offer a reduction to standard problems for which there is already highly refined software, and because of the guidance that can be drawn from an existence theory based on them. Our objective here is to modify a recent scheme of Heywood and Padula [12], to improve its convergence properties. This scheme improved upon an earlier scheme of Padula [21], [23] through the use of a special ``effective pressure'' in linking the Stokes and transport problems. However, its convergence is limited for several reasons. Firstly, the steady transport equation itself is only solvable for general velocity fields if they satisfy certain smallness conditions. These conditions are met here by using a rescaled variant of the steady transport equation based on a pseudo time step for the equation of continuity. Another matter limiting the convergence of the scheme in [12] is that the Stokes linearization, which is a linearization about zero, has an inevitably small range of convergence. We replace it here with an Oseen or Newton linearization, either of which has a wider range of convergence, and converges more rapidly. The simplicity of the scheme offered in [12] was conducive to a relatively simple and clearly organized proof of its convergence. The proofs of convergence for the more complicated schemes proposed here are structured along the same lines. They strengthen the theorems of existence and uniqueness in [12] by weakening the smallness conditions that are needed. The expected improvement in the computational performance of the modified schemes has been confirmed by Bause [2], in an ongoing investigation.
One-dimensional model of steady, compressible channel flow with mass, momentum, and energy addition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnston, S.C.
1976-09-01
A one-dimensional model of steady, compressible channel flow with mass, momentum and energy addition is discussed. An exact solution to the governing equations was found and from it a similarity parameter relating dimensionless mass, momentum and energy addition identified. This similarity parameter is used to make two flows having different dimensionless mass, momentum and energy additions equivalent. Application of the similarity parameter to the LASL Intense Neutron Source experiment and the Sandia simulation of that experiment results in an expression relating the dimensionless mass addition of combustible gas required in the Sandia experiment to dimensionless energy addition in the LASL experiment. Results of the analysis indicate that the Sandia experiment can realistically simulate the energy addition in the LASL Intense Neutron Source experiment
Asymptotic stability of steady compressible fluids
Padula, Mariarosaria
2011-01-01
This volume introduces a systematic approach to the solution of some mathematical problems that arise in the study of the hyperbolic-parabolic systems of equations that govern the motions of thermodynamic fluids. It is intended for a wide audience of theoretical and applied mathematicians with an interest in compressible flow, capillarity theory, and control theory. The focus is particularly on recent results concerning nonlinear asymptotic stability, which are independent of assumptions about the smallness of the initial data. Of particular interest is the loss of control that sometimes results when steady flows of compressible fluids are upset by large disturbances. The main ideas are illustrated in the context of three different physical problems: (i) A barotropic viscous gas in a fixed domain with compact boundary. The domain may be either an exterior domain or a bounded domain, and the boundary may be either impermeable or porous. (ii) An isothermal viscous gas in a domain with free boundaries. (iii) A h...
Mathematical theory of compressible fluid flow
von Mises, Richard
2004-01-01
A pioneer in the fields of statistics and probability theory, Richard von Mises (1883-1953) made notable advances in boundary-layer-flow theory and airfoil design. This text on compressible flow, unfinished upon his sudden death, was subsequently completed in accordance with his plans, and von Mises' first three chapters were augmented with a survey of the theory of steady plane flow. Suitable as a text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students - as well as a reference for professionals - Mathematical Theory of Compressible Fluid Flow examines the fundamentals of high-speed flows, with
Numerical Solution of Compressible Steady Flows around the RAE 2822 Airfoil
Kryštůfek, P.; Kozel, K.
2014-03-01
The article presents results of a numerical solution of subsonic, transonic and supersonic flows described by the system of Navier-Stokes equations in 2D laminar compressible flows around the RAE 2822 airfoil. Authors used FVM multistage Runge-Kutta method to numerically solve the flows around the RAE 2822 airfoil.
Numerical Solution of Compressible Steady Flows around the NACA 0012 Airfoil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kozel K
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The article presents results of a numerical solution of subsonic and transonic flows described by the system of Navier-Stokes equations in 2D laminar compressible flows around the NACA 0012 airfoil. Authors used Runge-Kutta method to numerically solve the flows around the NACA 0012 airfoil.
Numerical Solution of Compressible Steady Flows around the RAE 2822 Airfoil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kryštůfek P.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The article presents results of a numerical solution of subsonic, transonic and supersonic flows described by the system of Navier-Stokes equations in 2D laminar compressible flows around the RAE 2822 airfoil. Authors used FVM multistage Runge-Kutta method to numerically solve the flows around the RAE 2822 airfoil.
Cheng, Jian; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Tiegang
2018-06-01
In this paper, a class of new high order reconstructed DG (rDG) methods based on the compact least-squares (CLS) reconstruction [23,24] is developed for simulating the two dimensional steady-state compressible flows on hybrid grids. The proposed method combines the advantages of the DG discretization with the flexibility of the compact least-squares reconstruction, which exhibits its superior potential in enhancing the level of accuracy and reducing the computational cost compared to the underlying DG methods with respect to the same number of degrees of freedom. To be specific, a third-order compact least-squares rDG(p1p2) method and a fourth-order compact least-squares rDG(p2p3) method are developed and investigated in this work. In this compact least-squares rDG method, the low order degrees of freedom are evolved through the underlying DG(p1) method and DG(p2) method, respectively, while the high order degrees of freedom are reconstructed through the compact least-squares reconstruction, in which the constitutive relations are built by requiring the reconstructed polynomial and its spatial derivatives on the target cell to conserve the cell averages and the corresponding spatial derivatives on the face-neighboring cells. The large sparse linear system resulted by the compact least-squares reconstruction can be solved relatively efficient when it is coupled with the temporal discretization in the steady-state simulations. A number of test cases are presented to assess the performance of the high order compact least-squares rDG methods, which demonstrates their potential to be an alternative approach for the high order numerical simulations of steady-state compressible flows.
Vortex breakdown of compressible swirling flows in a pipe
Lee, Harry; Rusak, Zvi; Wang, Shixiao
2017-11-01
The manifold of branches of steady and axisymmetric states of compressible subsonic swirling flows in a finite-length straight circular pipe are developed. The analysis is based on Rusak et al. (2015) nonlinear partial differential equation for the solution of the flow stream function in terms of the inlet flow total enthalpy, entropy and circulation functions. This equation reflects the complicated thermo-physical interactions in the flows. The flow problem is solved numerically using a finite difference approach with a penalty procedure for identifying vortex breakdown and wall-separation states. Several types of solutions are found and used to form the bifurcation diagram of steady compressible flows with swirl as the inlet swirl level is increased at a fixed inlet Mach number. Results are compared with predictions from the global analysis approach of Rusak et al. (2015). The computed results provide theoretical predictions of the critical swirl levels for the first appearance of vortex breakdown states as a function of the inlet Mach number. The shows the delay in the appearance of breakdown with increase of the inlet axial flow Mach number in the subsonic range of operation.
Numerical Solution of Inviscid Compressible Steady Flows around the RAE 2822 Airfoil
Kryštůfek, P.; Kozel, K.
2015-05-01
The article presents results of a numerical solution of subsonic, transonic and supersonic flows described by the system of Euler equations in 2D compressible flows around the RAE 2822 airfoil. Authors used FVM multistage Runge-Kutta method to numerically solve the flows around the RAE 2822 airfoil. The results are compared with the solution using the software Ansys Fluent 15.0.7.
Steady fall of isothermal, resistive-viscous, compressible fluid across magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Low, B. C., E-mail: low@ucar.edu [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States); Egan, A. K., E-mail: andrea.egan@colorado.edu [Barnard College, New York, New York 10027, USA and Department of Physics, Colorado University, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)
2014-06-15
This is a basic MHD study of the steady fall of an infinite, vertical slab of isothermal, resistive-viscous, compressible fluid across a dipped magnetic field in uniform gravity. This double-diffusion steady flow in unbounded space poses a nonlinear but numerically tractable, one-dimensional (1D) free-boundary problem, assuming constant coefficients of resistivity and viscosity. The steady flow is determined by a dimensionless number μ{sub 1} proportional to the triple product of the two diffusion coefficients and the square of the linear total mass. For a sufficiently large μ{sub 1}, the Lorentz, viscous, fluid-pressure, and gravitational forces pack and collimate the fluid into a steady flow of a finite width defined by the two zero-pressure free-boundaries of the slab with vacuum. The viscous force is essential in this collimation effect. The study conjectures that in the regime μ{sub 1}→0, the 1D steady state exists only for μ{sub 1}∈Ω, a spectrum of an infinite number of discrete values, including μ{sub 1} = 0 that corresponds to two steady states, the classical zero-resistivity static slab of Kippenhahn and Schlüter [R. Kippenhahn and A. Schlüter, Z. Astrophys. 43, 36 (1957)] and its recent generalization [B. C. Low et al., Astrophys. J. 755, 34 (2012)] to admit an inviscid resistive flow. The pair of zero-pressure boundaries of each of the μ{sub 1}→0 steady-state slabs are located at infinity. Computational evidence suggests that the Ω steady-states are densely distributed around μ{sub 1} = 0, as an accumulation point, but are sparsely separated by open intervals of μ{sub 1}-values for which the slab must be either time-dependent or spatially multi-dimensional. The widths of these intervals are vanishingly small as μ{sub 1}→0. This topological structure of physical states is similar to that described by Landau and Liftshitz [L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1959)] to explain the onset
Predicted and experimental steady and unsteady transonic flows about a biconvex airfoil
Levy, L. L., Jr.
1981-01-01
Results of computer code time dependent solutions of the two dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations and the results of independent experiments are compared to verify the Mach number range for instabilities in the transonic flow field about a 14 percent thick biconvex airfoil at an angle of attack of 0 deg and a Reynolds number of 7 million. The experiments were conducted in a transonic, slotted wall wind tunnel. The computer code included an algebraic eddy viscosity turbulence model developed for steady flows, and all computations were made using free flight boundary conditions. All of the features documented experimentally for both steady and unsteady flows were predicted qualitatively; even with the above simplifications, the predictions were, on the whole, in good quantitative agreement with experiment. In particular, predicted time histories of shock wave position, surface pressures, lift, and pitching moment were found to be in very good agreement with experiment for an unsteady flow. Depending upon the free stream Mach number for steady flows, the surface pressure downstream of the shock wave or the shock wave location was not well predicted.
Conjugate Compressible Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Ducts
Cross, M. F.
2011-01-01
A computational approach to modeling transient, compressible fluid flow with heat transfer in long, narrow ducts is presented. The primary application of the model is for analyzing fluid flow and heat transfer in solid propellant rocket motor nozzle joints during motor start-up, but the approach is relevant to a wide range of analyses involving rapid pressurization and filling of ducts. Fluid flow is modeled through solution of the spatially one-dimensional, transient Euler equations. Source terms are included in the governing equations to account for the effects of wall friction and heat transfer. The equation solver is fully-implicit, thus providing greater flexibility than an explicit solver. This approach allows for resolution of pressure wave effects on the flow as well as for fast calculation of the steady-state solution when a quasi-steady approach is sufficient. Solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations with source terms significantly reduces computational run times compared to general purpose computational fluid dynamics packages solving the Navier-Stokes equations with resolved boundary layers. In addition, conjugate heat transfer is more readily implemented using the approach described in this paper than with most general purpose computational fluid dynamics packages. The compressible flow code has been integrated with a transient heat transfer solver to analyze heat transfer between the fluid and surrounding structure. Conjugate fluid flow and heat transfer solutions are presented. The author is unaware of any previous work available in the open literature which uses the same approach described in this paper.
Solution of weakly compressible isothermal flow in landfill gas collection networks
Nec, Y.; Huculak, G.
2017-12-01
Pipe networks collecting gas in sanitary landfills operate under the regime of a weakly compressible isothermal flow of ideal gas. The effect of compressibility has been traditionally neglected in this application in favour of simplicity, thereby creating a conceptual incongruity between the flow equations and thermodynamic equation of state. Here the flow is solved by generalisation of the classic Darcy-Weisbach equation for an incompressible steady flow in a pipe to an ordinary differential equation, permitting continuous variation of density, viscosity and related fluid parameters, as well as head loss or gain due to gravity, in isothermal flow. The differential equation is solved analytically in the case of ideal gas for a single edge in the network. Thereafter the solution is used in an algorithm developed to construct the flow equations automatically for a network characterised by an incidence matrix, and determine pressure distribution, flow rates and all associated parameters therein.
Steady laminar flow of fractal fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balankin, Alexander S., E-mail: abalankin@ipn.mx [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Mena, Baltasar [Laboratorio de Ingeniería y Procesos Costeros, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sisal, Yucatán, 97355 (Mexico); Susarrey, Orlando; Samayoa, Didier [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico)
2017-02-12
We study laminar flow of a fractal fluid in a cylindrical tube. A flow of the fractal fluid is mapped into a homogeneous flow in a fractional dimensional space with metric induced by the fractal topology. The equations of motion for an incompressible Stokes flow of the Newtonian fractal fluid are derived. It is found that the radial distribution for the velocity in a steady Poiseuille flow of a fractal fluid is governed by the fractal metric of the flow, whereas the pressure distribution along the flow direction depends on the fractal topology of flow, as well as on the fractal metric. The radial distribution of the fractal fluid velocity in a steady Couette flow between two concentric cylinders is also derived. - Highlights: • Equations of Stokes flow of Newtonian fractal fluid are derived. • Pressure distribution in the Newtonian fractal fluid is derived. • Velocity distribution in Poiseuille flow of fractal fluid is found. • Velocity distribution in a steady Couette flow is established.
Schwarz-based algorithms for compressible flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tidriri, M.D. [ICASE, Hampton, VA (United States)
1996-12-31
To compute steady compressible flows one often uses an implicit discretization approach which leads to a large sparse linear system that must be solved at each time step. In the derivation of this system one often uses a defect-correction procedure, in which the left-hand side of the system is discretized with a lower order approximation than that used for the right-hand side. This is due to storage considerations and computational complexity, and also to the fact that the resulting lower order matrix is better conditioned than the higher order matrix. The resulting schemes are only moderately implicit. In the case of structured, body-fitted grids, the linear system can easily be solved using approximate factorization (AF), which is among the most widely used methods for such grids. However, for unstructured grids, such techniques are no longer valid, and the system is solved using direct or iterative techniques. Because of the prohibitive computational costs and large memory requirements for the solution of compressible flows, iterative methods are preferred. In these defect-correction methods, which are implemented in most CFD computer codes, the mismatch in the right and left hand side operators, together with explicit treatment of the boundary conditions, lead to a severely limited CFL number, which results in a slow convergence to steady state aerodynamic solutions. Many authors have tried to replace explicit boundary conditions with implicit ones. Although they clearly demonstrate that high CFL numbers are possible, the reduction in CPU time is not clear cut.
Effect of compressibility on the global stability of axisymmetric wake flows
Meliga , Philippe; Sipp , D.; Chomaz , Jean-Marc
2010-01-01
International audience; We study the linear dynamics of global eigenmodes in compressible axisymmetric wake flows, up to the high subsonic regime. We consider both an afterbody flow at zero angle of attack and a sphere, and find that the sequence of bifurcations destabilizing the axisymmetric steady flow is independent of the Mach number and reminiscent of that documented in the incompressible wake past a sphere and a disk (Natarajan & Acrivos, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 254, 1993, p. 323), hence s...
Solution of weakly compressible isothermal flow in landfill gas collection networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nec, Y [Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, British Columbia (Canada); Huculak, G, E-mail: cranberryana@gmail.com, E-mail: greg@gnhconsulting.ca [GNH Consulting, Delta, British Columbia (Canada)
2017-12-15
Pipe networks collecting gas in sanitary landfills operate under the regime of a weakly compressible isothermal flow of ideal gas. The effect of compressibility has been traditionally neglected in this application in favour of simplicity, thereby creating a conceptual incongruity between the flow equations and thermodynamic equation of state. Here the flow is solved by generalisation of the classic Darcy–Weisbach equation for an incompressible steady flow in a pipe to an ordinary differential equation, permitting continuous variation of density, viscosity and related fluid parameters, as well as head loss or gain due to gravity, in isothermal flow. The differential equation is solved analytically in the case of ideal gas for a single edge in the network. Thereafter the solution is used in an algorithm developed to construct the flow equations automatically for a network characterised by an incidence matrix, and determine pressure distribution, flow rates and all associated parameters therein. (paper)
Solution of weakly compressible isothermal flow in landfill gas collection networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nec, Y; Huculak, G
2017-01-01
Pipe networks collecting gas in sanitary landfills operate under the regime of a weakly compressible isothermal flow of ideal gas. The effect of compressibility has been traditionally neglected in this application in favour of simplicity, thereby creating a conceptual incongruity between the flow equations and thermodynamic equation of state. Here the flow is solved by generalisation of the classic Darcy–Weisbach equation for an incompressible steady flow in a pipe to an ordinary differential equation, permitting continuous variation of density, viscosity and related fluid parameters, as well as head loss or gain due to gravity, in isothermal flow. The differential equation is solved analytically in the case of ideal gas for a single edge in the network. Thereafter the solution is used in an algorithm developed to construct the flow equations automatically for a network characterised by an incidence matrix, and determine pressure distribution, flow rates and all associated parameters therein. (paper)
Melcher, Kevin J.
2006-01-01
This report provides a user guide for the Compressible Flow Toolbox, a collection of algorithms that solve almost 300 linear and nonlinear classical compressible flow relations. The algorithms, implemented in the popular MATLAB programming language, are useful for analysis of one-dimensional steady flow with constant entropy, friction, heat transfer, or shock discontinuities. The solutions do not include any gas dissociative effects. The toolbox also contains functions for comparing and validating the equation-solving algorithms against solutions previously published in the open literature. The classical equations solved by the Compressible Flow Toolbox are: isentropic-flow equations, Fanno flow equations (pertaining to flow of an ideal gas in a pipe with friction), Rayleigh flow equations (pertaining to frictionless flow of an ideal gas, with heat transfer, in a pipe of constant cross section.), normal-shock equations, oblique-shock equations, and Prandtl-Meyer expansion equations. At the time this report was published, the Compressible Flow Toolbox was available without cost from the NASA Software Repository.
Analysis of the transient compressible vapor flow in heat pipes
Jang, J. H.; Faghri, A.; Chang, W. S.
1989-01-01
The transient compressible one-dimensional vapor flow dynamics in a heat pipe is modeled. The numerical results are obtained by using the implicit non-iterative Beam-Warming finite difference method. The model is tested for simulated heat pipe vapor flow and actual vapor flow in cylindrical heat pipes. A good comparison of the present transient results for the simulated heat pipe vapor flow with the previous results of a two-dimensional numerical model is achieved and the steady state results are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The transient behavior of the vapor flow under subsonic, sonic, and supersonic speeds and high mass flow rates are successfully predicted. The one-dimensional model also describes the vapor flow dynamics in cylindrical heat pipes at high temperatures.
Analysis of the transient compressible vapor flow in heat pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang, J.H.; Faghri, A.; Chang, W.S.
1989-07-01
The transient compressible one-dimensional vapor flow dynamics in a heat pipe is modeled. The numerical results are obtained by using the implicit non-iterative Beam-Warming finite difference method. The model is tested for simulated heat pipe vapor flow and actual vapor flow in cylindrical heat pipes. A good comparison of the present transient results for the simulated heat pipe vapor flow with the previous results of a two-dimensional numerical model is achieved and the steady state results are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The transient behavior of the vapor flow under subsonic, sonic, and supersonic speeds and high mass flow rates are successfully predicted. The one-dimensional model also describes the vapor flow dynamics in cylindrical heat pipes at high temperatures
Analysis of the transient compressible vapor flow in heat pipe
Jang, Jong Hoon; Faghri, Amir; Chang, Won Soon
1989-01-01
The transient compressible one-dimensional vapor flow dynamics in a heat pipe is modeled. The numerical results are obtained by using the implicit non-iterative Beam-Warming finite difference method. The model is tested for simulated heat pipe vapor flow and actual flow in cylindrical heat pipes. A good comparison of the present transient results for the simulated heat pipe vapor flow with the previous results of a two-dimensional numerical model is achieved and the steady state results are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The transient behavior of the vapor flow under subsonic, sonic, and supersonic speeds and high mass flow rates are successfully predicted. The one-dimensional model also describes the vapor flow dynamics in cylindrical heat pipes at high temperatures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moawad, S. M.; Ibrahim, D. A.
2016-01-01
The equilibrium properties of three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are investigated. Incompressible and compressible flows are considered. The governing equations are taken in a steady state such that the magnetic field is parallel to the plasma flow. Equations of stationary equilibrium for both of incompressible and compressible MHD flows are derived and described in a mathematical mode. For incompressible MHD flows, Alfvénic and non-Alfvénic flows with constant and variable magnetofluid density are investigated. For Alfvénic incompressible flows, the general three-dimensional solutions are determined with the aid of two potential functions of the velocity field. For non-Alfvénic incompressible flows, the stationary equilibrium equations are reduced to two differential constraints on the potential functions, flow velocity, magnetofluid density, and the static pressure. Some examples which may be of some relevance to axisymmetric confinement systems are presented. For compressible MHD flows, equations of the stationary equilibrium are derived with the aid of a single potential function of the velocity field. The existence of three-dimensional solutions for these MHD flows is investigated. Several classes of three-dimensional exact solutions for several cases of nonlinear equilibrium equations are presented.
Steady turbulent flow in curved rectangular channels
De Vriend, H.J.
1979-01-01
After the study of fully developed and developing steady laminar flow in curved channels of shallow rectangular wet cross-section (see earlier reports in this series), steady turbulent flow in such channels is investigated as a next step towards a mathematical model of the flow in shallow river
Analysis of the one-dimensional transient compressible vapor flow in heat pipes
Jang, Jong H.; Faghri, Amir; Chang, Won S.
1991-01-01
The transient compressible one-dimensional vapor flow dynamics in a heat pipe is modeled. The numerical results are obtained by using the implicit non-iterative Beam-Warming finite difference method. The model is tested for simulated heat pipe vapor flow and actual vapor flow in cylindrical heat pipes. A good comparison of the present transient results for the simulated heat pipe vapor flow with the previous results of a two-dimensional numerical model is achieved and the steady state results are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The transient behavior of the vapor flow under subsonic, sonic, and supersonic speeds as well as high mass flow rates are successfully predicted.
Loss less real-time data compression based on LZO for steady-state Tokamak DAS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pujara, H.D.; Sharma, Manika
2008-01-01
The evolution of data acquisition system (DAS) for steady-state operation of Tokamak has been technology driven. Steady-state Tokamak demands a data acquisition system which is capable enough to acquire data losslessly from diagnostics. The needs of loss less continuous acquisition have a significant effect on data storage and takes up a greater portion of any data acquisition systems. Another basic need of steady state of nature of operation demands online viewing of data which loads the LAN significantly. So there is strong demand for something that would control the expansion of both these portion by a way of employing compression technique in real time. This paper presents a data acquisition systems employing real-time data compression technique based on LZO. It is a data compression library which is suitable for data compression and decompression in real time. The algorithm used favours speed over compression ratio. The system has been rigged up based on PXI bus and dual buffer mode architecture is implemented for loss less acquisition. The acquired buffer is compressed in real time and streamed to network and hard disk for storage. Observed performance of measure on various data type like binary, integer float, types of different type of wave form as well as compression timing overheads has been presented in the paper. Various software modules for real-time acquiring, online viewing of data on network nodes have been developed in LabWindows/CVI based on client server architecture
Compressibility, turbulence and high speed flow
Gatski, Thomas B
2013-01-01
Compressibility, Turbulence and High Speed Flow introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range, through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. The book provides the reader with the necessary background and current trends in the theoretical and experimental aspects of compressible turbulent flows and compressible turbulence. Detailed derivations of the pertinent equations describing the motion of such turbulent flows is provided and an extensive discussion of the various approaches used in predicting both free shear and wall bounded flows is presented. Experimental measurement techniques common to the compressible flow regime are introduced with particular emphasis on the unique challenges presented by high speed flows. Both experimental and numerical simulation work is supplied throughout to provide the reader with an overall perspective of current tre...
An Improved Ghost-cell Immersed Boundary Method for Compressible Inviscid Flow Simulations
Chi, Cheng
2015-05-01
This study presents an improved ghost-cell immersed boundary approach to represent a solid body in compressible flow simulations. In contrast to the commonly used approaches, in the present work ghost cells are mirrored through the boundary described using a level-set method to farther image points, incorporating a higher-order extra/interpolation scheme for the ghost cell values. In addition, a shock sensor is in- troduced to deal with image points near the discontinuities in the flow field. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is used to improve the representation of the geometry efficiently. The improved ghost-cell method is validated against five test cases: (a) double Mach reflections on a ramp, (b) supersonic flows in a wind tunnel with a forward- facing step, (c) supersonic flows over a circular cylinder, (d) smooth Prandtl-Meyer expansion flows, and (e) steady shock-induced combustion over a wedge. It is demonstrated that the improved ghost-cell method can reach the accuracy of second order in L1 norm and higher than first order in L∞ norm. Direct comparisons against the cut-cell method demonstrate that the improved ghost-cell method is almost equally accurate with better efficiency for boundary representation in high-fidelity compressible flow simulations. Implementation of the improved ghost-cell method in reacting Euler flows further validates its general applicability for compressible flow simulations.
Temperature measurement in a compressible flow field using laser-induced iodine fluorescence
Fletcher, D. G.; Mcdaniel, J. C.
1987-01-01
The thermometric capability of a two-line fluorescence technique using iodine seed molecules in air is investigated analytically and verified experimentally in a known steady compressible flow field. Temperatures ranging from 165 to 295 K were measured in the flowfield using two iodine transitions accessed with a 30-GHz dye-laser scan near 543 nm. The effect of pressure broadening on temperature measurement is evaluated.
Parameter scaling toward high-energy density in a quasi-steady flow Z-pinch
Hughes, M. C.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; Doty, S. A.; Forbes, E. G.; Kim, B.; Ross, M. P.
2016-10-01
Sheared axial flows are utilized by the ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Experiment to stabilize MHD instabilities. The pinches formed are 50 cm long with radii ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 cm. The plasma is generated in a coaxial acceleration region, similar to a Marshall gun, which provides a steady supply of plasma for approximately 100 us. The power to the plasma is partially decoupled between the acceleration and pinch assembly regions through the use of separate power supplies. Adiabatic scaling of the Bennett relation gives targets for future devices to reach high-energy density conditions or fusion reactors. The applicability of an adiabatic assumption is explored and work is done experimentally to clarify the plasma compression process, which may be more generally polytropic. The device is capable of a much larger parameter space than previous machine iterations, allowing flexibility in the initial conditions of the compression process to preserve stability. This work is supported by DoE FES and NNSA.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirani, E.; Zirak, S.
2001-01-01
Compressible flows for unsteady, inviscid and viscous cases have been studied. Important features of flows such as formation of shock waves across the flow in an unsteady flow as well as interaction of shock waves with boundary layers and their effects on the flow around the blades have been analyzed. Jameson control volume approach was used to spatially integrate the flow equations and the fourth order Runge-Kutta method was used for time integration. The obtained finite difference equations were used to simulate inviscid and viscous flows in V KI cascades and the effects of viscosity, angle of attack, bal de pitches and back pressure on the flow were obtained. It was shown that when the flow was assumed inviscid, the error on the distribution of pressure on the blades were about ten percent. Finally, unsteady flow were simulated and formation of shock waves and their motions were analyzed
Computation of compressible quasi-axisymmetric slender vortex flow and breakdown
Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.
1991-01-01
The unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations are used to compute and analyze compressible quasi-axisymmetric isolated vortices. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using an implicit, upwind, flux difference splitting finite volume scheme. The developed three dimensional solver was verified by comparing its solution profiles with those of a slender, quasi-axisymmetric vortex solver for a subsonic, quasi-axisymmetric vortex in an unbounded domain. The Navier-Stokes solver is then used to solve for a supersonic, quasi-axisymmetric vortex flow in a configured circular duct. Steady and unsteady vortex-shock interactions and breakdown were captured. The problem was also calculated using the Euler solver of the same code; the results were compared with those of the Navier-Stokes solver. The effect of the initial swirl was investigated.
Steady flow in shallow channel bends
De Vriend, H.J.
1981-01-01
Making use of a mathematical model solving the complete NavierStokes equations for steady flow in coiled rectangular pipes, fully-developed laminar flow in shallow curved channels is analysed physically and mathematically. Transverse convection of momentum by the secondary flow is shown to cause
McCue, Justin T; Cecchini, Douglas; Chu, Cathy; Liu, Wei-Han; Spann, Andrew
2007-03-23
A two-dimensional model was formulated to describe the pressure-flow behavior of compressible stationary phases for protein chromatography at different temperatures and column scales. The model was based on the assumption of elastic deformation of the solid phase and steady-state Darcy flow. Using a single fitted value for the empirical modulus parameters, the model was applied to describe the pressure-flow behavior of several adsorbents packed using both fluid flow and mechanical compression. Simulations were in agreement with experimental data and accurately predicted the pressure-flow and compression behavior of three adsorbents over a range of column scales and operating temperatures. Use of the described theoretical model potentially improves the accuracy of the column scale-up process, allowing the use of limited laboratory scale data to predict column performance in large scale applications.
Control volume based modelling of compressible flow in reciprocating machines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Thomsen, Per Grove; Carlsen, Henrik
2004-01-01
, and multidimensional effects must be calculated using empirical correlations; correlations for steady state flow can be used as an approximation. A transformation that assumes ideal gas is presented for transforming equations for masses and energies in control volumes into the corresponding pressures and temperatures......An approach to modelling unsteady compressible flow that is primarily one dimensional is presented. The approach was developed for creating distributed models of machines with reciprocating pistons but it is not limited to this application. The approach is based on the integral form of the unsteady...... conservation laws for mass, energy, and momentum applied to a staggered mesh consisting of two overlapping strings of control volumes. Loss mechanisms can be included directly in the governing equations of models by including them as terms in the conservation laws. Heat transfer, flow friction...
CCAN and TCAN - 1 1/2-D compressible-flow and time-dependent codes for conductor analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gierszewski, P.J.; Wan, A.S.; Yang, T.F.
1983-01-01
This report documents the computer programs CCAN (steady-state Compressible flow Conductor ANalysis) and TCAN (Time-dependent incompressible-flow Conductor ANalysis). These codes calculate temperature, pressure, power and other engineering quantities along the length of an actively-cooled electrical conductor. Present versions contain detailed property information for copper and aluminum conductors; and gaseous helium, liquid nitrogen and water coolants. CCAN and TCAN are available on the NMFECC CDC 7600
Efficient multigrid computation of steady hypersonic flows
Koren, B.; Hemker, P.W.; Murthy, T.K.S.
1991-01-01
In steady hypersonic flow computations, Newton iteration as a local relaxation procedure and nonlinear multigrid iteration as an acceleration procedure may both easily fail. In the present chapter, same remedies are presented for overcoming these problems. The equations considered are the steady,
Compressibility, turbulence and high speed flow
Gatski, Thomas B
2009-01-01
This book introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. For the computation of turbulent compressible flows, current methods of averaging and filtering are presented so that the reader is exposed to a consistent development of applicable equation sets for both the mean or resolved fields as well as the transport equations for the turbulent stress field. For the measurement of turbulent compressible flows, current techniques ranging from hot-wire anemometry to PIV are evaluated and limitations assessed. Characterizing dynamic features of free shear flows, including jets, mixing layers and wakes, and wall-bounded flows, including shock-turbulence and shock boundary-layer interactions, obtained from computations, experiments and simulations are discussed. Key features: * Describes prediction methodologies in...
Large Eddy Simulation for Compressible Flows
Garnier, E; Sagaut, P
2009-01-01
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of compressible flows is still a widely unexplored area of research. The authors, whose books are considered the most relevant monographs in this field, provide the reader with a comprehensive state-of-the-art presentation of the available LES theory and application. This book is a sequel to "Large Eddy Simulation for Incompressible Flows", as most of the research on LES for compressible flows is based on variable density extensions of models, methods and paradigms that were developed within the incompressible flow framework. The book addresses both the fundamentals and the practical industrial applications of LES in order to point out gaps in the theoretical framework as well as to bridge the gap between LES research and the growing need to use it in engineering modeling. After introducing the fundamentals on compressible turbulence and the LES governing equations, the mathematical framework for the filtering paradigm of LES for compressible flow equations is established. Instead ...
Steady flow torques in a servo motor operated rotary directional control valve
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, He; Gong, Guofang; Zhou, Hongbin; Wang, Wei
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A novel servo motor operated rotary directional control valve is proposed. • Steady flow torque is a crucial issue that affects rotary valve performance. • Steady flow torque is analyzed on the aspects of theory, simulation and experiment. • Change law of the steady flow torque with spool rotation angle is explored. • Effect of pressure drop and flow rate on the steady flow torque is studied. - Abstract: In this paper, a servo motor operated rotary directional control valve is proposed, and a systematic analysis of steady flow torques in this valve is provided by theoretical calculation, CFD simulation and experimental test. In the analysis, spool rotation angle corresponding to the maximum orifice opening is tagged as 0°. Over a complete change cycle of the orifice, the range of spool rotation angle is symmetric about 0°. The results show that the direction of steady flow torques in this valve is always the direction of orifice closing. The steady flow torques serve as resistances to the spool rotation when the orifice opening increases, while impetuses to the spool rotation when the orifice opening decreases. At a certain pressure drop or flow rate, steady flow torques are approximately equal and opposite when at spool rotation angles which are symmetric about 0°. When the spool rotates from 0°, at a certain pressure drop, their values increase first then decrease with the spool rotation and reach their maximum values at an angle corresponding to about 1/2 of the maximum orifice opening, and at a certain flow rate, their values increase with the spool rotation. The steady flow torques in this valve are the sums of those in the meter-in and meter-out valve chambers. At a certain spool rotation angle, steady flow torques in the meter-in and meter-out valve chambers are approximately proportional to the pressure drop and the second power of the flow rate through the orifice. Theoretical calculation and CFD simulation can be validated by
Computation of tokamak equilibria with steady flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerner, W.; Tokuda, Shinji
1987-08-01
The equations for ideal MHD equilibria with stationary flow are reexamined and addressed as numerically applied to tokamak configurations with a free plasma boundary. Both the isothermal (purely toroidal flow) and the poloidal flow cases are treated. Experiment-relevant states with steady flow (so far only in the toroidal direction) are computed by the modified SELENE40 code. (author)
Analysis of compressible light dynamic stall flow at transitional Reynolds numbers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dyken, R.D. Van; Ekaterinaris, John A.; Chandrasekhara, M.S.
1996-01-01
Numerical and experimental results of steady and light dynamic stall flow over an oscillating NACA 0012 airfoil at a freestream Mach number of 0.3 and Reynolds number of 0.54 x 10(6) are compared, The experimental observation that dynamic stall is induced from the bursting of a laminar separation...... point is specified suitably and a simple transition length model is incorporated to determine the extent of the laminar separation bubble. The thin-layer approximations of compressible, Reynolds-averaged, Navier-Stokes equations are used for the numerical solution, with an implicit, upwind-biased, third...
Inertial Waves and Steady Flows in a Liquid Filled Librating Cylinder
Subbotin, Stanislav; Dyakova, Veronika
2018-05-01
The fluid flow in a non-uniformly rotating (librating) cylinder about a horizontal axis is experimentally studied. In the absence of librations the fluid performs a solid-body rotation together with the cavity. Librations lead to the appearance of steady zonal flow in the whole cylinder and the intensive steady toroidal flows near the cavity corners. If the frequency of librations is twice lower than the mean rotation rate the inertial waves are excited. The oscillating motion associated with the propagation of inertial wave in the fluid bulk leads to the appearance of an additional steady flow in the Stokes boundary layers on the cavity side wall. In this case the heavy particles of the visualizer are assembled on the side wall into ring structures. The patterns are determined by the structure of steady flow, which in turn depends on the number of reflections of inertial wave beams from the cavity side wall. For some frequencies, inertial waves experience spatial resonance, resulting in inertial modes, which are eigenmodes of the cavity geometry. The resonance of the inertial modes modifies the steady flow structure close to the boundary layer that is manifested in the direct rebuilding of patterns. It is shown that the intensity of zonal flow, as well as the intensity of steady flows excited by inertial waves, is proportional to the square of the amplitude of librations.
Steady flow in shallow channel bends
De Vriend, H.J.
1981-01-01
Making use of a mathematical model solving the complete NavierStokes equations for steady flow in coiled rectangular pipes, fully-developed laminar flow in shallow curved channels is analysed physically and mathematically. Transverse convection of momentum by the secondary flow is shown to cause important deformations of the main velocity distribution. The model is also used to investigate simplified computation methods for shallow channels. The usual 'shallow water approximation' is shown to...
Compressible turbulent flows: aspects of prediction and analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Friedrich, R. [TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Fachgebiet Stroemungsmechanik
2007-03-15
Compressible turbulent flows are an important element of high-speed flight. Boundary layers developing along fuselage and wings of an aircraft and along engine compressor and turbine blades are compressible and mostly turbulent. The high-speed flow around rockets and through rocket nozzles involves compressible turbulence and flow separation. Turbulent mixing and combustion in scramjet engines is another example where compressibility dominates the flow physics. Although compressible turbulent flows have attracted researchers since the fifties of the last century, they are not completely understood. Especially interactions between compressible turbulence and combustion lead to challenging, yet unsolved problems. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large-eddy simulation (LES) represent modern powerful research tools which allow to mimic such flows in great detail and to analyze underlying physical mechanisms, even those which cannot be accessed by the experiment. The present lecture provides a short description of these tools and some of their numerical characteristics. It then describes DNS and LES results of fully-developed channel and pipe flow and highlights effects of compressibility on the turbulence structure. The analysis of pressure fluctuations in such flows with isothermal cooled walls leads to the conclusion that the pressure-strain correlation tensor decreases in the wall layer and that the turbulence anisotropy increases, since the mean density falls off relative to the incompressible flow case. Similar increases in turbulence anisotropy due to compressibility are observed in inert and reacting temporal mixing layers. The nature of the pressure fluctuations is however two-facetted. While inert compressible mixing layers reveal wave-propagation effects in the pressure and density fluctuations, compressible reacting mixing layers seem to generate pressure fluctuations that are controlled by the time-rate of change of heat release and mean density
Perbandingan Hasil Pemodelan Aliran Satu Dimensi Unsteady Flow dan Steady Flow pada Banjir Kota
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Tigor Oktaga
2016-06-01
Full Text Available One dimensional flow is often used as a flood simulation for the planning capacity of the river. Flood is a type of unsteady non-uniform flow, that can be simulated using HEC-RAS. HEC-RAS software is often used for flood modeling with a one-dimensional flow method. Unsteady flow modeling results in HEC-RAS sometimes refer to error and warning due to unstable analysis program. The stability program among others influenced bend in the river flow, the steep slope of the river bottom, and changes in cross-section shape. Because the flood handling required maximum discharge and maximum flood water level, then a steady flow is often used as an alternative to simulate the flood flow. This study aimed to determine the advantages and disadvantages of modeling unsteady non-uniform and steady non-uniform flow. The research location in the Kanal Banjir Barat, in the Semarang City. Hydraulics modeling uses HEC-RAS 4.1 and for discharge the plan is obtained from the HEC-HMS 3.5. Results of the comparison modeling hydraulics the modeling of steady non-uniform flow has a tendency water level is higher and modeling of unsteady non-uniform flow takes longer to analyze. Results of the comparison the average flood water level maximun is less than 15% (± 0,3 meters, that is 0.27 meters (13.16% for Q50, 0.25 meters (11.56% for Q100, dan 0.16 meters (4.73% for Q200. So the modeling steady non-uniform flow can still be used as a companion version the modeling unsteady non-uniform flow.
Numerical method for three dimensional steady-state two-phase flow calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raymond, P.; Toumi, I.
1992-01-01
This paper presents the numerical scheme which was developed for the FLICA-4 computer code to calculate three dimensional steady state two phase flows. This computer code is devoted to steady state and transient thermal hydraulics analysis of nuclear reactor cores 1,3 . The first section briefly describes the FLICA-4 flow modelling. Then in order to introduce the numerical method for steady state computations, some details are given about the implicit numerical scheme based upon an approximate Riemann solver which was developed for calculation of flow transients. The third section deals with the numerical method for steady state computations, which is derived from this previous general scheme and its optimization. We give some numerical results for steady state calculations and comparisons on required CPU time and memory for various meshing and linear system solvers
Application of PDF methods to compressible turbulent flows
Delarue, B. J.; Pope, S. B.
1997-09-01
A particle method applying the probability density function (PDF) approach to turbulent compressible flows is presented. The method is applied to several turbulent flows, including the compressible mixing layer, and good agreement is obtained with experimental data. The PDF equation is solved using a Lagrangian/Monte Carlo method. To accurately account for the effects of compressibility on the flow, the velocity PDF formulation is extended to include thermodynamic variables such as the pressure and the internal energy. The mean pressure, the determination of which has been the object of active research over the last few years, is obtained directly from the particle properties. It is therefore not necessary to link the PDF solver with a finite-volume type solver. The stochastic differential equations (SDE) which model the evolution of particle properties are based on existing second-order closures for compressible turbulence, limited in application to low turbulent Mach number flows. Tests are conducted in decaying isotropic turbulence to compare the performances of the PDF method with the Reynolds-stress closures from which it is derived, and in homogeneous shear flows, at which stage comparison with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data is conducted. The model is then applied to the plane compressible mixing layer, reproducing the well-known decrease in the spreading rate with increasing compressibility. It must be emphasized that the goal of this paper is not as much to assess the performance of models of compressibility effects, as it is to present an innovative and consistent PDF formulation designed for turbulent inhomogeneous compressible flows, with the aim of extending it further to deal with supersonic reacting flows.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Sun Ho [Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Shin Hyung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-08-15
Incompressible flow solvers are generally used for numerical analysis of cavitating flows, but with limitations in handling compressibility effects on vapor phase. To study compressibility effects on vapor phase and cavity interface, pressure-based incompressible and isothermal compressible flow solvers based on a cell-centered finite volume method were developed using the OpenFOAM libraries. To validate the solvers, cavitating flow around a hemispherical head-form body was simulated and validated against the experimental data. The cavity shedding behavior, length of a re-entrant jet, drag history, and the Strouhal number were compared between the two solvers. The results confirmed that computations of the cavitating flow including compressibility effects improved the reproduction of cavitation dynamics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry
2003-04-01
A new semi-implicit pressure-based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) scheme for simulating a wide range of transient and steady, inviscid and viscous compressible flow on unstructured finite elements is presented here. This new CFD scheme, termed the PCICEFEM (Pressure-Corrected ICE-Finite Element Method) scheme, is composed of three computational phases, an explicit predictor, an elliptic pressure Poisson solution, and a semiimplicit pressure-correction of the flow variables. The PCICE-FEM scheme is capable of second-order temporal accuracy by incorporating a combination of a time-weighted form of the two-step Taylor-Galerkin Finite Element Method scheme as an explicit predictor for the balance of momentum equations and the finite element form of a time-weighted trapezoid rule method for the semi-implicit form of the governing hydrodynamic equations. Second-order spatial accuracy is accomplished by linear unstructured finite element discretization. The PCICE-FEM scheme employs Flux-Corrected Transport as a high-resolution filter for shock capturing. The scheme is capable of simulating flows from the nearly incompressible to the high supersonic flow regimes. The PCICE-FEM scheme represents an advancement in mass-momentum coupled, pressurebased schemes. The governing hydrodynamic equations for this scheme are the conservative form of the balance of momentum equations (Navier-Stokes), mass conservation equation, and total energy equation. An operator splitting process is performed along explicit and implicit operators of the semi-implicit governing equations to render the PCICE-FEM scheme in the class of predictor-corrector schemes. The complete set of semi-implicit governing equations in the PCICE-FEM scheme are cast in this form, an explicit predictor phase and a semi-implicit pressure-correction phase with the elliptic pressure Poisson solution coupling the predictor-corrector phases. The result of this predictor-corrector formulation is that the pressure Poisson
Well balancing of the SWE schemes for moving-water steady flows
Caleffi, Valerio; Valiani, Alessandro
2017-08-01
In this work, the exact reproduction of a moving-water steady flow via the numerical solution of the one-dimensional shallow water equations is studied. A new scheme based on a modified version of the HLLEM approximate Riemann solver (Dumbser and Balsara (2016) [18]) that exactly preserves the total head and the discharge in the simulation of smooth steady flows and that correctly dissipates mechanical energy in the presence of hydraulic jumps is presented. This model is compared with a selected set of schemes from the literature, including models that exactly preserve quiescent flows and models that exactly preserve moving-water steady flows. The comparison highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches. In particular, the results show that the increase in accuracy in the steady state reproduction is counterbalanced by a reduced robustness and numerical efficiency of the models. Some solutions to reduce these drawbacks, at the cost of increased algorithm complexity, are presented.
On the One-Dimensional Steady and Unsteady Porous Flow Equation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, O. H.; Burcharth, H. F.
1995-01-01
Porous flow in coarse granular media is discussed theoretically with special concern given to the variation of the flow resistance with the porosity. For steady state flow, the Navier-Stokes equation is applied as a basis for the derivations. A turbulent flow equation is suggested. Alternative...... derivations based on dimensional analysis and a pipe analogy, respectively, are discussed. For non-steady state flow, the derivations are based on a cylinder/sphere analogy leading to a virtual mass coefficient. For the fully turbulent flow regime, existing experimental data values of the quadratic flow...... resistance coefficients are presented. Moreover, a simple formula for estimation of the turbulent flow coefficient is given. Virtual mass coefficients based on existing data are presented, however, no definite conclusions can be given due to the scarce data available....
Linear and nonlinear stability criteria for compressible MHD flows in a gravitational field
Moawad, S. M.; Moawad
2013-10-01
The equilibrium and stability properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of compressible flow in a gravitational field with a translational symmetry are investigated. Variational principles for the steady-state equations are formulated. The MHD equilibrium equations are obtained as critical points of a conserved Lyapunov functional. This functional consists of the sum of the total energy, the mass, the circulation along field lines (cross helicity), the momentum, and the magnetic helicity. In the unperturbed case, the equilibrium states satisfy a nonlinear second-order partial differential equation (PDE) associated with hydrodynamic Bernoulli law. The PDE can be an elliptic or a parabolic equation depending on increasing the poloidal flow speed. Linear and nonlinear Lyapunov stability conditions under translational symmetric perturbations are established for the equilibrium states.
Steady state flow evaluations for passive auxiliary feedwater system of APR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jongha; Kim, Jaeyul; Seong, Hoje; Kang, Kyoungho
2012-01-01
This paper briefly introduces a methodology to evaluate steady state flow of APR+ Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS). The PAFS is being developed as a safety grade passive system to completely replace the existing active Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS). Natural circulation cooling can be generally classified into the single-phase, two-phase, and boiling-condensation modes. The PAF is designed to be operated in a boiling-condensation natural circulation mode. The steady-state flow rate should be equal to the steady-state boiling/condensation rate determined by the steady-state energy and momentum balances in the PAFS. The determined steady-state flow rate can be used in the design optimization for the natural circulation loop of the PAFS through the steady-state momentum balance. Since the retarding force, which is to be balanced by the driving force in the natural circulation system design depends on the reliable evaluation of the success of a natural circulation system design depends on the reliable evaluation of the pressure loss coefficients. In PAFS, the core decay heat is released by natural circulation flow between the S G secondary side and the Passive Condensation Heat Exchanger (PCHX) that is immersed in the Passive Condensation Cooling Tank (PCCT). The PCCT is located on the top of Auxiliary building The driving force is determined by the difference between the S/G (heat Source) secondary water level and condensation liquid (heat sink) level. It will overcome retarding force at flowrate in the system, which is determined by vaporization and condensation of the steam which is generated at the S/G by the latent heat in system. In this study, the theoretical method to estimate the steady state flow rate in boiling-condensation natural circulation system is developed and compared with test results
Rubinato, Matteo; Martins, Ricardo; Kesserwani, Georges; Leandro, Jorge; Djordjević, Slobodan; Shucksmith, James
2017-09-01
The linkage between sewer pipe flow and floodplain flow is recognised to induce an important source of uncertainty within two-dimensional (2D) urban flood models. This uncertainty is often attributed to the use of empirical hydraulic formulae (the one-dimensional (1D) weir and orifice steady flow equations) to achieve data-connectivity at the linking interface, which require the determination of discharge coefficients. Because of the paucity of high resolution localised data for this type of flows, the current understanding and quantification of a suitable range for those discharge coefficients is somewhat lacking. To fulfil this gap, this work presents the results acquired from an instrumented physical model designed to study the interaction between a pipe network flow and a floodplain flow. The full range of sewer-to-surface and surface-to-sewer flow conditions at the exchange zone are experimentally analysed in both steady and unsteady flow regimes. Steady state measured discharges are first analysed considering the relationship between the energy heads from the sewer flow and the floodplain flow; these results show that existing weir and orifice formulae are valid for describing the flow exchange for the present physical model, and yield new calibrated discharge coefficients for each of the flow conditions. The measured exchange discharges are also integrated (as a source term) within a 2D numerical flood model (a finite volume solver to the 2D Shallow Water Equations (SWE)), which is shown to reproduce the observed coefficients. This calibrated numerical model is then used to simulate a series of unsteady flow tests reproduced within the experimental facility. Results show that the numerical model overestimated the values of mean surcharge flow rate. This suggests the occurrence of additional head losses in unsteady conditions which are not currently accounted for within flood models calibrated in steady flow conditions.
Stratified steady and unsteady two-phase flows between two parallel plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sim, Woo Gun
2006-01-01
To understand fluid dynamic forces acting on a structure subjected to two-phase flow, it is essential to get detailed information about the characteristics of two-phase flow. Stratified steady and unsteady two-phase flows between two parallel plates have been studied to investigate the general characteristics of the flow related to flow-induced vibration. Based on the spectral collocation method, a numerical approach has been developed for the unsteady two-phase flow. The method is validated by comparing numerical result to analytical one given for a simple harmonic two-phase flow. The flow parameters for the steady two-phase flow, such as void fraction and two-phase frictional multiplier, are evaluated. The dynamic characteristics of the unsteady two-phase flow, including the void fraction effect on the complex unsteady pressure, are illustrated
Steady flow in a rotating sphere with strong precession
Kida, Shigeo
2018-04-01
The steady flow in a rotating sphere is investigated by asymptotic analysis in the limit of strong precession. The whole spherical body is divided into three regions in terms of the flow characteristics: the critical band, which is the close vicinity surrounding the great circle perpendicular to the precession axis, the boundary layer, which is attached to the whole sphere surface and the inviscid region that occupies the majority of the sphere. The analytic expressions, in the leading order of the asymptotic expansion, of the velocity field are obtained in the former two, whereas partial differential equations for the velocity field are derived in the latter, which are solved numerically. This steady flow structure is confirmed by the corresponding direct numerical simulation.
Numerical Simulation of Steady Supercavitating Flows
Ali Jafarian; Ahmad-Reza Pishevar
2016-01-01
In this research, the Supercavitation phenomenon in compressible liquid flows is simulated. The one-fluid method based on a new exact two-phase Riemann solver is used for modeling. The cavitation is considered as an isothermal process and a consistent equation of state with the physical behavior of the water is used. High speed flow of water over a cylinder and a projectile are simulated and the results are compared with the previous numerical and experimental results. The cavitation bubble p...
Acceleration methods for multi-physics compressible flow
Peles, Oren; Turkel, Eli
2018-04-01
In this work we investigate the Runge-Kutta (RK)/Implicit smoother scheme as a convergence accelerator for complex multi-physics flow problems including turbulent, reactive and also two-phase flows. The flows considered are subsonic, transonic and supersonic flows in complex geometries, and also can be either steady or unsteady flows. All of these problems are considered to be a very stiff. We then introduce an acceleration method for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. We start with the multigrid method for pure subsonic flow, including reactive flows. We then add the Rossow-Swanson-Turkel RK/Implicit smoother that enables performing all these complex flow simulations with a reasonable CFL number. We next discuss the RK/Implicit smoother for time dependent problem and also for low Mach numbers. The preconditioner includes an intrinsic low Mach number treatment inside the smoother operator. We also develop a modified Roe scheme with a corresponding flux Jacobian matrix. We then give the extension of the method for real gas and reactive flow. Reactive flows are governed by a system of inhomogeneous Navier-Stokes equations with very stiff source terms. The extension of the RK/Implicit smoother requires an approximation of the source term Jacobian. The properties of the Jacobian are very important for the stability of the method. We discuss what the chemical physics theory of chemical kinetics tells about the mathematical properties of the Jacobian matrix. We focus on the implication of the Le-Chatelier's principle on the sign of the diagonal entries of the Jacobian. We present the implementation of the method for turbulent flow. We use a two RANS turbulent model - one equation model - Spalart-Allmaras and a two-equation model - k-ω SST model. The last extension is for two-phase flows with a gas as a main phase and Eulerian representation of a dispersed particles phase (EDP). We present some examples for such flow computations inside a ballistic evaluation
Poiseuille flow of soft glasses in narrow channels: from quiescence to steady state.
Chaudhuri, Pinaki; Horbach, Jürgen
2014-10-01
Using numerical simulations, the onset of Poiseuille flow in a confined soft glass is investigated. Starting from the quiescent state, steady flow sets in at a time scale which increases with a decrease in applied forcing. At this onset time scale, a rapid transition occurs via the simultaneous fluidization of regions having different local stresses. In the absence of steady flow at long times, creep is observed even in regions where the local stress is larger than the bulk yielding threshold. Finally, we show that the time scale to attain steady flow depends strongly on the history of the initial state.
A surface capturing method for the efficient computation of steady water waves
Wackers, J.; Koren, B.
2008-01-01
A surface capturing method is developed for the computation of steady water–air flow with gravity. Fluxes are based on artificial compressibility and the method is solved with a multigrid technique and line Gauss–Seidel smoother. A test on a channel flow with a bottom bump shows the accuracy of the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sohn, Hyun Chull [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)
2005-05-01
In the present study, the characteristics of developing steady laminar flows of a straight duct connected to a 180 .deg. curved duct were examined in the entrance region through experimental measurement. Flow characteristics such as shear stress distributions, pressure distributions and friction coefficient experimentally in a square cross-sectional straight duct by using the PIV system. For the PIV measurement by particles produced from mosquito coils particles. The experimental data were obtained at 9 points dividing the test sections by 400 mm. Experimental results can be summarized as follows. Critical Reynolds number, Re{sub cr} which indicates transition from laminar steady flow to transition steady flow was 2,150. Shear stress per unit length on the wall was stronger than that in the fully developed flow region. This was attributed to the fact that shear stress and pressure loss in the curvature of a duct were increased. Pressure distributions were gradually decreased irrespective of Reynolds number in the whole test section. This trends were in a good agreement with the reference results. Pipe friction coefficient in the steady state flow region was calculate from method of least squares. The co-relationship between fiction coefficient and Reynolds number was established as follow; {lambda}=56/Re.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
FU Ping
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The flow stress behavior of 5083 aluminum alloy was investigated under hot compression deformation at 523-723K,strain rates of 0.01-10s-1 and true strains of 0-0.7 with Gleeble-3800 thermal simulator. Based on the heat transfer effect on alloy deformation heat effect, the flow stress curves were corrected. The results show that influence of heat conduction can not be neglected and becomes more obvious with the increase of true strain. The corrected flow stress has little influence on the peak stress, but the steady flow stress softening trends to be diminished to some degree. The flow stress can be predicted by the Zener-Hollomon parameters in the constitutive equation. The corrected measured value exhibits a good agreement with the flow stress predicted by the constitutive equation, and the average relative error is only 5.21%.
Rarefaction wave in relativistic steady magnetohydrodynamic flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sapountzis, Konstantinos, E-mail: ksapountzis@phys.uoa.gr; Vlahakis, Nektarios, E-mail: vlahakis@phys.uoa.gr [Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece)
2014-07-15
We construct and analyze a model of the relativistic steady-state magnetohydrodynamic rarefaction that is induced when a planar symmetric flow (with one ignorable Cartesian coordinate) propagates under a steep drop of the external pressure profile. Using the method of self-similarity, we derive a system of ordinary differential equations that describe the flow dynamics. In the specific limit of an initially homogeneous flow, we also provide analytical results and accurate scaling laws. We consider that limit as a generalization of the previous Newtonian and hydrodynamic solutions already present in the literature. The model includes magnetic field and bulk flow speed having all components, whose role is explored with a parametric study.
Analysis of steady state and transient two-phase flows in downwardly inclined lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crawford, T.J.
1983-01-01
A study of steady-state and transient two-phase flows in downwardly inclined lines is described. Steady-state flow patterns maps are presented using Freon-113 as the working fluid to provide new high density vapors. These flow maps with high density vapor serve to significantly extend the investigations of steady-state downward two-phase flow patterns. Physical models developed which successfully predicted the onset or location of various flow pattern transitions. A new simplified criterion that would be useful to designers and experimenters is offered for the onset of dispersed flow. A new empirical holdup correlation and a new bubble diameter/flow rate correlation are also proposed. Flow transients in vertical downward lines were studied to investigate the possible formation of intermediate or spurious flow patterns that would not be seen at steady-state conditions. Void fraction behavior during the transients was modeled by using the dynamic slip equation from the transient analysis code RETRAN. Physical models of interfacial area were developed and compared with models and data from literature. There was satisfactory agreement between the models of the present study and the literature models and data. The concentration parameter of the drift flux model was evaluated for vertical downward flow. These new values of the flow dependent parameter were different from those previously proposed in the literature for use in upward flows, and made the drift flux model suitable for use in upward or downward flow lines
Poiseuille equation for steady flow of fractal fluid
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2016-07-01
Fractal fluid is considered in the framework of continuous models with noninteger dimensional spaces (NIDS). A recently proposed vector calculus in NIDS is used to get a description of fractal fluid flow in pipes with circular cross-sections. The Navier-Stokes equations of fractal incompressible viscous fluids are used to derive a generalization of the Poiseuille equation of steady flow of fractal media in pipe.
Computer program for compressible flow network analysis
Wilton, M. E.; Murtaugh, J. P.
1973-01-01
Program solves problem of an arbitrarily connected one dimensional compressible flow network with pumping in the channels and momentum balancing at flow junctions. Program includes pressure drop calculations for impingement flow and flow through pin fin arrangements, as currently found in many air cooled turbine bucket and vane cooling configurations.
A dynamic counterpart of Lamb vector in viscous compressible aerodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, L Q; Wu, J Z; Shi, Y P; Zhu, J Y
2014-01-01
The Lamb vector is known to play a key role in incompressible fluid dynamics and vortex dynamics. In particular, in low-speed steady aerodynamics it is solely responsible for the total force acting on a moving body, known as the vortex force, with the classic two-dimensional (exact) Kutta–Joukowski theorem and three-dimensional (linearized) lifting-line theory as the most famous special applications. In this paper we identify an innovative dynamic counterpart of the Lamb vector in viscous compressible aerodynamics, which we call the compressible Lamb vector. Mathematically, we present a theorem on the dynamic far-field decay law of the vorticity and dilatation fields, and thereby prove that the generalized Lamb vector enjoys exactly the same integral properties as the Lamb vector does in incompressible flow, and hence the vortex-force theory can be generalized to compressible flow with exactly the same general formulation. Moreover, for steady flow of polytropic gas, we show that physically the force exerted on a moving body by the gas consists of a transverse force produced by the original Lamb vector and a new longitudinal force that reflects the effects of compression and irreversible thermodynamics. (paper)
Dynamic fluid connectivity during steady-state multiphase flow in a sandstone.
