WorldWideScience

Sample records for steadily growing body

  1. Possibility of steadily growing per capita consumption in an economy with a wasting and non-replenishable resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H

    1976-01-01

    The Solow--Stiglitz model is modified to determine if factors other than the outstanding stock of the resource are related to per capita consumption and if technical improvements in productivity depend on investment. In the first modification, production is made dependent on the outstanding stock of a wasting resource in an economy based on a single aggregate industry producing a single consumer product. Consumption is found to follow a constant path as long as the share of capital remains greater than the share of the resource. In the second modification, no technical improvements are permitted without a research and development commitment. A set of restrictions on the parameters of the production function and the rate of population growth ensures that steadily growing per-capita consumption is feasible. 4 references.

  2. Multilingual Paraprofessionals: An Untapped Resource for Supporting American Pluralism. Pathways to Prosperity: Growing a Multilingual Teacher Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Conor P.; Garcia, Amaya; Connally, Kaylan; Cook, Shayna; Dancy, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The nation's linguistic diversity is growing steadily, particularly among the youngest children. A growing body of research shows that these children are most successful when they participate in bilingual instructional programs (such as dual immersion, transitional bilingual and other models). But as good as instructional language diversity might…

  3. Contoured inner after-heater shield for reducing stress in growing crystalline bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalejs, Juris P.

    1996-09-24

    An apparatus for growing hollow crystalline bodies by the EFG process, comprising an EFG die having a top surface shaped for growing a hollow crystalline body having a cross-sectional configuration in the shape of a polygon having n faces, and a radiation shield adjacent to and surrounded by the top end surface of the die, characterized in that the shield has an inner edge defining a similar polygon with n sides, and the inner edge of the shield is notched so that the spacing between the n faces and the n sides is greatest between the central portions of the n faces and the n sides, whereby the greater spacing at the central portions helps to reduce lateral temperature gradients in the crystalline body that is grown by use of the die.

  4. [Anxiety and body image among women growing up in families with addiction problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelek, Agnieszka; Betkowska-Korpała, Barbara; Jabłoński, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the correlation between body image and anxiety symptoms as well as psychological discomfort experienced by women growing up in alcoholic families. The group of 61 women (27 years old on average) was surveyed with Body Self Questionnaire and MMPI-2 personality test questionnaires and the results were measured on Scale 7 (Pt). All the participants also attended psychotherapy sessions focused on disorders resulting from growing up in families with alcohol problems. The analysis showed negative correlation (p emotional spheres, as well as functioning cognitive schemes.

  5. Estimation of the protein synthesis rates of the whole body of growing broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, R.; Pahle, T.; Gruhn, K.; Zander, R.; Jeroch, H.; Gebhardt, G.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the investigations was to prove a method, developed for monogastric mammalians, based on a 3-compartment model and assuming a proportional growth of the pools of total N, whether it is applicable to growing poultry. The tracer, 15 N-L-lysine, was given quasi-continuously for four days. In this time and in the following period of five days without tracer intake, the 15 N excretion in the urine was measured. The average of the live weight of the broiler cockerels was 1724 g. The animals were colostomized for sampling the urine separately. Using the fluxes of lysine, the calculation of the whole-body protein synthesis rate was 64.1 g/d. The protein degradation rate was 54.4 g/d. The adequate values of the fractional rates of protein synthesis and degradation for the whole body (without feathers) were 23.3% and 19.8%, resp. Thus it is clearly shown, that the method applied gives real data of the parameters of the N metabolism for growing broilers, being in the range of values for muscle proteins and proteins of the whole body of growing poultry, published by other authors. (author)

  6. Content of selected elements in Boletus badius fruiting bodies growing in extremely polluted wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Mikołajczak, Patrycja; Gąsecka, Monika; Sobieralski, Krzysztof; Szymańczyk, Mateusz; Goliński, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse levels of 17 trace elements and 5 major minerals in 11 Boletus badius fruiting bodies able to grow in extremely polluted waste (flotation tailings) and polluted soil in southern Poland. The presented data widen the limited literature data about the abilities of wild-growing mushroom species to grow on heavily contaminated substrates. Content of elements in waste, soil and mushrooms was analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS - Hg). The industrial areas differed greatly as regards the content of elements in flotation tailings and soil; therefore differences in Ag, Ba, Cd, Co, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ca, K, Mg, Na and P accumulation in mushrooms were observed. The highest contents of elements in mushrooms were observed for: As, Al, Cu and Zn (86 ± 28, 549 ± 116, 341 ± 59 and 506 ± 40 mg kg(-1) dry matter, respectively). Calculated bioconcentration factor (BCF) values were higher than 1 for Al (15.1-16.9), Fe (10.6-24.4) and Hg (10.2-16.4) only. The main value of the presented results is the fact that one of the common wild-growing mushroom species was able to grow on flotation tailings containing over 22 g kg(-1) of As and, additionally, effective accumulation of other elements was observed. In view of the high content of the majority of analysed elements in fruiting bodies, edible mushrooms from such polluted areas are nonconsumable.

  7. Growing Disparities in Life Expectancy. Economic and Budget Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, Joyce; Topoleski, Julie

    2008-01-01

    In a continuation of long-term trends, life expectancy has been steadily increasing in the United States for the past several decades. Accompanying the recent increases, however, is a growing disparity in life expectancy between individuals with high and low income and between those with more and less education. The difference in life expectancy…

  8. A two-stage rule-constrained seedless region growing approach for mandibular body segmentation in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Dong Xu; Foong, Kelvin Weng Chiong; Ong, Sim Heng

    2013-09-01

    Extraction of the mandible from 3D volumetric images is frequently required for surgical planning and evaluation. Image segmentation from MRI is more complex than CT due to lower bony signal-to-noise. An automated method to extract the human mandible body shape from magnetic resonance (MR) images of the head was developed and tested. Anonymous MR images data sets of the head from 12 subjects were subjected to a two-stage rule-constrained region growing approach to derive the shape of the body of the human mandible. An initial thresholding technique was applied followed by a 3D seedless region growing algorithm to detect a large portion of the trabecular bone (TB) regions of the mandible. This stage is followed with a rule-constrained 2D segmentation of each MR axial slice to merge the remaining portions of the TB regions with lower intensity levels. The two-stage approach was replicated to detect the cortical bone (CB) regions of the mandibular body. The TB and CB regions detected from the preceding steps were merged and subjected to a series of morphological processes for completion of the mandibular body region definition. Comparisons of the accuracy of segmentation between the two-stage approach, conventional region growing method, 3D level set method, and manual segmentation were made with Jaccard index, Dice index, and mean surface distance (MSD). The mean accuracy of the proposed method is [Formula: see text] for Jaccard index, [Formula: see text] for Dice index, and [Formula: see text] mm for MSD. The mean accuracy of CRG is [Formula: see text] for Jaccard index, [Formula: see text] for Dice index, and [Formula: see text] mm for MSD. The mean accuracy of the 3D level set method is [Formula: see text] for Jaccard index, [Formula: see text] for Dice index, and [Formula: see text] mm for MSD. The proposed method shows improvement in accuracy over CRG and 3D level set. Accurate segmentation of the body of the human mandible from MR images is achieved with the

  9. An assembly of steadily translating bubbles in a Hele–Shaw channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowdy, Darren

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents new solutions for any finite number of bubbles steadily translating along a Hele–Shaw channel. This constitutes a nonlinear free boundary problem. The solutions can be written down explicitly in terms of a special transcendental function called the Schottky–Klein prime function. This work generalizes the exact solutions for a single bubble in a channel found by Tanveer (1987 Phys. Fluids 30 651–8) as well as the solutions for streams of bubbles aligned along the channel centreline due to Vasconcelos (1994 Phys. Rev. E 50 R3306–9)

  10. Travelling-wave similarity solutions for a steadily translating slender dry patch in a thin fluid film

    KAUST Repository

    Yatim, Y. M.; Duffy, B. R.; Wilson, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    A novel family of three-dimensional travelling-wave similarity solutions describing a steadily translating slender dry patch in an infinitely wide thin fluid film on an inclined planar substrate when surface-tension effects are negligible

  11. Modelling of nutrient partitioning in growing pigs to predict their anatomical body composition. 1. Model description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halas, V.; Dijkstra, J.; Babinszky, L.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic mechanistic model was developed for growing and fattening pigs. The aim of the model was to predict growth rate and the chemical and anatomical body compositions from the digestible nutrient intake of gilts (20-105 kg live weight). The model represents the partitioning of digestible

  12. Body weight and reproductive parameters in fast and weak growing Awassi ram lambs during different age stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkawi, Moutaz; Al-Daker, Al-Moutassem Billah

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out on 30 Syrian Awassi ram lambs around 3 months of age. Lambs were divided equally in 2 groups as fast growing (FG) and weak growing (WG) lambs to identify body weight and reproductive parameters in each group during different age stages. Blood samples were collected to determine testosterone and leptin concentrations using radioimmunoassay. At puberty, average body weight and age of FG and WG lambs was 52.4 and 43.1 kg, and 225.9 and 248.0 days, respectively, with a significant (P age (below 1.0 nmol L(-1)) and increased with advancing age with a sharp increase occurring at 7 months of age and at puberty, averages were 12.58 and 11.86 nmol L(-1) for FG and WG groups, respectively, with no significant (P > 0.05) differences. At puberty, average leptin concentration was 3.16 and 2.98 ng mL(-1) for FG and WG groups, respectively, with no significant (P > 0.05) difference.

  13. The Afromontane Research Unit—Growing as a Hub of Transdisciplinary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza le Roux

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Afromontane Research Unit (ARU at the University of the Free State's Qwaqwa campus in South Africa has a steadily growing reputation as a leading research unit on sustainable development in Afromontane regions. Learning from international experts, researchers in this unit have focused on multi- and transdisciplinary scientific approaches to the challenges faced by montane communities. The ARU is therefore strongly attuned to the global research focus on complex systems approaches, as it acknowledges that the Sustainable Development Goals cannot be reached by a “business as usual” approach.

  14. High-resolution gamma spectroscopy with whole-body and partial-body counters. Experience, recommendations. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahre, P.

    1997-12-01

    The application of high-resolution gamma spectroscopy with whole-body and partial-body counters shows a steadily rising upward trend over the last few years. This induced the ''Arbeitskreis Inkorporationsueberwachung'' of the association ''Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V.'' to organise a meeting for joint elaboration of a guide on recommended applications of this measuring technique, based on a review of existing experience and results. A key item on the agenda of the meeting was the comparative evaluation of the Ge semiconductor detector and the NaI solid scintillation detector. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Supplies should match growing demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmusen, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The natural gas industry is currently enjoying healthy growth prospects. Not only is the demand for natural gas steadily growing; the outlook for increasing gas reserves is promising as well. The success of natural gas in the marketplace reflects, on one hand, continuous attention paid to public and customer requirements and, on the other hand, the ability of the gas industry to direct technological developments toward the increasing public demand for gas at competitive market prices supplied in a reliable, safe and environmentally friendly manner. In the past, the gas industry has been involved in the development of technologies for everything from gas production to the end user and from borehole to burner tip, and the author believes that the industry must continue or even increase its emphasis on technology in the future in order to capture new market opportunities. He explains this by looking at the supply side, the demand side and the structural side of the business

  16. Stirring by swimming bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiffeault, Jean-Luc; Childress, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    We consider the stirring of an inviscid fluid caused by the locomotion of bodies through it. The swimmers are approximated by non-interacting cylinders or spheres moving steadily along straight lines. We find the displacement of fluid particles caused by the nearby passage of a swimmer as a function of an impact parameter. We use this to compute the effective diffusion coefficient from the random walk of a fluid particle under the influence of a distribution of swimming bodies. We compare with the results of simulations. For typical sizes, densities and swimming velocities of schools of krill, the effective diffusivity in this model is five times the thermal diffusivity. However, we estimate that viscosity increases this value by two orders of magnitude.

  17. Neonatal irradiation nephropathy in the growing dog. I. Renal morphological and functional adaptations following neonatal, sublethal, whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, W.L.; Phemister, R.D.; Jaenke, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Sixty beagles were used to study the effects of exposure to 330 R 60 Co γ radiation (bilateral, whole-body) at 2 days of age on renal functional and morphological development in the growing dog. A significant deficit in grams kidney per kilogram body weight was found in irradiated dogs at 50 days of age (P < 0.05), but not at 125 or 200 days of age. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) per kilogram body weight and GFR per gram kidney were not significantly different between irradiated and nonirradiated dogs at 50, 125, or 200 days of age, but blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly elevated in irradiated dogs throughout this period (P < 0.05). The fractional distribution of intracortical renal blood flow, as determined by radiolabeled microspheres, to the outermost cortex was found to be reduced in irradiated animals at all ages evaluated (P < 0.05). The fractional blood flow to the outermost renal cortex was negatively correlated with BUN in both irradiated (P < 0.05) and nonirradiated (P < 0.05) animals. Based on prior demonstrations of reductions in nephron numbers following similar irradiation, these data indicate increases in mean single nephron GFR and nephronal hypertrophy in the kidneys of the neonatally irradiated dog. The renal functional and morphological adaptations are sufficient to maintain adequate renal function in growing, neonatally irradiated dogs. The BUN elevations in irradiated dogs are believed to be related to changes in intracortical renal blood flow, rather than indicating renal insufficiency. The possible importance of the functional and morphological adaptations to the subsequent development of chronic renal failure in neonatally irradiated animals is discussed

  18. Effects of the administration of Lactobacilli on body growth and on the metabolic profile in growing Maltese goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiofalo, Vincenzo; Liotta, Luigi; Chiofalo, Biagina

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of some lactobacilli on body growth and on the metabolic-nutritional status in growing goat kids. Twenty growing Maltese goat kids (10 Control and 10 Bios) were studied. The animals of the Bios group received a concentrate including 1 g x kg(-1) of SEB Bovino (spray-dried), Akron S.r.l., Italy, with non bacterial components: gum arabic, soybean meal, silicate alum of magnesium, and with bacterial components: 10(11) cfu kg(-1) each of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus reuteri. Monthly, bio-metric and weight evaluations were carried out on each animal and individual blood samples were taken. The Bios group showed the highest body weight (Control 19 vs. Bios 23 kg P < 0.001), anamorphosis (Control 71 vs. Bios 78 P < 0.05) and body proportion (Control 35 vs. Bios 41 P < 0.001) indices; the lowest levels of Non Esterified Fatty Acids (Control 0.778 vs. Bios 0.403 mmol L(-1) P < 0.001), triglycerides (Control 0.21 vs. Bios 0.18 mmol L(-1) P < 0.05), urea (Control 8.83 vs. Bios 7.65 mmol L(-1) P < 0.05) and the highest levels of Alkaline Phosphatase (Control 270 vs. Bios 851 U L(-1) P < 0.01) and Creatine Kinase (Control 173 vs. Bios 285 U L(-1) P < 0.01). The results testify to the better metabolic activity of the Bios group which achieved, at the end of the trial (7 months old), about 99% of the morphological development of the adult, therefore an adequate structure for mating and going into production within the first year of life.

  19. Protect Your Health as You Grow Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you get older. It’s important to: Keep your body and mind active Choose healthy foods Get enough sleep Talk to your doctor ... Just like physical activity is good for your body, activities that challenge your ... your brain healthy. As you grow older, it's important to: Learn ...

  20. Bursting bodies of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls.......A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls....

  1. Attitudes of the medical profession to whole body and organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Connor; Bowden, Dermot; Molony, Diarmuid; Burke, Neil; Felle, Patrick; Dudeney, Sean

    2014-04-01

    Cadaveric dissection remains an important part of undergraduate medical education in anatomy. In a concerted effort to rise the number of doctors in practice in Ireland the amount of medical school placements has been increased steadily since 1995. This poses a problem as the number of cadavers has remained unchanged despite an overall increase in the population Ireland over the last twenty years. The medical profession plays a central part in raising public awareness of living and post-mortem organ donation. Previous studies have examined the attitudes of medical students to whole body donation, however to our knowledge this is the first study that evaluates the attitudes of medical professionals. We assess the opinions of junior and senior doctors at the time of their dissection experience and in their current practice. We show that their attitudes have changed as their clinical experience grows. Copyright © 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Travelling-wave similarity solutions for a steadily translating slender dry patch in a thin fluid film

    KAUST Repository

    Yatim, Y. M.

    2013-01-01

    A novel family of three-dimensional travelling-wave similarity solutions describing a steadily translating slender dry patch in an infinitely wide thin fluid film on an inclined planar substrate when surface-tension effects are negligible is obtained, the flow being driven by gravity and/or a prescribed constant shear stress on the free surface of the film. For both driving mechanisms, the dry patch has a parabolic shape (which may be concave up or concave down the substrate), and the film thickness increases monotonically away from the contact lines to its uniform far-field value. The two most practically important cases of purely gravity-driven flow and of purely surface-shear-stress-driven flow are analysed separately. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  3. Microwave radiation (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress: Whole-body exposure effect on histopathology of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Parul; Verma, H N; Sisodia, Rashmi; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Man-made microwave and radiofrequency (RF) radiation technologies have been steadily increasing with the growing demand of electronic appliances such as microwave oven and cell phones. These appliances affect biological systems by increasing free radicals, thus leading to oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on histology and the level of lipid peroxide (LPO) in Wistar rats. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats with 180 ± 10 g body weight were used for this study. Animals were divided into two groups: sham exposed (control) and microwave exposed. These animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 35 d to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation (power density, 0.2 mW/cm 2 ). The whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.14 W/kg. After completion of the exposure period, rats were sacrificed, and brain, liver, kidney, testis and spleen were stored/preserved for determination of LPO and histological parameters. Significantly high level of LPO was observed in the liver (p body microwave exposure, compared to the control group. Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that exposure to microwave radiation 2 h a day for 35 d can potentially cause histopathology and oxidative changes in Wistar rats. These results indicate possible implications of such exposure on human health.

  4. Influence of dietary amino acid level on chemical body composition and performance of growing-finishing boars of two sire lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Caroline; Berk, Andreas; Müller, Simone; Weber, Manfred; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-12-01

    There is only little information available concerning the chemical body composition of growing-finishing boars. For that reason, a total of 26 entire male pigs (boars) of two different Piétrain sire lines were fed with different levels of dietary essential amino acids (EAA) and the influence of this treatment on performance and chemical body composition was evaluated. In addition, an initial group of eight boars (n = 4 per sire line) was slaughtered at approximately 21 kg live weight (LW). The other 26 boars were fed three different diets containing 11.5, 13.2 and 14.9 g lysine/kg during the grower period and 9.0, 10.4, 11.7 g lysine/kg during the finisher period, respectively. Other EAA were added in relation to lysine (Lys: Met + Cys: Thr: Trp: Val = 1: 0.60: 0.65: 0.18: 0.75). At a LW of approximately 122 kg these 26 boars (six groups with three to seven animals each) were also slaughtered. The effects of EAA level and sire line on fattening and slaughter performance was recorded, and body and weight gain composition were analysed. There were no significant effects of EAA level on performance or on chemical body composition. Boars sired with Piétrain line 1 demonstrated increased lean meat content and protein body content (p < 0.05) as compared to Piétrain line 2-sired boars.

  5. Performance Of Growing Pigs And Finisher Broilers Housed Together

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and cost of feeding young growing pigs and finisher broilers under integrated broiler/pig production system were investigated. Four young growing pigs (the control) were housed in pen A and fed 4% of their body weight as commercial growers feed. Another 4 were housed in pen B with broilers in ...

  6. Proper knowledge about the growing fat; Himan ni kansuru tadashii chishiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamot, Yoichi

    1999-07-01

    Body fat is substituted for the energy adopted redundantly in the inside of the body, and the deep diabetes which relates to the increase in the fat person and this, high blood pressure, high fat blood diseases, ventilation and so-called life habit sicknesses such as an arteriosclerosis disease have been increasing. It thinks with growing fat when it wants it understood why it grows fat as to something as to that fearfulness about growing fat properly. The health making based on the individual and the weight control can't be missed to get the rich old age, which it lives through the middle age. (NEDO)

  7. Carcass traits and meat quality of different slow growing and fast growing broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oblakova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The experiment was conducted in the breeder farm of department Population genetics, reproduction and technologies of poultry and rabbits at the Agriculture Institute of Stara Zagora. Five lines from the National Gene Pool of Bulgaria: line Ss (Sussex, line E (Barred Plymouth Rock, line NG (New Hampshire, line F (NG x Red Rhode Island, line L (White Plymouth Rock were used as maternal forms in the crossing schedule and line M (Cornish as a paternal form for production of slow-growing broilers. The birds were grown to 84 days. Feeding was done with compound feeds according to the age: starter (1/14 days of age, grower (14/28 days of age, finisher (28/84 days of age. By the end of the experiment, slaughter analysis was performed with 3 female and 3 male broiler chickens per group with live weight corresponding to the average of each genotype. The live weight was determined, as well as the grill weight, the weights of cuts (breast, thighs, wings, edible offal (heart, liver, gizzard and abdominal fat. On the basis of these data, the slaughter yield and body parts ratios were calculated. The data for the live body weights of birds at slaughtering indicated the highest values for group V – 4040g, followed by groups ІV and ІІ – 3271.67g and 3186.67g, respectively (p<0.05. There was a statistically significant difference between the sexes with superiority of male birds (p<0.001. In the other 3 groups, breast meat percentage ranged from 19.48 to 19.84%. The share of thighs from the grill was the greatest in slow-growing chickens from group II – 33.01%, followed by group І – 32.35%, group IV – 32.18%, and the lowest- in groups ІІІ and V (31.91% and 31.18%, respectively. The analysis of data exhibited a significant effect of the genotype on water content of breast meat (resp. Dry matter, with lower values in slow-growing birds from group III – 73.19% (p<0.05, whereas in the other groups it ranged between 73.44 and 73.62%. The

  8. Central Asia in Asia: Charting growing trans-regional linkages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola P. Contessi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the so-called ‘Asian Century’ unfolds, Central Asian countries are increasingly directing their foreign relations eastward. Meanwhile, Asian states are equally turning to Central Asia in their search for energy resources and new markets. This dual dynamic is giving rise to closer and deeper ties in three key areas. As far as infrastructures are concerned, various Asian powers have adopted Silk Road policies that see Central Asia as a fundamental transit route for their long-haul connectivity projects. In the field of trade, Central Asia's exchanges with other Asian countries have been growing steadily since the 1990s, in some cases even coming to rival, in comparative terms, exchanges with the West. Lastly, in terms of multilateralism, Central Asia is increasingly enmeshed in a web of overlapping institutions with a strong Asian identity, coexisting with the region's Western institutional references. The article then problematizes this emerging pattern by sketching out some of the possible ramifications that could stem from the sustainment and consolidation of these trends for the international order and the global balance of power.

  9. Toward Self-Growing Soft Robots Inspired by Plant Roots and Based on Additive Manufacturing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ali; Mondini, Alessio; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we present a novel class of robots that are able to move by growing and building their own structure. In particular, taking inspiration by the growing abilities of plant roots, we designed and developed a plant root-like robot that creates its body through an additive manufacturing process. Each robotic root includes a tubular body, a growing head, and a sensorized tip that commands the robot behaviors. The growing head is a customized three-dimensional (3D) printer-like system that builds the tubular body of the root in the format of circular layers by fusing and depositing a thermoplastic material (i.e., polylactic acid [PLA] filament) at the tip level, thus obtaining movement by growing. A differential deposition of the material can create an asymmetry that results in curvature of the built structure, providing the possibility of root bending to follow or escape from a stimulus or to reach a desired point in space. Taking advantage of these characteristics, the robotic roots are able to move inside a medium by growing their body. In this article, we describe the design of the growing robot together with the modeling of the deposition process and the description of the implemented growing movement strategy. Experiments were performed in air and in an artificial medium to verify the functionalities and to evaluate the robot performance. The results showed that the robotic root, with a diameter of 50 mm, grows with a speed of up to 4 mm/min, overcoming medium pressure of up to 37 kPa (i.e., it is able to lift up to 6 kg) and bending with a minimum radius of 100 mm.

  10. Changes of arterial blood pressure, heart rate, internal body temperature, and blood acido-basic balance in the unanaesthetized rabbit following whole-body gamma irradiation at a mean absorbed dose of 250 rads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufour, R.; Court, L.

    1973-09-01

    The general effects of whole-body gamma -irradiation at a mean absorbed dose of 250 rads were studied simultaneously in the unanaesthetized rabbit for 48 hours. They occurred early, with the following characteristics: arterial blood pressure decreased steadily as early as the 2nd hour and reached its minimum value on the 5th hour with a decrease of about 14%; it remained low during the following two days. Heart rate increased during the first hour, was the highest by the end of the second hour, and resumed normal value on the 24th hour. Internal body temperature increased during the 1st hour and was maximum by the end of the 2nd hour, with a mean increase of 1.2 deg C; hyperthermia steadily decreased between the 4th and the 6th hours and had completely disappeared by the 24th hour. Respiratory alkalosis is shown in the acido-basic balance by a raise of pH, a decrease of PCO/sub 2/ and arterial blood bicarbonates. These various changes seem to indicate a double origin, both central and peripheral. (FR)

  11. Design of wearable hybrid generator for harvesting heat energy from human body depending on physiological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Kyongtae; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2017-09-01

    We developed a prototype of a wearable hybrid generator (WHG) that is used for harvesting the heat energy of the human body. This WHG is constructed by integrating a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in a circular mesh polyester knit fabric, circular-shaped pyroelectric generator (PEG), and quick sweat-pickup/dry-fabric. The fabric packaging enables the TEG part of the WHG to generate energy steadily while maintaining a temperature difference in extreme temperature environments. Moreover, when the body sweats, the evaporation heat of the sweat leads to thermal fluctuations in the WHG. This phenomenon further leads to an increase in the output power of the WHG. These characteristics of the WHG make it possible to produce electrical energy steadily without reduction in the conversion efficiency, as both TEG and PEG use the same energy source of the human skin and the ambient temperature. Under a temperature difference of ˜6.5 °C and temperature change rate of ˜0.62 °C s-1, the output power and output power density of the WHG, respectively, are ˜4.5 nW and ˜1.5 μW m-2. Our hybrid approach will provide a framework to enhance the output power of the wearable generators that harvest heat energy from human body in various environments.

  12. Automated lung tumor segmentation for whole body PET volume based on novel downhill region growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballangan, Cherry; Wang, Xiuying; Eberl, Stefan; Fulham, Michael; Feng, Dagan

    2010-03-01

    We propose an automated lung tumor segmentation method for whole body PET images based on a novel downhill region growing (DRG) technique, which regards homogeneous tumor hotspots as 3D monotonically decreasing functions. The method has three major steps: thoracic slice extraction with K-means clustering of the slice features; hotspot segmentation with DRG; and decision tree analysis based hotspot classification. To overcome the common problem of leakage into adjacent hotspots in automated lung tumor segmentation, DRG employs the tumors' SUV monotonicity features. DRG also uses gradient magnitude of tumors' SUV to improve tumor boundary definition. We used 14 PET volumes from patients with primary NSCLC for validation. The thoracic region extraction step achieved good and consistent results for all patients despite marked differences in size and shape of the lungs and the presence of large tumors. The DRG technique was able to avoid the problem of leakage into adjacent hotspots and produced a volumetric overlap fraction of 0.61 +/- 0.13 which outperformed four other methods where the overlap fraction varied from 0.40 +/- 0.24 to 0.59 +/- 0.14. Of the 18 tumors in 14 NSCLC studies, 15 lesions were classified correctly, 2 were false negative and 15 were false positive.

  13. Chlordecone disappearance in tissues of growing goats after a one month decontamination period--effect of body fatness on chlordecone retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastel, Marie-Laure; Lerch, Sylvain; Fournier, Agnès; Jurjanz, Stefan; Mahieu, Maurice; Archimède, Harry; Feidt, Cyril; Rychen, Guido

    2016-02-01

    Chlordecone (CLD) is an organochlorine pesticide whose extended use led to the contamination of at least 20% of agricultural soils from the French West Indies. Livestock reared on polluted areas are involuntary contaminated by CLD and their level of contamination may exceed the threshold values set by the European Union. Thus, characterizing the CLD behaviour in farm animals appear as a real issue in terms of food safety for local populations. The aim of this experiment was (i) to characterize the CLD disappearance in various tissues after exposure cessation and (ii) to evaluate the potential effect of body fatness on this process. Two groups of eight growing goats were submitted to either a basal diet or a high energy diet for 50 days before being intravenously contaminated with 1 mg CLD kg(-1) body weight. Two days after CLD contamination, half of the kids of each experimental group were slaughtered in order to determine pollutant levels in the serum, liver, adipose tissues, and empty carcass. The remaining animals were submitted to a 30-day decontamination period before slaughtering and measurements as described above. The implemented nutritional plan resulted in both groups of kids with significant differences in terms of body fatness. CLD was mainly concentrated in the liver of animals as described in the literature. It was found also in kids' empty carcass and adipose tissues; however its levels in the empty carcass (muscles and bones) were unexpected since they were higher than in fat. These results indicate that the lipophilic pollutant CLD is found mainly in liver but also in muscles and fat. Concerning the animals' depuration, a 30-d decontamination period was sufficient to observe a decrease of CLD levels by more than 75% in both experimental groups and neither CLD concentrations nor CLD amounts were significantly affected by kids' body fatness.

  14. Body Covering and Body Image: A Comparison of Veiled and Unveiled Muslim Women, Christian Women, and Atheist Women Regarding Body Checking, Body Dissatisfaction, and Eating Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Leonie; Hartmann, Andrea S; Becker, Julia C; Kişi, Melahat; Waldorf, Manuel; Vocks, Silja

    2018-02-21

    Although Islam is the fastest growing religion worldwide, only few studies have investigated body image in Muslim women, and no study has investigated body checking. Therefore, the present study examined whether body image, body checking, and disordered eating differ between veiled and unveiled Muslim women, Christian women, and atheist women. While the groups did not differ regarding body dissatisfaction, unveiled Muslim women reported more checking than veiled Muslim and Christian women, and higher bulimia scores than Christian. Thus, prevention against eating disorders should integrate all women, irrespective of religious affiliation or veiling, with a particular focus on unveiled Muslim women.

  15. The impact of feeding growing-finishing pigs with daily tailored diets using precision feeding techniques on animal performance, nutrient utilization, and body and carcass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, I; Pomar, C; Rivest, J; Pomar, J; Lovatto, P A; Radünz Neto, J

    2014-09-01

    The impact of moving from conventional to precision feeding systems in growing-finishing pig operations on animal performance, nutrient utilization, and body and carcass composition was studied. Fifteen animals per treatment for a total of 60 pigs of 41.2 (SE = 0.5) kg of BW were used in a performance trial (84 d) with 4 treatments: a 3-phase (3P) feeding program obtained by blending fixed proportions of feeds A (high nutrient density) and B (low nutrient density); a 3-phase commercial (COM) feeding program; and 2 daily-phase feeding programs in which the blended proportions of feeds A and B were adjusted daily to meet the estimated nutritional requirements of the group (multiphase-group feeding, MPG) or of each pig individually (multiphase-individual feeding, MPI). Daily feed intake was recorded each day and pigs were weighed weekly during the trial. Body composition was assessed at the beginning of the trial and every 28 d by dual-energy X-ray densitometry. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretion was estimated as the difference between retention and intake. Organ, carcass, and primal cut measurements were taken after slaughter. The COM feeding program reduced (P carcass, and primal cut weights did not differ among treatments. Feeding growing-finishing pigs with daily tailored diets using precision feeding techniques is an effective approach to reduce nutrient excretion without compromising pig performance or carcass composition.

  16. Be steadily on the progress, be in pursuit of brilliance. For deep understanding the development tendency of quality management in nuclear geologic exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiuying

    2006-01-01

    A new knowledge economy era driven by brings forth new ideas in science-technology and marked by quality innovation as an important element has come. At present, a great upsurge of quality management represented by outstanding quality management models such as Liuxigma management, outstanding achievement-effect evaluation and quality management system etc. are spreading throughout the world like a raging fire. Enterprises of nuclear geological exploration must be steadily on the progress, to strengthen quality management, to guarantee the successful fulfillment of tasks in uranium resources exploration by outstanding achievements. (authors)

  17. Effect of Cobalt Supplementation on Performance of growing Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Nagabhushana

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to study the effect of critical supplementation of wheat straw with cobalt on fibre utilization and nutrient utilization in growing cross-bred male calves. Twenty-one crossbred (HF X Local male growing calves of 3-4 months age were fed with wheat straw based diet consisting without (Co0 and with 1 (Co1 and 6 (Co6 ppm cobalt as cobaltous chloride. There was no significant difference in intake of wheat straw, concentrate and DMI between the three groups and the ratio between concentrate and wheat straw was maintained at 40:60 irrespective of dietary level of cobalt. Similarly, average cumulative body weight, net gain in body weight or feed efficiency did not differ significantly between treatments. No significant effect was observed on the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract and fibre constituents like NDF, ADF, hemicellulose or cellulose by supplementation of 1 and 6 ppm Co to the diet of growing calves. Balance of nutrients such as Nitrogen, Calcium and Phosphorus was similar and positive in all the treatment groups. TDN and DCP values of the experimental diets remained almost similar irrespective of dietary level of cobalt. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(10.000: 299-302

  18. Impact of growing income inequality on sustainable development in China: a provincial-level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.B.M.; Ma, J.

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of literature has documented the rapidly increasing income disparities that accompanied China's economic growth in the 1980s and 1990s, and the driving factors behind this. Growing income inequality in its turn may have important implications for the accumulation of physical capital,

  19. Steady-state visually evoked potential correlates of human body perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giabbiconi, Claire-Marie; Jurilj, Verena; Gruber, Thomas; Vocks, Silja

    2016-11-01

    In cognitive neuroscience, interest in the neuronal basis underlying the processing of human bodies is steadily increasing. Based on functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, it is assumed that the processing of pictures of human bodies is anchored in a network of specialized brain areas comprising the extrastriate and the fusiform body area (EBA, FBA). An alternative to examine the dynamics within these networks is electroencephalography, more specifically so-called steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs). In SSVEP tasks, a visual stimulus is presented repetitively at a predefined flickering rate and typically elicits a continuous oscillatory brain response at this frequency. This brain response is characterized by an excellent signal-to-noise ratio-a major advantage for source reconstructions. The main goal of present study was to demonstrate the feasibility of this method to study human body perception. To that end, we presented pictures of bodies and contrasted the resulting SSVEPs to two control conditions, i.e., non-objects and pictures of everyday objects (chairs). We found specific SSVEPs amplitude differences between bodies and both control conditions. Source reconstructions localized the SSVEP generators to a network of temporal, occipital and parietal areas. Interestingly, only body perception resulted in activity differences in middle temporal and lateral occipitotemporal areas, most likely reflecting the EBA/FBA.

  20. Effect Of Grow-Apart Syndrome On The Head Diameter, Body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty fry each weighing 2.22 ± 1.22 g (mean ± s.e.m) from the indoor rearing exercise were stocked in each of nine 150 m3-capacity outdoor earthen ponds. These were similarly replicated and treated as in the indoor tanks but 40% crude protein crumbled artificial feed was used. The increase in body length ...

  1. Chaos in body-vortex interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    of a circle is integrable. As the body is made slightly elliptic, a chaotic region grows from an unstable relative equilibrium of the circle-vortex case. The case of a cylindrical body of any shape moving in fluid otherwise at rest is also integrable. A second transition to chaos arises from the limit between...... rocking and tumbling motion of the body known in this case. In both instances, the chaos may be detected both in the body motion and in the vortex motion. The effect of increasing body mass at a fixed body shape is to damp the chaos....

  2. Bringing the body into sport management research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoppers, Annelies; van Amsterdam, N.

    There is a growing body of work that draws attention to the role of bodies and of embodiment in organizations and in management. Sport management scholars seem to have largely ignored the body of sport managers as well as their embodiment, however. This is puzzling since sport management implies

  3. Childhood and family influences on body mass index in early adulthood: findings from the Ontario Child Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Boyle, Michael H; Georgiades, Katholiki; Duncan, Laura; Atkinson, Leslie R; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are steadily increasing worldwide with the greatest prevalence occurring in high-income countries. Many factors influence body mass index (BMI); however multiple influences assessed in families and individuals are rarely studied together in a prospective design. Our objective was to model the impact of multiple influences at the child (low birth weight, history of maltreatment, a history of childhood mental and physical conditions, and school difficu...

  4. EFFECTS OF RUN TRAINING ON BONE DEVELOPMENT AND BONE MINERALIZATION IN GROWING MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Gönül

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We planned to study the body weights, bone sizes and bone mineral (Ca, Mg, Zn contents of growing mice subjected to treadmill training. Twelve 4-week-old male Swiss Albino mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups. The mice were trained by running exercise on a flat bed treadmill with 15 m/min, 30 min/day motion, throughout 5 days per week, for 12 weeks. The body weight of animals, and length, fat-free dry weight and Ca, Mg, and Zn contents of bones were measured in both groups. Body weights of animals, and lengths and wet and dry weights of the femur and the tibia were significantly higher in the exercised group. Also, the Zn, Mg and Ca mineral contents of bones in the group that underwent exercise were higher than in the other group. Running exercise with a flat bed treadmill performed by the growing mice is an effective exercise mode, especially for bone morphology.

  5. Presumptive horizontal symbiont transmission in the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fine Licht, de H.H.; Boomsma, J.J.; Aanen, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    All colonies of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis studied so far are associated with a single genetically variable lineage of Termitomyces symbionts. Such limited genetic variation of symbionts and the absence of sexual fruiting bodies (mushrooms) on M. natalensis mounds would be

  6. Electrophoretic protein profiles of mid-sized copepod Calanoides patagoniensis steadily fed bloom-forming diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M Aguilera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent field and experimental evidence collected in the southern upwelling region off Concepción (36°5'S, 73°3'W showed an abrupt reduction (<72 h in the egg production rates (EPR of copepods when they were fed steadily and solely with the local bloom-forming diatom Thalassiosira rotula. Because diatoms were biochemically similar to dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum, a diet which supported higher reproductive outcomes, the fecundity reduction observed in copepod females fed with the diatom may have obeyed to post-ingestive processes, giving rise to resources reallocation. This hypothesis was tested by comparing feeding (clearance and ingestion rates, reproduction (EPR and hatching success and the structure of protein profiles (i.e., number and intensity of electrophoretic bands of copepods (adults and eggs incubated during 96 h with the two food conditions. The structure of protein profiles included molecular sizes that were calculated from the relative mobility of protein standards against the logarithm of their molecular sizes. After assessing the experimental conditions, feeding decreased over time for those females fed with T. rotula, while reproduction was higher in females fed with P. minimum. Electrophoretic profiles resulted similar mostly at a banding region of 100 to 89-kDa, while they showed partial differences around the region of 56-kDa band, especially in those females fed and eggs produced with T. rotula. Due to reproductive volume was impacted while larvae viability, a physiological processes with specific and high nutritional requirements, was independent on food type; post-ingestive processes, such as expression of stress-related proteins deviating resources to metabolic processes others than reproduction, are discussed under framework of nutritional-toxic mechanisms mediating copepod-diatoms relationships in productive upwelling areas.

  7. Protein and lipid accretion in body components of growing pigs : effects of body weight and nutrient intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, P.

    1994-01-01

    In pig production, optimization of the conversion of animal feeding-stuffs into body components, especially lean meat, requires knowledge of the response relationships between nutrient intake and animal performance. In this study, the separate effects of protein and energy intake on rate

  8. Growing Right Onto Wellness (GROW): a family-centered, community-based obesity prevention randomized controlled trial for preschool child-parent pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po'e, Eli K; Heerman, William J; Mistry, Rishi S; Barkin, Shari L

    2013-11-01

    Growing Right Onto Wellness (GROW) is a randomized controlled trial that tests the efficacy of a family-centered, community-based, behavioral intervention to prevent childhood obesity among preschool-aged children. Focusing on parent-child pairs, GROW utilizes a multi-level framework, which accounts for macro (i.e., built-environment) and micro (i.e., genetics) level systems that contribute to the childhood obesity epidemic. Six hundred parent-child pairs will be randomized to a 3-year healthy lifestyle intervention or a 3-year school readiness program. Eligible children are enrolled between ages 3 and 5, are from minority communities, and are not obese. The principal site for the GROW intervention is local community recreation centers and libraries. The primary outcome is childhood body mass index (BMI) trajectory at the end of the three-year study period. In addition to other anthropometric measurements, mediators and moderators of growth are considered, including genetics, accelerometry, and diet recall. GROW is a staged intensity intervention, consisting of intensive, maintenance, and sustainability phases. Throughout the study, parents build skills in nutrition, physical activity, and parenting, concurrently forming new social networks. Participants are taught goal-setting, self-monitoring, and problem solving techniques to facilitate sustainable behavior change. The GROW curriculum uses low health literacy communication and social media to communicate key health messages. The control arm is administered to both control and intervention participants. By conducting this trial in public community centers, and by implementing a family-centered approach to sustainable healthy childhood growth, we aim to develop an exportable community-based intervention to address the expanding public health crisis of pediatric obesity. © 2013.

  9. Metallosis: A complication in the guided growing rod system used in treatment of scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hyuk Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue reaction following metallic debris formation with the use of guided growing rod system has not been previously reported in human. The purpose of this study is to report complications caused by metallosis in a guided growing rod system. A 9-year-old female patient, who underwent treatment for the progressive idiopathic scoliosis (with Cobb's angle of 71° with the guided growing rod system. Her Cobb's angle was corrected to 13° with the index surgery. During the 5 years postoperative period, she manifested recurrent episodes of skin irritation and progressive worsening of lateral curvature of the spine to an angle of 57°. Furthermore, at her final followup, Risser stage 4 with a gain in height of 26.4 cm was achieved. Considering adequate growth attainment and deterioration in the curvature, revision surgery with fusion was performed. Postoperative Cobb's angle of 23° was achieved with the final correction. During the revisional surgery, signs of implant wear and metallosis were observed at the location of the unconstrained screws. On histological evaluation, chronic inflammation with foreign body granules was seen. However, titanium level in the body was within normal range. She was discharged without any complications. More research on implant wear as a complication in the guided growing rod system is necessary before its widespread use. The occurrence of metallosis with the use of guided growing rod system in growing young children should be considered, when designing the implants.

  10. Play School: Where Children and Families Learn and Grow Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Lori Berger

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of national research confirms that significant levels of learning and growth occur during early childhood, and that it is important, from a public policy perspective, to increase access to quality programs and services that support the development of skills and attitudes children need to succeed. Clearly, no one-size-fits-all…

  11. Homeschooling in the United States: A review of select research topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Gaither

    Full Text Available Abstract The U.S. homeschooling movement has grown steadily since the early 1980s. In that time, a growing body of academic literature has been published that assesses various aspects of the phenomenon. This article first explains some of the methodological issues surrounding this literature as it has developed. It then summarizes the findings of the literature with respect to the following topics: the history of homeschooling, demographics (including parental motivation, academic achievement, and transition to college/adulthood.

  12. Nutritional studies on growing rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.M.E.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This work was carried out to study the effect of adding drinking water with either, copper sulfate, ascorbic acid or drinking cooled water on growth performance (live body weight,body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and water consumption), digestibility coefficients of nutrients, carcass traits, some physiological parameters and economical efficiency of growing NZW rabbits under Egyptian summer conditions. Ninety six weanling New Zealand White (NZW) male rabbits at five weeks of age and nearly similar average body weight (650.3 ±3.7 g) were randomly divided into eight treatment groups (twelve rabbits in each group), and then each group was subdivided into four replicates, each of three rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to drinking water as follow: the 1 st group was given fresh tap water without any additives as a control. The 2 n d, 3 r d and 4 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with copper sulfate at levels of 40, 80 and 120 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 5 t h, 6 t h and 7 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with ascorbic acid at levels of 250, 500 and 750 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 8 t h group was given cooled drinking water (CW) at 10-15 degree C. Results showed that supplementation of 40 or 80 mg copper sulfate/L or 500 mg ascorbic acid/L to heat-stressed rabbits drinking water improved final live body weight, body weight gain, daily water consumption, feed conversion ratio, performance index and economical efficiency. Hot carcass percentage was significantly (P<0.01) decreased with 80 mg/L copper sulfate and increased significantly (P<0.01) due to supplementation the drinking water with 250 mg ascorbic acid/L. Cooled water (10-15 degree C) improved significantly (P<0.01) each of final body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, performance index, economical efficiency and decreased significantly (P<0.01) each of hot carcass %, dressed weight %, heart %, total giblets %, rectal

  13. Quantitative partition of protein, carbohydrate and fat pools in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Thorbek, G

    1995-01-01

    A model combining data from balance experiments with data from oxidation of nutrients demonstrating the pools of protein, carbohydrate and fat and their partition in the body was presented. Data from more than 200 experiments with growing pigs were used to fill up the "black boxes" in the model a...

  14. Grow, Baby, Grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybe you quit smoking during your pregnancy. Or maybe you struggled and weren’t able to stay quit. Now that your baby is here, trying to stay away from smoking is still important. That’s because the chemicals in smoke can make it harder for your baby to grow like he or she should.

  15. Parallelized Seeded Region Growing Using CUDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongjin Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for parallelizing the seeded region growing (SRG algorithm using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA technology, with intention to overcome the theoretical weakness of SRG algorithm of its computation time being directly proportional to the size of a segmented region. The segmentation performance of the proposed CUDA-based SRG is compared with SRG implementations on single-core CPUs, quad-core CPUs, and shader language programming, using synthetic datasets and 20 body CT scans. Based on the experimental results, the CUDA-based SRG outperforms the other three implementations, advocating that it can substantially assist the segmentation during massive CT screening tests.

  16. A rubber-degrading organism growing from a human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mohit; Prasad, Deepali; Khara, Harshit S; Alcid, David

    2010-01-01

    Patients with hematological malignancies are susceptible to unusual infections, because of the use of broad-spectrum anti-infective agents, invasive procedures, and other immunocompromising procedures and medications. Gordonia polyisoprenivorans, a ubiquitous environmental aerobic actinomycete belonging to the family of Gordoniaceae in the order Actinomycetales, is a very rare cause of bacteremia in these patients. We report the first case of pneumonia with associated bacteremia due to this organism, which was initially described in 1999 as a rubber-degrading bacterium following isolation from stagnant water inside a deteriorated automobile tire. We believe that hematologically immunocompromised patients on broad-spectrum antibiotics and with long-term central catheters select the possibility of infection with G. polyisoprenivorans. These infections can be prevented by handling catheters under aseptic conditions. We propose that blood cultures of persistently febrile neutropenic patients should be incubated for at least 4 weeks. Being a rare infection, there are no data available on treatment other than early removal of the foreign bodies. Copyright 2009 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Coal exports still growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the swings and roundabouts of the Asian economic shake out and Australian dollar devaluation are starting to work their way through the Australian export coal market. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, at this stage the results are not proving to be as bad as were at first predicted by some market watchers. Export revenue and tonnages are up 12% for the year to July 98. Coal exports totaling $9.5 billion left Australia's shores in the 12 months confirming coal as Australia's single largest export revenue earner. Sales volumes in the present financial year are still increasing, the market being driven by steadily increasing Asian demand for steaming coal from places like Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

  18. Mind-body therapies and control of inflammatory biology: A descriptive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Julienne E; Irwin, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    The use of mind-body therapies, including Tai Chi, Qigong, yoga, and meditation, has grown steadily in recent years. These approaches have been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms and improving quality of life, and research has begun to examine the impact of these therapies on biological processes, including inflammation. A review of 26 randomized controlled trials was conducted to describe the effects of mind-body therapies (MBTs) on circulating, cellular, and genomic markers of inflammation. This qualitative evaluation showed mixed effects of MBTs on circulating inflammatory markers, including CRP and IL-6, and on measures of stimulated cytokine production. More consistent findings were seen for genomic markers, with trials showing decreased expression of inflammation-related genes and reduced signaling through the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. Potential mechanisms for these effects are discussed, including alterations in neuroendocrine, neural, and psychological and behavioral processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Critical size for the grow of phases under irradiation: an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarce, Alicia

    1999-01-01

    The critical sizes d * a,c in the a and c-crystal directions for the grow of bcc β-85 wt % Nb precipitates in the hcp α-Zr (1 wt % Nb) matrix are calculated. The atomic interactions in the hcp α-Zr are represented with a many-body potential EAM2 based on the embedded atom method. The anisotropy of the diffusion of vacancies and interstitials in the lattice is explicitly included in calculations. The results are obtained at 560 K and at a displacement rate of about 1.4x10 -7 dpa/s. It is predicted that all particles will be able to grow in the plane perpendicular to c-crystal direction. Also, the particles could grow in this direction if the size d c > d * c . Then, the precipitates will have only a slightly anisotropic shape, with the smaller size parallel to c. (author)

  20. Exposure to vibrations in wine growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Pessina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Apart the winter period, the activity in specialized agricultural cultivations (i.e. wine- and fruit-growing is distributed for a long period of the year. Some tasks, such as pesticide distribution, are repeated several times during the growing season. On the other hand, mechanization is one of the pillars on which is based the modern agriculture management. As a consequence, in wine growing the tractor driver has to be considered a worker potentially subjected to high level of vibrations, due to the poor machinery conditions often encountered, and sometimes to the rough soil surface of the vineyard combined with the high travelling speed adopted in carrying out many operations. About vibrations, the Italian Decree 81/08 basically refers to the European Directive 2002/44/CE, that provides some very strict limits of exposure, both for whole body and hand-arm districts. In Oltrepo pavese, a large hilly area located the south part of the Pavia province (Lombardy - Italy wine growing is the main agricultural activity; for this reason, a detailed survey on the vibration levels recorded at the tractor driver’s seat was carried out, in order to ascertain the real risk to which the operators are exposed. The activity in wine growing has been classified into 6 groups of similar tasks, as follows: 1. canopy management: pruning, trimming, binding, stripping, etc.; 2. soil management: harrowing, hoeing, subsoiling etc.; 3. inter-row management: chopping of pruning , pinching, grass mowing, etc.; 4. crop protection: pesticides and fungicides distribution, sulfidation, foliar fertilization, etc.; 5. grape harvesting: manual or mechanical; 6. transport: from the vineyard to the cellar. For each group of tasks, the vibration levels on 3 the traditional axes (x, y and z were recorded, and then an exposure time was calculated for each of them, in order to ascertain the risk level in comparison to what provided by the dedicated standard. Finally, a detailed

  1. High-resolution gamma spectroscopy with whole-body and partial-body counters. Experience, recommendations. Report; Hochaufloesende Gamma-Spektrometrie an Ganz- und Teilkoerperzaehlern. Erfahrungen, Empfehlungen. Bericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahre, P. [comp.

    1997-12-01

    The application of high-resolution gamma spectroscopy with whole-body and partial-body counters shows a steadily rising upward trend over the last few years. This induced the ``Arbeitskreis Inkorporationsueberwachung`` of the association ``Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V.`` to organise a meeting for joint elaboration of a guide on recommended applications of this measuring technique, based on a review of existing experience and results. A key item on the agenda of the meeting was the comparative evaluation of the Ge semiconductor detector and the NaI solid scintillation detector. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Der Einsatz der hochaufloesenden Gammaspektroskopie in Ganz- und Teilkoerperzaehlern hat in den letzten Jahren stetig zugenommen. Der ``Arbeitskreis Inkorporationsueberwachung`` des Fachverbandes fuer Strahlenschutz e.V. hat darum bisherige Erfahrungen zusammengetragen und Empfehlungen fuer den Einsatz dieser Messtechnik erarbeitet. Der Schwerpunkt der Tagung lag beim Vergleich von Germaniumhalbleiter- mit Natriumjodid-Festszintillationsdetektoren.Tl-Detektoren eignen sich v.a. beim Vorhandensein bekannter und zeitlich konstanter Nuklidvektoren (Kernkraftwerke, Nuklearmedizin). Bei unbekanntem bzw. variablem Nuklidvektor (Stoerfall, Unfall, Forschung) sollen Ge-Detektoren benutzt werden (orig./ABI)

  2. Body composition and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Roy; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-07-01

    This paper examines the relationship between body composition and wages in the United States. We develop measures of body composition--body fat (BF) and fat-free mass (FFM)--using data on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) that are available in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III and estimate wage models for respondents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Previous research uses body size or BMI as measures of obesity despite a growing concern that they do not distinguish between body fat and fat-free body mass or adequately control for non-homogeneity inside the human body. Therefore, measures presented in this paper represent a useful alternative to BMI-based proxies of obesity. Our results indicate that BF is associated with decreased wages for both males and females among whites and blacks. We also present evidence suggesting that FFM is associated with increased wages. We show that these results are not the artifacts of unobserved heterogeneity. Finally, our findings are robust to numerous specification checks and to a large number of alternative BIA prediction equations from which the body composition measures are derived. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Athletic Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Andrew

    2016-09-10

    This paper seeks to explore the attraction and the beauty of the contemporary athletic body. It will be suggested that a body shaped through muscular bulk and definition has come to be seen as aesthetically normative. This body differs from the body of athletes from the early and mid-twentieth century. It will be argued that the contemporary body is not merely the result of advances in sports science, but rather that it is expressive of certain meanings and values. The visual similarity of the contemporary athletic body and that of the comic book superhero suggests that both bodies carry a similar potential for narrative story-telling, and that their attraction is bound up with this narrative potential. The superhero and athlete live meaningful lives, pursuing clear and morally unambiguous goals. The aesthetic attraction of the body lies in its capacity to facilitate the articulation of a story of a meaningful life, and to do so in the face of the growing anomie and thus meaninglessness of life as experienced in contemporary society. Athleticism offers an illusion of meaning, serving to reproduce dominant justificatory narratives and social stereotypes. Yet, as an illusion of meaning, it may be challenged and negotiated, not least with respect to its bias towards a certain form of the male body. The female athletic body disrupts the illusion, opening up new existential possibilities, new ways of living and being, and thus new, and potentially disruptive, narratives.

