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Sample records for status serum retinol

  1. Serum Retinol Concentrations, Race, and Socioeconomic Status in of Women of Childbearing Age in the United States

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    Corrine Hanson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and throughout the lifecycle due to its role in the development of critical organ systems. Because maternal tissue is progressively depleted of vitamin A to supply fetal demands, women who become pregnant while possessing marginal vitamin A reserves are at increased risk of vitamin A inadequacy as pregnancy progresses. Few studies have assessed the relationship between socioeconomic factors and retinol status in women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES to assess the relationship between serum retinol concentrations and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Women 14–45 years of age (n = 3170 from NHANES cycles 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included. Serum retinol concentrations were divided into categories according to World Health Organization criteria. All statistical procedures accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The poverty score and race were significantly associated with vitamin A status after adjustment for confounders. Odds of retinol concentrations of <1.05 µmol/L were 1.85 times higher for those of lower socioeconomic status when compared to those of higher status (95% CI: 1.12–3.03, p = 0.02, and 3.1 times higher for non-Hispanic blacks when compared to non-Hispanic whites (95% CI: 1.50–6.41, p = 0.002. Dietary intakes of retinol activity equivalents were significantly lower in groups with higher poverty scores (p = 0.004. Conclusion There appear to be disparities in serum vitamin A levels in women of childbearing age related to income and race in the United States.

  2. Characteristics of retinol accumulation from serum retinol-binding protein by cultured sertoli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingleton, J.L.; Skinner, M.K.; Ong, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    The uptake of retinol was examined in cultured Sertoli cells when retinol was provided as a complex with the transport protein retinol-binding protein (RBP). Sertoil cells accumulated [ 3 H]retinol in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. The change in rate of retinol accumulation occurred when the cells had accumulated approximately 0.53 pmol of retinol/μg of cellular DNA. Extraction and HPLC analysis of the cell-associated radioactivity yielded retinol and retinyl esters, indicating that a significant proportion of the accumulated retinol was esterified. Excess unlabeled retinol-RBP competed with [ 3 H]retinol-RBP for [ 3 H]retinol delivery to the cells, indicating that RBP delivery of retinol was a saturable and competable process. However, free [ 3 H]retinol associated with Sertoli cells in a noncompetable manner. The transport constant for specific retinol accumulation from RBP was 3.0 μM. Neither iodinated nor reductively methylated RBP was accumulated by or tightly bound to Sertoli cells. Competition studies indicated, however, that protein recognition is important in the retinol uptake process. RBP, CRBP, and CRBP(II) competed with [ 3 H]retinol-RBP for [ 3 H]retinol accumulation, but free retinol, retinol-bovine serum albumin, and retinol-β-lactoglobulin did not. These studies indicated that Sertoli cell uptake of retinol involved recognition of the retinol-RBP complex at the cell surface with subsequent internalization of retinol, but not RBP

  3. [Iron status and serum retinol levels among children and adolescents attended by a Family Health Strategy team in Itajaí, Santa Catarina State].

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    Mariath, Aline Brandão; Giachini, Rubia Mara; Lauda, Laíz Guedes; Grillo, Luciane Peter

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this article is to determine prevalence of iron and vitamin A deficiencies among children and adolescents attended by a Family Health Strategy team in Itajaí, Santa Catarina State, and to assess relations between iron status and serum retinol. A nutritional census of the families was carried out. Socioeconomic and demographic data were collected. Hemoglobin concentration, hematocrite, serum iron and retinal were determined. Thirty-one out of the 156 enrolled families participated in the study. Only 39.1% of the children and 62.0% of the adolescents had their blood samples collected. Mean per capita income was 1.68+/-1.00 minimum wages. None of the parents was illiterate and most families (80.6%) owned their homes. All homes had public sewage and water supply, and 87.1% were made of brickwork. Iron deficiency was diagnosed in 16.7% of the children and 19.3% of the adolescents. Only one child had vitamin A deficiency. Significant correlations were found between serum iron and retinol among children, and among adolescents between serum retinol and hemoglobin concentration and hematocrite. We found mild prevalences of iron and vitamin A deficiencies, possibly due to the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.

  4. Maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations and neonatal bone mineralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Händel, Mina N; Moon, Rebecca J.; Titcombe, Philip

    2016-01-01

    were assessed prepregnancy and at 11 and 34 wk of gestation. In late pregnancy, maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations were measured. Offspring total body bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) were measured within 2 wk after birth. RESULTS: In total......BACKGROUND: Studies in older adults and animals have suggested contrasting relations between bone health and different vitamin A compounds. To our knowledge, the associations between maternal vitamin A status and offspring bone development have not previously been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We examined...... the associations between maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations during late pregnancy and offspring bone mineralization assessed at birth with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DESIGN: In the Southampton Women's Survey mother-offspring birth cohort, maternal health, lifestyle, and diet...

  5. Serum Retinol Levels in Pregnant Adolescents and Their Relationship with Habitual Food Intake, Infection and Obstetric, Nutritional and Socioeconomic Variables.

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    Spíndola Garcêz, Laís; de Sousa Paz Lima, Geania; de Azevedo Paiva, Adriana; Maria Rebêlo Sampaio da Paz, Suzana; Lázaro Gomes, Erica Ivana; Nunes, Valéria Sutti; Cotta de Faria, Eliana; de Barros-Mazon, Sílvia

    2016-10-25

    Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects about 19.1 million pregnant women. Its occurrence is classically associated with inadequate food intake and may also be associated with socioeconomic factors and the presence of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to serum retinol levels among pregnant teenagers. The sample consisted of 89 pregnant adolescents, from whom socioeconomic, obstetric, anthropometric, and food consumption data were collected. Serum concentrations of retinol and the supposed presence of infection were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and C-reactive protein quantification, respectively. The serum retinol concentrations were classified according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We adopted a 5% significance level for all statistical tests. Serum retinol levels were significantly and positively associated with sanitation ( p = 0.008) and pre-gestational nutritional status ( p = 0.002), and negatively with the trimester ( p = 0.001). The appropriate sanitation conditions and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were shown to have a protective effect against VAD. Conversely, serum retinol levels were reduced with trimester progression, favoring VAD occurrence.

  6. Níveis séricos de retinol em escolares de 7 a 17 anos no município do Rio de Janeiro Serum retinol levels in school children, 7 to 17 years old in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Rejane Andréa Ramalho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional quanto à vitamina A em escolares de 7 a 17 anos. Foram analisados 574 escolares, com idade entre 7 e 17 anos, regularmente matriculados na rede municipal de ensino no Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODOS: Os níveis séricos de retinol foram determinados pelo método Bessey-Lowry modificado e o ponto de corte utilizado para caracterizar inadequação sérica de retinol foi OBJECTIVE: The vitamin A nutritional status assesment in scholars whose age is from 7 to 17 years old is the aim of this study. Data from 574 scholars have been analyzed, they were from 7 to 17 years old, and matriculated in the public educational system of Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: The serum retinol levels were assessed by the modified Bessey-Lowry method and the reference point to qualify the inadequate serum retinol level was <1,05µmol/L. RESULTS: The current study has identified that 10.30% of the scholars have presented low serum retinol levels. Considering the age group, the study shows that the younger scholars can present highier percentages of inadequate serul retinol levels (11.98% for those who is 7 to 10 years old, and 7.92% for those who is from 10 to 17 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Although the serum retinol levels tends to raise according to the age, they are still low and its frequency is relevant to focus the atention to the youngest scholars, including them in micronutrients deficiency combat programs.

  7. Improved simultaneous determination method of beta-carotene and retinol with saponification in human serum and rat liver.

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    Hosotani, Keisuke; Kitagawa, Masahiro

    2003-07-05

    Among the many simultaneous determination methods for carotenoid and retinoid, there are only a few reports including the saponification process. However, the yields of beta-carotene and retinol were higher when using this process. In this study, the analytical conditions, including saponification, were investigated. The extraction solvent was n-hexane and the sample solvent was HPLC mobile phase in the beta-carotene and retinol analysis. BHT as an antioxidant was added at concentrations of 0.125 and 0.025%, respectively, to ethanol and n-hexane phase in the extraction process for serum. The recovery rates were 99.7, 93.7 and 98.3% for beta-carotene, retinol and retinyl palmitate in serum, respectively, and 107.1, 92.8 and 98.8% for beta-carotene, retinol and retinyl palmitate in liver, respectively. The within-day coefficients of variation (C.V.) were 6.0% for serum and 4.7% for liver in the case of beta-carotene, 7.1% for serum, and 5.1% for liver in the case of retinol. The between-day coefficients of variation were 2.7% for serum and 2.7% for liver in the case of beta-carotene, and for retinol, 6.4% for serum and 2.7% for liver.

  8. Influência da resposta inflamatória de fase aguda nos níveis séricos de retinol e da proteína de ligação do retinol em pacientes com AIDS Influence of acute-phase inflammatory response on serum levels of retinol and retinol binding protein in HIV/AIDS patients

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    Fábio Fernandes Neves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a hiporretinolemia constitui fator prognóstico independente em pacientes com AIDS, e a atividade inflamatória causa redução dos níveis séricos deste nutriente na população em geral. Entretanto, faltam estudos que avaliem o impacto da atividade inflamatória sobre o nível sérico do retinol em pacientes com AIDS. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados transversalmente 41 pacientes internados por complicações da AIDS, que tiveram quantificados alguns marcadores de inflamação (proteína C reativa e fator de necrose tumoral alfa e concentrações séricas de retinol e da proteína de ligação do retinol. RESULTADOS: apesar da baixa (14,6% prevalência de hiporretinolemia evidenciou-se correlação negativa dos marcadores de inflamação com os níveis séricos de retinol e de sua proteína de ligação nos pacientes com AIDS. CONCLUSÕES: a atividade inflamatória de fase aguda está associada a baixos níveis séricos de retinol em indivíduos com AIDS.INTRODUCTION: Hyporetinolemia is an independent prognostic factor in AIDS patients. Inflammatory activity causes a reduction in the serum levels of this nutrient in the general population. However, there are no studies assessing the impact of inflammatory activity on the serum retinol level in AIDS patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional assessment was conducted on 41 patients hospitalized due to AIDS complications. Inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and serum retinol and retinol binding protein concentrations were quantified. RESULTS: Despite the low (14.6% prevalence of hyporetinolemia, a significant negative correlation was observed between the inflammatory markers and the serum retinol and retinol binding protein levels in AIDS patients. CONCLUSIONS: Acute-phase inflammatory activity is associated with low serum retinol levels in individuals with AIDS.

  9. Serum carotenoid, retinol and tocopherol concentrations and risk of cervical cancer among Chinese women.

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    Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Lu, Ling; Abliz, Guzalnur; Mijit, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Despite many epidemiological studies on the effects of dietary antioxidant micronutrients on risk of cervical cancer, the findings remain uncertain and little evidence is available for serum nutrient markers. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between serum carotenoid, retinol and tocopherol concentrations and risk of cervical cancer among Chinese women. We conducted a hospital-based case- control study in which 358 adults (158 incident cases and 200 controls) were recruited from Xinjiang, China. Serum levels of carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin), retinol, and tocopherols (α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol) were assessed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. We found inverse associations between serum carotenoid (α-carotene, β-carotene, and lutein/zeaxanthin) and tocopherol (α-tocopherol) concentrations and the risk of cervical cancer after adjusting for potential confounders, but a null association for retinol. The ORs for 1-SD increase were 0.71 (95% CI: 0.56- 0.92; p=0.003) for total carotenoids and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.60-0.94; p=0.008) for total tocopherols. These results show that higher serum concentrations of some carotenoids and tocopherols are associated with a lower risk of cervical cancer among Chinese women.

  10. Retinol and mineral status in grazing foals during the dry season

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    Maria Lindomárcia Leonardo da Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to examine serum retinol and some mineral (zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and copper levels in seven Mangalarga Marchador colts aged 329.48 days, reared on pasture in the city of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil, during the dry season. Equines were evaluated for four periods of 45 days during the total study period of five months. The foals had access to Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania pasture, while water and mineral salt lick were provided ad libitum. Blood samples were taken to determine serum retinol and levels of minerals, along with pasture samples to quantify beta-carotene in the grass. The results indicated that retinol levels varied (2.87 to 1.97 µg/dL and remained below the standard levels. The levels of zinc, iron, calcium, and phosphorus did not vary significantly with average values of 36.79 µg/dL, 77.32 µg/dL, 10.33 mg/dL, and 9.99 mg/dL, respectively. However, zinc and calcium remained below standard concentrations of 60-120 µg/dL and 10.8-13.5 mg/dL, respectively, since the beginning of the study. On the other hand, copper and magnesium levels decreased over time (97.76 to 77.56 mg/dL and 2.86 to 2.21 µg/dL, respectively, but showed normal levels for horses during the research. Beta-carotene in grass showed a downward trend over time from 38.53 to 0.09 mg/kg of dry matter. The results also indicated a significant relationship between serum retinol and serum copper levels. Vitamin A supplementation is necessary whenever foals are fed pastures during the dry season.

  11. Provitamin A-biofortified maize consumption increases serum xanthophylls and 13C-natural abundance of retinol in Zambian children.

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    Sheftel, Jesse; Gannon, Bryan M; Davis, Christopher R; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2017-09-01

    Plants that undergo C 4 photosynthesis, such as maize, are enriched in the stable isotope of carbon ( 13 C) compared with other dietary plants and foods. Consumption of maize that has been biofortified to contain elevated levels of provitamin A carotenoids (orange maize) increased the abundance of 13 C in serum retinol of Mongolian gerbils. We evaluated this method in humans to determine if it has potential for further use in intervention effectiveness studies. A random subset of samples from a two-month randomized controlled feeding trial of rural three- to five-year old Zambian children were used to determine the impact of orange maize intake on serum carotenoid concentrations ( n = 88) and 13 C-natural abundance in serum retinol ( n = 77). Concentrations of β-cryptoxanthin (a xanthophyll provitamin A carotenoid) and the dihydroxy xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin, which do not have vitamin A activity, were elevated in children consuming orange maize compared with those consuming a white maize control ( P  0.3). Furthermore, 13 C natural abundance was higher after two months' intervention in the orange maize group compared with the white maize group ( P = 0.049). Predictions made from equations developed in the aforementioned gerbil study estimated that maize provided 11% (2-21%, 95% confidence interval) of the recent dietary vitamin A to these children. These results demonstrate that orange maize is efficacious at providing retinol to the vitamin A pool in children through provitamin A carotenoids, as monitored by the change in 13 C enrichment, which was not reflected in serum β-carotene concentrations. Further effectiveness studies in countries who have adopted orange maize should consider determining differences in retinol 13 C-enrichment among target groups in addition to profiling serum xanthophyll carotenoids with specific emphasis on zeaxanthin. Impact statement Maize biofortified with provitamin A carotenoids (orange) has been released

  12. Retinol metabolism in rats with low vitamin A status: A compartmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, K.C.; Green, M.H.; Green, J.B.; Zech, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    A compartmental model was developed to describe the metabolism of vitamin A in rats with low vitamin A status maintained by a low dietary intake of vitamin A (approximately 2 micrograms retinol equivalents/day). After the IV bolus injection of [3H]retinol in its physiological transport complex, tracer and trace data were obtained from plasma, organs (liver, kidneys, small intestine, eyes, adrenals, testes, lungs, carcass), and tracer data were obtained from urine and feces. The dietary protocol developed for this study resulted in animals having plasma vitamin A levels less than 10 micrograms retinol/dl and total liver vitamin A levels of approximately 1 microgram retinol equivalent. Four compartments were used to model the plasma: one to describe retinol, one to describe the nonphysiological portion of the dose, and two to simulate polar metabolites derived from retinol. The liver required two compartments and a delay, the carcass (small intestine, eyes, adrenals, testes, and lungs, plus remaining carcass) required three compartments, and the kidneys required two. The model predicted a vitamin A utilization rate of 1.65 micrograms retinol equivalents/day with the urine and feces accounting for most of the output. The plasma retinol turnover rate was approximately 20 micrograms retinol equivalents/day; this was 12 times greater than the utilization rate. This indicated that, of the large amount of retinol moving through the plasma each day, less than 10% of this was actually being irreversibly utilized. Similarly, as compared to the whole-body utilization rate, there was a relatively high turnover rate of retinol in the kidneys, carcass, and liver, coupled with a high degree of recycling of vitamin A through these tissues. Of the total vitamin A that entered the liver from all sources including the diet, approximately 86% was mobilized into the plasma

  13. Serum zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, and ceruloplasmin concentrations in infants receiving intravenous zinc and copper supplementation.