Reynolds, Catriona A; Menke, Hannah; Andrew, Matthew; Blunt, Martin J; Krevor, Samuel
2017-08-01
The current conceptual picture of steady-state multiphase Darcy flow in porous media is that the fluid phases organize into separate flow pathways with stable interfaces. Here we demonstrate a previously unobserved type of steady-state flow behavior, which we term "dynamic connectivity," using fast pore-scale X-ray imaging. We image the flow of N 2 and brine through a permeable sandstone at subsurface reservoir conditions, and low capillary numbers, and at constant fluid saturation. At any instant, the network of pores filled with the nonwetting phase is not necessarily connected. Flow occurs along pathways that periodically reconnect, like cars controlled by traffic lights. This behavior is consistent with an energy balance, where some of the energy of the injected fluids is sporadically converted to create new interfaces.
Steady flows in the solar transition region observed with SMM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gebbie, K.B.; Hill, F.; Toomre, J.; November, L.J.; Simon, G.W.; Gurman, J.B.; Shine, R.A.; Woodgate, B.E.; Athay, R.G.; Bruner, E.C. Jr.; Rehse, R.A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.A.
1981-01-01
Steady flows in the quiet solar transition region have been observed with the Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter (UVSP) experiment on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite. The persistent vertical motions seen at disk center have spatial rms amplitudes of 1.4 km s -1 in the C II line, 3.9 km s -1 in Si IV, and 4.2 km s -1 in C IV. The amplitudes of the more horizontal flows seen toward the limb tend to be somewhat higher. Plots of steady vertical velocity versus intensity seen at disk center in Si IV and C IV show two distinct branches
Local wettability reversal during steady-state two-phase flow in porous media.
Sinha, Santanu; Grøva, Morten; Ødegården, Torgeir Bryge; Skjetne, Erik; Hansen, Alex
2011-09-01
We study the effect of local wettability reversal on remobilizing immobile fluid clusters in steady-state two-phase flow in porous media. We consider a two-dimensional network model for a porous medium and introduce a wettability alteration mechanism. A qualitative change in the steady-state flow patterns, destabilizing the percolating and trapped clusters, is observed as the system wettability is varied. When capillary forces are strong, a finite wettability alteration is necessary to move the system from a single-phase to a two-phase flow regime. When both phases are mobile, we find a linear relationship between fractional flow and wettability alteration.
Steady State Stokes Flow Interpolation for Fluid Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bhatacharya, Haimasree; Nielsen, Michael Bang; Bridson, Robert
2012-01-01
— suffer from a common problem. They fail to capture the rotational components of the velocity field, although extrapolation in the normal direction does consider the tangential component. We address this problem by casting the interpolation as a steady state Stokes flow. This type of flow captures......Fluid control methods often require surface velocities interpolated throughout the interior of a shape to use the velocity as a feedback force or as a boundary condition. Prior methods for interpolation in computer graphics — velocity extrapolation in the normal direction and potential flow...
Yang, L. M.; Shu, C.; Wang, Y.; Sun, Y.
2016-08-01
The sphere function-based gas kinetic scheme (GKS), which was presented by Shu and his coworkers [23] for simulation of inviscid compressible flows, is extended to simulate 3D viscous incompressible and compressible flows in this work. Firstly, we use certain discrete points to represent the spherical surface in the phase velocity space. Then, integrals along the spherical surface for conservation forms of moments, which are needed to recover 3D Navier-Stokes equations, are approximated by integral quadrature. The basic requirement is that these conservation forms of moments can be exactly satisfied by weighted summation of distribution functions at discrete points. It was found that the integral quadrature by eight discrete points on the spherical surface, which forms the D3Q8 discrete velocity model, can exactly match the integral. In this way, the conservative variables and numerical fluxes can be computed by weighted summation of distribution functions at eight discrete points. That is, the application of complicated formulations resultant from integrals can be replaced by a simple solution process. Several numerical examples including laminar flat plate boundary layer, 3D lid-driven cavity flow, steady flow through a 90° bending square duct, transonic flow around DPW-W1 wing and supersonic flow around NACA0012 airfoil are chosen to validate the proposed scheme. Numerical results demonstrate that the present scheme can provide reasonable numerical results for 3D viscous flows.
Acoustic metacages for sound shielding with steady air flow
Shen, Chen; Xie, Yangbo; Li, Junfei; Cummer, Steven A.; Jing, Yun
2018-03-01
Conventional sound shielding structures typically prevent fluid transport between the exterior and interior. A design of a two-dimensional acoustic metacage with subwavelength thickness which can shield acoustic waves from all directions while allowing steady fluid flow is presented in this paper. The structure is designed based on acoustic gradient-index metasurfaces composed of open channels and shunted Helmholtz resonators. In-plane sound at an arbitrary angle of incidence is reflected due to the strong parallel momentum on the metacage surface, which leads to low sound transmission through the metacage. The performance of the proposed metacage is verified by numerical simulations and measurements on a three-dimensional printed prototype. The acoustic metacage has potential applications in sound insulation where steady fluid flow is necessary or advantageous.
Weak-strong clustering transition in renewing compressible flows
Dhanagare, Ajinkya; Musacchio, Stefano; Vincenzi, Dario
2014-01-01
International audience; We investigate the statistical properties of Lagrangian tracers transported by a time-correlated compressible renewing flow. We show that the preferential sampling of the phase space performed by tracers yields significant differences between the Lagrangian statistics and its Eulerian counterpart. In particular, the effective compressibility experienced by tracers has a non-trivial dependence on the time correlation of the flow. We examine the consequence of this pheno...
Blood flow patterns during incremental and steady-state aerobic exercise.
Coovert, Daniel; Evans, LeVisa D; Jarrett, Steven; Lima, Carla; Lima, Natalia; Gurovich, Alvaro N
2017-05-30
Endothelial shear stress (ESS) is a physiological stimulus for vascular homeostasis, highly dependent on blood flow patterns. Exercise-induced ESS might be beneficial on vascular health. However, it is unclear what type of ESS aerobic exercise (AX) produces. The aims of this study are to characterize exercise-induced blood flow patterns during incremental and steady-state AX. We expect blood flow pattern during exercise will be intensity-dependent and bidirectional. Six college-aged students (2 males and 4 females) were recruited to perform 2 exercise tests on cycleergometer. First, an 8-12-min incremental test (Test 1) where oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and blood lactate (La) were measured at rest and after each 2-min step. Then, at least 48-hr. after the first test, a 3-step steady state exercise test (Test 2) was performed measuring VO2, HR, BP, and La. The three steps were performed at the following exercise intensities according to La: 0-2 mmol/L, 2-4 mmol/L, and 4-6 mmol/L. During both tests, blood flow patterns were determined by high-definition ultrasound and Doppler on the brachial artery. These measurements allowed to determine blood flow velocities and directions during exercise. On Test 1 VO2, HR, BP, La, and antegrade blood flow velocity significantly increased in an intensity-dependent manner (repeated measures ANOVA, pflow velocity did not significantly change during Test 1. On Test 2 all the previous variables significantly increased in an intensity-dependent manner (repeated measures ANOVA, pflow patterns during incremental and steady-state exercises include both antegrade and retrograde blood flows.
Transient and steady-state flows in shock tunnels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hannemann, K. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Goettingen (Germany); Jacobs, P.A. [Queensland Univ., Brisbane (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Thomas, A.; McIntyre, T.J. [Queensland Univ., Brisbane, QLD. (Australia). Dept. of Physics
1999-12-01
Due to the difficulty of measuring all necessary flow quantities in the nozzle reservoir and the test section of high enthalpy shock tunnels, indirect computational methods are necessary to estimate the required flow parameters. In addition to steady state flow computations of the nozzle flow and the flow past wind tunnel models it is necessary to investigate the transient flow in the facility in order to achieve a better understanding of its performance. These transient effects include the nozzle starting flow, the interaction of the shock tube boundary layers and the reflected shock, thermal losses in the shock reflection region and the developing boundary layers in the expanding section of the nozzle. Additionally, the nonequilibrium chemical and thermal relaxation models which are used to compute high enthalpy flows have to be validated with appropriate experimental data. (orig.)
Transient and steady-state flows in shock tunnels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hannemann, K. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Goettingen (Germany)); Jacobs, P.A. (Queensland Univ., Brisbane (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Thomas, A.; McIntyre, T.J. (Queensland Univ., Brisbane, QLD. (Australia). Dept. of Physics)
1999-01-01
Due to the difficulty of measuring all necessary flow quantities in the nozzle reservoir and the test section of high enthalpy shock tunnels, indirect computational methods are necessary to estimate the required flow parameters. In addition to steady state flow computations of the nozzle flow and the flow past wind tunnel models it is necessary to investigate the transient flow in the facility in order to achieve a better understanding of its performance. These transient effects include the nozzle starting flow, the interaction of the shock tube boundary layers and the reflected shock, thermal losses in the shock reflection region and the developing boundary layers in the expanding section of the nozzle. Additionally, the nonequilibrium chemical and thermal relaxation models which are used to compute high enthalpy flows have to be validated with appropriate experimental data. (orig.)
Compressed-air flow control system.
Bong, Ki Wan; Chapin, Stephen C; Pregibon, Daniel C; Baah, David; Floyd-Smith, Tamara M; Doyle, Patrick S
2011-02-21
We present the construction and operation of a compressed-air driven flow system that can be used for a variety of microfluidic applications that require rapid dynamic response and precise control of multiple inlet streams. With the use of inexpensive and readily available parts, we describe how to assemble this versatile control system and further explore its utility in continuous- and pulsed-flow microfluidic procedures for the synthesis and analysis of microparticles.
Simulation of gas compressible flow by free surface water flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altafini, C.R.; Silva Ferreira, R.T. da
1981-01-01
The analogy between the water flow with a free surface and the compressible fluid flow, commonly called hydraulic analogy, is analyzed and its limitations are identified. The water table is the equipment used for this simulation, which allows the quatitative analysis of subsonic and supersonic flow with a low cost apparatus. The hydraulic analogy is applied to subsonic flow around circular cylinders and supersonic flow around cones. The results are compared with available theoretical and experimental data and a good agreement is achieved. (Author) [pt
Cartesian anisotropic mesh adaptation for compressible flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keats, W.A.; Lien, F.-S.
2004-01-01
Simulating transient compressible flows involving shock waves presents challenges to the CFD practitioner in terms of the mesh quality required to resolve discontinuities and prevent smearing. This paper discusses a novel two-dimensional Cartesian anisotropic mesh adaptation technique implemented for compressible flow. This technique, developed for laminar flow by Ham, Lien and Strong, is efficient because it refines and coarsens cells using criteria that consider the solution in each of the cardinal directions separately. In this paper the method will be applied to compressible flow. The procedure shows promise in its ability to deliver good quality solutions while achieving computational savings. The convection scheme used is the Advective Upstream Splitting Method (Plus), and the refinement/ coarsening criteria are based on work done by Ham et al. Transient shock wave diffraction over a backward step and shock reflection over a forward step are considered as test cases because they demonstrate that the quality of the solution can be maintained as the mesh is refined and coarsened in time. The data structure is explained in relation to the computational mesh, and the object-oriented design and implementation of the code is presented. Refinement and coarsening algorithms are outlined. Computational savings over uniform and isotropic mesh approaches are shown to be significant. (author)
Seismic signal of near steady uniform flows
Mangeney, A.; Bachelet, V.; Toussaint, R.; de Rosny, J.
2017-12-01
The seismic signal generated by rockfalls, landslides or avalanches is a unique tool to detect, characterize and monitor gravitational flow activity. A major challenge in this domain is to retrieve the dynamic properties of the flow from the emitted seismic signal. In this study, we propose laboratory experiments where the dynamic properties of the flow (velocity, granular temperature, density, etc.) are measured together with the generated seismic signal. We investigate near steady uniform flows made of glass beads of 2mm diameter, flowing throughout a thin rectangular channel of 10 cm width, with tunable tilt angle and height flow, thanks to an adjustable opening gate. The flow is monitored from the spine with a fast camera (5000 fps), and the emitted waves are recorded by accelerometers (10Hz - 54 kHz), stuck on the back side of the bottom of the channel. Among others, three seismic parameters are analyzed: the power radiated by the flow, the mean frequency of the signal, and the modulation of its amplitude. We show that they are linked to three dynamical properties: the mean kinetic energy of the flow, the speed of collisions between beads and the vertical oscillation of the beads, respectively.
Potential Flow Model for Compressible Stratified Rayleigh-Taylor Instability
Rydquist, Grant; Reckinger, Scott; Owkes, Mark; Wieland, Scott
2017-11-01
The Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) is an instability that occurs when a heavy fluid lies on top of a lighter fluid in a gravitational field, or a gravity-like acceleration. It occurs in many fluid flows of a highly compressive nature. In this study potential flow analysis (PFA) is used to model the early stages of RTI growth for compressible fluids. In the localized region near the bubble tip, the effects of vorticity are negligible, so PFA is applicable, as opposed to later stages where the induced velocity due to vortices generated from the growth of the instability dominate the flow. The incompressible PFA is extended for compressibility effects by applying the growth rate and the associated perturbation spatial decay from compressible linear stability theory. The PFA model predicts theoretical values for a bubble terminal velocity for single-mode compressible RTI, dependent upon the Atwood (A) and Mach (M) numbers, which is a parameter that measures both the strength of the stratification and intrinsic compressibility. The theoretical bubble terminal velocities are compared against numerical simulations. The PFA model correctly predicts the M dependence at high A, but the model must be further extended to include additional physics to capture the behavior at low A. Undergraduate Scholars Program - Montana State University.
Experimental study on an IC engine in-cylinder flow using different steady-state flow benches
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. El-Adawy
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In-cylinder air flow structures are known to strongly impact on the performance and combustion of internal combustion engines (ICE. Therefore the aim of this paper is to experimentally study an IC engine in-cylinder flow under steady-state conditions. Different methods can be used to characterize the in-cylinder flow which are optical engines and laser diagnostics, computational fluid dynamic and steady-state flow bench. Here we are concentrating on two different types of flow benches. The first (Ricardo uses the impulse torque meter method while the other (FEV uses the paddle wheel technique. The experiments were carried out on the same cylinder head and the same pressure difference across the inlet valves of 600 mmH2O in order to compare the results. The experimental results are presented in terms of the measured air flow rate, flow coefficient, discharge coefficient and non-dimensional rig tumble. Moreover, number of modifications were conducted on the FEV flow bench in order to apply particle image velocimetry measurements on the vertical tumble plane, which passing through the middle of the cylinder at different valve lifts. The results show that a reasonably good level of agreement can be achieved between both methods, providing the methods of calculations of the various parameters are consistent. Keywords: In-cylinder flow, Flow bench, Tumble motion, Flow coefficient, Particle image velocimetry
Influence of steady shear flow on dynamic viscoelastic properties of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
temporary network formed by the fibres, their entangle- ment etc. The structural density is also a function of vol- ume fraction of reinforcing fibres (Amari et al 1992). The complex flow pattern encountered during moulding/ stamping are generally far from simple steady or oscilla- tory shear flow. Therefore, it is important to ...
Flow-induced vibration of helical coil compression springs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stokes, F.E.; King, R.A.
1983-01-01
Helical coil compression springs are used in some nuclear fuel assembly designs to maintain holddown and to accommodate thermal expansion. In the reactor environment, the springs are exposed to flowing water, elevated temperatures and pressures, and irradiation. Flow parallel to the longitudinal axis of the spring may excite the spring coils and cause vibration. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the flow-induced vibration (FIV) response characteristics of the helical coil compression springs. Experimental tests indicate that a helical coil spring responds like a single circular cylinder in cross-flow. Two FIV excitation mechanisms control spring vibration. Namely: 1) Turbulent Buffeting causes small amplitude vibration which increases as a function of velocity squared. 2) Vortex Shedding causes large amplitude vibration when the spring natural frequency and Strouhal frequency coincide. Several methods can be used to reduce or to prevent vortex shedding large amplitude vibrations. One method is compressing the spring to a coil pitch-to-diameter ratio of 2 thereby suppressing the vibration amplitude. Another involves modifying the spring geometry to alter its stiffness and frequency characteristics. These changes result in separation of the natural and Strouhal frequencies. With an understanding of how springs respond in the flowing water environment, the spring physical parameters can be designed to avoid large amplitude vibration. (orig.)
Isentropic Gas Flow for the Compressible Euler Equation in a Nozzle
Tsuge, Naoki
2013-08-01
We study the motion of isentropic gas in a nozzle. Nozzles are used to increase the thrust of engines or to accelerate a flow from subsonic to supersonic. Nozzles are essential parts for jet engines, rocket engines and supersonicwind tunnels. In the present paper, we consider unsteady flow, which is governed by the compressible Euler equation, and prove the existence of global solutions for the Cauchy problem. For this problem, the existence theorem has already been obtained for initial data away from the sonic state, (Liu in Commun Math Phys 68:141-172, 1979). Here, we are interested in the transonic flow, which is essential for engineering and physics. Although the transonic flow has recently been studied (Tsuge in J Math Kyoto Univ 46:457-524, 2006; Lu in Nonlinear Anal Real World Appl 12:2802-2810, 2011), these papers assume monotonicity of the cross section area. Here, we consider the transonic flow in a nozzle with a general cross section area. When we prove global existence, the most difficult point is obtaining a bounded estimate for approximate solutions. To overcome this, we employ a new invariant region that depends on the space variable. Moreover, we introduce a modified Godunov scheme. The corresponding approximate solutions consist of piecewise steady-state solutions of an auxiliary equation, which yield a desired bounded estimate. In order to prove their convergence, we use the compensated compactness framework.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okhotnikov, Ivan; Noroozi, Siamak; Sewell, Philip; Godfrey, Philip
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A novel design of a rotary flow control valve driven by a stepper motor is proposed. • The intended use of the valve in the high flow rate independent metering hydraulic system is suggested. • Pressure drops, steady flow torques of the valve for various flow rates and orifice openings are studied by means of computational fluid dynamics. • The discharge coefficient and flow jet angles dependencies on the orifice opening are obtained. • A design method to decrease the flow forces without reducing the flow rate in single-staged valves is demonstrated. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel design of a rotary hydraulic flow control valve has been presented for high flow rate fluid power systems. High flow rates in these systems account for substantial flow forces acting on the throttling elements of the valves and cause the application of mechanically sophisticated multi-staged servo valves for flow regulation. The suggested design enables utilisation of single-stage valves in power hydraulics operating at high flow rates regimes. A spool driver and auxiliary mechanisms of the proposed valve design were discussed and selection criteria were suggested. Analytical expressions for metering characteristics as well as steady flow torques have been derived. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of steady state flow regimes was conducted to evaluate the hydraulic behaviour of the proposed valve. This study represents a special case of an independent metering concept applied to the design of power hydraulic systems with direct proportional valve control operating at flow rates above 150 litres per minute. The result gained using parametric CFD simulations predicted the induced torque and the pressure drops due to a steady flow. Magnitudes of these values prove that by minimising the number of spool's mobile metering surfaces it is possible to reduce the flow-generated forces in the new generation of hydraulic valves proposed in this study
Birdsell, D.; Karra, S.; Rajaram, H.
2017-12-01
The governing equations for subsurface flow codes in deformable porous media are derived from the fluid mass balance equation. One class of these codes, which we call general subsurface flow (GSF) codes, does not explicitly track the motion of the solid porous media but does accept general constitutive relations for porosity, density, and fluid flux. Examples of GSF codes include PFLOTRAN, FEHM, STOMP, and TOUGH2. Meanwhile, analytical and numerical solutions based on the groundwater flow equation have assumed forms for porosity, density, and fluid flux. We review the derivation of the groundwater flow equation, which uses the form of Darcy's equation that accounts for the velocity of fluids with respect to solids and defines the soil matrix compressibility accordingly. We then show how GSF codes have a different governing equation if they use the form of Darcy's equation that is written only in terms of fluid velocity. The difference is seen in the porosity change, which is part of the specific storage term in the groundwater flow equation. We propose an alternative definition of soil matrix compressibility to correct for the untracked solid velocity. Simulation results show significantly less error for our new compressibility definition than the traditional compressibility when compared to analytical solutions from the groundwater literature. For example, the error in one calculation for a pumped sandstone aquifer goes from 940 to <70 Pa when the new compressibility is used. Code users and developers need to be aware of assumptions in the governing equations and constitutive relations in subsurface flow codes, and our newly-proposed compressibility function should be incorporated into GSF codes.
Investigation of turbulence models with compressibility corrections for hypersonic boundary flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Han Tang
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The applications of pressure work, pressure-dilatation, and dilatation-dissipation (Sarkar, Zeman, and Wilcox models to hypersonic boundary flows are investigated. The flat plate boundary layer flows of Mach number 5–11 and shock wave/boundary layer interactions of compression corners are simulated numerically. For the flat plate boundary layer flows, original turbulence models overestimate the heat flux with Mach number high up to 10, and compressibility corrections applied to turbulence models lead to a decrease in friction coefficients and heating rates. The pressure work and pressure-dilatation models yield the better results. Among the three dilatation-dissipation models, Sarkar and Wilcox corrections present larger deviations from the experiment measurement, while Zeman correction can achieve acceptable results. For hypersonic compression corner flows, due to the evident increase of turbulence Mach number in separation zone, compressibility corrections make the separation areas larger, thus cannot improve the accuracy of calculated results. It is unreasonable that compressibility corrections take effect in separation zone. Density-corrected model by Catris and Aupoix is suitable for shock wave/boundary layer interaction flows which can improve the simulation accuracy of the peak heating and have a little influence on separation zone.
Characteristics of turbulent particle transport in human airways under steady and cyclic flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jedelsky, Jan; Lizal, Frantisek; Jicha, Miroslav
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► PDA data allow to estimate PSD of particle velocity fluctuations in realistic model. ► PSD of micron-sized particles is independent of their size up to 700 Hz. ► Such particles follow air flow and turb. diffusion contributes to their deposition. ► Cyclic flow PSDs contain more TKE at high freq. than equivalent steady-flow PSDs. ► Exp. breathing phase differs from insp. phase at high frequency part of the spectra. - Abstract: Motion of monodispersed aerosol particles suspended in air flow has been studied on realistic transparent model of human airways using Phase Doppler Particle Analyser (P/DPA). Time-resolved velocity data for particles in size range 1–8 μm were processed using Fuzzy Slotting Technique to estimate the power spectral density (PSD) of velocity fluctuations. The optimum processing setup for our data was found and recommendations for future experiments to improve PSD quality were suggested. Typical PSD plots at mainstream positions of the trachea and the upper bronchi are documented and differences among (1) steady-flow regimes and equivalent cyclic breathing regimes, (2) inspiration and expiration breathing phase and (3) behaviour of particles of different sizes are described in several positions of the airway model. Systematically higher level of velocity fluctuations in the upper part of the frequency range (30–500 Hz) was found for cyclic flows in comparison with corresponding steady flows. Expiratory flows in both the steady and cyclic cases produce more high-frequency fluctuations compared to inspiratory flows. Negligible differences were found for flow of particles in the inspected size range 1–8 μm at frequencies below 500 Hz. This finding was explained by Stokes number analysis. Implied match of the air and particle flows thereby indicates turbulent diffusion as important deposition mechanism and confirms the capability to use the P/DPA data as the air flow velocity estimate.
Experiments in a flighted conveyor comparing shear rates in compressed versus free surface flows
Pohlman, Nicholas; Higgins, Hannah; Krupiarz, Kamila; O'Connor, Ryan
2017-11-01
Uniformity of granular flow rate is critical in industry. Experiments in a flighted conveyor system aim to fill a gap in knowledge of achieving steady mass flow rate by correlating velocity profile data with mass flow rate measurements. High speed images were collected for uniformly-shaped particles in a bottom-driven flow conveyor belt system from which the velocity profiles can be generated. The correlation of mass flow rates from the velocity profiles to the time-dependent mass measurements will determine energy dissipation rates as a function of operating conditions. The velocity profiles as a function of the size of the particles, speed of the belt, and outlet size, will be compared to shear rate relationships found in past experiments that focused on gravity-driven systems. The dimension of the linear shear and type of decaying transition to the stationary bed may appear different due to the compression versus dilation space in open flows. The application of this research can serve to validate simulations in discrete element modeling and physically demonstrate a process that can be further developed and customized for industry applications, such as feeding a biomass conversion reactor. Sponsored by NIU's Office of Student Engagement and Experiential Learning.
The boundary data immersion method for compressible flows with application to aeroacoustics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlanderer, Stefan C., E-mail: stefan.schlanderer@unimelb.edu.au [Faculty for Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Weymouth, Gabriel D., E-mail: G.D.Weymouth@soton.ac.uk [Faculty for Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Sandberg, Richard D., E-mail: richard.sandberg@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Melbourne, Melbourne VIC 3010 (Australia)
2017-03-15
This paper introduces a virtual boundary method for compressible viscous fluid flow that is capable of accurately representing moving bodies in flow and aeroacoustic simulations. The method is the compressible extension of the boundary data immersion method (BDIM, Maertens & Weymouth (2015), ). The BDIM equations for the compressible Navier–Stokes equations are derived and the accuracy of the method for the hydrodynamic representation of solid bodies is demonstrated with challenging test cases, including a fully turbulent boundary layer flow and a supersonic instability wave. In addition we show that the compressible BDIM is able to accurately represent noise radiation from moving bodies and flow induced noise generation without any penalty in allowable time step.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fassmann-Glaser, I.
1984-01-01
A study with 25 patients was performed in order to find out whether intermittent, sequential, pneumatic leg compression is of value in the preventive management of thrombosis due to its effect on the venous flow rates. For this purpose, xenon 133 was injected into one of the foot veins and the flow rate in each case determined for the distance between instep and inguen using different compression strengths, with pressure being exerted on the ankle, calf and thigh. Increased flow rates were already measured at an average pressure value of 34.5 mmHg, while the maximum effect was achieved by exerting a pressure of 92.5 mmHg, which increased the flow rate by 366% as compared to the baseline value. The results point to a significant improvement of the venous flow rates due to intermittent, sequential, pneumatic leg compression and thus provide evidence to prove the value of this method in the prevention of hemostasis and thrombosis. (TRV) [de
Physical and numerical modelling of low mach number compressible flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paillerre, H.; Clerc, S.; Dabbene, F.; Cueto, O.
1999-01-01
This article reviews various physical models that may be used to describe compressible flow at low Mach numbers, as well as the numerical methods developed at DRN to discretize the different systems of equations. A selection of thermal-hydraulic applications illustrate the need to take into account compressibility and multidimensional effects as well as variable flow properties. (authors)
Evidence for forcing-dependent steady states in a turbulent swirling flow.
Saint-Michel, B; Dubrulle, B; Marié, L; Ravelet, F; Daviaud, F
2013-12-06
We study the influence on steady turbulent states of the forcing in a von Karman flow, at constant impeller speed, or at constant torque. We find that the different forcing conditions change the nature of the stability of the steady states and reveal dynamical regimes that bear similarities to low-dimensional systems. We suggest that this forcing dependence may be applicable to other turbulent systems.
Differences between automatically detected and steady-state fractional flow reserve.
Härle, Tobias; Meyer, Sven; Vahldiek, Felix; Elsässer, Albrecht
2016-02-01
Measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR) has become a standard diagnostic tool in the catheterization laboratory. FFR evaluation studies were based on pressure recordings during steady-state maximum hyperemia. Commercially available computer systems detect the lowest Pd/Pa ratio automatically, which might not always be measured during steady-state hyperemia. We sought to compare the automatically detected FFR and true steady-state FFR. Pressure measurement traces of 105 coronary lesions from 77 patients with intermediate coronary lesions or multivessel disease were reviewed. In all patients, hyperemia had been achieved by intravenous adenosine administration using a dosage of 140 µg/kg/min. In 42 lesions (40%) automatically detected FFR was lower than true steady-state FFR. Mean bias was 0.009 (standard deviation 0.015, limits of agreement -0.02, 0.037). In 4 lesions (3.8%) both methods lead to different treatment recommendations, in all 4 cases instantaneous wave-free ratio confirmed steady-state FFR. Automatically detected FFR was slightly lower than steady-state FFR in more than one-third of cases. Consequently, interpretation of automatically detected FFR values closely below the cutoff value requires special attention.
Chattoraj, Sayantan; Sun, Changquan Calvin
2018-04-01
Continuous manufacturing of tablets has many advantages, including batch size flexibility, demand-adaptive scale up or scale down, consistent product quality, small operational foot print, and increased manufacturing efficiency. Simplicity makes direct compression the most suitable process for continuous tablet manufacturing. However, deficiencies in powder flow and compression of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) limit the range of drug loading that can routinely be considered for direct compression. For the widespread adoption of continuous direct compression, effective API engineering strategies to address power flow and compression problems are needed. Appropriate implementation of these strategies would facilitate the design of high-quality robust drug products, as stipulated by the Quality-by-Design framework. Here, several crystal and particle engineering strategies for improving powder flow and compression properties are summarized. The focus is on the underlying materials science, which is the foundation for effective API engineering to enable successful continuous manufacturing by the direct compression process. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Modeling of the blood rheology in steady-state shear flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apostolidis, Alex J.; Beris, Antony N.
2014-01-01
We undertake here a systematic study of the rheology of blood in steady-state shear flows. As blood is a complex fluid, the first question that we try to answer is whether, even in steady-state shear flows, we can model it as a rheologically simple fluid, i.e., we can describe its behavior through a constitutive model that involves only local kinematic quantities. Having answered that question positively, we then probe as to which non-Newtonian model best fits available shear stress vs shear-rate literature data. We show that under physiological conditions blood is typically viscoplastic, i.e., it exhibits a yield stress that acts as a minimum threshold for flow. We further show that the Casson model emerges naturally as the best approximation, at least for low and moderate shear-rates. We then develop systematically a parametric dependence of the rheological parameters entering the Casson model on key physiological quantities, such as the red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit). For the yield stress, we base our description on its critical, percolation-originated nature. Thus, we first determine onset conditions, i.e., the critical threshold value that the hematocrit has to have in order for yield stress to appear. It is shown that this is a function of the concentration of a key red blood cell binding protein, fibrinogen. Then, we establish a parametric dependence as a function of the fibrinogen and the square of the difference of the hematocrit from its critical onset value. Similarly, we provide an expression for the Casson viscosity, in terms of the hematocrit and the temperature. A successful validation of the proposed formula is performed against additional experimental literature data. The proposed expression is anticipated to be useful not only for steady-state blood flow modeling but also as providing the starting point for transient shear, or more general flow modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cline, M.C.
1981-08-01
VNAP2 is a computer program for calculating turbulent (as well as laminar and inviscid), steady, and unsteady flow. VNAP2 solves the two-dimensional, time-dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either an algebraic mixing-length model, a one-equation model, or the Jones-Launder two-equation model. The geometry may be a single- or a dual-flowing stream. The interior grid points are computed using the unsplit MacCormack scheme. Two options to speed up the calculations for high Reynolds number flows are included. The boundary grid points are computed using a reference-plane-characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source functions. An explicit artificial viscosity is included for shock computations. The fluid is assumed to be a perfect gas. The flow boundaries may be arbitrary curved solid walls, inflow/outflow boundaries, or free-jet envelopes. Typical problems that can be solved concern nozzles, inlets, jet-powered afterbodies, airfoils, and free-jet expansions. The accuracy and efficiency of the program are shown by calculations of several inviscid and turbulent flows. The program and its use are described completely, and six sample cases and a code listing are included.
Effects of governing parameters on steady-state inter-wrapper flow in an LMFBR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moriya, Shoichi
2001-01-01
Hydraulic experiments were performed using a 1/8th scale rectangular model, based on a Japanese demonstration fast breeder reactor design, in order to study fundamental characteristics of interwrapper flows occurring under steady state conditions in an LMFBR. The steady state interwrapper flow of which direction was downward in the center region and upward in the peripheral region of a core barrel was observed because of the radial static pressure gradient in the upper part of the core barrel, produced by a core blockage effect resulting from an above core structure with a perforated skirt. Thermal stratification phenomena were moreover observed in the interwrapper region, created by the hot steady state interwrapper flow from an upper plenum and the cold leakage flow through the separated plate of the core barrel. The thermal interface was generated in higher part of the core barrel when the core blockage effect was smaller and Richardson number and the leakage flow rate ratio were larger. Significant temperature fluctuations occurred in the peripheral region of the core barrel, when the difference between the interface elevations in the center and peripheral regions of the core barrel was enough large. (author)
Optimization of Steady Wall Temperature for Disturbance Control
Pralits, Jan; Ardeshir, Hanifi
2003-01-01
We present a theory for computing the optimal steady wall temperature distribution to suppress the growth of convectively unstable disturbances in compressible boundary layer flows on flat plates. A gradient based iterative procedure is used to minimize an objective function measuring the disturbance kinetic energy. The gradient of interest is obtained from the solution of the adjoint of the boundary layer and parabolized stability equations, which are derived using a Lagrange multiplier tech...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caruso, A.; Mechitoua, N.; Duplex, J.
1995-01-01
The R and D thermal hydraulic codes, notably the finite difference codes Melodie (2D) and ESTET (3D) or the 2D and 3D versions of the finite element code N3S were initially developed for incompressible, possibly dilatable, turbulent flows, i.e. those where density is not pressure-dependent. Subsequent minor modifications to these finite difference code algorithms enabled extension of their scope to subsonic compressible flows. The first applications in both single-phase and two flow contexts have now been completed. This paper presents the techniques used to adapt these algorithms for the processing of compressible flows in an N3S type finite element code, whereby complex geometries normally difficult to model in finite difference meshes could be successfully dealt with. The development of version 3.0 of he N3S code led to dilatable flow calculations at lower cost. On this basis, a 2-D prototype version of N3S was programmed, tested and validated, drawing maximum benefit from Cray vectorization possibilities and from physical, numerical or data processing experience with other fluid dynamics codes, such as Melodie, ESTET or TELEMAC. The algorithms are the same as those used in finite difference codes, but their formulation is variational. The first part of the paper deals with the fundamental equations involved, expressed in basic form, together with the associated digital method. The modifications to the k-epsilon turbulence model extended to compressible flows are also described. THe second part presents the algorithm used, indicating the additional terms required by the extension. The third part presents the equations in integral form and the associated matrix systems. The solutions adopted for calculation of the compressibility related terms are indicated. Finally, a few representative applications and test cases are discussed. These include subsonic, but also transsonic and supersonic cases, showing the shock responses of the digital method. The application of
Videos and images from 25 years of teaching compressible flow
Settles, Gary
2008-11-01
Compressible flow is a very visual topic due to refractive optical flow visualization and the public fascination with high-speed flight. Films, video clips, and many images are available to convey this in the classroom. An overview of this material is given and selected examples are shown, drawn from educational films, the movies, television, etc., and accumulated over 25 years of teaching basic and advanced compressible-flow courses. The impact of copyright protection and the doctrine of fair use is also discussed.
Computational issues of solving the 1D steady gradually varied flow equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Artichowicz Wojciech
2014-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper a problem of multiple solutions of steady gradually varied flow equation in the form of the ordinary differential energy equation is discussed from the viewpoint of its numerical solution. Using the Lipschitz theorem dealing with the uniqueness of solution of an initial value problem for the ordinary differential equation it was shown that the steady gradually varied flow equation can have more than one solution. This fact implies that the nonlinear algebraic equation approximating the ordinary differential energy equation, which additionally coincides with the wellknown standard step method usually applied for computing of the flow profile, can have variable number of roots. Consequently, more than one alternative solution corresponding to the same initial condition can be provided. Using this property it is possible to compute the water flow profile passing through the critical stage.
Three Dimensional Steady Subsonic Euler Flows in Bounded Nozzles
Chen, Chao; Xie, Chunjing
2013-01-01
In this paper, we study the existence and uniqueness of three dimensional steady Euler flows in rectangular nozzles when prescribing normal component of momentum at both the entrance and exit. If, in addition, the normal component of the voriticity and the variation of Bernoulli's function at the exit are both zero, then there exists a unique subsonic potential flow when the magnitude of the normal component of the momentum is less than a critical number. As the magnitude of the normal compon...
Evaluation of magnetic resonance velocimetry for steady flow.
Ku, D N; Biancheri, C L; Pettigrew, R I; Peifer, J W; Markou, C P; Engels, H
1990-11-01
Whole body magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has recently become an important diagnostic tool for cardiovascular diseases. The technique of magnetic resonance phase velocity encoding allows the quantitative measurement of velocity for an arbitrary component direction. A study was initiated to determine the ability and accuracy of MR velocimetry to measure a wide range of flow conditions including flow separation, three-dimensional secondary flow, high velocity gradients, and turbulence. A steady flow system pumped water doped with manganese chloride through a variety of test sections. Images were produced using gradient echo sequences on test sections including a straight tube, a curved tube, a smoothly converging-diverging nozzle, and an orifice. Magnetic resonance measurements of laminar and turbulent flows were depicted as cross-sectional velocity profiles. MR velocity measurements revealed such flow behavior as spatially varying velocity, recirculation and secondary flows over a wide range of conditions. Comparisons made with published experimental laser Doppler anemometry measurements and theoretical calculations for similar flow conditions revealed excellent accuracy and precision levels. The successful measurement of velocity profiles for a variety of flow conditions and geometries indicate that magnetic resonance imaging is an accurate, non-contacting velocimeter.
Sjogreen, Bjoern; Yee, H. C.
2007-01-01
Flows containing steady or nearly steady strong shocks in parts of the flow field, and unsteady turbulence with shocklets on other parts of the flow field are difficult to capture accurately and efficiently employing the same numerical scheme even under the multiblock grid or adaptive grid refinement framework. On one hand, sixth-order or higher shock-capturing methods are appropriate for unsteady turbulence with shocklets. On the other hand, lower order shock-capturing methods are more effective for strong steady shocks in terms of convergence. In order to minimize the shortcomings of low order and high order shock-capturing schemes for the subject flows,a multi- block overlapping grid with different orders of accuracy on different blocks is proposed. Test cases to illustrate the performance of the new solver are included.
Comparison of Steady-State SVC Models in Load Flow Calculations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte
2008-01-01
This paper compares in a load flow calculation three existing steady-state models of static var compensator (SVC), i.e. the generator-fixed susceptance model, the total susceptance model and the firing angle model. The comparison is made in terms of the voltage at the SVC regulated bus, equivalent...... SVC susceptance at the fundamental frequency and the load flow convergence rate both when SVC is operating within and on the limits. The latter two models give inaccurate results of the equivalent SVC susceptance as compared to the generator model due to the assumption of constant voltage when the SVC...... is operating within the limits. This may underestimate or overestimate the SVC regulating capability. Two modified models are proposed to improve the SVC regulated voltage according to its steady-state characteristic. The simulation results of the two modified models show the improved accuracy...
3-D steady analysis of flow in CRDM sewerage system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Yan; Liang Tiebo; Chen Zhihui; Zhao Jing; Zhang Yulong
2014-01-01
In order to obtain the flow state during sewer condition in Reactor and CRDM Sewerage system (RSE), this paper analyzes the 3-D steady flow in RSE by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. In the premise that the pressure drop of the RSE is known, the mass flow rate, the velocity and the type of flow in the system is obtained with the inverse method, which is proposed and validated to be applicable in the paper. The result shows that in the sewerage conditions, the type of flow in the RSE is turbulence flow, which is helpful to sewer drain. The study results give an reference for the design of RSE. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Chih-Hao; Liou, Meng-Sing
2007-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new approach to compute compressible multifluid equations. Firstly, a single-pressure compressible multifluid model based on the stratified flow model is proposed. The stratified flow model, which defines different fluids in separated regions, is shown to be amenable to the finite volume method. We can apply the conservation law to each subregion and obtain a set of balance equations. Secondly, the AUSM + scheme, which is originally designed for the compressible gas flow, is extended to solve compressible liquid flows. By introducing additional dissipation terms into the numerical flux, the new scheme, called AUSM + -up, can be applied to both liquid and gas flows. Thirdly, the contribution to the numerical flux due to interactions between different phases is taken into account and solved by the exact Riemann solver. We will show that the proposed approach yields an accurate and robust method for computing compressible multiphase flows involving discontinuities, such as shock waves and fluid interfaces. Several one-dimensional test problems are used to demonstrate the capability of our method, including the Ransom's water faucet problem and the air-water shock tube problem. Finally, several two dimensional problems will show the capability to capture enormous details and complicated wave patterns in flows having large disparities in the fluid density and velocities, such as interactions between water shock wave and air bubble, between air shock wave and water column(s), and underwater explosion
Theory of steady state plasma flow and confinement in a periodic magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, M.G.
1981-02-01
The steady flow of plasmas through spatially periodic magnetic fields is examined, and a theoretical model is developed for the case of axisymmetric geometry. The externally applied magnetic fields can be cusps or mirrors joined end to end; electrons are then localised by these fields because of their small Larmor radius, while the ions can traverse the magnetic mirrors. The properties of the model equations are studied and dimensionless parameters which appear are interpreted. Numerical methods used in steady flow applications are reviewed, and some techniques of solution for the model equations are discussed. A solution method involving numerical integration of time-dependent equations is described, which approaches the steady state asymptotically; results from this method are presented and compared with the results from perturbation theory. (author)
A multiphase compressible model for the simulation of multiphase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caltagirone, J.P.; Vincent, St.; Caruyer, C.
2011-01-01
A compressible model able to manage incompressible two-phase flows as well as compressible motions is proposed. After a presentation of the multiphase compressible concept, the new model and related numerical methods are detailed on fixed structured grids. The presented model is a 1-fluid model with a reformulated mass conservation equation which takes into account the effects of compressibility. The coupling between pressure and flow velocity is ensured by introducing mass conservation terms in the momentum and energy equations. The numerical model is then validated with four test cases involving the compression of an air bubble by water, the liquid injection in a closed cavity filled with air, a bubble subjected to an ultrasound field and finally the oscillations of a deformed air bubble in melted steel. The numerical results are compared with analytical results and convergence orders in space are provided. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blanchard, M.; Schuller, T.; Sipp, D.; Schmid, P. J.
2015-01-01
The response of a laminar premixed methane-air flame subjected to flow perturbations around a steady state is examined experimentally and using a linearized compressible Navier-Stokes solver with a one-step chemistry mechanism to describe combustion. The unperturbed flame takes an M-shape stabilized both by a central bluff body and by the external rim of a cylindrical nozzle. This base flow is computed by a nonlinear direct simulation of the steady reacting flow, and the flame topology is shown to qualitatively correspond to experiments conducted under comparable conditions. The flame is then subjected to acoustic disturbances produced at different locations in the numerical domain, and its response is examined using the linearized solver. This linear numerical model then allows the componentwise investigation of the effects of flow disturbances on unsteady combustion and the feedback from the flame on the unsteady flow field. It is shown that a wrinkled reaction layer produces hydrodynamic disturbances in the fresh reactant flow field that superimpose on the acoustic field. This phenomenon, observed in several experiments, is fully interpreted here. The additional perturbations convected by the mean flow stem from the feedback of the perturbed flame sheet dynamics onto the flow field by a mechanism similar to that of a perturbed vortex sheet. The different regimes where this mechanism prevails are investigated by examining the phase and group velocities of flow disturbances along an axis oriented along the main direction of the flow in the fresh reactant flow field. It is shown that this mechanism dominates the low-frequency response of the wrinkled shape taken by the flame and, in particular, that it fully determines the dynamics of the flame tip from where the bulk of noise is radiated
Calculation of external-internal flow fields for mixed-compression inlets
Chyu, W. J.; Kawamura, T.; Bencze, D. P.
1987-01-01
Supersonic inlet flows with mixed external-internal compressions were computed using a combined implicit-explicit (Beam-Warming-Steger/MacCormack) method for solving the three-dimensional unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations in conservation form. Numerical calculations were made of various flows related to such inlet operations as the shock-wave intersections, subsonic spillage around the cowl lip, and inlet started versus unstarted conditions. Some of the computed results were compared with wind tunnel data.
The influence of external compression on muscle blood flow during exercise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Styf, J.
1990-01-01
Intramuscular pressures and muscle blood flow were measured in the anterior tibial muscle during dynamic concentric exercise in 14 subjects. Pressures were recorded by the microcapillary infusion method and muscle blood flow by the 133-Xenon clearance technique. Muscle blood flow during constant exercise decreased from 34.5 (SD = 10.3) to 10.6 (SD = 4.9) ml/100 g/min (P less than 0.001) when muscle relaxation pressure was increased from 13.5 (SD = 2.7) to 39.9 (SD = 9.0) mm Hg by external compression. Muscle relaxation pressure during exercise is the intramuscular pressure between contractions. External compression of the lower limb during exercise impedes muscle blood flow by increasing muscle relaxation pressure. The experimental model seems suitable to study the influence of external compression by knee braces on intramuscular pressure during exercise
Cha, Jeesung Jeff
Pulse Tube Cryocoolers (PTC) are a class of rugged and high-endurance refrigeration systems that operate without a moving part at their low temperature ends, and are capable of easily reaching 120°K. These devices can also be configured in multiple stages to reach temperatures below 10 °K. PTCs are particularly suitable for applications in space, missile guiding systems, cryosurgery, medicine preservation, superconducting electronics, magnetic resonance imaging, weather observation, and liquefaction of nitrogen. Although various designs of PTCs have been in use for a few decades, they represent a dynamic and developmental field. PTCs ruggedness comes at the price of relatively low efficiency, however, and thus far they have been primarily used in high-end applications. They have the potential of extensive use in consumer products, however, should sufficiently higher efficiencies be achieved. Intense research competition is underway worldwide, and newer designs are continuously introduced. Some of the fundamental processes that are responsible for their performance are at best not fully understood, however, and consequently systematic modeling of PTC systems is difficult. Among the challenges facing the PTC research community, besides improvement in terms of system efficiency, is the possible miniaturization (total fluid volume of few cubic centimeters (cc)) of these systems. The operating characteristics of a PTC are significantly different from the conventional refrigeration cycles. A PTC implements the theory of oscillatory compression and expansion of the gas within a closed volume to achieve desired refrigeration. Regenerators and pulse tubes are often viewed as the two most complex and essential components in cryocoolers. An important deficiency with respect to the state of art models dealing with PTCs is the essentially total lack of understanding about the directional hydrodynamic and thermal transport parameters associated with periodic flow in
Laser Doppler anemometry measurements of steady flow through two bi-leaflet prosthetic heart valves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ovandir Bazan
2013-12-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In vitro hydrodynamic characterization of prosthetic heart valves provides important information regarding their operation, especially if performed by noninvasive techniques of anemometry. Once velocity profiles for each valve are provided, it is possible to compare them in terms of hydrodynamic performance. In this first experimental study using laser doppler anemometry with mechanical valves, the simulations were performed at a steady flow workbench. OBJECTIVE: To compare unidimensional velocity profiles at the central plane of two bi-leaflet aortic prosthesis from St. Jude (AGN 21 - 751 and 21 AJ - 501 models exposed to a steady flow regime, on four distinct sections, three downstream and one upstream. METHODS: To provide similar conditions for the flow through each prosthesis by a steady flow workbench (water, flow rate of 17L/min. and, for the same sections and sweeps, to obtain the velocity profiles of each heart valve by unidimensional measurements. RESULTS: It was found that higher velocities correspond to the prosthesis with smaller inner diameter and instabilities of flow are larger as the section of interest is closer to the valve. Regions of recirculation, stagnation of flow, low pressure, and flow peak velocities were also found. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the hydrodynamic aspect and for every section measured, it could be concluded that the prosthesis model AGN 21 - 751 (RegentTM is superior to the 21 AJ - 501 model (Master Series. Based on the results, future studies can choose to focus on specific regions of the these valves.
Integral representation in the hodograph plane of compressible flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Erik Bent; Hsiao, G.C.
2003-01-01
Compressible flow is considered in the hodograph plane. The linearity of the equation determining the stream function is exploited to derive a representation formula involving boundary data only, and a fundamental solution to the adjoint equation. For subsonic flow, an efficient algorithm...
Separation flow control on a generic ground vehicle using steady microjet arrays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aubrun, Sandrine; Kourta, Azeddine [Universite d' Orleans, Laboratoire PRISME, Orleans cedex (France); McNally, Jonathan; Alvi, Farrukh [Florida State University, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL (United States)
2011-11-15
A model of a generic vehicle shape, the Ahmed body with a 25 slant, is equipped with an array of blowing steady microjets 6 mm downstream of the separation line between the roof and the slanted rear window. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of this actuation method in reducing the aerodynamic drag, by reducing or suppressing the 3D closed separation bubble located on the slanted surface. The efficiency of this control approach is quantified with the help of aerodynamic load measurements. The changes in the flow field when control is applied are examined using PIV and wall pressure measurements and skin friction visualisations. By activating the steady microjet array, the drag coefficient was reduced by 9-14% and the lift coefficient up to 42%, depending on the Reynolds number. The strong modification of the flow topology under progressive flow control is particularly studied. (orig.)
Three dimensional steady subsonic Euler flows in bounded nozzles
Chen, Chao; Xie, Chunjing
The existence and uniqueness of three dimensional steady subsonic Euler flows in rectangular nozzles were obtained when prescribing normal component of momentum at both the entrance and exit. If, in addition, the normal component of the voriticity and the variation of Bernoulli's function at the entrance are both zero, then there exists a unique subsonic potential flow when the magnitude of the normal component of the momentum is less than a critical number. As the magnitude of the normal component of the momentum approaches the critical number, the associated flows converge to a subsonic-sonic flow. Furthermore, when the normal component of vorticity and the variation of Bernoulli function are both small, the existence and uniqueness of subsonic Euler flows with non-zero vorticity are established. The proof of these results is based on a new formulation for the Euler system, a priori estimate for nonlinear elliptic equations with nonlinear boundary conditions, detailed study for a linear div-curl system, and delicate estimate for the transport equations.
A simplified approach for the computation of steady two-phase flow in inverted siphons.
Diogo, A Freire; Oliveira, Maria C
2016-01-15
Hydraulic, sanitary, and sulfide control conditions of inverted siphons, particularly in large wastewater systems, can be substantially improved by continuous air injection in the base of the inclined rising branch. This paper presents a simplified approach that was developed for the two-phase flow of the rising branch using the energy equation for a steady pipe flow, based on the average fluid fraction, observed slippage between phases, and isothermal assumption. As in a conventional siphon design, open channel steady uniform flow is assumed in inlet and outlet chambers, corresponding to the wastewater hydraulic characteristics in the upstream and downstream sewers, and the descending branch operates in steady uniform single-phase pipe flow. The proposed approach is tested and compared with data obtained in an experimental siphon setup with two plastic barrels of different diameters operating separately as in a single-barrel siphon. Although the formulations developed are very simple, the results show a good adjustment for the set of the parameters used and conditions tested and are promising mainly for sanitary siphons with relatively moderate heights of the ascending branch. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahin, Ahmet Z.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► The optimality in both heat and fluid flow systems has been investigated. ► A new thermodynamic property has been introduced. ► The second law of thermodynamics was extended to present the temheat balance that included the temheat destruction. ► The principle of temheat destruction minimization was introduced. ► It is shown that the rate of total temheat destruction is minimized in steady heat conduction and fluid flow problems. - Abstract: Heat transfer and fluid flow processes exhibit similarities as they occur naturally and are governed by the same type of differential equations. Natural phenomena occur always in an optimum way. In this paper, the natural optimality that exists in the heat transfer and fluid flow processes is investigated. In this regard, heat transfer and fluid flow problems are treated as optimization problems. We discovered a thermodynamic quantity that is optimized during the steady heat transfer and fluid flow processes. Consequently, a new thermodynamic property, the so called temheat, is introduced using the second law of thermodynamics and the definition of entropy. It is shown, through several examples, that overall temheat destruction is always minimized in steady heat and fluid flow processes. The principle of temheat destruction minimization that is based on the temheat balance equation provides a better insight to understand how the natural flow processes take place.
Liu, Shun; Xu, Jinglei; Yu, Kaikai
2017-06-01
This paper proposes an improved approach for extraction of pressure fields from velocity data, such as obtained by particle image velocimetry (PIV), especially for steady compressible flows with strong shocks. The principle of this approach is derived from Navier-Stokes equations, assuming adiabatic condition and neglecting viscosity of flow field boundaries measured by PIV. The computing method is based on MacCormack's technique in computational fluid dynamics. Thus, this approach is called the MacCormack method. Moreover, the MacCormack method is compared with several approaches proposed in previous literature, including the isentropic method, the spatial integration and the Poisson method. The effects of velocity error level and PIV spatial resolution on these approaches are also quantified by using artificial velocity data containing shock waves. The results demonstrate that the MacCormack method has higher reconstruction accuracy than other approaches, and its advantages become more remarkable with shock strengthening. Furthermore, the performance of the MacCormack method is also validated by using synthetic PIV images with an oblique shock wave, confirming the feasibility and advantage of this approach in real PIV experiments. This work is highly significant for the studies on aerospace engineering, especially the outer flow fields of supersonic aircraft and the internal flow fields of ramjets.
On the Kaolinite Floc Size at the Steady State of Flocculation in a Turbulent Flow.
Zhu, Zhongfan; Wang, Hongrui; Yu, Jingshan; Dou, Jie
2016-01-01
The flocculation of cohesive fine-grained sediment plays an important role in the transport characteristics of pollutants and nutrients absorbed on the surface of sediment in estuarine and coastal waters through the complex processes of sediment transport, deposition, resuspension and consolidation. Many laboratory experiments have been carried out to investigate the influence of different flow shear conditions on the floc size at the steady state of flocculation in the shear flow. Most of these experiments reported that the floc size decreases with increasing shear stresses and used a power law to express this dependence. In this study, we performed a Couette-flow experiment to measure the size of the kaolinite floc through sampling observation and an image analysis system at the steady state of flocculation under six flow shear conditions. The results show that the negative correlation of the floc size on the flow shear occurs only at high shear conditions, whereas at low shear conditions, the floc size increases with increasing turbulent shear stresses regardless of electrolyte conditions. Increasing electrolyte conditions and the initial particle concentration could lead to a larger steady-state floc size.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asahi, Kouichi; Hori, M; Hamasaki, N; Sato, S; Nakanishi, H; Kuwatsuru, R; Sasai, K; Aoki, S
2012-01-01
It is difficult to non-invasively visualize changes in regional cerebral blood flow caused by manual compression of the carotid artery. To visualize dynamic changes in regional cerebral blood flow during and after manual compression of the carotid artery. Two healthy volunteers were recruited. Anatomic features and flow directions in the circle of Willis were evaluated with time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and two-dimensional phase-contrast (2DPC) MRA, respectively. Regional cerebral blood flow was visualized with territorial arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging (TASL-MRI). TASL-MRI and 2DPC-MRA were performed in three states: at rest, during manual compression of the right carotid artery, and after decompression. In one volunteer, time-space labeling inversion pulse (Time-SLIP) MRA was performed to confirm collateral flow. During manual carotid compression, in one volunteer, the right thalamus changed to be fed only by the vertebrobasilar system, and the right basal ganglia changed to be fed by the left internal carotid artery. In the other volunteer, the right basal ganglia changed to be fed by the vertebrobasilar system. 2DPC-MRA showed that the flow direction changed in the right A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery and the right posterior communicating artery. Perfusion patterns and flow directions recovered after decompression. Time-SLIP MRA showed pial vessels and dural collateral circulation when the right carotid artery was manually compressed. Use of TASL-MRI and 2DPC-MRA was successful for non-invasive visualization of the dynamic changes in regional cerebral blood flow during and after manual carotid compression
A generalised correlation for the steady state flow in single-phase natural circulation loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vijayan, P.K.; Bade, M.H.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.; Venkat Raj, V.
2000-08-01
To establish the heat transport capability of natural circulation loops, it is essential to know the flow rate. A generalized correlation for steady state flow valid for uniform and non-uniform diameter loops has been theoretically derived
The quasi-steady state of all-vanadium redox flow batteries: A scale analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, A.K.; Vynnycky, M.; Ling, C.Y.; Birgersson, E.; Han, M.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • We present a transient 2D model for a VRFB (conservation of species and charge); • Carry out scale analysis of the species conservation equation; • Derive the condition characterizing the quasi-steadiness of VRFB operation; • Verify it by comparing charge-discharge curve with transient simulations. - Abstract: In general, mathematical models for all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB) that seek to capture the transport phenomena are transient in nature. In this paper, we carry out scale analysis of VRFB operation and derive the conditions when it can be assumed to be quasi-steady state in nature, i.e., time-dependence only through a boundary condition. We find that it is true for typical tank volume and flow rate employed for VRFBs. The proposed analysis is generic and can also be employed for other types of redox flow batteries
On compressible and piezo-viscous flow in thin porous media.
Pérez-Ràfols, F; Wall, P; Almqvist, A
2018-01-01
In this paper, we study flow through thin porous media as in, e.g. seals or fractures. It is often useful to know the permeability of such systems. In the context of incompressible and iso-viscous fluids, the permeability is the constant of proportionality relating the total flow through the media to the pressure drop. In this work, we show that it is also relevant to define a constant permeability when compressible and/or piezo-viscous fluids are considered. More precisely, we show that the corresponding nonlinear equation describing the flow of any compressible and piezo-viscous fluid can be transformed into a single linear equation. Indeed, this linear equation is the same as the one describing the flow of an incompressible and iso-viscous fluid. By this transformation, the total flow can be expressed as the product of the permeability and a nonlinear function of pressure, which represents a generalized pressure drop.
On the implicit density based OpenFOAM solver for turbulent compressible flows
Fürst, Jiří
The contribution deals with the development of coupled implicit density based solver for compressible flows in the framework of open source package OpenFOAM. However the standard distribution of OpenFOAM contains several ready-made segregated solvers for compressible flows, the performance of those solvers is rather week in the case of transonic flows. Therefore we extend the work of Shen [15] and we develop an implicit semi-coupled solver. The main flow field variables are updated using lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel method (LU-SGS) whereas the turbulence model variables are updated using implicit Euler method.
Bandyopadhyay, Alak; Majumdar, Alok
2007-01-01
The present paper describes the verification and validation of a quasi one-dimensional pressure based finite volume algorithm, implemented in Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), for predicting compressible flow with friction, heat transfer and area change. The numerical predictions were compared with two classical solutions of compressible flow, i.e. Fanno and Rayleigh flow. Fanno flow provides an analytical solution of compressible flow in a long slender pipe where incoming subsonic flow can be choked due to friction. On the other hand, Raleigh flow provides analytical solution of frictionless compressible flow with heat transfer where incoming subsonic flow can be choked at the outlet boundary with heat addition to the control volume. Nonuniform grid distribution improves the accuracy of numerical prediction. A benchmark numerical solution of compressible flow in a converging-diverging nozzle with friction and heat transfer has been developed to verify GFSSP's numerical predictions. The numerical predictions compare favorably in all cases.