  4. Quantitative assessment of growing hair counts, thickness and colour during and after treatments with a low-fluence, home-device laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Petersen, D; Barbet-Pfeilsticker, M; Beerwerth, F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At-home laser and intense pulsed-light hair removal continues to grow in popularity and availability. A relatively limited body of evidence is available on the course of hair growth during and after low-fluence laser usage. OBJECTIVES: To assess growing hair counts, thickness and colo...

  5. Biotechnology for in vitro growing of edible and medicinal mushrooms on wood wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Petre

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was focused on finding out the best way to convert the wood wastes into useful food supplements, such as mushroom fruit bodies, by using them as growing sources for the edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, three fungal species from Basidiomycetes, namely Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.:Fr. P. Karst, Lentinus edodes (Berkeley Pegler and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacquin ex Fries Kummer were tested to determine their biological potential to grow on substrates made of wood wastes (sawdusts as well as shavings which could be used in this way as main ingredients for preparation of natural culture composts.The experiments were achieved by in vitro growing of all these fungal species in special rooms, where the main culture parameters were kept at optimal levels in order to get the highest production of mushroom fruit bodies. The effects of culture compost composition (carbon, nitrogen and mineral sources as well as other physical and chemical factors (such as: temperature, inoculum amount, pH level and incubation time, etc. on mycelial net formation and especially on fruit body induction, were investigated. From all these fungal species tested in our experiments, P. ostreatus was registered as the fastest mushroom culture, then L. edodes and finally, G. lucidum asthe longest mushroom culture. During the experiments, different logs of the same species were used as control samples for each culture compost variants. Applying such biotechnology, the environmental problems generated by the plant wastes accumulation in wood industry could be solved only by using biological means for theirvalorising, simultaneously with food supplements producing having high nutritive values as well as healing effects by increasing the consumers` health.

  6. Biotechnology for in vitro growing of edible and medicinal mushrooms on wood wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Petre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was focused on finding out the best way to convert the wood wastes into useful food supplements, such as mushroom fruit bodies, by using them as growing sources for the edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, three fungal species from Basidiomycetes, namely Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.:Fr. P. Karst, Lentinus edodes (Berkeley Pegler and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacquin ex Fries Kummer were tested to determine their biological potential to grow on substrates made of wood wastes (sawdusts as well as shavings which could be used in this way as main ingredients for preparation of natural culture composts. The experiments were achieved by in vitro growing of all these fungal species in special rooms, where the main culture parameters were kept at optimal levels in order to get the highest production of mushroom fruit bodies. The effects of culture compost composition (carbon, nitrogen and mineral sources as well as other physical and chemical factors (such as: temperature, inoculum amount, pH level and incubation time, etc. on mycelial net formation and especially on fruit body induction, were investigated. From all these fungal species tested in our experiments, P. ostreatus was registered as the fastest mushroom culture, then L. edodes and finally, G. lucidum as the longest mushroom culture. During the experiments, different logs of the same species were used as control samples for each culture compost variants. Applying such biotechnology, the environmental problems generated by the plant wastes accumulation in wood industry could be solved only by using biological means for their valorising, simultaneously with food supplements producing having high nutritive values as well as healing effects by increasing the consumers` health.

  7. Growing media [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    Selecting the proper growing medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A growing medium can be defined as a substance through which roots grow and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a growing medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...

  8. 3D Gravity Inversion by Growing Bodies and Shaping Layers at Mt. Vesuvius (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrino, Giovanna; Camacho, Antonio G.

    2008-06-01

    To improve our knowledge of the structural pattern of Mt. Vesuvius and its magmatic system, which represents one of the three volcanoes located in the Neapolitan area (together with Campi Flegrei and Ischia; southern Italy), we analyze here the Bouguer gravity map that is already available through its interpretation by means of 2.5-dimensional modelling. We have carried out a three-dimensional interpretation using a new and original algorithm, known as ‘Layers’, that has been especially processed for this purpose. Layers works in an automatic and non-subjective way, and allows the definition of the structural settings in terms of several layers, each representing a specific geological formation. The same data are also interpreted in terms of isolated and shallow anomalous density bodies using a well tested algorithm known as ‘Growth’. We focus our inversions on the Mt. Vesuvius volcano, while globally analyzing the entire Neapolitan area, in order to investigate the deep structures, and in particular the deep extended ‘sill’ that has been revealed by seismic tomography. The final models generally confirm the global setting of the area as outlined by previous investigations, mainly for the shape and depth of the carbonate basement below Mt. Vesuvius. The presence of lateral density contrasts inside the volcano edifice is also shown, which was only hypothesized in the 2.5-dimensional inversion. Moreover, the models allow us to note a high density body that rises from the top of the carbonate basement and further elongates above sea level. This probably represents an uprising of the same basement, which is just below the volcano and which coincides with the VP and VP/VS anomalies detected under the crater. The three-dimensional results also reveal that the two inversion methods provide very similar models, where the high density isolated body in the Growth model can be associated with the rising high density anomaly in the Layers model. Taking into account

  9. Modelling of nutrient partitioning in growing pigs to predict their anatomical body composition. 2. Model evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halas, V.; Dijkstra, J.; Babinszky, L.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present paper was to evaluate a dynamic mechanistic model for growing and fattening pigs presented in a companion paper. The model predicted the rate of protein and fat deposition (chemical composition), rate of tissue deposition (anatomical composition) and performance of pigs

  10. Metabolism of serine in growing rats and chicks at various dietary protein levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hideyuki; Yamaguchi, Michio; Kametaka, Masao

    1976-01-01

    The metabolic fate of the carbon skeleton of L-serine-U- 14 C has been investigated, in vivo and in vitro, in growing rats and chicks fed the diets with various protein calories percents (C %) at 410 kcal of metabolizable energy. The incorporation of 14 C into body protein at 12 hr after the injection of serine- 14 C was about 49% of the injected dose in rats fed the 10 or 15 PC% diet, though the value was reduced in rats fed lower and higher protein diets. The 14 CO 2 production was smaller in rats fed the 10 and 15 PC% diet, and it showed an inverse pattern to that of the 14 C incorporation into body protein. Urinary excretion of 14 C was higher in rats fed 10 and higher PC% diets, whose growth rate and net body protein retention were maximum. In contrast to the case of rats, the incorporation of 14 C into body protein of chicks at 6 hr after the injection was rather reduced in the 15 PC% group. The proportion of 14 C excreted as uric acid was remarkably increased above the 10 PC% group, and about 19% of the injected dose was recovered in the 50 PC% group. The catabolic rate of serine in the liver slices of rats and chicks was increased by high protein diets. These results support the concept that the nutritional significance of metabolism of the carbon skeleton of serine in growing rats and chicks is different from each other, especially at high protein diets. (auth.)

  11. Comparison of urea space, deuterium oxide space and body composition in growing pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, A.D.; Steele, N.C.

    1987-01-01

    Urea and deuterium oxide (D 2 O) space were compared by simultaneous infusion into pigs weighing approximately 55 or 90 kg. Urea was cleared from the plasma pool more rapidly than D 2 O and appeared to equilibrate at a relative concentration which was lower than that of D 2 O. Consequently, urea and D 2 O space values were closest when extrapolated to zero time values. Correlations between urea space and D 2 O space were highest at 15 minutes post infusion (R2 = .75) or between urea space at 15 minutes and D 2 O at equilibrium (R2 = .86). Results of urea and D 2 O space measurements were compared with water, lipid and protein content of the carcass. Urea space at 15 minutes and D 2 O space at 35 minutes most closely approximated total body water while D 2 O space at 15 minutes was nearly equivalent to empty body water. Overall, D 2 O space at equilibrium had the highest correlations with carcass values of water, lipid and protein and appears to be preferable to urea space for estimating carcass composition in pigs

  12. From Kennedy, to Beyond: Growing Plants in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Cedric, II; Seck, Sokhana A.; Massa, Gioia D.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Wheeler, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts cannot have their cake and eat it too, but what about growing a salad and eating it? As NASA continues to push the envelope on Space exploration and inhabitance the need for a fresh food source becomes more vital. The Life Support team at NASA is using a system developed by ORBITEC the VEGGIE, in which astronauts aboard the ISS, and potentially the Moon and Mars, will be capable of growing food. The introduction of plants not only gives astronauts a means of independently supplying food, but also recreation, oxygen replenishment and psychological benefits. The plants were grown in "pillows", the system used for growing plants within the VEGGIE. This test included 4 types of media mixtures that are composed of a clay based media called Arcilite and Fafard #2, which is a peat moss-based media ( <1 mm Arcilite, 1-2 mm of Arcilite, 1:1 <1 mm & 1-2 mm mixture and 1:1 Arcilite & Fafard mixture). Currently, 3 lettuce cultivars are being grown in 4 mixtures of media. Tests were being conducted to see which form of media has the ratio of best growth and least amount of microbes that are harmful. That is essential because a person's body becomes more susceptible to illness when they leave Earth. As a result, test must be conducted on the "pillow" system to assess the levels of microbial activity. The cultivars were tested at different stages during their growing process for microbes. Datum show that the mix of Fafard and Arcilite had the best growth, but also the most microbes. This was due to the fact that Fafard is an organic substance so it contains material necessary for microbes to live. Data suggest that the <1 mm Arcilite has an acceptable amount of growth and a lower level of microbes, because it is non-organic.

  13. Modeling skin temperature to assess the effect of air velocity to mitigate heat stress among growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Bjarne; Pedersen, Poul; Morsing, Svend

    2017-01-01

    It is generally accepted that increased air velocity can help to mitigate heat stress in livestock housing, however, it is not fully clear how much it helps and significant uncertainties exists when the air temperature approaches the animal body temperature. This study aims to develop a skin...... temperature model to generated data for determining the potential effect of air velocity to mitigate heat stress among growing pigs housed in warm environment. The model calculates the skin temperature as function of body temperature, air temperature and the resistances for heat transfer from the body...

  14. SWIMMING ENHANCES BONE MASS ACQUISITION IN GROWING FEMALE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne McVeigh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing bones are most responsive to mechanical loading. We investigated bone mass acquisition patterns following a swimming or running exercise intervention of equal duration, in growing rats. We compared changes in bone mineral properties in female Sprague Dawley rats that were divided into three groups: sedentary controls (n = 10, runners (n = 8 and swimmers (n = 11. Runners and swimmers underwent a six week intervention, exercising five days per week, 30min per day. Running rats ran on an inclined treadmill at 0.33 m.s-1, while swimming rats swam in 25oC water. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans measuring bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD and bone area at the femur, lumbar spine and whole body were recorded for all rats before and after the six week intervention. Bone and serum calcium and plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations were measured at the end of the 6 weeks. Swimming rats had greater BMC and bone area changes at the femur and lumbar spine (p < 0.05 than the running rats and a greater whole body BMC and bone area to that of control rats (p < 0.05. There were no differences in bone gain between running and sedentary control rats. There was no significant difference in serum or bone calcium or PTH concentrations between the groups of rats. A swimming intervention is able to produce greater beneficial effects on the rat skeleton than no exercise at all, suggesting that the strains associated with swimming may engender a unique mechanical load on the bone

  15. Evaluation of the effect of alternative measurements of body weight gain and dry matter intake for the calculation of residual feed intake in growing purebred Charolais and Red Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, W; Glaze, J B; Welch, C M; Kerley, M; Hill, R A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of alternative-measurements of body weight and DMI used to evaluate residual feed intake (RFI). Weaning weight (WW), ADG, and DMI were recorded on 970 growing purebred Charolais bulls (n = 519) and heifers (n = 451) and 153 Red Angus growing steers (n = 69) and heifers (n = 84) using a GrowSafe (GrowSafe, Airdrie, Alberta, Canada) system. Averages of individual DMI were calculated in 10-d increments and compared to the overall DMI to identify the magnitude of the errors associated with measuring DMI. These incremental measurements were also used in calculation of RFI, computed from the linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest body weight0.75 (MMWT). RFI_Regress was calculated using ADG_Regress (ADG calculated as the response of BW gain and DOF) and MMWT_PWG (metabolic midweight calculated throughout the postweaning gain test), considered the control in Red Angus. A similar calculation served as control for Charolais; RFI was calculated using 2-d consecutive start and finish weights (RFI_Calc). The RFI weaning weight (RFI_WW) was calculated using ADG_WW (ADG from weaning till the final out weight of the postweaning gain test) and MMWT_WW, calculated similarly. Overall average estimated DMI was highly correlated to the measurements derived over shorter periods, with 10 d being the least correlated and 60 d being the most correlated. The ADG_Calc (calculated using 2-d consecutive start and finish weight/DOF) and ADG_WW were highly correlated in Charolais. The ADG_Regress and ADG_Calc were highly correlated, and ADG_Regress and ADG_WW were moderately correlated in Red Angus. The control measures of RFI were highly correlated with the RFI_WW in Charolais and Red Angus. The outcomes of including abbreviated period DMI in the model with the weaning weight gain measurements showed that the model using 10 d of intake (RFI WW_10) was the least correlated with the control measures. The model with 60 d of intake had

  16. On the flow of an electrically conducting gas past a slender body of revolution placed in a circular wind tunnel in the presence of a crossed magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwa, Shigeaki; Kusukawa, Ken-ichi.

    1976-01-01

    The wind tunnel interference problem in magnetohydrodynamics, in which an inviscid compressible fluid with small electrical conductivity flows steadily past a slender axi-symmetric pointed body of revolution placed in a cylindrical perfectly insulated wind tunnel, in the presence of a crossed magnetic field, is considered. Using the analytical method which was studied by one of the present authors, the streamlines and the space charge in a cross section are calculated. (auth.)

  17. Dietary protein level and performance of growing Baladi kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, M M; Aljumaah, R S

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of protein to black Baladi breed kids. Weanling Baladi kids (n=18; 75 to 90 days old) were selected and individually housed at our experimental farm. Kids were divided randomly to one of the three treatments for 12 weeks. The three dietary treatments were: T1: control ration, formulated according to NRC to cover the protein (level 1) and other nutrients requirements. T2: ration formulated to cover only 75% of protein (level 2) recommended by NRC. T3: control diet + 2.4 g undegradable methionine (Smartamine®)/day/kid (level 3). Feed intake, initial and monthly body weights were recorded. Blood samples were collected monthly and analyzed for metabolites and Co, Zn and Cu levels. Decreasing the dietary level of protein (T2) negatively affected (Pkids below the NRC requirements of protein negatively affect the growth performance and feed efficiency. The recommended protein level by NRC for growing kids cover the requirements of growing black Baladi kids for maximum growth and productivity.

  18. On the mechanics of continua with boundary energies and growing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastavrou, Areti; Steinmann, Paul; Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-06-01

    Many biological systems are coated by thin films for protection, selective absorption, or transmembrane transport. A typical example is the mucous membrane covering the airways, the esophagus, and the intestine. Biological surfaces typically display a distinct mechanical behavior from the bulk; in particular, they may grow at different rates. Growth, morphological instabilities, and buckling of biological surfaces have been studied intensely by approximating the surface as a layer of finite thickness; however, growth has never been attributed to the surface itself. Here, we establish a theory of continua with boundary energies and growing surfaces of zero thickness in which the surface is equipped with its own potential energy and is allowed to grow independently of the bulk. In complete analogy to the kinematic equations, the balance equations, and the constitutive equations of a growing solid body, we derive the governing equations for a growing surface. We illustrate their spatial discretization using the finite element method, and discuss their consistent algorithmic linearization. To demonstrate the conceptual differences between volume and surface growth, we simulate the constrained growth of the inner layer of a cylindrical tube. Our novel approach toward continua with growing surfaces is capable of predicting extreme growth of the inner cylindrical surface, which more than doubles its initial area. The underlying algorithmic framework is robust and stable; it allows to predict morphological changes due to surface growth during the onset of buckling and beyond. The modeling of surface growth has immediate biomedical applications in the diagnosis and treatment of asthma, gastritis, obstructive sleep apnoea, and tumor invasion. Beyond biomedical applications, the scientific understanding of growth-induced morphological instabilities and surface wrinkling has important implications in material sciences, manufacturing, and microfabrication, with applications in

  19. The growing commercial value of the male body: a longitudinal survey of advertising in women's magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, H G; Olivardia, R; Borowiecki, J J; Cohane, G H

    2001-01-01

    With the advances of feminism, men have gradually relinquished their once-exclusive 'masculine' roles as fighters and breadwinners. In response to this change, the male body may have gained in relative importance as one of the few surviving marks of masculinity. We hypothesized that these trends might be quantified by using a commercial measure such as advertising. We examined the proportion of exposed male and female bodies portrayed in advertisements between 1958 and 1998 in two leading American women's magazines. In both magazines, the proportion of undressed women in the advertisements has changed little over the last 40 years, whereas the proportion of undressed men has increased dramatically, especially since the early 1980s. Trends in commercial advertising offer tentative support for the hypothesis that the male body is increasing in importance as a mark of masculinity--at least as judged from the actions of advertisers seeking to influence women's attitudes. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Effect of probiotic bacteria-fermented medicinal plants (Gynura procumbens, Rehmannia glutinosa, Scutellaria baicalensis) as performance enhancers in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin Suk; Kim, In Ho

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of mixed fermented medicinal plants (FMP) obtained from exudates of Gynura procumbens, Rehmannia glutinosa and Scutellaria baicalensis fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus licheniformis, respectively, on growth performance in growing pigs in order to assess the feasibility of using FMP as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP), such as tiamulin. A total of 150 growing pigs (body wieght 25.50 ± 2.50 kg) were used in a 6 weeks experiment and randomly divided into five groups with six replicates of five growing pigs each. The treatments were NC (basal diet), basal diet with 33 ppm tiamulin (PC), basal diet with FMP 0.05% (FMP 0.05), basal diet with FMP 0.1% (FMP 0.1) and basal diet with FMP 0.2% (FMP 0.2). Overall, body weight gain, feed conversion rate, the digestibility of dry matter and gross energy, noxious gas emission all improved with FMP supplementation as compared to NC. Taken together, these results suggest the feasibility of using FMP as an alternative to AGP for enhancing the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and excreta noxious gas emission of growing pigs. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Nonlinear mechanics of surface growth for cylindrical and spherical elastic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozio, Fabio; Yavari, Arash

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we formulate the initial-boundary value problems of accreting cylindrical and spherical nonlinear elastic solids in a geometric framework. It is assumed that the body grows as a result of addition of new (stress-free or pre-stressed) material on part of its boundary. We construct Riemannian material manifolds for a growing body with metrics explicitly depending on the history of applied external loads and deformation during accretion and the growth velocity. We numerically solve the governing equilibrium equations in the case of neo-Hookean solids and compare the accretion and residual stresses with those calculated using the linear mechanics of surface growth.

  2. Levels of platinum group elements and rare-earth elements in wild mushroom species growing in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Kalač, Pavel; Siwulski, Marek; Rzymski, Piotr; Gąsecka, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Due to limited data-describing abilities of mushrooms to accumulate platinum group elements (PGEs) and rare-earth elements (REEs), the aim of this study was to determine, by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry followed by microwave-assisted sample digestion by nitric acid, the content of these elements in 20 mushroom species (10 above ground and 10 growing on wood), mostly edible, collected near a busy trunk road. The highest content of PGEs in above-ground mushroom species was observed in Lepista gilva and Suillus bovinus fruit bodies (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.37 ± 0.03 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively), while in mushrooms growing on wood, the highest content was observed in Pleurotus ostreatus (0.35 ± 0.04 mg kg(-1) DW). The mean content of PGEs for both these groups was 0.23 ± 0.08 and 0.26 ± 0.07 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively. The highest content of REEs in Suillus luteus and Tricholoma equestra was 5.03 ± 0.50 and 2.18 ± 0.56 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively, but within mushrooms growing on wood in Ganoderma applanatum fruiting bodies it was 4.19 ± 0.78 mg kg(-1) DW. Mean contents of REEs were 1.39 ± 1.21 and 1.61 ± 0.97 mg kg(-1) DW in above-ground species and species growing on wood, respectively. Generally, the group of mushroom species growing on wood was capable of slightly higher accumulation of both REEs and PGEs. No limits have been established for both the groups until now.

  3. Whole-body X-irradiation of mice accelerates polyploidization of hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, A.; Egami, N.

    1985-01-01

    Male C57BL/6 mice were whole-body irradiated with 4.75 gy of X-rays at the age of 2 months and killed at 2, 6, 12 and 19 months after irradiation. The percentage survival began to decline earlier and faster in the irradiated group than the controls up to 19 months after exposure when the study was terminated. The nuclear DNA content of individual hepatocytes was measured by a Feulgen-DNA microfluorometric method, and hepatocytes were classified into various ploidy classes. In the irradiated mice, the degree of polyploidization was significantly higher than the controls by 2 months after exposure and steadily increased up to 6 months after exposure. Thereafter, however, a slow return to the control level was found up to 19 months after irradiation. These results appear to support a hypothesis that radiation accelerates the ageing process as judged from hepatocyte polyploidization. (author)

  4. Effects of Inclusion Levels of Wheat Bran and Body Weight on Ileal and Fecal Digestibility in Growing Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q.; Su, Y. B.; Li, D. F.; Liu, L.; Huang, C. F.; Zhu, Z. P.; Lai, C. H.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of graded inclusions of wheat bran (0%, 9.65%, 48.25% wheat bran) and two growth stages (from 32.5 to 47.2 kg and 59.4 to 78.7 kg, respectively) on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID), apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and hindgut fermentation of nutrients and energy in growing pigs. Six light pigs (initial body weight [BW] 32.5±2.1 kg) and six heavy pigs (initial BW 59.4±3.2 kg) were surgically prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. A difference method was used to calculate the nutrient and energy digestibility of wheat bran by means of comparison with a basal diet consisting of corn-soybean meal (0% wheat bran). Two additional diets were formulated by replacing 9.65% and 48.25% wheat bran by the basal diet, respectively. Each group of pigs was allotted to a 6×3 Youden square design, and pigs were fed to three experimental diets during three 11-d periods. Hindgut fermentation values were calculated as the differences between ATTD and AID values. For the wheat bran diets, the AID and ATTD of dry matter (DM), ash, organic matter (OM), carbohydrates (CHO), gross energy (GE), and digestible energy (DE) decreased with increasing inclusion levels of wheat bran (pdigestibility of wheat bran in 9.65% inclusion level due to the coefficient of variation (CV) of the nutrient and energy digestibility being higher at 9.65% compared to 48.25% inclusion level of wheat bran. Digestible energy content of wheat bran at 48.25% inclusion level (4.8 and 6.7 MJ/kg of DM, respectively) fermented by hindgut was significantly higher (pdigestibility of some nutrients in pigs, while it positively affects the DE fermentation in the hindgut. PMID:25925062

  5. The role of the leading edge vortex in lift augmentation of steadily revolving wings: a change in perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabawy, Mostafa R A; Crowther, William J

    2017-07-01

    The presence of a stable leading edge vortex (LEV) on steadily revolving wings increases the maximum lift coefficient that can be generated from the wing and its role is important to understanding natural flyers and flapping wing vehicles. In this paper, the role of LEV in lift augmentation is discussed under two hypotheses referred to as 'additional lift' and 'absence of stall'. The 'additional lift' hypothesis represents the traditional view. It presumes that an additional suction/circulation from the LEV increases the lift above that of a potential flow solution. This behaviour may be represented through either the 'Polhamus leading edge suction' model or the so-called 'trapped vortex' model. The 'absence of stall' hypothesis is a more recent contender that presumes that the LEV prevents stall at high angles of attack where flow separation would normally occur. This behaviour is represented through the so-called 'normal force' model. We show that all three models can be written in the form of the same potential flow kernel with modifiers to account for the presence of a LEV. The modelling is built on previous work on quasi-steady models for hovering wings such that model parameters are determined from first principles, which allows a fair comparison between the models themselves, and the models and experimental data. We show that the two models which directly include the LEV as a lift generating component are built on a physical picture that does not represent the available experimental data. The simpler 'normal force' model, which does not explicitly model the LEV, performs best against data in the literature. We conclude that under steady conditions the LEV as an 'absence of stall' model/mechanism is the most satisfying explanation for observed aerodynamic behaviour. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Influence of production factors on feed intake and feed conversion ratio of grow-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Abércio da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and quantify, through mathematical models, the production factors of grow-finishing (GF phases that influence the daily feed intake (DFI and feed conversion ratio (FCR in pigs. Sixty-five GF farms were evaluated between 2010 and 2013, linked to a cooperative system located in the western Parana State, Brazil, representing 463 batches, with a mean of 642.79 ± 363.29 animals per batch, equalling approximately 300,000 animals. Forty production factors were considered that related to management, sanitation, installations and equipment, nutrition, genetics and environment on the farms. The DFI was influenced by the barn's position relative to the sun (P = 0.048, initial body weight (P < 0.0001 and final body weight (P < 0.0001. It was observed that the FCR was influenced by the barn’s position relative to the sun (P = 0.0001, the use of humidifiers/misting (P = 0.03, the presence of composters (P = 0.006, trees on the sides of barns (P < 0.045, the initial body weight of the pigs (P < 0.0001 and duration of the grow-finishing phase (P < 0.0001. The variables selected in the models explained approximately 44 and 20% of the total variance in the DFI and FCR, respectively, demonstrating that this resource is a good tool for interpreting the factors related to the parameters evaluated.

  7. Growing Healthy Kids: A School Enrichment Nutrition Education Program to Promote Healthy Behaviors for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierregger, Alyssa; Hall, Johnna; Sehi, Natalie; Abbott, Mary; Wobig, Karen; Albrecht, Julie A.; Anderson-Knott, Mindy; Koszewski, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    The Growing Healthy Kids Program is a school-based nutrition education program that teaches students in Kindergarten through 2nd grade about healthy eating, physical activity, and how their body uses food. Pre- and post-knowledge data is collected from the students to measure changes in nutrition knowledge. In the first 2 years of the program,…

  8. High-performance flat data center network architecture based on scalable and flow-controlled optical switching system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calabretta, N.; Miao, W.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Schroder, H.; Chen, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    Traffic in data centers networks (DCNs) is steadily growing to support various applications and virtualization technologies. Multi-tenancy enabling efficient resource utilization is considered as a key requirement for the next generation DCs resulting from the growing demands for services and

  9. Importance of Adding Wheat Germ in Diets of Growing Goats to Improve Some Components of Blood and Growth Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tarabany, A.A.; Teama, F.E.I.

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the importance of supplementing wheat germ to the diet of growing local goats in Egypt for improving their some blood biochemical components as well as growth performance. Forty goats with 4 months age and average initial body weight 5 ± 0.5 kg were used in the present study which lasted 5 months. The animals were divided randomly into two equal groups; the 1st group fed basic diet without supplement (control) and the 2nd group of animals fed on the same basic diet with supplemented wheat germ at the rate of 5 g/head/day. The body weight was recorded at the beginning and the end of the experiment to calculate the daily gain of body weight for each animal. Blood samples were withdrawn at the end of experiment to estimate some blood parameters concentrations including total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol, Ca, P, Mg, Zn, immunoglobulin G (IgG), total antioxidants and triiodothyronine (T3). The results showed that the addition of wheat germ by the rate of 5 gm/ head/ day to the diet of growing goats significantly increased the concentrations of total proteins, globulin, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc and led to significant decrease in the levels of total cholesterol. Significant improvement in levels of IgG, total antioxidants and T3 hormone in the blood were also observed. In addition, there was significant improvement in the feed efficiency of growing goats although total and daily gains of treated animals were affected by the diet supplement. It could be concluded that addition of wheat germ (5 g/head/day) led to modification of all studied blood components and led to improved feed efficiency in growing local goats, therefore, it could be recommended to use the wheat germ in growth stages because the economic return to this addition is preferable.

  10. Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Respiration to Nitrogen Fertilization: Varying Effects between Growing and Non-Growing Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingfang; Wang, Rui; Li, Rujian; Hu, Yaxian; Guo, Shengli

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization has a considerable effect on food production and carbon cycling in agro-ecosystems. However, the impacts of N fertilization rates on the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) were controversial. Five N rates (N0, N45, N90, N135, and N180) were applied to a continuous winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop on the semi-arid Loess Plateau, and the in situ soil respiration was monitored during five consecutive years from 2008 to 2013. During the growing season, the mean soil respiration rates increased with increasing N fertilization rates, peaking at 1.53 μmol m−2s−1 in the N135 treatment. A similar dynamic pattern was observed during the non-growing season, yet on average with 7.3% greater soil respiration rates than the growing season. In general for all the N fertilization treatments, the mean Q10 value during the non-growing season was significantly greater than that during the growing season. As N fertilization rates increased, the Q10 values did not change significantly in the growing season but significantly decreased in the non-growing season. Overall, N fertilization markedly influenced soil respirations and Q10 values, in particular posing distinct effects on the Q10 values between the growing and non-growing seasons. PMID:27992576

  11. Visual attention mediates the relationship between body satisfaction and susceptibility to the body size adaptation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Ian D; Sturman, Daniel; Stevenson, Richard J; Mond, Jonathan; Brooks, Kevin R

    2018-01-01

    Body size misperception-the belief that one is larger or smaller than reality-affects a large and growing segment of the population. Recently, studies have shown that exposure to extreme body stimuli results in a shift in the point of subjective normality, suggesting that visual adaptation may be a mechanism by which body size misperception occurs. Yet, despite being exposed to a similar set of bodies, some individuals within a given geographical area will develop body size misperception and others will not. The reason for these individual difference is currently unknown. One possible explanation stems from the observation that women with lower levels of body satisfaction have been found to pay more attention to images of thin bodies. However, while attention has been shown to enhance visual adaptation effects in low (e.g. rotational and linear motion) and high level stimuli (e.g., facial gender), it is not known whether this effect exists in visual adaptation to body size. Here, we test the hypothesis that there is an indirect effect of body satisfaction on the direction and magnitude of the body fat adaptation effect, mediated via visual attention (i.e., selectively attending to images of thin over fat bodies or vice versa). Significant mediation effects were found in both men and women, suggesting that observers' level of body satisfaction may influence selective visual attention to thin or fat bodies, which in turn influences the magnitude and direction of visual adaptation to body size. This may provide a potential mechanism by which some individuals develop body size misperception-a risk factor for eating disorders, compulsive exercise behaviour and steroid abuse-while others do not.

  12. Relationship of testicular development with age, body weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to measure the development of several testicular characteristics and to investigate the relationship between testicular parameters with body growth, semen characteristics and serum testosterone levels in growing ram lambs. Seventeen single born Kivircik ram lambs from three to four year old ewes ...

  13. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Renal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hanzly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of actively growing renal masses to stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT. We retrospectively reviewed our institutional review board–approved kidney database and identified 4 patients who underwent SBRT, 15 Gy dose, for their rapidly growing renal masses. Three patients had a decreased tumor size after radiation treatment by 20.8%, 38.1%, and 20%. The other patient had a size gain of 5.6%. This patient maintained a similar tumor growth rate before and after SBRT. Mean follow-up time was 13.8 months. SBRT represents an effective management option in select patients with larger rapidly growing kidney masses.

  14. Perceived Body Image, Eating Behavior, and Sedentary Activities and Body Mass Index Categories in Kuwaiti Female Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemia H. Shaban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The State of Kuwait has a growing obesity epidemic in both genders and all age groups; however, obesity rates in the young seem to be rising. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 169 Kuwaiti female adolescents attending both private and public schools spanning the six governorates in the State of Kuwait in order to explore female adolescents’ self-image, body dissatisfaction, type of school (private versus public, TV viewing, and computer games and their relationship to body mass index. Results. Approximately half the students classified as obese perceived their body image to lie in the normal range. Females in the obese category were the most dissatisfied with their body image, followed by those in the overweight category. Eating behavior, level of physical activity, school type, television viewing, computer/video usage, and desired BMI were not significantly associated with level of obesity. Conclusion. This study was one of the few studies to assess adolescent females’ body image dissatisfaction in relation to obesity in the State of Kuwait. The results suggest that including body image dissatisfaction awareness into obesity prevention programs would be of value.

  15. Growing media constituents determine the microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media for horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Oliver; Reheul, Dirk; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Perneel, Maaike; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Boon, Nico

    2016-05-01

    Vegetables and fruits are an important part of a healthy food diet, however, the eco-sustainability of the production of these can still be significantly improved. European farmers and consumers spend an estimated €15.5 billion per year on inorganic fertilizers and the production of N-fertilizers results in a high carbon footprint. We investigated if fertilizer type and medium constituents determine microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media and can be used as a next step towards a more sustainable horticulture. We demonstrated that growing media constituents showed differences in urea hydrolysis, ammonia and nitrite oxidation and in carbon dioxide respiration rate. Interestingly, mixing of the growing media constituents resulted in a stimulation of the function of the microorganisms. The use of organic fertilizer resulted in an increase in amoA gene copy number by factor 100 compared to inorganic fertilizers. Our results support our hypothesis that the activity of the functional microbial community with respect to nitrogen turnover in an organic growing medium can be improved by selecting and mixing the appropriate growing media components with each other. These findings contribute to the understanding of the functional microbial community in growing media and its potential role towards a more responsible horticulture. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Properties of acatalasic cells growing in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krooth, R S; Howell, R R; Hamilton, H B

    1961-07-19

    Acatalasia, a disease due to homozygosity for a Mendelian gene, is characterized by the absence of the enzyme catalase from the tissues of the human body. Red cells from heterozygotes have enzyme activities about one-half normal. In this report, the development of cell lines from skin biopsies of an affected homozygote, a heterozygote and eight control patients is described. The cell type is the euploid fibroblast. It was found that acatalasic cells lacked the enzyme, even after growing for many months in a medium rich in catalase. The control lines all had mean catalase activity double or more that of the heterozygous line. Selection experiments, measuring growth of cells exposed for 20 minutes to varying concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, did not provide a system for preferentially eliminating acatalastic cells. Certain other experiments were performed bearing on the enzymatic defect in this disease. 23 references, 7 figures, 6 tables.

  17. Gut Microbiota Contributes to the Growth of Fast-Growing Transgenic Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shouqi; Hu, Wei; Yu, Yuhe; Hu, Zihua

    2013-01-01

    Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change. PMID:23741344

  18. Gut microbiota contributes to the growth of fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Li

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change.

  19. Amino acid utilization and body composition of growing pigs fed processed soybean meal or rapeseed meal with or without amino acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, T G; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H; Bikker, P

    2017-07-01

    Feed ingredients used in swine diets are often processed to improve nutritional value. However, (over-)processing may result in chemical reactions with amino acids (AAs) that decrease their ileal digestibility. This study aimed to determine effects of (over-)processing of soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) on post-absorptive utilization of ileal digestible AAs for retention and on body AA composition of growing pigs. Soybean meal and RSM were processed by secondary toasting in the presence of lignosulfonate to obtain processed soybean meal (pSBM) and processed rapeseed meal (pRSM). Four diets contained SBM, pSBM, RSM or pRSM as sole protein source. Two additional diets contained pSBM or pRSM and were supplemented with crystalline AA to similar standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA level as the SBM or RSM diet. These diets were used to verify that processing affected AA retention by affecting ileal AA digestibility rather than post-absorptive AA utilization. The SID AA levels of the protein sources were determined in a previous study. In total, 59 pigs were used (initial BW of 15.6±0.7 kg) of which five were used to determine initial body composition at the start of the experiment. In total, 54 pigs were fed one of six experimental diets and were slaughtered at a BW of 40 kg. The organ fraction (i.e. empty organs plus blood) and carcass were analyzed separately for N and AA content. Post-absorptive AA utilization was calculated from AA retention and SID AA intake. An interaction between diet type, comprising effects of processing and supplementing crystalline AA, and protein source was observed for CP content in the organ fraction, carcass and empty body and for nutrient retention. Processing reduced CP content and nutrient retention more for SBM than for RSM. Moreover, processing reduced (P<0.001) the lysine content in the organ fraction for both protein sources. Supplementing crystalline AA ameliorated the effect of processing on these variables. Thus

  20. A growing danger: the risks posed by marihuana grow-ops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, F. [Canadian Electricity Association (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    The proliferation of sophisticated illegal indoor multi-plant marihuana cultivation operations is discussed, focusing primarily on public health and safety issues. Public health issues arise from the high level of molds and pollens caused by high humidity, which can cause asthma, respiratory conditions and allergies, particularly among children, and the likelihood of deadly levels of carbon monoxide build-up resulting from faulty rerouting of the residence's ventilation system. Safety issues discussed are: fires and electrocutions associated with the use of electrical diversions or bipasses to circumvent utility meters, the chemical and electrical hazards involved in investigating and dismantling growing operations, the significant dangers to utility crews who must repair illegal electrical bypasses, injuries by the booby-traps planted to protect the operation from other criminals or law enforcement agents, and the physical danger from the violence, including homicide and assaults, carried out by operators to exert control over production and distribution. Although in general, there is a relaxed attitude towards marihuana use in Canada. there is growing evidence of increasing public concern over large-scale growing operations. Nevertheless, to date operators of grow-ops have been dealt with lightly by the justice system. For example, in British Columbia 11,733 cases have come to the attention of police during the 1997 to 2000 period. Of these about half were dealt with informally (i.e. 'no case' seizures) and 2,255 cases led to at least one offender being convicted. The majority of convictions did not result in custodial dispositions. Only 18 per cent of the cases resulted in prison sentences, the average term being only 4.5 months.

  1. Body image concerns amongst massive weight loss patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Jo

    2013-05-01

    To explore body image matters amongst patients following massive weight loss. In contemporary health care, a growing number of morbidly obese patients are seeking surgical solutions such as bariatric surgery or in other cases engaging with radical lifestyle changes. Massive weight loss can leave patients with a huge excess of lax overstretched skin that in some cases can trigger major body image dissatisfaction or depression. There is a scarcity of research about the needs of this group of patients and this is important for nursing practice. A qualitative design using in-depth interviews was employed. Twenty white adults (18 women and two men) were recruited retrospectively amongst patients who had massive weight loss by undergoing bariatric surgery or radical lifestyle changes, aged 29-63 years. All of the participants gave signed informed consent. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. One core theme focusing on body image ugliness and three associated subthemes were identified: the subthemes included feeling socially marginalised, feeling depressed and sexual and intimacy difficulties. Body image matters are hugely significant and appear to have a lasting effect on emotional well-being and function, contributing to psychological distress and social isolation. Greater sensitivity is required in enabling patients to work through emotional isolation and shame that has been a part of their childhood. Furthermore more, treatments need to be accessible to this growing patient population such as reconstructive surgery. Nurses who care for massive weight loss patients need to be mindful of their psychodynamic needs and be non-judgemental and accepting. Moreover, nurses need to be aware of treatment options and be able to assess body image matters and implement quality care for this particular patient group including body image acceptance programmes and support groups. © 2013 Blackwell

  2. NIRS of body and tissues in growing rabbits fed diets with different fat sources and supplemented with Curcuma longa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A portable Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS instrument was applied to 40 growing rabbits to determine body and tissue differences induced by experimental factors. The rabbits were examined at 2 live sites, in 7 warm carcass tissues and in longissimus dorsi muscle samples prepared in ethanol. For this purpose, the method was applied in a bi-factorial experiment concerning the dietary oil source (O (maize vs. palm oil and Curcuma longa (C supplementation (0 and 3 g/kg, respectively. Significant chemical differences emerged for palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids in the longissimus dorsi muscle due to the O factor and for linolenic acid due to the C factor. The NIRS spectra and chemical analyses were elaborated by the Partial Least Squares (PLS method, and the rsquares in cross-validation (R2cv were retained as measure of the unoriented differentiation between the levels of the planned factor for each landmark and fatty acid (FA profile. Multivariate PLS analysis of the FA muscular fat showed that the O factor induced strong differentiation (R2cv: 0.96, while less influence (0.33 was observed for the C factor. The model based on the NIRS radiation of the landmarks clearly shows the O factor effects, not only in the perirenal (0.90 and scapular (0.85 fats, but also in the belly (0.76, liver (0.73 and hind legs (0.72. Whereas the C effects were only expressed in the live animals (ears: 0.66 and abdominal wall: 0.58 and in post-mortem (liver: 0.60. It was concluded that a preliminary NIRS scan of the carcass and of live rabbits can point out the presence of intrinsic experimental effects concerning the lipid metabolism of polyunsaturated FA of the n-6 series (O factor and n-3 series (C factor.

  3. The Smell of Age: Perception and Discrimination of Body Odors of Different Ages

    OpenAIRE

    Mitro, Susanna; Gordon, Amy R.; Olsson, Mats J.; Lundström, Johan N.

    2012-01-01

    Our natural body odor goes through several stages of age-dependent changes in chemical composition as we grow older. Similar changes have been reported for several animal species and are thought to facilitate age discrimination of an individual based on body odors, alone. We sought to determine whether humans are able to discriminate between body odor of humans of different ages. Body odors were sampled from three distinct age groups: Young (20-30 years old), Middle-age (45-55), and Old-age (...

  4. Efficacy of DL-methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid in comparison to DL-methionine in growing male white Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, H; Gessner, D K; Herzog, E; Eder, K

    2016-03-01

    The present study was performed to assess the bioefficacy of DL-methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid (MHA) in comparison to DL-methionine (DLM) as sources of methionine for growing male white Pekin ducks in the first 3 wk of life. For this aim, 580 1-day-old male ducks were allocated into 12 treatment groups and received a basal diet that contained 0.29% of methionine, 0.34% of cysteine and 0.63% of total sulphur containing amino acids or the same diet supplemented with either DLM or MHA in amounts to supply 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25% of methionine equivalents. Ducks fed the control diet without methionine supplement had the lowest final body weights, daily body weight gains and feed intake among all groups. Supplementation of methionine improved final body weights and daily body weight gains in a dose dependent-manner. There was, however, no significant effect of the source of methionine on all of the performance responses. Evaluation of the data of daily body weight gains with an exponential model of regression revealed a nearly identical efficacy (slope of the curves) of both compounds for growth (DLM = 100%, MHA = 101%). According to the exponential model of regression, 95% of the maximum values of daily body weight gain were reached at methionine supplementary levels of 0.080% and 0.079% for DLM and MHA, respectively. Overall, the present study indicates that MHA and DLM have a similar efficacy as sources of methionine for growing ducks. It is moreover shown that dietary methionine concentrations of 0.37% are required to reach 95% of the maximum of daily body weight gains in ducks during the first 3 wk of life. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Fiber level for laying hens during the growing phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Feeding management of laying hens has been focused on the direct influence of nutrient intake on weight gain, especially at growing phase. This study evaluates nutrient digestibility, performance, development of the digestive tract, body composition, and bone quality of two strains of laying hens fed with different levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF during the growing phase from the 7th to the 12th week of age. A total of 1,296 birds were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement (two strains x three levels of NDF with four replicates of 54 birds per treatment. Semi-heavy (Hy Line Brown and light-strain (Lohman LSL pullets were allotted to dietary treatments consisting of 14.50, 16.50, and 18.50% NDF. An interaction between strains and NDF levels was observed only for feed/gain ratio and light-strain pullets had lower performance with 18.50% NDF. The increasing levels of NDF in the diet reduced the coefficients of digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy, and the values of metabolizable energy. Higher levels of NDF in the diet increased the relative weight of liver and intestines and reduced gizzard weight. It was also observed differences between bone quality and composition of the femur and tibia of light and semi-heavy hens. The increase in NDF level in ration for growing phase laying hens above 14.50% decreases the nutrient digestibility and the metabolizable energy of the diet; however, it does not affect the carcass composition, bone quality, feed intake, and weight gain, although it may impair feed conversion of light-strain pullets.

  6. The need for nuclear power. Viewpoint on the world's challenging energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, R.; Beller, D.

    2000-01-01

    To meet the world's growing need for energy, the Royal Society and Royal Academy report proposes 'the formation of an international body for energy research and development, funded by contributions from individual nations on the basis of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or total national energy consumption'. The body would be 'a funding agency supporting research, development and demonstrators elsewhere, not a research center itself'. Its budget might build to an annual level of some $25 billion, 'roughly 1% of the total global energy budget'. If it truly wants to develop efficient and responsible energy supplies, such a body should focus on the nuclear option, on establishing a secure international nuclear-fuel storage and reprocessing system, and on providing expertise for siting, financing, and licensing modular nuclear power systems to developing nations. According to authors, who study the dynamics of energy technologies, 'the share of energy supplied by electricity is growing rapidly in most countries and worldwide'. Throughout history, humankind has gradually decarbonized its dominant fuels, moving steadily away from the more polluting, carbon-rich sources. Thus the world has gone from coal (which has one hydrogen atom per carbon atom and was dominant from 1880 to 1950) to oil (with two hydrogens per carbon, dominant from 1950 to today). Natural gas (four hydrogens per carbon) is steadily increasing its market share. But nuclear fission produces no carbon at all. Physical reality - not arguments about corporate greed, hypothetical risks, radiation exposure, or waste disposal - ought to inform decisions vital to the future of the world. Because diversity and redundancy are important for safety and security, renewable energy sources ought to retain a place in the energy economy of the century to come. But nuclear power should be central. Despite its outstanding record, it has instead been relegated by its opponents to the same twilight zone of contentious

  7. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.

  8. Vulnerability Identification and Resilience Enhancements of Urban Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, K.; Riedel, W.; Häring, I.; Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.; Crabbe, S.; Trojaborg, S.; Hynes, W.; Müllers, I.

    2012-01-01

    A steadily increasing number of the world’s population is living in urban centres. The issue of security and citizen safety in densely populated areas is of paramount importance and a growing concern. In view of the growing sensitivity to terrorism and large scale accident scenarios, natural

  9. Using Nigella sativa meal as a substitute source for vegetable protein in rations of native growing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Nasser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on 15 growing local bull calves of about 150-200 kg, live body weight and 10-12 months old to investigate the effect of substituting soyabean meal as concentrate feed mixture protein by Nigella sativa meal (NSM at 0 , 60 and 100%. Animals were divided into 3 groups of 5 calves each, according to their live body weight for performing feeding trials. All groups of animals were fed iso-nitrogen (15% CP and iso-caloric (2.7 Mcal/kg. ME diets. Experimental rations were offered at 2.5% of live body weight with 1% of wheat straw. At the end of the feeding trial, which lasted for 105 days, blood samples were collected from all calves to estimate the total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol. Digestibility trial was carried out on three animals of each group to investigate the nutritional value of rations. Economical study was also carried out on experimental animals. Results indicated that there was an improvement in feed intake by 13 and 14% for groups fed a ration containing NSM compared with the group fed the control one. No significant differences were between groups of calves in total body weight gain and blood parameters. The feed conversion ratio improved by 12% for the group of calves fed control ration as compared with other groups. The same cost of producing 1 kg live body weight gain was found. Substituting soybean meal protein at 60 and 100% by NSM protein significantly improved crude fiber, ether extract, EE, and the values of digestion coefficient. It was concluded that NSM could be substituted instead of soyabean meal for growing local calves with out adverse effects on their performance.

  10. Proverb comprehension in context: a developmental study with children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, M A; Martin, S A; Erskine, B J

    1988-03-01

    Although previous studies have reported that proverb comprehension remains quite literal before adolescence, the results of the present study indicated that fourth graders performed well on a proverb comprehension task involving contextual information and a written multiple choice format. It was also found that performance on the proverb task steadily improved at least through the eighth grade and was significantly correlated to performance on a perceptual analogical reasoning task. The study contributes to the small but growing body of information concerning language development during the preadolescent and adolescent years and may have some important implications for the assessment of youngsters of this age range who have comprehension deficits that are troublesome, yet difficult to document.

  11. Organization of growing random networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-01-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A k . When A k grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N k (t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A k growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A k is asymptotically linear, N k (t)∼tk -ν , with ν dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2 -2 power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network

  12. Body image v marketingu

    OpenAIRE

    Michelík, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Today's era depicts life of consumer society with the growing battle for customers. Every single person in this world wants to have a solid life and look pretty. Advertisements, which display handsome and slender people are all around us and they influence our consumer behavior. We tend to equilibrate these ideals by buying the most diverse products and even attempt to achieve the alleged feeling of happiness. This thesis is focused on Body image in which explains individual consumer behavior...

  13. Hubbard-Stratonovich-like Transformations for Few-Body Inter-actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Körber Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the development of many-body methodology and algorithms, it has become possible to describe quantum systems composed of a large number of particles with great accuracy. Essential to all these methods is the application of auxiliary fields via the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation. This transformation effectively reduces two-body interactions to interactions of one particle with the auxiliary field, thereby improving the computational scaling of the respective algorithms. The relevance of collective phenomena and interactions grows with the number of particles. For many theories, e.g. Chiral Perturbation Theory, the inclusion of three-body forces has become essential in order to further increase the accuracy on the many-body level. In this proceeding, the an-alytical framework for establishing a Hubbard-Stratonovich-like transformation, which allows for the systematic and controlled inclusion of contact three-and more-body inter-actions, is presented.

  14. Discrimination of wild-growing and cultivated Lentinus edodes by tri-step infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haojian; Liu, Gang; Yang, Weimei; An, Ran; Ou, Quanhong

    2018-01-01

    It's not easy to discriminate dried wild-growing Lentinus edodes (WL) and cultivated Lentinus edodes (CL) by conventional method based on the morphological inspection of fruiting bodies. In this paper, fruiting body samples of WL and CL are discriminated by a tri-step IR spectroscopy method, including Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, second derivatives infrared (SD-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy under thermal perturbation. The results show that the FT-IR spectra of WL and CL are similar in holistic spectral profile. More significant differences are exhibited in their SD-IR spectra in the range of 1700 - 900 cm-1. Furthermore, more evident differences have been observed in their synchronous 2D-IR spectra in the range of 2970 - 2900, 1678 - 1390, 1250 -1104 and 1090 - 1030 cm-1. The CL has thirteen auto-peaks at 2958, 2921, 1649, 1563, 1450, 1218, 1192, 1161, 1140, 1110, 1082, 1065 and 1047 cm-1, in which the four strongest auto-peaks are at 2921, 1563, 1192 and 1082 cm-1. The WL shows fifteen auto-peaks at 2960, 2937, 2921, 1650, 1615, 1555, 1458, 1219, 1190, 1138, 1111, 1084, 1068, 1048 and 1033 cm-1, in which the four strongest auto-peaks are at 2921, 1650, 1190 and 1068 cm-1. This study shows the potential of FT-IR spectroscopy and 2D correlation analysis in a simple and quick distinction of wild-growing and cultivated mushrooms.

  15. Trace elements in fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi growing in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudawska, Maria; Leski, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The trace metal contents in fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, symbiotic partners of Scots pine, were studied on three sites situated in west-central Poland. Elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in 123 samples of 16 species. The study explored the differences in metal accumulation in relation to site, fungal species, age and part of the fruiting body and results were related to metal content in soil and plant material (roots and needles). Soil analysis revealed that results were obtained under environmental conditions not subject to strong anthropogenic pressure. Median metal concentrations did not differ disparately between sites, although the concentrations of each of the tested metals in the individual species varied to a large extent. Extremely high levels of Al with a large bioconcentration factor (BCF) were found in sporocarps of Thelephora terrestris. The spread between the highest and the lowest concentration (max/min) was very wide in Al, Cd and Pb and these elements may be considered to be absorbed preferentially by fruiting bodies of some species whereas Fe, Mn and Zn, with relatively low values of max/min, are normally absorbed by the majority of fungi. There was no clear relationship between caps and stipes in metal content. However, a tendency to higher metal concentration in the caps was observed. The metal content in young and older fruiting bodies of five different fungi was species dependent. In order to estimate the degree of accumulation of each element by plant and mushrooms, bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were calculated. In plant material (roots and needles), highest values of BCFs were noted for essential metals, like Zn and Mn. Lead showed a definite exclusion pattern (BCF below 1). In fruiting bodies of tested fungi, especially in Amanita muscaria, cadmium was the most intensively accumulated metal. Lead was excluded by plants but was accumulated or excluded by fungi depending on the species. The

  16. Log-Normal Distribution in a Growing System with Weighted and Multiplicatively Interacting Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Akihiro; Tanimoto, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Toshiya

    2018-03-01

    A growing system with weighted and multiplicatively interacting particles is investigated. Each particle has a quantity that changes multiplicatively after a binary interaction, with its growth rate controlled by a weight parameter in a homogeneous symmetric kernel. We consider the system using moment inequalities and analytically derive the log-normal-type tail in the probability distribution function of quantities when the parameter is negative, which is different from the result for single-body multiplicative processes. We also find that the system approaches a winner-take-all state when the parameter is positive.