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    Lockitch, G; Godolphin, W; Pendray, M R; Riddell, D; Quigley, G

    1983-02-01

    One hundred twenty-seven newborn infants requiring parenteral nutrition were randomly assigned to receive differing amounts of zinc (40 to 400 micrograms/kg/day) and copper (20 or 40 micrograms/kg/day) supplementation within five birth weight groups (600 to 2,500 gm). The serum zinc concentration remained relatively constant in the group receiving the most zinc supplementation after two weeks of therapy, but declined sharply in the groups receiving less supplementation. No effect of increased copper intake was noted on ceruloplasmin values, but a difference in serum copper concentrations was noted at two weeks. No correlation was noted between serum zinc and copper values or among those for serum zinc, retinol-binding protein, and prealbumin. Reference ranges were defined for serum zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, and ceruloplasmin in the preterm infant.

  14. [Serum retinol and carotenoid of rural infants and young children in Linyi of Shangdong Province and analysis on their related influencing dietary factors].

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    Fan, Ping; Shen, Yao; Li, Yonghua; Ma, Aiqin; Sun, Zhongqing; Wang, Zhixu

    2012-05-01

    The study was carried out to determine serum retinol and carotenoid of infants and young children in rural areas, and to explore their related dietary factors. A total of 254 rural healthy infants and young children aged 6-24 month-old were recruited from a program for health examination and feeding survey conducted in villages in Meibu of Linyi of Shandong Province by cluster sampling method. Serum retinol, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein + zeaxanthin were detected with HPLC. The frequency of food intake of babies during the past month was inquired from their mothers or baby-sitters. The relationship between serum retinol and carotenoid level with some factors related to feeding pattern was analyzed. The average serum retinol was (0.96 +/- 0.55) micromol/L with little variation by age (P > 0.05). The prevalence of serum vitamin A deficiency and marginal deficiency were 40.6% and 32.6%. The average serum beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein + zeaxanthin were (0.056 +/- 0.088) micromol/L, (3.3 +/- 12.1) nmol/L, (27.0 +/- 45.2) nmol/L and (0.22 +/- 0.22) micromol/L, respectively, and no significant difference between age groups on serum beta-carotene, alpha-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin (all were P > 0.05) except lutein + zeaxanthin (P milk, formula, or fruits and vegetables.

  15. Retinol sérico en mujeres mexicanas urbanas durante el periodo perinatal Serum retinol in urban Mexican women during the perinatal period

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    Esther Casanueva

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Establecer la prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina A durante el embarazo y la lactancia en un grupo de mujeres mexicanas urbanas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se invitó a participar a un grupo de gestantes que acudían a control prenatal, que carecían de patología agregada y contaban con menos de 20 semanas de embarazo. Fueron evaluadas tres veces durante el embarazo y hasta la semana 24 del posparto. La determinación de vitamina A en suero se realizó por cromatografía de líquidos de alta presión. Se consideró como punto de corte para riesgo de deficiencia una concentración de retinol OBJECTIVE. To establish the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy and lactation in a group of urban Mexican women. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A group of pregnant women who attended a prenatal care program were invited to participate. Subjects had no added pathologies and were less than 20 weeks pregnant. Evaluations were performed 3 times during pregnancy until 24 weeks post-partum. Vitamin A levels were determined in serum by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The cut-off point to consider retinol deficiency was < 1.05 µmol/L. RESULTS. During the 3 gestational evaluations, vitamin A levels were 2.34±0.70, 2.41±1.03 and 1.86±0.66 µmol/L, respectively, which shows a significant decrease. However, only 1/30 was situated below the accepted cut-off point to consider risk of deficiency, and none for deficiency. During post-partum , concentrations remained relatively constant, approximately 2.10 µmol/L. Lactation had no impact on serum retinol levels, while weight loss did. CONCLUSIONS. No cases of vitamin A deficiency were found in the studied population during the perinatal period. Maternal weight loss affects post-partum retinol levels.

  16. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol and their correlation with sperm DNA damage in normospermic and infertile men

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    Taiebeh Ghyasvand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress in reproductive system leads to sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane lipid peroxidation and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of male infertility, especially in idiopathic cases. Antioxidants such as carotenoids function against free radical damages. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol in serum and their relationship with sperm DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in infertile and normospermic males. Materials and Methods: Sixty two infertile men and 71 normospermic men participated in this study. Blood and semen samples were collected from all subjects. Sperm DNA damage was measured using TUNEL method. Carotenoids, retinol, and malonedildehyde in serum were also determined. Results: DNA fragmentation was higher in infertile group comparing to control group. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and, vitamin A in infertile men were significantly lower than normospermic men (p< 0.001, =0.005, and =0.003 respectively. While serum MDA was not significantly different between two groups, MDA in seminal plasma of infertile men was significantly higher than control group (p< 0.001. Conclusion: We concluded that lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol can reduce sperm DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation through their antioxidant effect. Therefore the DNA fragmentation assay and determination of antioxidants factors such as lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol, along with sperm analysis can be useful in diagnosis and treatment of men with idiopathic infertility.

  17. Effect of beta-Carotene from Yellow Ambon Banana Peel on Rat Serum Retinol Level

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    Suparmi Suparmi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD is associated with significant morbidity and mortality from common childhood infections and is the world’s leading preventable cause of childhood blindness. Studies showed that carotenoid is one of the promissed vitamin A source. However the studies  on  carotenoid from yellow  banana peel and its potential as a natural source of vitamin A has not been widely reported. This study was conducted to measure the blood serum retinol levels of rats after administration of β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel. This was an experimental study with post test only control group design, with sample size of 18 rats with age 1 month, devided into 3 groups. β-carotene dose administered based on the dose of red capsules vitamin A are (200,000 doses SI for toddlers aged 12-59 months. Serum retinol levels were measured using a spectrophotometer according metide. This present study showed that the blood serum  level in group treated with  of β - carotene from yellow ambon banana peel (28.35 ± 1.61 mg/ dL , was significantly different (p < 0.05 from that of   control group ( 22.08 ± 1.35 mg /dL . β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel are potential as provitamin A.

  18. SERUM RETINOL DAN STATUS GIZI IBU MENYUSUI MENENTUKAN KADAR VITAMIN A DALAM ASI

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    Sandjaja Sandjaja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang: Status vitamin A ibu menyusui dan bayinya telah dibuktikan mempunyai hubungan yang erat. Bayi dari ibu yang menderita kurang vitamin A mempunyai risiko yang tinggi menderita KVA. Asumsinya hubungan tersebut dimediasi oleh kadar vitamin A dalam ASI sebagai sumber vitamin A utama. Tujuan: Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara status vitamin A ibu menyusui dan kadar vitamin A dalam ASI. Metode: Studi dilakukan pada 440 ibu menyusui yang bayinya umur 6-12 bulan di Kabupaten Tasikmalaya dan Ciamis. Serum vitamin A dalam darah dan kadar vitamin A dalam ASI dikumpulkan dan dianalisis dengan metode HPLC. Kovariat antropometri, morbiditas, karakteristik ibu dan bayi yang berperan dalam serum vitamin A dan vitamin A ASI dikumpulkan. Analisis uji-t, ANOVA dan ANCOVA dilakukan untuk menguji peran status vitamin A ibu terhadap vitamin A ASI. Hasil: Hasil studi menunjukkan KVA ibu menyusui berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap rendahnya kadar vitamin A dalam ASI setelah dikontrol oleh kovariat status gizi ibu menyusui. Rerata vitamin A dalam ASI pada ibu yang KVA dan non KVA 47,0 μg/dL dan 88,2 μg/dL. Kesimpulan: Setelah dikontrol oleh kovariat status gizi ibu menyusui, kurang vitamin A pada ibu menyusui berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap rendahnya kadar vitamin A dalam ASI.

  19. Impacto da suplementação com retinil palmitato no pós-parto imediato sobre os níveis de retinol do colostro Impact on colostrum retinol levels of immediate postpartum supplementation with retinyl palmitate

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    Roberto Dimenstein

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da suplementação com retinil palmitato sobre os níveis de retinol no colostro, investigando a influência de variáveis maternas (idade, tipo de parto e estado nutricional bioquímico sobre esses níveis. MÉTODO:Participaram do estudo 33 nutrizes atendidas na Maternidade Escola Januário Cicco, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Foram coletadas, nas primeiras horas após o parto, uma amostra de sangue e uma de colostro. Uma nova amostra de colostro foi coletada 6 horas após suplementação materna com 200 000 UI de retinil palmitato. O retinol no sangue e colostro foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. RESULTADOS: Os níveis médios de retinol no colostro antes da suplementação foram de 110,8 ± 82,3 µg/dL, tendo atingido 164,4 ± 106,5 µg/dL após a suplementação (P OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of retinyl palmitate supplementation on colostrum retinol levels, investigating the influence of maternal variables (age, type of delivery, and biochemical nutritional status on these levels. METHOD: The study included 33 mothers receiving care at the Januário Cicco Maternity School, in the city of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. In the first hours after delivery, blood and colostrum samples were collected. Another colostrum sample was collected six hours after maternal supplementation with 200 000 IU of retinyl palmitate. Serum and colostrum retinol levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The mean retinol level in colostrum before the supplementation was 110.8 ± 82.3 µg/dL, and after supplementation it was 164.4 ± 106.5 µg/dL (P < 0.025. Of the 33 mothers, 12 of them either did not respond to supplementation or had an increase of less than 10% in colostrum retinol levels; serum retinol in these women was significantly lower as compared to the responders (P = 0.024. In comparison to women with a normal delivery, the mothers who underwent

  20. Effect of maternal vitamin A supplementation on retinol concentration in colostrum.

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    Grilo, Evellyn C; Lima, Mayara S R; Cunha, Lahyana R F; Gurgel, Cristiane S S; Clemente, Heleni A; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting and postprandial conditions. This was a quasi-experimental study, with before and after assessments, conducted with 33 patients treated at a public maternity hospital. Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. A second colostrum collection occurred two hours after the first meal of the day, at which time a mega dose of 200,000 IU of retinyl palmitate was administered. On the following day, the colostrum was collected again under fasting and postprandial conditions. Serum and colostrum retinol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The serum retinol concentration was 37.3 (16.8-62.2) μg/dL, indicating adequate nutritional status. The colostrum retinol concentration before supplementation was 46.8 (29.7-158.9) μg/dL in fasting and 67.3 (31.1-148.7) μg/dL in postprandial condition (p < 0.05), showing an increase of 43.8%. After supplementation, the values were 89.5 (32.9-264.2) μg/dL and 102.7 (37.3-378.3) μg/dL in fasting and postprandial conditions, respectively (p < 0.05), representing an increase of 14.7%. This study demonstrated that maternal supplementation with high doses of vitamin A in postpartum resulted in a significant increase of the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting conditions, with an even greater increase after a meal. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of maternal vitamin A supplementation on retinol concentration in colostrum

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    Evellyn C. Grilo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting and postprandial conditions. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study, with before and after assessments, conducted with 33 patients treated at a public maternity hospital. Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. A second colostrum collection occurred two hours after the first meal of the day, at which time a mega dose of 200,000 IU of retinyl palmitate was administered. On the following day, the colostrum was collected again under fasting and postprandial conditions. Serum and colostrum retinol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The serum retinol concentration was 37.3 (16.8-62.2 µg/dL, indicating adequate nutritional status. The colostrum retinol concentration before supplementation was 46.8 (29.7-158.9 µg/dL in fasting and 67.3 (31.1-148.7 µg/dL in postprandial condition (p < 0.05, showing an increase of 43.8%. After supplementation, the values were 89.5 (32.9-264.2 µg/dL and 102.7 (37.3-378.3 µg/dL in fasting and postprandial conditions, respectively (p < 0.05, representing an increase of 14.7%. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that maternal supplementation with high doses of vitamin A in postpartum resulted in a significant increase of the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting conditions, with an even greater increase after a meal.

  2. Relationship between Serum and Brain Carotenoids, α-Tocopherol, and Retinol Concentrations and Cognitive Performance in the Oldest Old from the Georgia Centenarian Study

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    Elizabeth J. Johnson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in age-related cognitive decline. The dietary antioxidants, carotenoids, tocopherols, and vitamin A may play a role in the prevention or delay in cognitive decline. In this study, sera were obtained from 78 octogenarians and 220 centenarians from the Georgia Centenarian Study. Brain tissues were obtained from 47 centenarian decedents. Samples were analyzed for carotenoids, α-tocopherol, and retinol using HPLC. Analyte concentrations were compared with cognitive tests designed to evaluate global cognition, dementia, depression and cognitive domains (memory, processing speed, attention, and executive functioning. Serum lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene concentrations were most consistently related to better cognition (P<0.05 in the whole population and in the centenarians. Only serum lutein was significantly related to better cognition in the octogenarians. In brain, lutein and β-carotene were related to cognition with lutein being consistently associated with a range of measures. There were fewer significant relationships for α-tocopherol and a negative relationship between brain retinol concentrations and delayed recognition. These findings suggest that the status of certain carotenoids in the old may reflect their cognitive function. The protective effect may not be related to an antioxidant effect given that α-tocopherol was less related to cognition than these carotenoids.

  3. Evidence that kidney function but not type 2 diabetes determines retinol-binding protein 4 serum levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Andrea; Frey, Simone K; Raila, Jens

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) links adiposity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, circulating RBP4 levels are also affected by kidney function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test whether RBP4 serum levels are primarily associated with kidney...... function or type 2 diabetes....