Erpelding, Marion; Sinha, Santanu; Tallakstad, Ken Tore; Hansen, Alex; Flekkøy, Eirik Grude; Måløy, Knut Jørgen
2013-11-01
It is well known that the transient behavior during drainage or imbibition in multiphase flow in porous media strongly depends on the history and initial condition of the system. However, when the steady-state regime is reached and both drainage and imbibition take place at the pore level, the influence of the evolution history and initial preparation is an open question. Here, we present an extensive experimental and numerical work investigating the history dependence of simultaneous steady-state two-phase flow through porous media. Our experimental system consists of a Hele-Shaw cell filled with glass beads which we model numerically by a network of disordered pores transporting two immiscible fluids. From measurements of global pressure evolution, histograms of saturation, and cluster-size distributions, we find that when both phases are flowing through the porous medium, the steady state does not depend on the initial preparation of the system or on the way it has been reached.
STEADY-STATE modeling and simulation of pipeline networks for compressible fluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.L.H. Costa
1998-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a model and an algorithm for the simulation of pipeline networks with compressible fluids. The model can predict pressures, flow rates, temperatures and gas compositions at any point of the network. Any network configuration can be simulated; the existence of cycles is not an obstacle. Numerical results from simulated data on a proposed network are shown for illustration. The potential of the simulator is explored by the analysis of a pressure relief network, using a stochastic procedure for the evaluation of system performance.
Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows.
Sun, Chenghai; Hsu, Andrew T
2003-07-01
A three-dimensional compressible lattice Boltzmann model is formulated on a cubic lattice. A very large particle-velocity set is incorporated in order to enable a greater variation in the mean velocity. Meanwhile, the support set of the equilibrium distribution has only six directions. Therefore, this model can efficiently handle flows over a wide range of Mach numbers and capture shock waves. Due to the simple form of the equilibrium distribution, the fourth-order velocity tensors are not involved in the formulation. Unlike the standard lattice Boltzmann model, no special treatment is required for the homogeneity of fourth-order velocity tensors on square lattices. The Navier-Stokes equations were recovered, using the Chapman-Enskog method from the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) lattice Boltzmann equation. The second-order discretization error of the fluctuation velocity in the macroscopic conservation equation was eliminated by means of a modified collision invariant. The model is suitable for both viscous and inviscid compressible flows with or without shocks. Since the present scheme deals only with the equilibrium distribution that depends only on fluid density, velocity, and internal energy, boundary conditions on curved wall are easily implemented by an extrapolation of macroscopic variables. To verify the scheme for inviscid flows, we have successfully simulated a three-dimensional shock-wave propagation in a box and a normal shock of Mach number 10 over a wedge. As an application to viscous flows, we have simulated a flat plate boundary layer flow, flow over a cylinder, and a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil cascade.
computational study of Couette flow between parallel plates for steady and unsteady cases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rihan, Y.
2008-01-01
Couette flow between parallel plates is a classical problem that has important applications in various industrial processing. In this investigation an analytical solution was obtained to predict the steady and unsteady Couette flow between parallel plates. One of the plates was stationary and the other plate moved with constant velocity. The governing partial differential equations were solved numerically using Crank-Nicolson implicit method to represent the flow behavior of the fluid
Cross-coupling effects in chemically non-equilibrium viscous compressible flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kustova, E.V.; Giordano, D.
2011-01-01
Graphical abstract: Self-cosistent kinetic-theory description of chemical-reaction rates and mean normal stress in one-temperature viscous compressible gas flows. Reaearch highlights: → In chemically non-equilibrium viscous compressible flows, the rate of each reaction depends on the velocity divergence and rates of all other reactions. → Cross effects between the rates of chemical reactions and normal mean stress can be found in the symmetric form and expressed in terms of the reaction affinities. → In the case of small affinities, the entropy production is unconditionally non-negative; in the case of finite affinities, the entropy production related to the scalar forces has no definite sign. - Abstract: A closed self-consistent description of a one-temperature non-equilibrium reacting flow is presented on the basis of the kinetic theory methods. A general case including internal degrees of freedom, dissociation-recombination and exchange reactions, and arbitrary values of affinities of chemical reactions is considered. Chemical-reaction rates and mean normal stress in viscous compressible flows are studied and a symmetric cross coupling between these terms is found. It is shown that the rate of each chemical reaction and the mean normal stress depend on velocity divergence and affinities of all chemical reactions; the law of mass action is violated in viscous flows. The results obtained in the frame of linear irreversible thermodynamics can be deduced from the proposed model for the particular case of small affinities. The reciprocal Onsager-Casimir relations are verified, the symmetry of kinetic coefficients is demonstrated, and the entropy production in a viscous flow is studied.
Two compressible and immiscible flow in porous media: mathematical and numerical analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalil, Z.
2010-01-01
The aim of this thesis is the study of Cauchy problem (existence of weak solutions) for three degenerate highly coupled parabolic systems modeling compressible immiscible flow in porous media. The motivation of this work is a benchmark of the GNR MoMaS, to study the impact of the gas flow due to the corrosion of ferrous materials in a radioactive waste storage site. This thesis is divided into three independent chapters. Firstly, we look at a problem modeling the flow of two immiscible phases and considering one phase is compressible and the other is incompressible (water/gas). Secondly, we consider the problem modeling two-compressible immiscible flow in porous media. An existence results for both problems established by a semi-discretization method. Finally, The fourth chapter is devoted to the construction and convergence of a multi-dimensional finite volume method (upwind scheme) for the gas-water model under the assumption that the gas density is a function of a global pressure. (author)
Saeid Khalafvand, Seyed; Han, Hai-Chao
2015-01-01
It has been shown that arteries may buckle into tortuous shapes under lumen pressure, which in turn could alter blood flow. However, the mechanisms of artery instability under pulsatile flow have not been fully understood. The objective of this study was to simulate the buckling and post-buckling behaviors of the carotid artery under pulsatile flow using a fully coupled fluid–structure interaction (FSI) method. The artery wall was modeled as a nonlinear material with a two-fiber strain-energy function. FSI simulations were performed under steady-state flow and pulsatile flow conditions with a prescribed flow velocity profile at the inlet and different pressures at the outlet to determine the critical buckling pressure. Simulations were performed for normal (160 ml/min) and high (350 ml/min) flow rates and normal (1.5) and reduced (1.3) axial stretch ratios to determine the effects of flow rate and axial tension on stability. The results showed that an artery buckled when the lumen pressure exceeded a critical value. The critical mean buckling pressure at pulsatile flow was 17–23% smaller than at steady-state flow. For both steady-state and pulsatile flow, the high flow rate had very little effect (<5%) on the critical buckling pressure. The fluid and wall stresses were drastically altered at the location with maximum deflection. The maximum lumen shear stress occurred at the inner side of the bend and maximum tensile wall stresses occurred at the outer side. These findings improve our understanding of artery instability in vivo. PMID:25761257
Saeid Khalafvand, Seyed; Han, Hai-Chao
2015-06-01
It has been shown that arteries may buckle into tortuous shapes under lumen pressure, which in turn could alter blood flow. However, the mechanisms of artery instability under pulsatile flow have not been fully understood. The objective of this study was to simulate the buckling and post-buckling behaviors of the carotid artery under pulsatile flow using a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method. The artery wall was modeled as a nonlinear material with a two-fiber strain-energy function. FSI simulations were performed under steady-state flow and pulsatile flow conditions with a prescribed flow velocity profile at the inlet and different pressures at the outlet to determine the critical buckling pressure. Simulations were performed for normal (160 ml/min) and high (350 ml/min) flow rates and normal (1.5) and reduced (1.3) axial stretch ratios to determine the effects of flow rate and axial tension on stability. The results showed that an artery buckled when the lumen pressure exceeded a critical value. The critical mean buckling pressure at pulsatile flow was 17-23% smaller than at steady-state flow. For both steady-state and pulsatile flow, the high flow rate had very little effect (<5%) on the critical buckling pressure. The fluid and wall stresses were drastically altered at the location with maximum deflection. The maximum lumen shear stress occurred at the inner side of the bend and maximum tensile wall stresses occurred at the outer side. These findings improve our understanding of artery instability in vivo.
Transient compressible flows in porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morrison, F.A. Jr.
1975-09-01
Transient compressible flow in porous media was investigated analytically. The major portion of the investigation was directed toward improving and understanding of dispersion in these flows and developing rapid accurate numerical techniques for predicting the extent of dispersion. The results are of interest in the containment of underground nuclear experiments. The transient one-dimensional transport of a trace component in a gas flow is analyzed. A conservation equation accounting for the effects of convective transport, dispersive transport, and decay, is developed. This relation, as well as a relation governing the fluid flow, is used to predict trace component concentration as a function of position and time. A detailed analysis of transport associated with the isothermal flow of an ideal gas is done. Because the governing equations are nonlinear, numerical calculations are performed. The ideal gas flow is calculated using a highly stable implicit iterative procedure with an Eulerian mesh. In order to avoid problems of anomolous dispersion associated with finite difference calculation, trace component convection and dispersion are calculated using a Lagrangian mesh. Details of the Eulerian-Lagrangian numerical technique are presented. Computer codes have been developed and implemented on the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory computer system
Steady state drift vortices in plasmas with shear flow in equilibrium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chakrabarti, N.
1999-01-01
The Hasegawa-Mima equation in the presence of sheared poloidal flow is solved for two-dimensional steady state vortex. It is shown that when the phase velocity of the vortex is the same as the diamagnetic drift velocity, an exact solution in the form of counter-rotating vortices may appear...
Hamamoto, Yuichiro; Ogata, Tadanori; Morino, Tadao; Hino, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Haruyasu
2007-08-15
An in vivo study to measure rat spinal cord blood flow in real-time at the site of compression using a newly developed device. To evaluate the change in thoracic spinal cord blood flow by compression force and to clarify the association between blood flow recovery and motor deficiency after a spinal cord compression injury. Until now, no real-time measurement of spinal cord blood flow at the site of compression has been conducted. In addition, it has not been clearly determined whether blood flow recovery is related to motor function after a spinal cord injury. Our blood flow measurement system was a combination of a noncontact type laser Doppler system and a spinal cord compression device. The rat thoracic spinal cord was exposed at the 11th vertebra and spinal cord blood flow at the site of compression was continuously measured before, during, and after the compression. The functioning of the animal's hind-limbs was evaluated by the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scoring scale and the frequency of voluntary standing. Histologic changes such as permeability of blood-spinal cord barrier, microglia proliferation, and apoptotic cell death were examined in compressed spinal cord tissue. The spinal blood flow decreased on each increase in the compression force. After applying a 5-g weight, the blood flow decreased to compression), while no significant difference was observed between the 20-minute ischemia group and the sham group. In the 20-minute ischemia group, the rats whose spinal cord blood flow recovery was incomplete showed significant motor function loss compared with rats that completely recovered blood flow. Extensive breakdown of blood-spinal cord barrier integrity and the following microglia proliferation and apoptotic cell death were detected in the 40-minute complete ischemia group. Duration of ischemia/compression and blood flow recovery of the spinal cord are important factors in the recovery of motor function after a spinal cord injury.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Baoren; Gao, Longlong; Yang, Gang
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► A novel energy saving high-pressure electro-pneumatic servo valve is presented. ► An evaluated method for steady gas flow forces on pneumatic valves is proposed. ► Gas jet angles at the orifices for the valve are larger than 69° commonly used. ► The steady gas flow force is strongly nonlinear with valve opening. ► The steady gas flow force is compensated and the aim at energy saving is realized. - Abstract: A novel voice coil motor (VCM) direct drive single stage high-pressure pneumatic servo valve is designed, and then the steady gas flow force acting on the spool of the servo valve is investigated by numerical simulation and experimental methods in this paper. At present, many studies about flow force are concentrated mainly on hydraulic valves, but rarely on pneumatic valves. However, the velocity of gas is up to sonic when high-pressure gas flows through the servo valve orifice. And therefore, the steady gas flow force, generated by high pressure and high speed gas flow, cannot be neglected and is an important disturbance for the VCM direct-drive single stage high-pressure pneumatic servo valve. Consequently, the numerical simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is adopted to analyze the flow filed, jet angles, and steady gas flow forces for the servo valve with different valve openings and inlet pressures. The experimental study is performed to evaluate and confirm the numerical analysis. Then the compensated approach is proposed to reduce the steady gas flow force for the servo valve, changing the angle of non-metering port designed in the valve sleeve to the spool axis. The results demonstrate that the presented numerical analysis method is validated, the gas jet angle for the servo valve orifice is more than 69° and varies with different spool openings, and the steady gas flow force is nonlinear with valve opening and linear with inlet pressure when the outlet boundary is atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the steady gas
A soap film shock tube to study two-dimensional compressible flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wen, C.Y.; Chen, Y.M.; Chang-Jian, S.K. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Da-Yeh University Chang-Hwa (Taiwan)
2001-07-01
A new experimental approach to the study of the two-dimensional compressible flow phenomena is presented. In this technique, a variety of compressible flows were generated by bursting plane vertical soap films. An aureole and a ''shock wave'' preceding the rim of the expanding hole were clearly observed using traditional high-speed flash photography and a fast line-scan charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The moving shock wave images obtained from the line-scan CCD camera were similar to the x-t diagrams in gas dynamics. The moving shock waves cause thickness jumps and induce supersonic flows. Photographs of the supersonic flows over a cylinder and a wedge are presented. The results suggest clearly the feasibility of the ''soap film shock tube''. (orig.)
Space-marching gridless computation of steady supersonic/hypersonic flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hui, W.H.; Hu, J.J.
2004-01-01
Most CFD work use Eulerian coordinates, which require generating a grid prior to flow filed computation. Despite three decades of research, grid generation is still a bottleneck of CFD, as it is time-consuming, tedious and requires specialized training. It will be shown in this paper that using the Unified Coordinates introduced by Hui et. al., there is no need for grid generation prior to flow computation; the grid is automatically generated while computing the flow. This greatly saves computing time. For steady supersonic/hypersonic flow, the Euler equations of gas dynamics are of hyperbolic type and a space-marching gridless computation along the streamlines - coordinate lines in the unified coordinates - is shown to be a complete success in that: (a) it is most robust, (b) it resolves both slip lines (also called contact lines) and shocks sharply, (c) its computing time is more than three orders of magnitude smaller than Eulerian computation and, (d) it by-passes the tedious and time-consuming grid generation stage which is needed in Eulerian computation. Three examples are given to justify these claims. (author)
Najjari, Mohammad Reza; Plesniak, Michael W.
2017-11-01
Secondary flow vortical structures were investigated in an elastic 180° curved pipe with and without torsion under steady and pulsatile flow using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The elastic thin-walled curved pipes were constructed using Sylgard 184, and inserted into a bath of refractive index matched fluid to perform PIV. A vortex identification method was employed to identify various vortical structures in the flow. The secondary flow structures in the planar compliant model with dilatation of 0.61%-3.23% under pulsatile flow rate were compared with the rigid vessel model results, and it was found that local vessel compliance has a negligible effect on secondary flow morphology. The secondary flow structures were found to be more sensitive to out of plane curvature (torsion) than to vessel compliance. Torsion distorts the symmetry of secondary flow and results in more complex vortical structures in both steady and pulsatile flows. In high Re number steady flow with torsion, a single dominant vortical structure can be detected at the middle of the 90° cross section. In pulsatile flow with torsion, the split-Dean and Lyne-type vortices with same rotation direction originating from opposite sides of the cross section tend to merge together. supported by GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.
Models of steady state cooling flows in elliptical galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vedder, P.W.; Trester, J.J.; Canizares, C.R.
1988-01-01
A comprehensive set of steady state models for spherically symmetric cooling flows in early-type galaxies is presented. It is found that a reduction of the supernova (SN) rate in ellipticals produces a decrease in the X-ray luminosity of galactic cooling flows and a steepening of the surface brightness profile. The mean X-ray temperature of the cooling flow is not affected noticeably by a change in the SN rate. The external pressure around a galaxy does not markedly change the luminosity of the gas within the galaxy but does change the mean temperature of the gas. The presence of a dark matter halo in a galaxy only changes the mean X-ray temperature slightly. The addition of a distribution of mass sinks which remove material from the general accretion flow reduces L(X) very slightly, flattens the surface brightness profile, and reduces the central surface brightness level to values close to those actually observed. A reduction in the stellar mass-loss rate only slightly reduces the X-ray luminosity of the cooling flow and flattens the surface brightness by a small amount. 37 references
Steady finite-Reynolds-number flows in three-dimensional collapsible tubes
Hazel, Andrew L.; Heil, Matthias
2003-07-01
A fully coupled finite-element method is used to investigate the steady flow of a viscous fluid through a thin-walled elastic tube mounted between two rigid tubes. The steady three-dimensional Navier Stokes equations are solved simultaneously with the equations of geometrically nonlinear Kirchhoff Love shell theory. If the transmural (internal minus external) pressure acting on the tube is sufficiently negative then the tube buckles non-axisymmetrically and the subsequent large deformations lead to a strong interaction between the fluid and solid mechanics. The main effect of fluid inertia on the macroscopic behaviour of the system is due to the Bernoulli effect, which induces an additional local pressure drop when the tube buckles and its cross-sectional area is reduced. Thus, the tube collapses more strongly than it would in the absence of fluid inertia. Typical tube shapes and flow fields are presented. In strongly collapsed tubes, at finite values of the Reynolds number, two ’jets‘ develop downstream of the region of strongest collapse and persist for considerable axial distances. For sufficiently high values of the Reynolds number, these jets impact upon the sidewalls and spread azimuthally. The consequent azimuthal transport of momentum dramatically changes the axial velocity profiles, which become approximately uTheta-shaped when the flow enters the rigid downstream pipe. Further convection of momentum causes the development of a ring-shaped velocity profile before the ultimate return to a parabolic profile far downstream.
Mechanics of occurrence of critical flow in compressible two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katto, Yoshiro; Sudo, Yukio
1976-01-01
Fundamental framework of mechanics for the occurrence of critical flow is investigated, following the principle that the critical flow appears as a limit in a continuous change of state of flow along a nozzle (or a pipe) and should be derived only from simultaneous mechanical equations concerned with the flow. Mathematical procedures with which the critical flow: (i) the single phase flow of an arbitrary fluid, unrestricted by the equation of state of ideal gas, where the number of simultaneous equations is equal to the number of independent variables, and (ii) the one-component, separated two-phase flow under saturated condition, where the number of equations exceeds that of variables. In each case, interesting mechanism of leading to the occurrence of a limiting state of flow at a definite cross-section in a nozzle (incl. a pipe) is clarified, and a definite state of flow at the critical cross-section is also determined. Then, the analysis is extended to the critical flow which should appear in the completely isolated and the homogeneously dispersed, two-component, two-phase flow (composed of a compressible and an incompressible substance). It is found that the analyses of these special flow patterns provide several supplementary information to the mechanics of critical flow. (auth.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rian, Kjell Erik
2003-07-01
In numerical simulations of turbulent reacting compressible flows, artificial boundaries are needed to obtain a finite computational domain when an unbounded physical domain is given. Artificial boundaries which fluids are free to cross are called open boundaries. When calculating such flows, non-physical reflections at the open boundaries may occur. These reflections can pollute the solution severely, leading to inaccurate results, and the generation of spurious fluctuations may even cause the numerical simulation to diverge. Thus, a proper treatment of the open boundaries in numerical simulations of turbulent reacting compressible flows is required to obtain a reliable solution for realistic conditions. A local quasi-one-dimensional characteristic-based open-boundary treatment for the Favre-averaged governing equations for time-dependent three-dimensional multi-component turbulent reacting compressible flow is presented. A k-{epsilon} model for turbulent compressible flow and Magnussen's EDC model for turbulent combustion is included in the analysis. The notion of physical boundary conditions is incorporated in the method, and the conservation equations themselves are applied on the boundaries to complement the set of physical boundary conditions. A two-dimensional finite-difference-based computational fluid dynamics code featuring high-order accurate numerical schemes was developed for the numerical simulations. Transient numerical simulations of the well-known, one-dimensional shock-tube problem, a two-dimensional pressure-tower problem in a decaying turbulence field, and a two-dimensional turbulent reacting compressible flow problem have been performed. Flow- and combustion-generated pressure waves seem to be well treated by the non-reflecting subsonic open-boundary conditions. Limitations of the present open-boundary treatment are demonstrated and discussed. The simple and solid physical basis of the method makes it both favourable and relatively easy to
Quantifying measurement uncertainties in ADCP measurements in non-steady, inhomogeneous flow
Schäfer, Stefan
2017-04-01
The author presents a laboratory study of fixed-platform four-beam ADCP and three-beam ADV measurements in the tailrace of a micro hydro power setup with a 35kW Kaplan-turbine and 2.5m head. The datasets discussed quantify measurement uncertainties of the ADCP measurement technique coming from non-steady, inhomogeneous flow. For constant discharge of 1.5m3/s, two different flow scenarios were investigated: one being the regular tailrace flow downstream the draft tube and the second being a straightened, less inhomogeneous flow, which was generated by the use of a flow straightening device: A rack of diameter 40mm pipe sections was mounted right behind the draft tube. ADCP measurements (sampling rate 1.35Hz) were conducted in three distances behind the draft tube and compared bin-wise to measurements of three simultaneously measuring ADV probes (sampling rate 64Hz). The ADV probes were aligned horizontally and the ADV bins were placed in the centers of two facing ADCP bins and in the vertical under the ADCP probe of the corresponding depth. Rotating the ADV probes by 90° allowed for measurements of the other two facing ADCP bins. For reasons of mutual probe interaction, ADCP and ADV measurements were not conducted at the same time. The datasets were evaluated by using mean and fluctuation velocities. Turbulence parameters were calculated and compared as far as applicable. Uncertainties coming from non-steady flow were estimated with the normalized mean square error und evaluated by comparing long-term measurements of 60 minutes to shorter measurement intervals. Uncertainties coming from inhomogeneous flow were evaluated by comparison of ADCP with ADV data along the ADCP beams where ADCP data were effectively measured and in the vertical under the ADCP probe where velocities of the ADCP measurements were displayed. Errors coming from non-steady flow could be compensated through sufficiently long measurement intervals with high enough sampling rates depending on the
Prandtl boundary layer expansions of steady Navier-Stokes flows over a moving plate
Guo, Yan; Nguyen, Toan T.
2014-01-01
This paper concerns the validity of the Prandtl boundary layer theory in the inviscid limit for steady incompressible Navier-Stokes flows. The stationary flows, with small viscosity, are considered on $[0,L]\\times \\mathbb{R}_{+}$, assuming a no-slip boundary condition over a moving plate at $y=0$. We establish the validity of the Prandtl boundary layer expansion and its error estimates.
An experimental setup for the study of the steady air flow in a diesel engine chamber
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Montanero José María
2012-04-01
Full Text Available We present an experimental setup for studying the steady air flow in a diesel engine chamber. An engine block containing the inlet manifold was placed on a test bench. A steady air stream crossed the inlet manifold and entered a glass chamber driven by a fan. A PIV system was set up around the bench to measure the in-chamber flow. An air spray gun was used as seed generator to producing sub-millimeter droplets, easily dragged by the air stream. Images of the in-flow chamber were acquired in the course of the experiments, and processed to measure the velocity field. The pressure drop driven the air current and the mass flow rate were also measured.
Multidomain spectral solution of compressible viscous flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopriva, D.A.
1994-01-01
We develop a nonoverlapping mutidomain spectral collocation method to solve compressible viscous flows. At the interfaces, the advection terms are treated with a characteristic correction method. The diffusion terms are treated with a penalty method. Spectral accuracy is demonstrated on linear model problems in one and two space dimensions. The method is applied to a subsonic and supersonic flow over a flat plate. The results are compared to solutions of the boundary-layer equations which show that two digit accuracy in the adiabatic plate temperature is obtained with 16 points in the boundary layer for a freestream Mach number of two. A second application is to a transonic flow in a two-dimensional converging-diverging nozzle, where the computed results are compared to experimental data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Castillo, Richard; White, Benjamin; Rojo, Javier
2012-01-01
Compressible flow based image registration operates under the assumption that the mass of the imaged material is conserved from one image to the next. Depending on how the mass conservation assumption is modeled, the performance of existing compressible flow methods is limited by factors such as image quality, noise, large magnitude voxel displacements, and computational requirements. The Least Median of Squares Filtered Compressible Flow (LFC) method introduced here is based on a localized, nonlinear least squares, compressible flow model that describes the displacement of a single voxel that lends itself to a simple grid search (block matching) optimization strategy. Spatially inaccurate grid search point matches, corresponding to erroneous local minimizers of the nonlinear compressible flow model, are removed by a novel filtering approach based on least median of squares fitting and the forward search outlier detection method. The spatial accuracy of the method is measured using ten thoracic CT image sets and large samples of expert determined landmarks (available at www.dir-lab.com). The LFC method produces an average error within the intra-observer error on eight of the ten cases, indicating that the method is capable of achieving a high spatial accuracy for thoracic CT registration. (paper)
Application of a New Hybrid RANS/LES Modeling Paradigm to Compressible Flow
Oliver, Todd; Pederson, Clark; Haering, Sigfried; Moser, Robert
2017-11-01
It is well-known that traditional hybrid RANS/LES modeling approaches suffer from a number of deficiencies. These deficiencies often stem from overly simplistic blending strategies based on scalar measures of turbulence length scale and grid resolution and from use of isotropic subgrid models in LES regions. A recently developed hybrid modeling approach has shown promise in overcoming these deficiencies in incompressible flows [Haering, 2015]. In the approach, RANS/LES blending is accomplished using a hybridization parameter that is governed by an additional model transport equation and is driven to achieve equilibrium between the resolved and unresolved turbulence for the given grid. Further, the model uses an tensor eddy viscosity that is formulated to represent the effects of anisotropic grid resolution on subgrid quantities. In this work, this modeling approach is extended to compressible flows and implemented in the compressible flow solver SU2 (http://su2.stanford.edu/). We discuss both modeling and implementation challenges and show preliminary results for compressible flow test cases with smooth wall separation.
Volume of the steady-state space of financial flows in a monetary stock-flow-consistent model
Hazan, Aurélien
2017-05-01
We show that a steady-state stock-flow consistent macro-economic model can be represented as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP). The set of solutions is a polytope, which volume depends on the constraints applied and reveals the potential fragility of the economic circuit, with no need to study the dynamics. Several methods to compute the volume are compared, inspired by operations research methods and the analysis of metabolic networks, both exact and approximate. We also introduce a random transaction matrix, and study the particular case of linear flows with respect to money stocks.
A blended pressure/density based method for the computation of incompressible and compressible flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rossow, C.-C.
2003-01-01
An alternative method to low speed preconditioning for the computation of nearly incompressible flows with compressible methods is developed. For this approach the leading terms of the flux difference splitting (FDS) approximate Riemann solver are analyzed in the incompressible limit. In combination with the requirement of the velocity field to be divergence-free, an elliptic equation to solve for a pressure correction to enforce the divergence-free velocity field on the discrete level is derived. The pressure correction equation established is shown to be equivalent to classical methods for incompressible flows. In order to allow the computation of flows at all speeds, a blending technique for the transition from the incompressible, pressure based formulation to the compressible, density based formulation is established. It is found necessary to use preconditioning with this blending technique to account for a remaining 'compressible' contribution in the incompressible limit, and a suitable matrix directly applicable to conservative residuals is derived. Thus, a coherent framework is established to cover the discretization of both incompressible and compressible flows. Compared with standard preconditioning techniques, the blended pressure/density based approach showed improved robustness for high lift flows close to separation
Nonaffine deformation under compression and decompression of a flow-stabilized solid
Ortiz, Carlos P.; Riehn, Robert; Daniels, Karen E.
2016-08-01
Understanding the particle-scale transition from elastic deformation to plastic flow is central to making predictions about the bulk material properties and response of disordered materials. To address this issue, we perform experiments on flow-stabilized solids composed of micron-scale spheres within a microfluidic channel, in a regime where particle inertia is negligible. Each solid heap exists within a stress field imposed by the flow, and we track the positions of particles in response to single impulses of fluid-driven compression or decompression. We find that the resulting deformation field is well-decomposed into an affine field, with a constant strain profile throughout the solid, and a non-affine field. The magnitude of this non-affine response decays with the distance from the free surface in the long-time limit, suggesting that the distance from jamming plays a significant role in controlling the length scale of plastic flow. Finally, we observe that compressive pulses create more rearrangements than decompressive pulses, an effect that we quantify using the D\\text{min}2 statistic for non-affine motion. Unexpectedly, the time scale for the compression response is shorter than for decompression at the same strain (but unequal pressure), providing insight into the coupling between deformation and cage-breaking.
Interfacing a General Purpose Fluid Network Flow Program with the SINDA/G Thermal Analysis Program
Schallhorn, Paul; Popok, Daniel
1999-01-01
A general purpose, one dimensional fluid flow code is currently being interfaced with the thermal analysis program Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer/Gaski (SINDA/G). The flow code, Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), is capable of analyzing steady state and transient flow in a complex network. The flow code is capable of modeling several physical phenomena including compressibility effects, phase changes, body forces (such as gravity and centrifugal) and mixture thermodynamics for multiple species. The addition of GFSSP to SINDA/G provides a significant improvement in convective heat transfer modeling for SINDA/G. The interface development is conducted in multiple phases. This paper describes the first phase of the interface which allows for steady and quasi-steady (unsteady solid, steady fluid) conjugate heat transfer modeling.
Kwon, Young-Sam; Lin, Ying-Chieh; Su, Cheng-Fang
2018-04-01
In this paper, we consider the compressible models of magnetohydrodynamic flows giving rise to a variety of mathematical problems in many areas. We derive a rigorous quasi-geostrophic equation governed by magnetic field from the rotational compressible magnetohydrodynamic flows with the well-prepared initial data. It is a first derivation of quasi-geostrophic equation governed by the magnetic field, and the tool is based on the relative entropy method. This paper covers two results: the existence of the unique local strong solution of quasi-geostrophic equation with the good regularity and the derivation of a quasi-geostrophic equation.
Steady flow in voids and closed cracks in permeable media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rae, J.
1985-03-01
This paper considers what happens when a steady flow in a permeable medium meets two concentric spheres which have different permeabilities. This can form a first stage model for water flow near an engineered cavity in rock or a concreted waste package placed in filler material as in a nuclear waste repository. Results are obtained in terms of the simplest spherical harmonics, which lets them be used easily. Included are the well-known result that a highly permeable sphere will see only a few times the flux which would occur if it had the permeability of its surroundings, and the less well-known result, though unsurprising, that a spherical region surrounded by a highly permeable shell will see almost no flow, as it will almost all by-pass. A companion paper will include more geometrical effects by replacing the spheres by ellipsoids. (author)
Kishor Kumar, V. V.; Kuzhiveli, B. T.
2017-12-01
The performance of a Stirling cryocooler depends on the thermal and hydrodynamic properties of the regenerator in the system. CFD modelling is the best technique to design and predict the performance of a Stirling cooler. The accuracy of the simulation results depend on the hydrodynamic and thermal transport parameters used as the closure relations for the volume averaged governing equations. A methodology has been developed to quantify the viscous and inertial resistance terms required for modelling the regenerator as a porous medium in Fluent. Using these terms, the steady and steady - periodic flow of helium through regenerator was modelled and simulated. Comparison of the predicted and experimental pressure drop reveals the good predictive power of the correlation based method. For oscillatory flow, the simulation could predict the exit pressure amplitude and the phase difference accurately. Therefore the method was extended to obtain the Darcy permeability and Forchheimer’s inertial coefficient of other wire mesh matrices applicable to Stirling coolers. Simulation of regenerator using these parameters will help to better understand the thermal and hydrodynamic interactions between working fluid and the regenerator material, and pave the way to contrive high performance, ultra-compact free displacers used in miniature Stirling cryocoolers in the future.
Magnetic compression into Brillouin flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becker, R.
1977-01-01
The trajectories of beam edge electrons are calculated in the transition region between an electrostatic gun and an increasing magnetic field for various field shapes, transition length, and cathode fluxes, assuming that the resultant beam is of Brillouin flow type. The results give a good physical interpretation to the axial gradient of the magnetic field being responsible for the amount of magnetic compression and also for the proper injection conditions. Therefore it becomes possible to predict from the known characteristics of any fairly laminary electrostatic gun the necessary axial gradient of the magnetic field and the axial position of the gun with respect to the field build-up. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramakrishnan, Sankaran; Edwards, Christopher F.
2014-01-01
Systems research has led to the conception and development of various steady-flow, chemically-reactive, engine cycles for stationary power generation and propulsion. However, the question that remains unanswered is: What is the maximum-efficiency steady-flow chemically-reactive engine architecture permitted by physics? On the one hand the search for higher-efficiency cycles continues, often involving newer processes and devices (fuel cells, carbon separation, etc.); on the other hand the design parameters for existing cycles are continually optimized in response to improvements in device engineering. In this paper we establish that any variation in engine architecture—parametric change or process-sequence change—contributes to an efficiency increase via one of only two possible ways to minimize total irreversibility. These two principles help us unify our understanding from a large number of parametric analyses and cycle-optimization studies for any steady-flow chemically-reactive engine, and set a framework to systematically identify maximum-efficiency engine architectures. - Highlights: • A unified thermodynamic model to study chemically-reactive engine architectures is developed. • All parametric analyses of efficiency are unified by two irreversibility-minimization principles. • Variations in internal energy transfers yield a net work increase that is greater than engine irreversibility reduced. • Variations in external energy transfers yield a net work increase that is lesser than engine irreversibility reduced
Adjoint sensitivity theory for steady-state ground-water flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1983-11-01
In this study, adjoint sensitivity theory is developed for equations of two-dimensional steady-state flow in a confined aquifer. Both the primary flow equation and the adjoint sensitivity equation are solved using the Galerkin finite element method. The developed computer code is used to investigate the regional flow parameters of the Leadville Formation of the Paradox Basin in Utah and the Wolcamp carbonate/sandstone aquifer of the Palo Duro Basin in the Texas Panhandle. Two performance measures are evaluated, local heads and velocity in the vicinity of potential high-level nuclear waste repositories. The results illustrate the sensitivity of calculated local heads to the boundary conditions. Local velocity-related performance measures are more sensitive to hydraulic conductivities. The uncertainty in the performance measure is a function of the parameter sensitivity, parameter variance and the correlation between parameters. Given a parameter covariance matrix, the uncertainty of the performance measure can be calculated. Although no results are presented here, the implications of uncertainty calculations for the two studies are discussed. 18 references, 25 figures
Implicit unified gas-kinetic scheme for steady state solutions in all flow regimes
Zhu, Yajun; Zhong, Chengwen; Xu, Kun
2016-06-01
This paper presents an implicit unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS) for non-equilibrium steady state flow computation. The UGKS is a direct modeling method for flow simulation in all regimes with the updates of both macroscopic flow variables and microscopic gas distribution function. By solving the macroscopic equations implicitly, a predicted equilibrium state can be obtained first through iterations. With the newly predicted equilibrium state, the evolution equation of the gas distribution function and the corresponding collision term can be discretized in a fully implicit way for fast convergence through iterations as well. The lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (LU-SGS) factorization method is implemented to solve both macroscopic and microscopic equations, which improves the efficiency of the scheme. Since the UGKS is a direct modeling method and its physical solution depends on the mesh resolution and the local time step, a physical time step needs to be fixed before using an implicit iterative technique with a pseudo-time marching step. Therefore, the physical time step in the current implicit scheme is determined by the same way as that in the explicit UGKS for capturing the physical solution in all flow regimes, but the convergence to a steady state speeds up through the adoption of a numerical time step with large CFL number. Many numerical test cases in different flow regimes from low speed to hypersonic ones, such as the Couette flow, cavity flow, and the flow passing over a cylinder, are computed to validate the current implicit method. The overall efficiency of the implicit UGKS can be improved by one or two orders of magnitude in comparison with the explicit one.
Numerical simulation of steady cavitating flow of viscous fluid in a Francis hydroturbine
Panov, L. V.; Chirkov, D. V.; Cherny, S. G.; Pylev, I. M.; Sotnikov, A. A.
2012-09-01
Numerical technique was developed for simulation of cavitating flows through the flow passage of a hydraulic turbine. The technique is based on solution of steady 3D Navier—Stokes equations with a liquid phase transfer equation. The approch for setting boundary conditions meeting the requirements of cavitation testing standard was suggested. Four different models of evaporation and condensation were compared. Numerical simulations for turbines of different specific speed were compared with experiment.
H.R. Barnard; C.B. Graham; W.J. van Verseveld; J.R. Brooks; B.J. Bond; J.J. McDonnell
2010-01-01
Mechanistic assessment of how transpiration influences subsurface flow is necessary to advance understanding of catchment hydrology. We conducted a 24-day, steady-state irrigation experiment to quantify the relationships among soil moisture, transpiration and hillslope subsurface flow. Our objectives were to: (1) examine the time lag between maximum transpiration and...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klimachkov, D. A., E-mail: klimchakovdmitry@gmail.com; Petrosyan, A. S., E-mail: apetrosy@iki.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)
2016-09-15
Shallow water magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory describing incompressible flows of plasma is generalized to the case of compressible flows. A system of MHD equations is obtained that describes the flow of a thin layer of compressible rotating plasma in a gravitational field in the shallow water approximation. The system of quasilinear hyperbolic equations obtained admits a complete simple wave analysis and a solution to the initial discontinuity decay problem in the simplest version of nonrotating flows. In the new equations, sound waves are filtered out, and the dependence of density on pressure on large scales is taken into account that describes static compressibility phenomena. In the equations obtained, the mass conservation law is formulated for a variable that nontrivially depends on the shape of the lower boundary, the characteristic vertical scale of the flow, and the scale of heights at which the variation of density becomes significant. A simple wave theory is developed for the system of equations obtained. All self-similar discontinuous solutions and all continuous centered self-similar solutions of the system are obtained. The initial discontinuity decay problem is solved explicitly for compressible MHD equations in the shallow water approximation. It is shown that there exist five different configurations that provide a solution to the initial discontinuity decay problem. For each configuration, conditions are found that are necessary and sufficient for its implementation. Differences between incompressible and compressible cases are analyzed. In spite of the formal similarity between the solutions in the classical case of MHD flows of an incompressible and compressible fluids, the nonlinear dynamics described by the solutions are essentially different due to the difference in the expressions for the squared propagation velocity of weak perturbations. In addition, the solutions obtained describe new physical phenomena related to the dependence of the
Two-dimensional steady unsaturated flow through embedded elliptical layers
Bakker, Mark; Nieber, John L.
2004-12-01
New analytic element solutions are presented for unsaturated, two-dimensional steady flow in vertical planes that include nonoverlapping impermeable elliptical layers and elliptical inhomogeneities. The hydraulic conductivity, which is represented by an exponential function of the pressure head, differs between the inside and outside of an elliptical inhomogeneity; both the saturated hydraulic conductivity and water retention parameters are allowed to differ between the inside and outside. The Richards equation is transformed, through the Kirchhoff transformation and a second standard transformation, into the modified Helmholtz equation. Analytic element solutions are obtained through separation of variables in elliptical coordinates. The resulting equations for the Kirchhoff potential consist of infinite sums of products of exponentials and modified Mathieu functions. In practical applications the series are truncated but still fulfill the differential equation exactly; boundary conditions are met approximately but up to machine accuracy, provided that enough terms are used. The pressure head, saturation, and flow may be computed analytically at any point in the vadose zone. Examples are given of the shadowing effect of an impermeable elliptical layer in a uniform flow field and funnel-type flow between two elliptical inhomogeneities. The presented solutions may be applied to study transport processes in vadose zones containing many impermeable elliptical layers or elliptical inhomogeneities.
Obtaining location/arrival-time and location/outflow-quantity distributions for steady flow systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1977-01-01
A steady, two-dimensional flow system is used to demonstrate the application of location/arrival-time and location/outflow-quantity curves in determining the environmental consequences of groundwater contamination. The subsurface geologic and hydrologic evaluations needed to obtain the arrival results involve a sequence of four phases: system identification, new potential determination, flow systems kinematics, and contaminant transport analysis. Once these phases are completed, they are effectively summarized and easily used to evaluate environmental consequences through the arrival distributions
Subsampling-based compression and flow visualization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agranovsky, Alexy; Camp, David; Joy, I; Childs, Hank
2016-01-19
As computational capabilities increasingly outpace disk speeds on leading supercomputers, scientists will, in turn, be increasingly unable to save their simulation data at its native resolution. One solution to this problem is to compress these data sets as they are generated and visualize the compressed results afterwards. We explore this approach, specifically subsampling velocity data and the resulting errors for particle advection-based flow visualization. We compare three techniques: random selection of subsamples, selection at regular locations corresponding to multi-resolution reduction, and introduce a novel technique for informed selection of subsamples. Furthermore, we explore an adaptive system which exchanges the subsampling budget over parallel tasks, to ensure that subsampling occurs at the highest rate in the areas that need it most. We perform supercomputing runs to measure the effectiveness of the selection and adaptation techniques. Overall, we find that adaptation is very effective, and, among selection techniques, our informed selection provides the most accurate results, followed by the multi-resolution selection, and with the worst accuracy coming from random subsamples.
A matrix-free implicit treatment for all speed flows on unstructured grids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kloczko, Th.
2006-03-01
The aim of this research work is the development of an efficient implicit scheme for computing compressible and low-speed flows on unstructured meshes. The first part is devoted to the review and analysis of some standard block-implicit treatments for the two-dimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with a view to identify the best candidate for a fair comparison with the matrix-free treatment. The second part forms the main original contribution of this research work. It describes and analyses a matrix-free treatment that can be applied to any type of flow (inviscid/viscous, low Mach/highly compressible, steady/unsteady). The third part deals with the implementation of this treatment within the CAST3M code, and the demonstration of its advantages over existing techniques for computing applications of interest for the CEA: low-Mach number steady and unsteady flows in a Tee junction for example
Zuj, K A; Prince, C N; Hughson, R L; Peterson, S D
2018-02-01
This study tested the hypothesis that intermittent compression of the lower limb would increase blood flow during exercise and postexercise recovery. Data were collected from 12 healthy individuals (8 men) who performed 3 min of standing plantar flexion exercise. The following three conditions were tested: no applied compression (NoComp), compression during the exercise period only (ExComp), and compression during 2 min of standing postexercise recovery. Doppler ultrasound was used to determine superficial femoral artery (SFA) blood flow responses. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac stroke volume (SV) were assessed using finger photoplethysmography, with vascular conductance (VC) calculated as VC = SFA flow/MAP. Compared with the NoComp condition, compression resulted in increased MAP during exercise [+3.5 ± 4.1 mmHg (mean ± SD)] but not during postexercise recovery (+1.6 ± 5.9 mmHg). SV increased with compression during both exercise (+4.8 ± 5.1 ml) and recovery (+8.0 ± 6.6 ml) compared with NoComp. There was a greater increase in SFA flow with compression during exercise (+52.1 ± 57.2 ml/min) and during recovery (+58.6 ± 56.7 ml/min). VC immediately following exercise was also significantly greater in the ExComp condition compared with the NoComp condition (+0.57 ± 0.42 ml·min -1 ·mmHg -1 ), suggesting the observed increase in blood flow during exercise was in part because of changes in VC. Results from this study support the hypothesis that intermittent compression applied during exercise and recovery from exercise results in increased limb blood flow, potentially contributing to changes in exercise performance and recovery. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Blood flow to working skeletal muscle is achieved in part through the rhythmic actions of the skeletal muscle pump. This study demonstrated that the application of intermittent pneumatic compression during the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle, to mimic the mechanical
Moortgat, J.; Amooie, M. A.; Soltanian, M. R.
2016-12-01
Problems in hydrogeology and hydrocarbon reservoirs generally involve the transport of solutes in a single solvent phase (e.g., contaminants or dissolved injection gas), or the flow of multiple phases that may or may not exchange mass (e.g., brine, NAPL, oil, gas). Often, flow is viscously and gravitationally unstable due to mobility and density contrasts within a phase or between phases. Such instabilities have been studied in detail for single-phase incompressible fluids and for two-phase immiscible flow, but to a lesser extent for multiphase multicomponent compressible flow. The latter is the subject of this presentation. Robust phase stability analyses and phase split calculations, based on equations of state, determine the mass exchange between phases and the resulting phase behavior, i.e., phase densities, viscosities, and volumes. Higher-order finite element methods and fine grids are used to capture the small-scale onset of flow instabilities. A full matrix of composition dependent coefficients is considered for each Fickian diffusive phase flux. Formation heterogeneity can have a profound impact and is represented by realistic geostatistical models. Qualitatively, fingering in multiphase compositional flow is different from single-phase problems because 1) phase mobilities depend on rock wettability through relative permeabilities, and 2) the initial density and viscosity ratios between phases may change due to species transfer. To quantify mixing rates in different flow regimes and for varying degrees of miscibility and medium heterogeneities, we define the spatial variance, scalar dissipation rate, dilution index, skewness, and kurtosis of the molar density of introduced species. Molar densities, unlike compositions, include compressibility effects. The temporal evolution of these measures shows that, while transport at the small-scale (cm) is described by the classical advection-diffusion-dispersion relations, scaling at the macro-scale (> 10 m) shows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tahmina Akhter
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The flow of a compressible fluid with slip through a cylinder with an asymmetric local constriction has been considered both numerically, as well as analytically. For the numerical work, a particle-based method whose dynamics is governed by the multiparticle collision (MPC rule has been used together with a generalized boundary condition that allows for slip at the wall. Since it is well known that an MPC system corresponds to an ideal gas and behaves like a compressible, viscous flow on average, an approximate analytical solution has been derived from the compressible Navier–Stokes equations of motion coupled to an ideal gas equation of state using the Karman–Pohlhausen method. The constriction is assumed to have a polynomial form, and the location of maximum constriction is varied throughout the constricted portion of the cylinder. Results for centerline densities and centerline velocities have been compared for various Reynolds numbers, Mach numbers, wall slip values and flow geometries.
A renormalization group scaling analysis for compressible two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Y.; Deng, Y.; Glimm, J.; Li, G.; Zhang, Q.; Sharp, D.H.
1993-01-01
Computational solutions to the Rayleigh--Taylor fluid mixing problem, as modeled by the two-fluid two-dimensional Euler equations, are presented. Data from these solutions are analyzed from the point of view of Reynolds averaged equations, using scaling laws derived from a renormalization group analysis. The computations, carried out with the front tracking method on an Intel iPSC/860, are highly resolved and statistical convergence of ensemble averages is achieved. The computations are consistent with the experimentally observed growth rates for nearly incompressible flows. The dynamics of the interior portion of the mixing zone is simplified by the use of scaling variables. The size of the mixing zone suggests fixed-point behavior. The profile of statistical quantities within the mixing zone exhibit self-similarity under fixed-point scaling to a limited degree. The effect of compressibility is also examined. It is found that, for even moderate compressibility, the growth rates fail to satisfy universal scaling, and moreover, increase significantly with increasing compressibility. The growth rates predicted from a renormalization group fixed-point model are in a reasonable agreement with the results of the exact numerical simulations, even for flows outside of the incompressible limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, Gustavo Koury
2004-11-01
Although incompressible fluid flows can be regarded as a particular case of a general problem, numerical methods and the mathematical formulation aimed to solve compressible and incompressible flows have their own peculiarities, in such a way, that it is generally not possible to attain both regimes with a single approach. In this work, we start from a typically compressible formulation, slightly modified to make use of pressure variables and, through augmenting the stabilising parameters, we end up with a simplified model which is able to deal with a wide range of flow regimes, from supersonic to low speed gas flows. The resulting methodology is flexible enough to allow for the simulation of liquid flows as well. Examples using conservative and pressure variables are shown and the results are compared to those published in the literature, in order to validate the method. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jilian Wu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss several stabilized finite element methods, which are penalty, regular, multiscale enrichment, and local Gauss integration method, for the steady incompressible flow problem with damping based on the lowest equal-order finite element space pair. Then we give the numerical comparisons between them in three numerical examples which show that the local Gauss integration method has good stability, efficiency, and accuracy properties and it is better than the others for the steady incompressible flow problem with damping on the whole. However, to our surprise, the regular method spends less CPU-time and has better accuracy properties by using Crout solver.
Effects of homogeneous condensation in compressible flows: Ludwieg-tube experiments and simulations
Luo, X.; Lamanna, G.; Holten, A.P.C.; Dongen, van M.E.H.
2007-01-01
Effects of homogeneous nucleation and subsequent droplet growth in compressible flows in humid nitrogen are investigated numerically and exptl. A Ludwieg tube is employed to produce expansion flows. Corresponding to different configurations, three types of expt. are carried out in such a tube.
Vesicle dynamics in a confined Poiseuille flow: from steady state to chaos.
Aouane, Othmane; Thiébaud, Marine; Benyoussef, Abdelilah; Wagner, Christian; Misbah, Chaouqi
2014-09-01
Red blood cells (RBCs) are the major component of blood, and the flow of blood is dictated by that of RBCs. We employ vesicles, which consist of closed bilayer membranes enclosing a fluid, as a model system to study the behavior of RBCs under a confined Poiseuille flow. We extensively explore two main parameters: (i) the degree of confinement of vesicles within the channel and (ii) the flow strength. Rich and complex dynamics for vesicles are revealed, ranging from steady-state shapes (in the form of parachute and slipper shapes) to chaotic dynamics of shape. Chaos occurs through a cascade of multiple periodic oscillations of the vesicle shape. We summarize our results in a phase diagram in the parameter plane (degree of confinement and flow strength). This finding highlights the level of complexity of a flowing vesicle in the small Reynolds number where the flow is laminar in the absence of vesicles and can be rendered turbulent due to elasticity of vesicles.
Ockendon, Hilary
2016-01-01
Now in its second edition, this book continues to give readers a broad mathematical basis for modelling and understanding the wide range of wave phenomena encountered in modern applications. New and expanded material includes topics such as elastoplastic waves and waves in plasmas, as well as new exercises. Comprehensive collections of models are used to illustrate the underpinning mathematical methodologies, which include the basic ideas of the relevant partial differential equations, characteristics, ray theory, asymptotic analysis, dispersion, shock waves, and weak solutions. Although the main focus is on compressible fluid flow, the authors show how intimately gasdynamic waves are related to wave phenomena in many other areas of physical science. Special emphasis is placed on the development of physical intuition to supplement and reinforce analytical thinking. Each chapter includes a complete set of carefully prepared exercises, making this a suitable textbook for students in applied mathematics, ...
Steady flow instability in an annulus with deflectors at rotational vibration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kozlov, Nikolai V [Lab. Vibrational Hydromechanics, Perm State-Humanitarian Pedagogical University 24 Sibirskaya av., 614990 Perm (Russian Federation); Pareau, Dominique; Stambouli, Moncef [Lab. Chemical Engineering, CentraleSupélec-Université Paris Saclay, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Châtenay-Malabry (France); Ivantsov, Andrey, E-mail: kozlov.n@icmm.ru [Lab. Computational Hydrodynamics Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics UB RAS1 Acad. Korolev st., 614013 Perm (Russian Federation)
2016-12-15
Experimental study and direct numerical simulation of the dynamics of an isothermal low-viscosity fluid are done in a coaxial gap of a cylindrical container making rotational vibrations relative to its axis. On the inner surface of the outer wall of the container, semicircular deflectors are regularly situated, playing the role of flow activators. As a result of vibrations, the activators oscillate tangentially. In the simulation, a 2D configuration is considered, excluding the end-wall effects. In the experiment, a container with a large aspect ratio is used. Steady streaming is generated in the viscous boundary layers on the activators. On each of the latter, beyond the viscous domain, a symmetric vortices pair is formed. The steady streaming in the annulus has an azimuthal periodicity. With an increase in the vibration intensity, a competition between the vortices occurs, as a result of which one of the vortices (let us call it even) approaches the activator and the other one (odd) rolls away and couples with the vortices from the neighbouring pairs. Streamlines of the odd vortices close on each other, forming a cog-wheel shaped flow that encircles the inner wall. Comparison of the experiment and the simulation reveals an agreement at moderate vibration intensity. (paper)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hassager, Ole; Mortensen, Kell; Bach, Anders
2012-01-01
We use small-angle neutron scattering to measure the molecular stretching in polystyrene melts undergoing steady elongational flow at large stretch rates. The radius of gyration of the central segment of a partly deuterated polystyrene molecule is, in the stretching direction, increasing...... exhibited by the linear polystyrene melt....
An improved ghost-cell immersed boundary method for compressible flow simulations
Chi, Cheng
2016-05-20
This study presents an improved ghost-cell immersed boundary approach to represent a solid body in compressible flow simulations. In contrast to the commonly used approaches, in the present work ghost cells are mirrored through the boundary described using a level-set method to farther image points, incorporating a higher-order extra/interpolation scheme for the ghost cell values. A sensor is introduced to deal with image points near the discontinuities in the flow field. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is used to improve the representation of the geometry efficiently in the Cartesian grid system. The improved ghost-cell method is validated against four test cases: (a) double Mach reflections on a ramp, (b) smooth Prandtl-Meyer expansion flows, (c) supersonic flows in a wind tunnel with a forward-facing step, and (d) supersonic flows over a circular cylinder. It is demonstrated that the improved ghost-cell method can reach the accuracy of second order in L1 norm and higher than first order in L∞ norm. Direct comparisons against the cut-cell method demonstrate that the improved ghost-cell method is almost equally accurate with better efficiency for boundary representation in high-fidelity compressible flow simulations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Numerical simulation of compressible two-phase flow using a diffuse interface method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ansari, M.R.; Daramizadeh, A.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Compressible two-phase gas–gas and gas–liquid flows simulation are conducted. ► Interface conditions contain shock wave and cavitations. ► A high-resolution diffuse interface method is investigated. ► The numerical results exhibit very good agreement with experimental results. -- Abstract: In this article, a high-resolution diffuse interface method is investigated for simulation of compressible two-phase gas–gas and gas–liquid flows, both in the presence of shock wave and in flows with strong rarefaction waves similar to cavitations. A Godunov method and HLLC Riemann solver is used for discretization of the Kapila five-equation model and a modified Schmidt equation of state (EOS) is used to simulate the cavitation regions. This method is applied successfully to some one- and two-dimensional compressible two-phase flows with interface conditions that contain shock wave and cavitations. The numerical results obtained in this attempt exhibit very good agreement with experimental results, as well as previous numerical results presented by other researchers based on other numerical methods. In particular, the algorithm can capture the complex flow features of transient shocks, such as the material discontinuities and interfacial instabilities, without any oscillation and additional diffusion. Numerical examples show that the results of the method presented here compare well with other sophisticated modeling methods like adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) and local mesh refinement (LMR) for one- and two-dimensional problems
Validation of a LES turbulence modeling approach on a steady engine head flow
Huijnen, V.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Goey, de L.P.H.; Dias, V.
2005-01-01
The application of the LES turbulence modeling approach in the Kiva-environment is validated on a complex geometry. Results for the steady flow in a realistic geometry of a production type heavy-duty diesel engine head with 120 mm cylinder bore are presented. The bulk Reynolds number is Reb = 1 fl
Modelling and simulation of the compressible turbulence in supersonic shear flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guezengar, Dominique
1997-02-01
This research thesis addresses the modelling of some specific physical problems of fluid mechanics: compressibility (issue of mixing layers), large variations of volumetric mass (boundary layers), and anisotropy (compression ramps). After a presentation of the chosen physical modelling and numerical approximation, the author pays attention to flows at the vicinity of a wall, and to boundary conditions. The next part addresses existing compressibility models and their application to the calculation of supersonic mixing layers. A critical assessment is also performed through calculations of boundary layers and of compression ramps. The next part addresses problems related to large variations of volumetric mass which are not taken by compressibility models into account. A modification is thus proposed for the diffusion term, and is tested for the case of supersonic boundary layers and of mixing layers with high density rates. Finally, anisotropy effects are addressed through the implementation of Explicit Algebraic Stress k-omega Turbulence models (EARSM), and their tests on previously studied cases [fr
Self-organization in three-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamic flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horiuchi, Ritoku; Sato, Tetsuya.
1987-07-01
A three-dimensional self-organization process of a compressible dissipative plasma with a velocity-magnetic field correlation is investigated in detail by means of a variational method and a magnetohydrodynamic simulation. There are two types of relaxation, i.e., fast relaxation in which the cross helicity is not conserved, and slow relaxation in which the cross helicity is approximately conserved. In the slow relaxation case the cross helicity consists of two components with opposite sign which have almost the same amplitude in the large wavenumber region. In both cases the system approaches a high correlation state, dependent on the initial condition. These results are consistent with an observational data of the solar wind. Selective dissipation of magnetic energy, normal cascade of magnetic energy spectrum and inverse cascade of magnetic helicity spectrum are observed for the sub-Alfvenic flow case as was previously observed for the zero flow case. When the flow velocity is super-Alfvenic, the relaxation process is significantly altered from the zero flow case. (author)
Analysis and control of supersonic vortex breakdown flows
Kandil, Osama A.
1990-01-01
Analysis and computation of steady, compressible, quasi-axisymmetric flow of an isolated, slender vortex are considered. The compressible, Navier-Stokes equations are reduced to a simpler set by using the slenderness and quasi-axisymmetry assumptions. The resulting set along with a compatibility equation are transformed from the diverging physical domain to a rectangular computational domain. Solving for a compatible set of initial profiles and specifying a compatible set of boundary conditions, the equations are solved using a type-differencing scheme. Vortex breakdown locations are detected by the failure of the scheme to converge. Computational examples include isolated vortex flows at different Mach numbers, external axial-pressure gradients and swirl ratios.
Constitutive Curve and Velocity Profile in Entangled Polymers during Start-Up of Steady Shear Flow
Hayes, Keesha A.
2010-05-11
Time-dependent shear stress versus shear rate, constitutive curve, and velocity profile measurements are reported in entangled polymer solutions during start-up of steady shear flow. By combining confocal microscopy and particle image velocimetry (PIV), we determine the time-dependent velocity profile in polybutadiene and polystyrene solutions seeded with fluorescent 150 nm silica and 7.5 μm melamine particles. By comparing these profiles with time-dependent constitutive curves obtained from experiment and theory, we explore the connection between transient nonmonotonic regions in the constitutive curve for an entangled polymer and its susceptibility to unstable flow by shear banding [Adams et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2009, 102, 067801-4]. Surprisingly, we find that even polymer systems which exhibit transient, nonmonotonic shear stress-shear rate relationships in bulk rheology experiments manifest time-dependent velocity profiles that are decidedly linear and show no evidence of unstable flow. We also report that interfacial slip plays an important role in the steady shear flow behavior of entangled polymers at shear rates above the reciprocal terminal relaxation time but has little, if any, effect on the shape of the velocity profile. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Methods for compressible multiphase flows and their applications
Kim, H.; Choe, Y.; Kim, H.; Min, D.; Kim, C.