  17. Cheap heat grows in fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2006-01-01

    Slovak farmers resemble the peasants from the film T he Magnificent Seven . They keep complaining about their fate but consider any innovation as an interference. And that is why they still have not started growing fast-growing wood although the number of heating plants processing bio-mass from forests and fields is growing. Natural gas is expensive and coal creates pollution. Energy from biomass is becoming a good business and also creates new business opportunities - growing the raw material it needs. Such heating plants usually use waste from wood processing companies and Slovak Forests (Lesy SR) has also started deliveries of chip wood from old forests. There are plantations of fast growing wood suitable for heat production of over 500-thousand hectares throughout the EU. This is about 10% of Slovakian's area where the first plantations are also already being set up. The first promising plantation project was launched this spring. And this is not a project launched and backed by a big company but a starting up businessman, Miroslav Forgac from Kosice. He founded his company, Forgim, last winter. Without big money involved and thank to a new business idea he managed to persuade farmers to set up the first plantations. He supplied the seedlings and the business has started with 75 ha of plantations around Trnava, Sala, Komarno, Lucenec, Poprad and Kosice. He is gradually signing contracts with other landowners and next year the area of plantations is set to grow by 1500 ha. Plantations of fast growing trees such as willow, poplar and acacia regenerate by new trees growing out of the roots of the old and from cut trees so from one seedling and one investment there can be several harvests. Swedish willows from Forgim regenerate 20 to 25 years after the first planting. And only then new seedlings have to be purchased. Using special machines that even cut the wood to wood chips the plantations can be 'harvested' every three years. Unlike crops, the fields do not

  18. Differences in Cu content in selected mushroom species growing in the same unpolluted areas in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Mikołajczak, Patrycja; Gąsecka, Monika; Rissmann, Iwona; Goliński, Piotr; Sobieralski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate copper (Cu) accumulation efficiency in whole-fruiting bodies of 18 edible and non-edible wild growing mushrooms collected from 27 places in the Wielkopolska Voivodeship. Mushrooms were collected each time from the same places to estimate the diversity in Cu accumulation between tested mushroom species within 3 consecutive years of study (2011-2013). The study results revealed various accumulation of Cu in the whole-tested mushroom fruiting bodies. The highest mean accumulation of Cu was observed in Macrolepiota procera (119.4 ± 20.0 mg kg(-1) dm), while the lowest was in Suillus luteus and Russula fellea fruiting bodies (16.1 ± 3.0 and 18.8 ± 4.6 mg kg(-1) dm, respectively). Significant differences in Cu accumulation between mushroom species collected in 2011 and in the two following years (2012 and 2013) were observed. The results indicated that sporadic consumption of these mushrooms was not related to excessive intake of Cu for the human body (no toxic influence on health).

  19. Growing container seedlings: Three considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis

    2015-01-01

    The science of growing reforestation and conservation plants in containers has continually evolved, and three simple observations may greatly improve seedling quality. First, retaining stock in its original container for more than one growing season should be avoided. Second, strongly taprooted species now being grown as bareroot stock may be good candidates...

  20. Stretch sensors for human body motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ben; Gisby, Todd; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Sensing motion of the human body is a difficult task. From an engineers' perspective people are soft highly mobile objects that move in and out of complex environments. As well as the technical challenge of sensing, concepts such as comfort, social intrusion, usability, and aesthetics are paramount in determining whether someone will adopt a sensing solution or not. At the same time the demands for human body motion sensing are growing fast. Athletes want feedback on posture and technique, consumers need new ways to interact with augmented reality devices, and healthcare providers wish to track recovery of a patient. Dielectric elastomer stretch sensors are ideal for bridging this gap. They are soft, flexible, and precise. They are low power, lightweight, and can be easily mounted on the body or embedded into clothing. From a commercialisation point of view stretch sensing is easier than actuation or generation - such sensors can be low voltage and integrated with conventional microelectronics. This paper takes a birds-eye view of the use of these sensors to measure human body motion. A holistic description of sensor operation and guidelines for sensor design will be presented to help technologists and developers in the space.

  1. Quantum N-body problem with a minimal length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buisseret, Fabien

    2010-01-01

    The quantum N-body problem is studied in the context of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics with a one-dimensional deformed Heisenberg algebra of the form [x,p]=i(1+βp 2 ), leading to the existence of a minimal observable length √(β). For a generic pairwise interaction potential, analytical formulas are obtained that allow estimation of the ground-state energy of the N-body system by finding the ground-state energy of a corresponding two-body problem. It is first shown that in the harmonic oscillator case, the β-dependent term grows faster with increasing N than the β-independent term. Then, it is argued that such a behavior should also be observed with generic potentials and for D-dimensional systems. Consequently, quantum N-body bound states might be interesting places to look at nontrivial manifestations of a minimal length, since the more particles that are present, the more the system deviates from standard quantum-mechanical predictions.

  2. Influence of high-altitude grazing on bone metabolism of growing sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesegang, A; Hüttenmoser, D; Risteli, J; Leiber, F; Kreuzer, M; Wanner, M

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the effect of high alpine grazing, associated with varying pasture grass qualities and more pronounced exercise on typically steep slopes, on bone metabolism by improving bone density and enhancing bone turnover in growing sheep. Twenty-four 5-month-old sheep were randomly assigned to two groups. One group was kept at high altitude (HA; 2000-2200 m a.s.l.) for 3 months, and the other group (C; control) remained in the lowlands (400 m a.s.l.). Both groups were kept in grazing pastures with access to good-quality swards. Before the start of the experiment, blood samples were taken, the sheep were weighed, and the left metatarsus of each animal was analysed by quantitative computer tomography. After 1 month, blood samples were taken and body weight was measured, followed by biweekly sampling. Finally, the animals were slaughtered, and the bones were collected for analysis of various bone parameters. Body weight development did not differ between the groups. Concentrations of 25-OH-Vitamin D, carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and activities of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase were always higher in the HA group than in the C group, except on the last two sampling dates. Bone mineral content and density increased in both groups during the experiment, but more intensively in the HA group. In addition, the cortical thickness of the HA group increased. The present study demonstrates an increase in bone turnover and mineral content of the bones of the growing sheep grazing in high alpine pastures. The factors associated with HA grazing, therefore, clearly seem to improve bone composition. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Thin film growing by the laser ablation technique: possibilities for growing of dosimetric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas R, E.M.; Melo M, M.; Enriquez Z, E.; Fernandez G, M.; Haro P, E.; Hernandez P, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    In this talk we will present the basics about the laser ablation technique and how it is used for thin film growing, either as a single film or a stack of thin films, as well as some methods to characterize in real time the film thickness. Finally, we will discuss the possibilities of using laser ablation for growing thin films with applications to dosimetry. (Author)

  4. Body measurements and the variability of sitting postures at preschool age as preconditions for an optimal adjustment of chairs and tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Andrea; Greil, Holle

    2009-03-01

    Preschool age is a biological stage of intensive longitudinal growth with high plasticity of the growing body and of body postures. It is the period where children learn to persist in a sitting posture for a longer time and to use furniture like chairs or other body supporting systems. The growing body shows a special sensitivity for the manifestation of inappropriate postures. In this study the development of body measurements and sitting behaviour of preschool age children is investigated as a precondition for an optimal adjustment of seats and desks to the growing body. Accordingly to the instructions of Knussmann (1988) and Jiirgens (1988) 6 body measurements were taken from 122 German children aged 3 to 7 years from Potsdam, Province Brandenburg. Additionally, every child was videotaped for 10 minutes while crayoning in a sitting position of its own choice using a chair and a desk. To analyse the tapes, the software Noldus Observer was used and examined, picture by picture, to define the different types of sitting postures as well as the duration of persistence in a posture and the number of changes of postures. The used chairs and desks were also measured. Furthermore, the data of the furniture guideline DIN ISO 5970 (DIN, 1981), which regulates the dimensions of furniture for sitting in educational institutions, were compared with the results of the body measurements and with the dimensions of the furniture used by the children.

  5. Effects of thiamine deficiency on food intake and body weight increment in adult female and growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bâ, Abdoulaye

    2012-09-01

    The present study compared the effects of thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) on the patterns of food intake and body weight in adult female and neonatal Wistar rats. The adults weighed 250-270 g at the start and were fed for 60 days either with a synthetic TD diet (211 B1) or with the same synthetic diet+thiamine (210 B1). TD led to a marked reduction in food intake and the body weight set point, both recovering rapidly to their initial level in only 3 days after dietetic reversion. The effects of TD in developing rats were evaluated by subjecting pregnant rats to thiamine restriction during different time windows: prenatal (3 days before mating to parturition); perinatal (7 days after mating to the 10th postnatal day); and postnatal (from parturition to weaning). The effect of TD on the occurrence of low birth weight and ponderal growth retardation was examined from postnatal days 1 to 45. Only perinatal TD significantly decreased birth weight relative to untreated or pair-fed controls. Moreover, compared with the control treatments, ponderal growth retardation was not induced by prenatal TD, whereas induction of TD from perinatal into postnatal periods did cause ponderal growth retardation, with long-lasting effects persisting in adulthood. The results suggest a major physiological role of thiamine in the homeostasis of body weight programming, increment, and set point regulation in both offspring and adult female rats.

  6. Relationships between selenium and mercury in the fruiting bodies of some mushrooms growing in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J.; Kubotal, R.; Kunito, T.; Bielawski, L.; Brzostowski, A.; Gucia, M.; Jedrusiak, A.; Lipka, K.; Tanabe, S.

    2003-05-01

    The relationships between concentrations of total selenium and mercury were investigated for the whole fruiting bodies, caps and/or stalks of King bolete (Boletus edulis), Brown birch scaber stalk (Leccinum scabrum), Parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), Poison pax (Paxillus involutus) and Fly agaric (Amatiita niuscaria) collected from the various sites in Poland. The mushroom species examined varied largely due to the contents and proportions between the total selenium and mercury concentrations, what seems to indicate on species-dependent strategy of co-uptake and accumulation of these elements.

  7. The formation and growing properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) fiber growing media after thermo-oxidative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.P.; Lin, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    This research uses three kinds of recycled synthetic fibers that all possess excellent thermal plasticity property as raw material to develop a new firm cultivation media: polyethylene terephthalate, polyamide and polypropylene. One can not only freely control plants cultivation growing condition by changing bulk density of the media, but also solve disposal problem after usage by applying thermal oxidative treatment during manufacturing processes. The water content, air permeability and formation conditions of these fiber growing media that are required in plants growing habitat were discussed, and compared the fallout with rockwool (RW) growing media that is commonly used at present days. The results indicated that the polyethylene terephthalate fiber media could attain best formation characteristics among these fibers at the same bulk density range. Furthermore, the fiber media that were thermo-oxidative treated at 240-260 deg. C could obtained above 90% total porosity, 23-49% air capacity and 48-68% water availability, water contents raised from 1735-1094 to 2145-1156% under bulk densities of 0.03-0.09 g/cm 3 , which conforms to the common plant growing habitat conditions. Its performance well surpasses the rockwool growing media. We also discovered that the thermo-oxidative treated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber media could be easily broken down and become powdery by exerting pressure, thus greatly reduce its volume and effectively improve disposal processes that are difficult presently for the huge refuse create by rockwool

  8. Exploring Relationships between Body Appreciation and Self-Reported Physical Health among Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer Winter, Virginia; O'Neill, Elizabeth A; Omary, Areen

    2017-05-01

    Body image, a multidimensional construct, affects women in myriad ways. Existing scholarship has established a relationship between body image and negative mental and sexual health outcomes and suggests that it may also be related to physical health outcomes. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to explore relationships between body appreciation, a multidimensional measure of body image, and self-perceived physical health among a sample of emerging adult women (N = 399). In this sample, body appreciation was positively and significantly related to self-perceived physical health. This study contributes to a growing body of literature on the consequences of body image among women and can be used to inform interventions aimed at improving the well-being of women. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  9. Dietary Supplementation of Seaweed (Ulva lactuca to alleviate the Impact of Heat Stress in Growing Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kkalid A. Abdoun, Aly B. Okab, Ahmed M. El-Waziry, Emad M. Samara and Ahmed A. Al-Haidary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several environmental and nutritional management approaches have been used to mitigate heat stress and improve performance of farm animals in semi-arid and arid regions. The present study was designed with the intention to alleviate the negative effects of heat stress and to promote the performance of growing lambs reared under hot environmental conditions. The study was conducted on 18 male Naimey lambs with average body weight of 22.78±0.49 kg, and 4-5 months old. The animals were randomly divided into 3 equal groups (A, B and C, and fed diets containing different concentrations of seaweed (Ulva lactuca for 90 days. Group A served as control and was offered diet containing 0.0% seaweed. Groups B and C served as treated groups and were offered diets containing 3.0 and 5.0% seaweed, respectively. Dietary inclusion of seaweed to the diet of growing lambs exposed to heat stress (max Ta 43.9oC, max RH 81.1%, max THI 84.6 neither influenced (P>0.05 the thermo-physiological parameters (rectal and skin temperatures, nor affected (P>0.05 the performance parameters (feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency. Furthermore, dietary seaweed supplementation did not alter (P>0.05 blood constituents or blood antioxidant capacity. However, dietary seaweed supplementation significantly (P<0.05 reduced respiratory rate, and increased serum potassium concentration. Based on the data of the present study, seaweed (Ulva lactuca supplementation to the diets of growing lambs reared under heat stress conditions did not show any indication of promoting their production performance or heat tolerance.

  10. Human bipedalism and body-mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Su Do; Noh, Jae Dong; Minnhagen, Petter; Song, Mi-Young; Chon, Tae-Soo; Kim, Beom Jun

    2017-06-16

    Body-mass index, abbreviated as BMI and given by M/H 2 with the mass M and the height H, has been widely used as a useful proxy to measure a general health status of a human individual. We generalise BMI in the form of M/H p and pursue to answer the question of the value of p for populations of animal species including human. We compare values of p for several different datasets for human populations with the ones obtained for other animal populations of fish, whales, and land mammals. All animal populations but humans analyzed in our work are shown to have p ≈ 3 unanimously. In contrast, human populations are different: As young infants grow to become toddlers and keep growing, the sudden change of p is observed at about one year after birth. Infants younger than one year old exhibit significantly larger value of p than two, while children between one and five years old show p ≈ 2, sharply different from other animal species. The observation implies the importance of the upright posture of human individuals. We also propose a simple mechanical model for a human body and suggest that standing and walking upright should put a clear division between bipedal human (p ≈ 2) and other animals (p ≈ 3).

  11. Silk elasticity as a potential constraint on spider body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A; Corcobado, Guadalupe; Moya-Laraño, Jordi

    2010-10-07

    Silk is known for its strength and extensibility and has played a key role in the radiation of spiders. Individual spiders use different glands to produce silk types with unique sets of proteins. Most research has studied the properties of major ampullate and capture spiral silks and their ecological implications, while little is known about minor ampullate silk, the type used by those spider species studied to date for bridging displacements. A biomechanical model parameterised with available data shows that the minimum radius of silk filaments required for efficient bridging grows with the square root of the spider's body mass, faster than the radius of minor ampullate silk filaments actually produced by spiders. Because the morphology of spiders adapted to walking along or under silk threads is ill suited for moving on a solid surface, for these species there is a negative relationship between body mass and displacement ability. As it stands, the model suggests that spiders that use silk for their displacements are prevented from attaining a large body size if they must track their resources in space. In particular, silk elasticity would favour sexual size dimorphism because males that must use bridging lines to search for females cannot grow large. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Adverse Effects of Sporadic Dialysis on Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workeneh, Biruh; Shypailo, Roman; DeCastro, Iris; Shah, Maulin; Guffey, Danielle; Minard, Charles G; Mitch, William E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the body composition of patients receiving emergent dialysis and compare their body cell mass (BCM) and fat-free mass (FFM) with those of normal subjects. The care of patients receiving sporadic, emergent dialysis treatment is a growing public health concern and the magnitude of muscle wasting that occurs in this population is not known. We used a cross-sectional design with matching to determine differences in total body potassium--an indicator of both BCM and FFM--between emergent dialysis patients and healthy normal subjects. We studied 22 subjects using a 40K counter that measures BCM and FFM and compared them to controls after matching with sex, height and weight. In the matched comparison, BCM and FFM were significantly lower in subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Unadjusted BCM was 4.7 kg lower and FFM was 8.8 kg lower for those with ESRD compared to those without ESRD (p FFM (7.7 kg) in the ESRD subjects (p = 0.004). After adjusting for age, height, weight and gender, BCM and FFM were lower by 4.2 and 7.8 kg, respectively (p FFM loss over time was significant, with the ESRD subjects demonstrating 2.2 kg per year decline (p = 0.01). We conclude that among other consequences, muscle wasting indicated by decline in BCM and FFM is a significant concern in the growing emergent dialysis population. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Effect of irradiated corn on some biochemical parameters or growing albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shennawy, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of gamma irradiation treatment on the chemical composition of raw and irradiated corn gluten (CG) at 8 and 10 kGy, alongside the impacts irradiated CG consumptions on weight reduction and certain blood biochemical factors in growing rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=60) were fed the experimental diet for 5 weeks. They were then randomly divided into four groups and fed the iso caloric experimental diets. Food intake, daily body weight gain, apparent food conversion efficiency, plasma and hepatic lipid variables were assessed.The results revealed that the chemical composition of irradiated CG showed non-significant differences relative to the raw one.

  14. Growing Oppression, Growing Resistance : LGBT Activism and Europeanisation in Macedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miškovska Kajevska, A.; Bilić, B.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides one of the first socio-historical overviews of the LGBT groups in Macedonia and argues that an important impetus for the proliferation of LGBT activities has been the growing state-endorsed homophobia starting from 2008. The homophobic rhetoric of the ruling parties was clearly

  15. How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients About ACOG How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs How Your Fetus ... 2018 PDF Format How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy Pregnancy How does pregnancy begin? What is the ...

  16. A case report highlighting the growing trend of Internet-based self-diagnosis of "Morgellon's disease".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortillaro, Gino; Rodgman, Christopher; Kinzie, Erik; Ryals, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    "Morgellon's Disease" is a term used to describe a bizarre condition characterized by the belief that strange sensations in the skin are due to filaments called "Morgellon's Bodies."' The focus of this case report is to inform readers of the growing incidence of this psychosomatic condition. Unfortunately, self-diagnosis has become increasingly common because of the widespread coverage on the Internet. While the validity of the diagnosis is in question, the impact on patient's lives is real, often debilitating, and bears more examination.

  17. THE BIOMINERAL CONCENTRATIONS AND ACCUMULATION IN SOME WILD GROWING EDIBLE SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cristina Elekes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many mushrooms species are known to accumulate metals to a higher level than the plants and are considered as a source of proteins, vitamins – riboflavin, biotin and thiamine, fats, carbohydrates, amino acids and minerals. The trace metals concentrations were established by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometry method. The aim of this paper is to determinate the minerals content of some wild growing mushrooms, which may be useful in the phytopharmaceutical biotechnologies in order to obtain important quantities of biominerals accessible for the human body. The results are varying with the analyzed species of mushrooms between 11869.85 and 32088.68 mg/kg for potassium, 240.81 to 716.98 mg/kg for calcium and between 0 to 5350 mg/kg for phosphorus. The highest concentration if potassium was founded in B. griseus species, 32088.68 mg/kg. Only two species, Hygrophorus virgineus and Marasmius oreades show a phosphorus concentration in the fruiting body higher than in soil, indicating the accumulation capacity.

  18. The Economic Importance of Adequate Aeronautical Telemetry Spectrum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kahn, Carolyn A

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: (1) The flight test community faces a telemetry spectrum crunch; (2) Amount of spectrum now allocated for ATM is not sufficient to meet needs, and requirements have been steadily growing...

  19. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  20. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  1. Protein synthesis in the growing rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, J.; Chrin, L.

    1986-01-01

    Developmental control of protein synthesis in the postnatal growth of the lung has not been systematically studied. In male Fischer 344 rats, lung growth continues linearly as a function of body weight (from 75 to 450 g body weight). To study total protein synthesis in lungs of growing rats, we used the technique of constant intravenous infusion of tritiated leucine, an essential amino acid. Lungs of sacrificed animals were used to determine the leucine incorporation rate into newly synthesized protein. The specific radioactivity of the leucine associated with tRNA extracted from the same lungs served as an absolute index of the precursor leucine pool used for lung protein synthesis. On the basis of these measurements, we were able to calculate the fractional synthesis rate (the proportion of total protein destroyed and replaced each day) of pulmonary proteins for each rat. Under the conditions of isotope infusion, leucyl-tRNA very rapidly equilibrates with free leucine of the plasma and of the extracellular space of the lung. Infusions lasting 30 minutes or less yielded linear rates of protein synthesis without evidence of contamination of lung proteins by newly labeled intravascular albumin. The fractional synthesis rate is considerably higher in juvenile animals (55% per day) than in adult rats (20% per day). After approximately 12 weeks of age, the fractional synthesis rate remains extremely constant in spite of continued slow growth of the lung. It is apparent from these data that in both young and adult rats the bulk of total protein synthesis is devoted to rapidly turning over proteins and that less than 4 percent of newly made protein is committed to tissue growth

  2. Comparison of hydrogen-production capability of four different Enterobacteriaceae strains under growing and non-growing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Eunhee; Kim, Seohyoung; Raj, S. Mohan; Park, Sunghoon [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea)

    2008-10-15

    Non-growing cells can function as whole-cell biocatalysts for hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production, a process that has recently drawn much attention. In order to evaluate their potential as whole-cell biocatalysts, we compared the H{sub 2}-production capability of four Enterobacteriaceae strains (Citrobacter amalonaticus Y19, Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655, Escherichia coli DJT135, and Enterobacter aerogenes) under growing and non-growing conditions. We evaluated their H{sub 2}-production activity at varying temperatures (25-45 C) and pH conditions (6.0-8.0) using glucose or formate as the carbon source. Under growing conditions with 10 mM glucose as a substrate, E. aerogenes exhibited the highest H{sub 2}-production activity (17.0 {+-} 0.2 {mu}mol H{sub 2} mg cell{sup -1} h{sup -1}) among the four strains, but the final H{sub 2} yield was similar (1.7-1.8 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose) in all four strains. H{sub 2} production in the four strains proceeded through a formate-dependent pathway that involved the formate hydrogen lyase (FHL) complex. Under non-growing conditions with 20 mM formate as a substrate, we obtained high H{sub 2}-production activities, in the range of 95.5-195.2 {mu}mol H{sub 2} mg cell{sup -1} h{sup -1}, with E. coli DJT135 exhibiting the highest activity (195.2 {mu}mol H{sub 2} mg{sup -1} h{sup -1}) at pH 6.0 and 45 C. In contrast, using glucose as the carbon substrate in non-growing cell experiments greatly reduced the H{sub 2}-production activity to 6.1-7.7 {mu}mol H{sub 2} mg cell{sup -1} h{sup -1}. This study indicated that formate is a better substrate than glucose for H{sub 2} production by non-growing cells, and that the H{sub 2}-production performance among the strains did not vary significantly, with the exception of E. coli K-12 MG1655. (author)

  3. Net-Zero Energy Home Grows Up: Lessons and Puzzles from 10 Years of Data; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, Bethany; Earle, Lieko; Christensen, Craig; Norton, Paul

    2016-05-17

    In 2005, Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver, with support from NREL and other partners, built one of the first homes in the US to achieve net-zero energy based on monitored data. A family of three moved into the house when it was completed and lives there still. The home has been monitored continuously for the past ten years. Although PV production has remained steady, net energy performance has varied each year. The home was a net producer of energy annually in each of the first three years and in the ninth year, but not in years four through eight. Over the years, the PV system provided between 124% and 64% of the home source energy use. Electricity use in the home increased steadily during the first eight years, even though no significant new appliance was introduced into the house, such as a window air conditioner. Miscellaneous electric loads and space heating, both strongly dependent on occupant behavior, appear to be primarily responsible for the observed increase in energy use. An interesting aspect of this case study is how, even within a single family, natural changes in occupant lifestyles over time (e.g., kids growing up, schedules changing) can substantially impact the overall energy intensity of a home. Data from the last ten years will be explored for lessons learned that can improve the way we design low-load homes without sacrificing comfort or convenience for the occupants, and how we can make realistic predictions of long-term energy performance.

  4. Mind-Body Practices and the Adolescent Brain: Clinical Neuroimaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anup; Newberg, Andrew B

    Mind-Body practices constitute a large and diverse group of practices that can substantially affect neurophysiology in both healthy individuals and those with various psychiatric disorders. In spite of the growing literature on the clinical and physiological effects of mind-body practices, very little is known about their impact on central nervous system (CNS) structure and function in adolescents with psychiatric disorders. This overview highlights findings in a select group of mind-body practices including yoga postures, yoga breathing techniques and meditation practices. Mind-body practices offer novel therapeutic approaches for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Findings from these studies provide insights into the design and implementation of neuroimaging studies for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Clinical neuroimaging studies will be critical in understanding how different practices affect disease pathogenesis and symptomatology in adolescents. Neuroimaging of mind-body practices on adolescents with psychiatric disorders will certainly be an open and exciting area of investigation.

  5. Fingerprint matching with optical coherence tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moolla, Y

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint recognition is an important security technique with a steadily growing usage for the identification and verification of individuals. However, current fingerprint acquisition systems have certain disadvantages, which include...

  6. Comparison of conventional and long-acting oxytetracyclines in prevention of induced Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae infection of growing swine.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiorpes, A L; Bäckström, L R; Collins, M T; Kruse, G O

    1989-01-01

    These experiments tested the hypothesis that long-acting oxytetracycline (oxytetracycline-LA) was more effective than regular oxytetracycline in preventing porcine pleuropneumonia when administered either 24 or 48 h prior to experimental challenge with virulent strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Two experiments (1 and 2) were conducted using growing pigs (average weight 12-15 kg). Antibiotic treatments were administered once intramuscularly at 20 mg/kg body weight; controls received ...

  7. The body size of the oil-collecting bee Tetrapedia diversipes (Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto da Silva,Carlos; Silva,Adriana; Duran Cordeiro,Guaraci; Alves dos Santos ,Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The body size of bees can affect their fitness in many ways. There is an indirect relationship between the size of the mother and the size of her progeny. This is so because large mothers use larger nests and brood cells and have higher foraging capacity than small mothers, and consequently large mothers supply a larger amount of food to their larvae, which grow larger. We analyzed the relationship between body size of individual oil-collecting bees of the species Tetrapedia diversipes and th...

  8. High Dietary Fructose Intake on Cardiovascular Disease Related Parameters in Growing Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, SooYeon; Ahn, Hyejin; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2016-12-26

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a high-fructose diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related parameters in growing rats. Three-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four experimental groups; a regular diet group (RD: fed regular diet based on AIN-93G, n = 8), a high-fructose diet group (30Frc: fed regular diet with 30% fructose, n = 8), a high-fat diet group (45Fat: fed regular diet with 45 kcal% fat, n = 8) or a high fructose with high-fat diet group (30Frc + 45Fat, fed diet 30% fructose with 45 kcal% fat, n = 8). After an eight-week treatment period, the body weight, total-fat weight, serum glucose, insulin, lipid profiles and pro-inflammatory cytokines, abdominal aortic wall thickness, and expressions of eNOS and ET-1 mRNA were analyzed. The result showed that total-fat weight was higher in the 30Frc, 45Fat, and 30Frc + 45Fat groups compared to the RD group ( p fructose consumption and high fat consumption in growing rats had similar negative effects on CVD-related parameters.

  9. WSGB: A Web Service-Based Growing Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, C. R.; Huang, L. H.; Chen, K. H.; Chiu, J. C.; Lin, C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Growing Book refers to an electronic textbook that is co-developed, and has the ability to be constantly maintained, by groups of independent authors, thus creating a rich and ever-growing learning environment that can be conveniently accessible from anywhere. This work designs and implements a Web Service-based Growing Book that has the merits of…

  10. An energetic perspective on tissue regeneration: The costs of tail autotomy in growing geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostová, Zuzana; Gvoždík, Lumír; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2017-04-01

    Tail autotomy is a crucial antipredatory lizard response, which greatly increases individual survival, but at the same time also compromises locomotor performance, sacrifices energy stores and induces a higher burden due to the ensuing response of regenerating the lost body part. The potential costs of tail autotomy include shifts in energy allocation and metabolic rates, especially in juveniles, which invest their energy primarily in somatic growth. We compared the metabolic rates and followed the growth of juvenile males with and without regenerating tails in the Madagascar ground gecko (Paroedura picta), a nocturnal ground-dwelling lizard. Geckos with intact tails and those that were regrowing them grew in snout-vent-length at similar rates for 22weeks after autotomy. Tail regeneration had a negligible influence on body mass-corrected metabolic rate measured at regular intervals throughout the regenerative process. We conclude that fast-growing juveniles under the conditions of unrestricted food can largely compensate for costs of tail loss and regeneration in their somatic growth without a significant impact on the total individual body mass-corrected metabolic rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Visualization of airflow growing soap bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rahbi, Hamood; Bock, Matthew; Ryu, Sangjin

    2016-11-01

    Visualizing airflow inside growing soap bubbles can answer questions regarding the fluid dynamics of soap bubble blowing, which is a model system for flows with a gas-liquid-gas interface. Also, understanding the soap bubble blowing process is practical because it can contribute to controlling industrial processes similar to soap bubble blowing. In this study, we visualized airflow which grows soap bubbles using the smoke wire technique to understand how airflow blows soap bubbles. The soap bubble blower setup was built to mimic the human blowing process of soap bubbles, which consists of a blower, a nozzle and a bubble ring. The smoke wire was placed between the nozzle and the bubble ring, and smoke-visualized airflow was captured using a high speed camera. Our visualization shows how air jet flows into the growing soap bubble on the ring and how the airflow interacts with the soap film of growing bubble.

  12. Body Donation in India: Social Awareness, Willingness, and Associated Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokade, Shrikant A.; Gaikawad, Anjana P.

    2012-01-01

    With the attendant rise of the number of medical colleges in India over past few decades, the demand for cadavers used in medical education and research is growing. However, there is an insufficient supply of donated cadavers available for dissection. This study was undertaken to assess the general population's awareness of body donation programs…

  13. Oxygen no longer plays a major role in Body Size Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, H.; Sachson, W.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    When observing the long-term relationship between atmospheric oxygen and the maximum size in organisms across the Geozoic (~3.8 Ga - present), it appears that as oxygen increases, organism size grows. However, during the Phanerozoic (541 Ma - Present) oxygen levels varied, so we set out to test the hypothesis that oxygen levels drive patterns marine animal body size evolution. Expected decreases in maximum size due to a lack of oxygen do not occur, and instead, body size continues to increase regardless. In the oxygen data, a relatively low atmospheric oxygen percentage can support increasing body size, so our research tries to determine whether lifestyle affects body size in marine organisms. The genera in the data set were organized based on their tiering, motility, and feeding, such as a pelagic, fully-motile, predator. When organisms fill a certain ecological niche to take advantage of resources, they will have certain life modes, rather than randomly selected traits. For example, even in terrestrial environments, large animals have to constantly feed themselves to support their expensive terrestrial lifestyle which involves fairly consistent movement, and the structural support necessary for that movement. Only organisms with access to high energy food sources or large amounts of food can support themselves, and that is before they expend energy elsewhere. Organisms that expend energy frugally when active or have slower metabolisms in comparison to body size have a more efficient lifestyle and are generally able to grow larger, while those who have higher energy demands like predators are limited to comparatively smaller sizes. Therefore, in respect to the fossil record and modern measurements of animals, the metabolism and lifestyle of an organism dictate its body size in general. With this further clarification on the patterns of evolution, it will be easier to observe and understand the reasons for the ecological traits of organisms today.

  14. High velocity collisions between large dust aggregates at the limit for growing planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, G.; Teiser, J.; Paraskov, G.

    2007-08-01

    Planetesimals are km-size bodies supposed to be formed in protoplanetary disks as planetary precursors [1]. The most widely considered mechanism for their formation is based on mutual collisions of smaller bodies, a process which starts with the aggregation of (sub)-micron size dust particles. In the absence of events that lithify the growing dust aggregates, only the surface forces between dust particles provide adhesion and internal strength of the objects. It has been assumed that this might be a disadvantage as dust aggregates are readily destroyed by rather weak collisions. In fact, experimental research on dust aggregation showed that for collisions in the m/s range (sub)-mm size dust aggregates impacting a larger body do show a transition from sticking to rebound and/or fragmentation in collisions and no growth occurs at the large velocities [2, 3]. This seemed to be incompatible with typical collision velocities of small dust aggregates with m-size bodies which are expected to be on the order 50 m/s in protoplanetary disks [4]. We recently found that the experimental results cannot be scaled from m/s to tens of m/s collisions. In contrast to the assumptions and somewhat counterintuitive, it is the fragility of dust aggregates that allows growth at higher collision velocities. In impact experiments Wurm et al. [5] showed that between 13 m/s and 25 m/s a larger compact (target) body consisting of micron-size SiO2 dust particles accreted 50 % of the mass of a 1 cm dust projectile consisting of the same dust. For slower impacts the projectile only rebounded or fragmented slightly.

  15. The growing interrelationship between nuclear law and environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    With the recent United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP21) in Paris, a great deal of attention is being given to low-carbon energy technologies and policies that could help the world limit the global temperature increase to 2 deg. Celsius. Among these technologies, nuclear energy, which remains the largest source of low-carbon electricity in OECD countries and the second largest source of electricity at the global level after hydropower, can play a key role. The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accident heightened public concern over the safety of nuclear energy in many countries. Because of the potentially far-reaching consequences of the use of nuclear energy on the environment in the case of an accident, it is commonly thought that nuclear law and environmental law are not entirely compatible or do not necessarily share the same objectives. Nuclear law may be defined as 'the body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation', while environmental law can be defined as 'the body of law that contains elements to control the human impact on the Earth and on public health'. These two areas of law were considered independently in the past, since the initial focus of nuclear law, which was developed before environmental law, was to protect people and property, without explicitly referring to the environment. However, the 1986 Chernobyl accident and increasing environmental concerns during that same decade led to a growing emphasis on environmental protection in the field of nuclear activities. On the one hand, nuclear law, as 'lex specialis', aims to ensure that nuclear activities are carried out in a manner that is safe for both the public and the environment. On the other hand, the expansion of the realm of environmental law has given rise to the application of environmentally focused

  16. National Status and Trends: Contaminant body burdens and histopathology of fish and shellfish from Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In response to the growing concerns among Chugach communities, contaminant body burden and histopathological condition of chum and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus keta...

  17. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.W. Winkler (Thomas W.); A.E. Justice (Anne); M.J. Graff (Maud J.L.); Barata, L. (Llilda); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); Chu, S. (Su); J. Czajkowski (Jacek); T. Esko (Tõnu); M. Fall (Magnus); T.O. Kilpeläinen (Tuomas); Y. Lu (Yingchang); R. Mägi (Reedik); E. Mihailov (Evelin); T.H. Pers (Tune); Rüeger, S. (Sina); A. Teumer (Alexander); G.B. Ehret (Georg); T. Ferreira (Teresa); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); J. Karjalainen (Juha); V. Lagou (Vasiliki); A. Mahajan (Anubha); Neinast, M.D. (Michael D.); I. Prokopenko (Inga); J. Simino (Jeannette); T.M. Teslovich (Tanya M.); R. Jansen; H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); C.C. White (Charles); D. Absher (Devin); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); S. Ahmad (Shafqat); E. Albrecht (Eva); A.C. Alves (Alexessander Couto); Bragg-Gresham, J.L. (Jennifer L.); A.J. de Craen (Anton); J.C. Bis (Joshua); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); G. Boucher (Gabrielle); G. Cadby (Gemma); Y.-C. Cheng (Yu-Ching); Chiang, C.W. (Charleston W K); G. Delgado; A. Demirkan (Ayşe); N. Dueker (Nicole); N. Eklund (Niina); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); J. Eriksson (Joel); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); K. Fischer (Krista); F. Frau (Francesca); T.E. Galesloot (Tessel); F. Geller (Frank); A. Goel (Anuj); M. Gorski (Mathias); T.B. Grammer (Tanja); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); Haitjema, S. (Saskia); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); A.U. Jackson (Anne); K.B. Jacobs (Kevin); A. Johansson (Åsa); M. Kaakinen (Marika); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); J. Lahti (Jari); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); Lehne, B. (Benjamin); Liu, Y. (Youfang); K.S. Lo; M. Lorentzon (Mattias); J. Luan (Jian'An); P.A. Madden (Pamela); M. Mangino (Massimo); B. McKnight (Barbara); Medina-Gomez, C. (Carolina); K.L. Monda (Keri); M.E. Montasser (May E.); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); I.M. Nolte (Ilja); Panoutsopoulou, K. (Kalliope); L. Pascoe (Laura); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); F. Renström (Frida); Rizzi, F. (Federica); L.M. Rose (Lynda); Ryan, K.A. (Kathy A.); P. Salo (Perttu); S. Sanna (Serena); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); Shi, J. (Jianxin); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); L. Southam (Lorraine); A. Stancáková (Alena); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); Sung, Y.J. (Yun Ju); I. Tachmazidou (Ioanna); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S. Trompet (Stella); N. Pervjakova (Natalia); J.P. Tyrer (Jonathan); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); S.W. Van Der Laan (Sander W.); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); J. van Setten (Jessica); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); N. Verweij (Niek); E. Vlachopoulou (Efthymia); L. Waite (Lindsay); S.R. Wang (Sophie); Z. Wang (Zhaoming); S.H. Wild (Sarah); C. Willenborg (Christina); J.F. Wilson (James); A. Wong (Andrew); Yang, J. (Jian); L. Yengo (Loic); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); Yu, L. (Lei); W. Zhang (Weihua); Zhao, J.H. (Jing Hua); E.A. Andersson (Ehm Astrid); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); D. Baldassarre (Damiano); Banasik, K. (Karina); Barcella, M. (Matteo); Barlassina, C. (Cristina); C. Bellis (Claire); P. Benaglio (Paola); J. Blangero (John); M. Blüher (Matthias); Bonnet, F. (Fabrice); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); H.A. Boyd (Heather); M. Bruinenberg (M.); Buchman, A.S. (Aron S.); H. Campbell (Harry); Y.D. Chen (Y.); P.S. Chines (Peter); S. Claudi-Boehm (Simone); J.W. Cole (John W.); F.S. Collins (Francis); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette); M. Dimitriou (Maria); J. Duan (Jubao); S. Enroth (Stefan); E. Eury (Elodie); A.-E. Farmaki (Aliki-Eleni); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); N. Friedrich (Nele); P.V. Gejman (Pablo); B. Gigante (Bruna); N. Glorioso (Nicola); A. Go (Attie); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); H. Grallert (Harald); N. Grarup (Niels); Gu, Y.-M. (Yu-Mei); L. Broer (Linda); A.C. Ham (Annelies); T. Hansen (T.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); C.A. Hartman (Catharina A.); Hassinen, M. (Maija); N. Hastie (Nick); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); A.C. Heath (Andrew); A.K. Henders (Anjali); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); H.L. Hillege (Hans); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); G.K. Hovingh (Kees); J. Hui (Jennie); Husemoen, L.L. (Lise L.); Hutri-Kähönen, N. (Nina); P.G. Hysi (Pirro); T. Illig (Thomas); P.L. de Jager (Philip); S. Jalilzadeh (Shapour); T. Jorgensen (Torben); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); Juonala, M. (Markus); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); M. Karaleftheri (Maria); K.T. Khaw; L. Kinnunen (Leena); T. Kittner (Thomas); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); I. Kolcic (Ivana); P. Kovacs (Peter); Krarup, N.T. (Nikolaj T.); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); Krüger, J. (Janine); Kuh, D. (Diana); M. Kumari (Meena); T. Kyriakou (Theodosios); C. Langenberg (Claudia); L. Lannfelt (Lars); C. Lanzani (Chiara); V. Lotay (Vaneet); L.J. Launer (Lenore); K. Leander (Karin); J. Lindström (Jaana); A. Linneberg (Allan); Liu, Y.-P. (Yan-Ping); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); R.N. Luben (Robert); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); S. Männistö (Satu); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); C. Menni (Cristina); S. Merger (Sigrun); L. Milani (Lili); Montgomery, G.W. (Grant W.); A.P. Morris (Andrew); N. Narisu (Narisu); M. Nelis (Mari); K.K. Ong (Ken); A. Palotie (Aarno); L. Perusse (Louis); I. Pichler (Irene); M.G. Pilia (Maria Grazia); A. Pouta (Anneli); Rheinberger, M. (Myriam); Ribel-Madsen, R. (Rasmus); Richards, M. (Marcus); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); T.K. Rice (Treva K.); C. Rivolta (Carlo); V. Salomaa (Veikko); A.R. Sanders (Alan); M.A. Sarzynski (Mark A.); S. Scholtens (Salome); R.A. Scott (Robert); W.R. Scott (William R.); S. Sebert (Sylvain); S. Sengupta (Sebanti); B. Sennblad (Bengt); T. Seufferlein (Thomas); A. Silveira (Angela); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); J.H. Smit (Jan); T. Sparsø (Thomas); K. Stirrups (Kathy); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); H.M. Stringham (Heather); Swertz, M.A. (Morris A.); A.J. Swift (Amy); A.C. Syvänen; S.-T. Tan (Sian-Tsung); B. Thorand (Barbara); A. Tönjes (Anke); Tremblay, A. (Angelo); E. Tsafantakis (Emmanouil); P.J. van der Most (Peter); U. Völker (Uwe); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); J.M. Vonk (Judith); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); Walker, R.W. (Ryan W.); R. Wennauer (Roman); E. Widen; G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); A.F. Wright (Alan); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); S. Van Dijk (Suzanne); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); F.W. Asselbergs (Folkert); P.I.W. de Bakker (Paul); J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); J.P. Beilby (John); D.A. Bennett (David A.); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); C.A. Böger (Carsten); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); E.P. Bottinger (Erwin); C. Bouchard (Claude); J.C. Chambers (John); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); F. Cucca (Francesco); D. Cusi (Daniele); G.V. Dedoussis (George); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); K. Hagen (Knut); D. Evans; U. de Faire (Ulf); M. Farrall (Martin); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); I. Ford (Ian); L. Franke (Lude); P.W. Franks (Paul); P. Froguel (Philippe); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); C. Gieger (Christian); H. Grönberg (Henrik); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); P. Hall (Per); A. Hamsten (Anders); P. van der Harst (Pim); C. Hayward (Caroline); M. Heliovaara (Markku); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A. Hingorani (Aroon); A. Hofman (Albert); Hu, F. (Frank); H.V. Huikuri (Heikki); K. Hveem (Kristian); A. James (Alan); Jordan, J.M. (Joanne M.); A. Jula (Antti); M. Kähönen (Mika); E. Kajantie (Eero); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); M. Kivimaki (Mika); P. Knekt; H. Koistinen (Heikki); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); S. Koskinen (Seppo); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); W. Maerz (Winfried); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. Laakso (Markku); T.A. Lakka (Timo); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); G. Lettre (Guillaume); D.F. Levinson (Douglas); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); M.L. Lokki; Mäntyselkä, P. (Pekka); M. Melbye (Mads); A. Metspalu (Andres); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); F.L. Moll (Frans); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey); A.W. Musk (Arthur); M.S. Nieminen (Markku); I. Njølstad (Inger); C. Ohlsson (Claes); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C. Palmer (Cameron); J.S. Pankow (James); G. Pasterkamp (Gerard); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); O. Pedersen (Oluf); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); M. Perola (Markus); A. Peters (Annette); O. Polasek (Ozren); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); Psaty, B.M. (Bruce M.); Qi, L. (Lu); T. Quertermous (Thomas); Raitakari, O.T. (Olli T.); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); P.M. Ridker (Paul); J.D. Rioux (John); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); I. Rudan (Igor); H.M. den Ruijter (Hester ); J. Saltevo (Juha); N. Sattar (Naveed); Schunkert, H. (Heribert); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); J. Sinisalo (Juha); H. Snieder (Harold); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); T.D. Spector (Timothy); Staessen, J.A. (Jan A.); Stefania, B. (Bandinelli); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); M. Stumvoll (Michael); J.-C. Tardif (Jean-Claude); E. Tremoli (Elena); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Uusitupa (Matti); A.L.M. Verbeek; S.H.H.M. Vermeulen (Sita); J. Viikari (Jorma); Vitart, V. (Veronique); H. Völzke (Henry); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); M. Walker (Mark); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); Clegg, D.J. (Deborah J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); P. Gordon-Larsen (Penny); C.E. Jaquish (Cashell); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); Abecasis, G.R. (Goncalo R.); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); I.E. Barroso (Inês); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); M. Boehnke (Michael); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); C.S. Fox (Caroline); L. Groop (Leif); D. Hunter (David); E. Ingelsson (Erik); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); McCarthy, M.I. (Mark I.); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); J.R. O´Connell; Schlessinger, D. (David); D.P. Strachan (David); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia M.); I.M. Heid (Iris); K.E. North (Kari); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractGenome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ

  18. Effects of dietary fat on the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid metabolism in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Stanisława; Skiba, Grzegorz; Sobol, Monika; Pastuszewska, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    The effect of dietary fats differing in fatty acid (FA) composition on the metabolism of saturated FA (SFA) and monounsaturated FA (MUFA) in growing pigs was investigated. The deposition of FA in the body and the fate of individual dietary FA were assessed after slaughter. Gilts with an initial body weight (BW) of 60 kg were used as experimental animals. Six pigs were slaughtered at 60 kg BW, while further 18 pigs received three isoenergetic and isonitrogen experimental diets containing linseed oil, rapeseed oil or beef tallow at 50 g/kg diet until they reached 105 kg (six pigs per group). The chemical composition and the content of FA in the whole body were determined and compared across groups. Regardless of dietary treatment, the whole body contained similar amounts of protein, fat and total FA. The total accumulation (percentage of net intake and de novo production) of SFA and MUFA was similar in all groups, but the processes of elongation and desaturation of SFA and MUFA depended upon the type of FA added to the diet. A high dietary content and intake of MUFA inhibits desaturation compared to SFA- and PUFA-rich diets, whereas a high SFA content and intake lowers elongation rate. The increasing net intake of total SFA and MUFA was associated with a lower total de novo production of these FA in the whole body of pigs.

  19. Characteristics of a Steadily Operating Metal Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    Physique, Serie 7, Vol. 17, p. 510-576, 1899. 18. Zintl, E., Harder, A., and Dauth, B., "Gitterstruktur Der Oxyde , Sulfide, Selenide Und Telluride Des...ethyl alcohol were added to the cylinder along with three drops of alizarin Red S indicator (1%). The solution was titrated with thorium nitrate until...the appearance of a faint pink color. The thorium nitrate precipitated thorium fluoride which is insoluble in ethyl alcohol , and the indicator detected

  20. The 1988 coal outlook: steadily rising consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soras, C.G.; Stodden, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    Total coal use - domestic and foreign - will reach 910 million tons in 1988, an expansion of 1.3% from an estimated 898 million tons in 1987. The overall rise in consumption will add to inventory needs. Moreover, lower interest rates cut effective carrying costs and further encourage the holding of coal stocks by users. The results will be a gain in inventories of 3.5 tons by the end of 1988. As a result of all these factors, coal production is anticipated to rise by 11.6 million tons, or 1.2%, which projects firm markets in a time of relatively soft economic conditions in the USA. 2 tabs.

  1. Dynamics of body protein deposition and changes in body composition after sudden changes in amino acid intake: I. Barrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramírez, H R; Jeaurond, E A; de Lange, C F M

    2008-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the extent and dynamics of whole body protein deposition and changes in chemical and physical body composition after a period of AA intake restriction in growing barrows with medium lean tissue growth potentials. Forty Yorkshire barrows (initial BW 14.4 +/- 1.6 kg) were scale-fed at 75% of estimated voluntary daily DE intake up to 35 kg of BW and assigned to 1 of 2 diets: AA adequate (AA+; 20% above requirements; NRC, 1998) and AA deficient (AA-; 40% below requirements; restriction phase). Thereafter (re-alimentation phase), pigs from both dietary AA levels were scale-fed or fed ad libitum diets that were not limiting in AA. Body weight gain and body composition, based on serial slaughter, were monitored during the 34-d re-alimentation phase. During the restriction phase AA intake restriction reduced BW gains (556 vs. 410 g/d; P alimentation phase (P > 0.10). Throughout the re-alimentation phase, there were no interactive effects of time, feeding level, and previous AA intake level on growth performance, body protein, and body lipid content (P > 0.10). During the re-alimentation phase, body protein deposition, derived from the linear regression analysis of body protein content vs. time, was not affected by feeding level and previous AA intake level (P > 0.10; 156 g/d for AA- vs. 157 g/d for AA+). Based on BW and body protein content, it can be concluded that no compensatory body protein deposition occurred in barrows, with medium lean tissue growth potential after AA intake restriction between 15 and 35 kg of BW. It is suggested that the upper limit to body protein deposition was the main factor that limited the extent of compensatory body protein deposition in this population of pigs. The concept of an upper limit to body protein deposition may be used to explain why compensatory growth is observed in some studies and not in others.

  2. Linseed Dietary Fibers Reduce Apparent Digestibility of Energy and Fat and Weight Gain in Growing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Astrup

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibers (DF may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group: low DF control (C, 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL, CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL or ground linseed (5-GL, CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF, and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF. Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17–21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8% and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6% with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001. Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF. The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g, 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g, and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g (p < 0.05. The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01. In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

  3. 30 years with lasercutting - from laboratory to shipyard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2002-01-01

    Since laser cutting was invented the application of this technology has been steadily growing. The growth has been in terms of systems installed in industry, in growing market potential due to development on laser sources, on processes and on production technology. The development of the laser...... cutting process will be summarised in the paper and the current trends and potentials will be outlined....

  4. Growing Backyard Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eleanor Hall

    1975-01-01

    For those involved in creative work with textiles, the degree of control possible in texture, finish, and color of fiber by growing and processing one's own (perhaps with students' help) can make the experience rewarding. The author describes the processes for flax and nettles and gives tips on necessary equipment. (Author/AJ)

  5. EXPERIENCE GROWING A FRY WALLEYE (STIZOSTEDION LUCIOPERCA UNDER DIFFERENT PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Martsenuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The question of growing and cultivation technology a fry walleye (Stizostedion Sander lucioperca, in various conditions of intensification and cultivation of the objects on the example of Ukraine, Poland and Czech Republic. Methodology. Some of the research conducted in JSC "Lebedynska RMS." There was a corresponding work of herd sires and fry. Also used published articles and monographs using statistical analysis methods. Findings. The existing technology of breeding and raising perch as in natural waters and artificial reproduction. Also, this is a clear description of the biology walleye in the early stages postembryogenesis perch. Also highlighted key points in the technology of the object at different aquaculture technologies. Originality. On the basis of existing technologies were analyzed current methods for growing and perch are to be brought in fish farms Ukraine, depending on the technical capabilities of enterprises. Practical value. Comparative review of technology growing perch allows farmers to introduce more appropriate technology of walleye for your own needs. Since it is directly a particular manufacturer planting material of the object is necessary to choose the most suitable and perfect technology, based on the existing herd sires, space, equipment and ability to use hormonal stimulation. So can use the following methods of breeding walleye: natural spawning, uncontrolled; controlled natural spawning; spawning in lake; artificial spawning; spawning outside-seasonal. During the early stages of walleye can identify a number of critical periods greatly affect the possibility of wound development: small body size at the final stage of resorption of yolk sac; small size of the cavity; feed intake in the water column; high sensitivity to stress; belonging to the group of fish with a closed bladder; great demands on environmental conditions; relative preferences heat; penchant for cannibalism.

  6. An indirect method for forecasting the annual food production of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.

    The green revolution which increased the annual food production of India drastically was made possible by the application of science and technology to agriculture. The total technological inputs to the farming sector has been growing steadily...

  7. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Nurul-Fadhilah

    Full Text Available Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2% fell in the normal body mass index (BMI ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50% were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI, BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.

  8. Growing Safflower in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, M. G.; Israelsen, C. E.; Creech, E.; Allen, N.

    2015-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information on growing safflower in Utah. It has become popular on dryland farms in rotation with winter wheat. Safflower seed provides three products, oil, meal, and birdseed.

  9. Shoulder height, body mass and shape of proboscideans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Larramendi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades there has been a growing interest in proboscideans’ body size, given that mass is highly correlated with biological functions. Different allometric equations have been proposed in the recent decades to estimate their body masses, based on a large number of living examples. However, the results obtained by these formulae are not accurate because extinct animals often had different body proportions and some were outside the size range of extant samples. Here the body mass of a large number of extinct proboscideans has been calculated by the Graphic Double Integration volumetric method which is based on technical restorations from graphical reconstructions of fossils employing photos, measurements and comparative anatomy of extant forms. The method has been tested on extant elephants with highly accurate results. The reconstructions necessary to apply this method give important information such as body proportions. On the other hand, equations to calculate the skeletal shoulder height have been developed, with a large number of published shoulder heights being recalculated. From the shoulder heights, several equations were created to find out the body mass of a series of extant and extinct species. A few of the largest proboscideans, namely Mammut borsoni and Palaeoloxodon namadicus, were found out to have reached and surpassed the body size of the largest indricotheres. Bearing this in mind, the largest land mammal that ever existed seems to be within the order of Proboscidea, contrary to previous understanding.