  4. Relationships of body mass index with serum carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol at steady-state and in response to a carotenoid-rich vegetable diet intervention in Filipino schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Maramag, Cherry C; Tengco, Lorena W; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Solon, Florentino S

    2008-04-01

    In marginally nourished children, information is scarce regarding the circulating concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols, and physiological factors influencing their circulating levels. We determined the serum concentrations of carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol at steady state and in response to a 9-week vegetable diet intervention in 9-12-year-old girls (n=54) and boys (n=65) in rural Philippines. We determined cross-sectional relationships of BMI (body mass index) with serum micronutrient levels, and whether BMI is a determinant of serum carotenoid responses to the ingestion of carotenoid-rich vegetables. We measured dietary nutrient intakes and assessed inflammation by measurement of serum C-reactive protein levels. The children had low serum concentrations of carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol as compared with published values for similar-aged children in the U.S.A. The low serum retinol levels can be ascribed to inadequate diets and were not the result of confounding due to inflammation. Significant inverse correlations of BMI and serum all-trans-beta-carotene, 13-cis-beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin and alpha-tocopherol (but not beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and retinol) were observed among girls at baseline. The dietary intervention markedly enhanced the serum concentrations of all carotenoids. Changes in serum all-trans-beta-carotene and alpha-carotene (but not changes in lutein, zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin) in response to the dietary intervention were inversely associated with BMI in girls and boys. Thus, in Filipino school-aged children, BMI is inversely related to the steady-state serum concentrations of certain carotenoids and vitamin E, but not vitamin A, and is a determinant of serum beta- and alpha-carotene responses, but not xanthophyll responses, to the ingestion of carotenoid-rich vegetable meals.

  5. Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with low retinol levels in children aged 1 to 5 years

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    Bárbara C.A. Saraiva

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Anemia and iron deficiency were associated with low levels of serum retinol in children aged 1 to 5 years, and a positive correlation was verified between serum retinol and serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. These results indicate the importance of initiatives encouraging the development of new treatments and further research regarding retinol deficiency.

  6. Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with low retinol levels in children aged 1 to 5 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara C.A. Saraiva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the occurrence of anemia and iron deficiency in children aged 1 to 5 years and the association of these events and retinol deficiency. METHODS: This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study conducted in Vitoria, ES, Brazil, between April and August of 2008, with healthy children aged 1 to 5 years (n = 692 that lived in areas covered by primary healthcare services. Sociodemographic and economic conditions, dietary intake (energy, protein, iron, and vitamin A ingestion, anthropometric data (body mass index-for-age and height-for-age, and biochemical parameters (ferritin, hemoglobin, and retinol serum were collected. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and retinol deficiency was 15.7%, 28.1%, and 24.7%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed a higher prevalence of anemia (PR: 4.62, 95% CI: 3.36, 6.34, p < 0.001 and iron deficiency (PR: 4.51, 95% CI: 3.30, 6.17, p < 0.001 among children with retinol deficiency. The same results were obtained after adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic conditions, dietary intake, and anthropometric variables. There was a positive association between ferritin vs. retinol serum (r = 0.597; p < 0.001 and hemoglobin vs. retinol serum (r = 0.770; p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia and iron deficiency were associated with low levels of serum retinol in children aged 1 to 5 years, and a positive correlation was verified between serum retinol and serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. These results indicate the importance of initiatives encouraging the development of new treatments and further research regarding retinol deficiency.

  7. Effect of renal replacement therapy on retinol-binding protein 4 isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Simone K; Henze, Andrea; Nagl, Britta

    2009-01-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels are elevated in the serum of patients with kidney dysfunction. We recently showed that RBP4 isoforms including apo-RBP4 (RBP4 not bound to retinol) and RBP4 truncated at the C-terminus (RBP4-L, RBP4-LL) are increased in the serum of patients with kidney dis...... diseases but not in serum of patients with various liver diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of renal replacement therapy on RBP4 isoforms....

  8. Perfil de retinol no soro e colostro de puérperas atendidas em maternidade pública Brasileira e sua associação com características maternas e obstétricas Perfil de retinol en el suero y calostro de puérperas atendidas en maternidad pública brasileña y su asociación con características maternas y obstétricas Serum and colostrum retinol profile in postpartum women in a Brazilian public maternity and its association with maternal and obstetric characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Queiroz de Lira

    2011-12-01

    corte transversal 97 puérperas sanas que fueron clasificadas respecto a la edad, estado nutricional, paridad, vía de parto, peso al nacimiento y edad gestacional del recién nacido. Tres muestras de calostro y una de suero fueron recogidas en ayuno en el postparto inmediato. El retinol fue analizado por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia. Para caracterizar el estado nutricional en vitamina A se adoptó punto de corte para retinol en el suero (30µg/dL y en el calostro (60µg/dL. RESULTADOS: En el grupo total de puérperas, la concentración mediana de 60µg/dL de retinol en el calostro y 43µg/dL en el suero indicó estado bioquímico adecuado. Sin embargo, al evaluar el individuo, se constató alta prevalencia de DVA subclínica en el suero (15% y calostro (50%. No se verificó influencia de las características maternas, obstétricas y del neonato sobre los niveles de retinol en el suero y en el calostro de las mujeres (p>0,05. CONCLUSIONES: El riesgo de DVA puede ocurrir en gestantes/puérperas independientemente de las características maternas y obstétricas consideradas. Este hecho refuerza la necesidad de la atención especial al seguimiento prenatal de todas las mujeres a fin de prevenir la instalación de la DVA y garantizar la reducción de los índices de morbimortalidad infantil y materna.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between serum and colostrum retinol levels and maternal and obstetric characteristics of women attending a Brazilian public maternity hospital, and to establish the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD in this population. METHODS: This cross sectional study included 97 healthy postpartum women classified according to age, nutritional status, parity, mode of delivery, newborn's weight and gestational age. Three samples of colostrum pool and a single serum sample were collected after overnight fasting in the immediate postpartum period. Retinol was analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. To characterize the

  9. Localization of cellular retinol-binding protein and retinol-binding protein in cells comprising the blood-brain barrier of rat and human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, P.N.; Ong, D.E.; Bok, D.

    1990-01-01

    Brain is not generally recognized as an organ that requires vitamin A, perhaps because no obvious histologic lesions have been observed in severely vitamin A-deficient animals. However, brain tissue does contain cellular vitamin A-binding proteins and a nuclear receptor protein for retinoic acid. In the present study, immunohistochemical techniques were used to determine the cell-specific location of cellular retinol-binding protein in human and rat brain tissue. Cellular retinol-binding protein was localized specifically within the cuboidal epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, two primary sites of the mammalian blood-brain barrier. In addition, autoradiographic procedures demonstrated binding sites for serum retinol-binding protein in the choroidal epithelium. These observations suggest that a significant movement of retinol across the blood-brain barrier may occur

  10. Sun-dried cowpeas and amaranth leaves recipe improves β-carotene and retinol levels in serum and hemoglobin concentration among preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawiri, Mildred P; Nyambaka, Hudson; Murungi, Jane I

    2013-03-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and anemia are major challenges among children and expecting and lactating mothers in developing countries. Intervention with locally available dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV) is more sustainable to eradicate VAD, being cost-effective and readily adaptable to local communities. DGLV contain high levels of iron and β-carotene (BC) and therefore useful in fighting VAD and anemia. Since DGLVs are season-dependent sun-drying enables their availability during low seasons. However, their contribution to the bioavailability of BC and the improvement of hemoglobin are not well understood. The study therefore investigated the effect of consuming cooked recipe consisting of sun-dried amaranth and cowpea leaves on the levels of BC, retinol, and hemoglobin in preschool children from Machakos District, a semiarid region in Kenya. Vegetables were purchased from local vegetable market, with some sun-dried in an open shade. Levels of BC and retinol in serum and BC in fresh and processed vegetables were determined by a HPLC method and hemoglobin using a portable Hemocue Analyzer. All-trans-BC levels in uncooked fresh cowpea and amaranth leaves were 806.0 μg/g and 599.0 μg/g dry matter, respectively, while the dehydration and cooking processes retained the β-carotene levels at over 60 %. Consumption of the dehydrated vegetables significantly improved both serum BC and retinol levels (p < 0.05), while the baseline hemoglobin levels improved by 4.6 %. The study has shown that intervention with locally available sun-dried vegetables improves the bioavailability of BC, retinol, and hemoglobin levels among preschool children.

  11. Comparison of the rate of uptake and biologic effects of retinol added to human keratinocytes either directly to the culture medium or bound to serum retinol-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodam, J.R.; St Hilaire, P.; Creek, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    Retinol circulates in the plasma bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP), but the mechanism by which retinol is transferred from RBP to target cells is not known. To study retinol delivery, human keratinocytes (HKc) were incubated with [3H]retinol added directly to the culture medium or bound to RBP and the uptake of [3H]retinol was determined at various times. During the first hour of incubation, the rate of [3H]retinol accumulation by HKc was about 40 times greater when the vitamin was added directly to the media rather than bound to RBP. Although maximal uptake of [3H]retinol added directly to the culture medium occurred at 3 h, the uptake of [3H]retinol from RBP was linear with time for at least 72 h. By 57 h, cell-associated [3H]retinol was the same whether it was added directly to the culture medium or bound to RBP. Excess unlabeled retinol or pretreatment of HKc with retinol had no effect on the uptake of [3H]retinol added directly to the culture medium or bound to RBP. Apo- but not holo-RBP was capable of competing with HKc for the uptake of [3H]retinol from RBP. No specific or saturable binding of 125I-labeled RBP to HKc cultured in the absence or the presence of retinol was found. The dose response of retinol inhibition of cholesterol sulfate synthesis and phorbol ester-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity or retinol modulation of keratin expression was the same whether the retinol was delivered to HKc bound to RBP or added directly to the medium. Our data support a mechanism for retinol delivery from RBP to HKc that does not involve cell-surface RBP receptors but instead suggest that the vitamin is first slowly released from RBP and then becomes cell-associated from the aqueous phase. This mechanism is consistent with the finding that HKc respond identically to retinol whether or not it is delivered to them bound to RBP

  12. Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with low retinol levels in children aged 1 to 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Bárbara C A; Soares, Michele C C; Santos, Luana C dos; Pereira, Simone C L; Horta, Paula M

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the occurrence of anemia and iron deficiency in children aged 1 to 5 years and the association of these events and retinol deficiency. This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study conducted in Vitoria, ES, Brazil, between April and August of 2008, with healthy children aged 1 to 5 years (n=692) that lived in areas covered by primary healthcare services. Sociodemographic and economic conditions, dietary intake (energy, protein, iron, and vitamin A ingestion), anthropometric data (body mass index-for-age and height-for-age), and biochemical parameters (ferritin, hemoglobin, and retinol serum) were collected. The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and retinol deficiency was 15.7%, 28.1%, and 24.7%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed a higher prevalence of anemia (PR: 4.62, 95% CI: 3.36, 6.34, piron deficiency (PR: 4.51, 95% CI: 3.30, 6.17, pdeficiency. The same results were obtained after adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic conditions, dietary intake, and anthropometric variables. There was a positive association between ferritin vs. retinol serum (r=0.597; pAnemia and iron deficiency were associated with low levels of serum retinol in children aged 1 to 5 years, and a positive correlation was verified between serum retinol and serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. These results indicate the importance of initiatives encouraging the development of new treatments and further research regarding retinol deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. A food-based approach introducing orange-fleshed sweet potatoes increased vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children in rural Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jan W; Arimond, Mary; Osman, Nadia; Cunguara, Benedito; Zano, Filipe; Tschirley, David

    2007-05-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is widespread and has severe consequences for young children in the developing world. Food-based approaches may be an appropriate and sustainable complement to supplementation programs. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is rich in beta-carotene and is well accepted by young children. In an extremely resource poor area in Mozambique, the effectiveness of introduction of OFSP was assessed in an integrated agriculture and nutrition intervention, which aimed to increase vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children. The 2-y quasi-experimental intervention study followed households and children (n = 741; mean age 13 mo at baseline) through 2 agricultural cycles. In y 2, 90% of intervention households produced OFSP, and mean OFSP plot size in intervention areas increased from 33 to 359 m(2). Intervention children (n = 498) were more likely than control children (n = 243) to eat OFSP 3 or more d in the last wk (55% vs. 8%, P children (median 426 vs. 56 microg retinol activity equivalent, P children and did not increase significantly in control subjects. Integrated promotion of OFSP can complement other approaches and contribute to increases in vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children in rural Mozambique and similar areas in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. Antioxidant Vitamin Status in the Serum and Amniotic Fluid of Women with Premature Rupture of the Fetal Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bridget M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the status of antioxidant vitamins in women with premature rupture of the fetal membranes. Specimens of blood and amniotic fluid were obtained from 80 pregnant subjects included both smokers and non-smokers during the third trimester. The concentrations of ascorbic acid (ASA), beta -carotene, retinol and alpha -tocopherol in serum and amniotic fluid were determined. The experimental group consisted of those subjects with PROM while the control subjects were those with normal pregnancy. No statistical differences were found between the PROM and control groups in retinol and vitamin E concentrations in amniotic fluid and serum. Serum ASA concentrations of PROM subjects were not different from controls, but the PROM subjects had significantly lower amniotic fluid ASA concentrations. However, in a study with fewer subjects a lower serum ASA concentration in the PROM subjects was observed. The ratio of amniotic fluid ASA concentration to ASA serum concentration was significantly lower in PROM patients than in controls in both studies. This suggests that low levels of ASA in the amniotic fluid, but not in serum is better associated with PROM. A low amniotic fluid concentration of ASA may reflect an inefficient transfer and/or increased fetal utilization. Alterations in ASA concentration in the amniotic fluid may affect the integrity of the chorioamnion leading to PROM. beta -Carotene was not found in the amniotic fluid. Serum beta-carotene levels were significantly lower in the PROM group compared to the control group. Low concentrations of beta-carotene in maternal serum in smokers not only associated with poor maternal outcome (PROM) but also compromised the fetal outcome (decreased birth weight). Maintenance of adequate serum beta-carotene concentration and amniotic fluid ASA in smokers may result in better maternal and fetal outcome. This study demonstrated that nutrition is an important factor in the prevention of PROM.

  15. Retinol, β-carotene and oxidative stress in systemic inflammatory response syndrome

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    Carla Nogueira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: patients suffering systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS constitute a group susceptible to elevated levels of oxidative stress. This study’s aim is to evaluate the state of oxidative stress and levels of serum retinol and β-carotene in these patients. Methods: forty-six patients were divided into 2 groups: those those without diet (G1; n=18 and those with enteral nutritional support (G2; n=28. Serum levels of retinol and total carotenoids were measured. C-reactive protein (CRP levels and Apache scores were also calculated. Oxidative stress was estimated by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS levels. Results: the patients’ median age was 66.9 (SD=19.3 years. Lower concentrations of retinol and carotenoids were found in 68.6 and 66.7% of G1, respectively. In G2, despite average vitamin A levels being 8078 + 4035, retinol and β-carotene were considered insufficient (31.2 and 33.4%, respectively. No difference was noted between the 2 groups, according to the variables studied, with the exception being PCR and β-carotene (p=0.002; p=0.01. Conclusion: the data presented in this study supports the need to establish/revise clinical practices in treating SIRS patients, in light of this micronutrient’s role in the immune system and antioxidant defense without it interfering with its toxicity.