2018-06-01
This paper presents an efficient and robust numerical framework to deal with multiphase real-fluid flows and their broad spectrum of engineering applications. A homogeneous mixture model incorporated with a real-fluid equation of state and a phase change model is considered to calculate complex multiphase problems. As robust and accurate numerical methods to handle multiphase shocks and phase interfaces over a wide range of flow speeds, the AUSMPW+_N and RoeM_N schemes with a system preconditioning method are presented. These methods are assessed by extensive validation problems with various types of equation of state and phase change models. Representative realistic multiphase phenomena, including the flow inside a thermal vapor compressor, pressurization in a cryogenic tank, and unsteady cavitating flow around a wedge, are then investigated as application problems. With appropriate physical modeling followed by robust and accurate numerical treatments, compressible multiphase flow physics such as phase changes, shock discontinuities, and their interactions are well captured, confirming the suitability of the proposed numerical framework to wide engineering applications.
The Taylor-Proudman column in a rapidly-rotating compressible fluid I. energy transports
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jun Sang
2014-01-01
A theoretical study is made of the steady flow of a compressible fluid in a rapidly rotating finite cylinder. Flow is generated by imposing mechanical and/or thermal disturbances at the rotating endwall disks. Both the Ekman and Rossby numbers are small. An examination is made of the energy budget for a control volume in the Ekman boundary layer. A combination of physical variables, which is termed the energy flux content, consisting of temperature and modified angular momentum, emerges to be relevant. The distinguishing features of a compressible fluid, in contrast to those of an incompressible fluid, are noted. A plausible argument is given to explain the difficulty in achieving the Taylor-Proudman column in a compressible rotating fluid. For the Taylor-Proudman column to be sustained, in the interior, it is shown that the net energy transport between the solid disk wall and the interior fluid should vanish. Physical rationalizations are facilitated by resorting to the concept of the afore-stated energy flux content.
Dynamic behaviors of cavitation bubble for the steady cavitating flow
Cai, Jun; Huai, Xiulan; Li, Xunfeng
2009-12-01
In this paper, by introducing the flow velocity item into the classical Rayleigh-Plesset dynamic equation, a new equation, which does not involve the time term and can describe the motion of cavitation bubble in the steady cavitating flow, has been obtained. By solving the new motion equation using Runge-Kutta fourth order method with adaptive step size control, the dynamic behaviors of cavitation bubble driven by the varying pressure field downstream of a venturi cavitation reactor are numerically simulated. The effects of liquid temperature (corresponding to the saturated vapor pressure of liquid), cavitation number and inlet pressure of venturi on radial motion of bubble and pressure pulse due to the radial motion are analyzed and discussed in detail. Some dynamic behaviors of bubble different from those in previous papers are displayed. In addition, the internal relationship between bubble dynamics and process intensification is also discussed. The simulation results reported in this work reveal the variation laws of cavitation intensity with the flow conditions of liquid, and will lay a foundation for the practical application of hydrodynamic cavitation technology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fereshteh-Saniee, F.; Barati, F.; Badnava, H.; Fallah Nejad, Kh.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► The exponential model can represent flow behaviors of AZ series Mg alloys very well. ► Strain rate sensitivities of AZ series Mg alloys in compression are nearly the same. ► Effect of zinc element on tensile activation energy is higher than on compressive one. ► Activation energies of AZ80 and AZ81 in tension were greater than in compression. ► Tensile and compressive rate sensitivities of AZ80 are not close to each other. -- Abstract: This paper is concerned with flow behaviors of several magnesium alloys, such as AZ31, AZ80 and AZ81, in tension and compression. The experiments were performed at elevated temperatures and for various strain rates. In order to eliminate the effect of inhomogeneous deformation in tensile and compression tests, the Bridgeman’s and numerical correction factors were respectively employed. A two-section exponential mathematical model was also utilized for prediction of flow stresses of different magnesium alloys in tension and compression. Moreover, based on the compressive flow model proposed, the peak stress and the relevant true strain could be estimated. The true stress and strain of the necking point can also be predicted using the corresponding relations. It was found that the flow behaviors estimated by the exponential flow model were encouragingly in very good agreement with experimental findings.
CFD simulations of steady flows over the IAR 65o delta wing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benmeddour, A.; Mebarki, Y.; Huang, X.Z.
2004-01-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) studies have been conducted to simulate vortical flows around the IAR 65 o delta wing with a sharp leading edge. The effects of the centerbody on the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing are also investigated. Two flow solvers have been employed to compute steady inviscid flows over with and without centerbody configurations of the wing. These two solvers are an IAR in-house code, FJ3SOLV, and the CFD-FASTRAN commercial software. The computed flow solutions of the two solvers have been compared and correlated against the IAR wind tunnel data, including Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) measurements. The major features of the primary vortex have been well captured and overall reasonable accuracy was obtained. In accordance with the experimental observations for the flow conditions considered, the CFD computations revealed no major global effects of the centerbody on the surface pressure distributions of the wing and on the lift coefficient. However, CFD-FASTRAN seems to predict a vortex breakdown, which is neither predicted by FJ3SOLV nor observed in the wind tunnel for the flow conditions considered. (author)
Incompressible viscous flow computations for the pump components and the artificial heart
Kiris, Cetin
1992-01-01
A finite difference, three dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes formulation to calculate the flow through turbopump components is utilized. The solution method is based on the pseudo compressibility approach and uses an implicit upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. Both steady and unsteady flow calculations can be performed using the current algorithm. Here, equations are solved in steadily rotating reference frames by using the steady state formulation in order to simulate the flow through a turbopump inducer. Eddy viscosity is computed by using an algebraic mixing-length turbulence model. Numerical results are compared with experimental measurements and a good agreement is found between the two.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Thakker
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This article presents work carried out to predict the behavior of a 0.6 m impulse turbine with fixed guide vanes as compared with that of a 0.6 hub-to-tip ratio turbine under real sea conditions. In order to predict the true performance of the actual oscillating water column (OWC, the numerical technique was fine-tuned by incorporating the compressibility effect. Water surface elevation versus time history was used as the input data for this purpose. The effect of compressibility inside the air chamber and the turbine's performance under unsteady and irregular flow conditions were analyzed numerically. Considering the quasi-steady assumptions, the unidirectional steady-flow experimental data was used to simulate the turbines characteristics under irregular unsteady flow conditions. The results showed that the performance of this type of turbine is quite stable and that the efficiency of the air chamber and the mean conversion efficiency are reduced by around 8% and 5%, respectively, as a result of the compressibility inside the air chamber. The mean efficiencies of the OWC device and the impulse turbine were predicted for 1 month, based on the Irish wave climate, and it was found that the total time period of wave data used is one of the important factors in the simulation technique.
Simulating nonlinear steady-state traveling waves on the falling liquid film entrained by a gas flow
Tsvelodub, O. Yu; Bocharov, A. A.
2017-09-01
The article is devoted to the simulation of nonlinear waves on a liquid film flowing under gravity in the known stress field at the interface. The paper studies nonlinear waves on a liquid film, flowing under the action of gravity in a known stress field at the interface. In the case of small Reynolds numbers the problem is reduced to the consideration of solutions of the nonlinear integral-differential equation for film thickness deviation from the undisturbed level. The periodic and soliton steady-state traveling solutions of this equation have been numerically found. The analysis of branching of new families of steady-state traveling solutions has been performed. In particular, it is shown that this model equation has solutions in the form of solitons-humps.
Dahlburg, R. B.; Picone, J. M.
1989-01-01
The results of fully compressible, Fourier collocation, numerical simulations of the Orszag-Tang vortex system are presented. The initial conditions for this system consist of a nonrandom, periodic field in which the magnetic and velocity field contain X points but differ in modal structure along one spatial direction. The velocity field is initially solenoidal, with the total initial pressure field consisting of the superposition of the appropriate incompressible pressure distribution upon a flat pressure field corresponding to the initial, average Mach number of the flow. In these numerical simulations, this initial Mach number is varied from 0.2-0.6. These values correspond to average plasma beta values ranging from 30.0 to 3.3, respectively. It is found that compressible effects develop within one or two Alfven transit times, as manifested in the spectra of compressible quantities such as the mass density and the nonsolenoidal flow field. These effects include (1) a retardation of growth of correlation between the magnetic field and the velocity field, (2) the emergence of compressible small-scale structure such as massive jets, and (3) bifurcation of eddies in the compressible flow field. Differences between the incompressible and compressible results tend to increase with increasing initial average Mach number.
An improved ghost-cell immersed boundary method for compressible flow simulations
Chi, Cheng; Lee, Bok Jik; Im, Hong G.
2016-01-01
This study presents an improved ghost-cell immersed boundary approach to represent a solid body in compressible flow simulations. In contrast to the commonly used approaches, in the present work ghost cells are mirrored through the boundary
NASA Lewis Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Architecture
Mi, Ye; Tower, Leonard K.
2013-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed the LERCHP code. The PC-based LERCHP code can be used to predict the steady-state performance of heat pipes, including the determination of operating temperature and operating limits which might be encountered under specified conditions. The code contains a vapor flow algorithm which incorporates vapor compressibility and axially varying heat input. For the liquid flow in the wick, Darcy s formula is employed. Thermal boundary conditions and geometric structures can be defined through an interactive input interface. A variety of fluid and material options as well as user defined options can be chosen for the working fluid, wick, and pipe materials. This report documents the current effort at GRC to update the LERCHP code for operating in a Microsoft Windows (Microsoft Corporation) environment. A detailed analysis of the model is presented. The programming architecture for the numerical calculations is explained and flowcharts of the key subroutines are given
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masoud Ziaei-Rad
2010-01-01
In this paper, a two-dimensional numerical scheme is presented for the simulation of turbulent, viscous, transient compressible flows in the simultaneously developing hydraulic and thermal boundary layer region. The numerical procedure is a finite-volume-based finite-element method applied to unstructured grids. This combination together with a new method applied for the boundary conditions allows for accurate computation of the variables in the entrance region and for a wide range of flow fields from subsonic to transonic. The Roe-Riemann solver is used for the convective terms, whereas the standard Galerkin technique is applied for the viscous terms. A modified κ-ε model with a two-layer equation for the near-wall region combined with a compressibility correction is used to predict the turbulent viscosity. Parallel processing is also employed to divide the computational domain among the different processors to reduce the computational time. The method is applied to some test cases in order to verify the numerical accuracy. The results show significant differences between incompressible and compressible flows in the friction coefficient, Nusselt number, shear stress and the ratio of the compressible turbulent viscosity to the molecular viscosity along the developing region. A transient flow generated after an accidental rupture in a pipeline was also studied as a test case. The results show that the present numerical scheme is stable, accurate and efficient enough to solve the problem of transient wall-bounded flow.
Datta, Anjali; Cheng, Joseph Y; Hargreaves, Brian A; Baron, Corey A; Nishimura, Dwight G
2018-06-01
To mitigate artifacts from through-plane flow at the locations of steady-state stopbands in balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) using partial dephasing. A 60° range in the phase accrual during a TR was created over the voxel by slightly unbalancing the slice-select dephaser. The spectral profiles of SSFP with partial dephasing for various constant flow rates and during pulsatile flow were simulated to determine if partial dephasing decreases through-plane flow artifacts originating near SSFP dark bands while maintaining on-resonant signal. Simulations were then validated in a flow phantom. Lastly, phase-cycled SSFP cardiac cine images were acquired with and without partial dephasing in six subjects. Partial dephasing decreased the strength and non-linearity of the dependence of the signal at the stopbands on the through-plane flow rate. It thus mitigated hyper-enhancement from out-of-slice signal contributions and transient-related artifacts caused by variable flow both in the phantom and in vivo. In six volunteers, partial dephasing noticeably decreased artifacts in all of the phase-cycled cardiac cine datasets. Partial dephasing can mitigate the flow artifacts seen at the stopbands in balanced SSFP while maintaining the sequence's desired signal. By mitigating hyper-enhancement and transient-related artifacts originating from the stopbands, partial dephasing facilitates robust multiple-acquisition phase-cycled SSFP in the heart. Magn Reson Med 79:2944-2953, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Prevention of Bridge Scour with Non-uniform Circular Piers Plane under Steady Flows
Chen, Hsing-Ting; Wang, Chuan-Yi
2017-04-01
River bed scour and deposit variation extremely severe because of most of rivers are steep and rapid flows, and river discharge extremely unstable and highly unsteady during different seasons in Taiwan. In addition to the obstruction of piers foundation, it causes local scour and threatens the safety of bridges. In the past, riprap, wire gabion or wrap pier works were adopted as the protections of piers foundation, but there were no effectual outcomes. The events of break off piers still happen sometimes. For example, typhoon Kalmaegi (2008) and Morakot (2009) caused heavy damages on Ho-Fon bridge in the Da-jia river and Shuang-Yuan bridge in the Kao-Ping river, respectively. Accordingly, to understand the piers scour system and propose an appropriate protection of piers foundation becomes an important topic for this study currently. This research improves the protection works of the existing uniform bridge pier (diameter D) to ensure the safety of the bridge. The non-uniform plane of circular piers (diameter D*) are placed on the top of a bridge pier foundation to reduce the down flow impacting energy and scour by its' surface roughness characteristics. This study utilize hydraulic models to simulate local scour depth and scour depth change with time for non-uniform pier diameter ratio D/D* of 0.3,0.4,0.5,0.6,0.7 and 0.8, and different type pier and initial bed level (Y) relative under the foundation top elevation under steady flows of V/Vc=0.95,0.80 and 0.65. The research results show that the scour depth increases with an increase of flow intensity (V/Vc) under different types of steady flow hydrographs. The scour depth decreases with increase of initial bed level (Y=+0.2D*,0D*and -0.2D*) relative under the foundation top elevation of the different type pier. The maximum scour depth occurred in the front of the pier for all conditions. Because of the scouring retardation by the non-uniform plane of foundation, the scour depth is reduced for the un-exposed bridge
Buys, Gerhard M; du Plessis, Lissinda H; Marais, Andries F; Kotze, Awie F; Hamman, Josias H
2013-06-01
Chitosan is a polymer derived from chitin that is widely available at relatively low cost, but due to compression challenges it has limited application for the production of direct compression tablets. The aim of this study was to use certain process and formulation variables to improve manufacturing of tablets containing chitosan as bulking agent. Chitosan particle size and flow properties were determined, which included bulk density, tapped density, compressibility and moisture uptake. The effect of process variables (i.e. compression force, punch depth, percentage compaction in a novel double fill compression process) and formulation variables (i.e. type of glidant, citric acid, pectin, coating with Eudragit S®) on chitosan tablet performance (i.e. mass variation, tensile strength, dissolution) was investigated. Moisture content of the chitosan powder, particle size and the inclusion of glidants had a pronounced effect on its flow ability. Varying the percentage compaction during the first cycle of a double fill compression process produced chitosan tablets with more acceptable tensile strength and dissolution rate properties. The inclusion of citric acid and pectin into the formulation significantly decreased the dissolution rate of isoniazid from the tablets due to gel formation. Direct compression of chitosan powder into tablets can be significantly improved by the investigated process and formulation variables as well as applying a double fill compression process.
Influence of sequential room-temperature compressive creep on flow stress of TA2
Mengyuan, Zhang; Boqin, Gu; Jiahui, Tao
2018-03-01
This paper studied the sequential room temperature compressive creep and its effects on compressive properties of TA2 with stress-control loading pattern by using cylindrical compressive test specimen. The significant time-dependent deformation under constant load was observed in the TA2 at room temperature, and the deformation was dependent on the loading process under the same loading stress rate. It was also found that the occurrence of room temperature compressive creep obviously enhanced the subsequent yielding strength and flow stress of TA2 due to the increase of network dislocation density. And the effects of room temperature creep on the strain rate-stress behavior could be explained by the local mobile dislocation density model.
Steady shear flow properties of Cordia myxa leaf gum as a function of concentration and temperature.
Chaharlang, Mahmood; Samavati, Vahid
2015-08-01
The steady shear flow properties of dispersions of Cordia myxa leaf gum (CMLG) were determined as a function of concentration (0.5-2.5%, w/w), and temperature (10-50 °C). The CMLG dispersions exhibited strong shear-thinning behavior at all concentrations and temperatures. The Power-law (Ostwald-Waele's) and Herschel-Bulkley models were employed to characterize flow behavior of CMLG solutions at 0.1-100 s(-1) shear rate. Non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior was observed at all temperatures and concentrations. While increase in temperature decreased the viscosity and increased the flow behavior indices, adverse effect was obtained by increasing the concentration. The Power-law model was found the best model to describe steady shear flow behavior of CMLG. The pseudoplasticity of CMLG increased markedly with concentration. An Arrhenius-type model was also used to describe the effect of temperature. The activation energy (Ea) appeared in the range of 5.972-18.104 kJ/mol, as concentration increased from 0.5% to 2.5%, at a shear rate of 10 s(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Frozen reaction fronts in steady flows: A burning-invariant-manifold perspective
Mahoney, John R.; Li, John; Boyer, Carleen; Solomon, Tom; Mitchell, Kevin A.
2015-12-01
The dynamics of fronts, such as chemical reaction fronts, propagating in two-dimensional fluid flows can be remarkably rich and varied. For time-invariant flows, the front dynamics may simplify, settling in to a steady state in which the reacted domain is static, and the front appears "frozen." Our central result is that these frozen fronts in the two-dimensional fluid are composed of segments of burning invariant manifolds, invariant manifolds of front-element dynamics in x y θ space, where θ is the front orientation. Burning invariant manifolds (BIMs) have been identified previously as important local barriers to front propagation in fluid flows. The relevance of BIMs for frozen fronts rests in their ability, under appropriate conditions, to form global barriers, separating reacted domains from nonreacted domains for all time. The second main result of this paper is an understanding of bifurcations that lead from a nonfrozen state to a frozen state, as well as bifurcations that change the topological structure of the frozen front. Although the primary results of this study apply to general fluid flows, our analysis focuses on a chain of vortices in a channel flow with an imposed wind. For this system, we present both experimental and numerical studies that support the theoretical analysis developed here.
Scagliarini, Andrea; Biferale, L.; Sbragaglia, M.; Sugiyama, K.; Toschi, F.
2010-01-01
We compute the continuum thermohydrodynamical limit of a new formulation of lattice kinetic equations for thermal compressible flows, recently proposed by Sbragaglia et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 628, 299 (2009)] . We show that the hydrodynamical manifold is given by the correct compressible
Effect of lower limb compression on blood flow and performance in elite wheelchair rugby athletes.
Vaile, Joanna; Stefanovic, Brad; Askew, Christopher D
2016-01-01
To investigate the effects of compression socks worn during exercise on performance and physiological responses in elite wheelchair rugby athletes. In a non-blinded randomized crossover design, participants completed two exercise trials (4 × 8 min bouts of submaximal exercise, each finishing with a timed maximal sprint) separated by 24 hr, with or without compression socks. National Sports Training Centre, Queensland, Australia. Ten national representative male wheelchair rugby athletes with cervical spinal cord injuries volunteered to participate. Participants wore medical grade compression socks on both legs during the exercise task (COMP), and during the control trial no compression was worn (CON). The efficacy of the compression socks was determined by assessments of limb blood flow, core body temperature, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion, perceived thermal strain, and physical performance. While no significant differences between conditions were observed for maximal sprint time, average lap time was better maintained in COMP compared to CON (Pbenefit may be associated with an augmentation of upper limb blood flow.
Development of a detailed core flow analysis code for prismatic fuel reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bennett, R.G.
1990-01-01
The development of a computer code for the analysis of the detailed flow of helium in prismatic fuel reactors is reported. The code, called BYPASS, solves, a finite difference control volume formulation of the compressible, steady state fluid flow in highly cross-connected flow paths typical of the Modular High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The discretization of the flow in a core region typically considers the main coolant flow paths, the bypass gap flow paths, and the crossflow connections between them. 16 refs., 5 figs
Yayama, Takafumi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Nakanishi, Yoshitaka; Uchida, Kenzo; Kokubo, Yasuo; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi; Takeno, Kenichi; Awara, Kosuke; Mwaka, Erisa S; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Baba, Hisatoshi
2010-04-01
Entrapment neuropathy is a frequent clinical problem that can be caused by, among other factors, mechanical compression; however, exactly how a compressive force affects the peripheral nerves remains poorly understood. In this study, using a rabbit model of sciatic nerve injury (n=12), we evaluated the time-course of changes in intraneural blood flow, compound nerve action potentials, and functioning of the blood-nerve barrier during graded mechanical compression. Nerve injury was applied using a compressor equipped with a custom-made pressure transducer. Cessation of intraneural blood flow was noted at a mean compressive force of 0.457+/-0.022 N (+/-SEM), and the compound action potential became zero at 0.486+/-0.031 N. Marked extravasation of Evans blue albumin was noted after 20 min of intraneural ischemia. The functional changes induced by compression are likely due to intraneural edema, which could subsequently result in impairment of nerve function. These changes may be critical factors in the development of symptoms associated with nerve compression. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khodarahmi, Iman; Shakeri, Mostafa; Sharp, M; Amini, Amir A
2010-01-01
Pressure gradient across a Gaussian-shaped 87% area stenosis phantom was estimated by solving the pressure Poisson equation (PPE) for a steady flow mimicking the blood flow through the human iliac artery. The velocity field needed to solve the pressure equation was obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). A steady flow rate of 46.9 ml/s was used, which corresponds to a Reynolds number of 188 and 595 at the inlet and stenosis throat, respectively (in the range of mean Reynolds number encountered in-vivo). In addition, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the same flow was performed. Pressure drops across the stenosis predicted by PPE/PIV and CFD were compared with those measured by a pressure catheter transducer. RMS errors relative to the measurements were 17% and 10% for PPE/PIV and CFD, respectively.
Microstructure Evolution and Flow Stress Model of a 20Mn5 Hollow Steel Ingot during Hot Compression.
Liu, Min; Ma, Qing-Xian; Luo, Jian-Bin
2018-03-21
20Mn5 steel is widely used in the manufacture of heavy hydro-generator shaft due to its good performance of strength, toughness and wear resistance. However, the hot deformation and recrystallization behaviors of 20Mn5 steel compressed under high temperature were not studied. In this study, the hot compression experiments under temperatures of 850-1200 °C and strain rates of 0.01/s-1/s are conducted using Gleeble thermal and mechanical simulation machine. And the flow stress curves and microstructure after hot compression are obtained. Effects of temperature and strain rate on microstructure are analyzed. Based on the classical stress-dislocation relation and the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization, a two-stage constitutive model is developed to predict the flow stress of 20Mn5 steel. Comparisons between experimental flow stress and predicted flow stress show that the predicted flow stress values are in good agreement with the experimental flow stress values, which indicates that the proposed constitutive model is reliable and can be used for numerical simulation of hot forging of 20Mn5 hollow steel ingot.
Sensitivity Analysis for Steady State Groundwater Flow Using Adjoint Operators
Sykes, J. F.; Wilson, J. L.; Andrews, R. W.
1985-03-01
Adjoint sensitivity theory is currently being considered as a potential method for calculating the sensitivity of nuclear waste repository performance measures to the parameters of the system. For groundwater flow systems, performance measures of interest include piezometric heads in the vicinity of a waste site, velocities or travel time in aquifers, and mass discharge to biosphere points. The parameters include recharge-discharge rates, prescribed boundary heads or fluxes, formation thicknesses, and hydraulic conductivities. The derivative of a performance measure with respect to the system parameters is usually taken as a measure of sensitivity. To calculate sensitivities, adjoint sensitivity equations are formulated from the equations describing the primary problem. The solution of the primary problem and the adjoint sensitivity problem enables the determination of all of the required derivatives and hence related sensitivity coefficients. In this study, adjoint sensitivity theory is developed for equations of two-dimensional steady state flow in a confined aquifer. Both the primary flow equation and the adjoint sensitivity equation are solved using the Galerkin finite element method. The developed computer code is used to investigate the regional flow parameters of the Leadville Formation of the Paradox Basin in Utah. The results illustrate the sensitivity of calculated local heads to the boundary conditions. Alternatively, local velocity related performance measures are more sensitive to hydraulic conductivities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaminaga, Masanori
1997-03-01
JRR-3 is a light water moderated and cooled, beryllium and heavy water reflected pool type research reactor using low enriched uranium (LEU) plate-type fuels. Its thermal power is 20 MW. The core conversion program from uranium-aluminum (UAl x -Al) dispersion type fuel (aluminide fuel) to uranium-silicon-aluminum (U 3 Si 2 -Al) dispersion type fuel (silicide fuel) is currently conducted at the JRR-3. This report describes about the steady-state thermal hydraulic analysis results and the flow channel blockage accident analysis result. In JRR-3, there are two operation mode. One is high power operation mode up to 20 MW, under forced convection cooling using the primary and the secondary cooling systems. The other is low power operation mode up to 200 kW, under natural circulation cooling between the reactor core and the reactor pool without the primary and the secondary cooling systems. For the analysis of the flow channel blockage accident, COOLOD code was used. On the other hand, steady-state thermal hydraulic analysis for both of the high power operation mode under forced convection cooling and low power operation under natural convection cooling, COOLOD-N2 code was used. From steady-state thermal hydraulic analysis results of both forced and natural convection cooling, fuel temperature, minimum DNBR etc. meet the design criteria and JRR-3 LEU silicide core has enough safety margin under normal operation conditions. Furthermore, flow channel blockage accident analysis results show that one channel flow blockage accident meet the safety criteria for accident conditions which have been established for JRR-3 LEU silicide core. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baur, A.; Huber, A.; Nikolaou, K.; Staebler, A.; Reiser, M.; Duerr, H.R.
2002-01-01
Purpose: To evaluate the diagnosic accuracy of a diffusion-weigthed, steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequence for the differentiation of acute benign osteoporotic and neoplastic vertebral compression fractures. Methods: 85 patients with 102 vertebral compression fractures were examined with MR imaging using a spine array surface coil (Siemens, Vision, 1.5 Tesla). The following sequences were performed in sagittal orientation: T 1 -weighted spin echo (SE), short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) and a diffusion-weighted SSFP sequence (TR=25 msec, diffusion pulse length δ=3 msec). The SSFP images were evaluated qualitatively on a 5-grade scale from strongly hypointense to strongly hyperintense. Quantitative analysis was performed with region of interest measurements (ROI) and calculation of a bone marrow ratio. Results: 60 fractures were due to osteoporosis and 42 fractures were caused by malignancy. 'Hyperintensity' in a vertebral fracture on a SSFP sequence provided a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 93%. The positive predictive value was 91%, the negative predictive value was 100%. Quantitative analysis of the bone marrow ratio showed a statistically significant difference between the osteoporosis and the tumor group (p [de
A nonlinear relaxation/quasi-Newton algorithm for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations
Edwards, Jack R.; Mcrae, D. S.
1992-01-01
A highly efficient implicit method for the computation of steady, two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes flowfields is presented. The discretization of the governing equations is hybrid in nature, with flux-vector splitting utilized in the streamwise direction and central differences with flux-limited artificial dissipation used for the transverse fluxes. Line Jacobi relaxation is used to provide a suitable initial guess for a new nonlinear iteration strategy based on line Gauss-Seidel sweeps. The applicability of quasi-Newton methods as convergence accelerators for this and other line relaxation algorithms is discussed, and efficient implementations of such techniques are presented. Convergence histories and comparisons with experimental data are presented for supersonic flow over a flat plate and for several high-speed compression corner interactions. Results indicate a marked improvement in computational efficiency over more conventional upwind relaxation strategies, particularly for flowfields containing large pockets of streamwise subsonic flow.
On the accuracy of Whitham's method. [for steady ideal gas flow past cones
Zahalak, G. I.; Myers, M. K.
1974-01-01
The steady flow of an ideal gas past a conical body is studied by the method of matched asymptotic expansions and by Whitham's method in order to assess the accuracy of the latter. It is found that while Whitham's method does not yield a correct asymptotic representation of the perturbation field to second order in regions where the flow ahead of the Mach cone of the apex is disturbed, it does correctly predict the changes of the second-order perturbation quantities across a shock (the first-order shock strength). The results of the analysis are illustrated by a special case of a flat, rectangular plate at incidence.
On the analytic solution of the steady flow of a fourth grade fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sajid, M.; Hayat, T.; Asghar, S.
2006-01-01
The steady flow of a fourth grade fluid is a problem belonging to non-Newtonian fluid mechanics and deserves to be more widely studied than it has been to date. In the non-linear regime the literature is scarce. We develop a formulation suitable for solution of hydrodynamic equation containing non-linear rheological effects of fourth grade fluids. The homotopy analysis method (HAM) is used to investigate the flow of a fourth grade fluid past a porous plate. Explicit analytic solution is given. The non-linear effects on the velocity distribution is shown and discussed. Comparison of the present analysis is also made with the existing results in the literature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan, Dongqing; Chien Jen, Tien; Li, Tao; Yuan, Chris
2014-01-01
This paper characterizes the carrier gas flow in the atomic layer deposition (ALD) vacuum reactor by introducing Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to the ALD simulation through a comparative study of two LBM models. Numerical models of gas flow are constructed and implemented in two-dimensional geometry based on lattice Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (LBGK)-D2Q9 model and two-relaxation-time (TRT) model. Both incompressible and compressible scenarios are simulated and the two models are compared in the aspects of flow features, stability, and efficiency. Our simulation outcome reveals that, for our specific ALD vacuum reactor, TRT model generates better steady laminar flow features all over the domain with better stability and reliability than LBGK-D2Q9 model especially when considering the compressible effects of the gas flow. The LBM-TRT is verified indirectly by comparing the numerical result with conventional continuum-based computational fluid dynamics solvers, and it shows very good agreement with these conventional methods. The velocity field of carrier gas flow through ALD vacuum reactor was characterized by LBM-TRT model finally. The flow in ALD is in a laminar steady state with velocity concentrated at the corners and around the wafer. The effects of flow fields on precursor distributions, surface absorptions, and surface reactions are discussed in detail. Steady and evenly distributed velocity field contribute to higher precursor concentration near the wafer and relatively lower particle velocities help to achieve better surface adsorption and deposition. The ALD reactor geometry needs to be considered carefully if a steady and laminar flow field around the wafer and better surface deposition are desired
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pan, Dongqing; Chien Jen, Tien [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States); Li, Tao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Yuan, Chris, E-mail: cyuan@uwm.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3200 North Cramer Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States)
2014-01-15
This paper characterizes the carrier gas flow in the atomic layer deposition (ALD) vacuum reactor by introducing Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to the ALD simulation through a comparative study of two LBM models. Numerical models of gas flow are constructed and implemented in two-dimensional geometry based on lattice Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (LBGK)-D2Q9 model and two-relaxation-time (TRT) model. Both incompressible and compressible scenarios are simulated and the two models are compared in the aspects of flow features, stability, and efficiency. Our simulation outcome reveals that, for our specific ALD vacuum reactor, TRT model generates better steady laminar flow features all over the domain with better stability and reliability than LBGK-D2Q9 model especially when considering the compressible effects of the gas flow. The LBM-TRT is verified indirectly by comparing the numerical result with conventional continuum-based computational fluid dynamics solvers, and it shows very good agreement with these conventional methods. The velocity field of carrier gas flow through ALD vacuum reactor was characterized by LBM-TRT model finally. The flow in ALD is in a laminar steady state with velocity concentrated at the corners and around the wafer. The effects of flow fields on precursor distributions, surface absorptions, and surface reactions are discussed in detail. Steady and evenly distributed velocity field contribute to higher precursor concentration near the wafer and relatively lower particle velocities help to achieve better surface adsorption and deposition. The ALD reactor geometry needs to be considered carefully if a steady and laminar flow field around the wafer and better surface deposition are desired.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruspini, L.C.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► The stability influence of piping fluid inertia on two-phase instabilities is studied. ► Inlet inertia stabilizes the system while outlet inertia destabilizes it. ► High-order modes oscillations are found and analyzed. ► The effect of compressible volumes in the system is studied. ► Inlet compressibility destabilizes the system while outlet comp. stabilizes it. - Abstract: The most common kind of static and dynamic two-phase flow instabilities namely Ledinegg and density wave oscillations are studied. A new model to study two-phase flow instabilities taking into account general parameters from real systems is proposed. The stability influence of external parameters such as the fluid inertia and the presence of compressible gases in the system is analyzed. High-order oscillation modes are found to be related with the fluid inertia of external piping. The occurrence of high-order modes in experimental works is analyzed with focus on the results presented in this work. Moreover, both inertia and compressibility are proven to have a high impact on the stability limits of the systems. The performed study is done by modeling the boiling channel using a one dimensional equilibrium model. An incompressible transient model describes the evolution of the flow and pressure in the non-heated regions and an ideal gas model is used to simulate the compressible volumes in the system. The use of wavelet decomposition analysis is proven to be an efficient tool in stability analysis of several frequencies oscillations.
Flow design and simulation of a gas compression system for hydrogen fusion energy production
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avital, E J; Salvatore, E [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Rd London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Munjiza, A [Civil Engineering, University of Split, Livanjska 2100 Split (Croatia); Suponitsky, V; Plant, D; Laberge, M, E-mail: e.avital@qmul.ac.uk [General Fusion Inc.,108-3680 Bonneville Place, Burnaby, BC V3N 4T5 (Canada)
2017-08-15
An innovative gas compression system is proposed and computationally researched to achieve a short time response as needed in engineering applications such as hydrogen fusion energy reactors and high speed hammers. The system consists of a reservoir containing high pressure gas connected to a straight tube which in turn is connected to a spherical duct, where at the sphere’s centre plasma resides in the case of a fusion reactor. Diaphragm located inside the straight tube separates the reservoir’s high pressure gas from the rest of the plenum. Once the diaphragm is breached the high pressure gas enters the plenum to drive pistons located on the inner wall of the spherical duct that will eventually end compressing the plasma. Quasi-1D and axisymmetric flow formulations are used to design and analyse the flow dynamics. A spike is designed for the interface between the straight tube and the spherical duct to provide a smooth geometry transition for the flow. Flow simulations show high supersonic flow hitting the end of the spherical duct, generating a return shock wave propagating upstream and raising the pressure above the reservoir pressure as in the hammer wave problem, potentially giving temporary pressure boost to the pistons. Good agreement is revealed between the two flow formulations pointing to the usefulness of the quasi-1D formulation as a rapid solver. Nevertheless, a mild time delay in the axisymmetric flow simulation occurred due to moderate two-dimensionality effects. The compression system is settled down in a few milliseconds for a spherical duct of 0.8 m diameter using Helium gas and a uniform duct cross-section area. Various system geometries are analysed using instantaneous and time history flow plots. (paper)
Flow design and simulation of a gas compression system for hydrogen fusion energy production
Avital, E. J.; Salvatore, E.; Munjiza, A.; Suponitsky, V.; Plant, D.; Laberge, M.
2017-08-01
An innovative gas compression system is proposed and computationally researched to achieve a short time response as needed in engineering applications such as hydrogen fusion energy reactors and high speed hammers. The system consists of a reservoir containing high pressure gas connected to a straight tube which in turn is connected to a spherical duct, where at the sphere’s centre plasma resides in the case of a fusion reactor. Diaphragm located inside the straight tube separates the reservoir’s high pressure gas from the rest of the plenum. Once the diaphragm is breached the high pressure gas enters the plenum to drive pistons located on the inner wall of the spherical duct that will eventually end compressing the plasma. Quasi-1D and axisymmetric flow formulations are used to design and analyse the flow dynamics. A spike is designed for the interface between the straight tube and the spherical duct to provide a smooth geometry transition for the flow. Flow simulations show high supersonic flow hitting the end of the spherical duct, generating a return shock wave propagating upstream and raising the pressure above the reservoir pressure as in the hammer wave problem, potentially giving temporary pressure boost to the pistons. Good agreement is revealed between the two flow formulations pointing to the usefulness of the quasi-1D formulation as a rapid solver. Nevertheless, a mild time delay in the axisymmetric flow simulation occurred due to moderate two-dimensionality effects. The compression system is settled down in a few milliseconds for a spherical duct of 0.8 m diameter using Helium gas and a uniform duct cross-section area. Various system geometries are analysed using instantaneous and time history flow plots.
An Improved Ghost-cell Immersed Boundary Method for Compressible Inviscid Flow Simulations
Chi, Cheng
2015-01-01
This study presents an improved ghost-cell immersed boundary approach to represent a solid body in compressible flow simulations. In contrast to the commonly used approaches, in the present work ghost cells are mirrored through the boundary
Symmetries of the Euler compressible flow equations for general equation of state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boyd, Zachary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ramsey, Scott D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baty, Roy S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-10-15
The Euler compressible flow equations exhibit different Lie symmetries depending on the equation of state (EOS) of the medium in which the flow occurs. This means that, in general, different types of similarity solution will be available in different flow media. We present a comprehensive classification of all EOS’s to which the Euler equations apply, based on the Lie symmetries admitted by the corresponding flow equations, restricting to the case of 1-D planar, cylindrical, or spherical geometry. The results are conveniently summarized in tables. This analysis also clarifies past work by Axford and Ovsiannikov on symmetry classification.
Conical flow near singular rays. [shock generation in ideal gas
Zahalak, G. I.; Myers, M. K.
1974-01-01
The steady flow of an ideal gas past a conical body is investigated by the method of matched asymptotic expansions, with particular emphasis on the flow near the singular ray occurring in linearized theory. The first-order problem governing the flow in this region is formulated, leading to the equation of Kuo, and an approximate solution is obtained in the case of compressive flow behind the main front. This solution is compared with the results of previous investigations with a view to assessing the applicability of the Lighthill-Whitham theories.
Effects of cord compression on fetal blood flow distribution and O2 delivery
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itskovitz, J.; LaGamma, E.F.; Rudolph, A.M.
1987-01-01
The authors used the radionuclide microsphere technique in nine fetal lambs to examine the effect of partial cord compression on distribution of cardiac output and O 2 delivery to fetal organs and venous flow patterns. With a 50% reduction in umbilical blood flow the fraction of fetal cardiac output distributed to the brain, heart, carcass, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract increased. Pulmonary blood flow fell. O 2 delivery to the brain and myocardium was maintained but was reduced to peripheral, renal, and gastrointestinal circulations. Hepatic blood flow decreased and O 2 delivery fell by 75%. The proportion of umbilical venous blood passing through the ductus venosus increased from 43.9 to 71.8%. The preferential distribution of ductus venosus blood flow through the foramen ovale was enhanced and the proportion of O 2 delivery to upper body organs derived from the ductus venosus increased. Abdominal inferior vena caval blood flow increased, and it was also preferentially distributed through the foramen ovale and constituted the major fraction of the arterial blood supply to the upper body organs. Thus cord compression modified the distribution of cardiac output and the patterns of venous returns in the fetus. This pattern of circulatory response differs from that observed with other causes of reduced O 2 delivery
Investigation of Seepage Meter Measurements in Steady Flow and Wave Conditions.
Russoniello, Christopher J; Michael, Holly A
2015-01-01
Water exchange between surface water and groundwater can modulate or generate ecologically important fluxes of solutes across the sediment-water interface. Seepage meters can directly measure fluid flux, but mechanical resistance and surface water dynamics may lead to inaccurate measurements. Tank experiments were conducted to determine effects of mechanical resistance on measurement efficiency and occurrence of directional asymmetry that could lead to erroneous net flux measurements. Seepage meter efficiency was high (average of 93%) and consistent for inflow and outflow under steady flow conditions. Wave effects on seepage meter measurements were investigated in a wave flume. Seepage meter net flux measurements averaged 0.08 cm/h-greater than the expected net-zero flux, but significantly less than theoretical wave-driven unidirectional discharge or recharge. Calculations of unidirectional flux from pressure measurements (Darcy flux) and theory matched well for a ratio of wave length to water depth less than 5, but not when this ratio was greater. Both were higher than seepage meter measurements of unidirectional flux made with one-way valves. Discharge averaged 23% greater than recharge in both seepage meter measurements and Darcy calculations of unidirectional flux. Removal of the collection bag reduced this net discharge. The presence of a seepage meter reduced the amplitude of pressure signals at the bed and resulted in a nearly uniform pressure distribution beneath the seepage meter. These results show that seepage meters may provide accurate measurements of both discharge and recharge under steady flow conditions and illustrate the potential measurement errors associated with dynamic wave environments. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.
Variable property, steady, axi-symmetric, laminar, continuum plasma flow over spheroidal particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen Yuemin; Jog, Milind A.
2005-01-01
Steady, continuum, laminar plasma flow over spheroidal particles has been numerically investigated in this paper using a finite volume method. To body-fit the non-spherical particle surface, an adaptive orthogonal grid is generated. The flow field and the temperature distribution are calculated for oblate and prolate particle shapes. A number of particle surface temperatures and far field temperatures are considered and thermo-physical property variation is fully accounted for in our model. The particle shapes are represented in terms of axis ratio which is defined as the ratio of axis perpendicular to the flow direction to the axis along the flow direction. For oblate shape, axis ratios from 1.6 (disk-like) to 1 (sphere) are used whereas for prolate shape, axis ratios of 1(sphere) to 0.4 (cylinder-like) are used. Effects of flow Reynolds number, particle shape, surface and far field temperatures, and variable properties, on the flow field, temperature variations, drag coefficient, and Nusselt number are outlined. Results show that particle shape has significant effect on flow and heat transfer to particle surface. Compared to a constant property flow, accounting for thermo-physical property variation leads to prediction of higher temperature and velocity gradients in the vicinity of the particle surface. Based on the numerical results, a correlation for the Nusslet number is proposed that accounts for the effect of particle shape in continuum flow with large thermo-physical property variation
Steady parallel flow in an evaporating fluid heated from sidewalls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Kausik S.
2009-01-01
Evaporation is ubiquitous in nature, but very few attempts have been made in the past to couple the effects of evaporation with fluid flow behavior. In this theoretical paper we have discussed the effects of evaporation on the dynamics of steady state thermocapillary convection in a two-dimensional rectangular container. The liquid is heated by differentially heated sidewalls and mass loss from the interface due to evaporation is compensated by the liquid entering into the container through a lower inlet, thus keeping the thickness of the liquid layer constant. We show that for an evaporating liquid one can obtain a plane parallel base state profile which depends on the evaporative mass flux.
Najjari, Mohammad Reza; Plesniak, Michael W.
2018-01-01
Secondary flow structures in a 180∘ curved pipe model of an artery are studied using particle image velocimetry. Both steady and pulsatile inflow conditions are investigated. In planar curved pipes with steady flow, multiple (two, four, six) vortices are detected. For pulsatile flow, various pairs of vortices, i.e., Dean, deformed-Dean, Lyne-type, and split-Dean, are present in the cross section of the pipe at 90∘ into the bend. The effects of nonplanar curvature (torsion) and vessel dilatation on these vortical structures are studied. Torsion distorts the symmetric secondary flows (which exist in planar curvatures) and can result in formation of more complex vortical structures. For example, the split-Dean and Lyne-type vortices with same rotation direction originating from opposite sides of the cross section tend to merge together in pulsatile flow. The vortical structures in elastic vessels with dilatation (0.61%-3.23%) are also investigated and the results are compared with rigid model results. It was found that the secondary flow structures in rigid and elastic models are similar, and hence the local compliance of the vessel does not affect the morphology of secondary flow structures.
Measurements of steady flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve using stereoscopic PIV.
Hutchison, Chris; Sullivan, Pierre; Ethier, C Ross
2011-03-01
Computational modeling of bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BiMHV) flow requires experimentally validated datasets and improved knowledge of BiMHV fluid mechanics. In this study, flow was studied downstream of a model BiMHV in an axisymmetric aortic sinus using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. The inlet flow was steady and the Reynolds number based on the aortic diameter was 7600. Results showed the out-of-plane velocity was of similar magnitude as the transverse velocity. Although additional studies are needed for confirmation, analysis of the out-of-plane velocity showed the possible presence of a four-cell streamwise vortex structure in the mean velocity field. Spatial data for all six Reynolds stress components were obtained. Reynolds normal stress profiles revealed similarities between the central jet and free jets. These findings are important to BiMHV flow modeling, though clinical relevance is limited due to the idealized conditions chosen. To this end, the dataset is publicly available for CFD validation purposes.
Metzger, Fabian; Mischek, Daniel; Stoffers, Frédéric
2017-01-01
Here we show that the hydrodynamic radii-dependent entry of blood proteins into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can best be modeled with a diffusional system of consecutive interdependent steady states between barrier-restricted molecular flux and bulk flow of CSF. The connected steady state model fits precisely to experimental results and provides the theoretical backbone to calculate the in-vivo hydrodynamic radii of blood-derived proteins as well as individual barrier characteristics. As the experimental reference set we used a previously published large-scale patient cohort of CSF to serum quotient ratios of immunoglobulins in relation to the respective albumin quotients. We related the inter-individual variances of these quotient relationships to the individual CSF flow time and barrier characteristics. We claim that this new concept allows the diagnosis of inflammatory processes with Reibergrams derived from population-based thresholds to be shifted to individualized judgment, thereby improving diagnostic sensitivity. We further use the source-dependent gradient patterns of proteins in CSF as intrinsic tracers for CSF flow characteristics. We assume that the rostrocaudal gradient of blood-derived proteins is a consequence of CSF bulk flow, whereas the slope of the gradient is a consequence of the unidirectional bulk flow and bidirectional pulsatile flow of CSF. Unlike blood-derived proteins, the influence of CSF flow characteristics on brain-derived proteins in CSF has been insufficiently discussed to date. By critically reviewing existing experimental data and by reassessing their conformity to CSF flow assumptions we conclude that the biomarker potential of brain-derived proteins in CSF can be improved by considering individual subproteomic dynamics of the CSF system.
Edelman, Robert R; Serhal, Ali; Pursnani, Amit; Pang, Jianing; Koktzoglou, Ioannis
2018-02-19
Existing cine imaging techniques rely on balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) or spoiled gradient-echo readouts, each of which has limitations. For instance, with bSSFP, artifacts occur from rapid through-plane flow and off-resonance effects. We hypothesized that a prototype cine technique, radial fast interrupted steady-state (FISS), could overcome these limitations. The technique was compared with standard cine bSSFP for cardiac function, coronary artery conspicuity, and aortic valve morphology. Given its advantageous properties, we further hypothesized that the cine FISS technique, in combination with arterial spin labeling (ASL), could provide an alternative to phase contrast for visualizing in-plane flow patterns within the aorta and branch vessels. The study was IRB-approved and subjects provided consent. Breath-hold cine FISS and bSSFP were acquired using similar imaging parameters. There was no significant difference in biplane left ventricular ejection fraction or cardiac image quality between the two techniques. Compared with cine bSSFP, cine FISS demonstrated a marked decrease in fat signal which improved conspicuity of the coronary arteries, while suppression of through-plane flow artifact on thin-slice cine FISS images improved visualization of the aortic valve. Banding artifacts in the subcutaneous tissues were reduced. In healthy subjects, dynamic flow patterns were well visualized in the aorta, coronary and renal arteries using cine FISS ASL, even when the slice was substantially thicker than the vessel diameter. Cine FISS demonstrates several benefits for cardiovascular imaging compared with cine bSSFP, including better suppression of fat signal and reduced artifacts from through-plane flow and off-resonance effects. The main drawback is a slight (~ 20%) decrease in temporal resolution. In addition, preliminary results suggest that cine FISS ASL provides a potential alternative to phase contrast techniques for in-plane flow
Applicability of Kinematic and Diffusive models for mud-flows: a steady state analysis
Di Cristo, Cristiana; Iervolino, Michele; Vacca, Andrea
2018-04-01
The paper investigates the applicability of Kinematic and Diffusive Wave models for mud-flows with a power-law shear-thinning rheology. In analogy with a well-known approach for turbulent clear-water flows, the study compares the steady flow depth profiles predicted by approximated models with those of the Full Dynamic Wave one. For all the models and assuming an infinitely wide channel, the analytical solution of the flow depth profiles, in terms of hypergeometric functions, is derived. The accuracy of the approximated models is assessed by computing the average, along the channel length, of the errors, for several values of the Froude and kinematic wave numbers. Assuming the threshold value of the error equal to 5%, the applicability conditions of the two approximations have been individuated for several values of the power-law exponent, showing a crucial role of the rheology. The comparison with the clear-water results indicates that applicability criteria for clear-water flows do not apply to shear-thinning fluids, potentially leading to an incorrect use of approximated models if the rheology is not properly accounted for.
Arora, Shitij; Fourment, Lionel
2018-05-01
In the context of the simulation of industrial hot forming processes, the resultant time-dependent thermo-mechanical multi-field problem (v →,p ,σ ,ɛ ) can be sped up by 10-50 times using the steady-state methods while compared to the conventional incremental methods. Though the steady-state techniques have been used in the past, but only on simple configurations and with structured meshes, and the modern-days problems are in the framework of complex configurations, unstructured meshes and parallel computing. These methods remove time dependency from the equations, but introduce an additional unknown into the problem: the steady-state shape. This steady-state shape x → can be computed as a geometric correction t → on the domain X → by solving the weak form of the steady-state equation v →.n →(t →)=0 using a Streamline Upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG) formulation. There exists a strong coupling between the domain shape and the material flow, hence, a two-step fixed point iterative resolution algorithm was proposed that involves (1) the computation of flow field from the resolution of thermo-mechanical equations on a prescribed domain shape and (2) the computation of steady-state shape for an assumed velocity field. The contact equations are introduced in the penalty form both during the flow computation as well as during the free-surface correction. The fact that the contact description is inhomogeneous, i.e., it is defined in the nodal form in the former, and in the weighted residual form in the latter, is assumed to be critical to the convergence of certain problems. Thus, the notion of nodal collocation is invoked in the weak form of the surface correction equation to homogenize the contact coupling. The surface correction algorithm is tested on certain analytical test cases and the contact coupling is tested with some hot rolling problems.
Zeegers, J.C.H.; Zeegers, Jos; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Blom, C.; Altena, E.G.; Beukema, Gerrit J.; Beukema, G.J.; Mellema, J.
1995-01-01
A new instrument to carry out complex viscosity measurements in equilibrium and in a steady shear flow has been developed. A small amplitude harmonic excitation is superimposed orthogonally to the steady shear rate component. It is realized by a thin-walled cylinder, which oscillates in the axial
Formation of structural steady states in lamellar/sponge phase-separating fluids under shear flow
Panizza, P.; Courbin, L.; Cristobal, G.; Rouch, J.; Narayanan, T.
2003-05-01
We investigate the effect of shear flow on a lamellar-sponge phase-separating fluid when subjected to shear flow. We show the existence of two different steady states (droplets and ribbons structures) whose nature does not depend on the way to reach the two-phase unstable region of the phase diagram (temperature quench or stirring). The transition between ribbons and droplets is shear thickening and its nature strongly depends on what dynamical variable is imposed. If the stress is fixed, flow visualization shows the existence of shear bands at the transition, characteristic of coexistence in the cell between ribbons and droplets. In this shear-banding region, the viscosity oscillates. When the shear rate is fixed, no shear bands are observed. Instead, the transition exhibits a hysteretic behavior leading to a structural bi-stability of the phase-separating fluid under flow.
Gill, Jatinder; Singh, Jagdev
2018-07-01
In this work, an experimental investigation is carried out with R134a and LPG refrigerant mixture for depicting mass flow rate through straight and helical coil adiabatic capillary tubes in a vapor compression refrigeration system. Various experiments were conducted under steady-state conditions, by changing capillary tube length, inner diameter, coil diameter and degree of subcooling. The results showed that mass flow rate through helical coil capillary tube was found lower than straight capillary tube by about 5-16%. Dimensionless correlation and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models were developed to predict mass flow rate. It was found that dimensionless correlation and ANN model predictions agreed well with experimental results and brought out an absolute fraction of variance of 0.961 and 0.988, root mean square error of 0.489 and 0.275 and mean absolute percentage error of 4.75% and 2.31% respectively. The results suggested that ANN model shows better statistical prediction than dimensionless correlation model.
A finite-volume HLLC-based scheme for compressible interfacial flows with surface tension
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garrick, Daniel P. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States); Owkes, Mark [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT (United States); Regele, Jonathan D., E-mail: jregele@iastate.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States)
2017-06-15
Shock waves are often used in experiments to create a shear flow across liquid droplets to study secondary atomization. Similar behavior occurs inside of supersonic combustors (scramjets) under startup conditions, but it is challenging to study these conditions experimentally. In order to investigate this phenomenon further, a numerical approach is developed to simulate compressible multiphase flows under the effects of surface tension forces. The flow field is solved via the compressible multicomponent Euler equations (i.e., the five equation model) discretized with the finite volume method on a uniform Cartesian grid. The solver utilizes a total variation diminishing (TVD) third-order Runge–Kutta method for time-marching and second order TVD spatial reconstruction. Surface tension is incorporated using the Continuum Surface Force (CSF) model. Fluxes are upwinded with a modified Harten–Lax–van Leer Contact (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver. An interface compression scheme is employed to counter numerical diffusion of the interface. The present work includes modifications to both the HLLC solver and the interface compression scheme to account for capillary force terms and the associated pressure jump across the gas–liquid interface. A simple method for numerically computing the interface curvature is developed and an acoustic scaling of the surface tension coefficient is proposed for the non-dimensionalization of the model. The model captures the surface tension induced pressure jump exactly if the exact curvature is known and is further verified with an oscillating elliptical droplet and Mach 1.47 and 3 shock-droplet interaction problems. The general characteristics of secondary atomization at a range of Weber numbers are also captured in a series of simulations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Xiao-Jun
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this article we propose a new fractional derivative without singular kernel. We consider the potential application for modeling the steady heat-conduction problem. The analytical solution of the fractional-order heat flow is also obtained by means of the Laplace transform.
Local Limit Phenomena, Flow Compression, and Fuel Cracking Effects in High-Speed Turbulent Flames
2015-06-01
e.g. local extinction and re- ignition , interactions between flow compression and fast-reaction induced dilatation (reaction compression ), and to...time as a function of initial temperature in constant-pressure auto - ignition , and (b) the S-curves of perfectly stirred reactors (PSRs), for n...mechanism. The reduction covered auto - ignition and perfectly stirred reactors for equivalence ratio range of 0.5~1.5, initial temperature higher than
A Moving Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method for Flows with Interfaces
2017-12-07
compressible (Euler) flow , both in steady and spacetime form. The Euler flow state variable is given by y = (r,rv1, . . . ,rvn,rE) 2 Rm, (18) where m = n+2...analogous flow was computed using a larger spatial velocity vx = 32 using MDG-ICE(p = 0), as shown in Figure 3. In this case, the upstream state ...spacetime domainW= (0,1)⇥ 0, 12 with six quadrilateral cells is shown in Figure 4. The flow state variable y was discretized using Q2 elements, while the
Upscaling of Forchheimer flows
Aulisa, Eugenio
2014-08-01
In this work we propose upscaling method for nonlinear Forchheimer flow in heterogeneous porous media. The generalized Forchheimer law is considered for incompressible and slightly-compressible single-phase flows. We use recently developed analytical results (Aulisa et al., 2009) [1] and formulate the resulting system in terms of a degenerate nonlinear flow equation for the pressure with the nonlinearity depending on the pressure gradient. The coarse scale parameters for the steady state problem are determined so that the volumetric average of velocity of the flow in the domain on fine scale and on coarse scale are close. A flow-based coarsening approach is used, where the equivalent permeability tensor is first evaluated following streamline methods for linear cases, and modified in order to take into account the nonlinear effects. Compared to previous works (Garibotti and Peszynska, 2009) [2], (Durlofsky and Karimi-Fard) [3], this approach can be combined with rigorous mathematical upscaling theory for monotone operators, (Efendiev et al., 2004) [4], using our recent theoretical results (Aulisa et al., 2009) [1]. The developed upscaling algorithm for nonlinear steady state problems is effectively used for variety of heterogeneities in the domain of computation. Direct numerical computations for average velocity and productivity index justify the usage of the coarse scale parameters obtained for the special steady state case in the fully transient problem. For nonlinear case analytical upscaling formulas in stratified domain are obtained. Numerical results were compared to these analytical formulas and proved to be highly accurate. © 2014.
Low-Reynolds number compressible flow around a triangular airfoil
Munday, Phillip; Taira, Kunihiko; Suwa, Tetsuya; Numata, Daiju; Asai, Keisuke
2013-11-01
We report on the combined numerical and experimental effort to analyze the nonlinear aerodynamics of a triangular airfoil in low-Reynolds number compressible flow that is representative of wings on future Martian air vehicles. The flow field around this airfoil is examined for a wide range of angles of attack and Mach numbers with three-dimensional direct numerical simulations at Re = 3000 . Companion experiments are conducted in a unique Martian wind tunnel that is placed in a vacuum chamber to simulate the Martian atmosphere. Computational findings are compared with pressure sensitive paint and direct force measurements and are found to be in agreement. The separated flow from the leading edge is found to form a large leading-edge vortex that sits directly above the apex of the airfoil and provides enhanced lift at post stall angles of attack. For higher subsonic flows, the vortical structures elongate in the streamwise direction resulting in reduced lift enhancement. We also observe that the onset of spanwise instability for higher angles of attack is delayed at lower Mach numbers. Currently at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki.
Propagation of Shock on NREL Phase VI Wind Turbine Airfoil under Compressible Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad A. Hossain
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The work is focused on numeric analysis of compressible flow around National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL phase VI wind turbine blade airfoil S809. Although wind turbine airfoils are low Reynolds number airfoils, a reasonable investigation of compressible flow under extreme condition might be helpful. A subsonic flow (mach no. M=0.8 has been considered for this analysis and the impacts of this flow under seven different angles of attack have been determined. The results show that shock takes place just after the mid span at the top surface and just before the mid span at the bottom surface at zero angle of attack. Slowly the shock waves translate their positions as angle of attack increases. A relative translation of the shock waves in upper and lower face of the airfoil are presented. Variation of Turbulent viscosity ratio and surface Y+ have also been determined. A k-ω SST turbulent model is considered and the commercial CFD code ANSYS FLUENT is used to find the pressure coefficient (Cp as well as the lift (CL and drag coefficients (CD. A graphical comparison of shock propagation has been shown with different angle of attack. Flow separation and stream function are also determined.
Steady streaming: A key mixing mechanism in low-Reynolds-number acinar flows
Kumar, Haribalan; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long
2011-01-01
Study of mixing is important in understanding transport of submicron sized particles in the acinar region of the lung. In this article, we investigate transport in view of advective mixing utilizing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques: tracer advection, stretch rate and dispersion analysis. The phenomenon of steady streaming in an oscillatory flow is found to hold the key to the origin of kinematic mixing in the alveolus, the alveolar mouth and the alveolated duct. This mechanism provides the common route to folding of material lines and surfaces in any region of the acinar flow, and has no bearing on whether the geometry is expanding or if flow separates within the cavity or not. All analyses consistently indicate a significant decrease in mixing with decreasing Reynolds number (Re). For a given Re, dispersion is found to increase with degree of alveolation, indicating that geometry effects are important. These effects of Re and geometry can also be explained by the streaming mechanism. Based on flow conditions and resultant convective mixing measures, we conclude that significant convective mixing in the duct and within an alveolus could originate only in the first few generations of the acinar tree as a result of nonzero inertia, flow asymmetry, and large Keulegan–Carpenter (KC) number. PMID:21580803
The stably stratified internal boundary layer for steady and diurnally varying offshore flow
Garratt, J. R.