  10. Menopausal women's positive experience of growing older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged.......This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged....

  11. Organization of growing random networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-06-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A{sub k}. When A{sub k} grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N{sub k}(t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A{sub k} growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A{sub k} is asymptotically linear, N{sub k}(t){similar_to}tk{sup {minus}{nu}}, with {nu} dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2{lt}{nu}{lt}{infinity}. The combined age and degree distribution of nodes shows that old nodes typically have a large degree. There is also a significant correlation in the degrees of neighboring nodes, so that nodes of similar degree are more likely to be connected. The size distributions of the in and out components of the network with respect to a given node{emdash}namely, its {open_quotes}descendants{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ancestors{close_quotes}{emdash}are also determined. The in component exhibits a robust s{sup {minus}2} power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network.

  12. Impact of physical fitness and body composition on injury risk among active young adults: A study of Army trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bruce H; Hauret, Keith G; Dye, Shamola K; Hauschild, Veronique D; Rossi, Stephen P; Richardson, Melissa D; Friedl, Karl E

    2017-11-01

    To determine the combined effects of physical fitness and body composition on risk of training-related musculoskeletal injuries among Army trainees. Retrospective cohort study. Rosters of soldiers entering Army basic combat training (BCT) from 2010 to 2012 were linked with data from multiple sources for age, sex, physical fitness (heights, weights (mass), body mass index (BMI), 2 mile run times, push-ups), and medical injury diagnoses. Analyses included descriptive means and standard deviations, comparative t-tests, risks of injury, and relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Fitness and BMI were divided into quintiles (groups of 20%) and stratified for chi-square (χ 2 ) comparisons and to determine trends. Data were obtained for 143,398 men and 41,727 women. As run times became slower, injury risks increased steadily (men=9.8-24.3%, women=26.5-56.0%; χ 2 trends (pfitness levels. While the most aerobically fit Army trainees experience lower risk of training-related injury, at any given aerobic fitness level those with the lowest BMIs are at highest risk. This has implications for recruitment and retention fitness standards. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Response of growing bones to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Gonzalez, D.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of ionizing radiations on growing bones. The epiphyseal disc of growing mouse tibia was selected as a model for the experiments. An attempt has been made to obtain clinical data from irradiated bones during the childhood and to quantitate this information. Within the range of possibilities correlations have been established between the experimental and clinical data. (Auth.)

  14. Effects of Inclusion Levels of Wheat Bran and Body Weight on Ileal and Fecal Digestibility in Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of graded inclusions of wheat bran (0%, 9.65%, 48.25% wheat bran and two growth stages (from 32.5 to 47.2 kg and 59.4 to 78.7 kg, respectively on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD and hindgut fermentation of nutrients and energy in growing pigs. Six light pigs (initial body weight [BW] 32.5±2.1 kg and six heavy pigs (initial BW 59.4±3.2 kg were surgically prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. A difference method was used to calculate the nutrient and energy digestibility of wheat bran by means of comparison with a basal diet consisting of corn-soybean meal (0% wheat bran. Two additional diets were formulated by replacing 9.65% and 48.25% wheat bran by the basal diet, respectively. Each group of pigs was allotted to a 6×3 Youden square design, and pigs were fed to three experimental diets during three 11-d periods. Hindgut fermentation values were calculated as the differences between ATTD and AID values. For the wheat bran diets, the AID and ATTD of dry matter (DM, ash, organic matter (OM, carbohydrates (CHO, gross energy (GE, and digestible energy (DE decreased with increasing inclusion levels of wheat bran (p<0.05. While only AID of CHO and ATTD of DM, ash, OM, CHO, GE, and DE content differed (p<0.05 when considering the BW effect. For the wheat bran ingredient, there was a wider variation effect (p<0.01 on the nutrient and energy digestibility of wheat bran in 9.65% inclusion level due to the coefficient of variation (CV of the nutrient and energy digestibility being higher at 9.65% compared to 48.25% inclusion level of wheat bran. Digestible energy content of wheat bran at 48.25% inclusion level (4.8 and 6.7 MJ/kg of DM, respectively fermented by hindgut was significantly higher (p<0.05 than that in 9.65% wheat bran inclusion level (2.56 and 2.12 MJ/kg of DM, respectively, which was also affected (p<0.05 by two growth stages

  15. Lipopolysaccharide significantly influences the hepatic triglyceride metabolism in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiqing; Liu, Weifeng; Huang, Yanping; Guo, Jun; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2015-06-30

    In the practical commercial pig farms, inflammation is a perennial problem, yet most of studies on inflammation are focused on immune response. Actually, inflammation can induce body metabolism disorder which will finally influence animals' growth. In this study, we investigated the effect of acute inflammation on the triglyceride (TG) metabolism in the liver of growing pigs and the possible underlying mechanisms. Twelve male growing pigs were randomly divided into two groups, a control group (received saline) and a LPS group (intramuscular injected with 15 μg/kg LPS). Six hours after LPS injection, the pigs were euthanized and sampled. Biochemical indexes, inflammation factors, lipid metabolism related parameters and mitochondrial function were evaluated. The relationship between glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the key enzymes of de novo lipogenesis were also investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP). LPS induced a serious inflammation in the liver of growing pigs proved by liver morphologic changes, the up-regulated plasma cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) content and gene expression of inflammation related genes in liver. For de novo lipogenesis, LPS significantly decreased the gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), Acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) and Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), and the protein expression of ACC-1 and SCD-1. For lipolysis, only the gene expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was decreased. LPS did nothing to the gene expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and the lipolytic enzymes activities. For β-oxidation, LPS significantly increased the protein expression of CPT-1α, but the gene expression of mitochondrial DNA-encoded genes and the activities of mitochondrial complex IV and V demonstrated no obviously changes. Furthermore, ChIP results showed that LPS significantly decreased the level of GR binding to ACC-1 promoter. LPS infection has a profound impact on hepatic TG metabolism

  16. Colonizing Bodies: Corporate Power and Biotechnology in Young Adult Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The American cultural and political landscape has seen changes on the level of seismic shifts in the past four decades, thanks in part to the two very diverse fields of big business and biotechnology. Linking the two arenas together in the literary landscape is a growing body of young adult science fiction that envisions a future shaped profoundly…

  17. The Effect of Xylopia Aethiopica Leaves on Body Weight and Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Xylopia aethiopica leaves on body weight and growth performance was studied on growing Wistar rats. The study involved twenty-four rats of comparable sizes and weights ranging from 150 to 300g and divided into four groups of six rats each. Group A served as the control while groups B, C and D served as ...

  18. Effect of Nigella sativa or Curcumin on Daily Body Weight Gain, Feed Intake and some Physiological Functions in Growing Zaraibi Goats during Hot Summer Season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habeeb, A.A.M.; El-Tarabany, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty one Zaraibi kids, aged 4-5 months and weighed on average 9.5 ±0.2 kg were divided into three groups, seven kids in each. The experiment was beginning after the end of weaning period and lasted 5 months (May, June, July, August and September). Kids in the 1st group were fed the basal ration (concentrate feed mixture plus Barseem hay without additives (Control), while those in the 2nd and 3rd groups were fed the same basal ration supplemented daily with crushed 2 gram from Nigella or Curcumin per one kg CFM, respectively. Nigella sativa (Nigella) and Curcumin addition to the diet of kids during months of the hot summer season comparison with control group improved significantly the final LBW at the end of 5 months by 5.56 and 4.8 kg and increased significantly average daily body gain (DBG) of kids by 62.2 and 54.25 g, respectively. Supplementation improved the animal immunity function i.e. total protein and globulin concentrations as well as thyroid hormonal levels (T4 and T3) and decreased the factor related to heart disease (total cholesterol and total lipids), glucose and cortisol levels in the blood plasma. At the same time, liver and kidney functions were not affected negatively by supplementation either with Nigella or Curcumin. Supplementation the diet of growing goats increased also significantly the Hb values and RBC'S count as well as the concentrations of Na, K, and Pi.

  19. The development of associations among body mass index, body dissatisfaction, and weight and shape concern in adolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Haines, Jess; Blood, Emily A; Field, Alison E; Austin, S Bryn

    2012-11-01

    To examine how the associations among body mass index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern evolve from late childhood through late adolescence in boys and girls. We analyze data from subjects aged 9-18 years from the Growing Up Today Study, a national prospective cohort of U.S. youth (n = 16,882, yielding 59,750 repeated-measures observations during five waves of data collection). Generalized additive models produced curves of association for body dissatisfaction and weight concern across BMI percentiles. Generalized estimating equations (adjusting for correlated within-subject repeated measures, sibling clusters, pubertal maturation, and region of residence) tested main and interactive effects of BMI, age, and gender. Girls above the 50th BMI percentile reported greater body dissatisfaction than girls below the 50th percentile. By contrast, boys who reported the most body dissatisfaction were either above the 75th BMI percentile (approaching overweight) or below the 10th percentile (approaching underweight). Body dissatisfaction increased with age for both girls and boys, but the gender-specific patterns of BMI effects remained constant. Male and female participants in the overweight/obese BMI range reported the greatest weight concern, but among older adolescents (particularly girls), healthy weight became increasingly associated with greater weight and shape concern. Body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern intensify across adolescence, but associations between the constructs and BMI remain gender specific. Findings have important implications for eating disorder risk assessment and prevention. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Determining the effects of early gestation in utero heat stress on postnatal fasting heat production and circulating biomarkers associated with metabolism in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study objective was to determine the effects of in utero heat stress (IUHS) on postnatal fasting heat production (FHP) in growing pigs. Based on our previous observation of increased postnatal core body temperature ‘set-point’ in IUHS pigs, we hypothesized that FHP would be greater during postna...

  1. Body shape and size depictions of African American women in JET magazine, 1953-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Andoh, Nana A; Gray, James J; Soto, José A; Parker, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Depictions of Caucasian women in the mainstream media have become increasingly thinner in size and straighter in shape. These changes may be inconsistent with the growing influence of African American beauty ideals, which research has established as more accepting of larger body sizes and more curvaceous body types than Caucasians. The present study looked at trends in the portrayal of African American women featured in JET magazine from 1953 to 2006. Beauty of the Week (BOW) images were collected and analyzed to examine body size (estimated by independent judges) and body shape (estimated by waist-to-hip ratio). We expected body sizes to increase and body shapes to become more curvaceous. Results revealed a rise in models' body size consistent with expectations, but an increase in waist-to-hip ratio, contrary to prediction. Our findings suggest that the African American feminine beauty ideal reflects both consistencies with and departures from mainstream cultural ideals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Leucine and valine requirements of the growing germfree chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Teru; Kametaka, Masao; Ozaki, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuzo; Mitsuoka, Tomotari.

    1977-01-01

    To compare the requirements of leucine and valine of the growing germfree and conventional chicks, 7-day-old chicks were fed a diet with graded levels of leucine or valine for 7 days. Daily gains of body weight of the germfree chicks were greater than those of the conventional chicks when the dietary leucine or valine level was higher than the requirement level. Adversely, daily gains of body weight of the germfree chicks were less than those of the conventional chicks when the dietary leucine or valine level was very low. Leucine and valine requirements for maximum growth, however, was the same and estimated to be 0.95 and 0.78%, repectively, of the diet for both groups. After the feeding test, the chicks were injected with L-leucine- and L-valine-U- 14 C and expired carbon dioxide was collected for 2 and 3 hours, respectively. From the percentage of recovery of 14 C in the expired carbon dioxide, the leucine and valine requirements were found to be 0.80 and 0.53% of the diet for both groups, respectively. Three hours after feeding test, the plasma free valine concentration was estimated in the chicks which was not injected the isotope. The requirement of valine was estimated to be 0.59% for the germfree chicks and 0.54% for the conventional chicks. From the above data, it may be concluded that no difference, or very small if any, is found in the requirements of leucine and valine between the germfree chicks and those of the conventional chicks. (auth.)

  3. Performance and behaviour of chickens with different growing rate reared according to the organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Bernardini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance and the behaviour of three different chicken strains, reared according to the EEC-Regulation 1804/1999  on organic system, were compared. The strains had very slow (Robusta maculata, slow (Kabir and fast (Ross growing  rates, respectively. The trial was carried out on 200 chickens (male and female per strain. Rearing lasted 81 days as  required by the EEC Regulation. At slaughter age, 20 birds per group were killed. Robusta maculata and Kabir chickens  showed more intense walking activity and better foraging aptitude; their antioxidant capacity was also superior. Ross  chickens had a good growth rate and feed conversion index, reaching an excellent body weight, but the mortality and  the culling rate were high indicating that fast-growing strains do not adapt well to organic production. Robusta macula-  ta showed the worst productive performance although the mortality was low and Kabir birds gave intermediate results.  The carcass traits were the best in Ross and the poorest in Robusta maculata. Male chickens were heavier and leaner  than females. 

  4. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Thomas W; Justice, Anne E; Graff, Mariaelisa

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially...... (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR... effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape....

  5. Foreign Body Infection Models to Study Host-Pathogen Response and Antimicrobial Tolerance of Bacterial Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Nowakowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of implanted medical devices is steadily increasing and has become an effective intervention improving life quality, but still carries the risk of infection. These infections are mainly caused by biofilm-forming staphylococci that are difficult to treat due to the decreased susceptibility to both antibiotics and host defense mechanisms. To understand the particular pathogenesis and treatment tolerance of implant-associated infection (IAI animal models that closely resemble human disease are needed. Applications of the tissue cage and catheter abscess foreign body infection models in the mouse will be discussed herein. Both models allow the investigation of biofilm and virulence of various bacterial species and a comprehensive insight into the host response at the same time. They have also been proven to serve as very suitable tools to study the anti-adhesive and anti-infective efficacy of different biomaterial coatings. The tissue cage model can additionally be used to determine pharmacokinetics, efficacy and cytotoxicity of antimicrobial compounds as the tissue cage fluid can be aspirated repeatedly without the need to sacrifice the animal. Moreover, with the advance in innovative imaging systems in rodents, these models may offer new diagnostic measures of infection. In summary, animal foreign body infection models are important tools in the development of new antimicrobials against IAI and can help to elucidate the complex interactions between bacteria, the host immune system, and prosthetic materials.

  6. Real-time dynamic hydraulic model for potable water loss reduction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abu-Mahfouz, Adnan M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a water scarce country with limited water resources and steadily growing water demand. Unacceptably high water losses and non-revenue water threaten our water resource security as well as the financial viability of municipal water...

  7. Stream Clustering of Growing Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zaigham Faraz; Spiliopoulou, Myra

    We study incremental clustering of objects that grow and accumulate over time. The objects come from a multi-table stream e.g. streams of Customer and Transaction. As the Transactions stream accumulates, the Customers’ profiles grow. First, we use an incremental propositionalisation to convert the multi-table stream into a single-table stream upon which we apply clustering. For this purpose, we develop an online version of K-Means algorithm that can handle these swelling objects and any new objects that arrive. The algorithm also monitors the quality of the model and performs re-clustering when it deteriorates. We evaluate our method on the PKDD Challenge 1999 dataset.

  8. Body image, aging, and identity in women over 50: The Gender and Body Image (GABI) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeier, Sara M; Runfola, Cristin D; Sala, Margarita; Gagne, Danielle A; Brownley, Kimberly A; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study of 1,849 women over age 50 to capture the thoughts, feelings, and attitudes that women at middle age have about their bodies and the experience of aging. Via an open-ended question online survey, four primary themes emerged: (a) the physical and psychological experience of aging; (b) the injustices, inequities, and challenges of aging; (c) the importance of self-care; and (d) a plea for recognition of the need to maintain a contributory role in society. Results highlight the complexities of women's psychological and physical aspects of aging and point toward important topics worthy of further study in this growing population.

  9. Analysis of the local worst-case SAR exposure caused by an MRI multi-transmit body coil in anatomical models of the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufeld, Esra; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Murbach, Manuel; Christ, Andreas; Cabot, Eugenia; Kuster, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Multi-transmit coils are increasingly being employed in high-field magnetic resonance imaging, along with a growing interest in multi-transmit body coils. However, they can lead to an increase in whole-body and local specific absorption rate (SAR) compared to conventional body coils excited in circular polarization for the same total incident input power. In this study, the maximum increase of SAR for three significantly different human anatomies is investigated for a large 3 T (128 MHz) multi-transmit body coil using numerical simulations and a (generalized) eigenvalue-based approach. The results demonstrate that the increase of SAR strongly depends on the anatomy. For the three models and normalization to the sum of the rung currents squared, the whole-body averaged SAR increases by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to conventional excitation and the peak spatial SAR (averaged over any 10 cm 3 of tissue) by up to 13.4. For some locations the local averaged SAR goes up as much as 800 times (130 when looking only at regions where it is above 1% of the peak spatial SAR). The ratio of the peak spatial SAR to the whole-body SAR increases by a factor of up to 47 and can reach values above 800. Due to the potentially much larger power deposition, additional, preferably patient-specific, considerations are necessary to avoid injuries by such systems.

  10. Rapidly growing ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma involving the vagina: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Sunghun; Hwang, Jongyun; Lee, Hyangah; Lee, Jiyeon; Lee, Dongheon

    2011-12-01

    We present a rare case of a very rapidly growing stage IV ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma involving the uterine cervix and vagina without lymph node involvement. A 43-year-old woman visited the hospital with complaints of lower abdominal discomfort and vaginal bleeding over the previous 3 months. Serum levels of tumor marker CA 125 and SCC antigen (TA-4) were normal. On magnetic resonance imaging, a 7.9×9.7cm heterogeneous mass with intermediate signal intensity was observed in the posterior low body of the uterus. Two months ago, a computed tomography scan revealed an approximate 4.5×3.0cm heterogeneously enhanced subserosal mass with internal ill-defined hypodensities. A laparotomy, including a total abdominal hysterectomy with resection of the upper vagina, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection, appendectomy, total omentectomy, and biopsy of rectal serosa was performed. A histological examination revealed poorly differentiated endometrioid ovarian adenocarcinoma with vaginal involvement. The patient had an uncomplicated post-operative course. After discharge, she completed six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel (175mg/m(2)) and carboplatin (300mg/m(2)) and has remained clinically disease-free until June 2010. Epithelial ovarian cancer may grow very rapidly. The frequent measurement of tumor size by ultrasonography may provide important information on detection in a subset of ovarian carcinomas that develop from preexisting, detectable lesions. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Effects of repeated cycles of starvation and refeeding on lungs of growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebjami, H; Domino, M

    1992-12-01

    Adult male rats were subjected to four cycles of mild starvation (2 wk) and refeeding (1 wk) and were compared with a fed group. Starvation was induced by giving rats one-third of their measured daily food consumption. During each starvation cycle, rats lost approximately 20% of their body weight. Despite catch-up growth and overall weight gain, starved rats had lower final body weight than fed rats. Lung dry weight and lung volumes were also reduced in the starved group. The mechanical properties of air- and saline-filled lungs did not change significantly with repeated cycles of starvation. Mean linear intercept was similar in the two groups, but alveolar surface area was reduced in the starved rats. Total content of crude connective tissue and concentration per lung dry weight of hydroxyproline and crude connective tissue were reduced in starved rats. We conclude that lung growth is retarded in growing rats subjected to repeated cycles of mild starvation and refeeding, as manifested by smaller lung volume and reduced alveolar surface area. Because alveolar size is unchanged, a reduced number of alveoli is most likely responsible for decreased lung volumes.

  12. Bodies of Knowledge – Anatomy and Transparency in Contemporary Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Di Marco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, the growing expansion of a vast array of medical technologies for the visualization of the inner body seems to have revamped, in an improved version, the tradition of the anatomical theatre, fuelling not only the question of the relation between inner and outer body, public and private space, visible and invisible objects, but also the problem of the relation between art, science and knowledge. The objective of this article is to shed some light on how contemporary artists engage with the very notion of “knowledge of the inner body” proper of the anatomical tradition. To this aim I briefly summarize some fundamental aspects of such tradition and subsequently examine the work of two artists, Laura Ferguson and Annie Cattrell, as examples of very different approaches to the meaning of the visualization and representation of the inner body in contemporary art.

  13. Accumulation of silicon in cacti native to the United States: characterization of silica bodies and cyclic oligosiloxanes in Stenocereus thurberi, Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia stricta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cynthia R; Waddell, Emanuel A; Setzer, William N

    2014-06-01

    Four different cactus species growing in the United States, Stenocereus thurberi growing in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, Opuntia littoralis and Opuntia ficus-indica, growing on Santa Catalina Island, California, and Opuntia stricta, growing in northern Alabama, were examined for the presence of silica bodies (opaline phytoliths). Silica bodies were found in all four of these cactus species, parallelepiped-shaped crystals in S. thurberi, and starburst-shaped crystalline structures in the three Opuntia species. In addition, the essential oils of the four cactus species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. To our surprise, S. thurberi, O. littoralis, and O. ficus-indica (but not O. stricta) essential oils contained cyclic oligosiloxanes. To our knowledge, cyclic oligosiloxanes have not been previously found as essential oil components.

  14. Long-term follow-up of large maxillary advancements with distraction osteogenesis in growing and non-growing cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meazzini, Maria Costanza; Basile, Valentina; Mazzoleni, Fabio; Bozzetti, Alberto; Brusati, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary distraction osteogenesis (DO) in cleft lip and palate patients has been described by several authors, but most studies have a relatively short follow-up and do not clearly separate growing patients from non-growing patients. The records of 22 consecutive patients affected by cleft lip and palate, who underwent Le Fort I osteotomy and maxillary distraction with a rigid external distractor (RED), were reviewed. The sample was subdivided into a growing and a non-growing group. All patients had pre-DO cephalometric records, immediately post DO, 12 months post DO and long-term records with a long-term follow-up of >5 years (range 5-13 years). As a control sample for the growing group, cleft children with a negative overjet not subjected to distraction or any protraction treatment during growth were followed up until the completion of growth. The average maxillary advancement in the growing group was 22.2 ± 5.5 mm (range: 15-32 mm); in the non-growing group, it was 17.7 ± 6.6 mm (range: 6-25 mm). Excellent post-surgical stability was recorded in the adult sample. On the other hand, growing children had an average 16% relapse in the first year post DO and an additional 26% relapse in the long-term follow-up. This study seems to point out that early Le Fort I DO allows for the correction of very severe deformities. It is followed by a relatively high amount of true skeletal relapse in children with cleft lip and palate. Prognosis should be discussed in depth with the family and true aesthetic and psychological needs assessed. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The growing need for analytical quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suschny, O.; Richman, D.M.

    1974-01-01

    Technological development in a country is directly dependent upon its analytical chemistry or measurement capability, because it is impossible to achieve any level of technological sophistication without the ability to measure. Measurement capability is needed to determine both technological competence and technological consequence. But measurement itself is insufficient. There must be a standard or a reference for comparison. In the complicated world of chemistry the need for reference materials grows with successful technological development. The International Atomic Energy Agency has been distributing calibrated radioisotope solutions, standard reference materials and intercomparison materials since the early 1960's. The purpose of this activity has been to help laboratories in its Member States to assess and, if necessary, to improve the reliability of their analytical work. The value and continued need of this service has been demonstrated by the results of many intercomparisons which proved that without continuing analytical quality control activities, adequate reliability of analytical data could not be taken for granted. Analytical chemistry, lacking the glamour of other aspects of the physical sciences, has not attracted the attention it deserves, but in terms of practical importance, it warrants high priority in any developing technological scheme, because without it there is little chance to evaluate technological success or failure or opportunity to identify the reasons for success or failure. The scope and the size of the future programme of the IAEA in this field has been delineated by recommendations made by several Panels of Experts; all have agreed on the importance of this programme and made detailed recommendations in their areas of expertise. The Agency's resources are limited and it cannot on its own undertake the preparation and distribution of all the materials needed. It can, however, offer a focal point to bring together different

  16. The combined effect of subjective body image and body mass index (distorted body weight perception) on suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Young; Han, Kyu-Tae; Cheon, Sung-Youn; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-03-01

    Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP) and suicidal ideation. Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES), an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI) and body mass index (BMI) categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion. Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI), women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42) were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI) were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI) also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42). Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI) was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59). Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs.

  17. Effect of Nigella sativa or Curcumin on Daily Body Weight Gain, Feed Intake and some Physiological Functions in Growing Zaraibi Goats during Hot Summer Season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habeeb, A.A.M.; El Tarabany, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty one Zaraibi kids, aged 4-5 months and weighed on average 9.5±0.2 kg were divided into three groups, seven kids in each. The experiment was beginning after the end of weaning period and lasted 5 months (May, June, July, August and September). Kids in the 1 s t group were fed the basal ration (concentrate feed mixture plus Barseem hay without additives (Control), while those in the 2 n d and 3 r d groups were fed the same basal ration supplemented daily with crushed 2 gram from Nigella or Curcumin per one kg CFM, respectively. Nigella sativa (Nigella) and Curcumin addition to the diet of kids during months of the hot summer season comparison with control group improved significantly the final LBW at the end of 5 months by 5.56 and 4.8 kg and increased significantly average daily body gain (DBG) of kids by 62.2 and 54.25 g, respectively. Supplementation improved the animal immunity function i.e. total protein and globulin concentrations as well as thyroid hormonal levels (T 4 and T 3 ) and decreased the factor related to heart disease (total cholesterol and total lipids), glucose and cortisol levels in the blood plasma. At the same time, liver and kidney functions were not affected negatively by supplementation either with Nigella or Curcumin. Supplementation the diet of growing goats increased also significantly the Hb values and RBC'S count as well as the concentrations of Na, K, and Pi.

  18. Evaluation of dried bread waste as feedstuff for growing crossbred pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate the effect of bread waste feeding on feed intake, utilization and growth performance of crossbred pigs and to evaluate the economics of bread waste feeding. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for a period of 3 months (December, 2012-March, 2013. Large White Yorkshire crosses (LWY X Desi were included in the study. A total of 24 weaned crossbred growing pigs were randomly assigned to four different groups, with six animals in each group. The experimental animals were fed as per their body weight following Indian Council of Agricultural Research requirements. They were fed twice a day according to schedule at 9:00 am and 3:00 pm. The water was kept available to animals round the clock. The cost of the experimental diets was calculated based on the existing price of the ingredients during the experimental period. Samples of feed were collected for analysis of proximate principles as per Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Body weight of all animals was recorded fortnightly basis in the morning before feeding with the use of platform type electronic weighing balance. Feed conversion ratio (FCR and protein conversion ration was calculated by using a standard formula. Data were analyzed, using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Means showing significant differences in the ANOVA table were compared using the Duncan multiple range test. Results: Crude protein content (% of the diets was 16.01±0.02, 16.13±0.02, 16.14±0.02, 16.04±0.02, 16.08±0.02 and 12.72±0.03, respectively for the G1, G2, G3 and G4, groups. Proximate compositions (% of diets used in the experiment were not significantly different. Digestibility coefficients of all the nutrients were significantly varied among the experimental groups. Daily feed intake was significantly (p<0.05 varied among the groups. Average daily gain (kg/pig/day were significantly (p<0.01 higher in group G2 (0.377. FCR was significantly (p<0.01 higher in the

  19. Chemical composition of metapleural gland secretions of fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexsandro S; Morgan, E David; Drijfhout, Falko P; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2012-10-01

    The metapleural gland is exclusive to ants, and unusual among exocrine glands in having no mechanism for closure and retention of secretion. As yet, no clear conclusion has been reached as to the function of metapleural gland secretion. Metapleural gland secretions were investigated for fungus-growing ants representing the derived attines Trachymyrmex fuscus, Atta laevigata, and Acromyrmex coronatus, the basal attines Apterostigma pilosum and Mycetarotes parallelus, and non-fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini (Ectatomma brunneum) and Myrmicini (Pogonomyrmex naegeli). Our results showed that the secretions of leaf-cutting ants (A. laevigata and A. coronatus) and the derived attine, T. fuscus, contain a greater variety and larger quantities of volatile compounds than those of myrmicine and ectatommine ants. The most abundant compounds found in the metapleural glands of A. laevigata and A. coronatus were hydroxyacids, and phenylacetic acid (only in A. laevigata). Indole was present in all groups examined, while skatole was found in large quantities only in attines. Ketones and aldehydes are present in the secretion of some attines. Esters are present in the metapleural gland secretion of all species examined, although mainly in A. laevigata, A. coronatus, and T. fuscus. Compared with basal attines and non-fungus-growing ants, the metapleural glands of leaf-cutting ants produce more acidic compounds that may have an antibiotic or antifungal function.

  20. Whole-body bone mineral content, lean body mass, and fat mass measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in a population of normal Canadian children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, A. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Pediatrics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (Italy); Webber, C.E. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Radiology, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: webber@hhsc.ca; Morrison, J. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Beaumont, L.F. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Barr, R.D. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Pediatrics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    Measurements of body composition have evident value in evaluating growing children and adolescents, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a tool that provides accurate measurements of whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC), lean body mass (LBM), and fat mass (FM). To interpret such measurements in the context of ill health, normative values must be available. Such information could be expected to be regionally specific because of differences in ethnic, dietary, and physical activity determinants. In this study, DXA was performed with Hologic densitometers in normal girls (n = 91) and boys (n 88) between 3 and 18 years of age. The derivation of normal ranges is presented for boys and girls. The correlation of the sum of WBBMC, LBM, and FM with directly measured body weight was almost perfect (r > 0.997). As expected, FM and body mass index correlated strongly. The normal values for WBBMC, LBM, and FM from this study are compared with other Canadian data and with published normative data from Argentina and the Netherlands, all of which use different densitometers. The results of this study allow the calculation of z scores for each facet of body composition and facilitate the use of DXA to report routine evaluations of body composition in children and adolescents. (author)

  1. Whole-body bone mineral content, lean body mass, and fat mass measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in a population of normal Canadian children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, A.; Webber, C.E.; Morrison, J.; Beaumont, L.F.; Barr, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of body composition have evident value in evaluating growing children and adolescents, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a tool that provides accurate measurements of whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC), lean body mass (LBM), and fat mass (FM). To interpret such measurements in the context of ill health, normative values must be available. Such information could be expected to be regionally specific because of differences in ethnic, dietary, and physical activity determinants. In this study, DXA was performed with Hologic densitometers in normal girls (n = 91) and boys (n 88) between 3 and 18 years of age. The derivation of normal ranges is presented for boys and girls. The correlation of the sum of WBBMC, LBM, and FM with directly measured body weight was almost perfect (r > 0.997). As expected, FM and body mass index correlated strongly. The normal values for WBBMC, LBM, and FM from this study are compared with other Canadian data and with published normative data from Argentina and the Netherlands, all of which use different densitometers. The results of this study allow the calculation of z scores for each facet of body composition and facilitate the use of DXA to report routine evaluations of body composition in children and adolescents. (author)

  2. Metabolism of leucine and alanine in growing rats fed the diets with various protein to energy ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hideyuki; Yamaguchi, Michio; Kametaka, Masao

    1975-01-01

    In order to clarify the nutritional significance of metabolism of the carbon skeleton of individual amino acids, the metabolic fates of L-leucine-U- 14 C and L-alanine-U- 14 C were investigated in growing rats fed the diets with various protein calories percents (PC%) at 410 kcal of metabolizable energy. The incorporation of 14 C into body protein in 12 hr after the injection of leucine- 14 C was about 73% of the dose in the 0 and 5 PC% groups, though it decreased with increasing the levels of dietary protein from 10 to 30 PC%. The value of 14 C recovery in body protein almost agreed with the net protein utilization (NPU) determined for the whole egg protein in a similar experimental condition. The 14 C recovery in expired CO 2 and body lipid suggested that the carbon skeleton of leucine is well utilized as an energy source when the dietary carbohydrate is extensively replaced by protein. While, the incorporation of 14 C into body protein from alanine- 14 C was less than about 11% of the dose in all the dietary groups, and the majority of 14 C was recovered in expired CO 2 and body lipid in a remarked contrast to leucine. A similar pattern in urinary excretion of 14 C was obtained for these amino acids, and the refracted rise of 14 C from 10 PC% may give an indication for minimum protein requirements. (auth.)

  3. Growing America's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    The emerging U.S. bioenergy industry provides a secure and growing supply of transportation fuels, biopower, and bioproducts produced from a range of abundant, renewable biomass resources. Bioenergy can help ensure a secure, sustainable, and economically sound future by reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil, developing domestic clean energy sources, and generating domestic green jobs. Bioenergy can also help address growing concerns about climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to create a healthier environment for current and future generations.

  4. Overview of the use and radiological protection of body scanner equipment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, D.A.P.; Nascimento, C.S.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    After security incidents in recent years, there is a growing need for security at airports, ports and prisons. In the fight against terrorism, smuggling and illegal entry of material, X-rays are used for non-invasive inspection of people. Traditionally, surveillance has been done exclusively on people by metal detection techniques or by intimate search. But in today's globalized world, and given concern for international security, governments are considering introducing a new series of technologies at airports and prisons, which reveal what an individual can carry under their clothes when traveling or entering visitation in prisons. Body inspection equipment, also called body scanners or 'body scanner', which can detect metallic and non-metallic objects hidden in a person's body, such as weapons, drugs, precious stones, cell phones, etc. This work shows the types of body inspection equipment, the radiation doses involved, and the radiation protection aspects that are critical to maintaining the safety of all users

  5. On-line monitoring of electrolytes in hemodialysis: on the road towards individualizing treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, M.K.; Wieringa, F.P.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Kooman, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients depend on dialysis for removal of toxic waste products, fluid overload relief and maintenance of electrolyte balance. Dialysis prolongs millions of lives. To some extent, ESRD has become a manageable disease with a steadily growing dialysis

  6. Remote Off-Grid Solutions for Greenland and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Larsen, Esben; Heussen, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Renewable off-grid solutions are steadily growing in both developed and developing countries (R. Kempener et al. 2015). With the decreasing cost and improving performance of small hydro installations, solar power, wind power, and energy storage systems, renewable energy is expected to supplement...

  7. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... contributing in this way for a relative reduction in the difference between the ... class and private sector steadily grows in urban areas, and the policy focus is ... On the other hand, public sector health workers true brain drain ...

  8. Reward processing dysfunction in ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    du Plessis, Stéfan; Bossert, Meija; Vink, Matthijs; van den Heuvel, Leigh; Bardien, Soraya; Emsley, Robin; Buckle, Chanelle; Seedat, Soraya; Carr, Jonathan

    BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is a growing concern as the longevity of the world's population steadily increases. Both ageing and Parkinson's disease have an impact on dopamine neurotransmission. It is therefore important to investigate their relative impact on the fronto-striatal reward system.

  9. Building a Database for Life Cycle Performance Assessment of Water and Wastewater Rehabilitation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The deployment of trenchless pipe rehabilitation technologies steadily increased over the past 30 to 40 years and continue to represent a growing proportion of the approximately $25 billion annual expenditure on operations and maintenance of the nation’s water and wastewater infr...

  10. Ultrastructural differences between wall apices of growing and non-growing hyphae of Schizophyllum commune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, C.A.; Wessels, J.G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Newly synthesized chitin at the hyphal apex of Schizophyllum commune was shown to be highly susceptible to chitinase degradiation and solubilization by dilute mineral acid. With time this chitin became gradually more resistant to these treatments. With a combination of the shadow-cast technique and electron microscopic autoradiography it could be shown that this process occurred as the newly synthesized chitin moved into subapical parts of growing hyphae but also in non-growing apices which had ceased growth after incorporation of the N-acetyl[6- 3 H]glucosamine. These results are in agreement with a model which explains apical morphogenesis by assuming that the newly synthesized wall material at the apex is plastic due to the presence of individual polymer chains but becomes rigidified because of subsequent physical and chemical changes involving these polymers. (Author)

  11. Effect of dietary protease supplementation and sex on dressing percentage and body conformation in broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Dosković Vladimir; Bogosavljević-Bošković Snežana; Lukić Miloš; Škrbić Zdenka; Rakonjac Simeon; Petričević Veselin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents research results on the effect of protease on the dressing percentage of conventionally dressed carcass and body conformation in broiler chickens. Broiler diet was supplemented with 0.2% protease (group E-I) and 0.3% protease (group E-II), and protein content in the feed was reduced by 4% (E-I) and 6% (E-II) through a decrease in soybean meal content. Fast-growing Cobb 500 broilers were used for a 63-day fattening trial. Body conformatio...

  12. Effect of Ginger or Oregano addition to diet of growing male Zraibi goats on growth rate and some physiological body functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was carried out at Experimental Farm Project (Goats Farm), Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, at Inshas during 2011 on twenty four male Zaraibi goats (zaraibi kids) after weaning. The animals were healthy and clinically free of external and internal parasites and divided to three equal groups. Animals in the 1st group were fed the basal ration without additives (Control), while those in the 2nd and 3rd groups were fed the same basal ration with additive 1 gram daily from Ginger (Zingiber officinal) or Oregano(Origanum vulgare) /10 kg live body weight / kid, respectively. Changes of live body weight and dry matter feed intake of each animal were recorded individually every month. Blood samples were withdrawn in the end of experiment to determine blood components as well as immunity, kidney and liver functions, energy metabolites, heart healthy factor and some minerals. The results showed that the addition of Ginger or Oregano to diet of Zaraibi goats improved significantly live body weight, daily body weight gain and dry matter intake. The improvement in Ginger was better than with Oregano. In addition, significant increase of Hg values, RBC'S count as well as total protein and globulin levels was recorded in animals treated with Ginger or Oregano. In the same time, liver and kidney functions were not affected by supplementation either with Ginger or Oregano. Moreover, supplementation decreased the factor related to heart disease (glucose, total cholesterol and total lipids) and improved the animal immunity, especially in Ginger supplement.

  13. Composição corporal e exigências líquidas proteicas de ovinos Santa Inês em crescimento Body composition and net protein requirements for growing Santa Inês sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilson Louzada Regadas Filho

    2011-06-01

    protein requirements of 24 Santa Inês non-castrated growing sheep at average age of 50 days and average body weight of 13.00 ± 0.56 kg. After a ten-day adaptation period, four animals were slaughtered to be used as a reference for estimates of empty body weight (EBW and initial body composition of the other animals. The remaining animals were assigned into a randomized block design with diets containg different levels of metabolizable energy (2.08; 2.28; 2.47 and 2.69 Mcal/kg of DM and crude protein (12.74; 14.36, 15.97 and 17.65% CP of DM with five replicates. The N daily excretion was estimated by extrapolating regression equations of N intake (g/kg BW0.75/day in function of retention (g/kg BW0.75/day for zero intake. The derivative regression of the logarithm of protein content in function of the logarithm of EBW enabled the estimation of net protein requirement for empty body weight gain (EBWG. Daily nitrogen excretion was 277 ± 0.05 mg/kg BW0.75/day and net protein requirement for maintenance was 1.73 g/kg BW0.75/day. Protein content of EBW of animals decreased from 157.83 to 144.33 g/kg of EBW when the BW of the animals increased from 15 to 30 kg, respectively. The amount of protein deposited in the gain decreased from 137.47 to 125.71 g/kg of EBWG with the increase of body weight of the animals from 15 to 30 kg, respectively. Nitrogen fecal excretion and protein net requirement for maintenance of Santa Inês growing lambs was lower than the values commonly cited by the main systems of feed evaluation and nutrient requirements for small ruminants.

  14. IntelliGrow 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Jakob; Aaslyng, Jesper Peter Mazanti; Kalita, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    the system in full scale in five Danish commercial nurseries. The four steps to reach the goal are: 1) development of a demonstrator giving the grower advice on optimal climate control based on the IntelliGrow concept 2) testing the demonstrator at research facilities followed by tests at growers 3...

  15. Ultrastructure study of Vanda Kasem's Delight orchid's protocorm-like body

    OpenAIRE

    Gnasekaran,Pavallekoodi; Mahmood,Maziah; Subramaniam,Sreeramanan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Growing orchids has been classified as an international business since it covers 8% of the world floriculture trade. Thus, large-scale micropropagation of orchid using tissue culture techniques and improvement of some essential traits, such as resistances to various diseases and pests, and tolerances to environmental stresses, such as low temperatures and low light intensities, via genetic engineering acknowledged the orchids as one of the top ten cut flowers. Protocorm-like bodies (...

  16. Polyphenol Levels Are Inversely Correlated with Body Weight and Obesity in an Elderly Population after 5 Years of Follow Up (The Randomised PREDIMED Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaohui; Tresserra-Rimbau, Anna; Estruch, Ramón; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Medina-Remón, Alexander; Fitó, Montserrat; Corella, Dolores; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Portillo, Maria Puy; Moreno, Juan J.; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M.

    2017-01-01

    Overweight and obesity have been steadily increasing in recent years and currently represent a serious threat to public health. Few human studies have investigated the relationship between polyphenol intake and body weight. Our aim was to assess the relationship between urinary polyphenol levels and body weight. A cross-sectional study was performed with 573 participants from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial (ISRCTN35739639). Total polyphenol levels were measured by a reliable biomarker, total urinary polyphenol excretion (TPE), determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method in urine samples. Participants were categorized into five groups according to their TPE at the fifth year. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationships between TPE and obesity parameters; body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). After a five years follow up, significant inverse correlations were observed between TPE at the 5th year and BW (β = −1.004; 95% CI: −1.634 to −0.375, p = 0.002), BMI (β = −0.320; 95% CI: −0.541 to −0.098, p = 0.005), WC (β = −0.742; 95% CI: −1.326 to −0.158, p = 0.013), and WHtR (β = −0.408; 95% CI: −0.788 to −0.028, p = 0.036) after adjustments for potential confounders. To conclude, a greater polyphenol intake may thus contribute to reducing body weight in elderly people at high cardiovascular risk. PMID:28467383

  17. Checking in: An Analysis of the (Lack of) Body Checking in Women's Ice Hockey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaving, Charlene; Roberts, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing popularity of women's ice hockey in North America, players continue to face limitations because of the prohibition of body checking. In this paper, we argue from a liberal feminist philosophical perspective that this prohibition reinforces existing traditional stereotypes of female athletes. Because the women's game does not…

  18. Dynamics of food availability, body condition and physiological stress response in breeding Black-legged Kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, John F.

    1999-01-01

    1. The seasonal dynamics of body condition (BC), circulating corticosterone levels (baseline, BL) and the adrenocortical response to acute stress (SR) were examined in long-lived Black-legged Kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, breeding at Duck (food-poor colony) and Gull (food-rich colony) Islands in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska. It was tested whether the dynamics of corticosterone levels reflect a seasonal change in bird physiological condition due to reproduction and/or variation in foraging conditions. 2. BC declined seasonally, and the decline was more pronounced in birds at the food-poor colony. BL and SR levels of corticosterone rose steadily through the reproductive season, and BL levels were significantly higher in birds on Duck island compared with those on Gull Island. During the egg-laying and chick-rearing stages, birds had lower SR on Duck Island than on Gull Island. 3. The results suggest that, in addition to a seasonal change in bird physiology during reproduction, local ecological factors such as food availability affect circulating levels of corticosterone and adrenal response to acute stress.

  19. Growth performance, haematology and cost benefit of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growing rabbits on 24-h feed access time (control) recorded a higher (p0.05) across the feed access time and restriction duration. White blood cell was higher in growing rabbits on 2-h feed access ...

  20. Effects of different levels of urea supplementation on nutrient intake and growth performance in growing camels fed roughage based complete pellet diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntiranyibagira Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of urea in camels has beneficial and negative effects. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of different levels of urea supplementation on nutrients intake, digestibility, growth performance, feed efficiency and economics in growing camels fed roughage based complete pellet diets. In the present study, eighteen growing camels with an average live body weight of 306.17 ± 2.05 kg were randomly assigned in three treatments: T1 = roughage complete pellet diet without urea, T2 = T1 plus 1% urea, and T3 = T1 plus 2% urea. The results showed that the urea supplementation significantly affected average daily feed and nutrient intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and acid detergent fiber (ADF (P  0.05. Similarly, digestion coefficient of DM, CP, ether extract (EE, crude fiber (CF and ADF was influenced by increasing urea level (P  0.05. The intake of digestive nutrients was similar among all treatment groups. Total body live weight gain and average daily gain were significantly higher in urea supplemented groups (P < 0.05 than in the control group. The supplementation of urea at 1% in low quality roughage complete pellet diets significantly improved (P < 0.05 the feed efficiency. In conclusion, these results indicated that the incorporation of urea at 1% in roughage based complete pellet diets could positively improve nutrients intake, digestibility, growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of growing camels.

  1. Long-term storage of clinical samples in CyMol® medium for PNA- FISH® and culturing from the eSwab™ system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Heimann; Xu, Yijuan; Pedersen, Malene Schibler

    Objectives: A steadily growing diversity of bacteria is reported in foreign body infections, and culture-independent methods have been shown to supplement established culture methods. Therefore, sampling and preservation of specimens have become an important issue. We report here experience from...... analytical methods. Methods: Sampling for both culture-dependent and -independent analyses were done over a period of two years. Specimens were transferred directly to the lab, and cultures of tissue biopsies, joint fluid, sonication fluid from the prosthesis components, and eSwab™ (Copan, Italy) were...... performed within 24 h after sampling. The corresponding specimens for culture-independent methods were stored at -80°C until analyzed in batchs. Specimens for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis were stored for app. one year at -80°C in CyMol® (Copan, Italy), an alcohol based media, before...

  2. The smell of age: perception and discrimination of body odors of different ages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Mitro

    Full Text Available Our natural body odor goes through several stages of age-dependent changes in chemical composition as we grow older. Similar changes have been reported for several animal species and are thought to facilitate age discrimination of an individual based on body odors, alone. We sought to determine whether humans are able to discriminate between body odor of humans of different ages. Body odors were sampled from three distinct age groups: Young (20-30 years old, Middle-age (45-55, and Old-age (75-95 individuals. Perceptual ratings and age discrimination performance were assessed in 41 young participants. There were significant differences in ratings of both intensity and pleasantness, where body odors from the Old-age group were rated as less intense and less unpleasant than body odors originating from Young and Middle-age donors. Participants were able to discriminate between age categories, with body odor from Old-age donors mediating the effect also after removing variance explained by intensity differences. Similarly, participants were able to correctly assign age labels to body odors originating from Old-age donors but not to body odors originating from other age groups. This experiment suggests that, akin to other animals, humans are able to discriminate age based on body odor alone and that this effect is mediated mainly by body odors emitted by individuals of old age.

  3. The smell of age: perception and discrimination of body odors of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitro, Susanna; Gordon, Amy R; Olsson, Mats J; Lundström, Johan N

    2012-01-01

    Our natural body odor goes through several stages of age-dependent changes in chemical composition as we grow older. Similar changes have been reported for several animal species and are thought to facilitate age discrimination of an individual based on body odors, alone. We sought to determine whether humans are able to discriminate between body odor of humans of different ages. Body odors were sampled from three distinct age groups: Young (20-30 years old), Middle-age (45-55), and Old-age (75-95) individuals. Perceptual ratings and age discrimination performance were assessed in 41 young participants. There were significant differences in ratings of both intensity and pleasantness, where body odors from the Old-age group were rated as less intense and less unpleasant than body odors originating from Young and Middle-age donors. Participants were able to discriminate between age categories, with body odor from Old-age donors mediating the effect also after removing variance explained by intensity differences. Similarly, participants were able to correctly assign age labels to body odors originating from Old-age donors but not to body odors originating from other age groups. This experiment suggests that, akin to other animals, humans are able to discriminate age based on body odor alone and that this effect is mediated mainly by body odors emitted by individuals of old age.

  4. Pluripotential theory and convex bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, T.; Bloom, T.; Levenberg, N.

    2018-03-01

    A seminal paper by Berman and Boucksom exploited ideas from complex geometry to analyze the asymptotics of spaces of holomorphic sections of tensor powers of certain line bundles L over compact, complex manifolds as the power grows. This yielded results on weighted polynomial spaces in weighted pluripotential theory in {C}^d. Here, motivated by a recent paper by the first author on random sparse polynomials, we work in the setting of weighted pluripotential theory arising from polynomials associated to a convex body in ({R}^+)^d. These classes of polynomials need not occur as sections of tensor powers of a line bundle L over a compact, complex manifold. We follow the approach of Berman and Boucksom to obtain analogous results. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  5. Reclaiming Water from Wastewater using Forward Osmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutchmiah, K.

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity is a global issue and waste accumulation is a steadily growing one. The innovative Sewer Mining concept, described in this thesis, is an example of an integrated forward osmosis application which incorporates different technologies to attain one goal: water recovery from wastewater,

  6. Vulnerability Identification and Resilience Enhancements of Urban Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, K.; Riedel, W.; Häring, I.; Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.; Crabbe, S.; Trojaborg, S.; Hynes, W.; Müllers, I.

    2012-01-01

    Steadily increasing number of the world’s population is living in ur-ban centres. The issue of security and citizen safety in densely populated areas is a growing concern. Considering terrorism and large scale accident scenarios, natural disasters and crime, urban planning practice must be

  7. Everyday Tectonics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    2016-01-01

    Frascari and Kenneth Frampton (Harris & Berke 1997, Read 2000, Frascari 1984, Frampton 1995kilder). Whereas the focus upon everyday architecture seems to have lost its momentum too quickly, tectonic theory in architecture has been steadily growing as a field of research in architecture, especially related...

  8. Management of Adult Education Organisations in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia; Wawire, Nelson H. W.; Lam, Penina Mungania

    2011-01-01

    Adult education is now considered a mainstream academic discipline in several African countries, and its importance in today's knowledge and "ideas" economies is growing steadily. It is provided by organisations such as public universities, training colleges, corporate universities and employers. The successful operation of educational…

  9. Analysis of the local worst-case SAR exposure caused by an MRI multi-transmit body coil in anatomical models of the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, Esra; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Murbach, Manuel; Christ, Andreas; Cabot, Eugenia; Kuster, Niels, E-mail: neufeld@itis.ethz.ch [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr. 43, 8004 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-08-07

    Multi-transmit coils are increasingly being employed in high-field magnetic resonance imaging, along with a growing interest in multi-transmit body coils. However, they can lead to an increase in whole-body and local specific absorption rate (SAR) compared to conventional body coils excited in circular polarization for the same total incident input power. In this study, the maximum increase of SAR for three significantly different human anatomies is investigated for a large 3 T (128 MHz) multi-transmit body coil using numerical simulations and a (generalized) eigenvalue-based approach. The results demonstrate that the increase of SAR strongly depends on the anatomy. For the three models and normalization to the sum of the rung currents squared, the whole-body averaged SAR increases by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to conventional excitation and the peak spatial SAR (averaged over any 10 cm{sup 3} of tissue) by up to 13.4. For some locations the local averaged SAR goes up as much as 800 times (130 when looking only at regions where it is above 1% of the peak spatial SAR). The ratio of the peak spatial SAR to the whole-body SAR increases by a factor of up to 47 and can reach values above 800. Due to the potentially much larger power deposition, additional, preferably patient-specific, considerations are necessary to avoid injuries by such systems.

  10. Assessment of drought during corn growing season in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Hu, Zhenghua

    2018-04-01

    Northeast China has experienced extensive climate change during the past decades. Corn is the primary production crop in China and is sensitive to meteorological disasters, especially drought. Drought has thus greatly endangered crop production and the country's food security. The majority of previous studies has not highlighted farming adaptation activities undertaken within the changed climate, which should not be neglected. In this study, we assessed drought hazard in the corn vegetation growing period, the reproductive growing period, and the whole growing period based on data for yearly corn phenology, daily precipitation, and temperature gathered at 26 agro-meteorological stations across Northeast China from 1981 to 2009. The M-K trend test was used to detect trends in sowing date and drought. The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) was used to describe drought. Drought frequency and intensity were used to assess the drought hazard in the region. We found that the sowing date was delayed in the southern part of the study area, coupled with a trend towards a shorter and more humid vegetation growing period. In the northern part of the study area, an earlier sowing date increased the length of the vegetation growing period and the reproductive growing period, while drying trends occurred within the two corn growing periods. We assessed the drought hazard during each growing period: the reproductive growing period faced a more severe drought hazard and was also the period where corn was most sensitive to water stress. Drought hazard during the total growing period was closely related to corn yield.

  11. GrOW briefs: From research to policy | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... ​For access to more GrOW findings and literature, visit the GrOW Research Series. Learn more about the GrOW program. What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map. Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox ...