  16. Vitamin A nutritional status in high- and low-income postpartum women and its effect on colostrum and the requirements of the term newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel, Cristiane Santos Sânzio; Grilo, Evellyn C; Lira, Larissa Q; Assunção, Débora G F; Oliveira, Priscila G; Melo, Larisse R M de; de Medeiros, Silvia V; Pessanha, Luanna C; Dimenstein, Roberto; Lyra, Clélia O

    To evaluate the vitamin A status in serum and colostrum of postpartum women with different socioeconomic status, comparing the colostrum retinol supply with the vitamin A requirement of the newborn. Cross-sectional study conducted with 424 postpartum women. Vitamin A maternal dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Colostrum and serum retinol levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum retinol concentrations <20μg/dL were indicative of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Vitamin A levels provided by colostrum <400μgRAE/day were considered as insufficient for term newborns. The mean maternal vitamin A intake during pregnancy was 872.2±639.2μgRAE/day in low-income women and 1169.2±695.2μgRAE/day for high-income women (p<0.005). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was 6.9% (n=18) in the low-income group and 3.7% (n=6) in the high-income group. The estimated mean retinol intake by infants of the high- and low-income mothers were 343.3μgRAE/day (85.8% AI) and 427.2μgRAE/day (106.8% AI), respectively. Serum vitamin A deficiency was considered a mild public health problem in both populations; however, newborns of low-income women were more likely to receive lower retinol levels through colostrum when compared with newborns of high-income mothers. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of nonretinoid retinol binding protein 4 antagonists for the potential treatment of atrophic age-related macular degeneration and Stargardt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Christopher L; Dobri, Nicoleta; Freeman, Emily E; Conlon, Michael P; Chen, Ping; Stafford, Douglas G; Schwarz, Daniel M C; Golden, Kathy C; Zhu, Lei; Kitchen, Douglas B; Barnes, Keith D; Racz, Boglarka; Qin, Qiong; Michelotti, Enrique; Cywin, Charles L; Martin, William H; Pearson, Paul G; Johnson, Graham; Petrukhin, Konstantin

    2014-09-25

    Accumulation of lipofuscin in the retina is associated with pathogenesis of atrophic age-related macular degeneration and Stargardt disease. Lipofuscin bisretinoids (exemplified by N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine) seem to mediate lipofuscin toxicity. Synthesis of lipofuscin bisretinoids depends on the influx of retinol from serum to the retina. Compounds antagonizing the retinol-dependent interaction of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) with transthyretin in the serum would reduce serum RBP4 and retinol and inhibit bisretinoid formation. We recently showed that A1120 (3), a potent carboxylic acid based RBP4 antagonist, can significantly reduce lipofuscin bisretinoid formation in the retinas of Abca4(-/-) mice. As part of the NIH Blueprint Neurotherapeutics Network project we undertook the in vitro exploration to identify novel conformationally flexible and constrained RBP4 antagonists with improved potency and metabolic stability. We also demonstrate that upon acute and chronic dosing in rats, 43, a potent cyclopentyl fused pyrrolidine antagonist, reduced circulating plasma RBP4 protein levels by approximately 60%.

  18. Effects of all-trans retinol and cigarette smoke condensate on hamster tracheal epithelium in organ culture. I. A cell proliferation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.; Wilmer, J.W.G.M.; Beems, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and all-trans retinol on the cell proliferative activity of vitamin A-deprived hamster tracheal epithelium have been studied in vitamin A-deficient, serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium in organ culture. In the absence of retinol, CSC induced a

  19. Retinol uptake and esterification in the rate sertoli cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingleton, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism by which Sertoli cells accumulate retinol from retinol-binding protein (RBP) and the cellular metabolism of the accumulated retinol were investigated here using primary cultures of Sertoli cells isolated from 20 day-old rats. Cells incubated with [ 3 H]retinol-RBP accumulated [ 3 H]retinol in a time- and temperature dependent manner. The rate of [ 3 H] retinol accumulation declined when cellular [ 3 H] retinol concentrations reached approximately 0.53 pmol of retinol per μg of cellular DNA, equivalent to the cellular content of cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP). Excess unlabeled retinol-RBP competed with [ 3 H] retinol-RBP for [ 3 H] retinol delivery to the cells but free retinol did not. Furthermore, free [ 3 H] retinol associated with Sertoli cells in a non-saturable manner. The transport constant for specific retinol accumulation from RBP was 1.9 μM, suggesting that any change in the normal circulating retinol-RBP level would directly affect the rate of retinol accumulation. Competition studies and studies using labeled RBP, cellular energy inhibitors, and lysosomal poisons indicated that the specific retinol accumulation by Sertoli cells occurs by interaction with a cell-surface receptor that internalizes retinol without concomitant internalization of RBP. Extraction and HPLC analysis of the radioactivity associated with Sertoli cells after incubation with [ 3 H] retinol-RBP yielded retinol and retinyl esters

  20. Structures of holo wild-type human cellular retinol-binding protein II (hCRBPII) bound to retinol and retinal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossoni, Zahra; Assar, Zahra; Yapici, Ipek; Nosrati, Meisam; Wang, Wenjing; Berbasova, Tetyana; Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Borhan, Babak; Geiger, James

    2014-12-01

    Cellular retinol-binding proteins (CRBPs) I and II, which are members of the intracellular lipid-binding protein (iLBP) family, are retinoid chaperones that are responsible for the intracellular transport and delivery of both retinol and retinal. Although structures of retinol-bound CRBPI and CRBPII are known, no structure of a retinal-bound CRBP has been reported. In addition, the retinol-bound human CRBPII (hCRBPII) structure shows partial occupancy of a noncanonical conformation of retinol in the binding pocket. Here, the structure of retinal-bound hCRBPII and the structure of retinol-bound hCRBPII with retinol fully occupying the binding pocket are reported. It is further shown that the retinoid derivative seen in both the zebrafish CRBP and the hCRBPII structures is likely to be the product of flux-dependent and wavelength-dependent X-ray damage during data collection. The structures of retinoid-bound CRBPs are compared and contrasted, and rationales for the differences in binding affinities for retinal and retinol are provided.

  1. Increased retinol-free RBP4 contributes to insulin resistance in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanmin; Lv, Ping; Du, Mengkai; Liang, Zhaoxia; Zhou, Menglin; Chen, Danqing

    2017-07-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a circulating retinol transporter that is strongly associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the RBP4 and retinol level in rat model of gestational diabetes mellitus and the relationship between retinol-free RBP4 (apo-RBP4), retinol-bound RBP4 (holo-RBP4) and insulin resistance. Pregnant rats were administered streptozotocin to induce diabetes. The RBP4 and retinol levels were evaluated in GDM and normal pregnant rats. After then, normal pregnant rats were divided into two groups to receive either apo-RBP4 or vehicle injection. The metabolic parameters and insulin signaling in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver were determined in apo-RBP4 and control groups. Primary human adipocytes were cultured in vitro with different proportions of apo-RBP4 and holo-RBP4 for 24 h. The interaction between RBP4 and STRA6 was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation, and the expression of JAK-STAT pathway and insulin signaling were detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. We found increases in serum RBP4 levels and the RBP4:retinol ratio but not in the retinol levels in GDM rats. Exogenous apo-RBP4 injection attenuated insulin sensitivity in pregnant rats. In vitro, a prolonged interaction between RBP4 and STRA6 was observed when apo-RBP4 was present. In response to increased apo-RBP4 levels, cells showed elevated activation of the JAK2/STAT5 cascade and SOCS3 expression, decreased phosphorylation of IR and IRS1, and attenuated GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake upon insulin stimulation. Apo-RBP4 is a ligand that activates the STRA6 signaling cascade, inducing insulin resistance in GDM.

  2. Serum concentrations of lipids, vitamin d metabolites, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissey, Susan D; Ange, Kimberly D; Jacobsen, Krista L; Slifka, Kerri A; Bowen, Phyllis E; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, Maria; Langman, Craig B; Sadler, William; Kahn, Stephen; Ward, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Serum concentrations of several nutrients were measured in 12 captive wild felid species including caracal (Felis caracal), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), cougar (Felis concolor), fishing cat (Felis viverrinus), leopard (Panthera pardus), lion (Panthera leo), ocelot (Felis pardalis), pallas cat (Felis manul), sand cat (Felis margarita), serval (Felis serval), snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and tiger (Panthera tigris). Diet information was collected for these animals from each participating zoo (Brookfield Zoo, Fort Worth Zoo, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens and North Carolina Zoological Park). The nutritional composition of the diets at each institution met the probable dietary requirements for each species except for the pallas cat. Blood samples were collected from each animal (n = 69) and analyzed for lipids (total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol), vitamin D metabolites [25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)(2)D)], vitamin A (retinol, retinyl stearate and retinyl palmitate), vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) and selected carotenoids. Species differences were found for all except triacylglycerides and 1,25(OH)(2)D. Genus differences were found for retinol, retinyl palmitate, retinyl stearate, gamma-tocopherol and beta-carotene. Circulating nutrient concentrations for many of the species in this study have not been reported previously and most have not been compared with the animals' dietary intakes. The large number of animals analyzed provides a substantial base for comparing the serum nutrient concentrations of healthy animals, for both wild and captive exotic species.

  3. High-fat diet enhanced retinal dehydrogenase activity, but suppressed retinol dehydrogenase activity in liver of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has shown that hyperlipidemia is associated with retinoid dyshomeostasis. In liver, retinol is mainly oxidized to retinal by retinol dehydrogenases (RDHs and alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs, further converted to retinoic acid by retinal dehydrogenases (RALDHs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high-fat diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia affected activity and expression of hepatic ADHs/RDHs and RALDHs in rats. Results showed that retinol levels in liver, kidney and adipose tissue of HFD rats were significantly increased, while plasma retinol and hepatic retinal levels were markedly decreased. HFD rats exhibited significantly downregulated hepatic ADHs/RDHs activity and Adh1, Rdh10 and Dhrs9 expression. Oppositely, hepatic RALDHs activity and Raldh1 expression were upregulated in HFD rats. In HepG2 cells, treatment of HFD rat serum inhibited ADHs/RDHs activity and induced RALDHs activity. Among the tested abnormally altered components in HFD rat serum, cholesterol reduced ADHs/RDHs activity and RDH10 expression, while induced RALDHs activity and RALDH1 expression in HepG2 cells. Contrary to the effect of cholesterol, cholesterol-lowering agent pravastatin upregulated ADHs/RDHs activity and RDH10 expression, while suppressed RALDHs activity and RALDH1 expression. In conclusion, hyperlipidemia oppositely altered activity and expression of hepatic ADHs/RDHs and RALDHs, which is partially due to the elevated cholesterol levels.

  4. Effect of low energy diet for eight weeks to adults with overweight or obesity on folate, retinol, vitamin B12, D and e status and the degree of inflammation: a post hoc analysis of a randomized intervention trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Veller, Mette; Kjoelbaek, Louise

    2018-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with vitamin insufficiency and low grade inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of weight loss on folate, retinol, vitamin B12, D and E status and the degree of inflammation. Methods: Out of 110, 85 individuals (75% women) aged 39...... in folate, 13% in vitamin B12, 2% in retinol, 28% in vitamin D (72% were insufficient in vitamin D), and none were deficient in vitamin E. At baseline, BMI was inversely associated with retinol (P ... were positively associated with CRP (P associated with all vitamins but retinol (P

  5. Ghrelin- and GH-induced insulin resistance: no association with retinol-binding protein-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Krag, Morten B; Poulsen, Morten M

    2013-01-01

    Supraphysiological levels of ghrelin and GH induce insulin resistance. Serum levels of retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) correlate inversely with insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine whether ghrelin and GH affect RBP4 levels in human subjects....

  6. High dietary fat-induced obesity in Wistar rats and type 2 diabetes in nonobese Goto-Kakizaki rats differentially affect retinol binding protein 4 expression and vitamin A metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Tomomi; Shichi, Yuta; Sato, Miyuki; Tanioka, Yuri; Furusho, Tadasu; Ota, Toru; Tadokoro, Tadahiro; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Kobayashi, Ken-Ichi; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, which is caused mainly by insulin resistance. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is the only specific transport protein for retinol in the serum. RBP4 level is increased in the diabetic state and high-fat condition, indicating that retinol metabolism may be affected under these conditions. However, the precise effect of diabetes and high fat-induced obesity on retinol metabolism is unknown. In this study, we examined differences in retinol metabolite levels in rat models of diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes (Goto-Kakizaki [GK] rat). Four-week-old male Wistar and GK rats were given either a control diet (AIN-93G) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 40% fat kJ). After 15 weeks of feeding, the RBP4 levels increased by 2-fold in the serum of GK rats but not HFD-fed rats. The hepatic retinol concentration of HFD-fed rats was approximately 50% that of the controls (P type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Relationship Between Retinol/Retinol Binding Protein 4 ratio, resistin and inflammation in non diabetic obese Indonesian men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To verify the correlation between Retinol/RBP4 Ratio, and resistin with inflammation (represented by hsCRP in non-diabetic obese Indonesian menMethods This was a cross sectional study using 125 subjects. Measured parameters were retinol, RBP4, resistin, and hsCRP. Correlation between retinol, RBP4, resistin, hsCRP and Retinol/RBP4 Ratio was calculated. Cut off point of hsCRP were classiied as follows: <1 mg/l for low risk of inflammation, 1-3 mg/l for moderate risk, and 3-10 mg/l for high risk (according to CVD risk. The Retinol/RBP4 ratio was dichotomized into high (>0.9 and low ratio (≤0.9. The cross tabulation test was performed to predict the inflammation trends described by Retinol/RBP4 Ratio and resistin.Results Retinol was found strongly correlated with RBP4 and resistin (r=0.53; p<0.01. A positive but not significant correlation was found between resistin and Retinol/RBP4 Ratio with hsCRP. In high ratio group, 17.6% subjects were found with low risk inflammation, 26.4% with moderate risk, and 20.8% with high risk, in low ratio group, 8% subjects were low risk inflammation, 20% moderate risk, and 7.2% high risk. Combination between ratio and resistin showed that in “high ratio and low resistin” group, 12% subjects have low risk of inflammation and 8% have high risk. Meanwhile in “low ratio and high resistin” group, 3.2% subjects were found having low risk and 13.6% high risk of inflammation.Conclusions Combination between Retinol/RBP4 Ratio and resistin showed better description about the inflammation risk in non-diabetic obese subjects compare to the ratio itself. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:57-63Keywords: Retinol, RBP4, resistin, hsCRP, obesity, inflammation

  8. [Effects of vitamin A supplementation on nutritional status of iron in healthy adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuwen; Fan, Ping; Deng, Gangbo; Du, Zhen; Shao, Zewei; Wang, Zhixu

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effect of vitamin A (VA) supplementation on the nutritional status of iron in healthy adults. One hundred and fifteen healthy adults were recruited and divided randomly into four groups, with 28 or 29 adults in each group. VA supplements with different doses of retinyl acetate in capsules were given for 4-month. The equivalent doses of supplemented retinyl acetate were 600 microg/d, 400 microg/d, 200 microg/d and 0 microg/d (control) of retinol, respectively. The capsules were administered orally by double blind method. During the experiment, the subjects kept their usual dietary pattern but avoided high VA or pre-VA carotenoids foods from their diets. A 24-h dietary recall was carried out monthly on every subject. Before and after the intervention, the fast blood samples were collected from each subject, and were determined for hemoglobin concentration, levels of serum retinol, iron, ferrtin and transferrtin receptor. Total 108 subjects finished the experiment, with 27, 28, 27 and 26 persons left in group A, B, C and D, respectively. The subjects from each group had similar dietary intakes of energy nutrients, VA and iron (both were P > 0.05) during the experimental period. The serum retinol concentration of subjects from group A increased from 1.63 +/- 0.55 micromol/L of baseline to 1.93 +/-0.52 micromol/L at the end of the experiment (P 0.05). There was no significant difference on Hb concentration before and after the experiment as well as between groups (all were P > 0.05). In subjects of group A, serum iron concentration increased (P < 0.05) and serum ferrtin and transferrtin receptor concentration decreased significantly (both were P < 0.05) after VA supplement intervention. No such changes were observed in group B and C (P < 0.05). It seems that the intervention of VA supplement with relative high dose of retinol at dietary level could enhance the iron status further in no-anemic healthy adults even without dietary iron supplementation.