1987-03-01
A two-dimensional numerical mesoscale model is used to investigate the internal structure and growth of the stably stratified internal boundary layer (IBL) beneath warm, continental air flowing over a cooler sea. Two situations are studied — steady-state and diurnally varying offshore flow. In the steady-state case, vertical profiles of mean quantities and eddy diffusion coefficients ( K) within the IBL show small, but significant, changes with increasing distance from the coast. The top of the IBL is well defined, with large vertical gradients within the layer and a maximum in the coast-normal wind component near the top. Well away from the coast, turbulence, identified by non-zero K, decreases to insignificant levels near the top of the IBL; the IBL itself is characterised by a critical value of the layer-flux Richardson number equal to 0.18. The overall behaviour of the mean profiles is similar to that found in the horizontally homogeneous stable boundary layer over land. A simple physical model is used to relate the depth of the layer h to several relevant physical parameters viz., x, the distance from the coast and U, the large-scale wind (both normal to the coastline) and gδθ/θ, Δθ being the temperature difference between continental mixed-layer air and sea surface, θ is the mean potential temperature and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Excellent agreement with the numerical results is found, with h = 0.014 x 1/2 U ( gδθ/θ)-1/2. In the diurnally varying case, the mean profiles within the IBL show only small differences from the steady-state case, although diurnal variations, particularly in the wind maximum, are evident within a few hundred kilometres of the coast. A mesoscale circulation normal to the coast, and superimposed upon the mean offshore flow, develops seawards of the coastline with maximum vertical velocities about sunset, of depth about 2 km and horizontal scale ≈ 500 km. The circulation is related to the advection, and
Steady flows in the chromosphere and transition-zone above active regions as observed by OSO-8
Lites, B. W.
1980-01-01
Two years of data from the University of Colorado ultraviolet spectrometer aboard OSO-8 were searched for steady line-of-sight flows in the chromosphere and transition-zone above active regions. The most conspicuous pattern that emerges from this data set is that many sunspots show persistent blueshifts of transition-zone lines indicating velocities of about 20 km/s with respect to the surrounding plage areas. The data show much smaller shifts in ultraviolet emission lines arising from the chromosphere: the shifts are frequently to the blue, but sometimes redshifts do occur. Plage areas often show a redshift of the transition-zone lines relative to the surrounding quiet areas, and a strong gradient of the vertical component of the velocity is evident in many plages. One area of persistent blueshift was observed in the transition-zone above an active region filament. The energy requirement of these steady flows over sunspots is discussed.
Creeping gaseous flows through elastic tube and annulus micro-configurations
Elbaz, Shai; Jacob, Hila; Gat, Amir
2016-11-01
Gaseous flows in elastic micro-configurations is relevant to biological systems (e.g. alveolar ducts in the lungs) as well as to applications such as gas actuated soft micro-robots. We here examine the effect of low-Mach-number compressibility on creeping gaseous axial flows through linearly elastic tube and annulus micro-configurations. For steady flows, the leading-order effects of elasticity on the pressure distribution and mass-flux are obtained. For transient flow in a tube with small deformations, elastic effects are shown to be negligible in leading order due to compressibility. We then examine transient flows in annular configurations where the deformation is significant compared with the gap between the inner and outer cylinders defining the annulus. Both compressibility and elasticity are obtained as dominant terms interacting with viscosity. For a sudden flux impulse, the governing non-linear leading order diffusion equation is initially approximated by a porous-medium-equation of order 2.5 for the pressure square. However, as the fluid expand and the pressure decreases, the governing equation degenerates to a porous-medium-equation of order 2 for the pressure.
On heat transfer of weakly compressible power-law flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Botong
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper completes a numerical research on steady momentum and heat transfer in power-law fluids in a channel. Weakly compressible laminar fluids are studied with no slip at the walls and uniform wall temperatures. The full governing equations are solved by continuous finite element method. Three thermal conductivity models are adopted in this paper, that is, constant thermal conductivity model, thermal conductivity varying as a function of temperature gradient, and a modified temperature-gradient-dependent thermal conductivity model. The results are compared with each other and the physical characteristics for values of parameters are also discussed in details. It is shown that the velocity curve from the solution becomes straight at higher power-law index. The effects of Reynolds numbers on the dilatant fluid and the pseudo-plastic look similar to each other and their trends can be easily predicted. Furthermore, for different models, the temperature curves also present pseudo-plastic and dilatant properties.
Pre-compression volume on flow ripple reduction of a piston pump
Xu, Bing; Song, Yuechao; Yang, Huayong
2013-11-01
Axial piston pump with pre-compression volume(PCV) has lower flow ripple in large scale of operating condition than the traditional one. However, there is lack of precise simulation model of the axial piston pump with PCV, so the parameters of PCV are difficult to be determined. A finite element simulation model for piston pump with PCV is built by considering the piston movement, the fluid characteristic(including fluid compressibility and viscosity) and the leakage flow rate. Then a test of the pump flow ripple called the secondary source method is implemented to validate the simulation model. Thirdly, by comparing results among the simulation results, test results and results from other publications at the same operating condition, the simulation model is validated and used in optimizing the axial piston pump with PCV. According to the pump flow ripples obtained by the simulation model with different PCV parameters, the flow ripple is the smallest when the PCV angle is 13°, the PCV volume is 1.3×10-4 m3 at such operating condition that the pump suction pressure is 2 MPa, the pump delivery pressure 15 MPa, the pump speed 1 000 r/min, the swash plate angle 13°. At the same time, the flow ripple can be reduced when the pump suction pressure is 2 MPa, the pump delivery pressure is 5 MPa,15 MPa, 22 MPa, pump speed is 400 r/min, 1 000 r/min, 1 500 r/min, the swash plate angle is 11°, 13°, 15° and 17°, respectively. The finite element simulation model proposed provides a method for optimizing the PCV structure and guiding for designing a quieter axial piston pump.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holtz, A.; Nystroem, B.G.; Gerdin, B.
1989-01-01
The relations between degree of thoracic spinal cord compression causing myelographic block, reversible paraparesis, and extinction of the sensory evoked potential on one hand, and spinal cord blood flow on the other, were investigated. This was done in rats using the blocking weight-technique and 14 C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography. A load of 9 g caused myelographic block. Five minutes of compression with that load caused a reduction of spinal cord blood flow to about 25%, but 5 and 60 minutes after the compression spinal cord blood flow was restored to 60% of the pretrauma value. A load of 35 g for 5 minutes caused transient paraparesis. Recovery to about 30% was observed 5 and 60 minutes thereafter. During compression at a load of 55 g, which caused almost total extinction of sensory evoked potential and irreversible paraplegia, spinal cord blood flow under the load ceased. The results indicate that myelographic block occurs at a load which does not cause irreversible paraparesis and that a load which permits sensory evoked potential to be elicited results in potentially salvageable damage
Quasi-steady-state model of a counter flow air-to-air heat exchanger with phase change
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rose, Jørgen; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Kragh, Jesper
2008-01-01
-exchanger. Developing highly efficient heat-exchangers and strategies to avoid/remove frost formation implies the use of detailed models to predict and evaluate different heat-exchanger designs and strategies. This paper presents a quasi-steady-state model of a counter-flow air-to-air heat-exchanger that takes...
Particle flow of ceramic breeder pebble beds in bi-axial compression experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hermsmeyer, S.; Reimann, J.
2002-01-01
Pebble beds of ceramic material are investigated within the framework of developing solid breeder blankets for future fusion power plants. A thermo-mechanical characterisation of such pebble beds is mandatory for understanding the behaviour of pebble beds, and thus the overall blanket, under fusion environment conditions. The mechanical behaviour of pebble beds is typically explored with uni-axial, bi-axial and tri-axial compression experiments. The latter two types of experiment are particularly revealing since they contain explicitly, beyond a compression behaviour of the bed, information on the conditions for pebble flow, i.e. macroscopic relocation, in the pebble bed. (orig.)
Simulating nonlinear steady-state traveling waves on the falling liquid film entrained by a gas flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Tsvelodub, O
2016-01-01
The article is devoted to the simulation of nonlinear waves on a liquid film flowing under gravity in the known stress field at the interface. In the case of small Reynolds numbers the problem is reduced to the consideration of solutions of the nonlinear integral-differential equation for film thickness deviation from the undisturbed level. Weakly nonlinear steady-state traveling solutions of the equation with wave numbers in a vicinity of neutral wave numbers are constructed analytically. The nature of the wave branching from the undisturbed solution is investigated. Steady-state traveling solutions, whose wave numbers within the instability area are far from neutral wave numbers, are found numerically. (paper)
Flux Limiter Lattice Boltzmann for Compressible Flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Feng; Li Yingjun; Xu Aiguo; Zhang Guangcai
2011-01-01
In this paper, a new flux limiter scheme with the splitting technique is successfully incorporated into a multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for shacked compressible flows. The proposed flux limiter scheme is efficient in decreasing the artificial oscillations and numerical diffusion around the interface. Due to the kinetic nature, some interface problems being difficult to handle at the macroscopic level can be modeled more naturally through the LB method. Numerical simulations for the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability show that with the new model the computed interfaces are smoother and more consistent with physical analysis. The growth rates of bubble and spike present a satisfying agreement with the theoretical predictions and other numerical simulations. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Lyapunov stability of ideal compressible and incompressible fluid equilibria in three dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holm, D.D.
1985-08-01
Linearized stability of ideal compressible and incompressible fluid equilibria in three dimensions is analyzed using Lyapunov's direct method. An action principle is given for the Eulerian and Lagrangian fluid descriptions and the family of constants of motion due to symmetry under fluid-particle relabelling is derived in the form of Ertel's theorem for each description. In an augmented Euleriah description, the steady equilibrium flows of these two fluids theories are identified as critical points of the conserved Lyapunov functionals defined by the sum, H + C, of the energy H, and the Ertel constants of motion, C. It turns out that unconditional linear Lyapunov stability of these flows in the norm provided by the second variation of H + C is precluded by vortex-particle stretching, even for otherwise shear-stable flows. Conditional Lyapunov stability of these flows is discussed. 24 refs
Improving the performance of a compression ignition engine by directing flow of inlet air
Kemper, Carlton
1946-01-01
The object of this report is to present the results of tests performed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine the effect on engine performance of directing the flow of the inlet air to a 5-inch by 7-inch cylinder, solid injection, compression ignition engine, After a few preliminary tests, comparative runs were made at a speed of 1500 r.p.m. with and without directed air flow. It was found that directing the flow of the inlet air toward the fuel injection valve gave steadier engine operation, and an appreciable increase in power, and decreased fuel consumption. The results indicate the possibility of improving the performance of a given type of combustion chamber without changing its shape and with no change in valve timing. They would also seem to prove that directional turbulence, set up before the inlet valve of a four-stroke cycle engine, continues in the engine cylinder throughout the compression stroke.
The effect of compressed air massage on skin blood flow and temperature.
Mars, Maurice; Maharaj, Sunil S; Tufts, Mark
2005-01-01
Compressed air massage is a new treatment modality that uses air under pressure to massage skin and muscle. It is claimed to improve skin blood flow but this has not been verified. Several pilot studies were undertaken to determine the effects of compressed air massage on skin blood flow and temperature. Skin blood flow (SBF), measured using laser Doppler fluxmetry and skin temperature was recorded under several different situations: (i) treatment, at 1 Bar pressure using a single-hole (5-mm) applicator head, for 1 min at each of several sites on the right and left lower legs, with SBF measured on the dorsum of the left foot; (ii) at the same treatment pressure, SBF was measured over the left tibialis anterior when treatment was performed at different distances from the probe; (iii) SBF and skin temperature of the lower leg were measured with treatment at 0 or 1 Bar for 45 min, using two different applicator heads; (iv) SBF was measured on the dorsum of the foot of 10 subjects with treatment for 1 min at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Bar using three different applicator heads. (i) SBF of the left foot was not altered by treatment of the right leg or chest, but was significantly increased during treatment of the left sole and first web, p Compressed air massage causes an immediate increase in SBF, and an immediate fall in SBF when treatment is stopped. The effect appears to be locally and not centrally mediated and is related to the pressure used. Treatment cools the skin for at least 15 min after a 45-min treatment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed M. Elsayed
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Film cooling is vital to gas turbine blades to protect them from high temperatures and hence high thermal stresses. In the current work, optimization of film cooling parameters on a flat plate is investigated numerically. The effect of film cooling parameters such as inlet velocity direction, lateral and forward diffusion angles, blowing ratio, and streamwise angle on the cooling effectiveness is studied, and optimum cooling parameters are selected. The numerical simulation of the coolant flow through flat plate hole system is carried out using the “CFDRC package” coupled with the optimization algorithm “simplex” to maximize overall film cooling effectiveness. Unstructured finite volume technique is used to solve the steady, three-dimensional and compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The results are compared with the published numerical and experimental data of a cylindrically round-simple hole, and the results show good agreement. In addition, the results indicate that the average overall film cooling effectiveness is enhanced by decreasing the streamwise angle for high blowing ratio and by increasing the lateral and forward diffusion angles. Optimum geometry of the cooling hole on a flat plate is determined. In addition, numerical simulations of film cooling on actual turbine blade are performed using the flat plate optimal hole geometry.
A GPU-accelerated implicit meshless method for compressible flows
Zhang, Jia-Le; Ma, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Hong-Quan; Cao, Cheng
2018-05-01
This paper develops a recently proposed GPU based two-dimensional explicit meshless method (Ma et al., 2014) by devising and implementing an efficient parallel LU-SGS implicit algorithm to further improve the computational efficiency. The capability of the original 2D meshless code is extended to deal with 3D complex compressible flow problems. To resolve the inherent data dependency of the standard LU-SGS method, which causes thread-racing conditions destabilizing numerical computation, a generic rainbow coloring method is presented and applied to organize the computational points into different groups by painting neighboring points with different colors. The original LU-SGS method is modified and parallelized accordingly to perform calculations in a color-by-color manner. The CUDA Fortran programming model is employed to develop the key kernel functions to apply boundary conditions, calculate time steps, evaluate residuals as well as advance and update the solution in the temporal space. A series of two- and three-dimensional test cases including compressible flows over single- and multi-element airfoils and a M6 wing are carried out to verify the developed code. The obtained solutions agree well with experimental data and other computational results reported in the literature. Detailed analysis on the performance of the developed code reveals that the developed CPU based implicit meshless method is at least four to eight times faster than its explicit counterpart. The computational efficiency of the implicit method could be further improved by ten to fifteen times on the GPU.
Coherent structures in compressible free-shear-layer flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aeschliman, D.P.; Baty, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center; Kennedy, C.A.; Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion and Physical Sciences Center
1997-08-01
Large scale coherent structures are intrinsic fluid mechanical characteristics of all free-shear flows, from incompressible to compressible, and laminar to fully turbulent. These quasi-periodic fluid structures, eddies of size comparable to the thickness of the shear layer, dominate the mixing process at the free-shear interface. As a result, large scale coherent structures greatly influence the operation and efficiency of many important commercial and defense technologies. Large scale coherent structures have been studied here in a research program that combines a synergistic blend of experiment, direct numerical simulation, and analysis. This report summarizes the work completed for this Sandia Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan, Zhaoguang; Guo, Qinglai; Sun, Hongbin
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Interaction mechanisms of district electricity and heating systems are analyzed. • The interaction process is divided into four quasi-steady stages. • A quasi-steady multi-energy flow model is proposed and calculated. • A heating network node type transformation technique is developed. • Attention should be paid on the fast hydraulic process and slow thermal process. - Abstract: Integrated energy systems (IESs) are under development for a variety of benefits. District electricity and heating systems (DEHSs) deliver electricity and heat, the most common energy demands, to end-users. This paper studies the interactions in a DEHS considering the time-scale characteristics. Interaction mechanisms of a DEHS are analyzed. A disturbance in one system influences another system through coupling components, depending on the disturbance, operating characteristics, and control strategies. A model of the main components in DEHSs is presented. The time scale characteristics are studied based on a dynamic comparison of the different components. Then the interaction process is divided into four stages; each is a quasi-steady state. A quasi-steady multi-energy flow model is proposed and calculated, with a heating network node type transformation technique developed. A case study with detailed results and discussion of 3 types of disturbance is presented to verify the methods. The results present the interactions between the electricity and the system. It is suggested that attention should be paid both on the fast hydraulic process and slow thermal process for system security and economic operation.
Mechanical model for cavitating flow in hydraulic pipelines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Assumpcao, Alexandre Hastenreiter; Rachid, Felipe Bastos de Freitas; Saboya, Francisco Eduardo Mourao [Laboratory of Gas and Liquid Transport. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering. TEM/PGMEC, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: rachid@vm.uff.br
2010-07-01
The purpose of this work is to present a mechanical model to describe the cavitating flow in hydraulic pipelines. Although the model is capable to describe the cavitation phenomenon in unsteady as well as steady states, the applications presented in this work are restricted to slack flow, which take place in steady states. The flow is assumed to be homogeneous and isothermal. The fluid is treated as a pseudo-mixture, comprising the liquid and the vapor phases. Both phases are assumed to be compressible and to coexist at every material point and time instant. The balance equations of mass for each of the phases are considered in the model, along with one balance equation of momentum for the mixture as a whole, within an one dimensional context. The phase change transformation is properly accounted for as an irreversible process. The main dimensionless groups are identified and their influence on the slack flow phenomenon quantified by means of numerical simulations. The obtained results show that model is capable to mimic coherently both the opening as well as the closure of the vapor cavity. (author)
Simulation techniques for spatially evolving instabilities in compressible flow over a flat plate
Wasistho, B.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.
1997-01-01
In this paper we present numerical techniques suitable for a direct numerical simulation in the spatial setting. We demonstrate the application to the simulation of compressible flat plate flow instabilities. We compare second and fourth order accurate spatial discretization schemes in combination
Development of a detailed core flow analysis code for prismatic fuel reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bennett, R.G.
1990-01-01
The detailed analysis of the core flow distribution in prismatic fuel reactors is of interest for modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) design and safety analyses. Such analyses involve the steady-state flow of helium through highly cross-connected flow paths in and around the prismatic fuel elements. Several computer codes have been developed for this purpose. However, since they are proprietary codes, they are not generally available for independent MHTGR design confirmation. The previously developed codes do not consider the exchange or diversion of flow between individual bypass gaps with much detail. Such a capability could be important in the analysis of potential fuel block motion, such as occurred in the Fort St. Vrain reactor, or for the analysis of the conditions around a flow blockage or misloaded fuel block. This work develops a computer code with fairly general-purpose capabilities for modeling the flow in regions of prismatic fuel cores. The code, called BYPASS solves a finite difference control volume formulation of the compressible, steady-state fluid flow in highly cross-connected flow paths typical of the MHTGR
Rasskazov, Andrey; Chertovskih, Roman; Zheligovsky, Vladislav
2018-04-01
We introduce six families of three-dimensional space-periodic steady solenoidal flows, whose kinetic helicity density is zero at any point. Four families are analytically defined. Flows in four families have zero helicity spectrum. Sample flows from five families are used to demonstrate numerically that neither zero kinetic helicity density nor zero helicity spectrum prohibit generation of large-scale magnetic field by the two most prominent dynamo mechanisms: the magnetic α -effect and negative eddy diffusivity. Our computations also attest that such flows often generate small-scale field for sufficiently small magnetic molecular diffusivity. These findings indicate that kinetic helicity and helicity spectrum are not the quantities controlling the dynamo properties of a flow regardless of whether scale separation is present or not.
Viscous and gravitational fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow
Moortgat, Joachim
2016-03-01
Viscous and gravitational fingering refer to flow instabilities in porous media that are triggered by adverse mobility or density ratios, respectively. These instabilities have been studied extensively in the past for (1) single-phase flow (e.g., contaminant transport in groundwater, first-contact-miscible displacement of oil by gas in hydrocarbon production), and (2) multi-phase immiscible and incompressible flow (e.g., water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection in oil reservoirs). Fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow has received much less attention, perhaps due to its high computational complexity. However, many important subsurface processes involve multiple phases that exchange species. Examples are carbon sequestration in saline aquifers and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by gas or WAG injection below the minimum miscibility pressure. In multiphase flow, relative permeabilities affect the mobility contrast for a given viscosity ratio. Phase behavior can also change local fluid properties, which can either enhance or mitigate viscous and gravitational instabilities. This work presents a detailed study of fingering behavior in compositional multiphase flow in two and three dimensions and considers the effects of (1) Fickian diffusion, (2) mechanical dispersion, (3) flow rates, (4) domain size and geometry, (5) formation heterogeneities, (6) gravity, and (7) relative permeabilities. Results show that fingering in compositional multiphase flow is profoundly different from miscible conditions and upscaling techniques used for the latter case are unlikely to be generalizable to the former.
Diffuse-Interface Capturing Methods for Compressible Two-Phase Flows
Saurel, Richard; Pantano, Carlos
2018-01-01
Simulation of compressible flows became a routine activity with the appearance of shock-/contact-capturing methods. These methods can determine all waves, particularly discontinuous ones. However, additional difficulties may appear in two-phase and multimaterial flows due to the abrupt variation of thermodynamic properties across the interfacial region, with discontinuous thermodynamical representations at the interfaces. To overcome this difficulty, researchers have developed augmented systems of governing equations to extend the capturing strategy. These extended systems, reviewed here, are termed diffuse-interface models, because they are designed to compute flow variables correctly in numerically diffused zones surrounding interfaces. In particular, they facilitate coupling the dynamics on both sides of the (diffuse) interfaces and tend to the proper pure fluid-governing equations far from the interfaces. This strategy has become efficient for contact interfaces separating fluids that are governed by different equations of state, in the presence or absence of capillary effects, and with phase change. More sophisticated materials than fluids (e.g., elastic-plastic materials) have been considered as well.
On the validity of travel-time based nonlinear bioreactive transport models in steady-state flow.
Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A
2015-01-01
Travel-time based models simplify the description of reactive transport by replacing the spatial coordinates with the groundwater travel time, posing a quasi one-dimensional (1-D) problem and potentially rendering the determination of multidimensional parameter fields unnecessary. While the approach is exact for strictly advective transport in steady-state flow if the reactive properties of the porous medium are uniform, its validity is unclear when local-scale mixing affects the reactive behavior. We compare a two-dimensional (2-D), spatially explicit, bioreactive, advective-dispersive transport model, considered as "virtual truth", with three 1-D travel-time based models which differ in the conceptualization of longitudinal dispersion: (i) neglecting dispersive mixing altogether, (ii) introducing a local-scale longitudinal dispersivity constant in time and space, and (iii) using an effective longitudinal dispersivity that increases linearly with distance. The reactive system considers biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon, which is introduced into a hydraulically heterogeneous domain together with oxygen and nitrate. Aerobic and denitrifying bacteria use the energy of the microbial transformations for growth. We analyze six scenarios differing in the variance of log-hydraulic conductivity and in the inflow boundary conditions (constant versus time-varying concentration). The concentrations of the 1-D models are mapped to the 2-D domain by means of the kinematic (for case i), and mean groundwater age (for cases ii & iii), respectively. The comparison between concentrations of the "virtual truth" and the 1-D approaches indicates extremely good agreement when using an effective, linearly increasing longitudinal dispersivity in the majority of the scenarios, while the other two 1-D approaches reproduce at least the concentration tendencies well. At late times, all 1-D models give valid approximations of two-dimensional transport. We conclude that the
An adaptive Petrov-Galerkin formulation for solving the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almeida, Regina Celia Cerqueira de
1993-01-01
A space-time finite element finite element formulation for the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations is proposed. The present work develops a stable generalized CAU method which represents shocks and boundary-layers accurately. An h-adaptive remeshing refinement, which takes into account directional stretching and stretching ratio, is used leading to a very good way to indicate and refine the flow regions with singularities. Numerical experiment were conducted for some steady and unsteady problems and the performance of the proposed methods is discussed. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Da-Lin; QIU Sui-Zheng; LIU Chang-Liang; SU Guang-Hui
2008-01-01
The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR),one of the‘Generation Ⅳ'concepts,is a liquid-fuel reactor,which is different from the conventional reactors using solid fissile materials due to the flow effect of fuel salt.The study on its neutronice considering the fuel salt flow,which is the base of the thermal-hydraulic calculation and safety analysis,must be done.In this paper,the theoretical model on neutronics under steady condition for a single-liquid-fueled MSR is conducted and calculated by numerical method.The neutronics model consists of two group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes,and balance equations for six-group delayed neutron precursors considering the flow effect of fuel salt. The spatial discretization of the above models is based on the finite volume method,and the discretization equations are computed by the source iteration method.The distributions of neutron fluxes and the distributions of the delayed neutron precursors in the core are obtained.The numerical calculated results show that,the fuel salt flow has little effect on the distribution of fast and thermal neutron fluxes and the effective multiplication factor;however,it affects the distribution of the delayed neutron precursors significantly,especially the long-lived one.In addition,it could be found that the delayed neutron precursors influence the nentronics slightly under the steady condition.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Dalin; Qiu Suizheng; Su Guanghui; Liu Changliang
2008-01-01
The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), one of the 'Generation IV' concepts, is a liquid-fuel reactor, which is different from the conventional reactors using solid fissile materials due to the flow effect of fuel salt. The study on its neutronics considering the fuel salt flow, which is the base of the thermal-hydraulic calculation and safety analysis, must be done. In this paper, the theoretical model on neutronics under steady condition for a single-liquid-fueled MSR is conducted and calculated by numerical method. The neutronics model consists of two group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes, and balance equations for six-group delayed neutron precursors considering the flow effect of fuel salt. The spatial discretization of the above models is based on the finite volume method, and the discretization equations are computed by the source iteration method. The distributions of neutron fluxes and the distributions of the delayed neutron precursors in the core are obtained. The numerical calculated results show that, the fuel salt flow has little effect on the distribution of fast and thermal neutron fluxes and the effective multiplication factor; however, it affects the distribution of the delayed neutron precursors significantly, especially the long-lived one. In addition, it could be found that the delayed neutron precursors influence the neutronics slightly under the steady condition. (authors)
Advantages of forced non-steady operated trickle-bed reactors
Boelhouwer, J.G.; Piepers, H.W.; Drinkenburg, A.A.H.
2002-01-01
Trickle-bed reactors are usually operated in the steady state trickle flow regime. Uneven liquid distribution and the formation of hot spots are the most serious problems experienced during trickle flow operation. In this paper, we advocate the use of non-steady state operation of trickle-bed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Chan Wook; Lee, Sung Su
2008-01-01
Two-phase compressible flow fields of air-water are investigated numerically in the fixed Eulerian grid framework. The phase interface is captured via volume fractions of ech phase. A way to model two phase compressible flows as a single phase one is found based on an equivalent equation of states of Tait's type for a multiphase cell. The equivalent single phase field is discretized using the Roe's approximate Riemann solver. Two approaches are tried to suppress the pressure oscillation phenomena at the phase interface, a passive advection of volume fraction and a direct pressure relaxation with the compressible form of volume fraction equation. The direct pressure equalizing method suppresses pressure oscillation successfully and generates sharp discontinuities, transmitting and reflecting acoustic waves naturally at the phase interface. In discretizing the compressible form of volume fraction equation, phase interfaces are geometrically reconstructed to minimize the numerical diffusion of volume fraction and relevant variables. The motion of a projectile in a water-filled tube which is fired by the release of highly pressurized air is simulated presuming the flow field as a two dimensional one, and several design factors affecting the projectile movement are investigated
Comparison of high order algorithms in Aerosol and Aghora for compressible flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mbengoue D. A.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This article summarizes the work done within the Colargol project during CEMRACS 2012. The aim of this project is to compare the implementations of high order finite element methods for compressible flows that have been developed at ONERA and at INRIA for about one year, within the Aghora and Aerosol libraries.
A multiscale method for compressible liquid-vapor flow with surface tension*
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaegle Felix
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Discontinuous Galerkin methods have become a powerful tool for approximating the solution of compressible flow problems. Their direct use for two-phase flow problems with phase transformation is not straightforward because this type of flows requires a detailed tracking of the phase front. We consider the fronts in this contribution as sharp interfaces and propose a novel multiscale approach. It combines an efficient high-order Discontinuous Galerkin solver for the computation in the bulk phases on the macro-scale with the use of a generalized Riemann solver on the micro-scale. The Riemann solver takes into account the effects of moderate surface tension via the curvature of the sharp interface as well as phase transformation. First numerical experiments in three space dimensions underline the overall performance of the method.
Shallcross, Gregory; Capecelatro, Jesse
2017-11-01
Compressible particle-laden flows are common in engineering systems. Applications include but are not limited to water injection in high-speed jet flows for noise suppression, rocket-plume surface interactions during planetary landing, and explosions during coal mining operations. Numerically, it is challenging to capture these interactions due to the wide range of length and time scales. Additionally, there are many forms of the multiphase compressible flow equations with volume fraction effects, some of which are conflicting in nature. The purpose of this presentation is to develop the capability to accurately capture particle-shock interactions in systems with a large number of particles from dense to dilute regimes. A thorough derivation of the volume filtered equations is presented. The volume filtered equations are then implemented in a high-order, energy-stable Eulerian-Lagrangian framework. We show this framework is capable of decoupling the fluid mesh from the particle size, enabling arbitrary particle size distributions in the presence of shocks. The proposed method is then assessed against particle-laden shock tube data. Quantities of interest include fluid-phase pressure profiles and particle spreading rates. The effect of collisions in 2D and 3D are also evaluated.
Particle flow of ceramic breeder pebble beds in bi-axial compression experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hermsmeyer, S.; Reimann, J.
2002-01-01
Pebble beds of Tritium breeding ceramic material are investigated within the framework of developing solid breeder blankets for future nuclear fusion power plants. For the thermo-mechanical characterisation of such pebble beds, bed compression experiments are the standard tools. New bi-axial compression experiments on 20 and 30 mm high pebble beds show pebble flow effects much more pronounced than in previous 10 mm beds. Owing to the greater bed height, conditions are reached where the bed fails in cross direction and unhindered flow of the pebbles occurs. The paper presents measurements for the orthosilicate and metatitanate breeder materials that are envisaged to be used in a solid breeder blanket. The data are compared with calculations made with a Drucker-Prager soil model within the finite-element code ABAQUS, calibrated with data from other experiments. It is investigated empirically whether internal bed friction angles can be determined from pebble beds of the considered heights, which would simplify, and broaden the data base for, the calibration of the Drucker-Prager pebble bed models
Investigation of ALEGRA shock hydrocode algorithms using an exact free surface jet flow solution.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanks, Bradley Wright.; Robinson, Allen C
2014-01-01
Computational testing of the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian shock physics code, ALEGRA, is presented using an exact solution that is very similar to a shaped charge jet flow. The solution is a steady, isentropic, subsonic free surface flow with significant compression and release and is provided as a steady state initial condition. There should be no shocks and no entropy production throughout the problem. The purpose of this test problem is to present a detailed and challenging computation in order to provide evidence for algorithmic strengths and weaknesses in ALEGRA which should be examined further. The results of this work are intended to be used to guide future algorithmic improvements in the spirit of test-driven development processes.
Peng, Naifu; Yang, Yue
2018-01-01
We investigate the evolution of vortex-surface fields (VSFs) in compressible Taylor-Green flows at Mach numbers (Ma) ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 using direct numerical simulation. The formulation of VSFs in incompressible flows is extended to compressible flows, and a mass-based renormalization of VSFs is used to facilitate characterizing the evolution of a particular vortex surface. The effects of the Mach number on the VSF evolution are different in three stages. In the early stage, the jumps of the compressive velocity component near shocklets generate sinks to contract surrounding vortex surfaces, which shrink vortex volume and distort vortex surfaces. The subsequent reconnection of vortex surfaces, quantified by the minimal distance between approaching vortex surfaces and the exchange of vorticity fluxes, occurs earlier and has a higher reconnection degree for larger Ma owing to the dilatational dissipation and shocklet-induced reconnection of vortex lines. In the late stage, the positive dissipation rate and negative pressure work accelerate the loss of kinetic energy and suppress vortex twisting with increasing Ma.
Fast Virtual Fractional Flow Reserve Based Upon Steady-State Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul D. Morris, PhD
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Fractional flow reserve (FFR-guided percutaneous intervention is superior to standard assessment but remains underused. The authors have developed a novel “pseudotransient” analysis protocol for computing virtual fractional flow reserve (vFFR based upon angiographic images and steady-state computational fluid dynamics. This protocol generates vFFR results in 189 s (cf >24 h for transient analysis using a desktop PC, with <1% error relative to that of full-transient computational fluid dynamics analysis. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that physiological lesion significance was influenced less by coronary or lesion anatomy (33% and more by microvascular physiology (59%. If coronary microvascular resistance can be estimated, vFFR can be accurately computed in less time than it takes to make invasive measurements.
Characteristics of steady-state plasma flow in the tokamak limiter scrape-off layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrov, V.G.
1984-01-01
Steady state plasma flow in the scrape-off layer of a toroidal limiter is discussed. The force balance along the torus minor radius is taken into account, from which follows that the plasma pressure gradient is balanced by the ponderomotive force (1/c) j-vectorxB-vector, which arises in the presence of a current density component perpendicular to the magnetic field. The limiter has an important effect on the electric current flow in the scrape-off layer. It is shown that the electric potential and plasma density values differ from one side of the limiter to the other; this leads to plasma drift along the minor radius. The characteristic length of change in the plasma density is found to be of the order of the ion cyclotron radius calculated for a poloidal magnetic field. (author)
Laser driven supersonic flow over a compressible foam surface on the Nike lasera)
Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Plewa, T.; Velikovich, A. L.; Gillespie, R. S.; Weaver, J. L.; Visco, A.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Ditmar, J. R.
2010-05-01
A laser driven millimeter-scale target was used to generate a supersonic shear layer in an attempt to create a Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) unstable interface in a high-energy-density (HED) plasma. The KH instability is a fundamental fluid instability that remains unexplored in HED plasmas, which are relevant to the inertial confinement fusion and astrophysical environments. In the experiment presented here the Nike laser [S. P. Obenschain et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098 (1996)] was used to create and drive Al plasma over a rippled foam surface. In response to the supersonic Al flow (Mach=2.6±1.1) shocks should form in the Al flow near the perturbations. The experimental data were used to infer the existence and location of these shocks. In addition, the interface perturbations show growth that has possible contributions from both KH and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. Since compressible shear layers exhibit smaller growth, it is important to use the KH growth rate derived from the compressible dispersion relation.
Laser driven supersonic flow over a compressible foam surface on the Nike laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.; Gillespie, R. S.; Visco, A.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Ditmar, J. R.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Velikovich, A. L.; Weaver, J. L.; Plewa, T.
2010-01-01
A laser driven millimeter-scale target was used to generate a supersonic shear layer in an attempt to create a Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) unstable interface in a high-energy-density (HED) plasma. The KH instability is a fundamental fluid instability that remains unexplored in HED plasmas, which are relevant to the inertial confinement fusion and astrophysical environments. In the experiment presented here the Nike laser [S. P. Obenschain et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098 (1996)] was used to create and drive Al plasma over a rippled foam surface. In response to the supersonic Al flow (Mach=2.6±1.1) shocks should form in the Al flow near the perturbations. The experimental data were used to infer the existence and location of these shocks. In addition, the interface perturbations show growth that has possible contributions from both KH and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. Since compressible shear layers exhibit smaller growth, it is important to use the KH growth rate derived from the compressible dispersion relation.
Numerical research of the compressible flow in a vortex tube using OpenFOAM software
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Burazer Jela M.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The work presented in this paper is dealing with numerical simulation of energy separation mechanism and flow phenomena within a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube. Simulation of turbulent, compressible, highly swirling flow inside vortex tube is performed using RANS approach, with Favre averaged conservation equations. For turbulence closure, k-ε and k-ω shear-stress transport models are used. It is assumed that the mean flow is axisymmetric, so the 2-D computational domain is used. Computations were performed using open-source CFD software Open- FOAM. All compressible solvers available within OpenFOAM were tested, and it was found that most of the solvers cannot predict energy separation. Code of two chosen solvers, which proved as the most robust, is modified in terms of mean energy equation implementation. Newly created solvers predict physically accepted behavior in vortex tube, with good agreement with experimental results. Comparison between performances of solvers is also presented. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR 35046
Voight, Barry; Widiwijayanti, Christina; Mattioli, Glen; Elsworth, Derek; Hidayat, Dannie; Strutt, M.
2010-02-01
We use well-documented time histories of episodic GPS surface deformation and efflux of compressible magma to resolve apparent magma budget anomalies at Soufrière Hills volcano (SHV) on Montserrat, WI. We focus on data from 2003 to 2007, for an inflation succeeded by an episode of eruption-plus-deflation. We examine Mogi-type and vertical prolate ellipsoidal chamber geometries to accommodate both mineralogical constraints indicating a relatively shallow pre-eruption storage, and geodetic constraints inferring a deeper mean-pressure source. An exsolved phase involving several gas species greatly increases andesite magma compressibility to depths >10 km (i.e., for water content >4 wt%, crystallinity ˜40%), and this property supports the concept that much of the magma transferred into or out of the crustal reservoir could be accommodated by compression or decompression of stored reservoir magma (i.e., the “magma-sponge”). Our results suggest quasi-steady deep, mainly mafic magma influx of the order of 2 m3s-1, and we conclude that magma released in eruptive episodes is approximately balanced by cumulative deep influx during the eruptive episode and the preceding inflation. Our magma-sponge model predicts that between 2003 and 2007 there was no evident depletion of magma reservoir volume at SHV, which comprises tens of km3 with radial dimensions of order ˜1-2 km, in turn implying a long-lived eruption.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motte, R.; Braeunig, J.P.; Peybernes, M.
2012-01-01
As the simulation of compressible flows with several materials is essential for applications studied within the CEA-DAM, the authors propose an approach based on finite volumes with centred variables for the resolution of compressible Euler equations. Moreover, they allow materials to slide with respect to each other as it is the case for water and air, for example. A conservation law is written for each material in a hybrid grid, and a condition of contact between materials under the form of fluxes is expressed. It is illustrated by the case of an intense shock propagating in water and interacting with an air bubble which will be strongly deformed and compressed
ULTRA-SHARP nonoscillatory convection schemes for high-speed steady multidimensional flow
Leonard, B. P.; Mokhtari, Simin
1990-01-01
For convection-dominated flows, classical second-order methods are notoriously oscillatory and often unstable. For this reason, many computational fluid dynamicists have adopted various forms of (inherently stable) first-order upwinding over the past few decades. Although it is now well known that first-order convection schemes suffer from serious inaccuracies attributable to artificial viscosity or numerical diffusion under high convection conditions, these methods continue to enjoy widespread popularity for numerical heat transfer calculations, apparently due to a perceived lack of viable high accuracy alternatives. But alternatives are available. For example, nonoscillatory methods used in gasdynamics, including currently popular TVD schemes, can be easily adapted to multidimensional incompressible flow and convective transport. This, in itself, would be a major advance for numerical convective heat transfer, for example. But, as is shown, second-order TVD schemes form only a small, overly restrictive, subclass of a much more universal, and extremely simple, nonoscillatory flux-limiting strategy which can be applied to convection schemes of arbitrarily high order accuracy, while requiring only a simple tridiagonal ADI line-solver, as used in the majority of general purpose iterative codes for incompressible flow and numerical heat transfer. The new universal limiter and associated solution procedures form the so-called ULTRA-SHARP alternative for high resolution nonoscillatory multidimensional steady state high speed convective modelling.
Steady state theta pinch concept for slow formation of FRC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirano, K.
1987-05-01
A steady state high beta plasma flow through a channel along the magnetic field increasing downstream can be regarded as a ''steady state theta pinch'', because if we see the plasma riding on the flow we should observe very similar process taking place in a theta pinch. Anticipating to produce an FRC without using very high voltage technics such as the ones required in a conventional theta pinch, we have studied after the analogy a ''steady state reversed field theta pinch'' which is brought about by steady head-on collision of counter plasma streams along the channel as ejected from two identical co-axial plasma sources mounted at the both ends of the apparatus. The ideal Poisson and shock adiabatic flow models are employed for the analysis of the steady colliding process. It is demonstrated that an FRC involving large numbers of particles is produced only by the weak shock mode which is achieved in case energetic plasma flow is decelerated almost to be stagnated through Poisson adiabatic process before the streams are collided. (author)
Davis, Mark T; Potter, Catherine B; Walker, Gavin M
2018-06-10
Downstream processing aspects of a stable form of amorphous itraconazole exhibiting enhanced dissolution properties were studied. Preparation of this ternary amorphous solid dispersion by either spray drying or hot melt extrusion led to significantly different powder processing properties. Particle size and morphology was analysed using scanning electron microscopy. Flow, compression, blending and dissolution were studied using rheometry, compaction simulation and a dissolution kit. The spray dried material exhibited poorer flow and reduced sensitivity to aeration relative to the milled extrudate. Good agreement was observed between differing forms of flow measurement, such as Flow Function, Relative flow function, Flow rate index, Aeration rate, the Hausner ratio and the Carr index. The stability index indicated that both powders were stable with respect to agglomeration, de-agglomeration and attrition. Tablet ability and compressibility studies showed that spray dried material could be compressed into stronger compacts than extruded material. Blending of the powders with low moisture, freely-flowing excipients was shown to influence both flow and compression. Porosity studies revealed that blending could influence the mechanism of densification in extrudate and blended extrudate formulations. Following blending, the powders were compressed into four 500 mg tablets, each containing a 100 mg dose of amorphous itraconazole. Dissolution studies revealed that the spray dried material released drug faster and more completely and that blending excipients could further influence the dissolution rate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Interactive computer graphics applications for compressible aerodynamics
Benson, Thomas J.
1994-01-01
Three computer applications have been developed to solve inviscid compressible fluids problems using interactive computer graphics. The first application is a compressible flow calculator which solves for isentropic flow, normal shocks, and oblique shocks or centered expansions produced by two dimensional ramps. The second application couples the solutions generated by the first application to a more graphical presentation of the results to produce a desk top simulator of three compressible flow problems: 1) flow past a single compression ramp; 2) flow past two ramps in series; and 3) flow past two opposed ramps. The third application extends the results of the second to produce a design tool which solves for the flow through supersonic external or mixed compression inlets. The applications were originally developed to run on SGI or IBM workstations running GL graphics. They are currently being extended to solve additional types of flow problems and modified to operate on any X-based workstation.
Tribological properties of high-speed steel treated by compression plasma flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cherenda, K.K.; Uglov, V.V.; Anishchik, V.M.; Stalmashonak, A.K.; Astashinski, V.M.
2004-01-01
Full text: The investigation of tribological properties of two high-speed steels AISI M2 and AISI Tl treated by the nitrogen compression plasma flow was the main aim of this work. Two types of samples were investigated before and after quenching. The plasma flow was received in a magneto-plasma compressor. The impulse duration was ∼100 μs, the number of impulses varied in the range of 1-5, the nitrogen pressure in the chamber was 400-4000 Pa, the energy absorbed by the sample was 2-10 J/cm 2 per impulse. Tribological properties were examined by means of a tribometer TAYl under conditions of dry friction. The Vickers's microhardness was measured by a hard meter PMT3. X-ray diffraction analysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion microanalysis were used for samples characterization. The earlier conducted investigations showed that the compression plasma flow suited well for the improvement of tribological properties of iron and low-alloyed steels due to the formation of hardening nitrides in the near surface layer. It was found that in the case of high-speed steels only not quenched samples had increased hardness after treatment. The latter can be explained by the formation of hardening nitrides though the phase analysis did not clearly reveal their presence. The element composition confirmed the presence of nitrogen in the surface layer with the concentration up to 30 at. %. The treatment of quenched samples almost always resulted in the hardness decrease due to the dissolution or partial dissolution of alloying elements carbides: M 6 C, MC, M 23 C 6 . The rate of carbides dissolution increased with the growth of the energy absorbed by the sample. The treated samples showed a lower value of the friction coefficient than the untreated one. It could be explained by the formation of nitrogenous austenite which was found out by the phase analysis. At the same time the compression plasma flow strongly influenced surface
Applicability of higher-order TVD method to low mach number compressible flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akamatsu, Mikio
1995-01-01
Steep gradients of fluid density are the influential factor of spurious oscillation in numerical solutions of low Mach number (M<<1) compressible flows. The total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme is a promising remedy to overcome this problem and obtain accurate solutions. TVD schemes for high-speed flows are, however, not compatible with commonly used methods in low Mach number flows using pressure-based formulation. In the present study a higher-order TVD scheme is constructed on a modified form of each individual scalar equation of primitive variables. It is thus clarified that the concept of TVD is applicable to low Mach number flows within the framework of the existing numerical method. Results of test problems of the moving interface of two-component gases with the density ratio ≥ 4, demonstrate the accurate and robust (wiggle-free) profile of the scheme. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pinkerton, Gary Wayne [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
1993-01-01
The purpose of this study is to find aluminum alloys that are effective for use as wire vacuum seals in the 800MeV particle accelerator located at the Louis Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) in Los Alamos, NM. Three alloys, Al 1100, Al 3003, and Al 6061, are investigated under uniaxial compression to determine stresses for a given height reduction from 0 to 70 percent, and to find plastic flow and surface interaction effects. Right-circular cylindrical specimens are compressed on-end (cylindrically) and radially (for modeling as compressed wire). Aluminum 1100 and 3003 alloys are compared for length to diameter ratios of 1 and 2 for both compression types, and are then compared to results of radial compression of annealed small diameter Al 1100 wire currently used at LAMPE. The specimens are also compressed between three different platen surfaces, polished steel, etched steel, and aluminum 6061-T6, to determine effects of friction. The Al 3003 alloy exhibits 20 to 25% lower stresses at all height reductions than Al 1100 for both cylindrical and radial compression.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinkerton, G.W.
1993-01-01
The purpose of this study is to find aluminum alloys that are effective for use as wire vacuum seals in the 800MeV particle accelerator located at the Louis Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) in Los Alamos, NM. Three alloys, Al 1100, Al 3003, and Al 6061, are investigated under uniaxial compression to determine stresses for a given height reduction from 0 to 70 percent, and to find plastic flow and surface interaction effects. Right-circular cylindrical specimens are compressed on-end (cylindrically) and radially (for modeling as compressed wire). Aluminum 1100 and 3003 alloys are compared for length to diameter ratios of 1 and 2 for both compression types, and are then compared to results of radial compression of annealed small diameter Al 1100 wire currently used at LAMPE. The specimens are also compressed between three different platen surfaces, polished steel, etched steel, and aluminum 6061-T6, to determine effects of friction. The Al 3003 alloy exhibits 20 to 25% lower stresses at all height reductions than Al 1100 for both cylindrical and radial compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Estey, S.D.
1997-01-01
This calculation note analyzes headspace concentrations of hydrogen dependent upon assumed ventilation flow rates provided for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102. The analyses are based on measured or estimated steady state hydrogen release rates. Tank 241-C-106 is analyzed prior to sluicing; tank 241-AY-102 is analyzed both prior to and after completion of sluicing. Specific analyses, using both best estimated and bounding hydrogen generation rates, include the minimum primary ventilation flow rates required in the tanks to ensure that the steady state hydrogen concentration in the respective tank headspace does not exceed 25% and 100% of the LFL. The headspace hydrogen concentration as a function of time as well as the time required to reach 25% and 100% of LFL upon complete loss of active ventilation, starting from the steady state hydrogen concentration based on a 200 CFM minimum flow rate in tank 241-C-106 and a 100 CFM minimum flow rate in tank241-AY-102. The headspace hydrogen concentration as a function of thee following partial loss of active ventilation (i.e., step changes to l60, l20, 80, and 40 CFM ventilation flow rates) in tank 241-C-106, staffing from a 200 CFM flow rate and the corresponding steady state hydrogen concentration based on the 200 CFM flow rate. The headspace hydrogen concentration as a function of the following partial loss of active ventilation i.e., step changes to 80, 60, 40, and 20 CFM ventilation flow rates) in tank 241-AY-102, starting from a 100 CFM flow rate and the corresponding steady state hydrogen concentration based on the 100 CFM flow rate
Newman, James C., III
1995-01-01
The limiting factor in simulating flows past realistic configurations of interest has been the discretization of the physical domain on which the governing equations of fluid flow may be solved. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, many Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methodologies that are based on different grid generation and domain decomposition techniques have been developed. However, due to the costs involved and expertise required, very few comparative studies between these methods have been performed. In the present work, the two CFD methodologies which show the most promise for treating complex three-dimensional configurations as well as unsteady moving boundary problems are evaluated. These are namely the structured-overlapped and the unstructured grid schemes. Both methods use a cell centered, finite volume, upwind approach. The structured-overlapped algorithm uses an approximately factored, alternating direction implicit scheme to perform the time integration, whereas, the unstructured algorithm uses an explicit Runge-Kutta method. To examine the accuracy, efficiency, and limitations of each scheme, they are applied to the same steady complex multicomponent configurations and unsteady moving boundary problems. The steady complex cases consist of computing the subsonic flow about a two-dimensional high-lift multielement airfoil and the transonic flow about a three-dimensional wing/pylon/finned store assembly. The unsteady moving boundary problems are a forced pitching oscillation of an airfoil in a transonic freestream and a two-dimensional, subsonic airfoil/store separation sequence. Accuracy was accessed through the comparison of computed and experimentally measured pressure coefficient data on several of the wing/pylon/finned store assembly's components and at numerous angles-of-attack for the pitching airfoil. From this study, it was found that both the structured-overlapped and the unstructured grid schemes yielded flow solutions of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. V. Ivashechkin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The paper describes a steady pressure and free-flow circulation flow in the pre-screen zone of a well during its hydrodynamic reagent-free flushing. Calculation dependences for description of a filtration flow and creation of a hydrodynamic grid have been obtained in the paper. The paper presents results of experimental investigations on filtration flow. The obtained results agree completely with the calculation dependences that testifies about the possibility to use the obtained formulas for description of the filtration flow originating in the pre-screen zone of a well during its hydrodynamic reagent-free flushing.
Macroscopic balance equations for two-phase flow models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, E.D.
1979-01-01
The macroscopic, or overall, balance equations of mass, momentum, and energy are derived for a two-fluid model of two-phase flows in complex geometries. These equations provide a base for investigating methods of incorporating improved analysis methods into computer programs, such as RETRAN, which are used for transient and steady-state thermal-hydraulic analyses of nuclear steam supply systems. The equations are derived in a very general manner so that three-dimensional, compressible flows can be analysed. The equations obtained supplement the various partial differential equation two-fluid models of two-phase flow which have recently appeared in the literature. The primary objective of the investigation is the macroscopic balance equations. (Auth.)
Ill-posedness of Dynamic Equations of Compressible Granular Flow
Shearer, Michael; Gray, Nico
2017-11-01
We introduce models for 2-dimensional time-dependent compressible flow of granular materials and suspensions, based on the rheology of Pouliquen and Forterre. The models include density dependence through a constitutive equation in which the density or volume fraction of solid particles with material density ρ* is taken as a function of an inertial number I: ρ = ρ * Φ(I), in which Φ(I) is a decreasing function of I. This modelling has different implications from models relying on critical state soil mechanics, in which ρ is treated as a variable in the equations, contributing to a flow rule. The analysis of the system of equations builds on recent work of Barker et al in the incompressible case. The main result is the identification of a criterion for well-posedness of the equations. We additionally analyze a modification that applies to suspensions, for which the rheology takes a different form and the inertial number reflects the role of the fluid viscosity.
Study of compressible turbulent flows in supersonic environment by large-eddy simulation
Genin, Franklin
The numerical resolution of turbulent flows in high-speed environment is of fundamental importance but remains a very challenging problem. First, the capture of strong discontinuities, typical of high-speed flows, requires the use of shock-capturing schemes, which are not adapted to the resolution of turbulent structures due to their intrinsic dissipation. On the other hand, low-dissipation schemes are unable to resolve shock fronts and other sharp gradients without creating high amplitude numerical oscillations. Second, the nature of turbulence in high-speed flows differs from its incompressible behavior, and, in the context of Large-Eddy Simulation, the subgrid closure must be adapted to the modeling of compressibility effects and shock waves on turbulent flows. The developments described in this thesis are two-fold. First, a state of the art closure approach for LES is extended to model subgrid turbulence in compressible flows. The energy transfers due to compressible turbulence and the diffusion of turbulent kinetic energy by pressure fluctuations are assessed and integrated in the Localized Dynamic ksgs model. Second, a hybrid numerical scheme is developed for the resolution of the LES equations and of the model transport equation, which combines a central scheme for turbulent resolutions to a shock-capturing method. A smoothness parameter is defined and used to switch from the base smooth solver to the upwind scheme in regions of discontinuities. It is shown that the developed hybrid methodology permits a capture of shock/turbulence interactions in direct simulations that agrees well with other reference simulations, and that the LES methodology effectively reproduces the turbulence evolution and physical phenomena involved in the interaction. This numerical approach is then employed to study a problem of practical importance in high-speed mixing. The interaction of two shock waves with a high-speed turbulent shear layer as a mixing augmentation technique is
Reynolds, C. A.; Menke, H. P.; Blunt, M. J.; Krevor, S. C.
2015-12-01
We observe a new type of non-wetting phase flow using time-resolved pore scale imaging. The traditional conceptual model of drainage involves a non-wetting phase invading a porous medium saturated with a wetting phase as either a fixed, connected flow path through the centres of pores or as discrete ganglia which move individually through the pore space, depending on the capillary number. We observe a new type of flow behaviour at low capillary number in which the flow of the non-wetting phase occurs through networks of persistent ganglia that occupy the large pores but continuously rearrange their connectivity (Figure 1). Disconnections and reconnections occur randomly to provide short-lived pseudo-steady state flow paths between pores. This process is distinctly different to the notion of flowing ganglia which coalesce and break-up. The size distribution of ganglia is dependent on capillary number. Experiments were performed by co-injecting N2and 25 wt% KI brine into a Bentheimer sandstone core (4mm diameter, 35mm length) at 50°C and 10 MPa. Drainage was performed at three flow rates (0.04, 0.3 and 1 ml/min) at a constant fractional flow of 0.5 and the variation in ganglia populations and connectivity observed. We obtained images of the pore space during steady state flow with a time resolution of 43 s over 1-2 hours. Experiments were performed at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron. Figure 1. The position of N2 in the pore space during steady state flow is summed over 40 time steps. White indicates that N2 occupies the space over >38 time steps and red <5 time steps.
Hydrodynamic pressure sensing with an artificial lateral line in steady and unsteady flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venturelli, Roberto; Akanyeti, Otar; Visentin, Francesco; Fiorini, Paolo; Ježov, Jaas; Toming, Gert; Kruusmaa, Maarja; Chambers, Lily D; Brown, Jennifer; Megill, William M
2012-01-01
With the overall goal being a better understanding of the sensing environment from the local perspective of a situated agent, we studied uniform flows and Kármán vortex streets in a frame of reference relevant to a fish or swimming robot. We visualized each flow regime with digital particle image velocimetry and then took local measurements using a rigid body with laterally distributed parallel pressure sensor arrays. Time and frequency domain methods were used to characterize hydrodynamically relevant scenarios in steady and unsteady flows for control applications. Here we report that a distributed pressure sensing mechanism has the capability to discriminate Kármán vortex streets from uniform flows, and determine the orientation and position of the platform with respect to the incoming flow and the centre axis of the Kármán vortex street. It also enables the computation of hydrodynamic features which may be relevant for a robot while interacting with the flow, such as vortex shedding frequency, vortex travelling speed and downstream distance between vortices. A Kármán vortex street was distinguished in this study from uniform flows by analysing the magnitude of fluctuations present in the sensor measurements and the number of sensors detecting the same dominant frequency. In the Kármán vortex street the turbulence intensity was 30% higher than that in the uniform flow and the sensors collectively sensed the vortex shedding frequency as the dominant frequency. The position and orientation of the sensor platform were determined via a comparative analysis between laterally distributed sensor arrays; the vortex travelling speed was estimated via a cross-correlation analysis among the sensors. (paper)
Advances in compressible turbulent mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E.
1992-01-01
This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately
Advances in compressible turbulent mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E. [eds.
1992-01-01
This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Carlsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Per Grove
2006-01-01
We present an approach for modelling unsteady, primarily one-dimensional, compressible flow. The conservation laws for mass, energy, and momentum are applied to a staggered mesh of control volumes and loss mechanisms are included directly as extra terms. Heat transfer, flow friction, and multidim...... are presented. The capabilities of the approach are illustrated with an example solution and an experimental validation of a Stirling engine model....
Multigrid and defect correction for the steady Navier-Stokes equations
Koren, B.
1990-01-01
Theoretical and experimental convergence results are presented for nonlinear multigrid and iterative defect correction applied to finite volume discretizations of the full, steady, 2D, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Iterative defect correction is introduced for circumventing the difficulty in
Finite volume simulation of 2-D steady square lid driven cavity flow at high reynolds numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Yapici
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this work, computer simulation results of steady incompressible flow in a 2-D square lid-driven cavity up to Reynolds number (Re 65000 are presented and compared with those of earlier studies. The governing flow equations are solved by using the finite volume approach. Quadratic upstream interpolation for convective kinematics (QUICK is used for the approximation of the convective terms in the flow equations. In the implementation of QUICK, the deferred correction technique is adopted. A non-uniform staggered grid arrangement of 768x768 is employed to discretize the flow geometry. Algebraic forms of the coupled flow equations are then solved through the iterative SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equation algorithm. The outlined computational methodology allows one to meet the main objective of this work, which is to address the computational convergence and wiggled flow problems encountered at high Reynolds and Peclet (Pe numbers. Furthermore, after Re > 25000 additional vortexes appear at the bottom left and right corners that have not been observed in earlier studies.
Characterization of the Inlet Port Flow under Steady-State Conditions Using PIV and POD
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Mohammed El-Adawy
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The current study demonstrates an experimental investigation of the tumble flow structures using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV under steady-state conditions considering the central vertical tumble plane. The experiments were carried out on a four-valve, pent-roof Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI engine head at different valve lifts and with a pressure difference of 150 mmH2O across the intake valves. Furthermore, the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD analytical technique was applied to PIV-measured velocity vector maps to characterize the flow structures at various valve lifts, and hence the different rig tumble values. The results show that at low valve lifts (1 to 5 mm, 48.9 to 46.6% of the flow energy is concentrated in the large (mode 1 eddies with only 8.4 to 11.46% in mode 2 and 7.2 to 7.5 in mode 3. At high valve lifts, it can be clearly seen that some of the energy in the large eddies of mode 1 is transferred to the smaller flow structures of modes 2 and 3. This can be clearly seen at valve lift 10 mm where the values of the flow energy were 40.6%, 17.3%, and 8.0% for modes 1, 2, and 3, respectively.
Separation prediction in two dimensional boundary layer flows using artificial neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabetghadam, F.; Ghomi, H.A.