  12. Composição corporal de garrotes inteiros de três grupos genéticos nas fases de recria e terminação Body composition of young bulls of three genetic groups in the growing and finishing phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Jorge Fernandes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com os objetivos de avaliar a composição corporal e identificar características corporais mensuráveis capazes de estimar o tamanho relativo de componentes corporais, foram utilizados 36 garrotes inteiros, sendo 12 Nelore, 12 ½ Holandês x ½ Zebu e 12 ½ Caracu x ½ Zebu. Em cada grupo genético, havia seis animais de cada fase de produção: recria e terminação, com peso inicial próximo a 225 kg e 330 kg, respectivamente. Os animais foram mantidos em regime de confinamento até o abate, realizado de acordo com o peso: 310 a 340 kg PV para os animais na fase de recria e 420 a 470 kg PV para aqueles na fase de terminação. Foi fornecida a mesma dieta a todos os animais, com 50% da matéria seca à base de concentrado e 50% de silagem pré-seca de coastcross. Utilizou-se um fator geral de 0,8693 para conversão do peso vivo em peso de corpo vazio (obtido a partir dos dados de todos os animais do experimento. Animais provenientes de seleção para corte na categoria terminação apresentaram maiores rendimentos de carcaça (59,2% que aqueles de origem leiteira (56,33%. Grupos genéticos de raças com aptidão leiteira mostraram tamanhos relativos de órgãos 9% maior, 21% menos tecido adiposo na carcaça, bem como maior participação da gordura interna no total de tecido adiposo corporal. Em razão das baixas correlações encontradas, não parece confiável estimar os tamanhos relativos dos componentes corporais estudados a partir das características corporais mensuráveis analisadas.To evaluate the body composition, and to identify measurable body characteristics capable to estimate the relative size of body components, 36 young bulls (12 Nellore, 12 ½ Holstein x ½ Zebu, and 12 ½ Caracu x ½ Cebu were used. In each genetic group, six animals of each production phase were used: growing animals with initial weight of 225 kg and the finishing ones with initial weight of 330 kg. The animals were maintained in confinement regime to reach

  13. Yoga, Body and Image: Spirituality and Wellbeing; From Therapy to Publicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Alexander Fajardo Pulido

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The practice of yoga in Bogotá has a particular vision of the body that promotes a form of co-implicit, holistic and totalizing existence, inserted into the constant logic of a spiritual experience materialized in the individual body. This vision is directly related to a reciprocal concept of health and disease, which establishes its limits beyond the atomized and institutionalized corporal vision of Western biomedical medicine. Eastern spirituality promotes “new forms” of experiencing health and sickness, which find a commercial resonance with complimentary health service providers that grow more influential within a local context; additionally, they have also found fertile ground in the urban imaginary of Bogotá, appearing on scene with a certain body-psychic-spiritual ideal related to something beyond just well-being; an image promoted by the publishing industry and market logic in the different mass communication media

  14. Threat-level-dependent manipulation of signaled body size: dog growls' indexical cues depend on the different levels of potential danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, Anna; Faragó, Tamás; Miklósi, Ádám; Pongrácz, Péter

    2016-11-01

    Body size is an important feature that affects fighting ability; however, size-related parameters of agonistic vocalizations are difficult to manipulate because of anatomical constraints within the vocal production system. Rare examples of acoustic size modulation are due to specific features that enable the sender to steadily communicate exaggerated body size. However, one could argue that it would be more adaptive if senders could adjust their signaling behavior to the fighting potential of their actual opponent. So far there has been no experimental evidence for this possibility. We tested this hypothesis by exposing family dogs (Canis familiaris) to humans with potentially different fighting ability. In a within-subject experiment, 64 dogs of various breeds consecutively faced two threateningly approaching humans, either two men or two women of different stature, or a man and a woman of similar or different stature. We found that the dogs' vocal responses were affected by the gender of the threatening stranger and the dog owner's gender. Dogs with a female owner, or those dogs which came from a household where both genders were present, reacted with growls of lower values of the Pitch-Formant component (including deeper fundamental frequency and lower formant dispersion) to threatening men. Our results are the first to show that non-human animals react with dynamic alteration of acoustic parameters related to their individual indexical features (body size), depending on the level of threat in an agonistic encounter.

  15. Parental Bonds, Anxious Attachment, Media Internalization, and Body Image Dissatisfaction: Exploring a Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2009-01-01

    The first purpose of this study was to investigate direct links between body image dissatisfaction (BID) in college women and their memories of either parent as cold and emotionally aloof. Theory, clinical case evidence, and a small (but growing) number of studies support these links. After estimating the strength of the associations between…

  16. ¿Disposable Matter or Personal Entity? The Human Body, Biotechnology and the Juridical Requirements of Dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nicolás Lafferriere

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnological interventions affect the human body in new and powerful ways in the process of procreation, through actions of enhancement or replacement of the body, or by the search of the immortality of the body. This implies new legal challenges to prevent biotechnoscience from considering the human body as "operable and disposable matter", and treating it as the human person himself. In this article, we will study these challenges, starting from human dignity as a fundamental principle for an assessment of this biotechnology, and focusing on four legal issues: improvement interventions and their legal enforceability; the commodification of human life; growing social inequalities and the emergence of new forms of discrimination; and the principle of integrity of the human species.

  17. Incorporating Edge Information into Best Merge Region-Growing Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, James C.; Pasolli, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    We have previously developed a best merge region-growing approach that integrates nonadjacent region object aggregation with the neighboring region merge process usually employed in region growing segmentation approaches. This approach has been named HSeg, because it provides a hierarchical set of image segmentation results. Up to this point, HSeg considered only global region feature information in the region growing decision process. We present here three new versions of HSeg that include local edge information into the region growing decision process at different levels of rigor. We then compare the effectiveness and processing times of these new versions HSeg with each other and with the original version of HSeg.

  18. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  19. Dietary maifanite supplementation did not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li Bai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary maifanite supplementation and fecal collection method on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P and blood parameters in growing pigs. Methods Thirty-six growing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire; 27.0±2.6 kg were allotted to six dietary treatments with 6 pigs per treatment according to body weight in a completely randomized design. The experimental treatments were: i Low Ca+cornstarch (2.25%, ii Low Ca+maifanite (2.25%, iii Medium Ca+cornstarch (1.42%, iv Medium Ca+maifanite (1.42%, v High Ca+cornstarch (0.64%, and vi High Ca+maifanite (0.64%. Feces were collected by the total collection (TC and indicator method (IM. At the beginning and the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected from each pig. Results For the TC method, there were no difference in Ca intake, fecal Ca output, Ca retention and the ATTD of Ca between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. However, urinary Ca excretion was lower (p = 0.01 in pigs fed low Ca diets without maifanite supplementation compared with other dietary treatments. Dietary maifanite supplementation had no effect on the P metabolism in growing pigs. For the IM method, there was no difference in Ca digestibility between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. The ATTD of P was greater (p<0.01 in pigs fed the high Ca diet with maifanite supplementation compared with the high Ca diet with cornstarch treatment. Dietary inclusion of maifanite had no effect on blood parameters in growing pigs. Conclusion Dietary maifanite supplementation had no effect on the ATTD of Ca and P and serum parameters in growing pigs. The IM resulted in lower digestibility values than the TC method.

  20. Reference values for radiological evaluation of cervical vertebral body shape and spinal canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remes, V.M. [Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Heinaenen, M.T.; Marttinen, E.J. [Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Kinnunen, J.S. [Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, HYKS (Finland)

    2000-03-01

    Background. Defining normal values is essential for reliable evaluation of growth disturbances. Previous studies of the cervical spine have mainly focused on the sagittal canal diameter and interpedicular distances. Values for vertebral body height and depth have been published only in adult men and cadavers.Objectives. To define normal values for vertebral body height (H)/vertebral body depth (D) ratio (H/D ratio) and sagittal canal diameter (S)/vertebral body depth ratio (S/D ratio) in C2-7.Materials and methods. Lateral cervical spine radiographs were available from 441 children and 192 adults. Subjects' ages varied from newborn to 39 years. Vertebral body height and depth and sagittal canal diameter were measured and ratios were calculated. This was a cross-sectional and retrospective study.Results. Vertebral bodies grow relatively more in height than in depth, most actively at puberty. At all levels, the H/D ratio remains below 1, indicating that vertebral body depth is greater than height. The SD ratio is quite stable until 7-8 years of age and then it starts to decline slowly.Conclusions. When estimating platyspondyly, the age of the patient must be taken into consideration because vertebral body height is lower in children. Growth of the spinal canal declines after 7-8 years of age. (orig.)

  1. Reference values for radiological evaluation of cervical vertebral body shape and spinal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remes, V.M.; Heinaenen, M.T.; Marttinen, E.J.; Kinnunen, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Background. Defining normal values is essential for reliable evaluation of growth disturbances. Previous studies of the cervical spine have mainly focused on the sagittal canal diameter and interpedicular distances. Values for vertebral body height and depth have been published only in adult men and cadavers.Objectives. To define normal values for vertebral body height (H)/vertebral body depth (D) ratio (H/D ratio) and sagittal canal diameter (S)/vertebral body depth ratio (S/D ratio) in C2-7.Materials and methods. Lateral cervical spine radiographs were available from 441 children and 192 adults. Subjects' ages varied from newborn to 39 years. Vertebral body height and depth and sagittal canal diameter were measured and ratios were calculated. This was a cross-sectional and retrospective study.Results. Vertebral bodies grow relatively more in height than in depth, most actively at puberty. At all levels, the H/D ratio remains below 1, indicating that vertebral body depth is greater than height. The SD ratio is quite stable until 7-8 years of age and then it starts to decline slowly.Conclusions. When estimating platyspondyly, the age of the patient must be taken into consideration because vertebral body height is lower in children. Growth of the spinal canal declines after 7-8 years of age. (orig.)

  2. Putting pain out of mind with an 'out of body' illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamment, J; Aspell, J E

    2017-02-01

    Chronic pain is a growing societal concern that warrants scientific investigation, especially given the ineffectiveness of many treatments. Given evidence that pain experience relies on multisensory integration, there is interest in using body ownership illusions for reducing acute pain. In the present study, we investigate whether patients' experience of chronic pain could be reduced by full body illusions (FBIs) that cause participants to dissociate from their own body. Participants with chronic pain (including sciatica, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, muscular pain, IBS and back pain) viewed their own 'virtual' bodies via a video camera and head-mounted display for two minutes. In the 'back-stroking FBI', their backs were stroked with a stick while they viewed synchronous or asynchronous stroking on the virtual body and in the 'front-stroking FBI', they were stroked near their collarbone while viewing the stick approach their field of view in a synchronous or asynchronous fashion. Illusion strength and pain intensity were measured with self-report questionnaires. We found that full body illusions were experienced by patients with chronic pain and further, that pain intensity was reduced by an average of 37% after illusion (synchronous) conditions. These findings add support to theories that high-level multisensory body representations can interact with homeostatic regulation and pain perception. Pain intensity in chronic pain patients was reduced by 37% by 'out of body' illusions. These data demonstrate the potential of such illusions for the management of chronic pain. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  3. Food-Growing, Air- And Water-Cleaning Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Scheld, H. W.; Mafnuson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus produces fresh vegetables and removes pollutants from air. Hydroponic apparatus performs dual function of growing fresh vegetables and purifying air and water. Leafy vegetables rooted in granular growth medium grow in light of fluorescent lamps. Air flowing over leaves supplies carbon dioxide and receives fresh oxygen from them. Adaptable to production of food and cleaning of air and water in closed environments as in underwater research stations and submarines.

  4. Influence of Rapeseed Meal on Growth Performance, Blood Profiles, Nutrient Digestibility and Economic Benefit of Growing-finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary rapeseed meal (RSM on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility and economic benefit of growing-finishing pigs. A total of 120 growing pigs ([Yorkshire×Landrace] ×Duroc with an initial body weight (BW 29.94±0.06 kg were used in this experiment. Pigs were randomly allotted into 1 of 5 treatments in a randomized complete block design and 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen. Treatments were divided by dietary RSM supplementation levels (0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, or 12% in growing-finishing diets. A linear decrease (p<0.05 of BW and average daily gain (ADG were observed at 13th wk of finishing and overall periods of pigs. Additionally, gain-to-feed ratio (G/F tended to decrease by dietary RSM supplementation in growing-finishing diets (linear, p = 0.07 and quadratic, p = 0.08. Concentrations of serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine were not influenced by dietary RSM treatments whereas thyroid gland and liver weight were increased at 13th wk of finishing period (linear, p<0.05; p<0.01 by increasing dietary RSM supplementation level. In blood profiles, serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were not differed by dietary treatments at 13th wk of finishing period whereas concentration of serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol was affected by the supplementation level of RSM, resulting in a linear RSM level responses (p<0.05. Serum blood urea nitrogen concentration tended to decrease (linear, p = 0.07; p = 0.08 at 6th wk of growing and 13th wk of finishing periods and digestibility of dry matter tended to decrease by dietary RSM (linear, p = 0.09. Crude protein, crude fat and nitrogen retention, whereas, were not affected by dietary RSM supplementation level. In the economic analysis, feed cost per weight gain was numerically decreased when RSM was provided up to 9%. Consequently, RSM could be supplemented to growing-finishing diets up to 9

  5. Bariatric surgery: studies on its consequences with emphasis on thrombotic and bleeding complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Çelik, F.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a steadily growing problem that is associated with several diseases such as diabetes type 2, hypertension and dyslipidemia. For morbidly obese persons who have failed to achieve weight loss after several weight loss interventions, bariatric surgery is at this moment the only long-lasting,

  6. Sequential ultrasonic spot welding of thermoplastic composites : An experimental study on the welding process and the mechanical behaviour of (multi-)spot welded joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, T.

    2018-01-01

    The popularity of thermoplastic composites (TPCs) has been growing steadily in the last decades in the aircraft industry. This is not only because of their excellent material properties, but also owing to their fast and cost-effective manufacturing process. Fusion bonding, or welding, is a typical

  7. Modified Atmosphere Packaging of tomatoes; controlling gas and humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evelo, R.G.; Horst, J.

    1996-01-01

    Modified atmosphere (MA) packaging technology is a modern technique of which the application is steadily growing. Its essence is to reduce the decay of perishable produce by creating a special atmosphere around the produce. The MA factors influencing the quality behaviour of the produce are oxygen

  8. Generalized Adaptive Smoothing Method for State Estimation of Generic Two-Dimensional Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Y.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    In big cities, the proportion of slow-mode (such as pedestrian) flows in total trip demand is steadily growing every year. Along with this trend, many concerns arise about accessibility and safety. The monitoring and the management of pedestrians serve as a potential solution to maintain the

  9. Onder aristocraten : over hegemonie, welstand en aanzien van adel, patriciaat en andere notabelen in Nederland, 1848-1914

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, Jacobus Karst Sjoerd

    2012-01-01

    Recently the history of aristocrats in the modern world captured the attention of a steadily growing number of historians and social scientists in several countries. Their disappearance from public life is evident everywhere. Blending of the old families in the upper middle classes of Europe is one

  10. Towards Role Detection in Virtual Worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Eickhoff (Carsten); V.P. Lavrenko

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractVirtual worlds are a topic of steadily growing relevance. Some of the providers report user numbers that exceed the population of entire nations in the real world. Virtual worlds typically provide a high degree of complexity, which in some areas approaches the real world's richness of

  11. The 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the central commercial importance of contracts of sale and the impressive and steadily growing list of ratifications (more than 75 States), the CISG Convention must be regarded as the most significant piece of substantive contract legislation in effect at the international level....

  12. The 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of the central commercial importance of contracts of sale and the impressive and steadily growing list of ratifications (more than 80 States), the CISG Convention must be regarded as the most significant piece of substantive contract legislation in effect at the international level....

  13. Instability modes on a solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunjuan; Liu, Feng; Rusak, Zvi; Wang, Shixiao

    2017-09-01

    Numerical solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are obtained to study the time evolution of both axisymmetric and three-dimensional perturbations to a base solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe with non-periodic boundary conditions imposed at the pipe inlet and outlet. It is found that for a given Reynolds number there exists a critical swirl number beyond which the initial perturbations grow, in contrast to the solid-body rotation flow in an infinitely-long pipe or a finite-length pipe with periodic inlet and exit boundary conditions for which the classical Kelvin analysis and Rayleigh stability criterion affirm neutrally stable for all levels of swirl. This paper uncovers for the first time the detailed evolution of the perturbations in both the axisymmetric and three-dimensional situations. The computations reveal a linear growth stage of the perturbations with a constant growth rate after a brief initial period of decay of the imposed initial perturbations. The fastest growing axisymmetric and three-dimensional instability modes and the associated growth rates are identified numerically for the first time. The computations show that the critical swirl number increases and the growth rate of instability decreases at the same swirl number with decreasing Reynolds number. The growth rate of the axisymmetric mode at high Reynolds number agrees well with previous stability theory for inviscid flow. More importantly, three-dimensional simulations uncover that the most unstable mode is the spiral type m = 1 mode, which appears at a lower critical swirl number than that for the onset of the axisymmetric mode. This spiral mode grows faster than the unstable axisymmetric mode at the same swirl. Moreover, the computations reveal that after the linear growing stage of the perturbation the flow continues to evolve nonlinearly to a saturated axisymmetric vortex breakdown state.

  14. Instability modes on a solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjuan Feng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are obtained to study the time evolution of both axisymmetric and three-dimensional perturbations to a base solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe with non-periodic boundary conditions imposed at the pipe inlet and outlet. It is found that for a given Reynolds number there exists a critical swirl number beyond which the initial perturbations grow, in contrast to the solid-body rotation flow in an infinitely-long pipe or a finite-length pipe with periodic inlet and exit boundary conditions for which the classical Kelvin analysis and Rayleigh stability criterion affirm neutrally stable for all levels of swirl. This paper uncovers for the first time the detailed evolution of the perturbations in both the axisymmetric and three-dimensional situations. The computations reveal a linear growth stage of the perturbations with a constant growth rate after a brief initial period of decay of the imposed initial perturbations. The fastest growing axisymmetric and three-dimensional instability modes and the associated growth rates are identified numerically for the first time. The computations show that the critical swirl number increases and the growth rate of instability decreases at the same swirl number with decreasing Reynolds number. The growth rate of the axisymmetric mode at high Reynolds number agrees well with previous stability theory for inviscid flow. More importantly, three-dimensional simulations uncover that the most unstable mode is the spiral type m = 1 mode, which appears at a lower critical swirl number than that for the onset of the axisymmetric mode. This spiral mode grows faster than the unstable axisymmetric mode at the same swirl. Moreover, the computations reveal that after the linear growing stage of the perturbation the flow continues to evolve nonlinearly to a saturated axisymmetric vortex breakdown state.

  15. Growing axons analysis by using Granulometric Size Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Mariela A; Ballarin, Virginia L; Rapacioli, Melina; CelIn, A R; Sanchez, V; Flores, V

    2011-01-01

    Neurite growth (neuritogenesis) in vitro is a common methodology in the field of developmental neurobiology. Morphological analyses of growing neurites are usually difficult because their thinness and low contrast usually prevent to observe clearly their shape, number, length and spatial orientation. This paper presents the use of the granulometric size distribution in order to automatically obtain information about the shape, size and spatial orientation of growing axons in tissue cultures. The results here presented show that the granulometric size distribution results in a very useful morphological tool since it allows the automatic detection of growing axons and the precise characterization of a relevant parameter indicative of the axonal growth spatial orientation such as the quantification of the angle of deviation of the growing direction. The developed algorithms automatically quantify this orientation by facilitating the analysis of these images, which is important given the large number of images that need to be processed for this type of study.

  16. The effect of lumbosacral manipulation on growing pains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid de Beer

    2015-10-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether lumbosacral manipulations have an effect on growing pain symptoms. Methods: Thirty participants with growing pains between the ages of 4 and 12 years were recruited. The participants were placed into two groups of 15 participants each. Group 1 received lumbosacral manipulations to restricted joints as determined by motion palpation, while Group 2 never received any professional intervention. Often parent(s/guardian(s of children who suffer from growing pains will rub the child's legs and offer verbal reassurance in an attempt to console their children. Parent(s/guardian(s of both groups were encouraged to continue to do this throughout the duration of the trial. Instructions were given to the parents so that the same rubbing technique and rubbing cream (aqueous cream were used. Subjective changes were tracked using a pain diary that the parent(s/guardian(s were asked to complete, a six-week post-study follow-up question regarding children's growing pains and the Oucher self-report pain scale. Objective measures consisted of pressure algometer readings of the tibialis anterior muscle belly. Results: The statistical data was analysed using the Friedman test, Manne—Whitney test and the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. The results demonstrated that both groups responded favourably to their specific treatment over time. However, the group that received lumbosacral manipulations proved to show a quicker response to treatment; and the post study follow-up of this same group showed markedly more positive feedback than the group that did not receive the treatment. These results highlighted the positive effects of chiropractic manipulation on growing pain symptoms. Conclusion: The results from this study, specifically the feedback from parent(s/guardians(s and the pain diaries, indicated that spinal manipulation is beneficial in the treatment of growing pains. The results also showed that other methods of treating growing

  17. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets....... The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg......, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver funtion were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended...

  18. The effect of lumbosacral manipulation on growing pains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid de Beer

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The results from this study, specifically the feedback from parent(s/guardians(s and the pain diaries, indicated that spinal manipulation is beneficial in the treatment of growing pains. The results also showed that other methods of treating growing pains, such as simple leg rubs, may also bring relief.

  19. Efficacy of tiamulin as a growth promotant for growing swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, G L; Stahly, T S

    1985-01-01

    A study involving 244 pigs initially averaging 13 kg was conducted at two stations to evaluate tiamulin as a growth promotant for growing swine. In each experiment, four replicate pens of five (Exp. 1) or six (Exp. 2) pigs/pen were used to evaluate each treatment. In Exp. 1, pigs were fed 0, 11, 22 or 44 ppm tiamulin from 15 to 58 kg, then fed a nonmedicated control diet for the remainder of the experiment (to 95 kg). In Exp. 2, pigs were fed 0, 2.75, 5.5, 11 or 22 ppm tiamulin from 11 to 56 kg, followed by the nonmedicated control diet (to 95 kg). In each experiment, carbadox (55 ppm) was included as a positive control and was fed to an average weight of 35 kg, followed by the control diet. Averaged across all dietary levels, tiamulin resulted in a 14.1% improvement in gain and a 5.7% improvement in feed:gain ratio during the first 28 to 35 d of the experiment (to 30 kg). These improvements were slightly less than those resulting from the feeding of carbadox during the same period (21.5 and 6.9%, respectively). From 13 to 57 kg, pigs fed tiamulin gained 11.6% faster and 3.1% more efficiently than did controls. Over the entire experiment (13 to 95 kg), tiamulin-fed pigs gained 5.7% faster than did controls, even though the tiamulin was withdrawn at 57 kg body weight. Growth rate from 13 to 57 kg plateaued at the 11-ppm dietary level of tiamulin; whereas, feed:gain ratio plateaued at the 22-ppm level. The results indicate that tiamulin is an effective growth promotant for growing swine.

  20. The Brightening of the North Star: Has Polaris' Brightness Steadily Increased for Centuries and, perhaps, even Millennia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Scott G.; Guinan, E. F.; Harmanec, P.; Božić, H.; Ruzdjak, D.; Sudar, D.

    2014-01-01

    Polaris is arguably the best-known star in the Northern Hemisphere, since it lies within a degree of the North Celestial Pole. For much of human history, Polaris was highly regarded for its unchanging nature. However, we now know that Polaris is a Cepheid variable, undergoing ultra-low-amplitude pulsations. Thirty years ago, a paper in the Astrophysical Journal by A. Arellano Ferro announced that the amplitude of these pulsations was diminishing. This behavior was confirmed, and it was believed that soon enough Polaris would no longer be a Cepheid variable. We started photometrically monitoring Polaris in 1999 and discovered that the amplitude of pulsations had reached a minimum and was now, in fact, growing again. It was while gathering historic photometry for the amplitude study that we noticed the published magnitudes of Polaris were systematically fainter, the further back in time the data went. This is an entirely unexpected behavior for a Cepheid variable, and one that we wanted to investigate further. We continue to observe Polaris to monitor the star's brightness, along with pulsation period and amplitude, and we have re-analyzed the historic studies of Polaris to validate the brightening. We have also obtained HST-COS UV spectra of Polaris for comparison to archival IUE data, to look for flux and/or temperature changes. We gratefully acknowledge support from NASA grant HST-GO-11726.

  1. Experiencing the genetic body: parents' encounters with pediatric clinical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry, Kelly; Skinner, Debra

    2007-01-01

    Because of advancements in genetic research and technologies, the clinical practice of genetics is becoming a prevalent component of biomedicine. As the genetic basis for more and more diseases are found, it is possible that ways of experiencing health, illness, identity, kin relations, and the body are becoming geneticized, or understood within a genetic model of disease. Yet, other models and relations that go beyond genetic explanations also shape interpretations of health and disease. This article explores how one group of individuals for whom genetic disorder is highly relevant formulates their views of the body in light of genetic knowledge. Using data from an ethnographic study of 106 parents or potential parents of children with known or suspected genetic disorders who were referred to a pediatric genetic counseling and evaluation clinic in the southeastern United States, we find that these parents do, to some degree, perceive of their children's disorders in terms of a genetic body that encompasses two principal qualities: a sense of predetermined health and illness and an awareness of a profound historicity that reaches into the past and extends into the present and future. They experience this genetic body as both fixed and historical, but they also express ideas of a genetic body made less deterministic by their own efforts and future possibilities. This account of parents' experiences with genetics and clinical practice contributes to a growing body of work on the ways in which genetic information and technologies are transforming popular and medical notions of the body, and with it, health, illness, kinship relations, and personal and social identities.

  2. Importance of growth characteristics for yield of barley in different growing systems: will growth characteristics describe yield diffently in different growing systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kristian; Ericson, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The interest in organic grown cereals has increased the need for variety tests under organic growing systems and/or the knowledge on whether growth characteristics describe yield differently under conventional and organic conditions. This paper is a contribution to that question by examining...... the relationships between some important growth characteristics in barley trials in both systems in Northern Sweden and in Denmark. Mixed model analyses were used for regressions of growth characteristics (or transformations of those) on yield (and log-transformed yield), allowing the slope to depend on the growing...... system. The analyses showed that diseases seemed to have a less negative effect on yield in the organic growing system than in the conventional growing system if pesticides were not applied. For other characteristics the effect depended on the country. This was the case for grain characteristics where...

  3. A lastly booming rural population and the youth employment challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Losch, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Population in sub-Saharan Africa continues to grow at an unprecedented scale. This will translate into a massive expansion of the labour force, which will account for two thirds of the global increase. Both urban and rural areas are affected but, due to a delayed and stabilized pace of urbanization, population in rural areas continues to grow steadily. This results in a challenging densification of rural areas, with direct impacts on rural livelihoods, increased mobility and diversification o...

  4. The Combined Effect of Subjective Body Image and Body Mass Index (Distorted Body Weight Perception on Suicidal Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyong Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP and suicidal ideation. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES, an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI and body mass index (BMI categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion. Results: Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI, women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42 were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42. Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59. Conclusions: Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs.

  5. Marijuana growing operations in British Columbia revisited, 1997-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plecas, D.; Malm, A.; Kinney, B. [University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). Dept. of Criminology and Criminal Justice]|[University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). International Centre for Urban Research Studies

    2005-03-01

    The results of a comprehensive study of marihuana cultivation in British Columbia were presented. This report describes the incidents of marihuana grow operations coming to the attention of the police; the characteristics of marihuana growing operations; the suspects involved; the actions taken by the police and courts; and penalty. The study confirms that these operations which are dispersed throughout the province are increasing in both size and sophistication. The average number of kilograms of harvested marihuana seized per grow operation tripled from 1997 to 2003. In addition, the number of high intensity lights seized per operation also grew, leading to an associated increase in the average amount of electricity theft per operation. About 1 in 5 grow operations involved hydro theft. The average cost associated with hydro theft per operation was about $2,880 in 1997 and $3,740 in 2003. In 2003, it is estimated that growers stole more than $3,200,000 from BC Hydro. In addition to electricity by-passes, 15 per cent of indoor grow operations contained hazards such as weapons, explosives, and other drugs. 25 tabs., 34 figs.

  6. A Growing Disconnection From Nature Is Evident in Cultural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesebir, Selin; Kesebir, Pelin

    2017-03-01

    Human connection with nature is widely believed to be in decline even though empirical evidence is scarce on the magnitude and historical pattern of the change. Studying works of popular culture in English throughout the 20th century and later, we have documented a cultural shift away from nature that begins in the 1950s. Since then, references to nature have been decreasing steadily in fiction books, song lyrics, and film storylines, whereas references to the human-made environment have not. The observed temporal pattern is consistent with the explanatory role of increased virtual and indoors recreation options (e.g., television, video games) in the disconnect from nature, and it is inconsistent with a pure urbanization account. These findings are cause for concern, not only because they imply foregone physical and psychological benefits from engagement with nature, but also because cultural products are agents of socialization that can evoke curiosity, respect, and concern for the natural world.

  7. Dissatisfaction with own body makes patients with eating disorders more sensitive to pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamotova, Anna; Bulant, Josef; Bocek, Vaclav; Papezova, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Body image represents a multidimensional concept including body image evaluation and perception of body appearance. Disturbances of body image perception are considered to be one of the central aspects of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. There is growing evidence that body image distortion can be associated with changes in pain perception. The aim of our study was to examine the associations between body image perception, body dissatisfaction, and nociception in women with eating disorders and age-matched healthy control women. We measured body dissatisfaction and pain sensitivity in 61 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition diagnoses of eating disorders (31 anorexia nervosa and 30 bulimia nervosa) and in 30 healthy women. Thermal pain threshold latencies were evaluated using an analgesia meter and body image perception and body dissatisfaction were assessed using Anamorphic Micro software (digital pictures of their own body distorted into larger-body and thinner-body images). Patients with eating disorders overestimated their body size in comparison with healthy controls, but the two groups did not differ in body dissatisfaction. In anorexia and bulimia patient groups, body dissatisfaction (calculated in pixels as desired size/true image size) correlated with pain threshold latencies (r=0.55, p=0.001), while between body image perception (determined as estimation size/true image size) and pain threshold, no correlation was found. Thus, we demonstrated that in patients with eating disorders, pain perception is significantly associated with emotional contrary to sensory (visual) processing of one’s own body image. The more the patients desired to be thin, the more pain-sensitive they were. Our findings based on some shared mechanisms of body dissatisfaction and pain perception support the significance of negative emotions specific for eating disorders and contribute to better understanding of the psychosomatic

  8. Ethical Issues in Brain-Computer Interface Research, Development, and Dissemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, Rutger; Steines, David; Szibbo, Dyana; Kübler, Andrea; Schneider, Mary-Jane; Haselager, Pim; Nijboer, Femke

    The steadily growing field of brain-computer interfacing (BCI) may develop useful technologies, with a potential impact not only on individuals, but also on society as a whole. At the same time, the development of BCI presents significant ethical and legal challenges. In a workshop during the 4th

  9. Gamification in the Business Communication Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltsos, Jennifer R.

    2017-01-01

    Interest in gamification in higher education has been growing steadily in the past decade. Using games and game elements has been shown to increase student engagement, motivation, and autonomy. This article draws parallels between game elements, instructional design, and the teaching of business and professional communication. It suggests ways…

  10. Ethical Issues in Brain-Computer Interface Research, Development, and Dissemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, R.J.; Steines, D.; Szibbo, D.; Kübler, A.; Schneider, M.J.; Haselager, W.F.G.; Nijboer, F.

    2012-01-01

    The steadily growing field of brain–computer interfacing (BCI) may develop useful technologies, with a potential impact not only on individuals, but also on society as a whole. At the same time, the development of BCI presents significant ethical and legal challenges. In a workshop during the 4th

  11. Child computer interaction SIG: towards sustainable thinking and being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Read, J.; Hourcade, J.P.; Markopoulos, P.; Iversen, O.S.

    The discipline of Child Computer Interaction (CCI) has been steadily growing and it is now firmly established as a community in its own right, having the annual IDC (Interaction and Design for Children) conference and its own journal and also enjoying its role as a highly recognisable and vibrant

  12. Reaping the Rewards of Foreign Direct Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.

    After a decade of steadily growing foreign direct investment (FDI) in extractives, Tanzania is now facing a virtual ‘take off ’ in extractive FDI. One of the concerns related to these investments is whether the foreign investors are linking up sufficiently with local firms through localized supply...

  13. First report of 16SrII-C subgroup phytoplasma causing phyllody and witches’-broom disease in Soybean in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murithi, H.; Owati, A.; Madata, C.S.; Joosten, M.; Beed, F.; Lava Kumar, P.

    2015-01-01

    Soybean production in Tanzania is steadily increasing, driven by growing demand from feed and livestock producers and also for human consumption. Soybean production area has increased from 795 ha in 2003 to 4,100 ha in 2013 (FAO 2014). Major soybean production is in the Morogro, Ruvuma, Iringa, and

  14. Filipinos and the Myth of Model Minority in Hawai'i: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunanan, Vanessa L.; Guerrero, Anthony P. S.; Minamoto, Linda Y.

    2006-01-01

    Despite tremendous heterogeneity in culture, native language, values, socioeconomic status and a steadily growing presence in the United States, Asian Americans are viewed as a monolithic group under the model minority stereotype. Using the focus group approach with youth, young professionals, key/community leaders, and parent participants, the…

  15. Body weight regulation and obesity: dietary strategies to improve the metabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, M J M; Saris, W H M

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses dietary strategies that may improve the metabolic profile and body weight regulation in obesity. Recent evidence demonstrated that long-term health effects seem to be more beneficial for low-glycemic index (GI) diets compared to high-protein diets. Still, these results need to be confirmed by other prospective cohort studies and long-term clinical trials, and the discrepancy between these study designs needs to be explored in more detail. Furthermore, the current literature is mixed with regard to the efficacy of increased meal frequency (or snacking) regimens in causing metabolic alterations, particularly in relation to body weight control. In conclusion, a growing body of evidence suggests that dietary strategies with the aim to reduce postprandial insulin response and increase fat oxidation, and that tend to restore metabolic flexibility, have a place in the prevention and treatment of obesity and associated metabolic disorders.

  16. IMMIGRANT WOMEN: BODY AND SUBJECTIVITY IN MOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Lázaro-Castellanos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The visibility of women in contemporary migration has broken with the course and social representation of the organization and implementation of international migration projects are predominantly male (Pedone, 2008. The growing presence of women has inspired a large number of studies have focused on immigrant women and their relationship to the labor market, changes in social structure and family and gender systems in both societies of origin and the destination. However, the literature takes as a center for immigrant women and their relationship to emotions and body are relatively recent, the most important contributions are found in disciplines such as anthropology or psychology. The transnational perspective little has reflected on the physical and mental health, emotions and subjectivities of women, resulting from their migration experience. From a socio-anthropological point of view of immigrants and bring their own notions of subjectivity related to gender, race or social class, do not always coincide with those in the host country. We suspect that the same applies to perception, practices and experiences on the body and emotions of women.

  17. Evaluating Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Relative to Passive Scattering Proton Therapy for Increased Vertebral Column Sparing in Craniospinal Irradiation in Growing Pediatric Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Seco, Joao; Eaton, Bree R.; Simeone, F. Joseph; Kooy, Hanne; Yock, Torunn I.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Adams, Judith; Paganetti, Harald; MacDonald, Shannon M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: At present, proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI) for growing children is delivered to the whole vertebral body (WVB) to avoid asymmetric growth. We aimed to demonstrate the feasibility and potential clinical benefit of delivering vertebral body sparing (VBS) versus WVB CSI with passively scattered (PS) and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) in growing children treated for medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Five plans were generated for medulloblastoma patients, who had been previously treated with CSI PS proton radiation therapy: (1) single posteroanterior (PA) PS field covering the WVB (PS-PA-WVB); (2) single PA PS field that included only the thecal sac in the target volume (PS-PA-VBS); (3) single PA IMPT field covering the WVB (IMPT-PA-WVB); (4) single PA IMPT field, target volume including thecal sac only (IMPT-PA-VBS); and (5) 2 posterior-oblique (−35°, +35°) IMPT fields, with the target volume including the thecal sac only (IMPT2F-VBS). For all cases, 23.4 Gy (relative biologic effectiveness [RBE]) was prescribed to 95% of the spinal canal. The dose, linear energy transfer, and variable-RBE-weighted dose distributions were calculated for all plans using the tool for particle simulation, version 2, Monte Carlo system. Results: IMPT VBS techniques efficiently spared the anterior vertebral bodies (AVBs), even when accounting for potential higher variable RBE predicted by linear energy transfer distributions. Assuming an RBE of 1.1, the V10 Gy(RBE) decreased from 100% for the WVB techniques to 59.5% to 76.8% for the cervical, 29.9% to 34.6% for the thoracic, and 20.6% to 25.1% for the lumbar AVBs, and the V20 Gy(RBE) decreased from 99.0% to 17.8% to 20.0% for the cervical, 7.2% to 7.6% for the thoracic, and 4.0% to 4.6% for the lumbar AVBs when IMPT VBS techniques were applied. The corresponding percentages for the PS VBS technique were higher. Conclusions: Advanced proton techniques can sufficiently reduce the dose to the vertebral

  18. Evaluating Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Relative to Passive Scattering Proton Therapy for Increased Vertebral Column Sparing in Craniospinal Irradiation in Growing Pediatric Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giantsoudi, Drosoula, E-mail: dgiantsoudi@mgh.harvard.edu; Seco, Joao; Eaton, Bree R.; Simeone, F. Joseph; Kooy, Hanne; Yock, Torunn I.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Adams, Judith; Paganetti, Harald; MacDonald, Shannon M.

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: At present, proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI) for growing children is delivered to the whole vertebral body (WVB) to avoid asymmetric growth. We aimed to demonstrate the feasibility and potential clinical benefit of delivering vertebral body sparing (VBS) versus WVB CSI with passively scattered (PS) and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) in growing children treated for medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Five plans were generated for medulloblastoma patients, who had been previously treated with CSI PS proton radiation therapy: (1) single posteroanterior (PA) PS field covering the WVB (PS-PA-WVB); (2) single PA PS field that included only the thecal sac in the target volume (PS-PA-VBS); (3) single PA IMPT field covering the WVB (IMPT-PA-WVB); (4) single PA IMPT field, target volume including thecal sac only (IMPT-PA-VBS); and (5) 2 posterior-oblique (−35°, +35°) IMPT fields, with the target volume including the thecal sac only (IMPT2F-VBS). For all cases, 23.4 Gy (relative biologic effectiveness [RBE]) was prescribed to 95% of the spinal canal. The dose, linear energy transfer, and variable-RBE-weighted dose distributions were calculated for all plans using the tool for particle simulation, version 2, Monte Carlo system. Results: IMPT VBS techniques efficiently spared the anterior vertebral bodies (AVBs), even when accounting for potential higher variable RBE predicted by linear energy transfer distributions. Assuming an RBE of 1.1, the V10 Gy(RBE) decreased from 100% for the WVB techniques to 59.5% to 76.8% for the cervical, 29.9% to 34.6% for the thoracic, and 20.6% to 25.1% for the lumbar AVBs, and the V20 Gy(RBE) decreased from 99.0% to 17.8% to 20.0% for the cervical, 7.2% to 7.6% for the thoracic, and 4.0% to 4.6% for the lumbar AVBs when IMPT VBS techniques were applied. The corresponding percentages for the PS VBS technique were higher. Conclusions: Advanced proton techniques can sufficiently reduce the dose to the vertebral

  19. Assessment of physical activity of the human body considering the thermodynamic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstein, Stefan; Rauschenberger, Philipp; Weigand, Bernhard; Siebert, Tobias; Schmitt, Syn; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Převorovská, Světlana; Maršík, František

    2016-01-01

    Correctly dosed physical activity is the basis of a vital and healthy life, but the measurement of physical activity is certainly rather empirical resulting in limited individual and custom activity recommendations. Certainly, very accurate three-dimensional models of the cardiovascular system exist, however, requiring the numeric solution of the Navier-Stokes equations of the flow in blood vessels. These models are suitable for the research of cardiac diseases, but computationally very expensive. Direct measurements are expensive and often not applicable outside laboratories. This paper offers a new approach to assess physical activity using thermodynamical systems and its leading quantity of entropy production which is a compromise between computation time and precise prediction of pressure, volume, and flow variables in blood vessels. Based on a simplified (one-dimensional) model of the cardiovascular system of the human body, we develop and evaluate a setup calculating entropy production of the heart to determine the intensity of human physical activity in a more precise way than previous parameters, e.g. frequently used energy considerations. The knowledge resulting from the precise real-time physical activity provides the basis for an intelligent human-technology interaction allowing to steadily adjust the degree of physical activity according to the actual individual performance level and thus to improve training and activity recommendations.

  20. The growing fibroadenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Linda M; Sara, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Fibroadenomas (FAs) are the most common tumors of the breast clinically and pathologically in adolescent and young women but may be discovered at any age. With increasing use of core biopsy rather than excision for diagnosis, it is now commonplace to follow these lesions with imaging. To assess the incidence of epithelial abnormalities (atypia, in situ or invasive, ductal or lobular malignancies) in FAs diagnosed by core biopsy and to re-evaluate the management paradigm for any growing FA. A retrospective review of the senior author’s pathology results over 19 years identified 2062 nodular FAs (biopsied by ultrasound or stereotactic guidance). Eighty-three core biopsied FAs were identified which subsequently enlarged. Twelve of 2062 of core biopsied nodules demonstrated atypia, in situ, or invasive malignancy (ductal or lobular) within or adjacent to the FA (0.58%). Eighty-three FAs enlarged and underwent either surgical excision (n = 65), repeat core biopsy (n = 9), or imaging follow-up (n = 9). The incidence of atypia, in situ or invasive malignancy was 0/83 (0%). Two enlarging FAs were subsequently surgically diagnosed as benign phyllodes tumors (PT). Malignancy in or adjacent to a core biopsied FA is rare. The risk of cancer in a growing FA is even rarer; none were present in our series. FAs with abnormal epithelial abnormalities require excision. Otherwise, FAs without epithelial abnormality diagnosed by core biopsy need no specific follow-up considering the negligible incidence of conversion to malignancy. The breast interventionalist must know how to manage discordant pathology results

  1. Home free? The (AfterEffects of Imprisonment on Women's Bodies, Physical and Mental Health and Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA AHANTZ & SYLVIE FRIGON

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As women's prison populations grow in Canada and around the world, more women are exposed to carceral practices which use disciplinary techniques to shape them into 'docile bodies.' Although intended to shape women's minds, these processes also have marked effects on female bodies. Using a Foucauldian perspective, we examine how women adapt to and resist the prison's disciplinary routines and its intrusions into their lives and bodies. Interviews with female ex-prisoners reveal how everyday degradations, health practices, self-injury and body modification shape their bodies and identities. These women's accounts are interpreted through the lens of the body to explore the long-term effects of the prison's rationalities and technologies on their bodies, minds and identities. We document how women negotiate these forces during their imprisonments, as well as after their releases when they are living in the community. Even though women are released from prison, they are not home free; the prison's technologies and rationalities permeate the prison walls and follow the women as they negotiate community life.

  2. Effects of wheat supplementation levels on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility, and pork quality in growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hee Han

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to evaluate various wheat supplementation levels on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility, and pork quality in growing-finishing pigs. Methods A total of 120 growing pigs ([Yorkshire×Landrace]×Duroc, with an average 27.75± 1.319 kg body weight, were used in growth trial. Pigs were allotted into each treatment by body weight and sex in 4 replicates with 6 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. Four-phase feeding programs were used in this experiment. The treatments included the following: i corn-soybean meal (SBM – based diet (CON, ii corn-SBM – based diet+15% of wheat (W15, iii corn-SBM – based diet+30% of wheat (W30, iv corn-SBM – based diet+45% of wheat (W45, and 5 corn-SBM–based diet+60% of wheat (W60. Results There was no significant difference in growth performance among the dietary treatments. However, the gain-to-feed (G:F ratio tended to increase (quadratic, p<0.08 when the pigs were fed a higher wheat diet during the finishing period. The digestibility of crude ash and fat tended to decrease as the wheat supplementation level increased (p<0.08. The proximate analysis of the longissimus muscle was not affected by the dietary level of wheat. The crude ash content in pork was decreased linearly as the wheat supplementation level increased (p = 0.05. There was no significant difference in the pH level, shear force, water holding capacity, and cooking loss of the pork. In pork and fat, L*, a*, and b* values were not significantly different among dietary treatments. Conclusion Wheat can be supplemented up to 60% in a growing-finishing pig without detrimental effects on growth and pork quality. The G:F ratio tended to improve in the finishing period by wheat inclusion.

  3. Relationship between self-esteem and body image in children with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Javier Sánchez Arenas

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing health problem that affects the physical and psychological development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between self-esteem and body image in Mexican obese children. A cross-seccional and correlational research was conducted; the participants in this study were 270 children, 8-11 years old, from Mexico. To select obese children weight and height were measured (BMI percentile > 95). Instruments of self-esteem (Self-esteem Question...

  4. Clinical management of rapidly growing mycobacterial cutaneous infections in patients after mesotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, Stéphanie; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Meningaud, Jean-Paul; Guihot, Amelie; Deforges, Lionel; Carbonne, Anne; Bricaire, François; Caumes, Eric

    2009-11-01

    Increasing numbers of patients are expressing an interest in mesotherapy as a method of reducing body fat. Cutaneous infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria are a common complication of such procedures. We followed up patients who had developed cutaneous infections after undergoing mesotherapy during the period October 2006-January 2007. Sixteen patients were infected after mesotherapy injections performed by the same physician. All patients presented with painful, erythematous, draining subcutaneous nodules at the injection sites. All patients were treated with surgical drainage. Microbiological examination was performed on specimens that were obtained before and during the surgical procedure. Direct examination of skin smears demonstrated acid-fast bacilli in 25% of the specimens that were obtained before the procedure and 37% of the specimens obtained during the procedure; culture results were positive in 75% of the patients. Mycobacterium chelonae was identified in 11 patients, and Mycobacterium frederiksbergense was identified in 2 patients. Fourteen patients were treated with antibiotics, 6 received triple therapy as first-line treatment (tigecycline, tobramycin, and clarithromycin), and 8 received dual therapy (clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin). The mean duration of treatment was 14 weeks (range, 1-24 weeks). All of the patients except 1 were fully recovered 2 years after the onset of infection, with the mean time to healing estimated at 6.2 months (range, 1-15 months). This series of rapidly growing mycobacterial cutaneous infections highlights the difficulties in treating such infections and suggests that in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics does not accurately predict their clinical efficacy.

  5. Lighting during grow-out and Salmonella in broiler flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Richard H

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lighting is used during conventional broiler grow-out to modify bird behaviour to reach the goals of production and improve bird welfare. The protocols for lighting intensity vary. In a field study, we evaluated if the lighting practices impact the burden of Salmonella in broiler flocks. Methods Conventional grow-out flocks reared in the states of Alabama, Mississippi and Texas, USA in 2003 to 2006 were sampled 1 week before harvest (n = 58 and upon arrival for processing (n = 56 by collecting feathered carcass rinsate, crop and one cecum from each of 30 birds, and during processing by collecting rinsate of 30 carcasses at pre-chilling (n = 56 and post-chilling points (n = 54. Litter samples and drag swabs of litter were collected from the grow-out houses after bird harvest (n = 56. Lighting practices for these flocks were obtained with a questionnaire completed by the growers. Associations between the lighting practices and the burden of Salmonella in the flocks were tested while accounting for variation between the grow-out farms, their production complexes and companies. Results Longer relative duration of reduced lights during the grow-out period was associated with reduced detection of Salmonella on the exterior of birds 1 week before harvest and on the broiler carcasses at the post-chilling point of processing. In addition, starting reduced lights for ≥18 hours per day later in the grow-out period was associated with decreased detection of Salmonella on the exterior of broilers arriving for processing and in the post-harvest drag swabs of litter from the grow-out house. Conclusions The results of this field study show that lighting practices implemented during broiler rearing can impact the burden of Salmonella in the flock. The underlying mechanisms are likely to be interactive.

  6. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Potential of Fruiting Bodies of the Wild-Growing King Bolete Mushroom, Boletus edulis (Agaricomycetes), from Western Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Aleksandra; Karaman, Maja; Kaisarevic, Sonja; Radusin, Tanja; Llic, Nebojsa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the bioactivity of crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Boletus edulis prepared from caps and stipes of wild-growing basidiocarps collected from the Prijepolje region (western Serbia). The bioactivity screening included antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH], nitric oxide, super-oxide anion*, and hydroxyl radicals and ferric-reducing antioxidant power) and antiproliferative MTT assays (human breast MCF-7 cancer cell line). In addition, all extracts were primarily characterized by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry to determine total phenolic and flavonoid contents. The highest anti-DPPH and anti-hydroxyl radical activity were observed in aqueous B. edulis extract from the caps (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 50.97 μg/ mL and 2.05 μg/mL, respectively), whereas the highest anti-nitric oxide radical activity was observed in aqueous B. edulis extract from the stipes (IC50 = 10.74 μg/mL). The ethanolic extract obtained from the mushroom stipe showed higher anti-superoxide anion radical activity (IC50 = 9.84 μg/mL) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (22.14 mg ascorbic acid equivalents/g dry weight) compared with aqueous extracts. Total phenolic content for all extracts was similar but total flavonoid content was significantly higher in the aqueous B. edulis extract from the caps (4.5 mg quercetin equivalents/g dry weight). All crude extracts showed activity against the MCF-7 cell line, with the ethanolic extract of B. edulis prepared from stipes (IC50 = 56 μg/mL) being the most potent. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of the antiproliferative effects of crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts prepared from caps and stipes of wild-growing basidiocarps of B. edulis on the human breast MCF-7 cancer cell line.

  7. Temperature fields in a growing solar silicon crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondrik A. I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimal thermal terms for growing by Czochralski method Si single-crystals, suitable for making photoelectric energy converters, has been defined by the computer simulation method. Dependences of temperature fields character and crystallization front form on the diameter of the crystal, stage and speed of growing, and also on correlation between diameter and height of the crystal has been studied.

  8. Long-term effects of foetal undernutrition on intermediary metabolism in growing lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiani, Ali; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of foetal undernutrition on the metabolism in growing lambs. Seven-month-old lambs whose nothers had been fed either restrictively (RN; n = 14) or adequately (AN; n = 6) in late gestation were fasted for three days. One hour before fasting......, IGF-I and leptin were not different between the two groups of lambs. Unexpectedly, at the end of the 3 d fasting, in spite of lower NEFA concentration (1.6 ± 0.03 vs. 1.9 ± 0.05 mM in Groups RN and AN, respectively), the BOHB concentration in RN lambs (0.94 ± 0.02 mM) was significantly higher than...... that in AN lambs (0.78 ± 0.04 mM). This higher rate of BOHB production might be interpreted as perturbations in etone body metabolism potentially induced by under-nutrition during foetal life. However, more investigations are necessary to clarify this interrelationship....

  9. Application of the Ewald method to cosmological N-body simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernquist, L.; Suto, Yasushi; Bouchet, F.R.

    1990-03-01

    Fully periodic boundary conditions are incorporated into a gridless cosmological N-body code using the Ewald method. It is shown that the linear evolution of density fluctuations agrees well with analytic calculations, contrary to the case of quasi-periodic boundary conditions where the fundamental mode grows too rapidly. The implementation of fully periodic boundaries is of particular importance to relative comparisons of methods based on hierarchical tree algorithms and more traditional schemes using Fourier techniques such as PM and P 3 M codes. (author)

  10. Rice gluten meal as an alternative by-product feed for growing dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Thakur, Sudarshan Singh; Mahesh, M S

    2016-03-01

    This experiment aimed at studying the nutritional characteristics and feeding value of rice gluten meal (RGM, a wet-milling by-product of rice) in growing dairy calves. RGM contained 464 g/kg of crude protein with 821 and 196 g/kg nitrogen (N) of borate-phosphate insoluble N and acid detergent insoluble N, respectively, which were higher (P calves (6-12 months) were randomly assigned into three groups based on comparable body weight and age. The first group (GP-I) was fed concentrate mixture containing mainly GNC as protein source, whilst it was replaced by RGM up to 50 and 75 % on N basis, in second (GP-II) and third (GP-III) groups, respectively. Thus, RGM constituted 140 and 210 g/kg of concentrate mixture of GP-II and GP-III, respectively. In addition, all animals were offered chopped green maize and wheat straw for the whole experimental period of 90 days. Results revealed that there was no difference in intake and digestibility of nutrients, N balance, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency among three groups. Nevertheless, RGM-based diets produced cost-effective ADG than GP-I. Furthermore, experimental calves did not differ in haematological variables like glucose, blood urea N, plasma proteins and non-esterified fatty acids. This study demonstrated that RGM could be incorporated successfully in the concentrate mixture, replacing 75 % of GNC without any discernable compromise in the performance of growing calves.

  11. Morphoelastic rods. Part I: A single growing elastic rod

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, D.E.