  9. Serum retinol binding protein 4 in patients with familial partial lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Matos, Amélio F; Moreira, Rodrigo O; MacDowell, Renata; Bendet, Izidro; Mory, Patrícia B; Moises, Regina S

    2009-07-01

    To determine Retinol Binding Protein 4 (RBP4) levels in patients with Familial Partial Lipodystrophy (FPLD). Ten patients with FPLD and a control group (9 patients) were selected to participate in the study. RBP4-log levels were lower in patients with FPLD in comparison to control group (1.52 +/- 0.32 vs 1.84+/-0.25, p=0.029). A statistical trend was observed between Waist-to-Hip Ratio and RBP4-log (r=-0.44, p=0.054). RBP4 levels are decreased in FPLD.

  10. beta-Carotene in breast milk and serum is increased after a single beta-carotene dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, L M; Giuliano, A R; Neilson, E M; Yap, H H; Graver, E J; Cui, H A; Blashill, B M

    1997-07-01

    Normal lactating mothers were administered a single dose of 60 or 210 mg beta-carotene and changes in serum and milk retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and carotenoids were monitored for 8 d. Average serum beta-carotene concentrations increased 4.1- and 4.0-fold after the 60- and 210-mg doses, respectively. Milk beta-carotene concentrations increased 4.1- and 3.0-fold after the 60- and 210-mg doses, respectively. Maximum serum concentrations were reached 24 h after both supplements, although concentrations of milk beta-carotene continued to rise for 2-3 d. After 8 d, both serum and milk beta-carotene continued to rise for 2-3 d. After 8 d, both serum and milk beta-carotene concentrations remained about twofold higher than baseline concentrations. Increases in serum or milk beta-carotene concentrations were not dose-dependent. Initial serum and milk concentrations of beta-carotene predicted increases after supplementation, and increases in serum beta-carotene concentrations predicted those in milk. Concentrations of milk carotenoids were less than one-tenth their respective concentrations in serum. Lutein, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol concentrations in serum or milk did not change significantly after beta-carotene supplementation. Retinol esters account for most of the retinol equivalents in the milk of well-nourished mothers. Initial and maximum concentrations of beta-carotene in serum and milk were strongly correlated for individual mothers. Collectively, the data showed that a single 60-mg supplement of beta-carotene sustained elevated beta-carotene concentrations in serum and milk for > 1 wk in normal mothers but did not affect concentrations of other major carotenoids, retinol, or alpha-tocopherol.

  11. Quantitative analysis of retinol and retinol palmitate in vitamin tablets using 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Hae; Kim, Hye Kyong; Wilson, Erica G.; Erkelens, Cornelis; Trijzelaar, Ben; Verpoorte, Robert

    2004-01-01

    1 H-NMR spectrometry was applied to the quantitative analysis of Vitamin A in four different types of vitamin tablets without any chromatographic purification or saponification. The experiment was performed analysing the H-15 resonance, which appears at δ 4.32 for retinol and δ 4.69 for retinol palmitate, well separated from other resonances in the 1 H-NMR spectrum. Compounds were quantified using the relative ratio of the integral of the H-15 signal to that of a known amount of internal standard (200 μg/ml), anthracene. In order to evaluate the feasibility of avoiding the saponification of retinol palmitate in the preparation of samples, several solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide, n-hexane, methanol, water, and 0.1 M of HCl were tested as possible extraction solvents. Among these, dimethylsulfoxide showed the best yield of retinol palmitate. This method, using dimethylsulfoxide extraction and 1 H-NMR, allows rapid and simple quantitation of retinol palmitate in tablets avoiding tedious saponification

  12. Red palm oil in the maternal diet increases provitamin A carotenoids in breastmilk and serum of the mother-infant dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, L M; Kaminsky, R G; Taren, D L; Shaw, E; Sander, J K

    2001-02-01

    Despite vitamin A supplementation programs, vitamin A deficiency in children remains a public health concern in Honduras. We investigated the effectiveness of short-term dietary supplementation of mothers with red palm oil as a strategy for improving the vitamin A status of the mother-infant dyad. Lactating mothers in Colonia Los Pinos, a barrio of Tegucigalpa, Honduras, consumed a total of 90-mg beta-carotene as red palm oil (n = 32) supplements (n = 36) or placebo (n = 18) in six equal doses over 10 days. Carotenoids and retinol in maternal and infant serum, and breastmilk carotenoids and retinol were measured before and after supplementation. Maternal diet was evaluated by 24-hour recall. Maternal serum alpha-carotene and beta-carotene concentrations were increased 2 fold by palm oil compared with 1.2 fold by beta-carotene supplements. Changes were significantly different in infant serum alpha-carotene but not beta-carotene among the three experimental groups. Increases in breastmilk beta-carotene were greater for the palm oil group (2.5 fold) than for the beta-carotene supplement group (1.6 fold) and increases in milk alpha-carotene concentrations (3.2 fold) were slightly greater than those of beta-carotene. There were also small but significant changes among groups in breastmilk lutein and lycopene. Breastmilk retinol was not significantly different among the groups over the treatment period. Red palm oil in the maternal diet increases provitamin A carotenoids in breastmilk and serum of the mother-infant dyad. The use of dietary red palm oil to improve the vitamin A status of this population should be further investigated.

  13. Prognostic Importance of Vitamins A, E and Retinol-binding Protein 4 in Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, Roman; Čapoun, Otakar; Kalousová, Marta; Hanuš, Tomáš; Zima, Tomáš; Koštířová, Milada; Soukup, Viktor

    2017-07-01

    To assess the prognostic importance of serum levels of retinol, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and vitamin E at the time of diagnosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this prospective study, in a cohort of 102 renal cell carcinoma patients, relationships between serum levels of the aforementioned markers and recurrence-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), as well as cancer-specific survival (CSS), were evaluated. The vitamin A and vitamin E levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while the RBP4 level by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The median follow-up period was 39 months. Renal cell carcinoma recurred in 9 patients; 23 patients died with 12 of them from RCC. The preoperative vitamin E level was associated to RFS (p=0.02). We found a significant relationship between OS and the level of RBP4 (p=0.002), retinol (p=0.037) and vitamin E (p=0.007). The CSS period was significantly associated with the level of RBP4 (p=0.0001) and retinol (p=0.0003). Patients with an RBP4 level less than 21.0 mg/l at the time of diagnosis had a 13.5-times higher risk of death due to RCC progression; this risk was up to 7.7-times higher with vitamin A levels under 0.52 mg/l. Low levels of vitamin A, E and RBP4 at the time of RCC diagnosis are associated with a poorer prognosis after surgery. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. Retinol analysis in dried blood spots by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, N E; Haitema, T; Brindle, L K; Yamini, S; Humphrey, J H; West, K P

    2000-04-01

    There are many advantages to measuring vitamin A in dried blood spots (DBS) from a finger prick as compared to plasma collected by venipuncture. The advantages include easier collection, transport and storage; accessibility to younger and more remote populations; and decreased risk of disease transmission. We describe a method for the extraction of retinol from DBS for analysis by HPLC and initial comparison to plasma retinol. The effects of various buffers, detergents, antioxidants and chelators were evaluated to establish the most effective approach to elute the retinol: retinol binding protein (holo-RBP) complex from the blood collection cards. The process involves ultrasonic agitation to elute holo-RBP into a phosphate buffer containing an antioxidant and metal chelator. The holo-RBP complex was denatured by the addition of ethanol containing additional antioxidants permitting the extraction of free retinol into hexane. Following solvent evaporation, the extract was dissolved in methanol for HPLC analysis. The initial measured retinol levels in freshly collected DBS declined for 6-10 d whether stored at 25, 4 or -20 degrees C, but remained consistent thereafter (homeostatic). By incorporating a "recovery/volume adjustment" factor, measured retinol values in homeostatic DBS were adjusted to the equivalent of plasma retinol. For 17 normal adults, the correlation coefficient was 0.90 between plasma retinol and adjusted DBS retinol in samples that had been stored at -70 degrees C for < 9 mo. The use of this new sample matrix for vitamin A assessment will allow access to previously unavailable populations.

  15. Gonadal cell surface receptor for plasma retinol-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Bhat, M.; Cama, H.R.

    1979-01-01

    A specific membrane receptor for plasma retinol-binding protein has been demonstrated in testicular cells. Prealbumin-2 did not show any specific binding to the membrane. The affinity of retinol-binding protein for receptor drastically decreases upon delivery of retinol and the retinol-binding protein does not enter the cell. The mechanism of delivery of retinol to the target cell by plasma retinol-binding protein has been investigated. The process involves two steps; direct binding of retinol-binding protein to the receptor and uptake of retinol by the target cell with a concomitant drastic reduction in the affinity of the retinol-binding protein to the receptor. Probably the second step of the process needs a cytosolic factor, possibly the cellular retinol-binding protein or an enzyme. The binding of retinol-binding protein to the receptor is saturable and reversible. The interaction shows a Ksub(d) value of 2.1x10 -10 . The specific binding of a retinol-binding protein with great affinity has been employed in the development of a method for radioassay of the receptor. The receptor level of the gonadal cell has been found to vary with the stage of differentiation. The receptor concentrations in 11-week-old birds and adult birds are comparable. Testosterone treatment of 11-week-old birds produced a substantial increase in the receptor concentration over control, while the protein content increased marginally, indicating that, probably, synthesis of the receptor is specifcally induced by testosterone during spermatogenesis, and the concentration of receptor is relatively higher before the formation of the acrosome. (Auth.)

  16. Quantitative analysis of retinol and retinol palmitate in vitamin tablets using {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Hae; Kim, Hye Kyong; Wilson, Erica G.; Erkelens, Cornelis; Trijzelaar, Ben; Verpoorte, Robert

    2004-06-04

    {sup 1}H-NMR spectrometry was applied to the quantitative analysis of Vitamin A in four different types of vitamin tablets without any chromatographic purification or saponification. The experiment was performed analysing the H-15 resonance, which appears at {delta} 4.32 for retinol and {delta} 4.69 for retinol palmitate, well separated from other resonances in the {sup 1}H-NMR spectrum. Compounds were quantified using the relative ratio of the integral of the H-15 signal to that of a known amount of internal standard (200 {mu}g/ml), anthracene. In order to evaluate the feasibility of avoiding the saponification of retinol palmitate in the preparation of samples, several solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide, n-hexane, methanol, water, and 0.1 M of HCl were tested as possible extraction solvents. Among these, dimethylsulfoxide showed the best yield of retinol palmitate. This method, using dimethylsulfoxide extraction and {sup 1}H-NMR, allows rapid and simple quantitation of retinol palmitate in tablets avoiding tedious saponification.

  17. Correlation of secretion of retinol and protein by the lacrimal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubels, J.L.; Rismondo, V.

    1986-01-01

    Retinol, which is present in tears, is secreted by the lacrimal gland. Retinol secretion is stimulated by cholinergic drugs and vasoactive intestinal peptide with characteristics very similar to the exocytotic secretion of protein by the lacrimal gland, suggesting that retinol and protein are secreted by similar mechanisms. The authors investigated this by cannulating the lacrimal gland ducts of rabbits and collecting lacrimal gland fluid (LGF) under conditions of maximal flow stimulated by IV injection of pilocarpine (400 μg/kg) every 20 min for 4.5 hr. Over this period LGF protein concentration decreased 36.4% from 22.8 +/- 1.94 mg/ml to 8.29 1.86 mg/ml while retinol decreased 37% from 55.1 +/- 16.2 ng/ml to 20.4 +/- 6.5 ng/ml. The retinol/protein ratio remained constant at 2.88 ng/mg. This demonstrates a strong correlation between retinol and protein secretion, suggesting that retinol may be protein bound. To investigate binding of retinol to LGF protein, LGF was incubated with 3 H-retinol. The bound and unbound retinol were separated on a Lipidex 1000 column. Retinol binding was linear over a range of 1.25-200 nM 3 H-retinol. Binding was not inhibited by PCMBS or addition of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled retinol and was not increased by prior extraction of endogenous retinol from the LGF. This indicates that the binding of retinol to LGF protein is non-specific. Retinol therefore appears to be secreted by the lacrimal gland cells in non-specific association with protein

  18. Retinol-Binding Protein 4 and Insulin Resistance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchison, Samantha K.; Harrison, Cheryce; Stepto, Nigel; Meyer, Caroline; Teede, Helena J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE?Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an insulin-resistant state with insulin resistance being an established therapeutic target; however, measurement of insulin resistance remains challenging. We aimed to 1) determine serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels (purported to reflect insulin resistance) in women with PCOS and control subjects, 2) examine the relationship of RBP4 to conventional markers of insulin resistance, and 3) examine RBP4 changes with interventions modulating ...

  19. Influência de variáveis socioeconômicas e de saúde materno-infantil sobre os níveis de retinol no colostro humano Retinol levels in human colostrum: influence of child, maternal and socioeconomic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Dimenstein

    2003-11-01

    evaluated 48 hours after delivery. Socioeconomic, anthropometric, and dietary data were collected by means of a questionnaire. Body mass index was used to determine nutritional status. The Virtual Nutri software was used to analyze data on daily intake of vitamin A collected by a dietetic history. Retinol levels were determined in 2 ml of colostrum using high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Most women were of low socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. Vitamin A intake was adequate in 55% of the women (mean intake = 1,398.8 µg RE/day. The mean amount of retinol in colostrum was 93.1+51.1 µgRE/100 ml. No significant differences were found in terms of milk retinol levels for the variables income (p = 0.503, educational level (p = 0.708 and birth weight (p = 0. 499. However, a statistically significant difference was observed for nutritional status during pregnancy (0.016. CONCLUSION:The lack of influence of socioeconomic factors on colostrum retinol levels suggests the existence of an adaptive mechanism of the mammary gland to maintain adequate retinol levels that meet the infant's daily needs.