2003-01-01
In this article, the ability of artificial neural networks in prediction of separation in steady two dimensional boundary layer flows is studied. Data for network training is extracted from numerical solution of an ODE obtained from Von Karman integral equation with approximate one parameter Pohlhousen velocity profile. As an appropriate neural network, a two layer radial basis generalized regression artificial neural network is used. The results shows good agreements between the overall behavior of the flow fields predicted by the artificial neural network and the actual flow fields for some cases. The method easily can be extended to unsteady separation and turbulent as well as compressible boundary layer flows. (author)
PEVC-FMDF for Large Eddy Simulation of Compressible Turbulent Flows
Nouri Gheimassi, Arash; Nik, Mehdi; Givi, Peyman; Livescu, Daniel; Pope, Stephen
2017-11-01
The filtered density function (FDF) closure is extended to a ``self-contained'' format to include the subgrid scale (SGS) statistics of all of the hydro-thermo-chemical variables in turbulent flows. These are the thermodynamic pressure, the specific internal energy, the velocity vector, and the composition field. In this format, the model is comprehensive and facilitates large eddy simulation (LES) of flows at both low and high compressibility levels. A transport equation is developed for the joint ``pressure-energy-velocity-composition filtered mass density function (PEVC-FMDF).'' In this equation, the effect of convection appears in closed form. The coupling of the hydrodynamics and thermochemistry is modeled via a set of stochastic differential equation (SDE) for each of the transport variables. This yields a self-contained SGS closure. For demonstration, LES is conducted of a turbulent shear flow with transport of a passive scalar. The consistency of the PEVC-FMDF formulation is established, and its overall predictive capability is appraised via comparison with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data.
Modeling compressible multiphase flows with dispersed particles in both dense and dilute regimes
McGrath, T.; St. Clair, J.; Balachandar, S.
2018-05-01
Many important explosives and energetics applications involve multiphase formulations employing dispersed particles. While considerable progress has been made toward developing mathematical models and computational methodologies for these flows, significant challenges remain. In this work, we apply a mathematical model for compressible multiphase flows with dispersed particles to existing shock and explosive dispersal problems from the literature. The model is cast in an Eulerian framework, treats all phases as compressible, is hyperbolic, and satisfies the second law of thermodynamics. It directly applies the continuous-phase pressure gradient as a forcing function for particle acceleration and thereby retains relaxed characteristics for the dispersed particle phase that remove the constituent material sound velocity from the eigenvalues. This is consistent with the expected characteristics of dispersed particle phases and can significantly improve the stable time-step size for explicit methods. The model is applied to test cases involving the shock and explosive dispersal of solid particles and compared to data from the literature. Computed results compare well with experimental measurements, providing confidence in the model and computational methods applied.
Mateo Villanueva, P. A.; Hradisky, M.
2010-12-01
Simulations of fluvial flows are strongly influenced by geometric complexity and overall uncertainty on measured flow variables, including those assumed to be well known boundary conditions. Often, 2D steady-state models are used for computational simulations of flows at the scale of natural rivers. Such models have been successfully incorporated in iRIC (formerly MD_SWMS), one of the widely used quasi-3D CFD solvers to perform studies of environmental flows. iRIC aids in estimating such quantities as surface roughness and shear stress, which, in turn, can be used to estimate sediment transport. However, the computational results are inherently limited in accuracy because of restricting the computations to 2D, or quasi-3D, space, which can affect the values of these predictions. In the present work we perform computer-based simulations of fluvial flows using OpenFOAM, a free, open source fully 3D CFD software package, and compare our results to predictions obtained from iRIC. First, we study the suitability of OpenFOAM as the main CFD solver to analyze fluvial flows and validate our results for two well documented rectangular channel configurations: the first case consists of a large aspect-ratio channel (ratio of depth over width 0.017, ratio of depth over length 0.0019) with a rectangular obstacle mounted at the bottom wall; the second case involves a large aspect-ratio channel (ratio of depth over width 0.1, ratio of depth over length 0.0025) with cubic obstacles mounted at the lower wall (one obstacle) and upper wall (two obstacles). Secondly, we apply our model to simulation or river at natural scale and compare our results to the output obtained from iRIC to quantify the differences in velocity profiles and other flow parameters when comparable solution techniques are used. Steady-state, RANS k-epsilon models are employed for all simulations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berry, R. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2017-08-14
In the literature, the abundance of pipe network junction models, as well as inclusion of dissipative losses between connected pipes with loss coefficients, has been treated using the incompressible flow assumption of constant density. This approach is fundamentally, physically wrong for compressible flow with density change. This report introduces a mathematical modeling approach for general junctions in piping network systems for which the transient flows are compressible and single-phase. The junction could be as simple as a 1-pipe input and 1-pipe output with differing pipe cross-sectional areas for which a dissipative loss is necessary, or it could include an active component, between an inlet pipe and an outlet pipe, such as a pump or turbine. In this report, discussion will be limited to the former. A more general branching junction connecting an arbitrary number of pipes with transient, 1-D compressible single-phase flows is also presented. These models will be developed in a manner consistent with the use of a general equation of state like, for example, the recent Spline-Based Table Look-up method [1] for incorporating the IAPWS-95 formulation [2] to give accurate and efficient calculations for properties for water and steam with RELAP-7 [3].
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saeed Dinarvand
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The steady three-dimensional flow of condensation or spraying on inclined spinning disk is studied analytically. The governing nonlinear equations and their associated boundary conditions are transformed into the system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The series solution of the problem is obtained by utilizing the homotopy perturbation method (HPM. The velocity and temperature profiles are shown and the influence of Prandtl number on the heat transfer and Nusselt number is discussed in detail. The validity of our solutions is verified by the numerical results. Unlike free surface flows on an incline, this through flow is highly affected by the spray rate and the rotation of the disk.
Compressible turbulent channel flow with impedance boundary conditions
Scalo, Carlo; Bodart, Julien; Lele, Sanjiva K.
2015-03-01
We have performed large-eddy simulations of isothermal-wall compressible turbulent channel flow with linear acoustic impedance boundary conditions (IBCs) for the wall-normal velocity component and no-slip conditions for the tangential velocity components. Three bulk Mach numbers, Mb = 0.05, 0.2, 0.5, with a fixed bulk Reynolds number, Reb = 6900, have been investigated. For each Mb, nine different combinations of IBC settings were tested, in addition to a reference case with impermeable walls, resulting in a total of 30 simulations. The adopted numerical coupling strategy allows for a spatially and temporally consistent imposition of physically realizable IBCs in a fully explicit compressible Navier-Stokes solver. The IBCs are formulated in the time domain according to Fung and Ju ["Time-domain impedance boundary conditions for computational acoustics and aeroacoustics," Int. J. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 18(6), 503-511 (2004)]. The impedance adopted is a three-parameter damped Helmholtz oscillator with resonant angular frequency, ωr, tuned to the characteristic time scale of the large energy-containing eddies. The tuning condition, which reads ωr = 2πMb (normalized with the speed of sound and channel half-width), reduces the IBCs' free parameters to two: the damping ratio, ζ, and the resistance, R, which have been varied independently with values, ζ = 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, and R = 0.01, 0.10, 1.00, for each Mb. The application of the tuned IBCs results in a drag increase up to 300% for Mb = 0.5 and R = 0.01. It is shown that for tuned IBCs, the resistance, R, acts as the inverse of the wall-permeability and that varying the damping ratio, ζ, has a secondary effect on the flow response. Typical buffer-layer turbulent structures are completely suppressed by the application of tuned IBCs. A new resonance buffer layer is established characterized by large spanwise-coherent Kelvin-Helmholtz rollers, with a well-defined streamwise wavelength λx, traveling downstream with
Naehle, Claas P; Steinberg, Verena A; Schild, Hans; Mommertz, Gottfried
2015-05-01
Noninvasive measurement of peripheral muscle microperfusion could potentially improve diagnosis, management, and treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and thus improve patient care. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) as a noninvasive diagnostic tool allows quantification of muscle perfusion. Increasing data on bolus technique CEUS reflecting microperfusion are becoming available, but only limited data on steady-state CEUS for assessment of muscle microperfusion are available. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate steady-state CEUS for assessment of peripheral muscle microperfusion in a PAD animal model. In a porcine animal model, peripheral muscle microperfusion was quantified by steady-state CEUS replenishment kinetics (mean transit time [mTT] and wash-in rate [WiR]) of the biceps femoris muscle during intravenous steady-state infusion of INN-sulfur hexafluoride (SonoVue; Bracco, Geneva, Switzerland). In addition, macroperfusion was quantified at the external femoral artery with a Doppler flow probe. Peripheral muscle microperfusion and Doppler flow measurements were performed bilaterally at rest and under adenosine stress (70 μg/kg body weight) before and after unilateral creation of a moderate external iliac artery stenosis. All measurements could be performed completely in 10 pigs. Compared with baseline measurements, peripheral muscle microperfusion decreased significantly during adenosine stress (rest vs adenosine stress: mTT, 7.8 ± 3.3 vs 21.2 ± 17.8 s, P = .0006; WiR, 58.4 ± 38.1 vs 25.3 ± 15.6 arbitrary units [a.u.]/s, P flow, 122.3 ± 31.4 vs 83.6 ± 28.1 mL/min, P = .0067) and after stenosis creation (no stenosis vs stenosis: mTT, 8.1 ± 3.1 vs 29.2 ± 18.0 s, P = .0469; WiR, 53.0 ± 22.7 vs 13.6 ± 8.4 a.u./s, P = .0156; Doppler flow, 124.2 ± 41.8 vs 65.9 ± 40.0 mL/min, P = .0313). After stenosis creation, adenosine stress led to a further significant decrease of peripheral muscle microperfusion but had no effect on
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kambe, Tsutomu
2013-01-01
A new representation of the solution to Euler's equation of motion is presented by using a system of expressions for compressible rotational flows of an ideal fluid. This is regarded as a generalization of Bernoulli's theorem to compressible rotational flows. The present expressions are derived from the variational principle. The action functional for the principle consists of the main terms of the total kinetic, potential and internal energies, together with three additional terms yielding the equations of continuity, entropy and a third term that provides the rotational component of velocity field. The last term has the form of scalar product satisfying gauge symmetry with respect to both translation and rotation. This is a generalization of the Clebsch transformation from a physical point of view. It is verified that the system of new expressions, in fact, satisfies Euler's equation of motion. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adeshina S. Adegoke
2017-11-01
Full Text Available This paper studied the nonlinear vibrations of top-tensioned cantilevered pipes conveying pressurized steady two-phase flow under thermal loading. The coupled axial and transverse governing partial differential equations of motion of the system were derived based on Hamilton’s mechanics, with the centerline assumed to be extensible. Using the multiple-scale perturbation technique, natural frequencies, mode shapes, and first order approximate solutions of the steady-state response of the pipes were obtained. The multiple-scale assessment reveals that at some frequencies the system is uncoupled, while at some frequencies a 1:2 coupling exists between the axial and the transverse frequencies of the pipe. Nonlinear frequencies versus the amplitude displacement of the cantilever pipe, conveying two-phase flow at super-critical mixture velocity for the uncoupled scenario, exhibit a nonlinear hardening behavior; an increment in the void fractions of the two-phase flow results in a reduction in the pipe’s transverse vibration frequencies and the coupled amplitude of the system. However, increases in the temperature difference, pressure, and the presence of top tension were observed to increase the pipe’s transverse vibration frequencies without a significant change in the coupled amplitude of the system.
A Finite Element Method for Simulation of Compressible Cavitating Flows
Shams, Ehsan; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yu; Sahni, Onkar; Shephard, Mark; Oberai, Assad
2016-11-01
This work focuses on a novel approach for finite element simulations of multi-phase flows which involve evolving interface with phase change. Modeling problems, such as cavitation, requires addressing multiple challenges, including compressibility of the vapor phase, interface physics caused by mass, momentum and energy fluxes. We have developed a mathematically consistent and robust computational approach to address these problems. We use stabilized finite element methods on unstructured meshes to solve for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation is used to handle the interface motions. Our method uses a mesh adaptation strategy to preserve the quality of the volumetric mesh, while the interface mesh moves along with the interface. The interface jump conditions are accurately represented using a discontinuous Galerkin method on the conservation laws. Condensation and evaporation rates at the interface are thermodynamically modeled to determine the interface velocity. We will present initial results on bubble cavitation the behavior of an attached cavitation zone in a separated boundary layer. We acknowledge the support from Army Research Office (ARO) under ARO Grant W911NF-14-1-0301.
TRUMP, Steady-State and Transient 1-D, 2-D and 3-D Potential Flow, Temperature Distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elrod, D.C.; Turner, W.D.
1981-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: TRUMP solves a general non- linear parabolic partial differential equation describing flow in various kinds of potential fields, such as fields of temperature, pressure, or electricity and magnetism; simultaneously, it will solve two additional equations representing, in thermal problems, heat production by decomposition of two reactants having rate constants with a general Arrhenius temperature dependence. Steady- state and transient flow in one, two, or three dimensions are considered in geometrical configurations having simple or complex shapes and structures. Problem parameters may vary with spatial position, time, or primary dependent variables--temperature, pressure, or field strength. Initial conditions may vary with spatial position, and among the criteria that may be specified for ending a problem are upper and lower limits on the size of the primary dependent variable, upper limits on the problem time or on the number of time-steps or on the computer time, and attainment of steady state. 2 - Method of solution: Solutions may be obtained by use of explicit- or implicit-difference equations, or by an optimized combination of both. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program currently provides for maxima of: 40 materials, 5 reactants, 105 surface conditions, 20 boundary nodes, 16 entries per tabulated function (table-length)
An efficient shock-capturing scheme for simulating compressible homogeneous mixture flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dang, Son Tung; Ha, Cong Tu; Park, Warn Gyu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Chul Min [Advanced Naval Technology CenterNSRDI, ADD, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-09-15
This work is devoted to the development of a procedure for the numerical solution of Navier-Stokes equations for cavitating flows with and without ventilation based on a compressible, multiphase, homogeneous mixture model. The governing equations are discretized on a general structured grid using a high-resolution shock-capturing scheme in conjunction with appropriate limiters to prevent the generation of spurious solutions near shock waves or discontinuities. Two well-known limiters are examined, and a new limiter is proposed to enhance the accuracy and stability of the numerical scheme. A sensitivity analysis is first conducted to determine the relative influences of various model parameters on the solution. These parameters are adopted for the computation of water flows over a hemispherical body, conical body and a divergent/convergent nozzle. Finally, numerical calculations of ventilated supercavitating flows over a hemispherical cylinder body with a hot propulsive jet are conducted to verify the capabilities of the numerical scheme.
An efficient shock-capturing scheme for simulating compressible homogeneous mixture flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dang, Son Tung; Ha, Cong Tu; Park, Warn Gyu; Jung, Chul Min
2016-01-01
This work is devoted to the development of a procedure for the numerical solution of Navier-Stokes equations for cavitating flows with and without ventilation based on a compressible, multiphase, homogeneous mixture model. The governing equations are discretized on a general structured grid using a high-resolution shock-capturing scheme in conjunction with appropriate limiters to prevent the generation of spurious solutions near shock waves or discontinuities. Two well-known limiters are examined, and a new limiter is proposed to enhance the accuracy and stability of the numerical scheme. A sensitivity analysis is first conducted to determine the relative influences of various model parameters on the solution. These parameters are adopted for the computation of water flows over a hemispherical body, conical body and a divergent/convergent nozzle. Finally, numerical calculations of ventilated supercavitating flows over a hemispherical cylinder body with a hot propulsive jet are conducted to verify the capabilities of the numerical scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shuchi, S.; Shimada, K.; Kamiyama, S.; Yamaguchi, H.
2002-01-01
We clarify numerically the wall friction coefficient, the distributions of velocity and shear rate, and the number of aggregated particles on steady magnetic fluid flow in a straight tube by taking into account the non-uniform distribution of mass concentration (DMC). Also the effect of DMC is clarified under the uniform and non-uniform transverse steady magnetic field. In comparison with the published data, the numerical results show good agreement with the experimental data
A closed-form solution for steady-state coupled phloem/xylem flow using the Lambert-W function.
Hall, A J; Minchin, P E H
2013-12-01
A closed-form solution for steady-state coupled phloem/xylem flow is presented. This incorporates the basic Münch flow model of phloem transport, the cohesion model of xylem flow, and local variation in the xylem water potential and lateral water flow along the transport pathway. Use of the Lambert-W function allows this solution to be obtained under much more general and realistic conditions than has previously been possible. Variation in phloem resistance (i.e. viscosity) with solute concentration, and deviations from the Van't Hoff expression for osmotic potential are included. It is shown that the model predictions match those of the equilibrium solution of a numerical time-dependent model based upon the same mechanistic assumptions. The effect of xylem flow upon phloem flow can readily be calculated, which has not been possible in any previous analytical model. It is also shown how this new analytical solution can handle multiple sources and sinks within a complex architecture, and can describe competition between sinks. The model provides new insights into Münch flow by explicitly including interactions with xylem flow and water potential in the closed-form solution, and is expected to be useful as a component part of larger numerical models of entire plants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pankaj Thakur
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Steady thermal stresses in a rotating disc with shaft having density variation parameter subjected to thermal load have been derived by using Seth's transition theory. Neither the yields criterion nor the associated flow rule is assumed here. Results are depicted graphically. It has been seen that compressible material required higher percentage increased angular speed to become fully-plastic as compare to rotating disc made of incompressible material. Circumferential stresses are maximal at the outer surface of the rotating disc. With the introduction of thermal effect it decreases the value of radial and circumferential stresses at inner and outer surface for fully-plastic state.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seyed mohammadjavad Zeidi
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Investigating nozzle’s orifice flow is challenging both experimentally and theoretically. This paper focuses on simulating flow inside diesel injector nozzle via Ansys fluent v15. Validation is performed with experimental results from Winkhofler et al (2001. Several important parameters such as mass flow rate, velocity profiles and pressure profiles are used for this validation. Results include the effects of contraction inside nozzle’s orifice, effect of compressibility; effect of injection pressures and several orifice entries are also simulated in this study. For considering the effect of compressibility a user defined function used in this simulation. Cavitation model which is used in this simulation is Singhal et al. cavitation model. Presto discretization method is used for Pressure equation and second upwind discretization method is used for Momentum equation. Converging Singhal et al. cavitation model is very challenging and it needs several efforts and simulations.
Pasch, James Jay
2017-02-07
A method of resolving a balanced condition that generates control parameters for start-up and steady state operating points and various component and cycle performances for a closed split flow recompression cycle system. The method provides for improved control of a Brayton cycle thermal to electrical power conversion system. The method may also be used for system design, operational simulation and/or parameter prediction.
Twopool strategy and the combined compressible/incompressible flow problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sienicki, J.J.; Abramson, P.B.
1979-01-01
Most recent numerical modeling of two-phase flow involves an implicit determination of a pressure field upon which computational efficiency is strongly dependent. While cell by cell schemes (which treat the pressures in adjacent cells as known source terms) offer fast running times, permit the use of large time steps limited by a Courant condition restriction based on material velocities, and favor enhanced implicit coupling between the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic variables within individual cells, strong implicit coupling (as obtained with elimination schemes) between pressures in adjacent cells in pure single-phase liquid regions is necessary for the calculation of combined two-phase (compressible)/single-phase (incompressible) flows. The TWOPOOL strategy, which consists of a separation in the determination of a pressure field between the single-phase liquid cells where elimination is used and the two-phase cells where a cell by cell scheme is used, constitutes the fastest running strategy which permits the use of large time steps limited only by a Courant condition restriction based on material velocities
Steady Stokes flow past dumbbell shaped axially symmetric body of revolution: An analytic approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Srivastava Kumar Deepak
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of steady Stokes flow past dumbbell-shaped axially symmetric isolated body of revolution about its axis of symmetry is considered by utilizing a method (Datta and Srivastava, 1999 based on body geometry under the restrictions of continuously turning tangent on the boundary. The relationship between drag and moment is established in transverse flow situation. The closed form expression of Stokes drag is then calculated for dumbbell-shaped body in terms of geometric parameters b, c, d and a with the aid of this linear relation and the formula of torque obtained by (Chwang and Wu, part 1, 1974 with the use of singularity distribution along axis of symmetry. Drag coefficient and moment coefficient are defined in various forms in terms of dumbbell parameters. Their numerical values are calculated and depicted in respective graphs and compared with some known values.
Three-dimensional numerical simulation for plastic injection-compression molding
Zhang, Yun; Yu, Wenjie; Liang, Junjie; Lang, Jianlin; Li, Dequn
2018-03-01
Compared with conventional injection molding, injection-compression molding can mold optical parts with higher precision and lower flow residual stress. However, the melt flow process in a closed cavity becomes more complex because of the moving cavity boundary during compression and the nonlinear problems caused by non-Newtonian polymer melt. In this study, a 3D simulation method was developed for injection-compression molding. In this method, arbitrary Lagrangian- Eulerian was introduced to model the moving-boundary flow problem in the compression stage. The non-Newtonian characteristics and compressibility of the polymer melt were considered. The melt flow and pressure distribution in the cavity were investigated by using the proposed simulation method and compared with those of injection molding. Results reveal that the fountain flow effect becomes significant when the cavity thickness increases during compression. The back flow also plays an important role in the flow pattern and redistribution of cavity pressure. The discrepancy in pressures at different points along the flow path is complicated rather than monotonically decreased in injection molding.
Numerical simulation of fluid-structure interaction of compressible flow and elastic structure
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hasnedlová, J.; Feistauer, M.; Horáček, Jaromír; Kosík, A.; Kučera, V.
2013-01-01
Roč. 95, Suppl 1 (2013), s. 343-361 ISSN 0010-485X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/0207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : fluid–structure interaction * compressible flow * discontinuous Galerkin finite element method * coupling algorithms Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.055, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00607-012-0240-x
Thermofluidic compression effects to achieve combustion in a low-compression scramjet engine
Moura, A. F.; Wheatley, V.; Jahn, I.
2017-12-01
The compression provided by a scramjet inlet is an important parameter in its design. It must be low enough to limit thermal and structural loads and stagnation pressure losses, but high enough to provide the conditions favourable for combustion. Inlets are typically designed to achieve sufficient compression without accounting for the fluidic, and subsequently thermal, compression provided by the fuel injection, which can enable robust combustion in a low-compression engine. This is investigated using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes numerical simulations of a simplified scramjet engine designed to have insufficient compression to auto-ignite fuel in the absence of thermofluidic compression. The engine was designed with a wide rectangular combustor and a single centrally located injector, in order to reduce three-dimensional effects of the walls on the fuel plume. By varying the injected mass flow rate of hydrogen fuel (equivalence ratios of 0.22, 0.17, and 0.13), it is demonstrated that higher equivalence ratios lead to earlier ignition and more rapid combustion, even though mean conditions in the combustor change by no more than 5% for pressure and 3% for temperature with higher equivalence ratio. By supplementing the lower equivalence ratio with helium to achieve a higher mass flow rate, it is confirmed that these benefits are primarily due to the local compression provided by the extra injected mass. Investigation of the conditions around the fuel plume indicated two connected mechanisms. The higher mass flow rate for higher equivalence ratios generated a stronger injector bow shock that compresses the free-stream gas, increasing OH radical production and promoting ignition. This was observed both in the higher equivalence ratio case and in the case with helium. This earlier ignition led to increased temperature and pressure downstream and, consequently, stronger combustion. The heat release from combustion provided thermal compression in the combustor, further
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, Kyeongmin; Won, Seongyeon; Ju, Hyunchul
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The effects of electrode compression on VRFB are examined. • The electronic conductivity is improved when the compression is increased. • The kinetic losses are similar regardless of the electrode compression level. • The vanadium distribution is more uniform within highly compressed electrode. - Abstract: The porous carbon felt electrode is one of the major components of all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). These electrodes are necessarily compressed during stack assembly to prevent liquid electrolyte leakage and diminish the interfacial contact resistance among VRFB stack components. The porous structure and properties of carbon felt electrodes have a considerable influence on the electrochemical reactions, transport features, and cell performance. Thus, a numerical study was performed herein to investigate the effects of electrode compression on the charge and discharge behavior of VRFBs. A three-dimensional, transient VRFB model developed in a previous study was employed to simulate VRFBs under two degrees of electrode compression (10% vs. 20%). The effects of electrode compression were precisely evaluated by analysis of the solid/electrolyte potential profiles, transfer current density, and vanadium concentration distributions, as well as the overall charge and discharge performance. The model predictions highlight the beneficial impact of electrode compression; the electronic conductivity of the carbon felt electrode is the main parameter improved by electrode compression, leading to reduction in ohmic loss through the electrodes. In contrast, the kinetics of the redox reactions and transport of vanadium species are not significantly altered by the degree of electrode compression (10% to 20%). This study enhances the understanding of electrode compression effects and demonstrates that the present VRFB model is a valuable tool for determining the optimal design and compression of carbon felt electrodes in VRFBs.
Polar-coordinate lattice Boltzmann modeling of compressible flows
Lin, Chuandong; Xu, Aiguo; Zhang, Guangcai; Li, Yingjun; Succi, Sauro
2014-01-01
We present a polar coordinate lattice Boltzmann kinetic model for compressible flows. A method to recover the continuum distribution function from the discrete distribution function is indicated. Within the model, a hybrid scheme being similar to, but different from, the operator splitting is proposed. The temporal evolution is calculated analytically, and the convection term is solved via a modified Warming-Beam (MWB) scheme. Within the MWB scheme a suitable switch function is introduced. The current model works not only for subsonic flows but also for supersonic flows. It is validated and verified via the following well-known benchmark tests: (i) the rotational flow, (ii) the stable shock tube problem, (iii) the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability, and (iv) the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. As an original application, we studied the nonequilibrium characteristics of the system around three kinds of interfaces, the shock wave, the rarefaction wave, and the material interface, for two specific cases. In one of the two cases, the material interface is initially perturbed, and consequently the RM instability occurs. It is found that the macroscopic effects due to deviating from thermodynamic equilibrium around the material interface differ significantly from those around the mechanical interfaces. The initial perturbation at the material interface enhances the coupling of molecular motions in different degrees of freedom. The amplitude of deviation from thermodynamic equilibrium around the shock wave is much higher than those around the rarefaction wave and material interface. By comparing each component of the high-order moments and its value in equilibrium, we can draw qualitatively the main behavior of the actual distribution function. These results deepen our understanding of the mechanical and material interfaces from a more fundamental level, which is indicative for constructing macroscopic models and other kinds of kinetic models.
Quasi‐steady centrifuge method for unsaturated hydraulic properties
Caputo, Maria C.; Nimmo, John R.
2005-01-01
We have developed the quasi‐steady centrifuge (QSC) method as a variation of the steady state centrifuge method that can be implemented simply and inexpensively with greater versatility in terms of sample size and other features. It achieves these advantages by somewhat relaxing the criterion for steadiness of flow through the sample. This compromise entails an increase in measurement uncertainty but to a degree that is tolerable in most applications. We have tested this new approach with an easily constructed apparatus to establish a quasi‐steady flow of water in unsaturated porous rock samples spinning in a centrifuge, obtaining measurements of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and water retention that agree with results of other methods. The QSC method is adaptable to essentially any centrifuge suitable for hydrogeologic applications, over a wide range of sizes and operating speeds. The simplified apparatus and greater adaptability of this method expands the potential for exploring situations that are common in nature but have been the subject of few laboratory investigations.
Quasi-steady centrifuge method for unsaturated hydraulic properties
Caputo, Maria C.; Nimmo, John R.
2005-11-01
We have developed the quasi-steady centrifuge (QSC) method as a variation of the steady state centrifuge method that can be implemented simply and inexpensively with greater versatility in terms of sample size and other features. It achieves these advantages by somewhat relaxing the criterion for steadiness of flow through the sample. This compromise entails an increase in measurement uncertainty but to a degree that is tolerable in most applications. We have tested this new approach with an easily constructed apparatus to establish a quasi-steady flow of water in unsaturated porous rock samples spinning in a centrifuge, obtaining measurements of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and water retention that agree with results of other methods. The QSC method is adaptable to essentially any centrifuge suitable for hydrogeologic applications, over a wide range of sizes and operating speeds. The simplified apparatus and greater adaptability of this method expands the potential for exploring situations that are common in nature but have been the subject of few laboratory investigations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Fan
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Rigid-lid approximation is usually used to replace the free surface in scour simulation. The influence of the rigid lid assumption on the prediction precision of scour hole in steady flow is studied in this paper. Firstly, a local scour model was constructed based on the open sources Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD model OpenFOAM, where both the bed load and suspended load were considered. In the present model, the bed shear stress was calculated by the Newton shear stress formula, instead of the traditional calculation method with the assumption that the flow velocity in vertical direction complies with a logarithmic distribution. The Volume of Fluid (VOF method was used to capture the free surface and a moving-mesh method was used to track the change of bed surface. Then, several experiments were chosen to validate the model, and the modeling results fitted well with the measured data. Lastly, the effect of the rigid lid assumption on surface elevation, bed shear stress and the profile of the scour hole in steady flow are studied. The result shows that the surface elevation suffers a drop above the pipeline, and the difference of surface elevation between the upstream and downstream increases with decreasing dimensionless depth. Compared with the free surface condition, the bed shear stress and scour hole depth computed with the rigid lid approximation were underestimated.
An efficient and general numerical method to compute steady uniform vortices
Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo; Williamson, Charles H. K.
2011-07-01
Steady uniform vortices are widely used to represent high Reynolds number flows, yet their efficient computation still presents some challenges. Existing Newton iteration methods become inefficient as the vortices develop fine-scale features; in addition, these methods cannot, in general, find solutions with specified Casimir invariants. On the other hand, available relaxation approaches are computationally inexpensive, but can fail to converge to a solution. In this paper, we overcome these limitations by introducing a new discretization, based on an inverse-velocity map, which radically increases the efficiency of Newton iteration methods. In addition, we introduce a procedure to prescribe Casimirs and remove the degeneracies in the steady vorticity equation, thus ensuring convergence for general vortex configurations. We illustrate our methodology by considering several unbounded flows involving one or two vortices. Our method enables the computation, for the first time, of steady vortices that do not exhibit any geometric symmetry. In addition, we discover that, as the limiting vortex state for each flow is approached, each family of solutions traces a clockwise spiral in a bifurcation plot consisting of a velocity-impulse diagram. By the recently introduced "IVI diagram" stability approach [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 (2010) 044504], each turn of this spiral is associated with a loss of stability for the steady flows. Such spiral structure is suggested to be a universal feature of steady, uniform-vorticity flows.
Numerically stable fluid–structure interactions between compressible flow and solid structures
Grétarsson, Jón Tómas
2011-04-01
We propose a novel method to implicitly two-way couple Eulerian compressible flow to volumetric Lagrangian solids. The method works for both deformable and rigid solids and for arbitrary equations of state. The method exploits the formulation of [11] which solves compressible fluid in a semi-implicit manner, solving for the advection part explicitly and then correcting the intermediate state to time tn+1 using an implicit pressure, obtained by solving a modified Poisson system. Similar to previous fluid-structure interaction methods, we apply pressure forces to the solid and enforce a velocity boundary condition on the fluid in order to satisfy a no-slip constraint. Unlike previous methods, however, we apply these coupled interactions implicitly by adding the constraint to the pressure system and combining it with any implicit solid forces in order to obtain a strongly coupled, symmetric indefinite system (similar to [17], which only handles incompressible flow). We also show that, under a few reasonable assumptions, this system can be made symmetric positive-definite by following the methodology of [16]. Because our method handles the fluid-structure interactions implicitly, we avoid introducing any new time step restrictions and obtain stable results even for high density-to-mass ratios, where explicit methods struggle or fail. We exactly conserve momentum and kinetic energy (thermal fluid-structure interactions are not considered) at the fluid-structure interface, and hence naturally handle highly non-linear phenomenon such as shocks, contacts and rarefactions. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Steady flow rate to a partially penetrating well with seepage face in an unconfined aquifer
Behrooz-Koohenjani, Siavash; Samani, Nozar; Kompani-Zare, Mazda
2011-06-01
The flow rate to fully screened, partially penetrating wells in an unconfined aquifer is numerically simulated using MODFLOW 2000, taking into account the flow from the seepage face and decrease in saturated thickness of the aquifer towards the well. A simple three-step method is developed to find the top of the seepage face and hence the seepage-face length. The method is verified by comparing it with the results of previous predictive methods. The results show that the component of flow through the seepage face can supply a major portion of the total pumping rate. Variations in flow rate as a function of the penetration degree, elevation of the water level in the well and the distance to the far constant head boundary are investigated and expressed in terms of dimensionless curves and equations. These curves and equations can be used to design the degree of penetration for which the allowable steady pumping rate is attained for a given elevation of water level in the well. The designed degree of penetration or flow rate will assure the sustainability of the aquifer storage, and can be used as a management criterion for issuing drilling well permits by groundwater protection authorities.
Shornikov, A; Wolf, A
2014-01-01
We present design and commissioning results of a forced flow cooling system utilizing neon at 30 K. The cryogen is pumped through the system by a room-temperature compression stage. To decouple the cold zone from the compression stage a recuperating counterflow tube-in-tube heat exchanger is used. Commissioning demonstrated successful condensation of neon and transfer of up to 30 W cooling power to the load at 30 K using only 30 g of the cryogen circulating in the system at pressures below 170 kPa.
Central upwind scheme for a compressible two-phase flow model.
Ahmed, Munshoor; Saleem, M Rehan; Zia, Saqib; Qamar, Shamsul
2015-01-01
In this article, a compressible two-phase reduced five-equation flow model is numerically investigated. The model is non-conservative and the governing equations consist of two equations describing the conservation of mass, one for overall momentum and one for total energy. The fifth equation is the energy equation for one of the two phases and it includes source term on the right-hand side which represents the energy exchange between two fluids in the form of mechanical and thermodynamical work. For the numerical approximation of the model a high resolution central upwind scheme is implemented. This is a non-oscillatory upwind biased finite volume scheme which does not require a Riemann solver at each time step. Few numerical case studies of two-phase flows are presented. For validation and comparison, the same model is also solved by using kinetic flux-vector splitting (KFVS) and staggered central schemes. It was found that central upwind scheme produces comparable results to the KFVS scheme.
Central upwind scheme for a compressible two-phase flow model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Munshoor Ahmed
Full Text Available In this article, a compressible two-phase reduced five-equation flow model is numerically investigated. The model is non-conservative and the governing equations consist of two equations describing the conservation of mass, one for overall momentum and one for total energy. The fifth equation is the energy equation for one of the two phases and it includes source term on the right-hand side which represents the energy exchange between two fluids in the form of mechanical and thermodynamical work. For the numerical approximation of the model a high resolution central upwind scheme is implemented. This is a non-oscillatory upwind biased finite volume scheme which does not require a Riemann solver at each time step. Few numerical case studies of two-phase flows are presented. For validation and comparison, the same model is also solved by using kinetic flux-vector splitting (KFVS and staggered central schemes. It was found that central upwind scheme produces comparable results to the KFVS scheme.
Analysis of time integration methods for the compressible two-fluid model for pipe flow simulations
B. Sanderse (Benjamin); I. Eskerud Smith (Ivar); M.H.W. Hendrix (Maurice)
2017-01-01
textabstractIn this paper we analyse different time integration methods for the two-fluid model and propose the BDF2 method as the preferred choice to simulate transient compressible multiphase flow in pipelines. Compared to the prevailing Backward Euler method, the BDF2 scheme has a significantly
Integrated LTCC Pressure/Flow/Temperature Multisensor for Compressed Air Diagnostics†
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolas Craquelin
2010-12-01
Full Text Available We present a multisensor designed for industrial compressed air diagnostics and combining the measurement of pressure, flow, and temperature, integrated with the corresponding signal conditioning electronics in a single low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC package. The developed sensor may be soldered onto an integrated electro-fluidic platform by using standard surface mount device (SMD technology, e.g., as a standard electronic component would be on a printed circuit board, obviating the need for both wires and tubes and thus paving the road towards low-cost integrated electro-fluidic systems. Several performance aspects of this device are presented and discussed, together with electronics design issues.
Integrated LTCC pressure/flow/temperature multisensor for compressed air diagnostics.
Fournier, Yannick; Maeder, Thomas; Boutinard-Rouelle, Grégoire; Barras, Aurélie; Craquelin, Nicolas; Ryser, Peter
2010-01-01
We present a multisensor designed for industrial compressed air diagnostics and combining the measurement of pressure, flow, and temperature, integrated with the corresponding signal conditioning electronics in a single low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) package. The developed sensor may be soldered onto an integrated electro-fluidic platform by using standard surface mount device (SMD) technology, e.g., as a standard electronic component would be on a printed circuit board, obviating the need for both wires and tubes and thus paving the road towards low-cost integrated electro-fluidic systems. Several performance aspects of this device are presented and discussed, together with electronics design issues.
Integrated LTCC Pressure/Flow/Temperature Multisensor for Compressed Air Diagnostics†
Fournier, Yannick; Maeder, Thomas; Boutinard-Rouelle, Grégoire; Barras, Aurélie; Craquelin, Nicolas; Ryser, Peter
2010-01-01
We present a multisensor designed for industrial compressed air diagnostics and combining the measurement of pressure, flow, and temperature, integrated with the corresponding signal conditioning electronics in a single low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) package. The developed sensor may be soldered onto an integrated electro-fluidic platform by using standard surface mount device (SMD) technology, e.g., as a standard electronic component would be on a printed circuit board, obviating the need for both wires and tubes and thus paving the road towards low-cost integrated electro-fluidic systems. Several performance aspects of this device are presented and discussed, together with electronics design issues. PMID:22163518
Koroglu, Batikan; Mehl, Marco; Armstrong, Michael R; Crowhurst, Jonathan C; Weisz, David G; Zaug, Joseph M; Dai, Zurong; Radousky, Harry B; Chernov, Alex; Ramon, Erick; Stavrou, Elissaios; Knight, Kim; Fabris, Andrea L; Cappelli, Mark A; Rose, Timothy P
2017-09-01
We present the development of a steady state plasma flow reactor to investigate gas phase physical and chemical processes that occur at high temperature (1000 flow injector). We have modeled the system using computational fluid dynamics simulations that are bounded by measured temperatures. In situ line-of-sight optical emission and absorption spectroscopy have been used to determine the structures and concentrations of molecules formed during rapid cooling of reactants after they pass through the plasma. Emission spectroscopy also enables us to determine the temperatures at which these dynamic processes occur. A sample collection probe inserted from the open end of the reactor is used to collect condensed materials and analyze them ex situ using electron microscopy. The preliminary results of two separate investigations involving the condensation of metal oxides and chemical kinetics of high-temperature gas reactions are discussed.
Toluene laser-induced fluorescence imaging of compressible flows in an expansion tube
Miller, V. A.; Gamba, M.; Mungal, M. G.; Hanson, R. K.; Mohri, K.; Schulz, C.
2011-11-01
Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging using toluene as a tracer molecule has been developed for high-speed, low-to-moderate enthalpy conditions in the Stanford 6-inch Expansion Tube. The approach is demonstrated on three canonical compressible flow configurations: (i) supersonic flow over a 20° wedge, (ii) around a cylinder, and (iii) a supersonic boundary layer. Under constant-pressure conditions, toluene LIF offers unique sensitivity to temperature and can therefore be used as an accurate thermometry diagnostic for supersonic flows; on the other hand, for variable-pressure flow fields (e.g., flow around a blunt body), toluene LIF imaging is demonstrated to be an effective flow visualization tool. The three configurations selected demonstrate the diagnostic in these two capacities. For all configurations considered in the study, toluene (0.6% by volume) is seeded into a nitrogen freestream at a Mach number ~ 2.2, T ~ 500K, and p ~ 1.5 bar. A frequency-quadrupled pulsed Nd:YAG laser is used to excite the tracer, and the resulting fluorescence is captured by an ICCD camera. Synthetic fluorescence signals from CFD solutions of each case have been computed and compare favorably to measured signals. Sponsored by DoE PSAAP at Stanford University.
Performance Comparison of Sweeping/Steady Jet Actuators
Hirsch, Damian; Mercier, Justin; Noca, Flavio; Gharib, Morteza
2015-11-01
Flow control through the use of steady jet actuators has been used on various aircraft models since the late 1950's. However, the focus of recent studies has shifted towards the use of sweeping jets (fluidic oscillators) rather than steady jet actuators. In this work, experiments using various jet actuator designs were conducted at GALCIT's Lucas Wind Tunnel on a NACA 0012 vertical tail model similar to that of the Boeing 767 vertical stabilizer at Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.5 to 1.2 million. The rudder angle was fixed at 20 degrees. A total of 32 jet actuators were installed along the wingspan perpendicular to the trailing edge and the rudder shoulder of the vertical stabilizer. It is known that these types of flow control prevent separation. However, the goal of this work is to compare different jet designs and evaluate their performance. Parameters such as the number of actuators, their volumetric flow, and the wind tunnel speed were varied. The lift generation capabilities of steady and sweeping jet actuators were then compared. Another set of experiments was conducted to compare a new sweeping jet actuator design with one of the standard versions. Supported by Boeing.
Application of the Green's function method for 2- and 3-dimensional steady transonic flows
Tseng, K.
1984-01-01
A Time-Domain Green's function method for the nonlinear time-dependent three-dimensional aerodynamic potential equation is presented. The Green's theorem is being used to transform the partial differential equation into an integro-differential-delay equation. Finite-element and finite-difference methods are employed for the spatial and time discretizations to approximate the integral equation by a system of differential-delay equations. Solution may be obtained by solving for this nonlinear simultaneous system of equations in time. This paper discusses the application of the method to the Transonic Small Disturbance Equation and numerical results for lifting and nonlifting airfoils and wings in steady flows are presented.
Liakos, Anastasios; Malamataris, Nikolaos
2014-11-01
The topology and evolution of flow around a surface mounted cubical object in three dimensional channel flow is examined for low to moderate Reynolds numbers. Direct numerical simulations were performed via a home made parallel finite element code. The computational domain has been designed according to actual laboratory experimental conditions. Analysis of the results is performed using the three dimensional theory of separation. Our findings indicate that a tornado-like vortex by the side of the cube is present for all Reynolds numbers for which flow was simulated. A horse-shoe vortex upstream from the cube was formed at Reynolds number approximately 1266. Pressure distributions are shown along with three dimensional images of the tornado-like vortex and the horseshoe vortex at selected Reynolds numbers. Finally, and in accordance to previous work, our results indicate that the upper limit for the Reynolds number for which steady state results are physically realizable is roughly 2000. Financial support of author NM from the Office of Naval Research Global (ONRG-VSP, N62909-13-1-V016) is acknowledged.
Neu, C P; Hull, M L
2003-04-01
Recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have shown potential for measuring non-uniform deformations throughout the volume (i.e. three-dimensional (3D) deformations) in small orthopedic tissues such as articular cartilage. However, to analyze cartilage deformation using MRI techniques, a system is required which can construct images from multiple acquisitions of MRI signals from the cartilage in both the underformed and deformed states. The objectives of the work reported in this article were to 1) design an apparatus that could apply highly repeatable cyclic compressive loads of 400 N and operate in the bore of an MRI scanner, 2) demonstrate that the apparatus and MRI scanner can be successfully integrated to observe 3D deformations in a phantom material, 3) use the apparatus to determine the load cycle necessary to achieve a steady-state deformation response in normal bovine articular cartilage samples using a flat-surfaced and nonporous indentor in unconfined compression. Composed of electronic and pneumatic components, the apparatus regulated pressure to a double-acting pneumatic cylinder so that (1) load-controlled compression cycles were applied to cartilage samples immersed in a saline bath, (2) loading and recovery periods within a cycle varied in time duration, and (3) load magnitude varied so that the stress applied to cartilage samples was within typical physiological ranges. In addition the apparatus allowed gating for MR image acquisition, and operation within the bore of an MRI scanner without creating image artifacts. The apparatus demonstrated high repeatability in load application with a standard deviation of 1.8% of the mean 400 N load applied. When the apparatus was integrated with an MRI scanner programmed with appropriate pulse sequences, images of a phantom material in both the underformed and deformed states were constructed by assembling data acquired through multiple signal acquisitions. Additionally, the number of cycles to reach
Gao, Ying; Lin, Qingyang; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin J.
2017-12-01
We imaged the steady state flow of brine and decane in Bentheimer sandstone. We devised an experimental method based on differential imaging to examine how flow rate impacts impact the pore-scale distribution of fluids during coinjection. This allows us to elucidate flow regimes (connected, or breakup of the nonwetting phase pathways) for a range of fractional flows at two capillary numbers, Ca, namely 3.0 × 10-7 and 7.5 × 10-6. At the lower Ca, for a fixed fractional flow, the two phases appear to flow in connected unchanging subnetworks of the pore space, consistent with conventional theory. At the higher Ca, we observed that a significant fraction of the pore space contained sometimes oil and sometimes brine during the 1 h scan: this intermittent occupancy, which was interpreted as regions of the pore space that contained both fluid phases for some time, is necessary to explain the flow and dynamic connectivity of the oil phase; pathways of always oil-filled portions of the void space did not span the core. This phase was segmented from the differential image between the 30 wt % KI brine image and the scans taken at each fractional flow. Using the grey scale histogram distribution of the raw images, the oil proportion in the intermittent phase was calculated. The pressure drops at each fractional flow at low and high flow rates were measured by high-precision differential pressure sensors. The relative permeabilities and fractional flow obtained by our experiment at the mm-scale compare well with data from the literature on cm-scale samples.
Low-pressure sequential compression of lower limbs enhances forearm skin blood flow.
Amah, Guy; Voicu, Sebastian; Bonnin, Philippe; Kubis, Nathalie
2016-12-01
We investigated whether forearm skin blood flow could be improved when a multilayer pulsatile inflatable suit was applied at a low pressure to the lower limbs and abdomen. We hypothesized that a non-invasive purely mechanical stimulation of the lower limbs could induce remote forearm blood flow modifications. The pulsatile suit induced a sequential compartmentalized low compression (65 mmHg), which was synchronized with each diastole of the cardiac cycle with each phase evolving centripetally (lower limbs to abdomen). Modifications of the forearm skin blood flow were continuously recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) at baseline and during the pulsatile suit application. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilations of the forearm skin microcirculation were measured by LDF in response to a local transdermal iontophoretic application of acetylcholine (ACh-test) and to hyperthermia (hyperT- test). Twenty-four healthy volunteers, 12 men and 12 women (43±14 years) were included in the study. LDF responses increased 1) under pulsatile suit (97±106%, p.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guoqiang Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Effect of anisotropy in compression is studied on hot rolling of AZ31 magnesium alloy with a three-dimensional constitutive model based on the quadratic Hill48 yield criterion and nonassociated flow rule (non-AFR. The constitutive model is characterized by compressive tests of AZ31 billets since plastic deformations of materials are mostly caused by compression during rolling processes. The characterized plasticity model is implemented into ABAQUS/Explicit as a user-defined material subroutine (VUMAT based on semi-implicit backward Euler's method. The subroutine is employed to simulate square-bar rolling processes. The simulation results are compared with rolled specimens and those predicted by the von Mises and the Hill48 yield function under AFR. Moreover, strip rolling is also simulated for AZ31 with the Hill48 yield function under non-AFR. The strip rolling simulation demonstrates that the lateral spread generated by the non-AFR model is in good agreement with experimental data. These comparisons between simulation and experiments validate that the proposed Hill48 yield function under non-AFR provides satisfactory description of plastic deformation behavior in hot rolling for AZ31 alloys in case that the anisotropic parameters in the Hill48 yield function and the non-associated flow rule are calibrated by the compressive experimental results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adar, E.M.; Kuells, C.
2002-01-01
The following MIG computer code is restricted to a steady flow and steady hydrochemical system. The code for a non-steady hydrological system is still heavily dependant on external optimization libraries, such as the NAG Library. Therefore, a stand-alone 'friendly' code or solver for the non-steady system has yet to be compiled. Readers looking to implement the mixing-cell approach in a non-steady hydrological flow system are encouraged to contact the authors. In order to simplify the procedure of preparing the data and running the Mixing-Cell Model for steady flow system (MCMsf), a special Mixing Input Generator (MIG) has been programmed. MIG is a Visual Basic Microsoft application that runs within Excel 5.0 (and with more advanced versions such as Office 2000) via Windows 95 or newer environment. The program has been tested and used successfully in Windows NT, Windows 95 and Windows 98 together with Excel 5.0, 7.0 and 2000. The development of the standalone Version MIGSA that will run on a Windows system without Microsoft Excel is under development. Section 1 provides some clarifications of terms that are used both in MCMsf and MIG, whereas Section 2 briefly reviews the mathematical algorithm. For elaboration of the basic assumptions and for further mathematical description, the user is referred to the explanations provided in the Model Simplification and to the references provided in this publication
Marenduzzo, D; Orlandini, E; Cates, M E; Yeomans, J M
2007-09-01
We report hybrid lattice Boltzmann (HLB) simulations of the hydrodynamics of an active nematic liquid crystal sandwiched between confining walls with various anchoring conditions. We confirm the existence of a transition between a passive phase and an active phase, in which there is spontaneous flow in the steady state. This transition is attained for sufficiently "extensile" rods, in the case of flow-aligning liquid crystals, and for sufficiently "contractile" ones for flow-tumbling materials. In a quasi-one-dimensional geometry, deep in the active phase of flow-aligning materials, our simulations give evidence of hysteresis and history-dependent steady states, as well as of spontaneous banded flow. Flow-tumbling materials, in contrast, rearrange themselves so that only the two boundary layers flow in steady state. Two-dimensional simulations, with periodic boundary conditions, show additional instabilities, with the spontaneous flow appearing as patterns made up of "convection rolls." These results demonstrate a remarkable richness (including dependence on anchoring conditions) in the steady-state phase behavior of active materials, even in the absence of external forcing; they have no counterpart for passive nematics. Our HLB methodology, which combines lattice Boltzmann for momentum transport with a finite difference scheme for the order parameter dynamics, offers a robust and efficient method for probing the complex hydrodynamic behavior of active nematics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szenknect, St.
2003-10-01
This work is devoted to the quantification and the identification of the predominant processes involved in strontium and caesium transport in unsaturated soil from Chernobyl Pilot Site under steady flow conditions. The transport and fate of radionuclides in the subsurface is affected by various physical and chemical processes including advective and diffusive transport as well as chemical and biological transformations. Laboratory experiments and the use of a multiple tracer approach allow to isolate the contributions of each elementary process and to control the physico-chemical conditions in the system. To be more representative of the field conditions, we decided to perform column miscible displacement experiments. We perform batch and flow-through reactor experiments to characterize the radionuclides sorption mechanisms. Miscible displacement experiments within homogeneous columns and modeling allow to characterize the hydrodynamic properties of the soil and to describe the radionuclides behaviour under dynamic conditions at different water contents. We show that the water content of porous media affect the transport behaviour of inert and strongly sorbing radionuclides. Our results demonstrate that a parametrized transport model that was calibrated under completely saturated conditions was not able to describe the advective-dispersive transport of reactive solutes under unsaturated steady state conditions. Under our experimental conditions, there is no effect of a decrease of the mean water content on the sorption model parameters, but the transport parameters are modified. We established for the studied soil the relation between hydrodynamic dispersion and water content and the relation between pore water velocity and water content. (author)
Steady electric fields and currents elementary electromagnetic theory
Chirgwin, B H; Kilmister, C W
2013-01-01
Steady Electric Fields and Currents, Volume 1 is an introductory text to electromagnetism and potential theory. This book starts with the fields associated with stationary charges and unravels the stationary condition to allow consideration of the flow of steady currents in closed circuits. The opening chapter discusses the experimental results that require mathematical explanation and discussion, particularly those referring to phenomena that question the validity of the simple Newtonian concepts of space and time. The subsequent chapters consider steady-state fields, electrostatics, dielectr
Delamination of Compressed Thin Layers at Corners
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Kim D.; Jensen, Henrik Myhre; Clausen, Johan
2008-01-01
An analysis of delamination for a thin elastic layer under compression, attached to a substrate at a corner is carried out. The analysis is performed by combining results from interface fracture mechanics and the theory of thin shells. In contrast with earlier results for delamination on a flat s...... layers, Fracture mechanics, Crack closure, Steady state crack propagation.......An analysis of delamination for a thin elastic layer under compression, attached to a substrate at a corner is carried out. The analysis is performed by combining results from interface fracture mechanics and the theory of thin shells. In contrast with earlier results for delamination on a flat...... results for the fracture mechanical properties have been obtained, and these are applied in a study of the effect of contacting crack faces. Special attention has been given to analyse conditions under which steady state propagation of buckling driven delamination takes place. Keywords: Delamination, Thin...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N.
2007-01-01
This is the first numerical simulation demonstrating that a macromagnetohydrodynamic (macro-MHD) mode is excited as a result of multi-scale interaction in a quasi-steady equilibrium formed by a balance between microturbulence and zonal flow based on a reduced two-fluid model. This simulation of a macro-MHD mode, a double tearing mode, is accomplished in a reversed shear equilibrium that includes zonal flow and turbulence due to kinetic ballooning modes. In the quasi-steady equilibrium, a macroscale fluctuation that has the same helicity as the double tearing mode is a part of the turbulence. After a certain period of time, the macro-MHD mode begins to grow. It effectively utilizes free energy of the equilibrium current density gradient and is destabilized by a positive feedback loop between zonal flow suppression and magnetic island growth. Thus, once the macro-MHD appears from the quasi-equilibrium, it continues to grow steadily. This simulation is more comparable with experimental observations of growing macro-MHD activity than earlier MHD simulations starting from linear macroinstabilities in a static equilibrium
Growth-direction dependence of steady-state Saffman-Taylor flow in an anisotropic Hele-Shaw cell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCloud, K.V.; Maher, J.V.
1996-01-01
Selection of steady-state fingers has been measured in a Hele-Shaw cell perturbed by having a square lattice etched onto one of the plates. Flows at different orientations θ between the direction of flow and the lattice axes have been studied, in a wide range of observable tip velocities where the perturbation was made microscopic in the sense that the capillary length of the flow was much greater than the etched lattice cell size. The full range of dynamically interesting angles for the square lattice was examined, and above a threshold, the microscopic perturbation always results in wider fingers than are selected in the unperturbed case. There is some dependence of the width of the fingers on the orientation of the flow, with fingers at θ=0 degree being the widest with respect to the unperturbed fingers, and fingers at 45 degree being the least wide, although still wider than the unperturbed fingers. All observed solutions are symmetric, centered in the channel, and have the relation between tip-curvature and finger width expected of members of the Saffman-Taylor family of solutions. Selected solutions narrow again at tip velocities where the perturbation can no longer be considered microscopic. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Experimental investigations of the steady flow through an idealized model of a femoral artery bypass
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giurgea Corina
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The present paper presents the steps taken by the authors in the first stage of an experimental program within a larger national research project whose objective is to characterize the flow through a femoral artery bypass with a view to finding solutions for its optimization. The objective of the stage is to investigate by means of the PIV method the stationary flow through a bypass model with an idealized geometry. A bypass assembly which reunites the idealized geometry models of the proximal and distal anastomoses, and which respects the lengths of a femoral artery bypass was constructed on the basis of data for a real patient provided by medical investigations. With the aim of testing the model and the established experimental set-up with regard to their suitability for the assessment of the velocity field associated to the steady flow through the bypass, three zones that can restore the whole distal anastomosis were PIV investigated. The measurements were taken in the conditions of maintained inflow at the bypass entry of 0.9 l / min (Re = 600. The article presents comparatively the flow spectra and the velocity fields for each zone obtained in two situations: with the femoral artery completely occluded and completely open.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erden, Ayse; Yurdakul, Mehmet; Cumhur, Turhan
1999-01-01
Symptoms of chronic mesenteric ischemia develop when the celiac artery is constricted by the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm. Lateral aortography is the primary modality for diagnosing ligamentous compression of the celiac artery. However, duplex Doppler sonography performed during deep expiration can cause a marked increase in flow velocities at the compressed region of the celiac artery and suggest the diagnosis of celiac arterial constriction due to the diaphragmatic ligament. RID='''' ID='''' Correspondence to: A. Erden, M.D., Hafta sokak. 23/6, Gaziosmanpasa, 06700 Ankara, Turkey
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam B. Sefkow
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Large-space-scale and long-time-scale plasma flow simulations are executed in order to study the spatial and temporal evolution of plasma parameters for two types of plasma sources used in the neutralized drift compression experiment (NDCX. The results help assess the charge neutralization conditions for ion beam compression experiments and can be employed in more sophisticated simulations, which previously neglected the dynamical evolution of the plasma. Three-dimensional simulations of a filtered cathodic-arc plasma source show the coupling efficiency of the plasma flow from the source to the drift region depends on geometrical factors. The nonuniform magnetic topology complicates the well-known general analytical considerations for evaluating guiding-center drifts, and particle-in-cell simulations provide a self-consistent evaluation of the physics in an otherwise challenging scenario. Plasma flow profiles of a ferroelectric plasma source demonstrate that the densities required for longitudinal compression experiments involving ion beams are provided over the drift length, and are in good agreement with measurements. Simulations involving azimuthally asymmetric plasma creation conditions show that symmetric profiles are nevertheless achieved at the time of peak on-axis plasma density. Also, the ferroelectric plasma expands upstream on the thermal expansion time scale, and therefore avoids the possibility of penetration into the acceleration gap and transport sections, where partial neutralization would increase the beam emittance. Future experiments on NDCX will investigate the transverse focusing of an axially compressing intense charge bunch to a sub-mm spot size with coincident focal planes using a strong final-focus solenoid. In order to fill a multi-tesla solenoid with the necessary high-density plasma for beam charge neutralization, the simulations predict that supersonically injected plasma from the low-field region will penetrate and
Zheng, H. W.; Shu, C.; Chew, Y. T.
2008-07-01
In this paper, an object-oriented and quadrilateral-mesh based solution adaptive algorithm for the simulation of compressible multi-fluid flows is presented. The HLLC scheme (Harten, Lax and van Leer approximate Riemann solver with the Contact wave restored) is extended to adaptively solve the compressible multi-fluid flows under complex geometry on unstructured mesh. It is also extended to the second-order of accuracy by using MUSCL extrapolation. The node, edge and cell are arranged in such an object-oriented manner that each of them inherits from a basic object. A home-made double link list is designed to manage these objects so that the inserting of new objects and removing of the existing objects (nodes, edges and cells) are independent of the number of objects and only of the complexity of O( 1). In addition, the cells with different levels are further stored in different lists. This avoids the recursive calculation of solution of mother (non-leaf) cells. Thus, high efficiency is obtained due to these features. Besides, as compared to other cell-edge adaptive methods, the separation of nodes would reduce the memory requirement of redundant nodes, especially in the cases where the level number is large or the space dimension is three. Five two-dimensional examples are used to examine its performance. These examples include vortex evolution problem, interface only problem under structured mesh and unstructured mesh, bubble explosion under the water, bubble-shock interaction, and shock-interface interaction inside the cylindrical vessel. Numerical results indicate that there is no oscillation of pressure and velocity across the interface and it is feasible to apply it to solve compressible multi-fluid flows with large density ratio (1000) and strong shock wave (the pressure ratio is 10,000) interaction with the interface.