    2013-02-01

    A theory for the dynamics and statics of growing elastic rods is presented. First, a single growing rod is considered and the formalism of three-dimensional multiplicative decomposition of morphoelasticity is used to describe the bulk growth of Kirchhoff elastic rods. Possible constitutive laws for growth are discussed and analysed. Second, a rod constrained or glued to a rigid substrate is considered, with the mismatch between the attachment site and the growing rod inducing stress. This stress can eventually lead to instability, bifurcation, and buckling. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Growing older in the context of needing geriatric assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Bente Appel; Hvitved, Ida; Andersen, Hanne Elkjær

    2016-01-01

    significant and (v) considerations about the end of life as a component of growing older. The essence was defined as: illness essential for the experience of growing older and pointed to the experience of growing older that highlighted that experiencing illnesses and limitations served as reminders...... methodology. RESULTS: The results led to an overall essence and five themes. The five themes were identified: (i) considerations to avoid weakness, (ii) compensation for the inability to perform certain activities, (iii) aides - a symbol of freedom or limitation, (iv) lifestyle considered being particularly...

  13. Morphoelastic rods. Part I: A single growing elastic rod

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, D.E.; Lessinnes, T.; Goriely, A.

    2013-01-01

    A theory for the dynamics and statics of growing elastic rods is presented. First, a single growing rod is considered and the formalism of three-dimensional multiplicative decomposition of morphoelasticity is used to describe the bulk growth of Kirchhoff elastic rods. Possible constitutive laws for growth are discussed and analysed. Second, a rod constrained or glued to a rigid substrate is considered, with the mismatch between the attachment site and the growing rod inducing stress. This stress can eventually lead to instability, bifurcation, and buckling. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Growing Media on Yield and Fruitbody Properties of Hericium Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Atila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, it was aimed to determinate the effects of different substrates on mycelial growth, fructification, yield, sizes and colours of fruit bodies of Hericium isolates (HE-Ankara, HE-Denizli, HE, HE-Trabzon, HE-İzmit, HC, HE-Amerika. Experiments were conducted with 7 different substrates prepared with oak sawdust (MT, wheat bran (BK, cotton seed hulls (PK and olive press cake (ZP (80MT:20BK, 90MT:10PK, 80MT:20PK, 70MT:30PK, 90MT:10ZP, 80MT:20ZP, 70MT:30ZP. 1 kg (wet weight of substrates were packed in polypropylene autoclaveable bags of 25x45 cm and sterilized in autoclave at 121oC during 90 minutes. Sterilized substrate was inoculated and then carried to growing room at 25±2ºC. After full colonization, the bags were exposed to 400 lux for a 12 hours photoperiod at 20±2ºC with a humidity of 80-90% in a cropping room. The best yield and BE were detected from oak sawdust medium supplemented with 20 and 30% cotton seed hulls on HE-Ankara, HE-Denizli, HE, HE-İzmit, HC, HE-Amerika isolates while the best yield and BE were detected from 70MT:30ZP on Trabzon isolate. Significant differences were found among substrates regarding yield, BE, average mushroom weigh, fruit body size and colour of Hericium isolates.

  15. Outsourcing of IT Services: Studies on Diffusion and New Theoretical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Arti

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) outsourcing, including foreign or offshore outsourcing, has been steadily growing over the last two decades. This growth in IT outsourcing has led to the development of different hubs of services across nations, and has resulted in increased competition among service providers. Firms have been using IT outsourcing to…

  16. Jet diffusion in stagnant ambient fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, G.

    1963-01-01

    Submarine outfall disposal of domestic and industrial sewage is a method of disposal of steadily growing importance. The flow from an ocean outfall is essentially that of a submerged horizontal or vertical jet. Thus a study of the hydrodynamics of such jets is needed to evaluate the dilution of the

  17. Designing life-time recycling loops for elastomer products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, Jacques; Dierkes, Wilma; Blume, Anke; Dijkhuis, Kuno; van Hoek, Hans; Reuvekamp, Louis; Saiwari, Siti

    2017-01-01

    With depletion of natural resources and growing awareness of the limited capabilities of the globe to cope with pollution, the need to design life-time recycling loops for all types of products is steadily increasing. Rubber articles of all sorts and the need for a proper disposal of these at the

  18. Organic rice IPM research update in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. organic rice production has steadily increased over the past decade, with a majority of the acreage being grown in the southern region. Because of the warm and humid environments and the long growing season in the region, weed, disease and insect pests are among the primary factors limiting org...

  19. Regulation of Motivation: Students' Motivation Management in Online Collaborative Groupwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianzhong; Du, Jianxia

    2013-01-01

    Background: Online learning is becoming a global phenomenon and has a steadily growing influence on how learning is delivered at universities worldwide. Motivation of students, however, has become one of the most serious problems in one important aspect of online learning--online collaborative groupwork or online group homework. It is surprising…

  20. Sustainable Design Principles for Refugee Camps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, de L.L.; Wascher, D.M.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.

    2016-01-01

    This report’s main focus is on the phenomenon of refugee camps as one of the most visible and spatially explicit results of refuge and migration movements at the global scale. Given the steadily growing numbers of people on the move and staying in temporary homes and settlements, refugee camps must

  1. Investigating poverty through the lens of riches: immigration and segregation in Indian capture fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavinck, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that in the period since 1900 marine capture fisheries are more profitably characterised by a quest for wealth than by enduring poverty. Making use of country data from India, it maintains that the blue revolution that took place in the South not only retained a steadily growing

  2. The Ellen DeGeneration: Nudging Bias in the Creative Arts Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Research in the areas of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and queer (LGBTQ) issues in education has been growing steadily over the past 10 years with the help of Fine and Weis ("Silenced voices and extraordinary conversations: re-imagining schools," 2003), Rasmussen ("Becoming subjects: sexualities and secondary schooling," 2006), Tolman ("Dilemmas…

  3. Will long acting insulin analogs influence the use of insulin pump therapy in type 1 diabetes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeVries, J. Hans

    2005-01-01

    Insulin pump therapy enjoys a steadily growing number of users and is associated with an approximately 0.5% lower A1c as compared to flexible insulin injection therapy in type 1 diabetes patients. An important question is whether superiority of insulin pump therapy persists in the era of rapid

  4. Vitamin D3 distribution and status in the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Robert P; Horst, Ronald L; Cullen, Diane M; Armas, Laura A G

    2009-06-01

    To estimate the amount, type, and tissue distribution of vitamin D in the adult body under typical inputs. Review and reanalysis of published measurements and analysis of tissue samples from growing pigs raised in confinement on diets providing about 2000 IU vitamin D/day. Cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration measured by HPLC. Mean serum 25(OH)D in all studies combined was 45 nmol/L. At the level of vitamin D repletion represented by this concentration, total body vitamin D would be 14,665 IU for a 70 kg adult woman. 65% of this total was present as native cholecalciferol and 35% as 25(OH)D. Nearly three-quarters of the cholecalciferol was in fat, while 25(OH)D was more evenly distributed throughout the body (20% in muscle, 30% in serum, 35% in fat, and 15% in all other tissues). At the daily vitamin D consumption rates in these animals total body stores provided only a approximately 7-day reserve. At total intakes on the order of 2000 IU/day, an adult has very little vitamin D reserve, despite intakes 10x the current recommendations. Those recommended inputs need to be increased by at least an order of magnitude. Food tables that fail to take into account 25(OH)D content of various meat products lead to underestimation of dietary vitamin D intake.

  5. Growing Crystals on the Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a method of studying growing crystals in a classroom utilizing a carrousel projector standing vertically. A saturated salt solution is placed on a slide on the lens of the projector and the heat from the projector causes the water to evaporate and salt to crystalize. (Author/DS)

  6. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  7. COFFEE GROWING AREAS OF ETHIOPIA"

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accelerated economic growth, part of which is hoped to be achieved via increased ... at the Fifth International Conference on the Ethiopian Economy held at the United ... Samuel and Ludi: Agricultural commercialisation in coffee growing areas. ... Ethiopia produces and exports one of the best fighland coffees in the world.

  8. Agglomerative clustering of growing squares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castermans, Thom; Speckmann, Bettina; Staals, Frank; Verbeek, Kevin; Bender, M.A.; Farach-Colton, M.; Mosteiro, M.A.

    2018-01-01

    We study an agglomerative clustering problem motivated by interactive glyphs in geo-visualization. Consider a set of disjoint square glyphs on an interactive map. When the user zooms out, the glyphs grow in size relative to the map, possibly with different speeds. When two glyphs intersect, we wish

  9. Effect of feed restriction and feeding plans on performance, slaughter traits and body composition of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Birolo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Two feeding systems (L, ad libitum vs. R, feed restriction were combined with 3 feeding plans (MM, MH, HH to evaluate the effects on performance, slaughter results, body composition and nitrogen balance of 300 commercial crossbred rabbits kept individually from weaning to slaughter (34-70 d of age. The R rabbits were fed from 80% (first days on trial to 100% (end of 3rd wk of ad libitum intake, whereafter R rabbits had free access to feed. The 3 feeding plans were: MM plan, M diet with moderate digestible energy (DE content, 10.6 MJ/kg, throughout the trial; HH plan, H diet with high DE content, 11.1 MJ/kg, throughout the trial; MH plan, M diet for the first 3 wk and H diet for the last 2 wk. Feed restriction did not affect nutrient digestibility, growth rate on the whole trial and slaughter results, but improved feed conversion (2.96 vs. 2.89 in L and R rabbits, respectively; P<0.01 and reduced N excretion (2.16 vs. 2.07 g excreted N/d, in L and R rabbits; P<0.05. At the end of the first period (55 d, R rabbits showed lower empty body protein, lipid, and gross energy gains than L rabbits, but differences disappeared within the end of the trial. The HH plan improved feed conversion (2.97 vs. 2.89 for MM vs. HH; P<0.05, but increased excreted N (2.03 vs. 2.17 g/d; P<0.001 in comparison with the MM plan due to the higher digestible protein/DE ratio of H diet, whereas the MH plan showed intermediate results. In conclusion, a moderate feed restriction during post weaning improved feed conversion and reduced N excretion without negative effects on growth or slaughter results. Moreover, N excretion was confirmed to depend largely on dietary nitrogen content.

  10. Carbon-14-ochratoxin A distribution in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) monitored by whole body autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.; Appelgren, L.E.; Hagelberg, S.; Hult, K.

    1988-01-01

    Tissue distribution of the nephrotoxic mycotoxin ochratoxin A was characterized in laying Japanese quail by whole body autoradiography and scintillation counting using 14 C-labelled toxin. Periodically for 8 days after one intravenous injection of 14 microCi/bird, corresponding to 70 ng/g body weight, birds were killed, frozen, and sagittal sections of the whole body were placed on X-ray film. In general, the ochratoxin disappeared from the avian body rapidly. Specific retention of radioactivity was seen as a ring-like distribution in yolks and growing follicles. After sectioning, organs and intestinal contents were removed from carcasses in a frozen condition, homogenized, extracted, chromatographed, and the radioactivity in fractions was measured by scintillation spectroscopy. High concentrations of ochratoxin A were found in gastric intestinal contents, probably originating from toxin excreted in the bile

  11. Growing Up of Autonomous Agents: an Emergent Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgavi, Giovanna; Marconi, Lucia

    2008-10-01

    A fundamental research challenge is the design of robust artifacts that are capable of operating under changing environments and noisy input, and yet exhibit the desired behavior and response time. These systems should be able to adapt and learn how to react to unforeseen scenarios as well as to display properties comparable to biological entities. The turn to nature has brought us many unforeseen great concepts. Biological systems are able to handle many of these challenges with an elegance and efficiency still far beyond current human artifacts. A living artifact grows up when its capabilities, abilities/knowledge, shift to a further level of complexity, i.e. the complexity rank of its internal capabilities performs a step forward. In the attempt to define an architecture for autonomous growing up agents [1]. We conducted an experiment on the abstraction process in children as natural parts of a cognitive system. We found that linguistic growing up involve a number of different trial processes. We identified a fixed number of distinct paths that were crossed by children. Once a given interpretation paths was discovered useless, they tried to follow another path, until the new meaning was emerging. This study generates suggestion about the evolutionary conditions conducive to the emergence of growing up in robots and provides guidelines for designing artificial evolutionary systems displaying spontaneous adaptation abilities. The importance of multi-sensor perception, motivation and emotional drives are underlined and, above all, the growing up insights shows similarities to emergent self-organized behaviors.

  12. An artificial water body provides habitat for an endangered estuarine seahorse species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassens, Louw

    2016-10-01

    Anthropogenic development, especially the transformation of natural habitats to artificial, is a growing concern within estuaries and coastal areas worldwide. Thesen Islands marina, an artificial water body, added 25 ha of new estuarine habitat to the Knysna Estuary in South Africa, home to the Knysna seahorse. This study aimed to answer: (I) Can an artificial water body provide suitable habitat for an endangered seahorse species? And if so (II) what characteristics of this new habitat are important in terms of seahorse utilization? Four major habitat types were identified within the marina canals: (I) artificial reno mattress (wire baskets filled with rocks); (II) Codium tenue beds; (III) mixed vegetation on sediment; and (IV) barren canal floor. Seahorses were found throughout the marina system with significantly higher densities within the reno mattress habitat. The artificial water body, therefore, has provided suitable habitat for Hippocampus capensis, a noteworthy finding in the current environment of coastal development and the increasing shift from natural to artificial.

  13. The influence of age and sex on genetic associations with adult body size and shape: a large-scale genome-wide interaction study

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Thomas W.; Heid, Iris M.; Gorski, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age-and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of Eur...

  14. Growing an Emerging Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birx, Donald L.; Anderson-Fletcher, Elizabeth; Whitney, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The emerging research college or university is one of the most formidable resources a region has to reinvent and grow its economy. This paper is the first of two that outlines a process of building research universities that enhance regional technology development and facilitate flexible networks of collaboration and resource sharing. Although the…

  15. How to Grow Old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bertrand Russell

    2008-01-01

    <正>1. In spite of the title, this article will really be on how not to grow old, which, at my time of life, is a much more important subject. My first advice would be to choose your ancestors carefully. Although both my parents died young, I have done well in this respect as regards my other ancestors. My maternal grandfather, it is true, was cut off in the flower of his youth at the age of sixty-seven,

  16. "That part of the body is just gone": understanding and responding to dissociation and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haven, Terri J

    2009-01-01

    The past 2 decades have brought a significant surge in interest and research regarding the ways in which psychological trauma relates to the physical body. Researchers now understand a great deal about how the brain and the body process traumatic experiences, as well as the increased likelihood of an array of physical health consequences associated with both childhood and adult trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. Experts are increasingly challenging mind-body dualism through solid theoretical and clinical bases for the central importance of listening to and communicating with trauma clients' bodies as part of reducing the suffering and long-lasting consequences of trauma. This article integrates this growing body of knowledge through a particular focus on trauma-induced dissociation and the implications of the physical and neurological processes and consequences of dissociation on clients' ability to participate in caring for their own bodies. The author utilizes an in-depth clinical example of expanding relational trauma psychotherapy to include a focus on working directly with trauma-related sensorimotor and physiological sensations and patterns.

  17. Control group design: enhancing rigor in research of mind-body therapies for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Robins, Jo Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Although a growing body of research suggests that mind-body therapies may be appropriate to integrate into the treatment of depression, studies consistently lack methodological sophistication particularly in the area of control groups. In order to better understand the relationship between control group selection and methodological rigor, we provide a brief review of the literature on control group design in yoga and tai chi studies for depression, and we discuss challenges we have faced in the design of control groups for our recent clinical trials of these mind-body complementary therapies for women with depression. To address the multiple challenges of research about mind-body therapies, we suggest that researchers should consider 4 key questions: whether the study design matches the research question; whether the control group addresses performance, expectation, and detection bias; whether the control group is ethical, feasible, and attractive; and whether the control group is designed to adequately control for nonspecific intervention effects. Based on these questions, we provide specific recommendations about control group design with the goal of minimizing bias and maximizing validity in future research.

  18. Efficiency of utilizing ileal digestible lysine and threonine for whole body protein deposition in growing pigs is reduced when dietary casein is replaced by wheat shorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libao-Mercado, A J; Leeson, S; Langer, S; Marty, B J; de Lange, C F M

    2006-06-01

    To determine the effect of dietary inclusion level of wheat shorts (WS; a high nonstarch poly-saccharide-containing feed ingredient) and casein (CS; a control) on the efficiency of utilizing ileal digestible Lys (kLys) and Thr (kThr) for whole body protein deposition (PD) in the growing pig, 2 separate N-balance studies were conducted with either Lys or Thr as first-limiting AA in cornstarch-based diets. For the Lys study, a basal diet (L-basal) was formulated to contain 0.24 g of standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys per MJ of DE, to which 0.095 or 0.19 g of SID Lys per MJ of DE were added using either CS (L-CS2 or L-CS3, respectively) or WS (L-WS2 or L-WS3, respectively). A sixth diet was evaluated that was similar to L-CS3 but to which 6% pectin (L-pectin) was added as a source of soluble nonstarch polysaccharides. For the Thr study, the basal diet (T-basal) was formulated to contain 0.14 g of SID Thr per MJ of DE, to which 0.055 or 0.11 g of SID Thr per MJ of DE were added from CS (T-CS2 or T-CS3, respectively) or from WS (T-WS2 and T-WS3, respectively). A sixth diet was evaluated that was similar to T-CS3 but to which 6% pectin was added (T-pectin). Increasing SID Lys intake from CS did not influence kLys for PD (P > 0.10), whereas increasing SID Lys intake from WS reduced kLys for PD (P = 0.001; 89 vs. 79%). Inclusion of 6% pectin had no effect on kLys for PD (P > 0.10). Increasing SID Thr intake from CS also did not influence kThr for PD (P > 0.10), whereas kThr for PD was reduced at the greatest dietary inclusion level of WS (P 0.10). The inefficiency of utilizing ileal digestible Lys intake for PD may be attributed to nonreactive Lys in WS. The negative impact of including high levels of WS in the diet of pigs on kThr seems to be associated with fiber content of WS; it was not related to increased endogenous ileal AA losses at the distal ileum. The impact of dietary AA source on the use of ileal digestible Lys and Thr for PD, or other body functions, is

  19. Blueprint and Approach to Grow Revenue in Small Technology Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Bailetti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a new approach to grow the revenue of small technology companies and technology startups. We name this new approach the business ecosystem approach. The article is organized into five sections. The first section provides a blueprint to grow revenue and an inventory of growth formulas that top management teams of small technology companies and founders of startups find useful. The second section briefly defines business ecosystems, keystones and platforms. The third section describes the business ecosystem approach to grow the revenue of small technology companies and technology startups. It compares the traditional and business ecosystem approaches to growing revenue; identifies when the business ecosystem approach works better than the traditional approach; explains what small companies and startups need to do to grow revenue using the business ecosystem approach; and describes the benefits and risks of implementing the business ecosystem approach. The fourth section compares three approaches to growing revenue and highlights the differences between i business ecosystems and development communities and ii the business ecosystem approach and outsourcing. The fifth section identifies the key decisions a small technology company or technology startup needs to make to become the keystone that anchors a business ecosystem.

  20. Management of Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders: The Current Evidence Base and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowers, Simon; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Although eating disorders in children and adolescents remain a serious cause of morbidity and mortality, the evidence base for effective interventions is surprisingly weak. The adult literature is growing steadily, but this is mainly with regard to psychological therapies for bulimia nervosa and to some extent in the field of pharmacotherapy. This…

  1. The "dark side" of food banks? Exploring emotional responses of food bank receivers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, van der H.M.; Pascucci, S.; Bol, W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address how food, social status as well as the interactions at the food bank induce emotions in receivers, such as shame, gratitude and anger. Since early 2000s a steadily growing number of low-income and/or over-indebted households in the Netherlands

  2. Fertilizing Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; A. F. Ike

    1967-01-01

    If present trends continue, fertilizing may soon be economically feasible in southern hardwood stands. Demands for the wood are rising, and the acreage alloted for growing it is steadily shrinking. To supply anticipated requests for information, the U. S. Forest Service has established tree nutrition studies at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville,...

  3. Perceived Discrimination and International Students' Learning: An Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppan, Corinne M.; Barari, Mahua

    2011-01-01

    At a time when the number of internationally mobile students worldwide has been growing steadily, the US share of this market has been declining. Since, as it is often claimed, international students are the best ambassadors for their host countries, an effective recruitment strategy is to enhance their learning experience, with the expectation…

  4. On Financing the Training of Master's-Degree-Holders in Russian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalin, V.

    2010-01-01

    Education is currently one of the key resources that enable countries to flourish and grow economically; as world experience has shown, the importance of this factor will increase steadily. To a large extent, the full-fledged restructuring of the Russian economy depends on the character and effectiveness of transformations in Russia's system of…

  5. Psychosocial and Computer-Assisted Intervention for College Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Preliminary Support for Feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan W.; Richey, John A.; Gracanin, Denis; Coffman, Marika; Elias, Rebecca; LaConte, Stephen; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The number of young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) enrolled in higher education institutions has steadily increased over the last decade. Despite this, there has been little research on how to most effectively support this growing population. The current study presents data from a pilot trial of two novel intervention programs…

  6. Hopes, Fears, & Reality: A Balanced Look at American Charter Schools in 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Robin J., Ed.; Gross, Betheny, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Charter schools are public schools. Historically, however, the relationship between school districts and charters has been nonexistent at best, antagonistic at worst. As the charter sector continues to grow steadily, an analysis of the national landscape explores how that relationship needs to start changing--and where it already has. This year's…

  7. The RiSE climbing robot: body and leg design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, A.; Goldman, D. I.; Full, R. J.; Buehler, M.

    2006-05-01

    The RiSE robot is a biologically inspired, six legged climbing robot, designed for general mobility in scansorial (vertical walls, horizontal ledges, ground level) environments. It exhibits ground reaction forces that are similar to animal climbers and does not rely on suction, magnets or other surface-dependent specializations to achieve adhesion and shear force. We describe RiSE's body and leg design as well as its electromechanical, communications and computational infrastructure. We review design iterations that enable RiSE to climb 90° carpeted, cork covered and (a growing range of) stucco surfaces in the quasi-static regime.

  8. Cyber-physical attacks a growing invisible threat

    CERN Document Server

    Loukas, George

    2015-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Attacks: A Growing Invisible Threat presents the growing list of harmful uses of computers and their ability to disable cameras, turn off a building's lights, make a car veer off the road,  or a drone land in enemy hands. In essence, it details the ways cyber-physical attacks are replacing physical attacks in crime, warfare, and terrorism. The book explores how attacks using computers affect the physical world in ways that were previously only possible through physical means. Perpetrators can now cause damage without the same risk, and without the political, social, or moral

  9. Growing electronic documents created by researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Weiss

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world technology is an indispensable element, both in personal and professional sphere. Despite the fact, that we do not attach significance to it in our everyday lives, the technological development engulfed us and still reminds us about that. In the face of dynamically growing digitization there occurred a new form of document – an electronic document. The study concerns the growing electronic documentation among researchers working at the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. The analysis of surveys and interviews resulted in thesis, that researchers use e-document more frequently than analog documentation. Flexibility and accessibility of this type of documents become a problem in personal papers which will be archived in the future – maybe in most part in the form of electronic documentation.

  10. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle

    2008-01-01

    and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move......­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based......Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves...

  11. Fostering and sustaining innovation in a Fast Growing Agile Company

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, NilsBrede; Barney, Sebastian; Aurum, Aybüe; Khurum, Mahvish; Wohlin, Claes; Barney, Hamish; Gorschek, Tony; Winata, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Sustaining innovation in a fast growing software development company is difficult. As organisations grow, peoples' focus often changes from the big picture of the product being developed to the specific role they fill. This paper presents two complementary approaches that were successfully used to support continued developer-driven innovation in a rapidly growing Australian agile software development company. The method "FedEx TM Day" gives developers one day to showcase a proof of concept th...

  12. Growing Youth Growing Food: How Vegetable Gardening Influences Young People's Food Consciousness and Eating Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Much attention is currently being paid to rising rates of obesity, especially among youth. In this context, garden-based education can have a role in improving public health. A qualitative study conducted at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden (BBG) Children's Garden provides supporting evidence for the claim that growing vegetables can improve the…

  13. Dietary maifanite supplementation did not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li Li; Ming, Dong Xu; Dong, Shu Ren; Yang, Zhong Yue; Wang, Wen Hui; Zhang, Shuai; Piao, Xiang Shu

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary maifanite supplementation and fecal collection method on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) and blood parameters in growing pigs. Methods Thirty-six growing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire; 27.0±2.6 kg) were allotted to six dietary treatments with 6 pigs per treatment according to body weight in a completely randomized design. The experimental treatments were: i) Low Ca+cornstarch (2.25%), ii) Low Ca+maifanite (2.25%), iii) Medium Ca+cornstarch (1.42%), iv) Medium Ca+maifanite (1.42%), v) High Ca+cornstarch (0.64%), and vi) High Ca+maifanite (0.64%). Feces were collected by the total collection (TC) and indicator method (IM). At the beginning and the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected from each pig. Results For the TC method, there were no difference in Ca intake, fecal Ca output, Ca retention and the ATTD of Ca between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. However, urinary Ca excretion was lower (p = 0.01) in pigs fed low Ca diets without maifanite supplementation compared with other dietary treatments. Dietary maifanite supplementation had no effect on the P metabolism in growing pigs. For the IM method, there was no difference in Ca digestibility between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. The ATTD of P was greater (pdigestibility values than the TC method. PMID:28728391

  14. Body image in the mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Iris Bazán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, the emphasis on weight control and low-calorie dieting -and its association with health- reached unexpected limits. Mass Media had and have a leading role on this growing concern about weight. This article analyzes the effects of media on the aesthetic / healthy ideal, which contribute to the construction of a woman captured by endless demands. These social requirements are associated with perfection, the predominance of the aesthetic, healthy body and eternal youth, which would guarantee success. What relationship have television, women’s magazines, Internet, advertising and even children’s toys with the expansion of “the culture of light”, the ideal body and healthy behavior are some of the questions that will be addressed in this Article. To contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon, we will make a bibliographic and Media exploration. Finally, as a possible solution to the problem, a strategy of state intervention on the current market model for promoting good use of information and prevention of Eating Disorders and other diseases related to poor diet is proposed. 

  15. Exploring nutritional status, physical activity and body mass index of Pakistani teens

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran Khan; Nazia Jameel; Rehana Khalil; Saadia Gul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is becoming an increasingly prevalent problem in Pakistan, as it has in other developing countries. Childhood obesity poses high cost to the well-being and negatively affects children's health, causes chronic disease as children grow older. The aim of this study was to explore nutritional status, physical activity and body mass index (BMI) of school and college going students of mid and late adolescence age (14 to 19 years) studying in multi-ethnic city of Karachi, Pakista...

  16. Growing Pains

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Heat expands and cold contracts: it’s a simple thermodynamic rule. But when temperatures swing from 300 K to near-absolute zero, this rule can mean a contraction of more than 80 metres across the LHC’s 27-km-long cryogenic system. Keeping this growth in check are compensators (a.k.a. bellows), which shrink and stretch in response to thermodynamic changes. Leak tests and X-rays now underway in the tunnel have revealed that these “joints” might be suffering from growing pains…   This 25-μm weld crack is thought to be the cause of the helium leaks. Prior to the LS1 warm-up, CERN’s cryogenic experts knew of two points in the machine’s cryogenic distribution system that were leaking helium. Fortunately, these leaks were sufficiently small, confined to known sub-sectors of the cryogenic line and – with help from the vacuum team (TE-VSC) – could easily be compensated for. But as the machine warmed up f...

  17. Analyses of body weight patterns in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stygar, A. H.; Dolecheck, K. A.; Kristensen, A. R.

    2018-01-01

    as a quadratic function of time. A diurnal pattern was incorporated into the model by a cosine wave with known length (24 h). The model included pig effect which was defined as a random autoregressive process with exponential correlation. Variance of within-pigs error was assumed to increase with time. Because...... only five batches were observed, it was not possible to obtain the random effect for batch. However, in order to account for the batch effect the model included interactions between batch and fixed parameters: intercept, time, square value of time and cosine wave. The gender effect was not significant......, the exact time of obtaining maximum and minimum BW during the day differed between batches. Pigs had access to natural light and, therefore, existing differences could be explained by varying daylight level during observations periods. Because the diurnal amplitude for pig growth varied between batches from...

  18. [Perspectives on body: embodiment and body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shiow-Ru; Chao, Yu-Mei Yu

    2007-06-01

    "Body" is a basic concept of both the natural and human sciences. This extensive review of the literature explores the various philosophical approaches to the body, including empiricism, idealism, existentialism and phenomenology, as well as the relationship between body and mind. Embodiment and body image are the two main concepts of body addressed in this article. Merleau-Ponty's perspective on embodiment, an important new area of theory development, emphasizes that embodiment research must focus on life experiences, such as the study of body image. Using Schilder's framework of psychosocialology, this article provides a comprehensive understanding of the concept of body image and women's perspectives on the "body" in both Western culture and Eastern cultures. Body size and shape significantly influence the self-image of women. Body image is something that develops and changes throughout one's life span and is continually being constructed, destructed, and reconstructed. Personal body image has important psychological effects on the individual, especially women. This integrative review can make a significant contribution to knowledge in this area and, consequently, to related practice and research.

  19. Inferences from growing trees backwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Kent A. McDonald

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to illustrate how longitudinal stress wave techniques can be useful in tracking the future quality of a growing tree. Monitoring the quality of selected trees in a plantation forest could provide early input to decisions on the effectiveness of management practices, or future utilization options, for trees in a plantation. There will...

  20. A Large Rice Body-Containing Cyst Mimicking Infection following Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Bayoud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Soft tissue mass following total hip arthroplasty raises several differential diagnoses not limited to infection, hematoma, wear debris, malignancy, and bursitis. Rice body formation in the hip region is an uncommon process denoting a chronic inflammation. We report here the second case of its kind in the medical literature of a wide symptomatic rice-like body cyst complicating a total hip arthroplasty. Case Presentation. This is the case of an 82-year-old white female, presenting with a warm, red, and inflated groin five years after revision of right total hip arthroplasty. Surgical intervention reveals a large well circumscribed cyst containing well-organized rice-like bodies. This eventuality was never reported in differential diagnosis of hip periprosthetic soft tissue masses before. Conclusion. This case report helps widening the array of the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with a slow growing soft tissue mass following total hip arthroplasty, making rice-like bodies cyst a valid one to consider.

  1. Granules Harboring Translationally Active mRNAs Provide a Platform for P-Body Formation following Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lui

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The localization of mRNA to defined cytoplasmic sites in eukaryotic cells not only allows localized protein production but also determines the fate of mRNAs. For instance, translationally repressed mRNAs localize to P-bodies and stress granules where their decay and storage, respectively, are directed. Here, we find that several mRNAs are localized to granules in unstressed, actively growing cells. These granules play a key role in the stress-dependent formation of P-bodies. Specific glycolytic mRNAs are colocalized in multiple granules per cell, which aggregate during P-body formation. Such aggregation is still observed under conditions or in mutants where P-bodies do not form. In unstressed cells, the mRNA granules appear associated with active translation; this might enable a coregulation of protein expression from the same pathways or complexes. Parallels can be drawn between this coregulation and the advantage of operons in prokaryotic systems.

  2. On being a discontinuous person: Ontological insecurity, the wounded storyteller and time in Daniel Keyes’s Flowers for Algernon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Ullyatt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores ontological security and insecurity in Daniel Keyes’s novel, Flowers for Algernon. It opens with a very brief overview of the 1960s counter-culture to contextualise not only Keyes’s novel but also Laing’s theories of ontological (insecurity. After a discussion of Laing’s concept of ontological security and insecurity, the focus shifts to Arthur W. Frank’s notions of the wounded storyteller and how Charlie Gordon’s entry into the medical world constitutes a colonisation of the body that brings with it a deepening sense of ontological insecurity. In entering the world of medical research, Charlie becomes the wounded storyteller, offering a first-person account of his experiences during the experiment and its aftermath. As the initial success of the surgery deteriorates steadily into failure, with the protagonist’s intelligence returning steadily to its pre-operation level, the question of time and how he can make the best use of it to record the experiment becomes paramount. The final section of the article centres on the growing link between the surgery’s failure and how it increases the protagonist’s ontological insecurity. He uses the diminishing amount of time available to him in search of understanding the fuller implications of the experiment. Eventually, he reverts to his initial rudimentary ontological security when he finds himself with the same intellectual level, as prior to the experiment.

  3. Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women (GrOW) Frequently ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alejandra

    GrOW will take a broad perspective on the types of questions and evidence on ... question; (2) set the outcome in the broader context of the underlying programme theory, ... Communications from the GrOW team with applicants during the ... There are specific criteria and application processes for this call that should be.

  4. Body odour disgust sensitivity predicts authoritarian attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzza, Marco Tullio; Lindholm, Torun; Hawley, Caitlin B; Gustafsson Sendén, Marie; Ekström, Ingrid; Olsson, Mats J; Olofsson, Jonas K

    2018-02-01

    Authoritarianism has resurfaced as a research topic in political psychology, as it appears relevant to explain current political trends. Authoritarian attitudes have been consistently linked to feelings of disgust, an emotion that is thought to have evolved to protect the organism from contamination. We hypothesized that body odour disgust sensitivity (BODS) might be associated with authoritarianism, as chemo-signalling is a primitive system for regulating interpersonal contact and disease avoidance, which are key features also in authoritarianism. We used well-validated scales for measuring BODS, authoritarianism and related constructs. Across two studies, we found that BODS is positively related to authoritarianism. In a third study, we showed a positive association between BODS scores and support for Donald Trump, who, at the time of data collection, was a presidential candidate with an agenda described as resonating with authoritarian attitudes. Authoritarianism fully explained the positive association between BODS and support for Donald Trump. Our findings highlight body odour disgust as a new and promising domain in political psychology research. Authoritarianism and BODS might be part of the same disease avoidance framework, and our results contribute to the growing evidence that contemporary social attitudes might be rooted in basic sensory functions.

  5. Synthesis of the adaptive continuous system for the multi-axle wheeled vehicle body oscillation damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhileykin, M. M.; Kotiev, G. O.; Nagatsev, M. V.

    2018-02-01

    In order to meet the growing mobility requirements for the wheeled vehicles on all types of terrain the engineers have to develop a large number of specialized control algorithms for the multi-axle wheeled vehicle (MWV) suspension improving such qualities as ride comfort, handling and stability. The authors have developed an adaptive algorithm of the dynamic damping of the MVW body oscillations. The algorithm provides high ride comfort and high mobility of the vehicle. The article discloses a method for synthesis of an adaptive dynamic continuous algorithm of the MVW body oscillation damping and provides simulation results proving high efficiency of the developed control algorithm.

  6. Petroleum demand continues to grow but slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    While it is always entertaining and intellectually stimulating to look at all the marvelous technological alternatives just around the corner for transport, the transport task in Australia continues to grow and so does petroleum consumption. Australia presently consumes more than 750,000 barrels per day of petroleum products. Latest figures are given for petroleum consumption up to the end of August 1998. They indicate that total demand for petrol has continued to grow, but very slowly. Growth in 1997-1998 compared with 1996-1997 was only 0.3%. This trend for very low growth has been continued into July and August, perhaps indicative of a slow down in the economy

  7. On the mechanics of thin films and growing surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Holland, M. A.

    2013-05-24

    Many living structures are coated by thin films, which have distinct mechanical properties from the bulk. In particular, these thin layers may grow faster or slower than the inner core. Differential growth creates a balanced interplay between tension and compression and plays a critical role in enhancing structural rigidity. Typical examples with a compressive outer surface and a tensile inner core are the petioles of celery, caladium, or rhubarb. While plant physiologists have studied the impact of tissue tension on plant rigidity for more than a century, the fundamental theory of growing surfaces remains poorly understood. Here, we establish a theoretical and computational framework for continua with growing surfaces and demonstrate its application to classical phenomena in plant growth. To allow the surface to grow independently of the bulk, we equip it with its own potential energy and its own surface stress. We derive the governing equations for growing surfaces of zero thickness and obtain their spatial discretization using the finite-element method. To illustrate the features of our new surface growth model we simulate the effects of growth-induced longitudinal tissue tension in a stalk of rhubarb. Our results demonstrate that different growth rates create a mechanical environment of axial tissue tension and residual stress, which can be released by peeling off the outer layer. Our novel framework for continua with growing surfaces has immediate biomedical applications beyond these classical model problems in botany: it can be easily extended to model and predict surface growth in asthma, gastritis, obstructive sleep apnoea, brain development, and tumor invasion. Beyond biology and medicine, surface growth models are valuable tools for material scientists when designing functionalized surfaces with distinct user-defined properties. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Hispanic Literatures in the United States: Differences and Similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Hector R.

    Currently, the interest in the Latino literature written in the United States has been growing steadily. Many colleges and universities offer specific courses in these literatures, and their content varies from a concentration on a specific culture group to a more inclusive attempt to group all Latino writers under the same umbrella. This paper…

  9. International Graduate Students' Experience in Academic Listening Practices in a Malaysian Public University: Challenges and Overcoming Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar; Pandian, Ambigapathy; Singh, Sarjit Kaur Gurdial

    2015-01-01

    The number of international students choosing Malaysia as a destination to further their graduate studies is steadily growing. This phenomenon has urged researchers to look for ways to ensure that they go through a smooth academic journey. One significant area of research has focused on the challenges faced by these students in their academic…

  10. Southeast Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-12

    billion this year, have been projected to grow steadily to $3,848 billion in 1988, $4,219 billion in 1990 and $4,814 billion in 1992. Forex receipts from...3,985 billion of the country’s Forex obli- gations while other foreign financial institutions accounted for $828 million of the country’s Forex

  11. Reduced body size and cub recruitment in polar bears associated with sea ice decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Regehr, Eric V.

    2010-01-01

    Rates of reproduction and survival are dependent upon adequate body size and condition of individuals. Declines in size and condition have provided early indicators of population decline in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) near the southern extreme of their range. We tested whether patterns in body size, condition, and cub recruitment of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea of Alaska were related to the availability of preferred sea ice habitats and whether these measures and habitat availability exhibited trends over time, between 1982 and 2006. The mean skull size and body length of all polar bears over three years of age declined over time, corresponding with long‐term declines in the spatial and temporal availability of sea ice habitat. Body size of young, growing bears declined over time and was smaller after years when sea ice availability was reduced. Reduced litter mass and numbers of yearlings per female following years with lower availability of optimal sea ice habitat, suggest reduced reproductive output and juvenile survival. These results, based on analysis of a long‐term data set, suggest that declining sea ice is associated with nutritional limitations that reduced body size and reproduction in this population.

  12. Growing Up in Poverty, Growing Old in Infirmity: The Long Arm of Childhood Conditions in Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gindo Tampubolon

    Full Text Available The ageing population poses a tremendous challenge in understanding the sources of inequalities in health. Though they appear to be far removed, childhood conditions are known to be inextricably linked with adult health, and in turn on health in later life. The long arm of childhood conditions hypothesis is often tested using recollection of childhood circumstances, but such subjective recall can yield potentially inaccurate or possibly biased inferences. We tested the long arm hypothesis on three outcomes in later life, arrayed from objective to subjective health, namely: gait speed, episodic memory and mental health.We used the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing 2006 enriched with retrospective life history (N = 5,913. To deal with recall problems two solutions, covariate measurement and endogenous treatment models, were applied. Retrospective childhood material lack includes growing up without running hot or cold water, fixed bath, indoor lavatory and central heating. Adjustment is made for an extensive set of confounders including sex, age, adult health, wealth, education, occupation, social support, social connections, chronic conditions, smoking, drinking, and physical exercise. It is found that material poverty when growing up shows no association with health when growing old, assuming accurate recall. Once recall problems are controlled, we found that childhood material poverty changes inversely with later life health.A poorer childhood goes with slower gait, poorer memory and more depression in later life. This result provides a further impetus to eliminate child poverty.

  13. Density-body mass relationships: Inconsistent intercontinental patterns among termite feeding-groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlsjö, Cecilia A. L.; Parr, Catherine L.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Meir, Patrick; Rahman, Homathevi; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Allometric relationships are useful for estimating and understanding resource distribution in assemblages with species of different masses. Damuth's law states that body mass scales with population density as M-0.75, where M is body mass and -0.75 is the slope. In this study we used Damuth's law (M-0.75) as a null hypothesis to examine the relationship between body mass and population density for termite feeding-groups in three different countries and regions (Cameroon, West Africa; Peru South America; and Malaysia SE Asia). We found that none of the feeding-groups had a relationship where M-0.75 while the data suggested that population density-body mass relationships for true soil-feeding termites in Cameroon (M2.7) and wood-feeding termites in Peru (M1.5) were significantly different from the expected values given by Damuth's law. The dominance of large-bodied true soil-feeding termites in Cameroon and the absence of fungus-growing termites from Peru suggest that these allometric patterns are due to heterogeneities in termite biogeographical evolution. Additionally, as these feeding-groups have higher population density than expected by their body masses it may be suggested that they also have a higher energy throughput than expected. The results presented here may be used to gain further understanding of resource distribution among termite feeding-groups across regions and an insight into the importance of evolutionary history and biogeography on allometric patterns. Further understanding of population density-body mass relationships in termite feeding-groups may also improve understanding of the role these feeding-groups play in ecosystem processes in different regions.

  14. COLLISIONS BETWEEN GRAVITY-DOMINATED BODIES. II. THE DIVERSITY OF IMPACT OUTCOMES DURING THE END STAGE OF PLANET FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Sarah T.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the stochastic end stage of planet formation typically begin with a population of embryos and planetesimals that grow into planets by merging. We analyzed the impact parameters of collisions leading to the growth of terrestrial planets from recent N-body simulations that assumed perfect merging and calculated more realistic outcomes using a new analytic collision physics model. We find that collision outcomes are diverse and span all possible regimes: hit-and-run, merging, partial accretion, partial erosion, and catastrophic disruption. The primary outcomes of giant impacts between planetary embryos are approximately evenly split between partial accretion, graze-and-merge, and hit-and-run events. To explore the cumulative effects of more realistic collision outcomes, we modeled the growth of individual planets with a Monte Carlo technique using the distribution of impact parameters from N-body simulations. We find that fewer planets reached masses >0.7 M Earth using the collision physics model compared to simulations that assumed every collision results in perfect merging. For final planets with masses >0.7 M Earth , 60% are enriched in their core-to-mantle mass fraction by >10% compared to the initial embryo composition. Fragmentation during planet formation produces significant debris (∼15% of the final mass) and occurs primarily by erosion of the smaller body in partial accretion and hit-and-run events. In partial accretion events, the target body grows by preferentially accreting the iron core of the projectile and the escaping fragments are derived primarily from the silicate mantles of both bodies. Thus, the bulk composition of a planet can evolve via stochastic giant impacts.

  15. Motion energy analysis reveals altered body movement in youth at risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Derek J; Samson, Alayna T; Newberry, Raeana; Mittal, Vijay A

    2017-06-03

    Growing evidence suggests that movement abnormalities occur prior to the onset of psychosis. Innovations in technology and software provide the opportunity for a fine-tuned and sensitive measurement of observable behavior that may be particularly useful to detecting the subtle movement aberrations present during the prodromal period. In the present study, 54 youth at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for psychosis and 62 healthy controls participated in structured clinical interviews to assess for an UHR syndrome. The initial 15min of the baseline clinical interview was assessed using Motion Energy Analysis (MEA) providing frame-by-frame measures of total movement, amplitude, speed, and variability of both head and body movement separately. Result showed region-specific group differences such that there were no differences in head movement but significant differences in body movement. Specifically, the UHR group showed greater total body movement and speed of body movements, and lower variation in body movement compared to healthy controls. However, there were no significant associations with positive, negative or disorganized symptom domains. This study represents an innovative perspective on gross motor function in the UHR group. Importantly, the automated approach used in this study provides a sensitive and objective measure of body movement abnormalities, potentially guiding novel assessment and prevention of symptom development in those at risk for psychosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Reduction in adipose tissue volume using a new high-power radiofrequency technology combined with infrared light and mechanical manipulation for body contouring

    OpenAIRE

    Adatto, Maurice A.; Adatto-Neilson, Robyn M.; Morren, Grietje

    2014-01-01

    A growing patient demand for a youthful skin appearance with a favorable body shape has led to the recent development of new noninvasive body contouring techniques. We have previously demonstrated that the combination of bipolar radiofrequency (RF) and optical energies with tissue manipulation is an efficient reshaping modality. Here, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a new high-power version of this combined technology, in terms of adipose tissue reduction and skin tightening. Thirt...

  17. Growing media alternatives for forest and native plant nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Nancy Morgan

    2009-01-01

    The choice of growing medium, along with container type, is one of the critical decisions that must be made when starting a nursery. The first growing medium was called "compost" and was developed in the 1930s at the John Innes Horticultural Institute in Great Britain. It consisted of a loam soil that was amended with peat moss, sand, and fertilizers (Bunt...

  18. Influence of growing conditions on heavy metals content in cultivated mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmitene, L.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of growing terms, microclimate conditions and growing medium on the mushroom harvest and quality. Champignons were grown according to the Polish technology. Pleurotus ostreatus was grown in perforate sacks using chopped wheat straw. Mycelium was sowed in different terms. It was established that the harvest of mushrooms, especially their quality, depends not only on growing conditions, but also on the kind of mushrooms, composte quality, mushroom size (diameter of cap), picking of mushrooms, storage time and other conditions. The technology of mushroom growing will be developed after studying all the factors determining the content of heavy metals and radiation in mushrooms

  19. GRoW Buffalo Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Martha [Univ. at Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-04-17

    This document provides final reporting on the GRoW Home, University at Buffalo's entry to the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine, CA. The report summarizes fundraising efforts, documents media outreach, lists online presence, analyzes the organizer's communication, describes post-competition life of the house and future employment plans for student team members. Last, it suggests improvements for future decathlons.

  20. Providing information and guidance on water and soil management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Haan, K. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    When CONCAWE was formed in 1963, the conservation of Europe's water resources was one of the main drivers, following the commitment made by the industry at the 6th World Petroleum Congress. Water remains an essential resource that has, over the years, come progressively higher on the international agenda because of its intimate relationship with both human health and ecosystem development. In the 50 years of CONCAWE's existence, water quality in Europe has improved steadily and the contribution of the refining sector to this improvement cannot be ignored. Today, almost 50% of Europe's surface and groundwater bodies are classed as being of at least 'good' status (as defined in the Water Framework Directive) and, for those that do not meet this standard, the impact of the refining sector has been shown to be minimal. Nevertheless there is growing pressure on water resources in terms of chemical and ecological quality, of the quantity used or consumed, and of equitable access to good quality water.

  1. The steadily increasing demand for South African abalone Haliotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    The usual harvesting method is for a diver to cut all. Ecklonia plants ... This study estimates the biomass of E. maxima available for harvesting, investi- gates the effects of ..... The processes that shape kelp bed structure and dynamics are of ...

  2. The Subaru Fauresmith 200km Challenge: Looking a Gift-Horse in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes an equestrian sport known as 'endurance riding.' It focuses on the Subaru Fauresmith 200km Challenge, which is held every year in the small southern Free State town of Fauresmith. Given the steadily growing profi le of the event, both locally and internationally, it is argued that the time is ripe for ...

  3. 77 FR 73957 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Closure of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... than 75 mm (3 in) shell height in the ETA was 994, compared to 24 in 2011. Most of the scallop biomass... fishing effort in this area, which could reduce long-term scallop biomass and optimum yield from the ETA... them to grow. Following closure of the ETA, scallop biomass increased steadily in the area. When the...

  4. A Survey of Hadron Therapy Accelerator Technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PEGGS,S.; SATOGATA, T.; FLANZ, J.

    2007-06-25

    Hadron therapy has entered a new age [1]. The number of facilities grows steadily, and 'consumer' interest is high. Some groups are working on new accelerator technology, while others optimize existing designs by reducing capital and operating costs, and improving performance. This paper surveys the current requirements and directions in accelerator technology for hadron therapy.

  5. Does intelligence require a body?: The growing discipline of embodied cognition suggests that to understand the world, we must experience the world

    OpenAIRE

    Weigmann, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    The new research field of embodied cognition aims to find out whether a mind needs a body to be able to think. The research is attracting psychologists, neurologists, artificial intelligence developers and robotics experts, all trying to understand the mystery of human intelligence.

  6. Physiological and biochemical response to Omega-3 plus as a dietary supplement to growing goats under hot summer conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Edrees Ibrahim Teama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation of Omega-3 plus on some the physiological and biochemical traits in growing Baladi goats under hot summer conditions. Thirty-four growing male goats (4-5 months old were randomly divided into two equal groups. Animals in group 1 were fed a concentrate feed mixture (CFM, which was the control group. Goats in group 2 (the experimental group were offered Omega-3 plus (1,000 mg/animal day-1 (30% fish oil, containing 18% eicosapentaenoic acid and 12% docosahexaenoic acid + 100 mg wheat germ oil (0.22% tocopherols daily in addition to the basal diet for four months (the experimental period during the hot summer season. Body weight (BW changes of both groups were recorded monthly during the experiment. Blood samples were collected monthly, and total protein, immunoglobulin G (IgG, total cholesterol, triglycerides, liver enzymes (AST and ALT, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 were estimated. A significant increase in the live BW of growing goats was recorded as a result of dietary supplementation of Omega-3 plus. Total protein, IgG, and T3 levels were higher than those obtained with control. In contrast, total cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, ALT, and AST levels were significantly reduced. The serum concentration of creatinine and T4 levels was indistinguishable from those of control. Addition of Omega-3 plus as a dietary supplement to growing goats under hot summer conditions increases their daily weight gain and improves their general physiological and biochemical status by decreasing total cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, ALT, and AST. It is thus suggested that Omega-3 plus should be used as a supplement in the growth period of goats.

  7. Body composition changes in females treated for breast cancer: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheean, Patricia M; Hoskins, Kent; Stolley, Melinda

    2012-10-01

    Body composition changes cannot be precisely captured using body weight or body mass index measures. Therefore, the primary purpose of this review was to characterize the patterns of body composition change in females treated for breast cancer including only studies that utilize imaging technologies to quantify adipose tissue and lean body mass (LBM). We reviewed PubMed for studies published between 1971 and 2012 involving females diagnosed with breast cancer where computed axial tomography , dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or magnetic resonance imaging were employed for body composition assessment. Of the initial 440 studies, 106 papers were evaluated and 36 papers met all eligibility criteria (15 observational and 21 intervention trials). Results of these studies revealed that body weight did not consistently increase. Importantly, studies also showed that body weight did not accurately depict changes in lean or adipose tissues. Further findings included that sarcopenic obesity as a consequence of breast cancer treatment was not definitive, as menopausal status may be a substantial moderator of body composition. Overall, the behavioral interventions did not exhibit consistent or profound effects on body composition outcomes; approximately half showed favorable influence on adiposity while the effects on LBM were not apparent. The use of tamoxifen had a clear negative impact on body composition. The majority of studies were conducted in predominantly white survivors, highlighting the need for trials in minority populations. Collectively, these studies were limited by age, race, and/or menopause status matched control groups, overall size, and statistical power. Very few studies simultaneously collected diet and exercise data-two potential factors that impact body composition. Future breast cancer trials should prioritize precise body composition methodologies to elucidate how these changes impact recurrence, prognosis, and mortality, and to provide clinicians

  8. Temperature and humidity control in growing of greenhouse muskmelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Tetsuji; Nakamura, shin' ichi; Toda, Mikihiko; Ozawa, Akihito

    1986-12-25

    At the Shizuoka Agricultural Experiment Station, a control test of muskmelon was carried out wherein the controlled night temperature was automatically lowered by 2 or 4 /sup 0/C from the present temperature when the sunlight level was below the standard, and the humidity was controlled either individually or in combination with the temperature. Concerning the influence of temperature, no bad effect was observed in the constant early half of midnight temperature (18 /sup 0/C) section which was tested from the viewpoint of energy saving. For the test range of 22 - 18 /sup 0/C (winter growing) and 24 - 18 /sup 0/C (autumn growing), there was no significant difference on the fruit weight and shape;but the content of suger was found better in the complex modified temperature section of 22 - 18 /sup 0/C (winter growing) and 24 - 22 /sup 0/C (autumn growing). As for the humidity-added section, the fruit grew bigger, but the sugar content was significantly reduced. Optimal target value of control was estimated at 80 +-5 % daytime and 90 % night-time. (2 figs, 11 tabs, 10 refs

  9. Effects of Dietary Electrolyte Balance on Growth Performance, Nitrogen Metabolism and Some Blood Biochemical Parameters of Growing Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different dietary electrolyte balance (DEB on growth performance, nitrogen (N metabolism and some blood biochemical parameters were investigated in 2 to 3 months old growing rabbits. A total of 150 growing rabbits of 2 months age were randomly divided into five groups according to average body weight, with 30 rabbits in each group. The DEB levels of the five experimental diets were −154, −3.16, +201, +347, and +500 meq/kg of dry matter (DM, respectively. There was a 7-d adaptation period and a 23-d experimental period. The results showed that the DEB levels had a quadratic affect on the average daily feed intake (ADFI (p<0.001. The greatest ADFI was achieved when the DEB level was +201 meq/kg DM. Fecal N (FN content linearly decreased (0.047, while digestible N (DN, retained N (RN, efficiency of intake N converted into digestible N (DN/IN and the efficiency of intake N converted into retained N (RN/IN linearly increased with the DEB increase (0.020, 0.004, 0.021, and 0.049, respectively. Serum phosphorus (P ion content linearly increased with the DEB increase (p = 0.036. The DEB had a quadratic relationship with serum anion gap (AG (p = 0.002 and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH content (p = 0.016. The DEB levels quadratically affected base excess (BE in the plasma (p<0.001. In conclusion, the DEB unaffected growth performance but affected feed intake, N metabolism and some blood biochemical parameters of growing rabbits.