  20. Dietary plant food and socioeconomic determinants of vitamin A status : study in rural lactating woman during crisis in Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sulchan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available For the Longer term food-based approaches for controlling vitamin A deficiency and its consequences, become increasingly important. A nutrition survailance system in Central-Java, Indonesia assessed vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentration of lactating women with a child ≤36 mo old during crisis. Median vitamin A intake was 319 RE/d and night blindness 0,34%. Serum retinol concentration (mean : 1,23 µmol/L was related to vitamin A intake in a dose-concentration manner. The multiple logistic regression model for predicting the chance for a serum retinol concentration > observed median of the population (≥1,27 µ mol/L included determinant factors, vitamin A intake from plant foods (OR [95% CI] per quartile, 1st : 1.00, 2nd: 1,63 [0,99-2,80], 3rd: 1,99 [1,58-2,99], and 4th: 2,62 [1,68-4,04], from, animal foods (1st and 2nd: 1,00. 3rd: 1,37 [0,89-2,09] and 4th: 2,86 [1,59-3,98] . Homegardening (no 1,00, yes 1,88 [1,08-2,68] and woman’s education level (≤ primary school : 1,00 ≥ secondary school : 1,46 [1,00-2,16] . Thus, although contributing 16 times more to total vitamin A intake plant foods were as important for vitamin A status as animal foods. Homegardening and woman’s education level seem to reflect longer-term consumption of plant and animal foods respectively. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:259-66Keywords: Vitamin A intake, plant foods, animal foods, vitamin A status, homegardening, socio-economic status, crisis, Indonesia

  1. Buriti oil (Mauritia flexuosa L.) negatively impacts somatic growth and reflex maturation and increases retinol deposition in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Maria C; Aquino, Jailane S; Soares, Juliana; Figueiroa, Edigleide B; Mesquita, Hanni M; Pessoa, Debora C; Stamford, Tania M

    2015-11-01

    Buriti oil contains nutrients such as essential fatty acids and vitamins, which are directly involved with neonates' development. However, the refining process of this oil can change its nutrient profile. This study investigated the effects of maternal consumption of Buriti oil (crude or refined), on reflex and somatic development and retinol levels in neonatal rats. Thirty-six Wistar male neonate rats born from mothers who consumed diet with 7% lipids during gestation and lactation were used. Rats were randomized into three groups: rats receiving diet added of soybean oil (control-CG), crude Buriti oil (CB) and refined Buriti oil (RB). Offspring weight, tail length, reflex ontogeny and somatic maturation were assessed during lactation. At the end of the experiment, serum and liver retinol concentrations were measured. Animals from CB and RB groups showed delayed onset of palm grasp, righting reflex and cliff avoidance reflexes compared to the control group (CG). However, animals from RB group showed anticipation of auditory startle compared to those from BC group. Regarding somatic maturation indicators, animals from RB group showed delayed eye opening and eruption of superior and inferior incisors in relation to control and anticipation in the auditory conduit opening in relation to CB group. Rats from CB and RB groups showed higher serum and liver vitamin A contents. Buriti oil delays physical parameters and reflex maturation and increases serum and liver retinol deposition among neonatal rats. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Giardiasis and Poor Vitamin A Status among Aboriginal School Children in Rural Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Surin, Johari; Sallam, Atiya A.; Abdullah, Ariffin W.; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on 241 primary schoolchildren in Pahang, Malaysia to update their vitamin A status and to investigate the association of poor vitamin A status with their health and socioeconomic factors. All children were screened for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood samples were collected and vitamin A status was assessed. Socioeconomic data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires. The results showed that 66 (27.4%) children had low serum retinol levels (Malaysia. Vitamin A supplementation and treatment of intestinal parasitic infections should be distributed periodically to these children to improve their health and nutritional status. PMID:20810815

  3. Association of vitamin D status with incidence of enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli diarrhoea in children of urban Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A M S; Soares Magalhaes, R J; Long, K Z; Ahmed, T; Alam, Md A; Hossain, Md I; Islam, Md M; Mahfuz, M; Mondal, D; Haque, R; Mamun, A A

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the association between vitamin D status and diarrhoeal episodes by enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enteroaggregative (EAEC) E. coli in underweight and normal-weight children aged 6-24 months in urban Bangladesh. Cohorts of 446 normal-weight and 466 underweight children were tested separately for ETEC, EPEC and EAEC from diarrhoeal stool samples collected during 5 months of follow-up while considering vitamin D status at enrolment as the exposure. Cox proportional hazards models with unordered failure events of the same type were used to determine diarrhoeal risk factors after adjusting for sociodemographic and concurrent micronutrient status. Vitamin D status was not independently associated with the risk of incidence of ETEC, EPEC and EAEC diarrhoea in underweight children, but moderate-to-severe retinol deficiency was associated with reduced risk for EPEC diarrhoea upon adjustment. Among normal-weight children, insufficient vitamin D status and moderate-to-severe retinol deficiency were independently associated with 44% and 38% reduced risk of incidence of EAEC diarrhoea, respectively. These children were at higher risk of ETEC diarrhoea with vitamin D deficiency status when adjusted for micronutrient status only. This study demonstrates for the first time that normal-weight children with insufficient vitamin D status have a reduced risk of EAEC diarrhoea than children with sufficient status. Moderate-to-severe deficiency of serum retinol is associated with reduced risk of EPEC and EAEC diarrhoea in underweight and normal-weight children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Vitamin A/Retinol and Maintenance of Pluripotency of Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspal S. Khillan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Retinol, the alcohol form of vitamin A is a key dietary component that plays a critical role in vertebrate development, cell differentiation, reproduction, vision and immune system. Natural and synthetic analogs of retinol, called retinoids, have generally been associated with the cell differentiation via retinoic acid which is the most potent metabolite of retinol. However, a direct function of retinol has not been fully investigated. New evidence has now emerged that retinol supports the self-renewal of stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs, germ line stem cells (GSCs and cancer stem cells (CSCs by activating the endogenous machinery for self-renewal by a retinoic acid independent mechanism. The studies have also revealed that stem cells do not contain enzymes that are responsible for metabolizing retinol into retinoic acid. This new function of retinol may have important implications for stem cell biology which can be exploited for quantitative production of pure population of pluripotent stem cells for regenerative medicine as well as clinical applications for cancer therapeutics.

  5. Retinol improves bovine embryonic development in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards J Lannett

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retinoids are recognized as important regulators of vertebrate development, cell differentiation, and tissue function. Previous studies, performed both in vivo and in vitro, indicate that retinoids influence several reproductive events, including follicular development, oocyte maturation and early embryonic development. The present study evaluated in vitro effects of retinol addition to media containing maturing bovine oocytes and developing embryos in both a low oxygen atmosphere (7% and under atmospheric oxygen conditions (20%. In the first experiment, abbatoir collected bovine oocytes were matured in the presence or absence of varying concentrations of retinol. After a 22–24 hour maturation period the oocytes were fertilized, denuded 18 hours later and cultured in a modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF in a humidified atmosphere at 38.5 degrees C, 5% CO2, 7% O2 and 88% N2. Cleavage rates did not differ among control and retinol-treated oocytes in all three experiments. Addition of 5 micromolar retinol to the maturation medium (IVM tended (p

  6. Secretion of hepatic triglycerides into plasma of rats fed retinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, H.C.; Misra, U.K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of feeding 33 mg of retinol daily for two days on liver and plasma lipids of rats has been studied. The secretion of liver TG into plasma of retinol fed rats has been measured by the use of palmitic acid-1- 14 C and of Triton WR 1339. Liver and plasma lipids, TG, phospholipids and PC were significantly higher in retinol fed rats as compared to control rats. The incorporation of palmitic acid-1- 14 C into liver TG, PC and PE was significantly higher in retinol fed rats. The labelling pattern with time of liver and plasma TG and PC shows that the secretion of liver TG and PC into plasma was impaired in retinol fed rats. (auth.)

  7. Vitamin A status of Filipino preschool children given a massive oral dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlas, L A; Florentino, R F; Fuertes, R T; Madriaga, J R; Cheong, R L; Desnacido, J A; Marcos, J M; Cabrera, M I

    1996-12-01

    The protection period of a 200,000 IU of vitamin A on Filipino children was determined. Subjects were 105 children aged 1-5 years given a single massive dose during the "Araw ng Sangkap Pinoy" (ASAP) in March 1995. Serum retinol was measured by HPLC at baseline, one, two, four and six months after the administration of the dose. Results showed that baseline serum retinol levels were significantly lower than all follow-up values. Serum retinol values were maintained at levels higher than pre-supplementation values although the values decreased on the second month after supplementation. The proportions of deficient and low (values at baseline were significantly lower (p values. The WHO recommendation of 200,000 IU was effective in increasing serum retinol concentrations and maintaining it above pre-supplementation levels up to 6 months after administration of the dose. It also replenished organic vitamin A reserves as shown by the dose response (S30DR) approach. Incidence of infection also decreased among the children. Supplementation with vitamin A has likewise resulted in an increase in hemoglobin values and a decrease in the proportion of anemics (Hb < 11.0 g/dl) among the children.

  8. Esterification of all-trans-retinol in normal human epithelial cell strains and carcinoma lines from oral cavity, skin and breast: reduced expression of lecithin:retinol acyltransferase in carcinoma lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Ruiz, A; Rando, R R; Bok, D; Gudas, L J

    2000-11-01

    When exogenous [(3)H]retinol (vitamin A) was added to culture medium, normal human epithelial cells from the oral cavity, skin, lung and breast took up and esterified essentially all of the [(3)H]retinol within a few hours. As shown by [(3)H]retinol pulse-chase experiments, normal epithelial cells then slowly hydrolyzed the [(3)H]retinyl esters to [(3)H]retinol, some of which was then oxidized to [(3)H]retinoic acid (RA) over a period of several days. In contrast, cultured normal human fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) did not esterify significant amounts of [(3)H]retinol; this lack of [(3)H]retinol esterification was correlated with a lack of expression of lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) transcripts in normal fibroblast and HUVEC strains. These results indicate that normal, differentiated cell types differ in their ability to esterify retinol. Human carcinoma cells (neoplastically transformed epithelial cells) of the oral cavity, skin and breast did not esterify much [(3)H]retinol and showed greatly reduced LRAT expression. Transcripts of the neutral, bile salt-independent retinyl ester hydrolase and the bile salt-dependent retinyl ester hydrolase were undetectable in all of the normal cell types, including the epithelial cells. These experiments suggest that retinoid-deficiency in the tumor cells could develop because of the lack of retinyl esters, a storage form of retinol.

  9. Development and application of isotopic techniques in studies of vitamin A nutrition in pregnant HIV infected women in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutsoudis, A.; Pillay, K.; Coovadia, H.M.; Moodely, D.; Moodely, J.; Green, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    HIV infected pregnant women have been shown to be at risk for vitamin A deficiency. Poor vitamin A status has been shown to be a risk factor for transmission of HIV virus from mother to infant. It is however, difficult to assess the vitamin A status in such women by conventional methods such as serum retinol because of the effect of the acute phase response on serum retinol and because of the haemodilution that occurs during pregnancy. This study therefore sets out to determine more accurately the vitamin A stores of HIV infected pregnant women by means of the stable isotope dilution method. In addition the stable isotope dilution method will be used to validate the usefulness of breast-milk retinol status as an indicator of vitamin A status and its correlation with the infant's vitamin A status. (author)

  10. The possible significance of parallel changes in plasma lutein and retinol in Pakistani infants during the summer season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurnham, D I; Northrop-Clewes, C A; Paracha, P I; McLoone, U J

    1997-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that plasma lutein is better correlated than either beta-carotene or lycopene with its respective carotenoid intake and therefore may be a better marker of vegetable intake than either beta-carotene or lycopene. In the study reported in this paper, measurements of plasma carotenes and retinol were made in infants from two villages near Peshawar in the North West Frontier Province, Pakistan, in July and November 1993. The approximate age at the start was 14 months, and 101 boys and ninety girls completed the study. Of the usual plasma carotenes, only lutein was measurable in all samples and was correlated with retinol in both boys (r 0.38, P lutein was even more strongly correlated with the change in retinol in both boys (r 0.453, P lutein and retinol suggests that the increase in retinol over the summer season may be attributable to an increased availability of green vegetables to the families. The source of lutein to the infants is most likely to be the breast milk since such vegetables are unlikely to be given to infants except to suck as a weaning food. The results may indicate the potential usefulness of plasma lutein as a marker of changes in vegetable intake and changes in vitamin A status in Third World infants and children.

  11. Ultra-performance liquid chromatographic determination of tocopherols and retinol in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward C; John, Mathew; Hughes, Rodney J; Pham, Thu

    2014-10-01

    A rapid, selective and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the detection and quantification of tocopherols and retinol in human plasma. Alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol and retinol are assayed using fluorescence detection. Excitation/emission wavelengths are 295/330 nm and 325/470 nm for the analysis of both tocopherols and retinol, respectively. Retinol acetate is employed as the internal standard. The reversed-phase method incorporates gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of methanol and acetonitrile. Separation of vitamin compounds is achieved using a bridged ethyl hybrid C18 column. The retention times for retinol, retinol acetate, gamma-tocopherol and alpha-tocopherol are 1.6, 1.8, 3.9 and 4.3 min, respectively. The limits of quantification for retinol, gamma-tocopherol and alpha-tocopherol were 0.02, 0.02 and 0.1 µg/mL, respectively. The assay method is suitable for the analysis of tocopherols and retinol in human plasma. The method may be applied following the ingestion of foods fortified with these fat-soluble vitamins. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Improvement the nutritional status of pre-school children following intervention with a supplement containing iron, zinc, copper, vitamin A, vitamin C and prebiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Carla Vidigal Castro

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of a vitamin and mineral fortified powder product supplemented with inulin, on the iron and vitamin A status of 110 pre-schools childrens in Viçosa, MG, Brazil. The 2 to 5-year-old children were submitted to anthropometric (weight and height, biochemical (erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume – MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin - MCH, serum iron, ferritin and serum retinol and dietary (direct food weighing, 24 h recall, and food intake record evaluations, at the beginning and at the end of a 45-day intervention. The supplement (30 g was provided daily as part of the afternoon snack, diluted in 100 mL of water, 5 times/week and it supplied 30% of the recommended daily doses of iron, zinc, copper and vitamins A and C. Dietary and biochemical data was compared by the Wilcoxon test, and anthropometric data by the paired t-test. Values of z-scores for weight and height, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, MCV, MCH and ferritin were significantly higher after intervention; no change was observed in serum retinol. The prebiotic-containing supplement significantly increased the intake of energy, macro and micronutrients, and was effective in improving the iron and anthropometric status.

  13. An immunohistochemical study of retinol-binding protein (RBP) in livers of free-living polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from east Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heier, Annabelle; Sonne, Christian; Gröne, Andrea; Leifsson, Pall S; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W; Bacciarini, Luca N

    2005-09-01

    From 1999 to 2002 samples from 114 free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were collected in the municipality of Scoresby Sound, East Greenland, to detect levels of organochlorines and potential histopathologic changes. Livers of 16 female polar bears from this group were evaluated histologically and analyzed for hepatic retinol-binding protein by immunohistochemistry. Retinol-binding protein is the main transport protein for retinol, an important vitamin A metabolite in the polar bear. Only mild pathologic changes were noted on histologic evaluation of the livers. Small lymphocytic or lymphohistiocytic infiltrates were present in all the livers. Small lipid granulomas, mild periportal fibrosis, and bile duct proliferation were found in several cases. Immunohistochemistry for retinol-binding protein of hepatic tissue from free-ranging polar bears showed no distinct difference in staining intensity by a number of criteria: age, season (fasting and nonfasting), or lactation status. The staining was diffuse to finely stippled in the cytoplasm and showed very little variation among the animals. Because of the lack of macroscopic changes and the absence of severe histologic liver lesions, these polar bears were assumed to be healthy. The diffuse cytoplasmic retinol-binding protein staining in hepatocytes of free-ranging polar bears varies markedly from the prominent granular, less intense staining of captive polar bears investigated previously.