Analysis of a discrete element method and coupling with a compressible fluid flow method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monasse, L.
2011-01-01
This work aims at the numerical simulation of compressible fluid/deformable structure interactions. In particular, we have developed a partitioned coupling algorithm between a Finite Volume method for the compressible fluid and a Discrete Element method capable of taking into account fractures in the solid. A survey of existing fictitious domain methods and partitioned algorithms has led to choose an Embedded Boundary method and an explicit coupling scheme. We first showed that the Discrete Element method used for the solid yielded the correct macroscopic behaviour and that the symplectic time-integration scheme ensured the preservation of energy. We then developed an explicit coupling algorithm between a compressible inviscid fluid and an un-deformable solid. Mass, momentum and energy conservation and consistency properties were proved for the coupling scheme. The algorithm was then extended to the coupling with a deformable solid, in the form of a semi implicit scheme. Finally, we applied this method to unsteady inviscid flows around moving structures: comparisons with existing numerical and experimental results demonstrate the excellent accuracy of our method. (author) [fr
Si, Ting; Yin, Chuansheng; Gao, Peng; Li, Guangbin; Ding, Hang; He, Xiaoming; Xie, Bin; Xu, Ronald X.
2016-01-01
A compound-fluidic electro-flow focusing (CEFF) process is proposed to produce multicompartment microcapsules. The central device mainly consists of a needle assembly of two parallel inner needles and one outer needle mounted in a gas chamber with their tips facing a small orifice at the bottom of the chamber. As the outer and the inner fluids flow through the needle assembly, a high-speed gas stream elongates the liquid menisci in the vicinity of the orifice entrance. An electric field is further integrated into capillary flow focusing to promote the formation of steady cone-jet mode in a wide range of operation parameters. The multiphase liquid jet is broken up into droplets due to perturbation propagation along the jet surface. To estimate the diameter of the multiphase liquid jet as a function of process parameters, a modified scaling law is derived and experimentally validated. Microcapsules of around 100 μm with an alginate shell and multiple cores at a production rate of 103-105 per second are produced. Technical feasibility of stimulation triggered coalescence and drug release is demonstrated by benchtop experiments. The proposed CEFF process can be potentially used to encapsulate therapeutic agents and biological cargos for controlled micro-reaction and drug delivery.
The flow behavior and constitutive equation in isothermal compression of FGH4096-GH4133B dual alloy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Yanhui; Yao, Zekun; Ning, Yongquan; Nan, Yang; Guo, Hongzhen; Qin, Chun; Shi, Zhifeng
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Hot compression behaviors of the FGH4096-GH4133B dual alloy were investigated. • Constitutive equation also represented deformation behavior of a dual alloy. • The effects of deformation activation energy on the microstructures were discussed. • Constitutive equation represented an accurate and precise estimate of flow stress. - Abstract: The electron beam welding of superalloy FGH4096 and GH4133B was conducted, and the cylindrical compression specimens were machined from the central part of the electron beam weldments. Isothermal compression tests were carried out on electron beam weldments FGH4096-GH4133B alloy at the temperatures of 1020–11140 °C (the nominal γ′-transus temperature is about 1080 °C) and the strain rates of 0.001–1.0 s −1 with the height reduction of 50%. True stress–true strain curves are sensitive to the deformation temperature and strain rate, and the flow stress decreases with the increasing deformation temperature and the decreasing strain rate. The true stress–true strain curves can indicate the intrinsic relationship between the flow stress and the thermal-dynamic behavior. The apparent activation energy of deformation at the strain of 0.6 was calculated to be 550 kJ/mol, and the apparent activation energy has a great effect on the microstructure. The constitutive equation that describes the flow stress as a function of strain rate and deformation temperature was proposed for modeling the hot deformation process of FGH4096-GH4133B electron beam weldments. The constitutive equation at the strain of 0.6 was established using the hyperbolic law. The relationship between the strain and the values of parameters was studied, and the cubic functions were built. The constitutive equation during the whole process can be obtained based on the parameters under different strains. Comparing the experimental flow stress and the calculated flow stress, the constitutive equation obtained in this paper can be very good
Steady state flow analysis of two-phase natural circulation in multiple parallel channel loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhusare, V.H.; Bagul, R.K.; Joshi, J.B.; Nayak, A.K.; Kannan, Umasankari; Pilkhwal, D.S.; Vijayan, P.K.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Liquid circulation velocity increases with increasing superficial gas velocity. • Total two-phase pressure drop decreases with increasing superficial gas velocity. • Channels with larger driving force have maximum circulation velocities. • Good agreement between experimental and model predictions. - Abstract: In this work, steady state flow analysis has been carried out experimentally in order to estimate the liquid circulation velocities and two-phase pressure drop in air–water multichannel circulating loop. Experiments were performed in 15 channel circulating loop. Single phase and two-phase pressure drops in the channels have been measured experimentally and have been compared with theoretical model of Joshi et al. (1990). Experimental measurements show good agreement with model.
NASA Lewis steady-state heat pipe code users manual
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tower, L.K.
1992-06-01
The NASA Lewis heat pipe code has been developed to predict the performance of heat pipes in the steady state. The code can be used as a design tool on a personal computer or, with a suitable calling routine, as a subroutine for a mainframe radiator code. A variety of wick structures, including a user input option, can be used. Heat pipes with multiple evaporators, condensers, and adiabatic sections in series and with wick structures that differ among sections can be modeled. Several working fluids can be chosen, including potassium, sodium, and lithium, for which the monomer-dimer equilibrium is considered. The code incorporates a vapor flow algorithm that treats compressibility and axially varying heat input. This code facilitates the determination of heat pipe operating temperatures and heat pipe limits that may be encountered at the specified heat input and environment temperature. Data are input to the computer through a user-interactive input subroutine. Output, such as liquid and vapor pressures and temperatures, is printed at equally spaced axial positions along the pipe as determined by the user
Richards, Jennifer C; Crecelius, Anne R; Kirby, Brett S; Larson, Dennis G; Dinenno, Frank A
2012-06-01
We tested the hypothesis that, among conditions of matched contractile work, shorter contraction durations and greater muscle fibre recruitment result in augmented skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen consumption ( ) during steady-state exercise in humans. To do so, we measured forearm blood flow (FBF; Doppler ultrasound) during 4 min of rhythmic hand-grip exercise in 24 healthy young adults and calculated forearm oxygen consumption ( ) via blood samples obtained from a catheter placed in retrograde fashion into a deep vein draining the forearm muscle. In protocol 1 (n = 11), subjects performed rhythmic isometric hand-grip exercise at mild and moderate intensities during conditions in which time-tension index (isometric analogue of work) was held constant but contraction duration was manipulated. In this protocol, shorter contraction durations led to greater FBF (184 ± 25 versus 164 ± 25 ml min(-1)) and (23 ± 3 versus 17 ± 2 ml min(-1); both P flow. Our collective data indicate that, among matched workloads, shorter contraction duration and greater muscle fibre recruitment augment FBF and during mild-intensity forearm exercise, and that muscle blood flow is more closely related to metabolic cost ( ) rather than contractile work per se during steady-state exercise in humans.
Multigrid and defect correction for the steady Navier-Stokes equations : application to aerodynamics
Koren, B.
1991-01-01
Theoretical and expcrimental convergence results are presented for nonlinear multigrid and iterative defect correction applied to finite volume discretizations of the full, steady, 2D, compressible NavierStokes equations. lterative defect correction is introduced for circumventing the difficulty in
AULISA, EUGENIO
2009-08-01
Motivated by the reservoir engineering concept of the well Productivity Index, we introduced and analyzed a functional, denoted as "diffusive capacity", for the solution of the initial-boundary value problem (IBVP) for a linear parabolic equation.21 This IBVP described laminar (linear) Darcy flow in porous media; the considered boundary conditions corresponded to different regimes of the well production. The diffusive capacities were then computed as steady state invariants of the solutions to the corresponding time-dependent boundary value problem. Here similar features for fast or turbulent nonlinear flows subjected to the Forchheimer equations are analyzed. It is shown that under some hydrodynamic and thermodynamic constraints, there exists a so-called pseudo steady state regime for the Forchheimer flows in porous media. In other words, under some assumptions there exists a steady state invariant over a certain class of solutions to the transient IBVP modeling the Forchheimer flow for slightly compressible fluid. This invariant is the diffusive capacity, which serves as the mathematical representation of the so-called well Productivity Index. The obtained results enable computation of the well Productivity Index by resolving a single steady state boundary value problem for a second-order quasilinear elliptic equation. Analytical and numerical studies highlight some new relations for the well Productivity Index in linear and nonlinear cases. The obtained analytical formulas can be potentially used for the numerical well block model as an analog of Piecemann. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing Company.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Punčochářová-Pořízková, P.; Kozel, K.; Horáček, Jaromír
2011-01-01
Roč. 46, č. 1 (2011), s. 404-410 ISSN 0045-7930 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : finite volume method * unsteady flow * low Mach number * viscous compressible fluid Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.810, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045793010003439
Surface wave propagation in steady ideal Hall-magnetohydrodynamic magnetic slabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miteva, Rossitsa; Zhelyazkov, Ivan; Erdelyi, Robert
2003-01-01
This paper studies the dispersion characteristics of sausage and kink surface waves traveling along a plasma layer within the framework of Hall magnetohydrodynamics in steady state. While in a static plasma slab these waves are Alfven ones (their phase velocities are close to the Alfven speed in the layer); in a slab with steady flows they may become super Alfvenic waves. Moreover, there exist two types of waves: forward and backward ones bearing in mind that the flow velocity defines the positive (forward) direction. As a typical representative of a magnetic slab in steady state here is considered a solar wind flux rope with a finite β plasma flow (typically β∼1).The forward sausage surface mode exhibits an increased dispersion at small wave numbers while the forward kink waves become practically non-dispersive. Both backward propagating sausage and kink surface modes show an increased dispersion for large wave numbers
Chlorine decay under steady and unsteady-state hydraulic conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stoianov, Ivan; Aisopou, Angeliki
2014-01-01
This paper describes a simulation framework for the scale-adaptive hydraulic and chlorine decay modelling under steady and unsteady-state flows. Bulk flow and pipe wall reaction coefficients are replaced with steady and unsteady-state reaction coefficients. An unsteady decay coefficient is defined...... which depends upon the absolute value of shear stress and the rate of change of shear stress for quasi-unsteady and unsteady-state flows. A preliminary experimental and analytical investigation was carried out in a water transmission main. The results were used to model monochloramine decay...... and these demonstrate that the dynamic hydraulic conditions have a significant impact on water quality deterioration and the rapid loss of disinfectant residual. © 2013 The Authors....
Compressed beam directed particle nuclear energy generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salisbury, W.W.
1985-01-01
This invention relates to the generation of energy from the fusion of atomic nuclei which are caused to travel towards each other along collision courses, orbiting in common paths having common axes and equal radii. High velocity fusible ion beams are directed along head-on circumferential collision paths in an annular zone wherein beam compression by electrostatic focusing greatly enhances head-on fusion-producing collisions. In one embodiment, a steady radial electric field is imposed on the beams to compress the beams and reduce the radius of the spiral paths for enhancing the particle density. Beam compression is achieved through electrostatic focusing to establish and maintain two opposing beams in a reaction zone
Steady and unsteady experimental analysis of a turbocharger for automotive applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bontempo, R.; Cardone, M.; Manna, M.; Vorraro, G.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Steady and unsteady characteristics of a turbocharger are analysed by experimental means. • The steady state characteristic maps are obtained for both the compressor and the turbine. • The validity of the classical adiabatic assumption is questioned. • The compressor efficiency evaluated through the adiabatic assumption may lead to a 5–10% relative error. • The mild and deep compressor surge phenomena have been experimentally investigated. - Abstract: The paper describes the steady and unsteady performance characteristics of a small size turbocharger typically employed in automotive downsized engine applications. The analysis is carried out by experimental means using an innovative hot gas generator system specifically designed for turbocharger testing which is capable of delivering a wide range of flow rates with adequate thermodynamic characteristics. More in detail, the gas generator consists of a medium size direct injection compression ignition Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) feeding the turbine of the test article. To independently set the hot gas mass flow rate and the turbine inlet temperature, the operating parameters of the aforementioned ICE are specified through an electronic control unit in a fully automated manner. Compared to previously presented data [1] (Energy Procedia, vol. 45, pp 1116-1125, 2014), those reported herein have been collected with the help of newly installed equipment and controlling software allowing for the estimation of the thermal power transferred from the turbocharger to the environment. In particular, thanks to a first law analysis, the collected measurements have shown that the algebraic sum of the thermal power transferred to the lubricating oil as well as to the environment is roughly speaking 20–30% of the compressor total enthalpy change per unit time. Moreover, it has been shown that evaluating the compressor efficiency through classical expression based on the adiabatic assumption leads to
The dynamics of pulse compression in synchronously pumped fiber Raman lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Band, Y.B.; Ackerhalt, J.R.; Heller, D.F.
1990-01-01
Dynamical equations describing the amplification and propagation of an initial Stokes seed pulse in a synchronously pumped fiber Raman laser configuration are formulated and analytic solutions are derived. A train of Stokes shifted pulses are produced, whose individual characteristics eventually evolve on successive round-trips through the fiber into subpicosecond pulses having constant fluence and decreasing temporal duration. Raman pulse compression stops when it is counterbalanced by the effects of group velocity dispersion and phase modulation in the normal dispersion regime. Pulse breakup due to soliton formation can occur in the anomalous dispersion regime. Simple expressions for the rate of pulse compression, steady-state pulse fluence, and for the minimum steady-state pulse duration are obtained
Chemically reacting flow of a compressible thermally radiating two-component plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bestman, A.R.
1990-12-01
The paper studies the compressible flow of a hot two-component plasma in the presence of gravitation and chemical reaction in a vertical channel. For the optically thick gas approximation, closed form analytical solutions are possible. Asymptotic solutions are also obtained for the general differential approximation when the temperature of the two bounding walls are the same. In the general case the problem is reduced to the solution of standard nonlinear integral equations which can be tackled by iterative procedure. The results are discussed quantitatively. The problem may be applicable to the understanding of explosive hydrogen-burning model of solar flares. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhiyin Yang
2014-12-01
Full Text Available A complex flow field is created when a vertical/short take-off and landing aircraft is operating near ground. One major concern for this kind of aircraft in ground effect is the possibility of ingestion of hot gases from the jet engine exhausts back into the engine, known as hot gas ingestion, which can increase the intake air temperature and also reduce the oxygen content in the intake air, potentially leading to compressor stall, low combustion efficiency and causing a dramatic loss of lift. This flow field can be represented by the configuration of twin impinging jets in a cross-flow. Accurate prediction of this complicated flow field under the Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS approach (current practise in industry is a great challenge as previous studies suggest that some important flow features cannot be captured by the Steady-RANS (SRANS approach even with a second-order Reynolds stress model (RSM. This paper presents a numerical study of this flow using the Unsteady-RANS (URANS approach with a RSM and the results clearly indicate that the URANS approach is superior than the SRANS approach but still the predictions of Reynolds stress are not accurate enough.
Zonal structure of unbounded external-flow and aerodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, L Q; Kang, L L; Wu, J Z, E-mail: lqliu@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Turbulence and Complex System, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2017-08-15
This paper starts from the far-field behaviors of velocity field in externally unbounded flow. We find that the well-known algebraic decay of disturbance velocity as derived kinematically is too conservative. Once the kinetics are taken into account by working on the fundamental solutions of far-field linearized Navier–Stokes equations, it is proven that the furthest far-field zone adjacent to the uniform fluid at infinity must be unsteady, viscous and compressible, where all disturbances degenerate to sound waves that decay exponentially. But this optimal rate does not exist in some commonly used simplified flow models, such as steady flow, incompressible flow and inviscid flow, because they actually work in true subspaces of the unbounded free space, which are surrounded by further far fields of different nature. This finding naturally leads to a zonal structure of externally unbounded flow field. The significance of the zonal structure is demonstrated by its close relevance to existing theories of aerodynamic force and moment in external flows, including the removal of the difficulties or paradoxes inherent in the simplified models. (paper)
Transient and steady state creep response of ice I and magnesium sulfate hydrate eutectic aggregates
McCarthy, C.; Cooper, R.F.; Goldsby, D.L.; Durham, W.B.; Kirby, S.H.
2011-01-01
Using uniaxial compression creep experiments, we characterized the transient and steady state deformation behaviors of eutectic aggregates of system ice I and MgSO4 11H2O (MS11; meridianiite), which has significance because of its likely presence on moons of the outer solar system. Synthetic samples of eutectic liquid bulk composition, which produce eutectic colonies containing 0.35-0.50 volume fraction MS11, were tested as functions of colony size and lamellar spacing, temperature (230-250 K), and confining pressure (0.1 and 50 MPa) to strains ???0.2. Up to a differential stress of 6 MPa, the ice I-MS11 aggregates display an order of magnitude higher effective viscosity and higher stress sensitivity than do aggregates of pure polycrystalline ice at the same conditions. The creep data and associated microstructural observations demonstrate, however, that the aggregates are additionally more brittle than pure ice, approaching rate-independent plasticity that includes rupture of the hydrate phase at 6-8 MPa, depending on the scale of the microstructure. Microstructures of deformed samples reveal forms of semibrittle flow in which the hydrate phase fractures while the ice phase deforms plastically. Semibrittle flow in the icy shell of a planetary body would truncate the lithospheric strength envelope and thereby decrease the depth to the brittle-ductile transition by 55% and reduce the failure limit for compressional surface features from 10 to ???6 MPa. A constitutive equation that includes eutectic colony boundary sliding and intracolony flow is used to describe the steady state rheology of the eutectic aggregates. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
Application of a finite element method to the calculation of compressible subsonic flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montagne, J.L.
1980-01-01
The accidental transients in nuclear reactors requires two-phase flow calculation in complicated geometries. In the present case, the flow has been limited to the study of an homogeneous bidimensional flow model. One obtains equations analogous to those for compressible gas. The two-phase nature leads to sudden variations of specific mass as a function of pressure and enthalpy. In practice, the flows are in a transport regime, this is why one has sought a stable discretization scheme for the hyperbolic system of Euler equations. In order to take into account the thermal phenomena, the natural variables were kept, flow rate, pressure enthalpy and the equations were used in their conservative form. A Galerkin method was used to solve the momentum conservation equation. The space to which the flow rates belong is submitted to a matching condition, the normal component of these vectors is continuous at the boundary between elements. The pressures, enthalpy specific mass, in contrast, are discontinuous between two elements. Correspondences must be established between these two type of discretization. The program set into operation uses a discretization of lowest order, and has been conceived for processing time steps conditioned only by the flow speed. It has been tested in two cases where the thermal phenomena are important: cool liquid introduced in vapor, and heating along a plate [fr
Blomberg, Hans; Gedeborg, Rolf; Berglund, Lars; Karlsten, Rolf; Johansson, Jakob
2011-10-01
Mechanical chest compression devices are being implemented as an aid in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), despite lack of evidence of improved outcome. This manikin study evaluates the CPR-performance of ambulance crews, who had a mechanical chest compression device implemented in their routine clinical practice 8 months previously. The objectives were to evaluate time to first defibrillation, no-flow time, and estimate the quality of compressions. The performance of 21 ambulance crews (ambulance nurse and emergency medical technician) with the authorization to perform advanced life support was studied in an experimental, randomized cross-over study in a manikin setup. Each crew performed two identical CPR scenarios, with and without the aid of the mechanical compression device LUCAS. A computerized manikin was used for data sampling. There were no substantial differences in time to first defibrillation or no-flow time until first defibrillation. However, the fraction of adequate compressions in relation to total compressions was remarkably low in LUCAS-CPR (58%) compared to manual CPR (88%) (95% confidence interval for the difference: 13-50%). Only 12 out of the 21 ambulance crews (57%) applied the mandatory stabilization strap on the LUCAS device. The use of a mechanical compression aid was not associated with substantial differences in time to first defibrillation or no-flow time in the early phase of CPR. However, constant but poor chest compressions due to failure in recognizing and correcting a malposition of the device may counteract a potential benefit of mechanical chest compressions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Level-set based framework for viscous simulation of particle-laden supersonic flows
Das, Pratik; Sen, Oishik; Jacobs, Gustaaf; Udaykumar, H. S.
2017-06-01
Particle-laden supersonic flows are important in natural and industrial processes, such as, volcanic eruptions, explosions, pneumatic conveyance of particle in material processing etc. Numerical study of such high-speed particle laden flows at the mesoscale calls for a numerical framework which allows simulation of supersonic flow around multiple moving solid objects. Only a few efforts have been made toward development of numerical frameworks for viscous simulation of particle-fluid interaction in supersonic flow regime. The current work presents a Cartesian grid based sharp-interface method for viscous simulations of interaction between supersonic flow with moving rigid particles. The no-slip boundary condition is imposed at the solid-fluid interfaces using a modified ghost fluid method (GFM). The current method is validated against the similarity solution of compressible boundary layer over flat-plate and benchmark numerical solution for steady supersonic flow over cylinder. Further validation is carried out against benchmark numerical results for shock induced lift-off of a cylinder in a shock tube. 3D simulation of steady supersonic flow over sphere is performed to compare the numerically obtained drag co-efficient with experimental results. A particle-resolved viscous simulation of shock interaction with a cloud of particles is performed to demonstrate that the current method is suitable for large-scale particle resolved simulations of particle-laden supersonic flows.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Encina Llamas, Gerard; Epp, Bastian; Dau, Torsten
The healthy auditory system shows a compressive input/output (I/O) function as a result of healthy outer-hair cell function. Hearing impairment often leads to a decrease in sensitivity and a reduction of compression, mainly caused by loss of inner and/or outer hair cells. Compression is commonly...... (DPOAEs) recordings. Results show compressive ASSR I/O functions for NH subjects. For HI subjects, ASSR reveal the loss of sensitivity at low stimulus levels. Growth slopes are smaller (more compressive) in ASSR than in DPOAE I/O functions....
Transient flow characteristics of a high speed rotary valve
Browning, Patrick H.
were experimentally mapped as a function of valve speed, inter-cylinder pressure ratios and volume ratios and the results were compared to compressible flow theoretical models. Specifically, the transient behavior suggested a short-lived loss-mode initiation closely resembled by shock tube theory followed by a quasi-steady flow regime resembling choked flow behavior. An empirical model was then employed to determine the useful range of the CCV design as applied to a four-stroke CIBAI engine cycle modeled using a 1-D quasi-steady numerical method, with particular emphasis on the cyclic timing of the CCV opening. Finally, a brief discussion of a high-temperature version of the CCV design is presented.
Meshless Method for Simulation of Compressible Flow
Nabizadeh Shahrebabak, Ebrahim
In the present age, rapid development in computing technology and high speed supercomputers has made numerical analysis and computational simulation more practical than ever before for large and complex cases. Numerical simulations have also become an essential means for analyzing the engineering problems and the cases that experimental analysis is not practical. There are so many sophisticated and accurate numerical schemes, which do these simulations. The finite difference method (FDM) has been used to solve differential equation systems for decades. Additional numerical methods based on finite volume and finite element techniques are widely used in solving problems with complex geometry. All of these methods are mesh-based techniques. Mesh generation is an essential preprocessing part to discretize the computation domain for these conventional methods. However, when dealing with mesh-based complex geometries these conventional mesh-based techniques can become troublesome, difficult to implement, and prone to inaccuracies. In this study, a more robust, yet simple numerical approach is used to simulate problems in an easier manner for even complex problem. The meshless, or meshfree, method is one such development that is becoming the focus of much research in the recent years. The biggest advantage of meshfree methods is to circumvent mesh generation. Many algorithms have now been developed to help make this method more popular and understandable for everyone. These algorithms have been employed over a wide range of problems in computational analysis with various levels of success. Since there is no connectivity between the nodes in this method, the challenge was considerable. The most fundamental issue is lack of conservation, which can be a source of unpredictable errors in the solution process. This problem is particularly evident in the presence of steep gradient regions and discontinuities, such as shocks that frequently occur in high speed compressible flow
Subramanian, Ramanathan Vishnampet Ganapathi
Methods and computing hardware advances have enabled accurate predictions of complex compressible turbulence phenomena, such as the generation of jet noise that motivates the present effort. However, limited understanding of underlying physical mechanisms restricts the utility of such predictions since they do not, by themselves, indicate a route to design improvement. Gradient-based optimization using adjoints can circumvent the flow complexity to guide designs. Such methods have enabled sensitivity analysis and active control of turbulence at engineering flow conditions by providing gradient information at computational cost comparable to that of simulating the flow. They accelerate convergence of numerical design optimization algorithms, though this is predicated on the availability of an accurate gradient of the discretized flow equations. This is challenging to obtain, since both the chaotic character of the turbulence and the typical use of discretizations near their resolution limits in order to efficiently represent its smaller scales will amplify any approximation errors made in the adjoint formulation. Formulating a practical exact adjoint that avoids such errors is especially challenging if it is to be compatible with state-of-the-art simulation methods used for the turbulent flow itself. Automatic differentiation (AD) can provide code to calculate a nominally exact adjoint, but existing general-purpose AD codes are inefficient to the point of being prohibitive for large-scale turbulence simulations. We analyze the compressible flow equations as discretized using the same high-order workhorse methods used for many high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations, and formulate a practical space--time discrete-adjoint method without changing the basic discretization. A key step is the definition of a particular discrete analog of the continuous norm that defines our cost functional; our selection leads directly to an efficient Runge--Kutta-like scheme
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bouakkaz Rafik
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In this work, steady flow-field and heat transfer through a copper- water nanofluid around a rotating circular cylinder with a constant nondimensional rotation rate α varying from 0 to 5 was investigated for Reynolds numbers of 5–40. Furthermore, the range of nanoparticle volume fractions considered is 0–5%. The effect of volume fraction of nanoparticles on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are carried out by using a finite-volume method based commercial computational fluid dynamics solver. The variation of the local and the average Nusselt numbers with Reynolds number, volume fractions, and rotation rate are presented for the range of conditions. The average Nusselt number is found to decrease with increasing value of the rotation rate for the fixed value of the Reynolds number and volume fraction of nanoparticles. In addition, rotation can be used as a drag reduction technique.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chakin, V., E-mail: vladimir.chakin@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institite for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, R.; Moeslang, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institite for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Zmitko, M. [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy, c/Josep Pla, no. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)
2015-04-15
Highlights: • Compression tests of highly neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles have been performed. • Irradiation hardening of beryllium pebbles decreases the steady-state strain-rates. • The steady-state strain-rates of irradiated beryllium pebbles exceed their swelling rates. - Abstract: Results: of mechanical compression tests of irradiated and non-irradiated beryllium pebbles with diameters of 1 and 2 mm are presented. The neutron irradiation was performed in the HFR in Petten, The Netherlands at 686–968 K up to 1890–2950 appm helium production. The irradiation at 686 and 753 K cause irradiation hardening due to the gas bubble formation in beryllium. The irradiation-induced hardening leads to decrease of steady-state strain-rates of irradiated beryllium pebbles compared to non-irradiated ones. In contrary, after irradiation at higher temperatures of 861 and 968 K, the steady-state strain-rates of the pebbles increase because annealing of irradiation defects and softening of the material take place. It was shown that the steady-state strain-rates of irradiated beryllium pebbles always exceed their swelling rates.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolios, M.C.; Worthington, A.E.; Hunt, J.W.; Holdsworth, D.W.; Sherar, M.D.
1999-01-01
Temperature distributions measured during thermal therapy are a major prognostic factor of the efficacy and success of the procedure. Thermal models are used to predict the temperature elevation of tissues during heating. Theoretical work has shown that blood flow through large blood vessels plays an important role in determining temperature profiles of heated tissues. In this paper, an experimental investigation of the effects of large vessels on the temperature distribution of heated tissue is performed. The blood flow dependence of steady state and transient temperature profiles created by a cylindrical conductive heat source and an ultrasound transducer were examined using a fixed porcine kidney as a flow model. In the transient experiments, a 20 s pulse of hot water, 30 deg. C above ambient, heated the tissues. Temperatures were measured at selected locations in steps of 0.1 mm. It was observed that vessels could either heat or cool tissues depending on the orientation of the vascular geometry with respect to the heat source and that these effects are a function of flow rate through the vessels. Temperature gradients of 6 deg. C mm -1 close to large vessels were routinely measured. Furthermore, it was observed that the temperature gradients caused by large vessels depended on whether the heating source was highly localized (i.e. a hot needle) or more distributed (i.e. external ultrasound). The gradients measured near large vessels during localized heating were between two and three times greater than the gradients measured during ultrasound heating at the same location, for comparable flows. Moreover, these gradients were more sensitive to flow variations for the localized needle heating. X-ray computed tomography data of the kidney vasculature were in good spatial agreement with the locations of all of the temperature variations measured. The three-dimensional vessel path observed could account for the complex features of the temperature profiles. The flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thornton, E.A.; Ramakrishnan, R.
1986-06-01
Prediction of compressible flow phenomena using the finite element method is of recent origin and considerable interest. Two shock capturing finite element formulations for high speed compressible flows are described. A Taylor-Galerkin formulation uses a Taylor series expansion in time coupled with a Galerkin weighted residual statement. The Taylor-Galerkin algorithms use explicit artificial dissipation, and the performance of three dissipation models are compared. A Petrov-Galerkin algorithm has as its basis the concepts of streamline upwinding. Vectorization strategies are developed to implement the finite element formulations on the NASA Langley VPS-32. The vectorization scheme results in finite element programs that use vectors of length of the order of the number of nodes or elements. The use of the vectorization procedure speeds up processing rates by over two orders of magnitude. The Taylor-Galerkin and Petrov-Galerkin algorithms are evaluated for 2D inviscid flows on criteria such as solution accuracy, shock resolution, computational speed and storage requirements. The convergence rates for both algorithms are enhanced by local time-stepping schemes. Extension of the vectorization procedure for predicting 2D viscous and 3D inviscid flows are demonstrated. Conclusions are drawn regarding the applicability of the finite element procedures for realistic problems that require hundreds of thousands of nodes
Thermodynamic bounds for existence of normal shock in compressible fluid flow in pipes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SERGIO COLLE
Full Text Available Abstract The present paper is concerned with the thermodynamic theory of the normal shock in compressible fluid flow in pipes, in the lights of the pioneering works of Lord Rayleigh and G. Fanno. The theory of normal shock in pipes is currently presented in terms of the Rayleigh and Fanno curves, which are shown to cross each other in two points, one corresponding to a subsonic flow and the other corresponding to a supersonic flow. It is proposed in this paper a novel differential identity, which relates the energy flux density, the linear momentum flux density, and the entropy, for constant mass flow density. The identity so obtained is used to establish a theorem, which shows that Rayleigh and Fanno curves become tangent to each other at a single sonic point. At the sonic point the entropy reaches a maximum, either as a function of the pressure and the energy density flux or as a function of the pressure and the linear momentum density flux. A Second Law analysis is also presented, which is fully independent of the Second Law analysis based on the Rankine-Hugoniot adiabatic carried out by Landau and Lifshitz (1959.
Advanced Fluid Reduced Order Models for Compressible Flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tezaur, Irina Kalashnikova [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Fike, Jeffrey A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlberg, Kevin Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Barone, Matthew F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maddix, Danielle [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mussoni, Erin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Balajewicz, Maciej [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
2017-09-01
This report summarizes fiscal year (FY) 2017 progress towards developing and implementing within the SPARC in-house finite volume flow solver advanced fluid reduced order models (ROMs) for compressible captive-carriage flow problems of interest to Sandia National Laboratories for the design and qualification of nuclear weapons components. The proposed projection-based model order reduction (MOR) approach, known as the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD)/Least- Squares Petrov-Galerkin (LSPG) method, can substantially reduce the CPU-time requirement for these simulations, thereby enabling advanced analyses such as uncertainty quantification and de- sign optimization. Following a description of the project objectives and FY17 targets, we overview briefly the POD/LSPG approach to model reduction implemented within SPARC . We then study the viability of these ROMs for long-time predictive simulations in the context of a two-dimensional viscous laminar cavity problem, and describe some FY17 enhancements to the proposed model reduction methodology that led to ROMs with improved predictive capabilities. Also described in this report are some FY17 efforts pursued in parallel to the primary objective of determining whether the ROMs in SPARC are viable for the targeted application. These include the implemen- tation and verification of some higher-order finite volume discretization methods within SPARC (towards using the code to study the viability of ROMs on three-dimensional cavity problems) and a novel structure-preserving constrained POD/LSPG formulation that can improve the accuracy of projection-based reduced order models. We conclude the report by summarizing the key takeaways from our FY17 findings, and providing some perspectives for future work.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shun Takahashi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A computational code adopting immersed boundary methods for compressible gas-particle multiphase turbulent flows is developed and validated through two-dimensional numerical experiments. The turbulent flow region is modeled by a second-order pseudo skew-symmetric form with minimum dissipation, while the monotone upstream-centered scheme for conservation laws (MUSCL scheme is employed in the shock region. The present scheme is applied to the flow around a two-dimensional cylinder under various freestream Mach numbers. Compared with the original MUSCL scheme, the minimum dissipation enabled by the pseudo skew-symmetric form significantly improves the resolution of the vortex generated in the wake while retaining the shock capturing ability. In addition, the resulting aerodynamic force is significantly improved. Also, the present scheme is successfully applied to moving two-cylinder problems.
Modeling the Plasma Flow in the Inner Heliosheath with a Spatially Varying Compression Ratio
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nicolaou, G. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna (Sweden); Livadiotis, G. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas (United States)
2017-03-20
We examine a semi-analytical non-magnetic model of the termination shock location previously developed by Exarhos and Moussas. In their study, the plasma flow beyond the shock is considered incompressible and irrotational, thus the flow potential is analytically derived from the Laplace equation. Here we examine the characteristics of the downstream flow in the heliosheath in order to resolve several inconsistencies existing in the Exarhos and Moussas model. In particular, the model is modified in order to be consistent with the Rankine–Hugoniot jump conditions and the geometry of the termination shock. It is shown that a shock compression ratio varying along the latitude can lead to physically correct results. We describe the new model and present several simplified examples for a nearly spherical, strong termination shock. Under those simplifications, the upstream plasma is nearly adiabatic for large (∼100 AU) heliosheath thickness.
Jiang, Zhen-Hua; Yan, Chao; Yu, Jian
2013-08-01
Two types of implicit algorithms have been improved for high order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method to solve compressible Navier-Stokes (NS) equations on triangular grids. A block lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (BLU-SGS) approach is implemented as a nonlinear iterative scheme. And a modified LU-SGS (LLU-SGS) approach is suggested to reduce the memory requirements while retain the good convergence performance of the original LU-SGS approach. Both implicit schemes have the significant advantage that only the diagonal block matrix is stored. The resulting implicit high-order DG methods are applied, in combination with Hermite weighted essentially non-oscillatory (HWENO) limiters, to solve viscous flow problems. Numerical results demonstrate that the present implicit methods are able to achieve significant efficiency improvements over explicit counterparts and for viscous flows with shocks, and the HWENO limiters can be used to achieve the desired essentially non-oscillatory shock transition and the designed high-order accuracy simultaneously.
Lagrangian statistics in compressible isotropic homogeneous turbulence
Yang, Yantao; Wang, Jianchun; Shi, Yipeng; Chen, Shiyi
2011-11-01
In this work we conducted the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a forced compressible isotropic homogeneous turbulence and investigated the flow statistics from the Lagrangian point of view, namely the statistics is computed following the passive tracers trajectories. The numerical method combined the Eulerian field solver which was developed by Wang et al. (2010, J. Comp. Phys., 229, 5257-5279), and a Lagrangian module for tracking the tracers and recording the data. The Lagrangian probability density functions (p.d.f.'s) have then been calculated for both kinetic and thermodynamic quantities. In order to isolate the shearing part from the compressing part of the flow, we employed the Helmholtz decomposition to decompose the flow field (mainly the velocity field) into the solenoidal and compressive parts. The solenoidal part was compared with the incompressible case, while the compressibility effect showed up in the compressive part. The Lagrangian structure functions and cross-correlation between various quantities will also be discussed. This work was supported in part by the China's Turbulence Program under Grant No.2009CB724101.
A ghost fluid method for sharp interface simulations of compressible multiphase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majidi, Sahand; Afshari, Asghar
2016-01-01
A ghost fluid based computational tool is developed to study a wide range of compressible multiphase flows involving strong shocks and contact discontinuities while accounting for surface tension, viscous stresses and gravitational forces. The solver utilizes constrained reinitialization method to predict the interface configuration at each time step. Surface tension effect is handled via an exact interface Riemann problem solver. Interfacial viscous stresses are approximated by considering continuous velocity and viscous stress across the interface. To assess the performance of the solver several benchmark problems are considered: One-dimensional gas-water shock tube problem, shock-bubble interaction, air cavity collapse in water, underwater explosion, Rayleigh-Taylor Instability, and ellipsoidal drop oscillations. Results obtained from the numerical simulations indicate that the numerical methodology performs reasonably well in predicting flow features and exhibit a very good agreement with prior experimental and numerical observations. To further examine the accuracy of the developed ghost fluid solver, the obtained results are compared to those by a conventional diffuse interface solver. The comparison shows the capability of our ghost fluid method in reproducing the experimentally observed flow characteristics while revealing more details regarding topological changes of the interface.
A ghost fluid method for sharp interface simulations of compressible multiphase flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Majidi, Sahand; Afshari, Asghar [University of Tehran, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-04-15
A ghost fluid based computational tool is developed to study a wide range of compressible multiphase flows involving strong shocks and contact discontinuities while accounting for surface tension, viscous stresses and gravitational forces. The solver utilizes constrained reinitialization method to predict the interface configuration at each time step. Surface tension effect is handled via an exact interface Riemann problem solver. Interfacial viscous stresses are approximated by considering continuous velocity and viscous stress across the interface. To assess the performance of the solver several benchmark problems are considered: One-dimensional gas-water shock tube problem, shock-bubble interaction, air cavity collapse in water, underwater explosion, Rayleigh-Taylor Instability, and ellipsoidal drop oscillations. Results obtained from the numerical simulations indicate that the numerical methodology performs reasonably well in predicting flow features and exhibit a very good agreement with prior experimental and numerical observations. To further examine the accuracy of the developed ghost fluid solver, the obtained results are compared to those by a conventional diffuse interface solver. The comparison shows the capability of our ghost fluid method in reproducing the experimentally observed flow characteristics while revealing more details regarding topological changes of the interface.
Rassi, Erik M.; Codd, Sarah L.; Seymour, Joseph D.
2011-01-01
Flow in porous media and the resultant hydrodynamics are important in fields including but not limited to the hydrology, chemical, medical and petroleum industries. The observation and understanding of the hydrodynamics in porous media are critical to the design and optimal utilization of porous media, such as those seen in trickle-bed reactors, medical filters, subsurface flows and carbon sequestration. Magnetic resonance (MR) provides for a non-invasive technique that can probe the hydrodynamics on pore and bulk scale lengths; many previous works have characterized fully saturated porous media, while rapid MR imaging (MRI) methods in particular have previously been applied to partially saturated flows. We present time- and ensemble-averaged MR measurements to observe the effects on a bead pack partially saturated with air under flowing water conditions. The 10 mm internal diameter bead pack was filled with 100 μm borosilicate glass beads. Air was injected into the bead pack as water flowed simultaneously through the sample at 25 ml h-1. The initial partially saturated state was characterized with MRI density maps, free induction decay (FID) experiments, propagators and velocity maps before the water flow rate was increased incrementally from 25 to 500 ml h-1. After the maximum flow rate of 500 ml h-1, the MRI density maps, FID experiments, propagators and velocity maps were repeated and compared to the data taken before the maximum flow rate. This work shows that a partially saturated single-phase flow has global flow dynamics that return to characteristic flow statistics once a steady-state high flow rate has been reached. This high flow rate pushed out a significant amount of the air in the bead pack and caused the return of a preferential flow pattern. Velocity maps indicated that local flow statistics were not the same for the before and after blow out conditions. It has been suggested and shown previously that a flow pattern can return to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rassi, Erik M; Codd, Sarah L; Seymour, Joseph D
2011-01-01
Flow in porous media and the resultant hydrodynamics are important in fields including but not limited to the hydrology, chemical, medical and petroleum industries. The observation and understanding of the hydrodynamics in porous media are critical to the design and optimal utilization of porous media, such as those seen in trickle-bed reactors, medical filters, subsurface flows and carbon sequestration. Magnetic resonance (MR) provides for a non-invasive technique that can probe the hydrodynamics on pore and bulk scale lengths; many previous works have characterized fully saturated porous media, while rapid MR imaging (MRI) methods in particular have previously been applied to partially saturated flows. We present time- and ensemble-averaged MR measurements to observe the effects on a bead pack partially saturated with air under flowing water conditions. The 10 mm internal diameter bead pack was filled with 100 μm borosilicate glass beads. Air was injected into the bead pack as water flowed simultaneously through the sample at 25 ml h -1 . The initial partially saturated state was characterized with MRI density maps, free induction decay (FID) experiments, propagators and velocity maps before the water flow rate was increased incrementally from 25 to 500 ml h -1 . After the maximum flow rate of 500 ml h -1 , the MRI density maps, FID experiments, propagators and velocity maps were repeated and compared to the data taken before the maximum flow rate. This work shows that a partially saturated single-phase flow has global flow dynamics that return to characteristic flow statistics once a steady-state high flow rate has been reached. This high flow rate pushed out a significant amount of the air in the bead pack and caused the return of a preferential flow pattern. Velocity maps indicated that local flow statistics were not the same for the before and after blow out conditions. It has been suggested and shown previously that a flow pattern can return to similar
An Eulerian two-phase model for steady sheet flow using large-eddy simulation methodology
Cheng, Zhen; Hsu, Tian-Jian; Chauchat, Julien
2018-01-01
A three-dimensional Eulerian two-phase flow model for sediment transport in sheet flow conditions is presented. To resolve turbulence and turbulence-sediment interactions, the large-eddy simulation approach is adopted. Specifically, a dynamic Smagorinsky closure is used for the subgrid fluid and sediment stresses, while the subgrid contribution to the drag force is included using a drift velocity model with a similar dynamic procedure. The contribution of sediment stresses due to intergranular interactions is modeled by the kinetic theory of granular flow at low to intermediate sediment concentration, while at high sediment concentration of enduring contact, a phenomenological closure for particle pressure and frictional viscosity is used. The model is validated with a comprehensive high-resolution dataset of unidirectional steady sheet flow (Revil-Baudard et al., 2015, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 767, 1-30). At a particle Stokes number of about 10, simulation results indicate a reduced von Kármán coefficient of κ ≈ 0.215 obtained from the fluid velocity profile. A fluid turbulence kinetic energy budget analysis further indicates that the drag-induced turbulence dissipation rate is significant in the sheet flow layer, while in the dilute transport layer, the pressure work plays a similar role as the buoyancy dissipation, which is typically used in the single-phase stratified flow formulation. The present model also reproduces the sheet layer thickness and mobile bed roughness similar to measured data. However, the resulting mobile bed roughness is more than two times larger than that predicted by the empirical formulae. Further analysis suggests that through intermittent turbulent motions near the bed, the resolved sediment Reynolds stress plays a major role in the enhancement of mobile bed roughness. Our analysis on near-bed intermittency also suggests that the turbulent ejection motions are highly correlated with the upward sediment suspension flux, while
Yang, L. M.; Shu, C.; Yang, W. M.; Wu, J.
2018-04-01
High consumption of memory and computational effort is the major barrier to prevent the widespread use of the discrete velocity method (DVM) in the simulation of flows in all flow regimes. To overcome this drawback, an implicit DVM with a memory reduction technique for solving a steady discrete velocity Boltzmann equation (DVBE) is presented in this work. In the method, the distribution functions in the whole discrete velocity space do not need to be stored, and they are calculated from the macroscopic flow variables. As a result, its memory requirement is in the same order as the conventional Euler/Navier-Stokes solver. In the meantime, it is more efficient than the explicit DVM for the simulation of various flows. To make the method efficient for solving flow problems in all flow regimes, a prediction step is introduced to estimate the local equilibrium state of the DVBE. In the prediction step, the distribution function at the cell interface is calculated by the local solution of DVBE. For the flow simulation, when the cell size is less than the mean free path, the prediction step has almost no effect on the solution. However, when the cell size is much larger than the mean free path, the prediction step dominates the solution so as to provide reasonable results in such a flow regime. In addition, to further improve the computational efficiency of the developed scheme in the continuum flow regime, the implicit technique is also introduced into the prediction step. Numerical results showed that the proposed implicit scheme can provide reasonable results in all flow regimes and increase significantly the computational efficiency in the continuum flow regime as compared with the existing DVM solvers.
Daude, F.; Galon, P.
2018-06-01
A Finite-Volume scheme for the numerical computations of compressible single- and two-phase flows in flexible pipelines is proposed based on an approximate Godunov-type approach. The spatial discretization is here obtained using the HLLC scheme. In addition, the numerical treatment of abrupt changes in area and network including several pipelines connected at junctions is also considered. The proposed approach is based on the integral form of the governing equations making it possible to tackle general equations of state. A coupled approach for the resolution of fluid-structure interaction of compressible fluid flowing in flexible pipes is considered. The structural problem is solved using Euler-Bernoulli beam finite elements. The present Finite-Volume method is applied to ideal gas and two-phase steam-water based on the Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) in conjunction with a tabulated equation of state in order to demonstrate its ability to tackle general equations of state. The extensive application of the scheme for both shock tube and other transient flow problems demonstrates its capability to resolve such problems accurately and robustly. Finally, the proposed 1-D fluid-structure interaction model appears to be computationally efficient.
Global low-energy weak solution and large-time behavior for the compressible flow of liquid crystals
Wu, Guochun; Tan, Zhong
2018-06-01
In this paper, we consider the weak solution of the simplified Ericksen-Leslie system modeling compressible nematic liquid crystal flows in R3. When the initial data are of small energy and initial density is positive and essentially bounded, we prove the existence of a global weak solution in R3. The large-time behavior of a global weak solution is also established.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pankaj Thakur
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Thermal stress and strain rates in a thick walled rotating cylinder under steady state temperature has been derived by using Seth’s transition theory. For elastic-plastic stage, it is seen that with the increase of temperature, the cylinder having smaller radii ratios requires lesser angular velocity to become fully plastic as compared to cylinder having higher radii ratios The circumferential stress becomes larger and larger with the increase in temperature. With increase in thickness ratio stresses must be decrease. For the creep stage, it is seen that circumferential stresses for incompressible materials maximum at the internal surface as compared to compressible material, which increase with the increase in temperature and measure n.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiem, Kok Siong; Zhao Yong
2004-01-01
In this study, a high-resolution characteristic-based finite-volume (FV) method on unstructured grids [Int. J. Numer. Method Eng. 50 (2001) 11; Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 21 (2000) 432] is extended by a matrix-free implicit dual-time stepping scheme for the numerical simulation of steady and unsteady flow and heat transfer with porous media. The method has been used to study the characteristics of a complex problem: flow and heat transfer in a channel with multiple discrete porous blocks, which was originally proposed by Huang and Vafai [J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 8 (3) (1994) 563]. In addition, flow and heat transfer in a channel partially or fully filled with porous layers and containing solid protruding blocks with constant heat flux on its lower surface are also investigated in details. Hydrodynamic and heat transfer results are reported for both steady and transient flow cases. In particular, the effects of Darcy and Reynolds numbers on heat transfer augmentation and pressure loss are studied. An in-depth discussion of the formation and variation of recirculation is presented and the existence of optimum porous insert is demonstrated. At high Reynolds numbers the flow in the porous channel exhibits a cyclic characteristics although unlike the non-porous channel flow, the cyclic vortex development is only restricted to a small area behind the last solid block, while temperature changes more slowly and does not exhibit cyclic variations over a long period of time. It is shown that for all the cases studied altering some parametric values can have significant and interesting effects on both flow pattern as well as heat transfer characteristics
Nonlinear Thermal Instability in Compressible Viscous Flows Without Heat Conductivity
Jiang, Fei
2018-04-01
We investigate the thermal instability of a smooth equilibrium state, in which the density function satisfies Schwarzschild's (instability) condition, to a compressible heat-conducting viscous flow without heat conductivity in the presence of a uniform gravitational field in a three-dimensional bounded domain. We show that the equilibrium state is linearly unstable by a modified variational method. Then, based on the constructed linearly unstable solutions and a local well-posedness result of classical solutions to the original nonlinear problem, we further construct the initial data of linearly unstable solutions to be the one of the original nonlinear problem, and establish an appropriate energy estimate of Gronwall-type. With the help of the established energy estimate, we finally show that the equilibrium state is nonlinearly unstable in the sense of Hadamard by a careful bootstrap instability argument.
Hajabdollahi, Farzaneh; Premnath, Kannan N.
2018-05-01
Lattice Boltzmann (LB) models used for the computation of fluid flows represented by the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations on standard lattices can lead to non-Galilean-invariant (GI) viscous stress involving cubic velocity errors. This arises from the dependence of their third-order diagonal moments on the first-order moments for standard lattices, and strategies have recently been introduced to restore Galilean invariance without such errors using a modified collision operator involving corrections to either the relaxation times or the moment equilibria. Convergence acceleration in the simulation of steady flows can be achieved by solving the preconditioned NS equations, which contain a preconditioning parameter that can be used to tune the effective sound speed, and thereby alleviating the numerical stiffness. In the present paper, we present a GI formulation of the preconditioned cascaded central-moment LB method used to solve the preconditioned NS equations, which is free of cubic velocity errors on a standard lattice, for steady flows. A Chapman-Enskog analysis reveals the structure of the spurious non-GI defect terms and it is demonstrated that the anisotropy of the resulting viscous stress is dependent on the preconditioning parameter, in addition to the fluid velocity. It is shown that partial correction to eliminate the cubic velocity defects is achieved by scaling the cubic velocity terms in the off-diagonal third-order moment equilibria with the square of the preconditioning parameter. Furthermore, we develop additional corrections based on the extended moment equilibria involving gradient terms with coefficients dependent locally on the fluid velocity and the preconditioning parameter. Such parameter dependent corrections eliminate the remaining truncation errors arising from the degeneracy of the diagonal third-order moments and fully restore Galilean invariance without cubic defects for the preconditioned LB scheme on a standard lattice. Several
Dynamic relaxation processes in compressible multiphase flows. Application to evaporation phenomena
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Le Métayer O.
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Phase changes and heat exchanges are examples of physical processes appearing in many industrial applications involving multiphase compressible flows. Their knowledge is of fundamental importance to reproduce correctly the resulting effects in simulation tools. A fine description of the flow topology is thus required to obtain the interfacial area between phases. This one is responsible for the dynamics and the kinetics of heat and mass transfer when evaporation or condensation occurs. Unfortunately this exchange area cannot be obtained easily and accurately especially when complex mixtures (drops, bubbles, pockets of very different sizes appear inside the transient medium. The natural way to solve this specific trouble consists in using a thin grid to capture interfaces at all spatial scales. But this possibility needs huge computing resources and can be hardly used when considering physical systems of large dimensions. A realistic method is to consider instantaneous exchanges between phases by the way of additional source terms in a full non-equilibrium multiphase flow model [2,15,17]. In this one each phase obeys its own equation of state and has its own set of equations and variables (pressure, temperature, velocity, energy, entropy,.... When enabling the relaxation source terms the multiphase mixture instantaneously tends towards a mechanical or thermodynamic equilibrium state at each point of the flow. This strategy allows to mark the boundaries of the real flow behavior and to magnify the dominant physical effects (heat exchanges, evaporation, drag,... inside the medium. A description of the various relaxation processes is given in the paper. Les changements de phase et les transferts de chaleur sont des exemples de phénomènes physiques présents dans de nombreuses applications industrielles faisant intervenir des écoulements compressibles multiphasiques. La connaissance des mécanismes associés est primordiale afin de reproduire
The steady-state modeling and optimization of a refrigeration system for high heat flux removal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Rongliang; Zhang Tiejun; Catano, Juan; Wen, John T.; Michna, Gregory J.; Peles, Yoav; Jensen, Michael K.
2010-01-01
Steady-state modeling and optimization of a refrigeration system for high heat flux removal, such as electronics cooling, is studied. The refrigeration cycle proposed consists of multiple evaporators, liquid accumulator, compressor, condenser and expansion valves. To obtain more efficient heat transfer and higher critical heat flux (CHF), the evaporators operate with two-phase flow only. This unique operating condition necessitates the inclusion of a liquid accumulator with integrated heater for the safe operation of the compressor. Due to the projected incorporation of microchannels into the system to enhance the heat transfer in heat sinks, the momentum balance equation, rarely seen in previous vapor compression cycle heat exchangers modeling efforts, is utilized in addition to the mass and energy balance equations to capture the expected significant microchannel pressure drop witnessed in previous experimental investigations. Using the steady-state model developed, a parametric study is performed to study the effect of various external inputs on the system performance. The Pareto optimization is applied to find the optimal system operating conditions for given heat loads such that the system coefficient of performance (COP) is optimized while satisfying the CHF and other system operation constraints. Initial validation efforts show the good agreement between the experimental data and model predictions.
Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for compressible fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Feng; Xu Aiguo; Zhang Guangcai; Li Yingjun
2011-01-01
We present an energy-conserving multiple-relaxation-time finite difference lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows. The collision step is first calculated in the moment space and then mapped back to the velocity space. The moment space and corresponding transformation matrix are constructed according to the group representation theory. Equilibria of the nonconserved moments are chosen according to the need of recovering compressible Navier-Stokes equations through the Chapman-Enskog expansion. Numerical experiments showed that compressible flows with strong shocks can be well simulated by the present model. The new model works for both low and high speeds compressible flows. It contains more physical information and has better numerical stability and accuracy than its single-relaxation-time version. - Highlights: → We present an energy-conserving MRT finite-difference LB model. → The moment space is constructed according to the group representation theory. → The new model works for both low and high speeds compressible flows. → It has better numerical stability and wider applicable range than its SRT version.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jung, Jong-Kil; Yoon, Jun-Kyu [Gachon Univ., Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang-Chu [KEPCO-E& C, Kimchun (Korea, Republic of)
2017-10-15
A rupture in a high-pressure pipe causes the fluid in the pipe to be discharged in the atmosphere at a high speed resulting in a supersonic jet that generates the compressible flow. This supersonic jet may display complicated and unsteady behavior in general . In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to investigate the compressible flow generated by a supersonic jet ejected from a high-pressure pipe. A Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model was selected to analyze the unsteady nature of the flow, which depends upon the various gases as well as the diameter of the pipe. In the CFD analysis, the basic boundary conditions were assumed to be as follows: pipe of diameter 10 cm, jet pressure ratio of 5, and an inlet gas temperature of 300 K. During the analysis, the behavior of the shockwave generated by a supersonic jet was observed and it was found that the blast wave was generated indirectly. The pressure wave characteristics of hydrogen gas, which possesses the smallest molecular mass, showed the shortest distance to the safety zone. There were no significant difference observed for nitrogen gas, air, and oxygen gas, which have similar molecular mass. In addition, an increase in the diameter of the pipe resulted in the ejected impact caused by the increased flow rate to become larger and the zone of jet influence to extend further.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jhin Wung; Bae, Dae Suk; Kang, Chul Hyung; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)
2002-02-01
The objective of the present study is to understand the long term (500 years) thermo-hydro-mechanical interaction behavior of the 500 m depth underground radwaste repository in the saturated, discontinuous granitic rock mass using a steady state flow algorithm. The numerical model includes a saturated granitic rock mass with joints around the repository and a 45 .deg. C fault passing through the tunnel roof-wall intersection, and a canister with PWR spent fuels surrounded by the compacted bentonite and mixed-bentonite. Barton-Bandis joint constitutive model from the UDEC code is used for the joints. For the hydraulic analysis, a steady state flow algorithm is used for the groundwater flow through the rock joints. For the thermal analysis, heat transfer is modeled as isotropic conduction and heat decays exponentially with time. The results show that the variations of the hydraulic aperture, hydraulic conductivity, normal stress, normal displacements, and shear displacements of the joints are high in the vicinity of the repository and stay fairly constant on the region away from the repository. 14 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)
Sharzehee, Mohammadali; Khalafvand, Seyed Saeid; Han, Hai-Chao
2018-02-01
Tortuous aneurysmal arteries are often associated with a higher risk of rupture but the mechanism remains unclear. The goal of this study was to analyze the buckling and post-buckling behaviors of aneurysmal arteries under pulsatile flow. To accomplish this goal, we analyzed the buckling behavior of model carotid and abdominal aorta with aneurysms by utilizing fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method with realistic waveforms boundary conditions. FSI simulations were done under steady-state and pulsatile flow for normal (1.5) and reduced (1.3) axial stretch ratios to investigate the influence of aneurysm, pulsatile lumen pressure and axial tension on stability. Our results indicated that aneurysmal artery buckled at the critical buckling pressure and its deflection nonlinearly increased with increasing lumen pressure. Buckling elevates the peak stress (up to 118%). The maximum aneurysm wall stress at pulsatile FSI flow was (29%) higher than under static pressure at the peak lumen pressure of 130 mmHg. Buckling results show an increase in lumen shear stress at the inner side of the maximum deflection. Vortex flow was dramatically enlarged with increasing lumen pressure and artery diameter. Aneurysmal arteries are more susceptible than normal arteries to mechanical instability which causes high stresses in the aneurysm wall that could lead to aneurysm rupture.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ejtehadi, Omid; Esfahani, Javad Abolfazli; Roohi, Ehsan
2012-01-01
In the present work, compressible flow of argon gas in the famous problem of Couette flow in micro/nano-scale is considered and numerically analyzed using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The effects of compressibility and rarefaction on entropy and entropy generation in terms of viscous dissipation and thermal diffusion are studied in a wide range of Mach and Knudsen numbers and the observed physics are discussed. In this regard, we computed entropy by using its kinetic theory formulation in a microscopic way while the entropy generation distribution is achieved by applying a semi-microscopic approach and thoroughly free from equilibrium assumptions. The results of our simulations demonstrated that the entropy profiles are in accordance with the temperature profiles. It is also illustrated that the increase of Mach number will result in non-uniform entropy profiles with increase in the vicinity of the central regions of the channel. Moreover, generation of entropy in all regions of the domain stages clear growth. By contrast, increasing the Knudsen number has inverse effects such as: uniform entropy profiles and a falling off in entropy generation amount throughout the channel.