  10. Fungus-Growing Termites Originated in African Rain Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Eggleton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    are consumed (cf. [ [1] and [2] ]). Fungus-growing termites are found throughout the Old World tropics, in rain forests and savannas, but are ecologically dominant in savannas [ 3 ]. Here, we reconstruct the ancestral habitat and geographical origin of fungus-growing termites. We used a statistical model...... of habitat switching [ 4 ] repeated over all phylogenetic trees sampled in a Bayesian analysis of molecular data [ 5 ]. Our reconstructions provide strong evidence that termite agriculture originated in African rain forest and that the main radiation leading to the extant genera occurred there. Because...

  11. The Fundamental Right To Grow Old With Dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Rabelo de Matos Silva Arruda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the years the role the growing old in society has been changing considerably, the population is aging and increasing life expectancy. Law No. 10741/03, which established the Statute of the Elderly, where the legislator sought to ensure the right to grow old with dignity. The increase in the number of retirees and unemployment generated changing the demand in the social security system, which is being processed at the national congress. This article examines how society has been treating the elderly and preparing to deal with the aging population.

  12. PRODUCTIVITY OF GROWING PONDS WHEN APPLYING THE BACTERIAL FERTILIZER «PHOSPHOBAKTERIN»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Hryhorenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of the bacterial fertilizer "Phosphobacterin" on the formation of the hydrochemical regime, development of the natural food supply and fish productivity in the growing ponds. Methodology. The work was conducted according to generally accepted hydrochemical,, microbiological, hydrobiological and fish farming methods. Findings The article presents the results of a study of the productivity of growing ponds with different methods of the application of the bacterial fertilizer "Phosphobacterin". It was found that the hydrochemical regime of the experimental ponds was formed under the effect of the source of water supply and measures aimed at intensifying the development of the natural food supply and was favorable for the development of feed organisms and the cultivation of fish seeds. Application of the bacterial fertilizer at the beginning of the growing season along the water pond surface proved to be little effective for increasing the productivity of the pond ecosystem as a whole. A more effective method of increasing biological productivity, including fish productivity of growing ponds, was the application of "Phosphobacterin" during the growing season both on the bed and on the water surface in combination with the organic fertilizer - cattle humus. In the experimental pond under complex fertilization, the average phytoplankton biomass during the growing season was 1.5 times, bacterioplankton 1.1 times, zoobenthos 2.6 times higher, and the obtained total fish productivity was 1.2 times higher than in the control pond (when applying only cattle humus. Originality. The peculiarities of formation of hydrochemical and hydrobiological (phyto-, bacterio-, zooplankton, zoobenthos regimes of growing ponds and the fishery indices are studied, both for bacterial fertilizer "Phosphobacterin" independently and together with the traditional organic fertilizer - cattle humus. Practical value. Based on the obtained results

  13. Evolution of Communicative Competence in Adolescents Growing up in Orphanages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribakova, Laysan A.; Parfilova, Gulfia G.; Karimova, Lilya Sh.; Karimova, Raushan B.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes features of the communicative competence evolution in adolescents growing up in orphanages. The specificity is revealed and definition is given to key concept of the research, namely "communicative competence". Authors emphasize and demonstrate the evaluation peculiarities of the adolescents, growing up in…

  14. Effects of Dietary Fat Types on Growth Performance, Pork Quality, and Gene Expression in Growing-finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Park

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the effects of dietary fat sources, i.e., beef tallow, soybean oil, olive oil and coconut oil (each 3% in feed, on the growth performance, meat quality and gene expression in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 72 crossbred pigs (Landrace×Large White×Duroc were used at 71±1 kg body weight (about 130 d of age in 24 pens (320×150 cm in a confined pig house (three pigs per pen with six replicate pens per treatment. The growing diet was given for periods of 14±3 d and the finishing diet was given for periods of 28±3 d. The fat type had no significant effect either on growth performance or on chemical composition or on meat quality in growing-finishing pigs. Dietary fat type affected fatty acid composition, with higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs in the olive oil group. Microarray analysis in the Longissimus dorsi identified 6 genes, related to insulin signaling pathway, that were differentially expressed among the different feed groups. Real time-PCR was conducted on the six genes in the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM. In particular, the genes encoding the protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, alpha (PRKAR2A and the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1, beta isoform (PPP1CB showed the highest expression level in the olive oil group (respectively, p<0.05, p<0.001. The results of this study indicate that the type of dietary fat affects fatty acid composition and insulin signaling-related gene expression in the LM of pigs.

  15. Palliative effects of extra virgin olive oil, gallic acid, and lemongrass oil dietary supplementation on growth performance, digestibility, carcass traits, and antioxidant status of heat-stressed growing New Zealand White rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sagheer, Adham A; Daader, Ahmed H; Gabr, Hassan A; Abd El-Moniem, Elham A

    2017-03-01

    This study explored the effects of supplemental dietary extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), gallic acid (GA), or lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass traits, lipid peroxidation, hematological, and antioxidative status in growing rabbits under heat stress conditions. A total of 48 male growing New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into four equal groups, which received a basal diet without any supplementation or supplemented with 15 g EVOO, 500 mg GA, or 400 mg LGEO/kg of diet, for eight consecutive weeks. Results revealed that the overall mean of temperature humidity index was 84.67 ± 0.35, reflecting a state of severe heat stress. Moreover, dietary supplementation with EVOO, GA, or LGEO significantly increased live body weight and daily body weight gain but decreased both feed conversion ratio and daily water consumption. Additionally, a significant increase in both organic matter and crude protein digestibility besides a remarkable elevation in the nutritive values of digestible crude protein, total digestible nutrients, and digestible energy, as well as an increase in the numbers of WBCs, lymphocytes, and heterophils was significant in EVOO-supplemented rabbits. Supplementation with EVOO, GA, or LGEO in the heat-stressed growing rabbit's diet enhanced catalase activity and reduced glutathione content, whereas EVOO-treated rabbits had the highest values. Also, malondialdehyde activity was reduced in response to all tested additives. In conclusion, these findings suggested that addition of EVOO, GA, or LGEO in growing rabbit's diet could be used effectively to alleviate negative impacts of heat stress load on performance, nutrient digestibility, oxidative status, and hemato-biochemical features. Furthermore, among these additives, EVOO achieved the best effects.

  16. Differential Macrophage Response to Slow- and Fast-Growing Pathogenic Mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cecilia Helguera-Repetto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM have recently been recognized as important species that cause disease even in immunocompetent individuals. The mechanisms that these species use to infect and persist inside macrophages are not well characterised. To gain insight concerning this process we used THP-1 macrophages infected with M. abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. celatum, and M. tuberculosis. Our results showed that slow-growing mycobacteria gained entrance into these cells with more efficiency than fast-growing mycobacteria. We have also demonstrated that viable slow-growing M. celatum persisted inside macrophages without causing cell damage and without inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS, as M. tuberculosis caused. In contrast, fast-growing mycobacteria destroyed the cells and induced high levels of ROS. Additionally, the macrophage cytokine pattern induced by M. celatum was different from the one induced by either M. tuberculosis or fast-growing mycobacteria. Our results also suggest that, in some cases, the intracellular survival of mycobacteria and the immune response that they induce in macrophages could be related to their growth rate. In addition, the modulation of macrophage cytokine production, caused by M. celatum, might be a novel immune-evasion strategy used to survive inside macrophages that is different from the one reported for M. tuberculosis.

  17. Can Tai Chi and Qigong Postures Shape Our Mood? Toward an Embodied Cognition Framework for Mind-Body Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Osypiuk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic and static body postures are a defining characteristic of mind-body practices such as Tai Chi and Qigong (TCQ. A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that TCQ may be beneficial for psychological health, including management and prevention of depression and anxiety. Although a variety of causal factors have been identified as potential mediators of such health benefits, physical posture, despite its visible prominence, has been largely overlooked. We hypothesize that body posture while standing and/or moving may be a key therapeutic element mediating the influence of TCQ on psychological health. In the present paper, we summarize existing experimental and observational evidence that suggests a bi-directional relationship between body posture and mental states. Drawing from embodied cognitive science, we provide a theoretical framework for further investigation into this interrelationship. We discuss the challenges involved in such an investigation and propose suggestions for future studies. Despite theoretical and practical challenges, we propose that the role of posture in mind-body exercises such as TCQ should be considered in future research.

  18. Level crossing analysis of growing surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbazi, F; Sobhanian, S; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi; Khorram, S; Frootan, G R; Zahed, H

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the average frequency of positive slope ν + α , crossing the height α = h - h-bar in the surface growing processes. The exact level crossing analysis of the random deposition model and the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation in the strong coupling limit before creation of singularities is given

  19. FAST-GROWING COMPANIES FROM TIMIS COUNTRY: DOES THE AGE MATTER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALB MARIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relation between the company’s age and its growth and analyses the influence of age on growth by studying a specific group of companies, namely fast-growing companies from the Timis County, Romania. We have studied the performance of the fast-growing companies in the period of 2010-2013 using the STATA IC 12 software application. A linear regression analysis model with two variables was used. The dependent variable used was the rapid growth of the company, measured by the growth rate of the turnover and the independent variable used was the age of the company, measured by the number of years. The model was tested using the number of employees as a control variable. This paper’s conclusion is in agreement with many other findings from the literature in this subject. The presented results show that the turnover growth rates in the Romanian fast-growing companies tend to drop from one year to another, as the companies grow older.

  20. Understanding many-body physics in one dimension from the Lieb–Liniger model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yu-Zhu; Chen Yang-Yang; Guan Xi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an elementary introduction on various aspects of the prototypical integrable model the Lieb–Liniger Bose gas ranging from the cooperative to the collective features of many-body phenomena. In 1963, Lieb and Liniger first solved this quantum field theory many-body problem using Bethe’s hypothesis, i.e., a particular form of wavefunction introduced by Bethe in solving the one-dimensional Heisenberg model in 1931. Despite the Lieb–Liniger model is arguably the simplest exactly solvable model, it exhibits rich quantum many-body physics in terms of the aspects of mathematical integrability and physical universality. Moreover, the Yang–Yang grand canonical ensemble description for the model provides us with a deep understanding of quantum statistics, thermodynamics, and quantum critical phenomena at the many-body physical level. Recently, such fundamental physics of this exactly solved model has been attracting growing interest in experiments. Since 2004, there have been more than 20 experimental papers that reported novel observations of different physical aspects of the Lieb–Liniger model in the laboratory. So far the observed results are in excellent agreement with results obtained using the analysis of this simplest exactly solved model. Those experimental observations reveal the unique beauty of integrability. (topical review)

  1. Correlates of body mass index in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Gayle M; Calfa, Nicolina A; Stuifbergen, Alexa K

    2013-01-01

    Excess weight in women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) may further contribute to joint pain and fatigue. However, there is little research addressing weight issues in this population. This study examined the relationship of body mass index (BMI) to quality of life. Quality of life was measured by the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, severity of FMS, nutritional intake, Barriers to Health Promoting Behaviors for Disabled Persons Scale (BS), and self-efficacy for health-promoting behaviors (Self-Rated Abilities for Health Practices Scale) in women with FMS. Baseline data were collected on 179 women diagnosed with FMS. Controlling for age, BMI was significantly (p < .05) correlated with 36-Item Short Form Health Survey subscales of physical functioning, bodily pain and vitality, severity of FMS using the Tender Point Index, calories, protein, fat, saturated fat, BS, and Self-Rated Abilities for Health Practices Scale subscale for exercise. The findings support a growing body of evidence that excess weight is negatively related to quality of life and pain in women with FMS.

  2. The response of various muscle types to a restriction -re-alimentation feeding strategy in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebret, B; Heyer, A; Gondret, F; Louveau, I

    2007-07-01

    Muscle lipid concentration is known to influence pork eating quality. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of a restriction-re-alimentation feeding strategy on intramuscular fat deposition in pigs. A total of 70 Duroc × (Large White × Landrace) pigs (castrated males and females) were used. Ten pigs were first slaughtered at 30 kg live weight (LW) to determine initial body and muscle composition. From 30 to 80 kg LW (growing period), pigs were either fed ad libitum (AL) or restricted to 70% of the ad libitum intake of AL pigs (RA). From 80 to 110 kg LW (finishing period), both AL and RA pigs were fed ad libitum. In each group, pigs were slaughtered at 80 kg (n = 10) and at 110 kg (n = 20) LW. During the growing period, the growth rate of RA pigs was reduced by 30% (P alimentation up to the level observed in AL pigs (P alimentation of RA pigs increased fat tissue deposition (+160% for females, P alimentation increased lipid (+62%, P alimentation. Therefore, an increased muscle lipid concentration at 110 kg LW could not be reached in RA pigs. Modifications of onset and/or duration of restriction and re-alimentation periods should be tested to optimise effects on muscle lipid deposition and thereby achieve improved pork quality.

  3. Prostate-specific antigen kinetics after primary stereotactic body radiation therapy using CyberKnife for localized prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hyun Park

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: PSA decline occurred rapidly in the first month, and then the rate of PSA decline fell off steadily over time throughout 2 years after treatment. Also, SBRT using CyberKnife leads to long-term favorable BCR-free survival in localized prostate cancer.

  4. Body Satisfaction, Weight Gain, and Binge Eating Among Overweight Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Haines, Jess; Austin, S. Bryn; Field, Alison E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine if body satisfaction is associated with body mass index (BMI) change and whether it protects against the development of frequent binge eating among overweight and obese adolescent girls. Methods We used prospective data from 9 waves of an ongoing cohort study of adolescents, the Growing Up Today Study. At enrollment in 1996, participants were 9 to 14 years old. Questionnaires were mailed to participants annually until 2001, then biennially through 2007. Girls who were overweight or obese in 1996 were included in the analysis (n=1 559). Our outcomes were annual change in BMI and incident frequent binge eating, defined as binge eating at least weekly and no use of compensatory behaviors. Results At baseline, 57.2% of the overweight and obese girls were at least somewhat satisfied with their bodies. During 11 years of follow-up, 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) [7.8, 10.8]) of the girls started to binge eat frequently. Controlling for BMI and other confounders, overweight and obese girls who reported being at least somewhat satisfied with their bodies made smaller BMI gains (β=−0.10 kg/m2, 95% CI [−0.19, −0.02]) and had 61% lower odds of starting to binge eat frequently (odds ratio (OR)=0.39, 95% CI [0.24, 0.64]) than their less satisfied peers. Compared to girls who were the least satisfied with their bodies, girls who were the most satisfied had 85% lower odds of starting to binge eat frequently (OR=0.15, 95% CI [0.06, 0.37]). The association between body satisfaction and starting to binge eat frequently was stronger for younger adolescents than older adolescents. Conclusions While body dissatisfaction is common among overweight and obese girls, body satisfaction may protect against excessive weight gain and binge eating. Prevention of body dissatisfaction must begin early and should be considered as a component of both obesity and eating disorder prevention programs. PMID:22565419

  5. Photobiomodulation with non-thermal lasers: Mechanisms of action and therapeutic uses in dermatology and aesthetic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Mark; Andriessen, Anneke; Berman, Brian; Katz, Bruce E; Gilbert, Dore; Goldberg, David J; Gold, Michael H; Kirsner, Robert S; Lorenc, Paul Z

    2017-08-01

    Non-thermal laser therapy in dermatology, is a growing field in medical technology by which therapeutic effects are achieved by exposing tissues to specific wavelengths of light. The purpose of this review was to gain a better understanding of the science behind non-thermal laser and the evidence supporting its use in dermatology. A group of dermatologists and surgeons recently convened to review the evidence supporting the use of non-thermal laser for body sculpting, improving the appearance of cellulite, and treating onychomycosis. The use of non-thermal laser for body sculpting is supported by three randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled studies (N = 161), one prospective open-label study (N = 54), and two retrospective studies (N = 775). Non-thermal laser application for improving the appearance of cellulite is supported by one randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study (N = 38). The use of non-thermal laser for the treatment of onychomycosis is supported by an analysis of three non-randomized, open-label studies demonstrating clinical improvement of nails (N = 292). Non-thermal laser is steadily moving into mainstream medical practice, such as dermatology. Although present studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of non-thermal laser for body sculpting, cellulite reduction and onychomycosis treatment, studies demonstrating the efficacy of non-thermal laser as a stand-alone procedure are still inadequate.

  6. Anticipated ethical challenges with growing molecular prenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anticipated ethical challenges with growing molecular prenatal diagnosis in Nigeria. ... Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... Ethical standards in medical laboratories are derived from medical ethics therefore, the four fundamental ...

  7. Clinical Challenges in the Growing Medical Marijuana Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Jonathan

    2018-02-02

    Unique clinical challenges arise with the growing number of patients who possess medical marijuana cards. Medical marijuana patients with mental disorders can have worsening symptoms with marijuana use. Often there is sparse continuity of care between the patient and the medical marijuana practitioner. Lack of communication between the patient's treating practitioners and the practitioner who has authorized the medical marijuana can be problematic. This article is a discussion of the new clinical challenges practitioners are likely to encounter with the growing number of medical marijuana patients. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2018-02.asp].

  8. Amoebal endosymbiont Parachlamydia acanthamoebae Bn9 can grow in immortal human epithelial HEp-2 cells at low temperature; an in vitro model system to study chlamydial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Chikayo; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Shinji; Matsuo, Junji; Ishida, Kasumi; Yamazaki, Sumire; Oguri, Satoshi; Shouji, Natsumi; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Mitsutaka; Yimin; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Ancient chlamydiae diverged into pathogenic and environmental chlamydiae 0.7-1.4 billion years ago. However, how pathogenic chlamydiae adapted to mammalian cells that provide a stable niche at approximately 37 °C, remains unknown, although environmental chlamydiae have evolved as endosymbionts of lower eukaryotes in harsh niches of relatively low temperatures. Hence, we assessed whether an environmental chlamydia, Parachlamydia Bn9, could grow in human HEp-2 cells at a low culture temperature of 30 °C. The assessment of inclusion formation by quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the numbers of bacterial inclusion bodies and the transcription level of 16SrRNA significantly increased after culture at 30 °C compared to at 37 °C. Confocal microscopy showed that the bacteria were located close to HEp-2 nuclei and were actively replicative. Transmission electron microscopy also revealed replicating bacteria consisting of reticular bodies, but with a few elementary bodies. Cytochalasin D and rifampicin inhibited inclusion formation. Lactacystin slightly inhibited bacterial inclusion formation. KEGG analysis using a draft genome sequence of the bacteria revealed that it possesses metabolic pathways almost identical to those of pathogenic chlamydia. Interestingly, comparative genomic analysis with pathogenic chlamydia revealed that the Parachlamydia similarly possess the genes encoding Type III secretion system, but lacking genes encoding inclusion membrane proteins (IncA to G) required for inclusion maturation. Taken together, we conclude that ancient chlamydiae had the potential to grow in human cells, but overcoming the thermal gap was a critical event for chlamydial adaptation to human cells.

  9. Changes in the relative thickness of individual subcutaneous adipose tissue layers in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Madsen, Mads T.

    2007-01-01

    change in body weight in normal growing pigs. Methods: A group of nine pigs was examined using 14 MHz linear array transducer on three A group of nine pigs was examined using 14 MHz linear array transducer on three separate occasions. The average weight was 51, 94 and 124 kg for each successive scan...... longevity and finally to assist in the calculation of payments to producers that allow for general adiposity. Currently for reasons of tradition and ease, total adipose thickness measurements are made at one or multiple sites although it has been long recognized that up to three well defined layers (outer...... (L1), middle (L2), and inner (L3)) may be present to make up the total. Various features and properties of these layers have been described. This paper examines the contribution of each layer to total adipose thickness at three time points and describes the change in thickness of each layer per unit...

  10. Body odour disgust sensitivity predicts authoritarian attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Torun; Hawley, Caitlin B.; Gustafsson Sendén, Marie; Ekström, Ingrid; Olsson, Mats J.; Olofsson, Jonas K.

    2018-01-01

    Authoritarianism has resurfaced as a research topic in political psychology, as it appears relevant to explain current political trends. Authoritarian attitudes have been consistently linked to feelings of disgust, an emotion that is thought to have evolved to protect the organism from contamination. We hypothesized that body odour disgust sensitivity (BODS) might be associated with authoritarianism, as chemo-signalling is a primitive system for regulating interpersonal contact and disease avoidance, which are key features also in authoritarianism. We used well-validated scales for measuring BODS, authoritarianism and related constructs. Across two studies, we found that BODS is positively related to authoritarianism. In a third study, we showed a positive association between BODS scores and support for Donald Trump, who, at the time of data collection, was a presidential candidate with an agenda described as resonating with authoritarian attitudes. Authoritarianism fully explained the positive association between BODS and support for Donald Trump. Our findings highlight body odour disgust as a new and promising domain in political psychology research. Authoritarianism and BODS might be part of the same disease avoidance framework, and our results contribute to the growing evidence that contemporary social attitudes might be rooted in basic sensory functions. PMID:29515834

  11. Communication Challenges in on-Body and Body-to-Body Wearable Wireless Networks—A Connectivity Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhafer Ben Arbia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wearable wireless networks (WWNs offer innovative ways to connect humans and/or objects anywhere, anytime, within an infinite variety of applications. WWNs include three levels of communications: on-body, body-to-body and off-body communication. Successful communication in on-body and body-to-body networks is often challenging due to ultra-low power consumption, processing and storage capabilities, which have a significant impact on the achievable throughput and packet reception ratio as well as latency. Consequently, all these factors make it difficult to opt for an appropriate technology to optimize communication performance, which predominantly depends on the given application. In particular, this work emphasizes the impact of coarse-grain factors (such as dynamic and diverse mobility, radio-link and signal propagation, interference management, data dissemination schemes, and routing approaches directly affecting the communication performance in WWNs. Experiments have been performed on a real testbed to investigate the connectivity behavior on two wireless communication levels: on-body and body-to-body. It is concluded that by considering the impact of above-mentioned factors, the general perception of using specific technologies may not be correct. Indeed, for on-body communication, by using the IEEE 802.15.6 standard (which is specifically designed for on-body communication, it is observed that while operating at low transmission power under realistic conditions, the connectivity can be significantly low, thus, the transmission power has to be tuned carefully. Similarly, for body-to-body communication in an indoor environment, WiFi IEEE 802.11n also has a high threshold of end-to-end disconnections beyond two hops (approximatively 25 m. Therefore, these facts promote the use of novel technologies such as 802.11ac, NarrowBand-IoT (NB-IoT etc. as possible candidates for body-to-body communications as a part of the Internet of humans concept.

  12. The role of peat in assuring the quality of growing media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Schmilewski

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Producers and users of growing media are exposed to high risk if significant quantities of potentially unsuitable ingredients are included in the product. Combined with economic reasoning, this dictates that the constituents of growing media should possess as many suitable characteristics as possible. Sphagnum peat has been the most important growing medium constituent for many decades because its properties are the best available. The use of other organic and mineral-organic materials is being forced ahead by research and development against a background of public favour for peat replacement, recycling and re-use of biodegradable waste. Considerably more resources have been invested in the testing of peat alternatives than in peat itself during recent years, and the utility of a large number of alternatives has been assessed. Most candidate materials are only slightly or not at all suitable for use in growing media. The exceptions are composts, wood fibre products, bark and composted bark, and coir. These have become established, to a greater or lesser degree, as reliable substrate constituents. Their manufacture, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. A continuing need for peat as a constituent of growing media, at least for dilution purposes, is foreseen. Thus, increased imports of peat and growing media to countries with intensive or expanding commercial horticulture and inadequate domestic peat reserves are to be expected in the future.

  13. Different growing conditions affect nutrient content, fruit yield and growth in strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirsory, L.; Demirsoy, H.; Balci, G.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of organic and conventional growing on contents of some nutrient elements, nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn), yield and some growth parameters such as leaf area, petiole length, petiole diameter, crown number, crow n diameter, leaf, root dry weight in 'Sweet Charlie' and 'Camarosa' strawberry cultivars. This study consisted of two strawberry cultivars ('Camarosa' and 'Sweet Charlie'), two growing systems (organic and conventional growing) and two different mulches (black and floating sheet). There was significant difference among treatments in terms of P, K, and Mn content in root and Fe content in leaf and yield and some growth parameters. The best treatment in terms of yield and growth parameters was conventional growing with black plastic in 'Camarosa' while the best treatments were organic growing with floating sheet and black plastic in 'Sweet Charlie' in terms of P, K in root and organic growing with floating sheet in 'Sweet Charlie' in terms of Fe in leaf. (author)

  14. Prevalence of incorrect body posture in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciałczyk-Paprocka, Katarzyna; Stawińska-Witoszyńska, Barbara; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Sowińska, Anna; Krzyżaniak, Alicja; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Krzywińska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata

    2017-05-01

    The ever increasing epidemics of overweight and obesity in school children may be one of the reasons of the growing numbers of children with incorrect body posture. The purpose of the study was the assessment of the prevalence of incorrect body posture in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity in Poznań, Poland. The population subject to study consisted of 2732 boys and girls aged 3-18 with obesity, overweight, and standard body mass. The assessment of body mass was performed based on BMI, adopting Cole's cutoff values. The evaluation of body posture was performed according to the postural error chart based on criteria complied by professor Dega. The prevalence rates of postural errors were significantly higher among children and adolescents with overweight and obesity than among the group with standard body mass. In the overweight group, it amounted to 69.2% and in the obese group to 78.6%.  The most common postural deviations in obese children and adolescents were valgus knees and flat feet. Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, predisposing to higher incidence of some types of postural errors, call for prevention programs addressing both health problems. What is Known: • The increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has drawn attention to additional health complications which may occur in this population such as occurrence of incorrect body posture. What is New: • The modified chart of postural errors proved to be an effective tool in the assessment of incorrect body posture. • This chart may be used in the assessment of posture during screening tests and prevention actions at school.

  15. NucNet's growing impact on the media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, Remy [Electricite de France (France)

    1995-07-01

    In the four years since the birth of NucNet there has been a gradual but radical change In the original concept of the network. In the beginning, the focus of attention was to make nuclear communicators better-informed and more efficient. What had been desperately needed for some time was an Information exchange system which would enable those communicators to do a better Job whether working proactlvely or reactively. The idea was primarily for positive nuclear news from Europe to be disseminated to people on the network so that they could pass it on to media contacts in their respective countries, as part of their regular dialogue with journalists. However, once NucNet was up-and-running a strong body of opinion emerged, arguing in favour of NucNet's most urgent, important or off-beat news - the 'A' category releases - to be sent direct to national and international news agencies. Quite rightly, it was felt that, in this way, the nuclear community could clearly demonstrate Its transparency and Its desire to Inform the public openly. At the same time, it was clear that sending to just a few national news agencies in Europe would not be enough. It was clear that NucNet would have to expand into a truly worldwide network and that, to reflect this, the main International news agencies would have to be put online as well. NucNet's growing impact on the media is a result of teamwork, and this teamwork takes different forms. It is: between the network's information suppliers and Central Office, among the Central Office staff themselves, between Central Office and the agencies, and between network members and their news media contacts. Through this continuing teamwork process, NucNet will achieve its goal of providing the media and the public with a balanced picture of nuclear energy.

  16. NucNet's growing impact on the media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, Remy

    1995-01-01

    In the four years since the birth of NucNet there has been a gradual but radical change In the original concept of the network. In the beginning, the focus of attention was to make nuclear communicators better-informed and more efficient. What had been desperately needed for some time was an Information exchange system which would enable those communicators to do a better Job whether working proactlvely or reactively. The idea was primarily for positive nuclear news from Europe to be disseminated to people on the network so that they could pass it on to media contacts in their respective countries, as part of their regular dialogue with journalists. However, once NucNet was up-and-running a strong body of opinion emerged, arguing in favour of NucNet's most urgent, important or off-beat news - the 'A' category releases - to be sent direct to national and international news agencies. Quite rightly, it was felt that, in this way, the nuclear community could clearly demonstrate Its transparency and Its desire to Inform the public openly. At the same time, it was clear that sending to just a few national news agencies in Europe would not be enough. It was clear that NucNet would have to expand into a truly worldwide network and that, to reflect this, the main International news agencies would have to be put online as well. NucNet's growing impact on the media is a result of teamwork, and this teamwork takes different forms. It is: between the network's information suppliers and Central Office, among the Central Office staff themselves, between Central Office and the agencies, and between network members and their news media contacts. Through this continuing teamwork process, NucNet will achieve its goal of providing the media and the public with a balanced picture of nuclear energy

  17. VISION AND STRATEGIC THINKING IN THE ROMANIAN FAST GROWING FIRMS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae BIBU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present preliminary specific issues concerning the vision and the strategic thinking of the managers of Romanian fast growing firms in the years of rapid growth. This paper clarifies two research questions. (1 The first research question is what is the message of the manager's vision of the Romanian fast growing firms? Therefore, we must first verify if the managers of the Romanian fast growing firms have a concrete vision about the business they run and if so, what is the vision of the managers about the companies that they lead? (2 The second research question is what findings can be drawn about the role of strategic thinking of the managers in the management of the Romanian fast growing firms? The research that we have conducted is a qualitative research. The research method that we used is the interview. The interview is specific to qualitative research. Regarding the method of analysis that we used it is the content analysis. The research was conducted on a total of 17 Romanian fast growing firms that are located in Timiș County. The firms were identified based on a specific selection criteria set after a thorough review of the literature in the field. The 17 companies that we have analysed represent the foundation of 17 in-depth case studies, which we believe helped us to better understand what it means in the Romanian context to grow fast, through the entrepreneurs managers vision and strategic thinking. The results presented in this paper come to strengthen the results reached by other researchers in this field. The results present an image of the current Romanian context – about the role of strategic thinking of the entrepreneur manager in the management of Romanian fast growing firms. The paper presents a detailed analysis of managers' vision of the Romanian fast growing firms. The paper also presents findings about the role of strategic thinking in helping managers achieve rapid growth in the

  18. Ultrasound control of magnet growing rod distraction in early onset scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Cervera, T; Lirola Criado, J F; Farrington Rueda, D M

    2016-01-01

    The growing rod technique is currently one of the most common procedures used in the management of early onset scoliosis. However, in order to preserve spine growth and control the deformity it requires frequent surgeries to distract the rods. Magnetically driven growing rods have recently been introduced with same treatment goal, but without the inconvenience of repeated surgical distractions. One of the limitations of this technical advance is an increase in radiation exposure due to the increase in distraction frequency compared to conventional growing rods. An improvement of the original technique is presented, proposing a solution to the inconvenience of multiple radiation exposure using ultrasound technology to control the distraction process of magnetically driven growing rods. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Aging, body image, and body shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F Richard; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J; Paintner, Ashley; Wasson, Kayla; Hager, Tracy; Hoverson, Fallon

    2008-10-01

    Participants were 25 older men (M age = 72 years, SD = 10 years) and 27 older women (M age = 71 years, SD = 8 years) who examined multiple line-drawing figures of babies, children, young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults. Participants picked a number on a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (very thin) to 9 (very obese) in response to questions including "Which is the most attractive?" and "Which figure would you most like to look like?" They also completed questionnaires about their body image and body shape. In response to the age-specific line drawings (e.g., those depicting older men and older women), older women endorsed thinner figures (e.g., picked smaller numbers) than did men. Likewise, older women reported thinking more about their body shape and appearance than did men and perceived their body image as "a little too big" in comparison with the older men who perceived their body image as "just the right size." However, a breakdown of normal and overweight women in this sample revealed that for some overweight elderly women, obesity could become a satisfactory way of life. Much as with college-aged women, the endorsement of a thinner body image by many of the older adult female participants appeared to persist into late adulthood and suggests that research into body image issues with older adults is relevant and necessary.

  20. Workshop on Kadanoff-Baym Equations : Progress and Perspectives for Many-Body Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties of correlated many-body systems are of growing interest in many fields of physics, including condensed matter, dense plasmas, nuclear matter and particles. The most powerful and general method which applies equally to all these areas is given by quantum field theory.Written by the leading experts and understandable to non-specialists, this book provides an overview on the basic ideas and concepts of the method of nonequilibrium Green's functions. It is complemented by modern applications of the method to a variety of topics, such as optics and transpor

  1. How do normal faults grow?

    OpenAIRE

    Blækkan, Ingvild; Bell, Rebecca; Rotevatn, Atle; Jackson, Christopher; Tvedt, Anette

    2018-01-01

    Faults grow via a sympathetic increase in their displacement and length (isolated fault model), or by rapid length establishment and subsequent displacement accrual (constant-length fault model). To test the significance and applicability of these two models, we use time-series displacement (D) and length (L) data extracted for faults from nature and experiments. We document a range of fault behaviours, from sympathetic D-L fault growth (isolated growth) to sub-vertical D-L growth trajectorie...

  2. Patterns of Body Image Concerns and Disordered Weight- and Shape-Related Behaviors in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the U.S. national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15-20 years), participants reported sexual…

  3. Body Composition and Anti-Neoplastic Treatment in Adult and Older Subjects - A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, S; Bréchemier, D; Lefort, A; Lozano, S; Abellan Van Kan, G; Filleron, T; Mourey, L; Bernard-Marty, C; Rougé-Bugat, M E; Soler, V; Vellas, B; Cesari, M; Rolland, Y; Balardy, L

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of the risk of poor tolerance and overdose of antineoplastic agents protocols represents a major challenge in oncology, particularly in older patients. We hypothesize that age-related modifications of body composition (i.e. increased fat mass and decreased lean mass) may significantly affect tolerance to chemotherapy. We conducted a systematic review for the last 25 years (between 1990 and 2015), using US National library of Medicine Medline electronic bibliographic database and Embase database of cohorts or clinical trials exploring (i) the interactions of body composition (assessed by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry, Bioelectrical Impedance Analyses, or Computerized Tomography) with pharmacokinetics parameters, (ii) the tolerance to chemotherapy, and (iii) the consequences of chemotherapies or targeted therapies on body composition. Our search identified 1504 articles. After a selection (using pre-established criteria) on titles and abstract, 24 original articles were selected with 3 domains of interest: impact of body composition on pharmacokinetics (7 articles), relationship between body composition and chemotoxicity (14 articles), and effect of anti-cancer chemotherapy on body composition (11 articles). The selected studies suggested that pharmacokinetic was influenced by lean mass, that lower lean mass could be correlated with toxicity, and that sarcopenic patients experienced more toxicities that non-sarcopenic patients. Regarding fat mass, results were less conclusive. No studies specifically explored the topic of body composition in older cancer patients. Plausible pathophysiological pathways linking body composition, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics are sustained by the actual review. However, despite the growing number of older cancer patients, our review highlighted the lack of specific studies in the field of anti-neoplastic agents toxicity regarding body composition conducted in elderly.

  4. Special topics in the theory of piezoelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jiashi

    2009-01-01

    Piezoelectricity has been a steadily growing field, with recent advances made by researchers from applied physics, acoustics, materials science, and engineering. This collective work presents a comprehensive treatment of selected advanced topics in the subject. The book is written for an intermediate graduate level and is intended for researchers, mechanical engineers, and applied mathematicians interested in the advances and new applications in piezoelectricity.

  5. [Organization of mitochondria in the growing hyphae of Neurospora crassa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapova, T V; Boĭtsova, L Iu; Golyshev, S A; Popinako, A V

    2013-01-01

    In vivo fluorescent labeling of mitochondria in Neurospora crassa showed the concentration of filamentous mitochondria within 30 μm of apex in growing hyphae. These mitochondrial assemblies propagated forward with the elongation of hyphae, split and segregated as the growing tip bifurcated and formed de novo when new branches formed farther away from the apex. The efficiency of the mitochondria concentration in the apical 30 μm zone is related to the growth rate and identical in hyphae cultivated in glucose- and sorbitol-containing media. The obtained data are discussed in connection with the behavior of microtubules in growing hyphae as well as with the electric heterogeneity of N. crassa hyphal apex described previously.

  6. Remotely Sensed Northern Vegetation Response to Changing Climate: Growing Season and Productivity Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, S.; Park, Taejin; Choi, Sungho; Bi, Jian; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation growing season and maximum photosynthetic state determine spatiotemporal variability of seasonal total gross primary productivity of vegetation. Recent warming induced impacts accelerate shifts on growing season and physiological status over Northern vegetated land. Thus, understanding and quantifying these changes are very important. Here, we first investigate how vegetation growing season and maximum photosynthesis state are evolved and how such components contribute on inter-annual variation of seasonal total gross primary productivity. Furthermore, seasonally different response of northern vegetation to changing temperature and water availability is also investigated. We utilized both long-term remotely sensed data to extract larger scale growing season metrics (growing season start, end and duration) and productivity (i.e., growing season summed vegetation index, GSSVI) for answering these questions. We find that regionally diverged growing season shift and maximum photosynthetic state contribute differently characterized productivity inter-annual variability and trend. Also seasonally different response of vegetation gives different view of spatially varying interaction between vegetation and climate. These results highlight spatially and temporally varying vegetation dynamics and are reflective of biome-specific responses of northern vegetation to changing climate.

  7. The Development of Wireless Body Area Network for Motion Sensing Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitaningayu, P.; Widodo, A.; Yundra, E.; Ramadhany, F.; Arianto, L.; Habibie, D.

    2018-04-01

    The information era has driven the society into the digitally-controlled lifestyle. Wireless body area networks (WBAN) as the specific scope of wireless sensor networks (WSN) is consistently growing into bigger applications. Currently, people are able to monitor their medical parameters by simply using small electronics devices attached to their body and connected to the authorities. On top of that, this time, smart phones are typically equipped with sensors such as accelerometer, gyroscope, barometric pressure, heart rate monitor, etc. It means that the sensing yet the signal processing can be performed by a single device. Moreover, Android opens lot wider opportunities for new applications as the most popular open-sourced smart phone platform. This paper is intended to show the development of motion sensing application which focused on analysing data from accelerometer and gyroscope. Beside reads the sensors, this application also has the ability to convert the sensors’ numerical value into graphs.

  8. Innocent Body-Shadow Mimics Physical Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenri Kodaka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of the rubber hand illusion was applied to a shadow to determine whether the body-shadow is a good candidate for the alternative belonging to our body. Three kinds of shadows, a physical hand, a hand-shaped cloth, and a rectangle cloth, were tested for this purpose. The questionnaire results showed that both anatomical similarity and visuo-proprioception correlation were effective in enhancing illusory ownership of the shadow. According to the proprioceptive drift measurement, whether the shadow purely originated from the physical body was a critical factor in yielding the significantly positive drift. Thus, results demonstrated that the shadow can distort illusory ownership with the rubber hand illusion paradigm, but the proprioception was clearly distorted only when the body-shadow was purely applied. This implies the presence of special cognitive processing to discriminate the self-body shadow from the others.

  9. Dietary green tea polyphenols do not affect vitamin E status, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, K; Blank, R; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C; Frank, J; Wolffram, S; Rimbach, G

    2008-12-01

    Supplementation of pigs with vitamin E, the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, has been shown to improve meat quality and animal health. Previous studies in cultured cells and laboratory animals indicate synergistic effects between polyphenols and vitamin E. The present feeding trial was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary green tea polyphenols (GTP) on vitamin E status, antioxidative capacity and parameters of meat quality in growing pigs. Eighteen castrated, crossbred, male pigs received a flavonoid-poor diet based on corn starch, caseinate and rapeseed oil with a total vitamin E content of 17 IU/kg diet over a period of 5 weeks. This basal diet was supplemented with green tea extract to provide daily doses of 0 (control), 10 and 100 mg GTP/kg body weight. Dietary supplementation of growing pigs with GTP did not affect serum, liver, lung and muscle vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) concentrations, plasma antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) or parameters of meat quality including meat temperature, pH, conductivity, colour and drip loss. In conclusion, supplementation of pig diets with green tea catechins is not associated with improved antioxidant status and meat quality under practice-oriented conditions.

  10. Role of Educational Status in Explaining the Association between Body Mass Index and Cognitive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Yi-Te; Kao, Tung-Wei; Peng, Tao-Chun; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Yang, Hui-Fang; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Preserving physical and cognitive function becomes an important issue as people age. A growing number of studies have found that the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive function changes in different age groups. It is obvious that higher educational status is linked to higher cognitive function in terms of numerous risk factors that influence cognitive function. This study aimed to investigate the interplay between obesity and cognitive function categorized by diff...

  11. Stereotactic Radiosurgery versus Natural History in Patients with Growing Vestibular Schwannomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Albert; Gooderham, Peter; Mick, Paul; Westerberg, Brian; Toyota, Brian; Akagami, Ryojo

    2015-08-01

    Objective To describe our experience with stereotactic radiosurgery and its efficacy on growing tumors, and then to compare this result with the natural history of a similar cohort of non-radiation-treated lesions. Study Design A retrospective chart review and cohort comparison. Methods The long-term control rates of patients having undergone radiosurgery were collected and calculated, and this population was then compared with a group of untreated patients from the same period of time with growing lesions. Results A total of 61 patients with growing vestibular schwannomas treated with radiosurgery were included. After a mean of 160 months, we observed a control rate of 85.2%. When compared with a group of 36 patients with growing tumors who were yet to receive treatment (previously published), we found a corrected control rate or relative risk reduction of only 76.8%. Conclusion Radiosurgery for growing vestibular schwannomas is less effective than previously reported in unselected series. Although radiosurgery still has a role in managing this disease, consideration should be given to the actual efficacy that may be calculated when the natural history is known. We hope other centers will similarly report their experience on this cohort of patients.

  12. Effects of space allocations and energy levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in growing and finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, X J; Yan, L; Kim, Y M; Kim, I H

    2018-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate effects of different space allocations and different dietary metabolizable energy (ME) levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in growing and finishing pigs. In experiment 1, a total of 84 growing pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc] with an initial body weight (BW) of 27.10 ± 1.60 kg were used in a 5-week trial. Pigs were blocked based on initial BW into a 2 × 2 factorial design with the following factors: (i) 0.60 or 0.80 m 2 /pig space allocations; and (ii) 3,400 or 3,550 kcal/kg ME of diets. In experiment 2, a total of 84 finishing pigs with an initial BW of 67.43 ± 1.97 kg were used in a 10-week trial. Pigs were allotted based on initial BW into a 2 × 2 factorial design with the following factors: (i) 0.81 or 1.08 m 2 /pig space allocations; and (ii) 3,300 or 3,450 kcal/kg ME of diet. In experiment 1, high ME diet improved gain-to-feed ratio (G:F) in pigs with low space allocation but not in pigs in high space allocation (p space allocation but decreased ATTD of nitrogen in high space allocation (p space allocation but not in pigs with high space allocation (p space allocation but can improve feed efficiency in growing pigs and daily gain and feed efficiency early-finishing pigs. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. The Growing Diversity of Work Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shirley J.

    1986-01-01

    The author highlights the predominance of the five-day, 40-hour workweek. Although finding little change in recent years in the proportion of workers on 40-hour schedules, Smith notes that there have been some changes in work patterns, with a still small but growing group of workers on "compressed" full-time weeks of less than five days.…

  14. Growing Income Inequality Threatens American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The first of two articles in consecutive months describes the origins and nature of growing income inequality, and some of its consequences for American children. It documents the increased family income inequality that's occurred over the past 40 years and shows that the increased income disparity has been more than matched by an expanding…

  15. Morphology of Laplacian growth processes and statistics of equivalent many-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, R.

    1994-01-01

    The authors proposes a theory for the nonlinear evolution of two dimensional interfaces in Laplacian fields. The growing region is conformally mapped onto the unit disk, generating an equivalent many-body system whose dynamics and statistics are studied. The process is shown to be Hamiltonian, with the Hamiltonian being the imaginary part of the complex electrostatic potential. Surface effects are introduced through the Hamiltonian as an external field. An extension to a continuous density of particles is presented. The results are used to study the morphology of the interface using statistical mechanics for the many-body system. The distribution of the curvature and the moments of the growth probability along the interface are calculated exactly from the distribution of the particles. In the dilute limit, the distribution of the curvature is shown to develop algebraic tails, which may, for the first time, explain the origin of fractality in diffusion controlled processes

  16. Consumed workers – disabled bodies. Historical knowledge formation after the cultural turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Klein

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Some recent OECD-studies tackle new psychosomatic symptoms in the context of work. So we find the paradoxical situation, that although the state of health and well-being in societies grows, statistics show growing rates of burn-out syndroms together with uneasiness, addiction and non-functioning. One in five workers suffer from a mental illness, such as depression or anxiety, and many more are struggling to cope. In a closer reading we can see, that the social-medical model still dominates this actual policy research, although the cultural model has gained growing recognition in the last fifteen years. But we find a double blank spot with relevance for historical knowledge formation: On the one side, studies on work that use the tool set of cultural studies can rarely be found. On the other side, disability studies that work with the cultural model are rarely tackling the working subject. Starting from this analytical point, this contribution wants to stimulate historical knowledge formation on the working subject. The epistemic perspective of this study is coined by the cultural model of disability; the methodology is based on the visual, the spatial and the linguistic turn. In studying historical artefacts like film scenes or juridical definitions, we can come to a closer understanding of how we conceptualise human beings. The thesis is, that during the 20th-century the changing “microphysics of power” (Foucault produced new forms of subjectivation: Either, workers tried to assimilate to the “machine rhythms” or they uttered their needs in “embodied dissent”. There are multilayered facets in between. I want to develop the argumentation that the body/mind-centering seems to be at the heart of the postfordist transformation. The article concludes by underlining the possibility to read bodies as a source, an approach Bryan S. Turner has theorized in his article “Disability and the Sociology of the Body”.

  17. South-South Collaboration in Health Biotechnology: Growing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Jan 1, 2012 ... South-South Collaboration in Health Biotechnology: Growing Partnerships amongst Developing ... the availability of more affordable health products and services. ... of Health Research, New Principal Investigator Award (2007-2012). ... water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.

  18. Millennium bim managing growing demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Francisca Barbosa Malpique de Paiva

    2014-01-01

    Millennium bim, the Mozambican operation of Millennium bcp group, was the Company selected to serve as background for the development of a teaching case in Marketing. This case is followed by a teaching note, and is intended to be used as a pedagogical tool in undergraduate and/or graduate programs. Even though Mozambique is still characterized by high financial exclusion, the number of people entering within the banking industry has been growing at a fast pace. Actually, the demand for fi...

  19. The interplay of personality and negative comments about appearance in predicting body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvalem, Ingela Lundin; von Soest, Tilmann; Roald, Helge E; Skolleborg, Knut Chr

    2006-09-01

    This study investigates how personality traits in combination with frequency of and emotional reaction to negative comments about appearance while growing up are related to appearance evaluation and orientation among adult women. Nine hundred and seven participants from a representative sample of Norwegian women aged 22-55, answered questions measuring body image, personality (Big Five), and history of experiencing negative comments about appearance. Results indicated that only emotional reaction to negative comments about appearance significantly predicted both appearance evaluation and orientation, while frequency of negative comments did not. Being extrovert predicted more positive appearance evaluation and being more appearance oriented than being introvert. Scoring high on neuroticism was related to negative appearance evaluation and high appearance orientation. The findings demonstrate the importance of differentiating between the frequency and the emotional impact of teasing as well as including personality traits when studying body image.

  20. Obesity : a growing problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C

    Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or more, is common in many parts of the world, especially in the established market economies, the former socialist economies of Europe, Latin America, the Caribbean and the Middle Eastern Crescent. As many as 250 million people worldwide may

  1. Impact of climate change on mid-twenty-first century growing seasons in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Kerry H.; Vizy, Edward K. [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, Austin, TX (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Changes in growing seasons for 2041-2060 across Africa are projected using a regional climate model at 90-km resolution, and confidence in the predictions is evaluated. The response is highly regional over West Africa, with decreases in growing season days up to 20% in the western Guinean coast and some regions to the east experiencing 5-10% increases. A longer growing season up to 30% in the central and eastern Sahel is predicted, with shorter seasons in parts of the western Sahel. In East Africa, the short rains (boreal fall) growing season is extended as the Indian Ocean warms, but anomalous mid-tropospheric moisture divergence and a northward shift of Sahel rainfall severely curtails the long rains (boreal spring) season. Enhanced rainfall in January and February increases the growing season in the Congo basin by 5-15% in association with enhanced southwesterly moisture transport from the tropical Atlantic. In Angola and the southern Congo basin, 40-80% reductions in austral spring growing season days are associated with reduced precipitation and increased evapotranspiration. Large simulated reductions in growing season over southeastern Africa are judged to be inaccurate because they occur due to a reduction in rainfall in winter which is over-produced in the model. Only small decreases in the actual growing season are simulated when evapotranspiration increases in the warmer climate. The continent-wide changes in growing season are primarily the result of increased evapotranspiration over the warmed land, changes in the intensity and seasonal cycle of the thermal low, and warming of the Indian Ocean. (orig.)

  2. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauson Anne-Helene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07 with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters.

  3. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  4. The neural basis of body form and body action agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Valentina; Urgesi, Cosimo; Pernigo, Simone; Lanteri, Paola; Pazzaglia, Mariella; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2008-10-23

    Visual analysis of faces and nonfacial body stimuli brings about neural activity in different cortical areas. Moreover, processing body form and body action relies on distinct neural substrates. Although brain lesion studies show specific face processing deficits, neuropsychological evidence for defective recognition of nonfacial body parts is lacking. By combining psychophysics studies with lesion-mapping techniques, we found that lesions of ventromedial, occipitotemporal areas induce face and body recognition deficits while lesions involving extrastriate body area seem causatively associated with impaired recognition of body but not of face and object stimuli. We also found that body form and body action recognition deficits can be double dissociated and are causatively associated with lesions to extrastriate body area and ventral premotor cortex, respectively. Our study reports two category-specific visual deficits, called body form and body action agnosia, and highlights their neural underpinnings.

  5. On Li Zhi's Theory of Growing up in Spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Junjiang

    2006-01-01

    The theory of growing up in spirit is the core of Li Zhi's thought.The theory attempts to get rid of the limit of the rigid ethical doctrine of Confucianismand to encourage growth in a helpful person for the benefit of the country,which demands both a free environment of society and enough courage and insight of the individual.At the same time,the criterion of growing up in spirit indicates the limitation of Li Zhi's thought.His free exploration,however,provides various revelations for us.

  6. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men's and Women's Bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Ellen Brierley

    Full Text Available The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range, with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men's bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women.

  7. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men's and Women's Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Mary-Ellen; Brooks, Kevin R; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Stephen, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range), with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men's bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women.

  8. Cyber threat intelligence exchange: A growing requirement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, Namosha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Managing the rise of cyber-attacks has become a growing challenge. Cyber space has become a battleground of threats ranging from malware to phishing, spam and password theft. Cybersecurity solutions mainly try to take a defensive stance and build a...

  9. Body plan of turtles: an anatomical, developmental and evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hiroshi; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Kawashima-Ohya, Yoshie; Narita, Yuichi; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    The evolution of the turtle shell has long been one of the central debates in comparative anatomy. The turtle shell consists of dorsal and ventral parts: the carapace and plastron, respectively. The basic structure of the carapace comprises vertebrae and ribs. The pectoral girdle of turtles sits inside the carapace or the rib cage, in striking contrast to the body plan of other tetrapods. Due to this topological change in the arrangement of skeletal elements, the carapace has been regarded as an example of evolutionary novelty that violates the ancestral body plan of tetrapods. Comparing the spatial relationships of anatomical structures in the embryos of turtles and other amniotes, we have shown that the topology of the musculoskeletal system is largely conserved even in turtles. The positional changes seen in the ribs and pectoral girdle can be ascribed to turtle-specific folding of the lateral body wall in the late developmental stages. Whereas the ribs of other amniotes grow from the axial domain to the lateral body wall, turtle ribs remain arrested axially. Marginal growth of the axial domain in turtle embryos brings the morphologically short ribs in to cover the scapula dorsocaudally. This concentric growth appears to be induced by the margin of the carapace, which involves an ancestral gene expression cascade in a new location. These comparative developmental data allow us to hypothesize the gradual evolution of turtles, which is consistent with the recent finding of a transitional fossil animal, Odontochelys, which did not have the carapace but already possessed the plastron.