  14. Indicators of nutritional status in restricting-type anorexia nervosa patients: a 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nova, Esther; Lopez-Vidriero, Irene; Varela, Pilar; Toro, Olga; Casas, J José; Marcos, A Ascensión

    2004-12-01

    Despite severely reduced intakes, anorexia nervosa (AN) patients seem to maintain serum biochemical parameters within the safe limit. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of some traditional serum biochemical indicators of nutritional status in a 1-year follow-up of patients with restricting-type AN. 14 adolescent female patients were studied at four different time points: (1) on hospital admission (t0), (2) 1 month later (t1), (3) 6 months after admission (t6) and (4) 12 months after admission (t12). At each time point serum albumin, prealbumin, retinol-binding protein, transferrin, complement factors C3 and C4, zinc and iron status were analysed. 15 healthy adolescents formed the control group. Among the liver-synthesised proteins, a significant time effect was only demonstrated on transferrin and C3 and C4 (ANOVA, Pnutritional recovery.

  15. Systemic treatment of seborrheic dermatitis with retinol palmitate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kalinina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study. Evaluating of the effectiveness of treatment of men with a diagnosis «Seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp» by the system using of retinol palmitate. Material and methods. 36 patients every day for 2 months received overnight per os 200000 ME of retinol palmitate, and in the comparison group (39 people antiseborrheic shampoos have been used. The dynamics of severity of skin oiliness, pruritis, erythema, peeling, infiltration, excoriations has been evaluated in points. Before and after the treatment a histological and morphometric study of biopsy material from the affected areas has been carried.The terms of relapses have been set. Results. Retinol palmitate treatment efficiency - 91.7%, antiseborrheic shampoos - 84.6%. Along with the regression of symptoms of the disease in both groups after retinol palmitate treatment significantly declined oiliness of skin; the sizes of sebaceous glands acini and the presence of differentiated sebocytes, the squares of lymphocytic-macrophage clusters in the dermis, the number of keratinocytes with vacuolated cytoplasm have been reduced. Relapses of the disease during a year occured more rare - in 21 patients out of 32 (in the comparison group- in 25 out of 31 and at a later date (in the first 3 months in 2 patients out of 32, in comparison group in 10 out of 31. Identified effects were due to the action of retinol palmitate on the morphogenesis of the sebaceous glands.

  16. Serum prolidase activity and oxidative status in Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Mehmet; Nazligul, Yasar; Horoz, Mehmet; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Fusun F; Aksoy, Nurten; Celik, Hakim; Erel, Ozcan

    2007-01-01

    During the course of Helicobacter pylori infection, increased oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal mucosal inflammation, which can cause gastric mucosal atrophy that characterized by the replacement of the gastric mucosal glands by collagen fibers. In the present study, we aimed to determine serum prolidase activity and oxidative status, and to find out if there is any association between serum prolidase activity and oxidative status in H. pylori infection. Forty H. pylori-positive and 32 H. pylori-negative subjects were enrolled. Serum prolidase activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Oxidative status was determined using total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status measurement and calculation of oxidative stress index. Total antioxidant capacity level was lower in H. pylori-positive group than H. pylori-negative group (ptotal oxidant status, oxidative stress index and prolidase activity were higher (all ptotal antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index (p<0.01, r=-0.367; p<0.05, r=0.283; p<0.01, r=0.379; respectively) in H. pylori-positive subjects. H. pylori infection may be associated with increased oxidative stress and increased serum prolidase activity. Increased oxidative stress seems to be associated with increased serum prolidase activity and this association may help to provide a better understanding about the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection.

  17. Organohalogens in A Whale-Blubber-Supplemented Diet Affects Hepatic Retinol and Renal Tocopherol Concentrations in Greenland Sled Dogs (Canis familiaris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, M.; Sonne, C.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the plasma, liver, and kidney status of vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin E (-tocopherol) in two groups of Greenland sled dogs (Canis familiaris), with a total number of 16 bitches and 8 pups. The dogs were fed either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata...... polychlorinated biphenyls [PCB]). Retinol was approximately 18% and -tocopherol 22% higher in the diet of the exposed dogs compared to controls. In adipose tissue, mean of sigma OHC was 92 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and 5005 ng/g lw for all control (n = 12) and exposed dogs (n = 10), respectively. Hepatic retinol...... correlated negatively with sigma-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (sigma DDT) and and sigma-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (sigma PBDE) for all exposed animals. A negative correlation between kidney -tocopherol and sigma PCB concentrations was observed, whereas two positive significant correlations were...

  18. Interspecies and seasonal differences of retinol in dairy ruminant´s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Hodulová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Milk is an essential source of macronutrients and among lipophilic vitamins is significant source of retinol. The contribution of milk to the reference daily intake for retinol varies from 11% to 16%, worldwide. The most consumed dairy products are fresh, dehydrated and condensed milk in which the amonuts of retinol are not modified to those of in whole milk. Retinol is essential to ensure a good functionality of the immune system and plays a critical role in vision, reproduction, cell differentiation as well as growth and development and is found only in animal tissues. The aim of our study was to evaluate the interspecies differences in the retinol concentration of whole raw bovine, caprine and ovine milk and to observe seasonal variation of retinol in bulk tank milk samples. Samples of raw milk were colleceted on different farms in the Czech Republic between 2013 and 2014. Retinol was measured by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (325 nm in isocratic mode after alkaline saponification with methanolic potassium hydroxide solution and liquid-liquid extraction into non polar organic solvent of whole raw milk. To avoid vitamin losses or degradation during the procedure, antioxidants were added to the sample extraction media. Our results indicate significant interspecies differences between bovine and ovine milk and caprine and ovine milk. Concentration of retinol is very similar in bovine and caprine milk 0.96 ±0.11 mg/L, 0.94 ±0.25 mg/L, respectively. The mean concentration in sheep´s milk is 1.75 ±0.24 mg/L. The seasonal variation of retinol in raw bovine milk was detected as high significant, with the highest concentration during winter. These results contribute to the nutrition evaluation of milk in the Czech Republic and indicate, that the sheep´s milk is the best source of retinol among the milks of ruminants kept in the Czech Republic, however it is not used in its fluid form for human consumption.

  19. Retinol metabolism in hepatic stellate cells : a new vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bin Md Ajat, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin A (all-trans-retinol) or its derivatives are involved in many physiological processes ranging from vision to cells differentiation. In mammals retinol is stored as retinyl ester (RE) and the liver is the major site for RE storage in the body. The liver is made of various cell types and REs

  20. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asami Ota

    Full Text Available Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES. The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models.With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was -0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, -0.33 to -0.01 g/L. The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when "body mass index", "consumption of meat or fish", "self-rated health", "presence of medical conditions", "hyperlipidemia", or "respiratory disease "was included in the model.Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways.

  1. Effect of low energy diet for eight weeks to adults with overweight or obesity on folate, retinol, vitamin B12, D and e status and the degree of inflammation: a post hoc analysis of a randomized intervention trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Veller, Mette; Kjoelbaek, Louise

    2018-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with vitamin insufficiency and low grade inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of weight loss on folate, retinol, vitamin B12, D and E status and the degree of inflammation. Methods: Out of 110, 85 individuals (75% women) aged 39...

  2. Effect of thermal processing on retinol levels of free-range and caged hen eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Héryka M M; Santos, Videanny V A; Medeiros, Vanessa P Q; Silva, Keith H D; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Eggs are a food item of high nutritional value, a source of vitamin A and readily accessible to the general population. Methods This paper analysed the effect of cooking on the retinol levels of free-range and caged hen eggs, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The retinol levels of hen and quail eggs were also compared. Results The raw egg yolk retinol concentrations of free-range and caged hen eggs were 476.53+/-39.44 and 474.93+/-41.10 microg/100 g and cooked egg yolk concentrations were 393.53+/-24.74 and 379.01+/-30.78 microg/100 g, respectively; quail egg concentration was 636.56+/-32.71 microg retinol/100 g. No significant difference was found between the retinol of free-range and caged hen egg yolks; however, cooking diminished retinol levels, causing a loss of 17 and 20% in the free-range and caged hen egg yolks, respectively. Quail egg retinol concentration was significantly higher than that of the hens. Conclusion The retinol found in 100 g of hen and quail egg yolks could supply around 42 and 70.7% of the vitamin A requirements of an adult man, and is accordingly considered an excellent source of this vitamin.

  3. Systemic treatment of seborrheic dermatitis with retinol palmitate

    OpenAIRE

    O. V. Kalinina; V. I. Albanova; T. A. Belousova; V. I. Nozdrin

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study. Evaluating of the effectiveness of treatment of men with a diagnosis «Seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp» by the system using of retinol palmitate. Material and methods. 36 patients every day for 2 months received overnight per os 200000 ME of retinol palmitate, and in the comparison group (39 people) antiseborrheic shampoos have been used. The dynamics of severity of skin oiliness, pruritis, erythema, peeling, infiltration, excoriations has been evaluated in points. Be...

  4. Aptamer-Conjugated Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles for Reducing Diabetes Risk via Retinol Binding Protein 4 Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Raheleh; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Amanlou, Massoud; Pasalar, Parvin

    2017-06-01

    Inhibition of the binding of retinol to its carrier, retinol binding protein 4, is a new strategy for treating type 2 diabetes; for this purpose, we have provided an aptamer-functionalized multishell calcium phosphate nanoparticle. First, calcium phosphate nanoparticles were synthesized and conjugated to the aptamer. The cytotoxicity of nanoparticles releases the process of aptamer from nanoparticles and their inhibition function of binding retinol to retinol binding protein 4. After synthesizing and characterizing the multishell calcium phosphate nanoparticles and observing the noncytotoxicity of conjugate, the optimum time (48 hours) and the pH (7.4) for releasing the aptamer from the nanoparticles was determined. The half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) value for inhibition of retinol binding to retinol binding protein 4 was 210 femtomolar (fmol). The results revealed that the aptamer could prevent connection between retinol and retinol binding protein 4 at a very low IC 50 value (210 fmol) compared to other reported inhibitors. It seems that this aptamer could be used as an efficient candidate not only for decreasing the insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes, but also for inhibiting the other retinol binding protein 4-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Poor nutritional status of schoolchildren in urban and peri-urban areas of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delisle Hélène F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is still highly prevalent in developing countries. Schoolchildren may also be at high nutritional risk, not only under-five children. However, their nutritional status is poorly documented, particularly in urban areas. The paucity of information hinders the development of relevant nutrition programs for schoolchildren. The aim of this study carried out in Ouagadougou was to assess the nutritional status of schoolchildren attending public and private schools. Methods The study was carried out to provide baseline data for the implementation and evaluation of the Nutrition Friendly School Initiative of WHO. Six intervention schools and six matched control schools were selected and a sample of 649 schoolchildren (48% boys aged 7-14 years old from 8 public and 4 private schools were studied. Anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements, along with thyroid palpation, were performed. Serum retinol was measured in a random sub-sample of children (N = 173. WHO criteria were used to assess nutritional status. Chi square and independent t-test were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Mean age of the children (48% boys was 11.5 ± 1.2 years. Micronutrient malnutrition was highly prevalent, with 38.7% low serum retinol and 40.4% anaemia. The prevalence of stunting was 8.8% and that of thinness, 13.7%. The prevalence of anaemia (p = 0.001 and vitamin A deficiency (p Conclusion This study shows that malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are also widely prevalent in schoolchildren in cities, and it underlines the need for nutrition interventions to target them.

  6. Bioavailability and bioefficacy of [beta]-carotene measured using 13C-labeled [beta]-carotene and retinol: studies in Indonesian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van M.

    2001-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem in many developing countries. Improved vitamin A status can reduce morbidity and mortality by one-third in developing countries. Vitamin A occurs in food as preformed vitamin A (retinol), present in animal foods and breastmilk, and as

  7. Retinol Dehydrogenases Regulate Vitamin A Metabolism for Visual Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhubanananda Sahu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The visual system produces visual chromophore, 11-cis-retinal from dietary vitamin A, all-trans-retinol making this vitamin essential for retinal health and function. These metabolic events are mediated by a sequential biochemical process called the visual cycle. Retinol dehydrogenases (RDHs are responsible for two reactions in the visual cycle performed in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE cells, photoreceptor cells and Müller cells in the retina. RDHs in the RPE function as 11-cis-RDHs, which oxidize 11-cis-retinol to 11-cis-retinal in vivo. RDHs in rod photoreceptor cells in the retina work as all-trans-RDHs, which reduce all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol. Dysfunction of RDHs can cause inherited retinal diseases in humans. To facilitate further understanding of human diseases, mouse models of RDHs-related diseases have been carefully examined and have revealed the physiological contribution of specific RDHs to visual cycle function and overall retinal health. Herein we describe the function of RDHs in the RPE and the retina, particularly in rod photoreceptor cells, their regulatory properties for retinoid homeostasis and future therapeutic strategy for treatment of retinal diseases.

  8. Determining appropriate nutritional interventions for South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant positive correlations were found between serum retinol and all biochemical indicators of iron status except serum ferritin. This study highlights the fact that nutrient deficiencies are interrelated, particularly protein energy malnutrition and poor vitamin A and iron status. A broad multifaceted comprehensive health ...

  9. Saturation of retinol-binding protein correlates closely to the severity of alcohol-induced liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagnerberger, S.; Schäfer, C.; Bode, C.

    2006-01-01

    Impaired metabolism of retinol has been shown to occur in alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the saturation of retinol-binding protein (RBP) in 6 patients with different stages of ALD. Hospitalized alcohol consumers (n=118) with different stages...... chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods, respectively. No differences were noted in daily retinol intake, but subjects with ALD had significantly lower concentrations of retinol in plasma (ALD1: 1.81+/-0.17 micromol/l [mean+/-S.E.M.]; ALD2: 1.95+/-0.24 micromol/l; ALD3: 0.67+/-0.13 micromol......: 43.5+/-6.2%; ALD3: 29.0+/-5.1%). The present study indicates that plasma concentrations of retinol and RBP per se do not correlate to severity of ALD, but rather that the retinol/RBP ratio links to the severity of alcohol-induced liver damage. From these results, a reduced availability of retinol...

  10. Contribution of cellular retinol-binding protein type 1 to retinol metabolism during mouse development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Nicolas; Schmidt, Carsten K; Dupé, Valérie; Dennefeld, Christine; Nau, Heinz; Chambon, Pierre; Mark, Manuel; Ghyselinck, Norbert B

    2005-05-01

    Within cells, retinol (ROL) is bound to cytoplasmic proteins (cellular retinol-binding proteins [CRBPs]), whose proposed function is to protect it from unspecific enzymes through channeling to retinoid-metabolizing pathways. We show that, during development, ROL and retinyl ester levels are decreased in CRBP type 1 (CRBP1) -deficient embryos and fetuses by 50% and 80%, respectively. The steady state level of retinoic acid (RA) is also decreased but to a lesser extent. However, CRBP1-null fetuses do not exhibit the abnormalities characteristic of a vitamin A-deficiency syndrome. Neither CRBP1 deficiency alters the expression patterns of RA-responding genes during development, nor does CRBP1 availability modify the expression of an RA-dependent gene in primary embryonic fibroblasts treated with ROL. Therefore, CRBP1 is required in prenatal life to maintain normal amounts of ROL and to ensure its efficient storage but seems of secondary importance for RA synthesis, at least under conditions of maternal vitamin A sufficiency. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Saturation of retinol-binding protein correlates closely to the severity of alcohol-induced liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagnerberger, S.; Schäfer, C.; Bode, C.