Heat transfer in turbocharger turbines under steady, pulsating and transient conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burke, R.D.; Vagg, C.R.M.; Chalet, D.; Chesse, P.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Compare turbine heat transfer correlations from different studies. • Compare heat transfer for a same turbine on-engine and on gas-stand. • Analyse heat transfer under steady and transient operating conditions. • Gas stand heat transfer correlations are transferrable to engine conditions. • Heat flows can be reversed compared to steady conditions during transients. - Abstract: Heat transfer is significant in turbochargers and a number of mathematical models have been proposed to account for the heat transfer, however these have predominantly been validated under steady flow conditions. A variable geometry turbocharger from a 2.2 L Diesel engine was studied, both on gas stand and on-engine, under steady and transient conditions. The results showed that heat transfer accounts for at least 20% of total enthalpy change in the turbine and significantly more at lower mechanical powers. A convective heat transfer correlation was derived from experimental measurements to account for heat transfer between the gases and the turbine housing and proved consistent with those published from other researchers. This relationship was subsequently shown to be consistent between engine and gas stand operation: using this correlation in a 1D gas dynamics simulation reduced the turbine outlet temperature error from 33 °C to 3 °C. Using the model under transient conditions highlighted the effect of housing thermal inertia. The peak transient heat flow was strongly linked to the dynamics of the turbine inlet temperature: for all increases, the peak heat flow was higher than under thermally stable conditions due to colder housing. For all decreases in gas temperature, the peak heat flow was lower and for temperature drops of more than 100 °C the heat flow was reversed during the transient
Thermodynamic and aerodynamic meanline analysis of wet compression in a centrifugal compressor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Jeong Seek; Cha, Bong Jun; Yang, Soo Seok
2006-01-01
Wet compression means the injection of water droplets into the compressor of gas turbines. This method decreases the compression work and increases the turbine output by decreasing the compressor exit temperature through the evaporation of water droplets inside the compressor. Researches on wet compression, up to now, have been focused on the thermodynamic analysis of wet compression where the decrease in exit flow temperature and compression work is demonstrated. This paper provides thermodynamic and aerodynamic analysis on wet compression in a centrifugal compressor for a microturbine. The meanline dry compression performance analysis of centrifugal compressor is coupled with the thermodynamic equation of wet compression to get the meanline performance of wet compression. The most influencing parameter in the analysis is the evaporative rate of water droplets. It is found that the impeller exit flow temperature and compression work decreases as the evaporative rate increases. And the exit flow angle decreases as the evaporative rate increases
Stochastic analysis of unsaturated steady flows above the water table
Severino, Gerardo; Scarfato, Maddalena; Comegna, Alessandro
2017-08-01
Steady flow takes place into a three-dimensional partially saturated porous medium where, due to their spatial variability, the saturated conductivity Ks, and the relative conductivity Kr are modeled as random space functions (RSF)s. As a consequence, the flow variables (FVs), i.e., pressure-head and specific flux, are also RSFs. The focus of the present paper consists into quantifying the uncertainty of the FVs above the water table. The simple expressions (most of which in closed form) of the second-order moments pertaining to the FVs allow one to follow the transitional behavior from the zone close to the water table (where the FVs are nonstationary), till to their far-field limit (where the FVs become stationary RSFs). In particular, it is shown how the stationary limits (and the distance from the water table at which stationarity is attained) depend upon the statistical structure of the RSFs Ks, Kr, and the infiltrating rate. The mean pressure head >> has been also computed, and it is expressed as =Ψ0>(1+ψ>), being ψ a characteristic heterogeneity function which modifies the zero-order approximation Ψ0 of the pressure head (valid for a vadose zone of uniform soil properties) to account for the spatial variability of Ks and Kr. Two asymptotic limits, i.e., close (near field) and away (far field) from the water table, are derived into a very general manner, whereas the transitional behavior of ψ between the near/far field can be determined after specifying the shape of the various input soil properties. Besides the theoretical interest, results of the present paper are useful for practical purposes, as well. Indeed, the model is tested against to real data, and in particular it is shown how it is possible for the specific case study to grasp the behavior of the FVs within an environment (i.e., the vadose zone close to the water table) which is generally very difficult to access by direct inspection.
Ghatage, Dhairyasheel; Chatterji, Apratim
2013-10-01
We introduce a method to obtain steady-state uniaxial exponential-stretching flow of a fluid (akin to extensional flow) in the incompressible limit, which enables us to study the response of suspended macromolecules to the flow by computer simulations. The flow field in this flow is defined by v(x) = εx, where v(x) is the velocity of the fluid and ε is the stretch flow gradient. To eliminate the effect of confining boundaries, we produce the flow in a channel of uniform square cross section with periodic boundary conditions in directions perpendicular to the flow, but simultaneously maintain uniform density of fluid along the length of the tube. In experiments a perfect elongational flow is obtained only along the axis of symmetry in a four-roll geometry or a filament-stretching rheometer. We can reproduce flow conditions very similar to extensional flow near the axis of symmetry by exponential-stretching flow; we do this by adding the right amounts of fluid along the length of the flow in our simulations. The fluid particles added along the length of the tube are the same fluid particles which exit the channel due to the flow; thus mass conservation is maintained in our model by default. We also suggest a scheme for possible realization of exponential-stretching flow in experiments. To establish our method as a useful tool to study various soft matter systems in extensional flow, we embed (i) spherical colloids with excluded volume interactions (modeled by the Weeks-Chandler potential) as well as (ii) a bead-spring model of star polymers in the fluid to study their responses to the exponential-stretched flow and show that the responses of macromolecules in the two flows are very similar. We demonstrate that the variation of number density of the suspended colloids along the direction of flow is in tune with our expectations. We also conclude from our study of the deformation of star polymers with different numbers of arms f that the critical flow gradient ε
Bresch, D.; Fernández-Nieto, E. D.; Ionescu, I. R.; Vigneaux, P.
In this paper we propose a well-balanced finite volume/augmented Lagrangian method for compressible visco-plastic models focusing on a compressible Bingham type system with applications to dense avalanches. For the sake of completeness we also present a method showing that such a system may be derived for a shallow flow of a rigid-viscoplastic incompressible fluid, namely for incompressible Bingham type fluid with free surface. When the fluid is relatively shallow and spreads slowly, lubrication-style asymptotic approximations can be used to build reduced models for the spreading dynamics, see for instance [N.J. Balmforth et al., J. Fluid Mech (2002)]. When the motion is a little bit quicker, shallow water theory for non-Newtonian flows may be applied, for instance assuming a Navier type boundary condition at the bottom. We start from the variational inequality for an incompressible Bingham fluid and derive a shallow water type system. In the case where Bingham number and viscosity are set to zero we obtain the classical Shallow Water or Saint-Venant equations obtained for instance in [J.F. Gerbeau, B. Perthame, DCDS (2001)]. For numerical purposes, we focus on the one-dimensional in space model: We study associated static solutions with sufficient conditions that relate the slope of the bottom with the Bingham number and domain dimensions. We also propose a well-balanced finite volume/augmented Lagrangian method. It combines well-balanced finite volume schemes for spatial discretization with the augmented Lagrangian method to treat the associated optimization problem. Finally, we present various numerical tests.
York, B. J.; Sinha, N.; Dash, S. M.; Hosangadi, A.; Kenzakowski, D. C.; Lee, R. A.
1992-07-01
The analysis of steady and transient aerodynamic/propulsive/plume flowfield interactions utilizing several state-of-the-art computer codes (PARCH, CRAFT, and SCHAFT) is discussed. These codes have been extended to include advanced turbulence models, generalized thermochemistry, and multiphase nonequilibrium capabilities. Several specialized versions of these codes have been developed for specific applications. This paper presents a brief overview of these codes followed by selected cases demonstrating steady and transient analyses of conventional as well as advanced missile systems. Areas requiring upgrades include turbulence modeling in a highly compressible environment and the treatment of particulates in general. Recent progress in these areas are highlighted.
Gurovich, V.; Virozub, A.; Rososhek, A.; Bland, S.; Spielman, R. B.; Krasik, Ya. E.
2018-05-01
A major experimental research area in material equation-of-state today involves the use of off-Hugoniot measurements rather than shock experiments that give only Hugoniot data. There is a wide range of applications using quasi-isentropic compression of matter including the direct measurement of the complete isentrope of materials in a single experiment and minimizing the heating of flyer plates for high-velocity shock measurements. We propose a novel approach to generating quasi-isentropic compression of matter. Using analytical modeling and hydrodynamic simulations, we show that a working fluid composed of compressed water, generated by an underwater electrical explosion of a planar wire array, might be used to efficiently drive the quasi-isentropic compression of a copper target to pressures ˜2 × 1011 Pa without any complex target designs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jiequan; Li Qibing; Xu Kun
2011-01-01
The generalized Riemann problem (GRP) scheme for the Euler equations and gas-kinetic scheme (GKS) for the Boltzmann equation are two high resolution shock capturing schemes for fluid simulations. The difference is that one is based on the characteristics of the inviscid Euler equations and their wave interactions, and the other is based on the particle transport and collisions. The similarity between them is that both methods can use identical MUSCL-type initial reconstructions around a cell interface, and the spatial slopes on both sides of a cell interface involve in the gas evolution process and the construction of a time-dependent flux function. Although both methods have been applied successfully to the inviscid compressible flow computations, their performances have never been compared. Since both methods use the same initial reconstruction, any difference is solely coming from different underlying mechanism in their flux evaluation. Therefore, such a comparison is important to help us to understand the correspondence between physical modeling and numerical performances. Since GRP is so faithfully solving the inviscid Euler equations, the comparison can be also used to show the validity of solving the Euler equations itself. The numerical comparison shows that the GRP exhibits a slightly better computational efficiency, and has comparable accuracy with GKS for the Euler solutions in 1D case, but the GKS is more robust than GRP. For the 2D high Mach number flow simulations, the GKS is absent from the shock instability and converges to the steady state solutions faster than the GRP. The GRP has carbuncle phenomena, likes a cloud hanging over exact Riemann solvers. The GRP and GKS use different physical processes to describe the flow motion starting from a discontinuity. One is based on the assumption of equilibrium state with infinite number of particle collisions, and the other starts from the non-equilibrium free transport process to evolve into an
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter V.
1974-01-01
Flow in air conditioned r ooms is examined by means of model experiments . The different gearnetries giving unsteady, steady three- dimensional and steady twodimensional flow are determined . Velacity profiles and temperature profiles are measured in some of the geometries. A numerical solution...... of the flow equations is demonstrated and the flow in air conditioned rooms in case of steady two dimensional flow is predi cted. Compari son with measured results is shown i n the case of small Archimedes numbers, and predictions are shown at high Archimedes numbers. A numerical prediction of f low and heat...
Compression behavior of a ferritic-martensitic Cr-Mo steel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zhenbo; Mishin, Oleg; Pantleon, Wolfgang
2012-01-01
The compression behavior of a ferritic-martensitic Cr-Mo steel is characterized for strain rates ranging from 10-4 s-1 to 10-1 s-1 and engineering strains up to 40%. Adiabatic heating causes a reduction in flow stress during continuous compression at a strain rate of 10-1 s-1. No reduction...... in the flow stress is observed if interrupted compression tests are performed with loading and holding steps. Two work-hardening stages with work-hardening rates decreasing linearly with the flow stress are identified and interpreted in terms of the KocksMecking model. The microstructural evolution...
Understanding void fraction in steady state and dynamic environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chexal, B.; Maulbetsch, J.; Harrison, J.; Petersen, C.; Jensen, P.; Horowitz, J.
1997-01-01
Understanding void fraction behavior in steady-state and dynamic environments is important to accurately predict the thermal-hydraulic behavior of two-phase or two-component systems. The Chexal-Lellouche (C-L) void fraction mode described herein covers the full range of pressures, flows, void fractions, and fluid types (steam-water, air-water, and refrigerants). A drift flux model formulation is used which covers the complete range of concurrent and countercurrent flows. The (1996) model revises the earlier C-L void fraction correlation, improves the capability of the model in countercurrent flow based on the incorporation of additional data, and improves the characteristics of the correlation that are important in transient programs. The model has been qualified with data from a number of steady state two-phase and two-component tests, and has been incorporated into the transient analysis code RELAP5 and RETRAN-3D and evaluated with a variety of transient and steady state tests. A 'plug-in' module for the void fraction correlation has been developed and implemented in RELAP5 and RETRAN-3D. The module is available as source code for inclusion into other thermal-hydraulic programs and can be used in any program that utilizes the same interface variables
Dynamics of lava flow - Thickness growth characteristics of steady two-dimensional flow
Park, S.; Iversen, J. D.
1984-01-01
The thickness growth characteristics of flowing lava are investigated using a heat balance model and a two-dimensional model for flow of a Bingham plastic fluid down an inclined plane. It is found that yield strength plays a crucial role in the thickening of a lava flow of given flow rate. To illustrate this point, downstream thickness profiles and yield strength distributions were calculated for flows with mass flow rates of 10,000 and 100,000 kg/m-sec. Higher flow rates led to slow cooling rates which resulted in slow rate of increase of yield strength and thus greater flow lengths.
Waxy crude oil flow restart ability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sierra, Andre Gaona; Varges, Priscilla Ribeiro; Mendes, Paulo Roberto de Souza [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: prvarges@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br; Ziglio, Claudio [PETROBRAS S.A, R.J., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ziglio@petrobras.com.br
2010-07-01
Under the hot reservoir conditions, waxy crudes behave like Newtonian fluids but once they experience very cold temperatures on the sea floor, the heavy paraffin's begin to precipitate from the solution impacting non- Newtonian flow behavior to the crude (Chang 2000, Lee 2009, Davidson 2004) and begin to deposit on the pipe wall leave blocked of pipeline. This gel cannot be broken with the original steady state flow operating pressure applied before gelation (Chang 1998). Restarting waxy crude oil flows in pipelines is a difficult issue because of the complex rheological behavior of the gelled oil. Indeed, below the WAT, the gelled oil exhibits viscoplastic, thixotropic, temperature-dependent, and compressible properties due to the interlocking gel-like structure formed by the crystallized paraffin compounds and the thermal shrinkage of the oil. The main objective of this work is to determine the minimal pressure to restart the flow, and the relationship between the fluid rheology , pipe geometry and the restart pressure of the flow. Experiments will be performed to investigate the displacement of carbopol aqueous solutions (viscoplastic fluid without thixotropic effects) by Newtonian oil flowing through a strait pipe to validate the experimental apparatus. Therefore, tests will be made with different fluids, like Laponite and waxy crude oils. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Encina Llamas, Gerard; M. Harte, James; Epp, Bastian
2015-01-01
. Evaluation of these properties provides information about the health state of the system. It has been shown that a loss of outer hair cells leads to a reduction in peripheral compression. It has also recently been shown in animal studies that noise over-exposure, producing temporary threshold shifts, can....... The results indicate that the slope of the ASSR level growth function can be used to estimate peripheral compression simultaneously at four frequencies below 60 dB SPL, while the slope above 60 dB SPL may provide information about the integrity of intensity coding of low-SR fibers.......The compressive nonlinearity of the auditory system is assumed to be an epiphenomenon of a healthy cochlea and, particularly, of outer-hair cell function. Another ability of the healthy auditory system is to enable communication in acoustical environments with high-level background noises...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, N.; Mara, N.A.; Wang, Y.Q.; Nastasi, M.; Misra, A.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → Firstly micro-pillar compression technique has been used to measure the implanted metal films. → The magnitude of radiation hardening decreased with decreasing layer thickness. → When thickness decreases to 2.5 nm, no hardening and no loss in deformability after implantation. -- Focused-ion-beam machined compression specimens were used to investigate the effect of nanometer-scale helium bubbles on the strength and deformability of sputter-deposited Cu and Cu/Nb multilayers with different layer thickness. The flow strength of Cu films increased by more than a factor of 2 due to helium bubbles but in multilayers, the magnitude of radiation hardening decreased with decreasing layer thickness. When the layer thickness decreases to 2.5 nm, insignificant hardening and no measurable loss in deformability is observed after implantation.
Muralidharan, Balaji; Menon, Suresh
2018-03-01
A high-order adaptive Cartesian cut-cell method, developed in the past by the authors [1] for simulation of compressible viscous flow over static embedded boundaries, is now extended for reacting flow simulations over moving interfaces. The main difficulty related to simulation of moving boundary problems using immersed boundary techniques is the loss of conservation of mass, momentum and energy during the transition of numerical grid cells from solid to fluid and vice versa. Gas phase reactions near solid boundaries can produce huge source terms to the governing equations, which if not properly treated for moving boundaries, can result in inaccuracies in numerical predictions. The small cell clustering algorithm proposed in our previous work is now extended to handle moving boundaries enforcing strict conservation. In addition, the cell clustering algorithm also preserves the smoothness of solution near moving surfaces. A second order Runge-Kutta scheme where the boundaries are allowed to change during the sub-time steps is employed. This scheme improves the time accuracy of the calculations when the body motion is driven by hydrodynamic forces. Simple one dimensional reacting and non-reacting studies of moving piston are first performed in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method. Results are then reported for flow past moving cylinders at subsonic and supersonic velocities in a viscous compressible flow and are compared with theoretical and previously available experimental data. The ability of the scheme to handle deforming boundaries and interaction of hydrodynamic forces with rigid body motion is demonstrated using different test cases. Finally, the method is applied to investigate the detonation initiation and stabilization mechanisms on a cylinder and a sphere, when they are launched into a detonable mixture. The effect of the filling pressure on the detonation stabilization mechanisms over a hyper-velocity sphere launched into a hydrogen
Valentine, Greg A.; Sweeney, Matthew R.
2018-02-01
Many geological flows are sourced by falling gas-particle mixtures, such as during collapse of lava domes, and impulsive eruptive jets, and sustained columns, and rock falls. The transition from vertical to lateral flow is complex due to the range of coupling between particles of different sizes and densities and the carrier gas, and due to the potential for compressible flow phenomena. We use multiphase modeling to explore these dynamics. In mixtures with small particles, and with subsonic speeds, particles follow the gas such that outgoing lateral flows have similar particle concentration and speed as the vertical flows. Large particles concentrate immediately upon impact and move laterally away as granular flows overridden by a high-speed jet of expelled gas. When a falling flow is supersonic, a bow shock develops above the impact zone, and this produces a zone of high pressure from which lateral flows emerge as overpressured wall jets. The jets form complex structures as the mixtures expand and accelerate and then recompress through a recompression zone that mimics a Mach disk shock in ideal gas jets. In mixtures with moderate to high ratios of fine to coarse particles, the latter tend to follow fine particles through the expansion-recompression flow fields because of particle-particle drag. Expansion within the flow fields can lead to locally reduced gas pressure that could enhance substrate erosion in natural flows. The recompression zones form at distances, and have peak pressures, that are roughly proportional to the Mach numbers of impacting flows.
Impulsively started, steady and pulsated annular inflows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdel-Raouf, Emad [General Field Engineer, Halliburton Energy Services 719 Hangar Dr, New Iberia, LA 70560, United States of America (United States); Sharif, Muhammad A R; Baker, John, E-mail: abdelraouf.em@gmail.com, E-mail: msharif@eng.ua.edu, E-mail: john.baker@eng.ua.edu [Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics Department, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487, United States of America (United States)
2017-04-15
A computational investigation was carried out on low Reynolds number laminar inflow starting annular jets using multiple blocking ratios and atmospheric ambient conditions. The jet exit velocity conditions are imposed as steady, unit pulsed, and sinusoidal pulsed while the jet surroundings and the far-field jet inlet upstream conditions are left atmospheric. The reason is to examine the flow behavior in and around the jet inlet under these conditions. The pulsation mode behavior is analyzed based on the resultant of the momentum and pressure forces at the entry of the annulus, the circulation and vortex formation, and the propulsion efficiency of the inflow jets. The results show that under certain conditions, the net force of inflow jets (sinusoidal pulsed jets in particular) could point opposite to the flow direction due to the adverse pressure drops in the flow. The propulsion efficiency is also found to increase with pulsation frequency and the sinusoidal pulsed inflow jets are more efficient than the unit pulsed inflow jets. In addition, steady inflow jets did not trigger the formation of vortices, while unit and sinusoidal pulsed inflow jets triggered the formation of vortices under a certain range of frequencies. (paper)
Practical approach on gas pipeline compression system availability analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, Sidney Pereira dos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kurz, Rainer; Lubomirsky, Matvey [Solar Turbines, San Diego, CA (United States)
2009-12-19
Gas pipeline projects traditionally have been designed based on load factor and steady state flow. This approach exposes project sponsors to project sustainability risks due to potential losses of revenues and transportation contract penalties related to pipeline capacity shortage as consequence of compressor unit's unavailability. Such unavailability should previously be quantified during the design phase. This paper presents a case study and a methodology that highlights the practical benefits of applying Monte Carlo simulation for the compression system availability analysis in conjunction with quantitative risk analysis and economic feasibility study. Project economics main variables and their impacts on the project NPV (Net Present Value) are evaluated with their respective statistics distribution to quantify risk and support decision makers to adopt mitigating measures to guarantee competitiveness while protecting project sponsors from otherwise unpredictable risks. This practical approach is compared to load factor approach and the results are presented and evaluated. (author)
A method of automatic control of the process of compressing pyrogas in olefin production
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Podval' niy, M.L.; Bobrovnikov, N.R.; Kotler, L.D.; Shib, L.M.; Tuchinskiy, M.R.
1982-01-01
In the known method of automatically controlling the process of compressing pyrogas in olefin production by regulating the supply of cooling agents to the interstage coolers of the compression unit depending on the flow of hydrocarbons to the compression unit, to raise performance by lowering deposition of polymers on the flow through surfaces of the equipment, the coolant supply is also regulated as a function of the flows of hydrocarbons from the upper and lower parts of the demethanizer and the bottoms of the stripping tower. The coolant supply is regulated proportional to the difference between the flow of stripping tower bottoms and the ratio of the hydrocarbon flow from the upper and lower parts of the demethanizer to the hydrocarbon flow in the compression unit. With an increase in the proportion of light hydrocarbons (sum of upper and lower demethanizer products) in the total flow of pyrogas going to compression, the flow of coolant to the compression unit is reduced. Condensation of the given fractions in the separators, their amount in condensate going through the piping to the stripping tower, is reduced. With the reduction in the proportion of light hydrocarbons in the pyrogas, the flow of coolant is increased, thus improving condensation of heavy hydrocarbons in the separators and removing them from the compression unit in the bottoms of the stripping tower.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa, Gustavo Koury
2004-11-15
Although incompressible fluid flows can be regarded as a particular case of a general problem, numerical methods and the mathematical formulation aimed to solve compressible and incompressible flows have their own peculiarities, in such a way, that it is generally not possible to attain both regimes with a single approach. In this work, we start from a typically compressible formulation, slightly modified to make use of pressure variables and, through augmenting the stabilising parameters, we end up with a simplified model which is able to deal with a wide range of flow regimes, from supersonic to low speed gas flows. The resulting methodology is flexible enough to allow for the simulation of liquid flows as well. Examples using conservative and pressure variables are shown and the results are compared to those published in the literature, in order to validate the method. (author)
Saturated-unsaturated flow to a partially penetrating well with storage in a compressible aquifer
Mishra, P. K.; Neuman, S. P.
2010-12-01
Mishra and Neuman [2010] developed an analytical solution for flow to a partially penetrating well of zero radius in a compressible unconfined aquifer that allows inferring its saturated and unsaturated hydraulic properties from responses recorded in the saturated and/or the unsaturated zone. We extend their solution to the case of a finite diameter pumping well with storage. Both solutions account for horizontal as well as vertical flows throughout the system. We investigate the effects of storage in the pumping well and delayed piezometer response on drawdowns in the saturated and unsaturated zones as functions of position and time; validate our solution against numerical simulations of drawdown in a synthetic aquifer having unsaturated properties described by the van Genuchten - Mualem constitutive model; and use our solution to analyze drawdown data from a pumping test conducted at the Borden site in Ontario, Canada.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kwok, Kawai; Boccaccini, Dino; Persson, Åsa Helen
2016-01-01
The effective steady-state creep response of porous metals is studied by numerical homogenization and analytical modeling in this paper. The numerical homogenization is based on finite element models of three-dimensional microstructures directly reconstructed from tomographic images. The effects ...... model, and closely matched by the Gibson-Ashby compression and the Ramakrishnan-Arunchalam creep models. [All rights reserved Elsevier]....
Topology of Flow Separation on Three-Dimensional Bodies
Chapman, Gary T.; Yates, Leslie A.
1991-01-01
In recent years there has been extensive research on three-dimensional flow separation. There are two different approaches: the phenomenological approach and a mathematical approach using topology. These two approaches are reviewed briefly and the shortcomings of some of the past works are discussed. A comprehensive approach applicable to incompressible and compressible steady-state flows as well as incompressible unsteady flow is then presented. The approach is similar to earlier topological approaches to separation but is more complete and in some cases adds more emphasis to certain points than in the past. To assist in the classification of various types of flow, nomenclature is introduced to describe the skin-friction portraits on the surface. This method of classification is then demonstrated on several categories of flow to illustrate particular points as well as the diversity of flow separation. The categories include attached, two-dimensional separation and three different types of simple, three-dimensional primary separation, secondary separation, and compound separation. Hypothetical experiments are utilized to illustrate the topological terminology and its role in characterizing these flows. These hypothetical experiments use colored oil injected onto the surface at singular points in the skin-friction portrait. Actual flow-visualization information, if available, is used to corroborate the hypothetical examples.
Steady equilibrium of a cylindrically symmetric plasma sustained by fueling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomita, Yukihiro; Momota, Hiromu
1993-01-01
By introducing a novel and natural method to obtain a steady equilibrium, it is shown that a pressure gradient produced by the particle injection or resultant diamagnetic current can sustain only an equilibrium of a diffused linear pinch. For an extremely elongated FRC where magnetic field vanishes at a certain point, a seed current is needed to sustain configuration in a steady state equilibrium. A directed flow of fusion produced protons forms a seed current and consequently it sustains a steady FRC equilibrium by fueling only once D- 3 He burning takes place. Effects of anomalous transports on the sustainment are discussed. (author)
Effects of water compressibility on the pressure fluctuation prediction in pump turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yin, J L; Wang, D Z; Wang, L Q; Wu, Y L; Wei, X Z
2012-01-01
The compressible effect of water is a key factor in transient flows. However, it is always neglected in the unsteady simulations for hydraulic machinery. In light of this, the governing equation of the flow is deduced to combine the compressibility of water, and then simulations with compressible and incompressible considerations to the typical unsteady flow phenomenon (Rotor stator interaction) in a pump turbine model are carried out and compared with each other. The results show that water compressibility has great effects on the magnitude and frequency of pressure fluctuation. As the operating condition concerned, the compressibility of water will induce larger pressure fluctuation, which agrees better with measured data. Moreover, the lower frequency component of the pressure signal can only be captured with the combination of water compressibility. It can be concluded that water compressibility is a fatal factor, which cannot be neglected in the unsteady simulations for pump turbines.
Whittenberger, J. D.; Wirth, G.
1983-01-01
Swaging between 750 and 1050 C has been investigated as a means to introduce work into the directionally solidified eutectic alloy gamma/gamma prime-alpha (Ni-32.3 wt percent Mo-6.3 wt percent Al) and increase the elevated temperature creep strength. The 1000 C slow plastic compressive flow stress-strain rate properties in air of as-grown, annealed, and worked nominally 10 and 25 percent materials have been determined. Swaging did not improve the slow plastic behavior. In fact large reductions tended to degrade the strength and produced a change in the deformation mechanism from uniform flow to one involving intense slip band formation. Comparison of 1000 C tensile and compressive strength-strain rate data reveals that deformation is independent of the stress state.
Steadiness of a “water bell” surface to a destruction at a flow around of the thin rods assembly
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Slesareva Ekaterina
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The experimental research of hydrodynamic stability of a dome-shaped film liquid at a flow around a thin plate has been carried out. Experiments were carry out with a film in shape a «water bell». The film was formed by a leak-in jet of water width 10 mm on a hard disk with diameter 14.5 mm. The width of a plate ζ changed from 0.05 to 3.5 mm. The plate placed along or across relative to the vector of velocity of a liquid in a film. Experiments have shown, that stability of a film of liquid at a flow around the plate is defined by velocity of water and a thickness of a film δ in front of the rod. It is shown, that for the appointed value of Reynolds number Reδ probably continuous flow at a flow around the plate, if Weber number Weζ less than threshold value. The criterion of steadiness a film of the «water bell» by a surface destruction at a flow around the rod is determined on the transverse size of the rod relative to the vector of velocity of a liquid.
A Schur complement method for compressible two-phase flow models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dao, Thu-Huyen; Ndjinga, Michael; Magoules, Frederic
2014-01-01
In this paper, we will report our recent efforts to apply a Schur complement method for nonlinear hyperbolic problems. We use the finite volume method and an implicit version of the Roe approximate Riemann solver. With the interface variable introduced in [4] in the context of single phase flows, we are able to simulate two-fluid models ([12]) with various schemes such as upwind, centered or Rusanov. Moreover, we introduce a scaling strategy to improve the condition number of both the interface system and the local systems. Numerical results for the isentropic two-fluid model and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in various 2D and 3D configurations and various schemes show that our method is robust and efficient. The scaling strategy considerably reduces the number of GMRES iterations in both interface system and local system resolutions. Comparisons of performances with classical distributed computing with up to 218 processors are also reported. (authors)
Morris, Paul D; Silva Soto, Daniel Alejandro; Feher, Jeroen F A; Rafiroiu, Dan; Lungu, Angela; Varma, Susheel; Lawford, Patricia V; Hose, D Rodney; Gunn, Julian P
2017-08-01
Fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided percutaneous intervention is superior to standard assessment but remains underused. The authors have developed a novel "pseudotransient" analysis protocol for computing virtual fractional flow reserve (vFFR) based upon angiographic images and steady-state computational fluid dynamics. This protocol generates vFFR results in 189 s (cf >24 h for transient analysis) using a desktop PC, with <1% error relative to that of full-transient computational fluid dynamics analysis. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that physiological lesion significance was influenced less by coronary or lesion anatomy (33%) and more by microvascular physiology (59%). If coronary microvascular resistance can be estimated, vFFR can be accurately computed in less time than it takes to make invasive measurements.
Hejranfar, Kazem; Parseh, Kaveh
2017-09-01
The preconditioned characteristic boundary conditions based on the artificial compressibility (AC) method are implemented at artificial boundaries for the solution of two- and three-dimensional incompressible viscous flows in the generalized curvilinear coordinates. The compatibility equations and the corresponding characteristic variables (or the Riemann invariants) are mathematically derived and then applied as suitable boundary conditions in a high-order accurate incompressible flow solver. The spatial discretization of the resulting system of equations is carried out by the fourth-order compact finite-difference (FD) scheme. In the preconditioning applied here, the value of AC parameter in the flow field and also at the far-field boundary is automatically calculated based on the local flow conditions to enhance the robustness and performance of the solution algorithm. The code is fully parallelized using the Concurrency Runtime standard and Parallel Patterns Library (PPL) and its performance on a multi-core CPU is analyzed. The incompressible viscous flows around a 2-D circular cylinder, a 2-D NACA0012 airfoil and also a 3-D wavy cylinder are simulated and the accuracy and performance of the preconditioned characteristic boundary conditions applied at the far-field boundaries are evaluated in comparison to the simplified boundary conditions and the non-preconditioned characteristic boundary conditions. It is indicated that the preconditioned characteristic boundary conditions considerably improve the convergence rate of the solution of incompressible flows compared to the other boundary conditions and the computational costs are significantly decreased.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, M.
2007-09-01
Maldistribution of liquid-vapour two phase flows causes a significant decrease of the thermal and hydraulic performance of evaporators in thermodynamic vapour compression cycles. A first experimental installation was used to visualize the two phase flow evolution between the expansion valve and the evaporator inlet. A second experimental set-up simulating a compact heat exchanger has been designed to identify the functional and geometrical parameters creating the best distribution of the two phases in the different channels. An analysis and a comprehension of the relation between the geometrical and functional parameters with the flow pattern inside the header and the two phase distribution, has been established. A numerical simulations of a stratified flow and a stratified jet flow have been carried out using two CFD codes: FLUENT and NEPTUNE. In the case of a fragmented jet configuration, a global definition of the interfacial area concentration for a separated phases and dispersed phases flow has been established and a model calculating the fragmented mass fraction has been developed. (author)
Flow processes at low temperatures in ultrafine-grained aluminum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chinh, Nguyen Q.; Szommer, Peter; Csanadi, Tamas; Langdon, Terence G.
2006-01-01
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the flow behavior of pure aluminum at low temperatures. Samples were processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) to give a grain size of ∼1.2 μm and compression samples were cut from the as-pressed billets and tested over a range of strain rates at temperatures up to 473 K. The results show the occurrence of steady-state flow in these highly deformed samples and a detailed analysis gives a low strain rate sensitivity and an activation energy similar to the value for grain boundary diffusion. By using depth-sensing indentation testing and atomic force microscopy, it is shown that grain boundary sliding occurs in this material at low temperatures. This result is attributed to the presence of high-energy non-equilibrium boundaries in the severely deformed samples
Methods of computing steady-state voltage stability margins of power systems
Chow, Joe Hong; Ghiocel, Scott Gordon
2018-03-20
In steady-state voltage stability analysis, as load increases toward a maximum, conventional Newton-Raphson power flow Jacobian matrix becomes increasingly ill-conditioned so power flow fails to converge before reaching maximum loading. A method to directly eliminate this singularity reformulates the power flow problem by introducing an AQ bus with specified bus angle and reactive power consumption of a load bus. For steady-state voltage stability analysis, the angle separation between the swing bus and AQ bus can be varied to control power transfer to the load, rather than specifying the load power itself. For an AQ bus, the power flow formulation is only made up of a reactive power equation, thus reducing the size of the Jacobian matrix by one. This reduced Jacobian matrix is nonsingular at the critical voltage point, eliminating a major difficulty in voltage stability analysis for power system operations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dhole, S.D.; Chhabra, R.P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Eswaran, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India)
2006-03-15
The effects of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers on the heat transfer characteristics of an unconfined sphere for different thermal boundary conditions (isothermal and isoflux) on the sphere surface have been investigated numerically by using a finite volume method for the range of conditions as 5=
AbuAlSaud, Moataz
2012-07-01
The purpose of this thesis is to solve unsteady two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for a moving mesh using implicit explicit (IMEX) Runge- Kutta scheme. The moving mesh is implemented in the equations using Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulation. The inviscid part of the equation is explicitly solved using second-order Godunov method, whereas the viscous part is calculated implicitly. We simulate subsonic compressible flow over static NACA-0012 airfoil at different angle of attacks. Finally, the moving mesh is examined via oscillating the airfoil between angle of attack = 0 and = 20 harmonically. It is observed that the numerical solution matches the experimental and numerical results in the literature to within 20%.
Verhulst, Kristof; Cardinaels, Ruth; Renardy, Yuriko; Moldenaers, Paula
2008-07-01
The steady deformation and orientation of droplets in shear flow, both under bulk and confined conditions, is microscopically studied for blends with one viscoelastic phase and a viscosity ratio of 1.5. The experiments are performed with a Linkam shearing cell and a counter rotating setup, based on a Paar Physica MCR300. For bulk shear flow, it is shown that matrix viscoelasticity suppresses droplet deformation and promotes droplet orientation towards the flow direction. Interestingly, these effects saturate at Deborah numbers above 2. For ellipsoidal droplets, viscoelasticity of the droplet fluid hardly affects the droplet deformation and droplet orientation, even up to Deborah numbers as high as 16. When the droplet is confined between two plates, the droplet deformation and the orientation towards the flow direction increase with confinement ratio, as in fully Newtonian systems. At a Deborah number of 1, the effect of component viscoelasticity under confined conditions remains qualitatively the same as under bulk conditions, at least up to a confinement ratio 2R/H of 0.6. The experiments under bulk conditions are compared with the predictions of phenomenological models, such as the Maffettone-Minale model, for droplet deformation. The Shapira-Haber model, which analytically describes the effects of the walls on the droplet deformation for fully Newtonian systems, is used to describe the experimental results under confinement. Here, this model is combined with the bulk phenomenological models to include bulk viscoelasticity effects. Under the present conditions, the adapted Shapira-Haber model describes the steady droplet deformation under confinement rather well. Finally, the experimentally obtained droplet shapes are compared with the results of 3D simulations, performed with a volume-of-fluid algorithm.
Yang, L M; Shu, C; Wang, Y
2016-03-01
In this work, a discrete gas-kinetic scheme (DGKS) is presented for simulation of two-dimensional viscous incompressible and compressible flows. This scheme is developed from the circular function-based GKS, which was recently proposed by Shu and his co-workers [L. M. Yang, C. Shu, and J. Wu, J. Comput. Phys. 274, 611 (2014)]. For the circular function-based GKS, the integrals for conservation forms of moments in the infinity domain for the Maxwellian function-based GKS are simplified to those integrals along the circle. As a result, the explicit formulations of conservative variables and fluxes are derived. However, these explicit formulations of circular function-based GKS for viscous flows are still complicated, which may not be easy for the application by new users. By using certain discrete points to represent the circle in the phase velocity space, the complicated formulations can be replaced by a simple solution process. The basic requirement is that the conservation forms of moments for the circular function-based GKS can be accurately satisfied by weighted summation of distribution functions at discrete points. In this work, it is shown that integral quadrature by four discrete points on the circle, which forms the D2Q4 discrete velocity model, can exactly match the integrals. Numerical results showed that the present scheme can provide accurate numerical results for incompressible and compressible viscous flows with roughly the same computational cost as that needed by the Roe scheme.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kokh Samuel
2012-04-01
Full Text Available We propose a method dedicated to the simulation of interface flows involving an arbitrary number m of compressible components. Our task is two-fold: we first introduce a m-component flow model that generalizes the two-material five-equation model of [2,3]. Then, we present a discretization strategy by means of a Lagrange-Remap [8,10] approach following the lines of [5,7,12]. The projection step involves an anti-dissipative mechanism derived from [11,12]. This feature allows to prevent the numerical diffusion of the material interfaces. We present two-dimensional simulation results of three-material flow. Nous proposons une méthode de simulation pour des écoulements comportant un nombre arbitraire m de composants compressibles séparés par des interfaces. Nous procdons en deux tapes : tout d’abord nous introduisons un modèle d’écoulementm composants qui généralise le modèle à cinq équations de [2,3]. Ensuite nous présentons une stratégie de discrétisation de type Lagrange-Projection [8,10] inspirée de [5,7,12]. La phase de projection met en œuvre une technique de transport anti-diffusive [11,12] qui permet de limiter la diffusion numérique des interfaces matérielles. Nous présentons des résultats de calcul bidimensionnel d’écoulement à trois composants.
Bond graph modeling of centrifugal compression systems
Uddin, Nur; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy
2015-01-01
A novel approach to model unsteady fluid dynamics in a compressor network by using a bond graph is presented. The model is intended in particular for compressor control system development. First, we develop a bond graph model of a single compression system. Bond graph modeling offers a different perspective to previous work by modeling the compression system based on energy flow instead of fluid dynamics. Analyzing the bond graph model explains the energy flow during compressor surge. Two pri...
Program for Analyzing Flows in a Complex Network
Majumdar, Alok Kumar
2006-01-01
Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) version 4 is a general-purpose computer program for analyzing steady-state and transient flows in a complex fluid network. The program is capable of modeling compressibility, fluid transients (e.g., water hammers), phase changes, mixtures of chemical species, and such externally applied body forces as gravitational and centrifugal ones. A graphical user interface enables the user to interactively develop a simulation of a fluid network consisting of nodes and branches. The user can also run the simulation and view the results in the interface. The system of equations for conservation of mass, energy, chemical species, and momentum is solved numerically by a combination of the Newton-Raphson and successive-substitution methods.
Modelling of hot air chamber designs of a continuous flow grain dryer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjær, Lotte Strange; Poulsen, Mathias; Sørensen, Kim
2018-01-01
The pressure loss, flow distribution and temperature distribution of a number of designs of the hot air chamber in a continuous flow grain dryer, were investigated using CFD. The flow in the dryer was considered as steady state, compressible and turbulent. It is essential that the grain...... is uniformly dried as uneven drying can result in damage to the end-product during storage. The original commercial design was modified with new guide vanes at the inlets to reduce the pressure loss and to ensure a uniform flow to the line burner in the hot air chamber. The new guide vane design resulted...... in a 10% reduction in pressure loss and a γ-value of 0.804. Various design changes of the hot air chamber were analysed in terms of pressure loss and temperature distribution with the aim of a temperature variation of 5 K at the outlet ducts. An obstruction design was analysed, which improved mixing...
Development of a Three-Dimensional Unstructured Euler Solver for High-Speed Flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tudorel Petronel AFILIPOAE
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the solution of the compressible Euler equations on hexahedral meshes for supersonic and hypersonic flows. Spatial discretization is accomplished by a cell-centered finite-volume formulation which employs two different upwind schemes for the computation of convective fluxes. Second-order solutions are attained through a linear state reconstruction technique that yields highly resolved flows in smooth regions while providing a sharp and clean resolution of shocks. The solution gradients required for the higher-order spatial discretization are estimated by a least-square method while Venkatakrishnan limiter is employed to preserve monotonicity and avoid oscillations in the presence of shocks. Furthermore, solutions are advanced in time by an explicit third-order Runge-Kutta scheme and convergence to steady state is accelerated using implicit residual smoothing. Flow around a circular arc in a channel and flow past a circular cylinder are studied and results are presented for various Mach numbers together with comparisons to theoretical and experimental data where possible.
Modifying intake flow to increase EGR tolerance in an Internal Combustion Engine
Rubio, Daniel; Drabo, Mebougna; Puzinauskas, Paul
2010-11-01
The worldwide effort to reduce vehicle emissions and increase fuel efficiencies has continuously intensified as the need to improve air quality and reduce fuel consumption becomes more acute. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a method that has long been employed to reduce combustion temperatures and therefore reduce thermal NOx formation and accommodate higher compression ratios and more optimum combustion phasing for improved efficiency. Generally the effective EGR level as a percent of trapped charge is limited by its affect on combustion stability. Inducing flow structures such as swirl, squish and tumble in the trapped charge have proven to extend this EGR limit in homogeneous charge spark-ignited engines at part load, but this enhancement has not been significantly studied at full loads in such engines. This research explored modifying the intake flow into an engine to create tumble and evaluate its effect at high loads in such engines. This exploration included characterizing the flow on a steady flow bench and quantifying the results using engine dynamometer tests.
The steady part of the secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field
Bloxham, Jeremy
1992-01-01
The secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field results from the effects of magnetic induction in the fluid outer core and from the effects of magnetic diffusion in the core and the mantle. Adequate observations to map the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary extend back over three centuries, providing a model of the secular variation at the core-mantle boundary. Here we consider how best to analyze this time-dependent part of the field. To calculate steady core flow over long time periods, we introduce an adaptation of our earlier method of calculating the flow in order to achieve greater numerical stability. We perform this procedure for the periods 1840-1990 and 1690-1840 and find that well over 90 percent of the variance of the time-dependent field can be explained by simple steady core flow. The core flows obtained for the two intervals are broadly similar to each other and to flows determined over much shorter recent intervals.
Lagrangian investigations of vorticity dynamics in compressible turbulence
Parashar, Nishant; Sinha, Sawan Suman; Danish, Mohammad; Srinivasan, Balaji
2017-10-01
In this work, we investigate the influence of compressibility on vorticity-strain rate dynamics. Well-resolved direct numerical simulations of compressible homogeneous isotropic turbulence performed over a cubical domain of 10243 are employed for this study. To clearly identify the influence of compressibility on the time-dependent dynamics (rather than on the one-time flow field), we employ a well-validated Lagrangian particle tracker. The tracker is used to obtain time correlations between the instantaneous vorticity vector and the strain-rate eigenvector system of an appropriately chosen reference time. In this work, compressibility is parameterized in terms of both global (turbulent Mach number) and local parameters (normalized dilatation-rate and flow field topology). Our investigations reveal that the local dilatation rate significantly influences these statistics. In turn, this observed influence of the dilatation rate is predominantly associated with rotation dominated topologies (unstable-focus-compressing, stable-focus-stretching). We find that an enhanced dilatation rate (in both contracting and expanding fluid elements) significantly enhances the tendency of the vorticity vector to align with the largest eigenvector of the strain-rate. Further, in fluid particles where the vorticity vector is maximally misaligned (perpendicular) at the reference time, vorticity does show a substantial tendency to align with the intermediate eigenvector as well. The authors make an attempt to provide physical explanations of these observations (in terms of moment of inertia and angular momentum) by performing detailed calculations following tetrads {approach of Chertkov et al. ["Lagrangian tetrad dynamics and the phenomenology of turbulence," Phys. Fluids 11(8), 2394-2410 (1999)] and Xu et al. ["The pirouette effect in turbulent flows," Nat. Phys. 7(9), 709-712 (2011)]} in a compressible flow field.
Colera, Manuel; Pérez-Saborid, Miguel
2017-09-01
A finite differences scheme is proposed in this work to compute in the time domain the compressible, subsonic, unsteady flow past an aerodynamic airfoil using the linearized potential theory. It improves and extends the original method proposed in this journal by Hariharan, Ping and Scott [1] by considering: (i) a non-uniform mesh, (ii) an implicit time integration algorithm, (iii) a vectorized implementation and (iv) the coupled airfoil dynamics and fluid dynamic loads. First, we have formulated the method for cases in which the airfoil motion is given. The scheme has been tested on well known problems in unsteady aerodynamics -such as the response to a sudden change of the angle of attack and to a harmonic motion of the airfoil- and has been proved to be more accurate and efficient than other finite differences and vortex-lattice methods found in the literature. Secondly, we have coupled our method to the equations governing the airfoil dynamics in order to numerically solve problems where the airfoil motion is unknown a priori as happens, for example, in the cases of the flutter and the divergence of a typical section of a wing or of a flexible panel. Apparently, this is the first self-consistent and easy-to-implement numerical analysis in the time domain of the compressible, linearized coupled dynamics of the (generally flexible) airfoil-fluid system carried out in the literature. The results for the particular case of a rigid airfoil show excellent agreement with those reported by other authors, whereas those obtained for the case of a cantilevered flexible airfoil in compressible flow seem to be original or, at least, not well-known.
Variable Frame Rate and Length Analysis for Data Compression in Distributed Speech Recognition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kraljevski, Ivan; Tan, Zheng-Hua
2014-01-01
This paper addresses the issue of data compression in distributed speech recognition on the basis of a variable frame rate and length analysis method. The method first conducts frame selection by using a posteriori signal-to-noise ratio weighted energy distance to find the right time resolution...... length for steady regions. The method is applied to scalable source coding in distributed speech recognition where the target bitrate is met by adjusting the frame rate. Speech recognition results show that the proposed approach outperforms other compression methods in terms of recognition accuracy...... for noisy speech while achieving higher compression rates....
Vortex Generators in a Streamline-Traced, External-Compression Supersonic Inlet
Baydar, Ezgihan; Lu, Frank K.; Slater, John W.; Trefny, Charles J.
2017-01-01
Vortex generators within a streamline-traced, external-compression supersonic inlet for Mach 1.66 were investigated to determine their ability to increase total pressure recovery and reduce total pressure distortion. The vortex generators studied were rectangular vanes arranged in counter-rotating and co-rotating arrays. The vane geometric factors of interest included height, length, spacing, angle-of-incidence, and positions upstream and downstream of the inlet terminal shock. The flow through the inlet was simulated numerically through the solution of the steady-state, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations on multi-block, structured grids using the Wind-US flow solver. The vanes were simulated using a vortex generator model. The inlet performance was characterized by the inlet total pressure recovery and the radial and circumferential total pressure distortion indices at the engine face. Design of experiments and statistical analysis methods were applied to quantify the effect of the geometric factors of the vanes and search for optimal vane arrays. Co-rotating vane arrays with negative angles-of-incidence positioned on the supersonic diffuser were effective in sweeping low-momentum flow from the top toward the sides of the subsonic diffuser. This distributed the low-momentum flow more evenly about the circumference of the subsonic diffuser and reduced distortion. Co-rotating vane arrays with negative angles-of-incidence or counter-rotating vane arrays positioned downstream of the terminal shock were effective in mixing higher-momentum flow with lower-momentum flow to increase recovery and decrease distortion. A strategy of combining a co-rotating vane array on the supersonic diffuser with a counter-rotating vane array on the subsonic diffuser was effective in increasing recovery and reducing distortion.
Jeong, Hyundoo; Qian, Xiaoning; Yoon, Byung-Jun
2016-10-06
Comparative analysis of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks provides an effective means of detecting conserved functional network modules across different species. Such modules typically consist of orthologous proteins with conserved interactions, which can be exploited to computationally predict the modules through network comparison. In this work, we propose a novel probabilistic framework for comparing PPI networks and effectively predicting the correspondence between proteins, represented as network nodes, that belong to conserved functional modules across the given PPI networks. The basic idea is to estimate the steady-state network flow between nodes that belong to different PPI networks based on a Markov random walk model. The random walker is designed to make random moves to adjacent nodes within a PPI network as well as cross-network moves between potential orthologous nodes with high sequence similarity. Based on this Markov random walk model, we estimate the steady-state network flow - or the long-term relative frequency of the transitions that the random walker makes - between nodes in different PPI networks, which can be used as a probabilistic score measuring their potential correspondence. Subsequently, the estimated scores can be used for detecting orthologous proteins in conserved functional modules through network alignment. Through evaluations based on multiple real PPI networks, we demonstrate that the proposed scheme leads to improved alignment results that are biologically more meaningful at reduced computational cost, outperforming the current state-of-the-art algorithms. The source code and datasets can be downloaded from http://www.ece.tamu.edu/~bjyoon/CUFID .
Schmid, L. A.
1977-01-01
The first and second variations are calculated for the irreducible form of Hamilton's Principle that involves the minimum number of dependent variables necessary to describe the kinetmatics and thermodynamics of inviscid, compressible, baroclinic flow in a specified gravitational field. The form of the second variation shows that, in the neighborhood of a stationary point that corresponds to physically stable flow, the action integral is a complex saddle surface in parameter space. There exists a form of Hamilton's Principle for which a direct solution of a flow problem is possible. This second form is related to the first by a Friedrichs transformation of the thermodynamic variables. This introduces an extra dependent variable, but the first and second variations are shown to have direct physical significance, namely they are equal to the free energy of fluctuations about the equilibrium flow that satisfies the equations of motion. If this equilibrium flow is physically stable, and if a very weak second order integral constraint on the correlation between the fluctuations of otherwise independent variables is satisfied, then the second variation of the action integral for this free energy form of Hamilton's Principle is positive-definite, so the action integral is a minimum, and can serve as the basis for a direct trail and error solution. The second order integral constraint states that the unavailable energy must be maximum at equilibrium, i.e. the fluctuations must be so correlated as to produce a second order decrease in the total unavailable energy.
A versatile embedded boundary adaptive mesh method for compressible flow in complex geometry
Almarouf, Mohamad Abdulilah Alhusain Alali
2017-02-25
We present an embedded ghost-fluid method for numerical solutions of the compressible Navier Stokes (CNS) equations in arbitrary complex domains. A PDE multidimensional extrapolation approach is used to reconstruct the solution in the ghost-fluid regions and imposing boundary conditions on the fluid-solid interface, coupled with a multi-dimensional algebraic interpolation for freshly cleared cells. The CNS equations are numerically solved by the second order multidimensional upwind method. Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement, implemented with the Chombo framework, is utilized to reduce the computational cost while keeping high resolution mesh around the embedded boundary and regions of high gradient solutions. The versatility of the method is demonstrated via several numerical examples, in both static and moving geometry, ranging from low Mach number nearly incompressible flows to supersonic flows. Our simulation results are extensively verified against other numerical results and validated against available experimental results where applicable. The significance and advantages of our implementation, which revolve around balancing between the solution accuracy and implementation difficulties, are briefly discussed as well.
A versatile embedded boundary adaptive mesh method for compressible flow in complex geometry
Almarouf, Mohamad Abdulilah Alhusain Alali; Samtaney, Ravi
2017-01-01
We present an embedded ghost-fluid method for numerical solutions of the compressible Navier Stokes (CNS) equations in arbitrary complex domains. A PDE multidimensional extrapolation approach is used to reconstruct the solution in the ghost-fluid regions and imposing boundary conditions on the fluid-solid interface, coupled with a multi-dimensional algebraic interpolation for freshly cleared cells. The CNS equations are numerically solved by the second order multidimensional upwind method. Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement, implemented with the Chombo framework, is utilized to reduce the computational cost while keeping high resolution mesh around the embedded boundary and regions of high gradient solutions. The versatility of the method is demonstrated via several numerical examples, in both static and moving geometry, ranging from low Mach number nearly incompressible flows to supersonic flows. Our simulation results are extensively verified against other numerical results and validated against available experimental results where applicable. The significance and advantages of our implementation, which revolve around balancing between the solution accuracy and implementation difficulties, are briefly discussed as well.
Spanogle, J A; Moore, C S
1931-01-01
Presented here are the results of performance tests made with a single-cylinder, four stroke cycle, compression-ignition engine. These tests were made on a precombustion chamber type of cylinder head designed to have air velocity and tangential air flow in both the chamber and cylinder. The performance was investigated for variable load and engine speed, type of fuel spray, valve opening pressure, injection period and, for the spherical chamber, position of the injection spray relative to the air flow. The pressure variations between the pear-shaped precombustion chamber and the cylinder for motoring and full load conditions were determined with a Farnboro electric indicator. The combustion chamber designs tested gave good mixing of a single compact fuel spray with the air, but did not control the ensuing combustion sufficiently. Relative to each other, the velocity of air flow was too high, the spray dispersion by injection too great, and the metering effect of the cylinder head passage insufficient. The correct relation of these factors is of the utmost importance for engine performance.
Abelairas-Gómez, Cristian; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio; Vilas-Pintos, Elisardo; Prieto Saborit, José Antonio; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto
2015-06-01
To describe the quality of chest compressions performed by secondary-school students trained with a realtime audiovisual feedback system. The learners were 167 students aged 12 to 15 years who had no prior experience with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). They received an hour of instruction in CPR theory and practice and then took a 2-minute test, performing hands-only CPR on a child mannequin (Prestan Professional Child Manikin). Lights built into the mannequin gave learners feedback about how many compressions they had achieved and clicking sounds told them when compressions were deep enough. All the learners were able to maintain a steady enough rhythm of compressions and reached at least 80% of the targeted compression depth. Fewer correct compressions were done in the second minute than in the first (P=.016). Real-time audiovisual feedback helps schoolchildren aged 12 to 15 years to achieve quality chest compressions on a mannequin.
Revisiting the Fundamentals and Capabilities of the Stack Compression Test
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alves, L.M.; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martin, P.A.F.
2011-01-01
performance by comparing the flow curves obtained from its utilisation with those determined by means of compressive testing carried out on solid cylinder specimens of the same material. Results show that mechanical testing of materials by means of the stack compression test is capable of meeting...... the increasing demand of accurate and reliable flow curves for sheet metals....
Experimental Observations of Natural Circulation Flow in the NSTF at Steady-State Conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lisowski, Darius D.; Farmer, Mitch T.
2014-01-01
A ½ scale test facility has been constructed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study the heat removal performance and natural circulation flow patterns in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). Our test facility, the Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF), supports the broader goal of developing an inherently safe and fully passive ex-vessel decay heat removal for advanced reactor designs. The project, initiated in 2010 to support the Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC), Small Modular Reactor (SMR), and Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) programs, has been conducting experimental operations since early 2014. The following paper provides a summary of some primary design features of the 26-m tall test facility along with a description of the data acquisition suite that guides our experimental practices. Specifics of the distributed fiber optic temperature measurements will be discussed, which introduces an unparalleled level of data density that has never before been implemented in a large scale natural circulation test facility. Results from our first test series will then be presented, which provide insight into the thermal hydraulic behavior at steady-state conditions for varying heat flux levels and exhaust chimney configuration states. (author)
Compressible flow in fluidic oscillators
Graff, Emilio; Hirsch, Damian; Gharib, Mory
2013-11-01
We present qualitative observations on the internal flow characteristics of fluidic oscillator geometries commonly referred to as sweeping jets in active flow control applications. We also discuss the effect of the geometry on the output jet in conditions from startup to supersonic exit velocity. Supported by the Boeing Company.
Aerodynamic drag reduction of a simplified squareback vehicle using steady blowing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Littlewood, R.P. [LaVisionUK Ltd, Grove, Oxon (United Kingdom); Passmore, M.A. [Loughborough University, Department of Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering, Loughborough (United Kingdom)
2012-08-15
A large contribution to the aerodynamic drag of a vehicle arises from the failure to fully recover pressure in the wake region, especially on squareback configurations. A degree of base pressure recovery can be achieved through careful shape optimisation, but the freedom of an automotive aerodynamicist to implement significant shape changes is limited by a variety of additional factors such styling, ergonomics and loading capacity. Active flow control technologies present the potential to create flow field modifications without the need for external shape changes and have received much attention in previous years within the aeronautical industry and, more recently, within the automotive industry. In this work the influence of steady blowing applied at a variety of angles on the roof trailing edge of a simplified 1/4 scale squareback style vehicle has been investigated. Hot-wire anemometry, force balance measurements, surface pressure measurements and PIV have been used to investigate the effects of the steady blowing on the vehicle wake structures and the resulting body forces. The energy consumption of the steady jet is calculated and is used to deduce an aerodynamic drag power change. Results show that overall gains can be achieved; however, the large mass flow rate required restricts the applicability of the technique to road vehicles. Means by which the mass flow rate requirements of the jet may be reduced are discussed and suggestions for further work put forward. (orig.)
Fan, Zhaoyang; Hodnett, Philip A; Davarpanah, Amir H; Scanlon, Timothy G; Sheehan, John J; Varga, John; Carr, James C; Li, Debiao
2011-08-01
: To develop a flow-sensitive dephasing (FSD) preparative scheme to facilitate multidirectional flow-signal suppression in 3-dimensional balanced steady-state free precession imaging and to validate the feasibility of the refined sequence for noncontrast magnetic resonance angiography (NC-MRA) of the hand. : A new FSD preparative scheme was developed that combines 2 conventional FSD modules. Studies using a flow phantom (gadolinium-doped water 15 cm/s) and the hands of 11 healthy volunteers (6 males and 5 females) were performed to compare the proposed FSD scheme with its conventional counterpart with respect to the signal suppression of multidirectional flow. In 9 of the 11 healthy subjects and 2 patients with suspected vasculitis and documented Raynaud phenomenon, respectively, 3-dimensional balanced steady-state free precession imaging coupled with the new FSD scheme was compared with spatial-resolution-matched (0.94 × 0.94 × 0.94 mm) contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (0.15 mmol/kg gadopentetate dimeglumine) in terms of overall image quality, venous contamination, motion degradation, and arterial conspicuity. : The proposed FSD scheme was able to suppress 2-dimensional flow signal in the flow phantom and hands and yielded significantly higher arterial conspicuity scores than the conventional scheme did on NC-MRA at the regions of common digitals and proper digitals. Compared with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography, the refined NC-MRA technique yielded comparable overall image quality and motion degradation, significantly less venous contamination, and significantly higher arterial conspicuity score at digital arteries. : The FSD-based NC-MRA technique is improved in the depiction of multidirectional flow by applying a 2-module FSD preparation, which enhances its potential to serve as an alternative magnetic resonance angiography technique for the assessment of hand vascular abnormalities.