  10. Higher Facebook use predicts greater body image dissatisfaction during pregnancy: The role of self-comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, S; Brown, A

    2016-09-01

    poor body image during pregnancy is a growing issue. Similarly, emerging evidence is suggesting that social media use may increase the risk of poor well-being e.g. depression, anxiety and body image concerns amongst users. Research has not examined how social media use may influence women during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to therefore to explore the relationship between body image during pregnancy and Facebook use. a cross sectional self-report questionnaire. two hundred and sixty nine pregnant women. community groups and online forums. a self-report questionnaire exploring maternal body image, use of Facebook and how mothers perceived Facebook affected their body image. Descriptive statistics were used to explore body image perceptions. Partial correlations (controlling for maternal age, education, parity and gestation) were used to explore the association between Facebook use and body image during pregnancy. negative body image was common in the sample, increased with gestation and was unrelated to pre pregnancy weight. Mothers with a Facebook account had higher body image concerns than those without a Facebook account. Of those with an account, increased Facebook use was associated with increased body image dissatisfaction, particularly in terms of postnatal concerns for how their body would look with 56.5% reporting that they frequently compared their pregnant body to other pregnant women on the site. Facebook access was frequent with 85% of participants checking it at least once per day and the average participant spending over an hour per day on the site. although causality cannot be fully explained, Facebook use may increase mother's risk of poor body image dissatisfaction during pregnancy. Mothers with already poor body image may also be drawn to the site in order to make comparisons of their appearance. the potential impact of Facebook on increasing the risk of, or promoting existing poor body image is an important message for those working to

  11. Replacing groundnut cake with gluten meals of rice and maize in diets for growing Sahiwal cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Tariq A; Thakur, S S; Mahesh, M S; Yogi, R K

    2017-10-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of isonitrogenous replacement of groundnut cake (GNC) by rice gluten meal (RGM) and maize gluten meal (MGM) at 75% level on nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, growth performance and related blood constituents in growing Sahiwal cattle. Eighteen Sahiwal calves were divided into three groups, based on average body weight (87.24 kg) and age (6 to 12 mo), and treatments were assigned to the different groups randomly. The first group (GP-I) was kept as control and received GNC-based concentrate mixture. In second (GP-II) and third (GP-III) groups, 750 g/kg nitrogen (N) of GNC was substituted by RGM and MGM respectively, with similar forage:concentrate ratio (56:44). The 90 days of experimental feeding revealed that intake of dry matter, crude protein and digestibility coefficients for all nutrients did not differ among groups. Furthermore, although N balance was greater (p≤0.05) for GP-III than GP-I and GP-II, average daily gain was similar between GP-I and GP-II but greater (p≤0.05) for GP-III. In addition, feed efficiency and related haematological variables did not differ due to treatments. Nutritional worth of GNC and RGM was highly comparable in terms of intake, digestibility and growth in growing calves. However, MGM was found to be more efficacious in improving growth rate than RGM at 75% replacement level of GNC protein.

  12. Effects of by-product feed-based silage on feeding, rumination, and excretion in growing Hanwoo heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Il; Lee, Sang Moo; Lee, Youn Hee; Lee, Myeon; Choi, Do Young; Kwak, Wan Sup

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the behavior of growing Hanwoo heifers. Twelve Hanwoo heifers (13.2 months-old, 315 kg body weight; four heifers per pen) were assigned to three diets: a rice straw (RS) diet (concentrate mix and free access to RS), a RS and BF-based silage (RSBFS) diet (concentrate mix and free access to RS and BF-based silage), and a BF-based silage (BFS) diet (concentrate mix and free access to BF-based silage). Behavior was recorded for 5 days using camcorders. Compared to the RS group, the BFS group showed 21.7% higher dry matter intake, shorter feeding, rumination, and chewing times, as well as longer resting time (p < 0.05). Although all groups exhibited similar drinking, urination, and defecation frequencies, the BFS group exhibited higher feeding rates, rumination efficiency, and chewing efficiency than the RS group (p < 0.05). Compared to the BFS group, the RSBFS group showed higher peNDF8.0 intake (15.2% vs. 25.0% dry matter intake), longer feeding and sitting times, lower defecation frequency (p < 0.05), and similar rumination efficiency. In conclusion, complete replacement of conventional RS with BF-based silage reduced rumination and chewing activity in growing Hanwoo heifers, and BF-based silage feeding with large-particle straw is an effective approach in improving heifer behavior.

  13. Replacing groundnut cake with gluten meals of rice and maize in diets for growing Sahiwal cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq A. Malik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment investigated the effect of isonitrogenous replacement of groundnut cake (GNC by rice gluten meal (RGM and maize gluten meal (MGM at 75% level on nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, growth performance and related blood constituents in growing Sahiwal cattle. Methods Eighteen Sahiwal calves were divided into three groups, based on average body weight (87.24 kg and age (6 to 12 mo, and treatments were assigned to the different groups randomly. The first group (GP-I was kept as control and received GNC-based concentrate mixture. In second (GP-II and third (GP-III groups, 750 g/kg nitrogen (N of GNC was substituted by RGM and MGM respectively, with similar forage:concentrate ratio (56:44. Results The 90 days of experimental feeding revealed that intake of dry matter, crude protein and digestibility coefficients for all nutrients did not differ among groups. Furthermore, although N balance was greater (p≤0.05 for GP-III than GP-I and GP-II, average daily gain was similar between GP-I and GP-II but greater (p≤0.05 for GP-III. In addition, feed efficiency and related haematological variables did not differ due to treatments. Conclusion Nutritional worth of GNC and RGM was highly comparable in terms of intake, digestibility and growth in growing calves. However, MGM was found to be more efficacious in improving growth rate than RGM at 75% replacement level of GNC protein.

  14. Tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states: where tobacco was king.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: The tobacco companies prioritized blocking tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states and partnered with tobacco farmers to oppose tobacco-control policies. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, which settled state litigation against the cigarette companies, the 2004 tobacco-quota buyout, and the companies' increasing use of foreign tobacco led to a rift between the companies and tobacco farmers. In 2003, the first comprehensive smoke-free local law was passed in a major tobacco-growing state, and there has been steady progress in the region since then. Health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in tobacco-growing states, notably the major reduction in the volume of tobacco produced. The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states' passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke

  15. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  16. Three-body vertices with two-body techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, A.N.; Sharma, V.K.

    1976-01-01

    It has long been recognized that vertex functions for few particle systems provide a convenient medium for the analysis of reactions in the language of Feynman diagrams, analogously to elementary particle processes. The development of three-particle theory during the last decade has provided considerably more impetus for the use of the language of three-body vertex functions through the possibility of their 'exact' evaluations with only two-body input. While three-body vertices are probably superfluous for the description of only three-body processes (for which exact amplitudes are already available) their practical usefulness often extends to reactions involving more than three-particle systems (for which 'exact' amplitudes are still a distant goal), as long as such systems can be meaningfully described in terms of not more than three particles playing the active role. This paper investigates a simplified construction of three-body vertices. This must check against their standard definition as overlap integral. Unfortunately this definition involves a non-trivial normalization of three-body wave functions with realistic NN potentials, and has little practical scope for extension beyond A=3. (Auth.)

  17. Influence of different fibre sources on digestibility and nitrogen and energy balances in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2006-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate how three different fibre sources, sugar beet pulp, soya bean hulls and pectin residue, constituting 15% of diets for growing pigs, influenced daily body gain, feed conversion, apparent faecal digestibility and nitrogen and energy balances. Eight......) and energy were significantly lower for the fibre diets (OM: 0.81-0.85; energy: 0.78-0.83) compared to the control diet (OM: 0.88; energy: 0.86). The apparent faecal digestibility of crude protein (CP) was lower for the fibre diets (0.71-0.78) compared to the control diet (0.83), although it was only...... significantly lower for the sugar beet pulp and pectin residue diets. The pectin residue diet, which contained the highest amount of dietary fibre, lignin and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides, had the lowest digestibility of OM, CP and energy. There was a tendency (p = 0.07) for a diet effect on retained...

  18. Development of a PBL Parameterization Scheme for the Tropical Cyclone Model and an Improved Magnetospheric Model for Magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-25

    jM 1.25(W P Il~ II I [ 6 :, LEVd~5 I ~JAMMOR jkppovo reecm * 1 L81 31 042 300 Unicorn Park Drive Wobum, Massachuset 0C601 _ __ _JA YCOR DEVELOPMENT...sensible and latent heat exchanges in S, however, grow steadily after 10 hr and finally reach 15 x 1012W and 3 cm d-! respectively, whereas in D1, the...sensible and latent heat exchanges only grow to maxima of 7.5 x 1012W and 1.8 cm d-I after 30 h. After the maxima are reached, they decrease with time

  19. Carotid body (Thermoreceptors, sympathetic neural activation, and cardiometabolic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Iturriaga

    Full Text Available The carotid body (CB is the main peripheral chemoreceptor that senses the arterial PO2, PCO2 and pH. In response to hypoxemia, hypercapnia and acidosis, carotid chemosensory discharge elicits reflex respiratory, autonomic and cardiovascular adjustments. The classical construct considers the CB as the main peripheral oxygen sensor, triggering reflex physiological responses to acute hypoxemia and facilitating the ventilatory acclimation to chronic hypoxemia at high altitude. However, a growing body of experimental evidence supports the novel concept that an abnormally enhanced CB chemosensory input to the brainstem contributes to overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system, and consequent pathology. Indeed, the CB has been implicated in several diseases associated with increases in central sympathetic outflow. These include hypertension, heart failure, sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and metabolic syndrome. Indeed, ablation of the CB has been proposed for the treatment of severe and resistant hypertension in humans. In this review, we will analyze and discuss new evidence supporting an important role for the CB chemoreceptor in the progression of autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations induced by heart failure, obstructive sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and metabolic syndrome.

  20. Metal toxicity in a sediment-dwelling polychaete: Threshold body concentrations or overwhelming accumulation rates?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmen Casado-Martinez, M.; Smith, Brian D.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Rainbow, Philip S.

    2010-01-01

    We followed the net accumulation of As, Cu and Zn in the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina exposed in the laboratory to natural metal-contaminated sediments, one exposure leading to mass mortality between day 10 and 20, and the other not causing lethality over a period of 60 days of exposure. The worms showed lower total accumulated metal concentrations just before mortality occurred (<20 days) at the lethal exposure, than after 30 days of exposure to sediments not causing mortality. Moreover rates of accumulation of As, Cu and Zn were significantly higher in the lethal exposure than in the sublethal exposure. Our results show that it is not possible to link mortality to a critical total body concentration, and we add to a growing body of literature indicating that metal toxicity occurs when organisms cannot cope with overwhelming influx and subsequent accumulation rates. - Laboratory exposures with the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina suggest that toxicity is not caused by the accumulated concentration of toxic metals in the body of the animal, but by the rate at which the toxic metal is accumulated.

  1. Estimation of lead, cadmium and nickel content by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in dry fruit bodies of some macromycetes growing in Poland. II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grzybek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The content of lead, cadmium, and nickel in dry fruit bodies of 34 species of macromyoetes collected in Poland from 72 natural babitats by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS was estimated.

  2. Effects of different space allowances on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality in a grow-to-finish production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was conducted to evaluate the optimal space allowance on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs. Methods A total of ninety crossbred pigs [(Yorkshire×Landrace×Duroc, 30.25±1.13 kg] were allocated into three treatments (0.96: four pigs/pen, 0.96 m2/pig; 0.80: five pigs/pen, 0.80 m2/pig; 0.69: six pigs/pen, 0.69 m2/pig in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were housed in balanced sex and had free access to feed in all phases for 14 weeks (growing phase I, growing phase II, finishing phase I, and finishing phase II. Results There was no statistical difference in growing phase, but a linear decrease was observed on average daily gain (ADG, p<0.01, average daily feed intake (ADFI, p<0.01, and body weight (BW, p<0.01 with decreasing space allowance in late finishing phase. On the other hand, a quadratic effect was observed on gain to feed ratio in early finishing phase (p<0.03. Consequently, overall ADG, ADFI, and final BW linearly declined in response to decreased space allowance (p<0.01. The pH of pork had no significant difference in 1 hour after slaughter, whereas there was a linear decrease in 24 h after slaughter with decreasing space allowance. Floor area allowance did not affect pork colors, but shear force linearly increased as floor space decreased (p<0.01. There was a linear increase in serum cortisol concentration on 14 week (p<0.05 with decreased space allocation. Serum IgG was linearly ameliorated as space allowance increased on 10 week (p<0.05 and 14 week (p<0.01. Conclusion Data from current study indicated that stress derived from reduced space allowance deteriorates the immune system as well as growth performance of pigs, resulting in poor pork quality. Recommended adequate space allowance in a grow-to-finish production system is more than 0.80 m2/pig for maximizing growth performance and production efficiency.

  3. Torsion of a growing shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Manzhirov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The torsion of a shaft by rigid disks is considered. The shaft has the form of circular cylinder. Two rigid disks are attached to its end faces. The process of continuous growth of such shaft under the influence of twisting torques applied to the disks is studied. Dual series equations which reflect the mathematical content of the problem at the different stages of the growing process are derived and solved. Results of the numerical analysis and singularities of the qualitative mechanical behaviour of the fundamental characteristics are discussed.

  4. Growing Healthy Bodies: Nutrition Education for Day Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viebrock, Margaret A.; Berry, Holly

    This booklet discusses the important role that day care providers can play in ensuring that children eat healthy snacks and meals and learn good eating habits. Section one of the booklet examines snack foods, discusses the difference between nutritious and less-nutritious snacks, and recommends snack foods appropriate for different age groups.…

  5. 2007 Biomass Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Biomass Program is actively working with public and private partners to meet production and technology needs. With the corn ethanol market growing steadily, researchers are unlocking the potential of non-food biomass sources, such as switchgrass and forest and agricultural residues. In this way, the Program is helping to ensure that cost-effective technologies will be ready to support production goals for advanced biofuels.

  6. A producer survey on Turkish furniture industry

    OpenAIRE

    Öğün, Emir Polat

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Management and Graduate School of Business Administration of Bilkent Univ., 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 79-80. Turkish furniture industry has been growing steadily since the liberalization of Turkish economy in early 1980’s. However, the industry faces some technological and economical problems which affects the competitiveness of the firms in the global market. The major problems ...

  7. Seven challenges in modeling vaccine preventable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J.E. Metcalf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination has been one of the most successful public health measures since the introduction of basic sanitation. Substantial mortality and morbidity reductions have been achieved via vaccination against many infections, and the list of diseases that are potentially controllable by vaccines is growing steadily. We introduce key challenges for modeling in shaping our understanding and guiding policy decisions related to vaccine preventable diseases.

  8. Simulated body-fluid tests and electrochemical investigations on biocompatibility of metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.H.; Huang, C.H.; Chuang, J.F.; Lee, H.C.; Liu, M.C.; Du, X.H.; Huang, J.C.; Jang, J.S.C.; Chen, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the in-vitro and electrochemical investigations of four metallic glasses (MGs) for finding potential MG-based bio-materials. The simulation body-fluid Hanks solution is utilized for testing the corrosion resistance of MGs, and microorganisms of Escherichia coli are used in testing the bio-toxicity. In addition, a simple cyclic voltammetry method is used for rapid verification of the potential electrochemical responses. It is found that the Zr-based MG can sustain in the body-fluid, exhibiting the best corrosion resistance and electrochemical stability. The microbiologic test shows that E. coli can grow on the surface of the Zr-based metallic glass, confirming the low cell toxicity of this Zr-based MG. Highlights: ► Vanadium is added in Cu–Zr–Al alloy to induce B2-CuZr formation. ► The more induced B2-CuZr phase can improve compressive plasticity. ► The plasticity improvement might be caused by B2 phase dynamic coarsening.

  9. Implicit Beliefs about Ideal Body Image Predict Body Image Dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas eHeider

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin. Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential influence on the two IRAP scores. Specifically, the implicit belief that one is thin was lower in participants who exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction than in participants who exhibited a low degree of body dissatisfaction. In contrast, the implicit desire to be thin (i.e., thin ideal body image was stronger in participants who exhibited a high level of body dissatisfaction than in participants who were less dissatisfied with their body. Adding further weight to the idea that both IRAP measures captured different underlying constructs, we also observed that they correlated differently with body mass index, explicit body dissatisfaction, and explicit measures of actual and ideal body image. More generally, these findings underscore the advantage of using implicit measures that incorporate relational information relative to implicit measures that allow for an assessment of associative relations only.

  10. Effect of growing media, sowing depth, and hot water treatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To optimize seedling production for reforestation of degraded dryland with A. senegal seeds, a study was conducted on the effect of boiled water treatment, growing media, sowing depth on seed germination and seedling growth of A. senegal. Three different growing media (farm soil, forest soil and sand soil), boiled water ...

  11. Rapidly Growing Esophageal Carcinosarcoma Reduced by Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy Alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naotaka Ogasawara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal carcinosarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm consisting of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. It is generally treated by surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy according to the protocols used for other esophageal cancers. However, the treatment of esophageal carcinosarcoma by radiotherapy alone before surgery has not been previously described. We report a patient with a rapidly growing esophageal carcinosarcoma that was efficiently reduced by neoadjuvant radiotherapy alone. A previously healthy 69-year-old man was admitted with dysphagia. Initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed a small nodular polypoid lesion of about 10 mm in the middle esophagus. A second EGD 1 month later showed that the tumor had expanded into a huge mass. A biopsy specimen revealed that the tumor comprised squamous cell carcinoma with spindle cell components, and the tumor was diagnosed as carcinosarcoma which was diagnosed as stage I (T1bN0M0. Due to renal dysfunction, the patient was treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy (40 Gy without chemotherapy. A third EGD 1 month later revealed remarkable tumor reduction. He then underwent total esophagectomy with regional lymph node dissection (pStage 0, pT1aN0M0. After surgical operation, the patient was followed up without adjuvant therapy. Whole body computed tomography revealed lung metastasis 14 months after surgery, and the patient died 2 months later. The neoadjuvant radiotherapy for esophageal carcinosarcoma was considered to have contributed to the subsequent surgery and his prolonged survival time. Thus, radiotherapy alone might be a suitable neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal carcinosarcomas.

  12. Leadership Makes a Difference Growing Federal Civilian Leaders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muellerweiss, Alice

    2008-01-01

    .... Research indicates that currently our government does not grow effective leaders. Often those "rising to the top" are technical experts with minimal leadership experiences, mostly unacquainted with the fundamentals of leadership...

  13. Making Growth Work for Women in Low-income Countries (GrOW ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project is part of the Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women (GrOW) program. GrOW is a five-year, multi-funder partnership with the UK's Department for International Development (DFID), The William ... In addition to 10 projects addressing the barriers to women's economic ... Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  14. Struggling bodies and body struggles: explorations of body and religion in contemporary Nordic film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Sjö

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on representations of the body and religion in Nordic film. The aim is to illustrate the kinds of representations of religion and the body that can be found in contemporary Nordic films, demonstrate how these representations relate to religion, the body and film more generally, and explore what perceptions of and attitudes to the body and religion the representations suggest. The analysis begins with an introduction to religion and film studies, religion in Nordic film and the themes and films chosen for this study. After this a short overview of earlier studies dealing with the body, film, and religion is presented, before delving into the issue of the body and religion in Nordic film. The article is concluded by reflecting on the more over-arching ideas and attitudes that the material can be argued to point to and the possible changes and challenges the films express.

  15. 7 CFR 319.37-8 - Growing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plants) established solely on tree fern slabs, coconut husks, coconut fiber, new clay pots, or new wooden...) Approved growing media are baked expanded clay pellets, coal cinder, coir, cork, glass wool, organic and... this section; (ii) Grown solely in a greenhouse in which sanitary procedures adequate to exclude plant...

  16. A Maze Game on Android Using Growing Tree Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrawan, Y. F.

    2018-01-01

    A maze is a type of puzzle games where a player moves in complex and branched passages to find a particular target or location. One method to create a maze is the Growing Tree method. The method creates a tree that has branches which are the paths of a maze. This research explored three types of Growing Tree method implementations for maze generation on Android mobile devices. The layouts produced could be played in first and third-person perspectives. The experiment results showed that it took 17.3 seconds on average to generate 20 cells x 20 cells dynamic maze layouts.

  17. Cluster growing process and a sequence of magic numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Greiner, Walter

    2003-01-01

    demonstrate that in this way all known global minimum structures of the Lennard-Jones (LJ) clusters can be found. Our method provides an efficient tool for the calculation and analysis of atomic cluster structure. With its use we justify the magic number sequence for the clusters of noble gas atoms......We present a new theoretical framework for modeling the cluster growing process. Starting from the initial tetrahedral cluster configuration, adding new atoms to the system, and absorbing its energy at each step, we find cluster growing paths up to the cluster sizes of more than 100 atoms. We...

  18. Integrative cardiology-state of the art of mind body therapies for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Lopez Abel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mind-body therapies are a heterogeneous group of interventions that seek to improve multiple aspects of somatic health by focusing on interactions between mental factors and physiological functions. There is a growing interest in modern Western culture in these forms of alternative medicine. Most of these therapies exert their effects via stress control. Induction of the relaxation response via neurohormonal, endocrine and immunological pathways may have beneficial effects in a variety of conditions, including oncological, neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular pathologies. Several randomized controlled trials have produced promising results, supporting a complementary role of mind-body therapies for both the prevention and treatment of the most prevalent cardiovascular problems.

  19. Body Talk: Body Image Commentary on Queerty.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Grimm, Josh

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we conducted a content analysis of 243 photographic images of men published on the gay male-oriented blog Queerty.com. We also analyzed 435 user-generated comments from a randomly selected 1-year sample. Focusing on images' body types, we found that the range of body types featured on the blog was quite narrow-the vast majority of images had very low levels of body fat and very high levels of muscularity. Users' body image-related comments typically endorsed and celebrated images; critiques of images were comparatively rare. Perspectives from objectification theory and social comparison theory suggest that the images and commentary found on the blog likely reinforce unhealthy body image in gay male communities.

  20. The effects of different pot length and growing media on seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine appropriate pot length and growing medium for Crimean Juniper seedlings (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.), which will be used for afforestation of extreme areas. For this purpose, polyethylene pots of 11 cm width and 20, 25 and 30 cm lengths were used. As growing medium, 13 different ...

  1. Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, T.; Bula, R.; Corey, R.; Morrow, R.

    1988-01-01

    Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2

  2. How fast do eels grow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, H.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Not so very much about the growth pattern of the eel is known yet. Eels move about nearly all the time. They are thus very difficult to follow and we do not, for examble, yet know how long it actually takes for them to grow to maturity in the wild. So far, a macroscopic analysis of the number of bright and dark areas (growth rings) in the 'earstones' has been used to determine eel age, but this method was recently challenged. Use of radioisotopes has been suggested previously for this purpose. For this present study the rare earth elements, europium-152 and europium-155 are used. When incubated in artificial sea water, a satisfactory final radioactive label was achieved. Two experiments were planned in collaboration with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. 2000 Elvers were set out in 1982, in the cooling water outlet of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant, each marked with europium-155. In 1984 another 10 000 elvers labelled with europium-152 were set out under similar conditions. The idea was mainly to see how fast the eels would grow, and to compare their known age with that determined by examining the earstones. Results showed that there was no clear-cut correlation between actual eel age and the biological age determination used so far. During four years, only 10 of the original 1300 eels were recaptured. It is thus hard to say anything definite from our results on the viability of setting out elvers in the environment

  3. Root growth of perennials in vertical growing media for use in green walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars; Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The vertical orientation of green walls causes a risk of uneven water distribution within the growing medium, and thereby stress on the plant roots. Therefore it was studied how the root and top growth of different species were affected by the water holding characteristics of the growing media....... Five species of hardy perennials (Campanula poscharskyana ‘Stella’, Fragaria vesca ‘Småland’, Geranium sanguineum ‘Max Frei’, Sesleria heufleriana and Veronica officinalis ‘Allgrün’) were grown in 3 types of growing media (coir and 2 of rockwool) in vertical boxes under greenhouse conditions. Root...... distribution was registered over 52 days and the activity of individual root systems was studied via 15N uptake and plant parameters were measured. The water holding characteristics of the growing media was determined on a sandbox. From day 21 and throughout the experiment, the plants growing in the coir...

  4. UTILIZATION OF AMINO ACIDS OF BROKEN RICE IN GROWING PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Brestenský

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The six cannulated gilts (initial body weight 35.8 ± 0.5 kg fitted with a T-cannula in terminal ileum, were used to determine the apparent (AID and standardized (SID ileal digestibility of nitrogen (N and amino acids (AA in broken rice. Animals were fed twice daily in a two equal doses at a daily rate of 80 g.kg - 0.75. Water was offered ad libitum. The tested feed was the sole source of protein in the diet. The N-free diet was used to determine the ileal endogenous flow of AA and N. Chromium oxide (Cr2O3 was added to the diets as an indigestible marker in an amount of 0.3 % per kg of diet. After a 14 d postoperative period a 6 d adaptation period followed during which the animals were fed with an experimental diet. On d 7 ileal digesta was collected continuously for 24 h. The AID and SID of AA and N were calculated using analytically determined values of N, Cr2O3 and AA. The SID of AA was in a range from 81.6 % (tyrosine to 112.6 % (proline (P 0.05, respectively. There were no differences between standardized ileal digestibility of essential amino acids (94.3 % and nonessential amino acids (95.3 %. Regarding the ileal digestibility of AA, broken rice, a by-product from the food industry, is an appropriate source of digestible AA for growing pigs.

  5. Modified methods for growing 3-D skin equivalents: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Rebecca; Ambler, Carrie A

    2014-01-01

    Artificial epidermis can be reconstituted in vitro by seeding primary epidermal cells (keratinocytes) onto a supportive substrate and then growing the developing skin equivalent at the air-liquid interface. In vitro skin models are widely used to study skin biology and for industrial drug and cosmetic testing. Here, we describe updated methods for growing 3-dimensional skin equivalents using de-vitalized, de-epidermalized dermis (DED) substrates including methods for DED substrate preparation, cell seeding, growth conditions, and fixation procedures.

  6. Tales of healthy men: male reproductive bodies in biomedicine from 'Lebensborn' to sperm banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Using the example of 'sperm tales', borne out of the biomedical technologies that went hand in hand with the establishment of the 'science of man' (andrology), the article engages with the epistemic evolution of interrelated biomedical theories and concepts of what constitutes a 'healthy' reproductive male body. The article asks: how has the normative ideal male body been either perpetuated or interrogated through these tales of male reproduction at the interface between scientific and medical technologies? And how were changes to the normalization of male bodies central to clinical practices and cultural understandings of health and illness? With many aspects of the medical history of male reproduction in the 20th century still unexplored, this article will focus on the growing intervention of biomedicine to 'treat' male infertility by way of the classification, standardization and normalization of male corporeality, focusing in particular on the representation and construction of men and the male body, as reflected in medical science and practice from the second half of the 20th century onwards in Germany. The article analyses the rise in importance of sperm in biomedical investigation, including a consideration of the construction of infertility as the defining force behind concepts of 'healthy men', and examines the related conceptualization of male reproductive bodies at the crossroad between 'healthy' and 'normal'. It is argued that the ideal of male reproduction as being inherently healthy has lost ground. By the late 20th century, male bodies have become vulnerable, at least as represented in medical science and technology.

  7. Body weight prediction of Brakmas and Bali cattle using body measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Hafiz, A.W.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the rural areas facilities for farm animal weighing are often difficult to find and the construction of such facilities is relatively expensive. Therefore a study was conducted with the objective to estimate body weight of Brakmas and Bali cattle using prediction equations of linear body measurements. Data of body weight and body measurements, namely withers height, body length and heart girth from 279 heads of Brakmas (age 1 to 10 y old and 74 heads of Bali (age 1 to 10 y old cows were collected. The animals were in average body condition of 3 (1= emaciated, 3= moderate fat cover, and 5= excess fat cover. The correlation analysis showed that body weight of Brakmas cattle was highly correlated with its body length, heart girth and withers height with the correlation coefficients of 0.967, 0.964 and 0.942, respectively, while body weight in Bali cattle had the highest correlation with heart girth followed by body length and height at withers with the correlation coefficient of 0.985, 0.954 and 0.945, respectively. Regression analysis showed that body length provided a good estimate of live body weight with high precision as it accounted for 91.6% of the variability in body weight in Brakmas cattle, while heart girth accounted 97.1% of body weight variability in Bali cattle. The combination of body length-withers height, body length-heart girth and body length-withers height-heart girth showed an improvement in terms of predictive precision with the changes of 0.21%, 0.21% and 0.44%, respectively, in coeficient of determination (R2 compared to a single measure of body length in Brakmas cattle. The combination of heart girth-body length did not show any change in R2 in Bali cattle compared to a single measure of heart girth. Combining heart girth-height at withers and the combination of all body measurements showed the increment in coefficients of determination at 0.41% and 0.51%, respectively as compared to heart girth. Although the combination

  8. Embodying prostheses - how to let the body welcome assistive devices. Comment on "The embodiment of assistive devices-from wheelchair to exoskeleton" by M. Pazzaglia and M. Molinari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R.; Sadibolova, Renata; Tamè, Luigi

    2016-03-01

    A growing body of research has focused on the development of assistive devises to improve the recovery and ameliorate the quality of life of people suffering from spinal cord injuries (SCI). In their stimulating and timely paper, Pazzaglia and Molinari [1] review the significant progress made by biotechnology studies in providing increasing sophisticated assistive tools (e.g., prostheses and exoskeletons) that extend the functionality of patients' bodies. However, despite this extraordinary technological effort [2], it remains uncertain how these devices can be appropriately embedded into the mental representation of the body. Here, we wish to amplify the points raised by Pazzaglia and Molinari by discussing three challenges facing work on embodying prostheses raised by experimental research on body representation.

  9. The protective role of body appreciation against media-induced body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the protective role of positive body image against negative effects produced by viewing thin-idealised media. University women (N=68) completed trait measures of body appreciation and media protective strategies. At a subsequent session, participants viewed 11 thin-ideal advertisements. Body dissatisfaction was assessed before and after advertisement exposure, and state measures of self-objectification, appearance comparison, and media protective strategies were completed. Results indicated that body appreciation predicted less change in body dissatisfaction following exposure, such that participants with low body appreciation experienced increased body dissatisfaction, while those with high body appreciation did not. Although state appearance comparison predicted increased body dissatisfaction, neither state self-objectification nor appearance comparison accounted for body appreciation's protective effect. Trait and state media protective strategies positively correlated with body appreciation, but also did not account for body appreciation's protective effect. The results point to intervention targets and highlight future research directions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Loop corrections and other many-body effects in relativistic field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, T.L.; Brown, G.E.; Prakash, M.; Weise, W.

    1988-01-01

    Incorporation of effective masses into negative energy states (nucleon loop corrections) gives rise to repulsive many-body forces, as has been known for some time. Rather than renormalizing away the three- and four-body terms, we introduce medium corrections into the effective σ-exchange, which roughly cancel the nucleon loop terms for densities ρ ≅ ρ nm , where ρ nm is nuclear matter density. Going to higher densities, the repulsive contributions tend to saturate whereas the attractive ones keep on growing in magnitude. The latter is achieved through use of a density-dependent effective mass for the σ-particle, m σ = m σ (ρ), such that m σ (ρ) decreases with increasing density. Such a behavior is seen e.g. in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. It is argued that a smooth transition to chiral restoration implies a similar behavior. The resulting nuclear equation of state is, because of the self-consistency in the problem, immensely insensitive to changes in the mass or coupling constant of the σ-particle. (orig.)

  11. The effects of beta-adrenergic blockade on body composition in free-fed and diet-restricted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L L; Doan, T D; Lennon, D L; Nagle, F J; Lardy, H A

    1987-04-01

    The effects of the non-selective beta-adrenergic blocking agent propranolol (known for its anti-lipolytic activity) on body composition were investigated in growing male rats on normal unrestricted diet (N = 7) and on diet restriction (N = 7, 95% of controls). Three animals in each group were injected i.p. with 30 mg propranolol per kg body weight (bw) dissolved in saline, 5 days/week. This dose attenuates exercising heart rate by 25% and exercise training-induced enzyme activity. The remaining animals received saline. Fat, glycogen, moisture and non-ether extractable residue were determined in the homogenized residue of the whole animal. After 9 weeks on the experimental regimen, bw gain was significantly lower in the diet restricted rats, whereas propranolol had no effect on the bw gain. The percentage of fat, moisture and non-ether extractable residue were unchanged by either propranolol or diet restriction. However, glycogen content was significantly lower in the beta-blocked rats either with or without diet restriction. These data indicated that neither beta-adrenergic blockade nor minimal diet restriction influences the percentage body fat, whereas body glycogen content is decreased under both conditions.

  12. 14. Policies and Institutions - Nongovernmental organizations: A growing force in the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livernash, R.; Paden, M.

    1992-01-01

    An extraordinarily diverse and growing body of private organizations now dot the world's institutional landscape, working in a variety of areas such as small-scale local development, the conservation of tropical forests, and sustainable agriculture. Working at many levels, through example or advocacy these groups are influencing the direction of environment and development policy around the world. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are extraordinarily diverse. This chapter provides a few examples to capture some of that diversity, but focuses mainly on the strengths and weaknesses of NGOs, on the relationship between governments and NGOs, and on some emerging trends. The chapter primarily concerns the newly emerging grassroots and service NGOs in developing countries and those Northern NGOs that work extensively in developing countries. Topics discussed are: origins and regional differences (northern NGOs with a mission in the south, Asia, Latin America, Africa); strengths and weaknesses; key organizational factors (getting started, getting bigger, the impact of leadership, the role of women); government-NGO relations; emerging trends (evolving North-South relations, networks and associations - forging larger alliances, the information explosion global networking, new roles for policy research and legal defense)

  13. Growing evening primroses (Oenothera)

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Stephan; Köhl, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The model plant Oenothera has contributed significantly to the biological sciences and it dominated the early development of plant genetics, cytogenetics, and evolutionary biology. The great advantage of using Oenothera as a model system is a large body of genetic, cytological, morphological, and ecological information collected over more than a century. The Oenothera system offers a well-studied taxonomy, population structure, and ecology. Cytogenetics and formal genetics at the population l...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the removal of ... foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the removal of ...

  15. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we did some preliminary characterization of six slow growing rhizobial strains, isolated from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran (CapeFalcon, Bousfer and MersElHadjadj) in Northwestern Algeria. Results of this study showed that all strains had a very ...

  16. Body integrity identity disorder: deranged body processing, right fronto-parietal dysfunction, and phenomenological experience of body incongruity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giummarra, Melita J; Bradshaw, John L; Nicholls, Michael E R; Hilti, Leonie M; Brugger, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is characterised by profound experience of incongruity between the biological and desired body structure. The condition manifests in "non-belonging" of body parts, and the subsequent desire to amputate, paralyse or disable a limb. Little is known about BIID; however, a neuropsychological model implicating right fronto-parietal and insular networks is emerging, with potential disruption to body representation. We argue that, as there is scant systematic research on BIID published to date and much of the research is methodologically weak, it is premature to assume that the only process underlying bodily experience that is compromised is body representation. The present review systematically investigates which aspects of neurological processing of the body, and sense of self, may be compromised in BIID. We argue that the disorder most likely reflects dysregulation in multiple levels of body processing. That is, the disunity between self and the body could arguably come about through congenital and/or developmental disruption of body representations, which, together with altered multisensory integration, may preclude the experience of self-attribution and embodiment of affected body parts. Ulimately, there is a need for official diagnostic criteria to facilitate epidemiological characterisation of BIID, and for further research to systematically investigate which aspects of body representation and processing are truly compromised in the disorder.

  17. Foreign Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SearchingPediatrics.com Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Foreign Body Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... I call the doctor? What is a foreign body? A foreign body is when an object is ...

  18. Effective dose estimation in whole-body multislice CT in paediatric trauma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munk, Robin D.; Saueressig, Ulrich; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Bley, Thorsten A. [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Strohm, Peter C.; Zwingmann, Joern; Suedkamp, Norbert P. [University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Uhl, Markus [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Paediatric Radiology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    The number of multislice CT (MSCT) scans performed in polytraumatized children has increased rapidly. There is growing concern regarding the radiation dose in MSCT and its long-term consequences, especially in children. To determine the effective dose to polytraumatized children who undergo whole-body MSCT. A total of 51 traumatized children aged 0-16 years underwent a polytrauma protocol CT scan between November 2004 and August 2006 at our institution. The effective dose was calculated retrospectively by a computer program (CT-Expo 1.5, Hannover, Germany). The mean effective dose was 20.8 mSv (range 8.6-48.9 mSv, SD{+-}7.9 mSv). There was no statistically significant difference in the effective dose between male and female patients. Whole-body MSCT is a superior diagnostic tool in polytraumatized children with 20.8 mSv per patient being a justified mean effective dose. In a potentially life-threatening situation whole-body MSCT provides the clinicians with relevant information to initiate life-saving therapy. Radiologists should use special paediatric protocols that include dose-saving mechanisms to keep the effective dose as low as possible. Further studies are needed to examine and advance dose-saving strategies in MSCT, especially in children. (orig.)

  19. Body integrity identity disorder: the persistent desire to acquire a physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Michael B; Fisher, Carl E

    2012-01-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is a rare and unusual psychiatric condition characterized by a persistent desire to acquire a physical disability (e.g., amputation, paraplegia) since childhood that to date has not been formally described in the psychiatric nosology. Most BIID sufferers experience a chronic and dysphoric sense of inappropriateness regarding their being able-bodied, and many have been driven to actualize their desired disability through surreptitious surgical or other more dangerous methods. This review aims to characterize the history and phenomenology of this condition, to present its differential diagnosis, and to consider possible etiologies, treatment options, and ethical considerations. Review of the psychiatric and neurological literature. A growing body of data suggests the existence of a discrete entity with onset by early adolescence and a negative impact on functioning. Parallel neurological conditions and preliminary experimental investigations suggest a possible neurobiological component in at least a portion of cases. While attempts at treatment have been described, no systematic evidence for efficacy has emerged. BIID is a unique nosological entity with significant consequences for its sufferers and as such may warrant inclusion in some form in the forthcoming DSM-5 and ICD-11. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Nucleoli from growing oocytes inhibit the maturation of enucleolated, full-grown oocytes in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyogoku, Hirohisa; Ogushi, Sugako; Miyano, Takashi; Fulka, Josef

    2011-06-01

    In mammals, the nucleolus of full-grown oocyte is essential for embryonic development but not for oocyte maturation. In our study, the role of the growing oocyte nucleolus in oocyte maturation was examined by nucleolus removal and/or transfer into previously enucleolated, growing (around 100 µm in diameter) or full-grown (120 µm) pig oocytes. In the first experiment, the nucleoli were aspirated from growing oocytes whose nucleoli had been compacted by actinomycin D treatment, and the enucleolated oocytes were matured in vitro. Most of non-treated or actinomycin D-treated oocytes did not undergo germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD; 13% and 12%, respectively). However, the GVBD rate of enucleolated, growing oocytes significantly increased to 46%. The low GVBD rate of enucleolated, growing oocytes was restored again by the re-injection of nucleoli from growing oocytes (23%), but not when nucleoli from full-grown oocytes were re-injected into enucleolated, growing oocytes (49%). When enucleolated, full-grown oocytes were injected with nucleoli from growing or full-grown oocytes, the nucleolus in the germinal vesicle was reassembled (73% and 60%, respectively). After maturation, the enucleolated, full-grown oocytes injected with nucleoli from full-grown oocytes matured to metaphase II (56%), whereas injection with growing-oocyte nucleoli reduced this maturation to 21%. These results suggest that the growing-oocyte nucleolus is involved in the oocyte's meiotic arrest, and that the full-grown oocyte nucleolus has lost the ability. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Metabolic profile in growing buffalo heifers fed diet with different energy content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gasparrini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to verify the relation among the mediators and indicators of nutritional status like insulin, glucagon, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides and total proteins in growing buffalo heifers, fed diets with different energy density. 12 Murrah heifers were randomly allocated into two dietary treatments (High, Group H; Low, Group L that differed in energetic levels (Group H: 5.8 UFL/d; Group L: 3.6 UFL/d. Every 30 days, for a total of five times, blood samples were collected at 08.00 h, before feeding, from the jugular vein in vacutainer tubes and analysed to determine metabolic profile. Data on haematic constants were analysed by ANOVA for repeated measures with treatment as the main factor. Low energy availability and low NSC reduced the glucose and insulin and increased glucagone and urea blood levels. The increase of NSC in the diet of group H during the experiment may caused a reduction of the fibre digestibility after the period of adaptation of the rumen microflora and, as a paradox effect, suffered for an energetic lack with a subsequent activation of lipolysis and mobilization of their body reserves. Liver and muscular synthesis increase in group with a high energy availability.

  2. Biological mechanisms discriminating growth rate and adult body weight phenotypes in two Chinese indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Tengfei; Zhao, Sumei; Rong, Hua; Gu, Dahai; Li, Qihua; Huang, Ying; Xu, Zhiqiang; Chu, Xiaohui; Tao, Linli; Liu, Lixian; Ge, Changrong; Te Pas, Marinus F W; Jia, Junjing

    2017-06-20

    Intensive selection has resulted in increased growth rates and muscularity in broiler chickens, in addition to adverse effects, including delayed organ development, sudden death syndrome, and altered metabolic rates. The biological mechanisms underlying selection responses remain largely unknown. Non-artificially-selected indigenous Chinese chicken breeds display a wide variety of phenotypes, including differential growth rate, body weight, and muscularity. The Wuding chicken breed is a fast growing large chicken breed, and the Daweishan mini chicken breed is a slow growing small chicken breed. Together they form an ideal model system to study the biological mechanisms underlying broiler chicken selection responses in a natural system. The objective of this study was to study the biological mechanisms underlying differential phenotypes between the two breeds in muscle and liver tissues, and relate these to the growth rate and body development phenotypes of the two breeds. The muscle tissue in the Wuding breed showed higher expression of muscle development genes than muscle tissue in the Daweishan chicken breed. This expression was accompanied by higher expression of acute inflammatory response genes in Wuding chicken than in Daweishan chicken. The muscle tissue of the Daweishan mini chicken breed showed higher expression of genes involved in several metabolic mechanisms including endoplasmic reticulum, protein and lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, as well as specific immune traits than in the Wuding chicken. The liver tissue showed fewer differences between the two breeds. Genes displaying higher expression in the Wuding breed than in the Daweishan breed were not associated with a specific gene network or biological mechanism. Genes highly expressed in the Daweishan mini chicken breed compared to the Wuding breed were enriched for protein metabolism, ABC receptors, signal transduction, and IL6-related mechanisms. We conclude that faster growth rates and larger

  3. But How Do You Grow Plants Without Dirt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Ronald F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a class project on hydroponic farming (growing plants in water and in organic nutrients rather than dirt). Students formed a corporation to raise necessary funds and paid dividends from the proceeds earned selling the crop. (JMB)

  4. Influence of cereal non-starch polysaccharides on ileo-caecal and rectal microbial populations in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Ann; Lindberg, Jan; Leser, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The effect of cereal non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) on the gut microbial populations was studied in 5 growing pigs between 39-116 kg body weight according to a Latin square design. The diets were composed to contain different NSP levels. The control diet had a normal NSP content (139 g/kg dry...... matter (DM)), 2 diets had a low total amount of NSP (95 and 107 g/kg DM) and 2 diets had a high amount of total NSP (191 and 199 g/kg DM). Furthermore, one of the diets within each category had a content of insoluble NSP similar to the control diet and one had a high content of insoluble NSP. Samples...... were collected from the ileum, via intestinal post valve T-caecum (PVTC) cannulas surgically inserted at the ileo-caecal ostium, and from the rectum. The total microbial flora of the ileal samples were analysed for by defining base pair length with terminal restriction fraction length polymorphism (T...

  5. Eating Attitudes, Perfectionism and Body-esteem of Elite Male Judoists and Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaire, Edith; Rouveix, Matthieu; Pannafieux, Christelle; Ferrand, Claude

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that male athletes who feel pressured to maintain a specific body weight present an elevated risk of subclinical eating disorders. Twelve judoists (19.5 ± 0.5 yr), fifteen cyclists (21.2 ± 2.8 yr) and seventeen non- competitive students matched for BMI and used as controls (21.8 ± 1.8 yr) were studied using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). The Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Body Esteem Scale and the Profile of Mood States were also used to evaluate the relationships between eating disorders and psychological characteristics. Athletes completed the tests during their competitive period and controls completed the same scales at the same time. Scores obtained on EAT-26 differed significantly from the control group on EAT (p athletes used weight loss methods. Self-induced vomiting, use of laxatives and diet pills were reported by 4%, 10%, and 8.5% of them, respectively. Increasing exercise was the primary method used by controls to lose body weight. Athletes reported greater negative feelings about their physical appearance and their Body Weight Satisfaction than controls (p athletes. Body-esteem Appearance and depression accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in Dieting scores. There was no difference in perfectionism and mood between athletes and controls. This study highlights that these athletes may tread a fine line between optimal competitive attitudes and detrimental health behaviors. Key pointsPrevalence of eating disorders has become a growing concern among athletic populations, but very little information is available concerning male athletes.This study highlights that these athletes may tread a fine line between optimal competitive attitudes and detrimental health behaviors.

  6. Investigation of absorption and utilisation of amino acids infused into the cecum of growing pigs. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawielitzki, K.; Schadereit, R.; Voelker, T.; Bock, H.D.

    1982-01-01

    Over a period of 4 days 15 N-lysine was infused into two growing female pigs (live weight approximately 50 kg) through a cecal cannula. The feeding was restrictive (1,400 g dry matter/day) and, with regard to lysine, it did not meet the requirements. In a 7-days experiment the N and 15 N content was measured periodically in feces and urine, in various fractions of the blood and in selected slaughtering samples. From the 15 N infused 3-5% were excreted as lysine in the feces, another 5% were in other amino acids of the bacterial protein. The disappearance rate of 15 N' from the large intestine was >= 90%. 78-88% of this 15 N' was excreted with the urine in form of 15 N-urea. Obviously the infused amino acid was decomposed to NH 3 in the large intestine and then absorbed. The absorbed ammonia was changed into urea in the ornithine cycle and excreted in urine. The recovery rate of the 15 N infused as 15 N-lysine was 93 and 84%, resp. Incorporation of 15 N in to serum protein or other body protein could not be detected so that the remaining difference of 7-16% cannot necessarily be interpreted as incorporation rate of 15 N into the body protein. Under practical conditions the maximal utilisation of lysine from the feed in the large intestine is 1.6% and should be inconsiderable

  7. Determination of star bodies from p-centroid bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we prove that an origin-symmetric star body is uniquely determined by its -centroid body. Furthermore, using spherical harmonics, we establish a result for non-symmetric star bodies. As an application, we show that there is a unique member of p ⟨ K ⟩ characterized by having larger volume than any other ...

  8. MELNIK VINE-GROWING REGION – HISTORY AND TRADITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Ganeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The region of Melnik (Southwest Bulgaria has exclusively appropriate climate for wine growing. Its borders are defined by the dissemination of the wide Melnik grape vine, revealed by experts as an old local variety. Few are the wine-growing centers that carry such an effective ampelographic tradition. A few are the viticulture centers, bearing such effective tradition. The vine is grown here from the Thracian antiquity and is the basis for a livelihood, preserved and retransmitted for many generations. It is characterized by a specialization in the production and marketing of high quality red dry wines. The article deals with the development of the Melnik vineyard as a result of different political and economic conditions in the course of historical development. Various archival materials, specialized studies and personal fieldwork research have been used.

  9. Sperm length evolution in the fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, B.; Dijkstra, M. B.; Mueller, U. G.

    2009-01-01

    -growing ants, representing 9 of the 12 recognized genera, and mapped these onto the ant phylogeny. We show that average sperm length across species is highly variable and decreases with mature colony size in basal genera with singly mated queens, suggesting that sperm production or storage constraints affect...... the evolution of sperm length. Sperm length does not decrease further in multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, despite substantial further increases in colony size. In a combined analysis, sexual dimorphism explained 63.1% of the variance in sperm length between species. As colony size was not a significant...... predictor in this analysis, we conclude that sperm production trade-offs in males have been the major selective force affecting sperm length across the fungus-growing ants, rather than storage constraints in females. The relationship between sperm length and sexual dimorphism remained robust...

  10. Targeted and genome-scale methylomics reveals gene body signatures in human cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Madeleine Price; Li, Jin Billy; Gao, Yuan; Lee, Je-Hyuk; LeProust, Emily; Park, In-Hyun; Xie, Bin; Daley, George Q.; Church, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Cytosine methylation, an epigenetic modification of DNA, is a target of growing interest for developing high throughput profiling technologies. Here we introduce two new, complementary techniques for cytosine methylation profiling utilizing next generation sequencing technology: bisulfite padlock probes (BSPPs) and methyl sensitive cut counting (MSCC). In the first method, we designed a set of ~10,000 BSPPs distributed over the ENCODE pilot project regions to take advantage of existing expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation data. We observed a pattern of low promoter methylation coupled with high gene body methylation in highly expressed genes. Using the second method, MSCC, we gathered genome-scale data for 1.4 million HpaII sites and confirmed that gene body methylation in highly expressed genes is a consistent phenomenon over the entire genome. Our observations highlight the usefulness of techniques which are not inherently or intentionally biased in favor of only profiling particular subsets like CpG islands or promoter regions. PMID:19329998

  11. Body Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    What are body lice? Body lice (also called clothes lice) are tiny insects which live and lay nits (lice eggs) on clothing. They are parasites, ... usually only move to the skin to feed. Body lice are one of the three types of ...

  12. The Challenges for the Multilateral Trading System Raised by the Ongoing Structural Transformations in the Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, international trade has been growing faster than global production, steadily increasing interdependence among nations. Sustained trade growth has been accompanied by profound changes in the patterns of trade flows, reflecting new production structures emerging under the impact of rapid progress in the development of transport, communications and information technologies, major shifts in the patterns of demand, rapid expansion of global production networks, and increasing...

  13. Conformance and Non Conformance of Asset Managers to Environment, Social and Governance Pressures - Sensemaking capacities and the use of externally defined information- / Conformance et Non Conformance des Gestionnaires d'Actifs aux Pressions Environmental, Social et Gouvernance - Capabilités de sensemaking et l'usage d'information externellement définie-

    OpenAIRE

    Sakuma, Kyoko

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on a central behavioral paradox in the asset management community. Recent decades have brought an upsurge in initiatives throughout the investment community to voluntarily integrate sustainability issues into investment decisions. The financial crisis has however revealed behavioral inconsistency and deepening irresponsibility. Today, sustainable investments represent USD 10.7 trillion, or 7% of the entire market, of assets under management and it is growing steadily. O...

  14. Conformance and non conformance of asset managers to the environment, social and governance pressures: sensemaking capacities and the use of externally defined information

    OpenAIRE

    Sakuma, Kyoko

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on a central behavioral paradox in the asset management community. Recent decades have brought an upsurge in initiatives throughout the investment community to voluntarily integrate sustainability issues into investment decisions. The financial crisis has however revealed behavioral inconsistency and deepening irresponsibility. Today, sustainable investments represent USD 10.7 trillion, or 7% of the entire market, of assets under management and it is growing steadily. One ...

  15. Feed-in-Tariffs Financed by Energy Taxes: When do They Lower Consumer Prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Georg von Wangenheim; Tom Müller

    2011-01-01

    The share of renewable energies in the electricity sector ('green' electricity production) relative to overall electricity supply has been growing steadily over the last years in most industrialized countries. This expansion was due to economic support either by subsidies or quota requirements for green energy. Without such support, green electricity would not be competitive to electricity supply from conventional production capacities ('black' electricity production) - e.g. coal and gas fire...

  16. Too Hot ? Too Cold?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Green

    2011-01-01

    @@ Economic outlook China's economy will likely start 2010 with double-digit GDP growth, a booming infrastructure build-out, a tightening labour market, and increasing worries about inflation.However,concerns about the global recovery and about what will happen when the stimulus package ends mean policy makers will be hesitant to tighten.We expect growth to moderate during the year as consumer spending grows steadily but investment growth slows.

  17. How Networking and Social Embeddedness Make Entrepreneurs Successful in Medium-Sized Cities of Peripheral Areas: A Location Case-Study in Brittany (France)

    OpenAIRE

    Baudelle , Guy; Krauss , Gerhard; Marinos , Clément

    2017-01-01

    International audience; According to the mainstream literature in economic geography, agglomeration economies are so powerful drivers for polarization in the larger metro areas that a center-periphery pattern is almost inescapable, making any peripheral location clearly disadvantageous for firms (Dicken and Lloyd, 1992; Fujita and Thisse, 2003). Urban studies also support such views by demonstrating the growing, steadily trend towards metropolization.However these statements are not fully con...

  18. Food irradiation technology and some implications for New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.; Sutton, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    The use of irradiation in the food industry overseas is growing steadily, but it is likely to be several years before New Zealand industry makes extensive use of the process. The design, operation, and likely costs of facilities to provide controlled doses of radiation to foods are reviewed. Different sources of radiation 60 Co, 137 Cs, accelerators, and mobile units) and a variety of package handling methods are discussed. (auths)

  19. A Little Salesmanship "Grows" a Long Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montas, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Goshen Elementary PTA's membership shrank the first year the author was PTA president. In the back of her mind, she was bothered by the fact that their membership numbers had dropped. So, after she attended a regional session with her vice president on growing membership, she got the courage to propose something different. They discussed with…

  20. Growing a New Generation of Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrack, Frederick

    2009-01-01

    In many parts of the United States, there is a growing shortage of music teachers to take the place of the retiring teachers. This is most evident in rural areas. If music teachers are not available to fill openings, music positions are sometimes combined, spreading music teachers too thin and requiring them to possess multiple music…