    2006-01-01

    Impaired metabolism of retinol has been shown to occur in alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the saturation of retinol-binding protein (RBP) in 6 patients with different stages of ALD. Hospitalized alcohol consumers (n=118) with different stages......: 43.5+/-6.2%; ALD3: 29.0+/-5.1%). The present study indicates that plasma concentrations of retinol and RBP per se do not correlate to severity of ALD, but rather that the retinol/RBP ratio links to the severity of alcohol-induced liver damage. From these results, a reduced availability of retinol...

  12. Purification and characterization of a novel cytosolic NADP(H)-dependent retinol oxidoreductase from rabbit liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D Y; Ichikawa, Y

    1997-03-07

    Rabbit liver cytosol exhibits very high retinol dehydrogenase activity. At least two retinol dehydrogenases were demonstrated to exist in rabbit liver cytosol, and the major one, a cytosolic NADP(H)-dependent retinol dehydrogenase (systematic name: retinol oxidoreductase) was purified about 1795-fold to electrophoretic and column chromatographic homogeneity by a procedure involving column chromatography on AF-Red Toyopearl twice and then hydroxyapatite. Its molecular mass was estimated to be 34 kDa by SDS-PAGE, and 144 kDa by HPLC gel filtration, suggesting that it is a homo-tetramer. The enzyme uses free retinol and retinal, and their complexes with CRBP as substrates in vitro. The optimum pH values for retinol oxidation of free retinol and CRBP-retinol were 8.8-9.2 and 8.0-9.0, respectively, and those for retinal reduction of free retinal and retinal-CRBP were the same, 7.0-7.6. Km for free retinol and Vmax for retinal formation were 2.8 microM and 2893 nmol/min per mg protein at 37 degrees C (pH 9.0) and the corresponding values with retinol-CRBP as a substrate were 2.5 microM and 2428 nmol/min per mg protein at 37 degrees C (pH 8.6); Km for free retinal and Vmax for retinol formation were 6.5 microM and 4108 nmol/min per mg protein, and the corresponding values with retinal-CRBP as a substrate were 5.1 microM and 3067 nmol/min per mg protein at 37 degrees C, pH 7.4. NAD(H) was not effective as a cofactor. 4-Methylpyrazole was a weak inhibitor (IC50 = 28 mM) of the enzyme, and ethanol was neither a substrate nor an inhibitor of the enzyme. This enzyme exhibits relatively broad aldehyde reductase activity and some ketone reductase activity, the activity for aromatic substitutive aldehydes being especially high and effective. Whereas, except in the case of retinol, oxidative activity toward the corresponding alcohols was not detected. This novel cytosolic enzyme may play an important role in vivo in maintaining the homeostasis of retinal, the substrate of retinoic

  13. Periodontal status and serum creatine kinase levels among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: It is hypothesized that soccer players with periodontal disease exhibit raised serum creatine kinase (CK) levels as compared to those without periodontal disease. We assessed the clinical gingival status and serum CK levels among young soccer players. Materials and Methods: Demographic data were ...

  14. Comparative studies of human and chicken retinol-binding proteins and prealbumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, M; Mokady, S; Cogan, U

    1976-08-09

    Microheterogeneity of retinol-binding proteins of human plasma and urine, and of chicken plasma was studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. All three protein systems were found microheterogenous. Incorporation of retinol into the protein preparations on the one hand, and depletion of these proteins from retinol on the other hand, enabled us to clarify the extent to which the presence or absence of the ligand affects the apparent heterogeneity. Upon electrophoresis, each of the native proteins displayed two pairs of protein zones. It appeared that within each pair the fast moving band corresponded to aporetinol-binding protein which upon binding of retinol was converted to a holoprotein with a slightly lower mobility. However, it did not seem that proteins of one pair were converted to proteins of the second pair upon binding of retinol, substantiating ghe microheterogenous character of this protein system. A rapid, two step procedure for isolation of prealbumins from plasma is described. The method which consists of DEAE-cellulose chromatography follwed by preparative electrophoresis was utilized to separate human and chicken prealbumins. Routine dodecyl sulphate electrophoresis resulted in partial dissociation of human prealbumin but in no dissociation of the chicken protein. More drastic treatments prior to electrophoresis were needed to effect complete disruption of both proteins into subunits.

  15. Carotenoid status among preschool children with vitamin A deficiency in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Mary V; Palafox, Neal A; Dancheck, Barbara; Ricks, Michelle O; Briand, Kennar; Semba, Richard D

    2004-01-01

    Although carotenoids are known to be important dietary sources of vitamin A, there have been few epidemiological studies that have characterized the serum concentrations of major dietary carotenoids among preschool children with vitamin A deficiency. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study of serum pro-vitamin A carotenoids (alpha -carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin), non-provitamin A carotenoids (lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene), and retinol among 278 children, aged 1-5 y, in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Vitamin A deficiency was defined as serum retinol Marshall Islands have extremely low serum concentrations of provitamin A carotenoids and interventions are needed to improve the dietary intake of provitamin A carotenoids among Marshallese children.

  16. Vitamin A, Cancer Treatment and Prevention: The New Role of Cellular Retinol Binding Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Doldo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinol and vitamin A derivatives influence cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis and play an important physiologic role in a wide range of biological processes. Retinol is obtained from foods of animal origin. Retinol derivatives are fundamental for vision, while retinoic acid is essential for skin and bone growth. Intracellular retinoid bioavailability is regulated by the presence of specific cytoplasmic retinol and retinoic acid binding proteins (CRBPs and CRABPs. CRBP-1, the most diffuse CRBP isoform, is a small 15 KDa cytosolic protein widely expressed and evolutionarily conserved in many tissues. CRBP-1 acts as chaperone and regulates the uptake, subsequent esterification, and bioavailability of retinol. CRBP-1 plays a major role in wound healing and arterial tissue remodelling processes. In the last years, the role of CRBP-1-related retinoid signalling during cancer progression became object of several studies. CRBP-1 downregulation associates with a more malignant phenotype in breast, ovarian, and nasopharyngeal cancers. Reexpression of CRBP-1 increased retinol sensitivity and reduced viability of ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Further studies are needed to explore new therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring CRBP-1-mediated intracellular retinol trafficking and the meaning of CRBP-1 expression in cancer patients’ screening for a more personalized and efficacy retinoid therapy.

  17. Nutritional status of iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and anemia in children 1 to 11 years old. Results of the Ensanut 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Villalpando

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the frequency of anemia, iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and predictors of anemia among Mexican children from Ensanut 2012. Materials and methods. Hemoglobin, ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, retinol and folate concentrations were measured in 2 678 children aged 1-4 y and 4 275 children aged 5-11 y. Adjusted logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. Results. In preschoolers and scholars, the overall prevalence of anemia was 20.4 and 9.7%, iron deficiency 14 and 9.3%, low vitamin B12 (LB12S 1.9 and 2.6%; Folate 0.30 and 0%, and retinol depletion (VADp 15.7 and 2.3%, respectively. ID and VADp were negatively associated with Hb (coefficient: -0.38 and -0.45, p<0.05; a higher log-CRP was associated with higher risk for anemia and VADp (OR=1.13 and OR=2.1, p<0.05, respectively. Conclusions. Iron deficiency, anemia and VADp are some of the main nutritional problems among Mexican infants

  18. Nutritional status of iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and anemia in children 1 to 11 years old: Results of the Ensanut 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, Salvador; Cruz, Vanessa de la; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rebollar, Rosario; Contreras-Manzano, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    To describe the frequency of anemia, iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and predictors of anemia among Mexican children from Ensanut 2012. Hemoglobin, ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, retinol and folate concentrations were measured in 2 678 children aged 1-4 y and 4 275 children aged 5-11 y. Adjusted logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. In preschoolers and scholars, the overall prevalence of anemia was 20.4 and 9.7%, iron deficiency 14 and 9.3%, low vitamin B12 (LB12S) 1.9 and 2.6%; Folate 0.30 and 0%, and retinol depletion (VADp) 15.7 and 2.3%, respectively. ID and VADp were negatively associated with Hb (coefficient: -0.38 and -0.45, p<0.05); a higher log-CRP was associated with higher risk for anemia and VADp (OR=1.13 and OR=2.1, p<0.05, respectively). Iron deficiency, anemia and VADp are some of the main nutritional problems among Mexican infants.

  19. Application of the deuterated retinol dilution technique to detect changes in hepatic retinol reserves in infants who receive high dose vitamin A supplements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penny, M.; Lanata, C.; Butron, B.; Haskell, M.; Brown, K.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to determine whether the deuterated retinol dilution technique can detect changes in hepatic vitamin A reserves in Peruvian infants in response to supplementation with vitamin A palmitate. Approximately 40 infants, 9 months of age, will be recruited for the study and randomly assigned to four treatment groups. Hepatic vitamin A reserves will be estimated using the deuterated retinol dilution technique before and after administration of a single supplement containing either 0, 7.5, 15, or 30 mg RE as retinyl palmitate in corn oil. Mean hepatic vitamin A reserves will be calculated based on the plasma isotopic ratio of d4-retinol:retinol as per Furr, et. al. Hepatic vitamin A reserves will be compared within groups before and after supplementation, and among the four groups. The mean change in hepatic vitamin A reserves across the four treatment groups will be examined in relation to the amount of vitamin A supplement administered, using regression analysis. The results of the pilot study will provide information on the size and variation of hepatic vitamin A reserves in 9-month old Peruvian infants. This information will be useful for calculating samples sizes to evaluate vitamin A intervention strategies by estimating changes in hepatic vitamin A stores in this age group, using the DRD technique. (author)

  20. Application of the deuterated retinol dilution technique to detect changes in hepatic retinol reserves in infants who receive high dose vitamin A supplements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penny, M; Lanata, C; Butron, B [Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional, Lima (Peru); Haskell, M; Brown, K [Programme in International Nutrition, Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of this pilot study is to determine whether the deuterated retinol dilution technique can detect changes in hepatic vitamin A reserves in Peruvian infants in response to supplementation with vitamin A palmitate. Approximately 40 infants, 9 months of age, will be recruited for the study and randomly assigned to four treatment groups. Hepatic vitamin A reserves will be estimated using the deuterated retinol dilution technique before and after administration of a single supplement containing either 0, 7.5, 15, or 30 mg RE as retinyl palmitate in corn oil. Mean hepatic vitamin A reserves will be calculated based on the plasma isotopic ratio of d4-retinol:retinol as per Furr, et. al. Hepatic vitamin A reserves will be compared within groups before and after supplementation, and among the four groups. The mean change in hepatic vitamin A reserves across the four treatment groups will be examined in relation to the amount of vitamin A supplement administered, using regression analysis. The results of the pilot study will provide information on the size and variation of hepatic vitamin A reserves in 9-month old Peruvian infants. This information will be useful for calculating samples sizes to evaluate vitamin A intervention strategies by estimating changes in hepatic vitamin A stores in this age group, using the DRD technique. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs.

  1. HUBUNGAN ANTARA ZINC SERUM DENGAN STATUS GIZI LANSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrah Emawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ZINC SERUM AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF ELDERLY PEOPLE.Background: The findings of study that 30% in Bogor and 27% in Jakarta of elderly people were undernourished. Malnutrition may occur due to infection and low food intake. Among elderly people, one of the factors that causes low food intake is affected by impairment of taste sensory and teeth function. The impairment of taste sensory is influenced by zinc status in the body.Objective: To collect food consumption pattem data of zinc rich foods, zinc concentration in serum and to analyze association of zinc concentration and nutritional status.Methods: Research design was cross sectional, and conducted in two sub districts in Bogor city. The respondents were women in 60-75 years of age, no suffering from illnesses and chronically disease. The total respondent was 90 people, and divided into three groups of 30 peoples. Data gathered included respondent identity, physical examination, anthropometry, blood biochemical and zinc dietary consumption.Results: Zinc dietary consumption adequacy of underweight group was only 30% of recommended dietary allowance, while for normal and overweight groups were 40% of dietary allowance. Zinc serum concentration of underweight group (82 ug/dl was not significantly different with normal group (85 ug/dl, however differed significantly (p<0.05 with overweight group (95 ug/dl. Underweight group suffered 40% zinc deficiency, 27% for normal and only 7% for overweight group.Conclusions: Zinc deficiency was more prevalent in underweight group than that of normal and overweight group. [Panel Gizi Makan 2002,25: 26-33.Keywords: zinc serum concentration, zinc dietary consumption, underweight

  2. Red palm oil bean-stew improved serum vitamin A and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), anaemia, and parasitic infections are among the major nutritional and health problems confronting Ghanaian school children. This study assessed the impact of red palm oil bean-stew consumption on serum retinol and haemoglobin concentrations of Ghanaian school children in a ...

  3. Effect of retinol on the hyperthermal response of normal tissue in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.A.; Marigold, J.C.L.; Hume, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of prior administration of retinol, a membrane labilizer, on the in vivo hyperthermal response of lysosomes was investigated in the mouse spleen using a quantitative histochemical assay for the lysosomal enzyme acid phosphatase. A dose of retinol which had no effect when given alone enhanced the thermal response of the lysosome, causing an increase in lysosomal membrane permeability. In contrast, the same dose of retinol had no effect on the gross hyperthermal response of mouse intestine; a tissue which is relatively susceptible to hyperthermia. Thermal damage to intestine was assayed directly by crypt loss 1 day after treatment or assessed as thermal enhancement of x-ray damage by counting crypt microcolonies 4 days after a combined heat and x-ray treatment. Thus, although the hyperthermal response of the lysosome could be enhanced by the administration of retinol, thermal damage at a gross tissue level appeared to be unaffected, suggesting that lysosomal membrane injury is unlikely to be a primary event in hyperthermal cell killing

  4. Serum lipids coupled with menopausal status may be used as biomarkers in female gallstone patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, A.Y.; Channa, N.A.; Solangi, D.A.; Tabassum, N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Females with different menopausal status are compared for serum lipids to explore the role of menopausal status in developing gallstones. Methodology: This study was conducted at Institute of Biochemistry, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan. A total number of 135 female gallstone patients admitted at Liaquat University Hospital, Wali Bhai Rajputana Hospital, Hyderabad and other hospitals of Hyderabad, Pakistan and 170 age and gender matched control subjects were selected for the study. The serum samples of patients of different menopausal status and control group were analyzed for the lipid contents. Gallstones recovered from the patients were also analyzed for the composition by FTIR. Results: Serum total cholesterol (TC) and serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly varied among all age groups while serum triglycerides (TG), serum very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and serum total lipids (TL) were found to be significantly differed among four different types of gallstone formers. Consumers of non-branded oil and non-branded ghee were found with significant lipid alterations in comparison to control group. Major lipid alterations were found in female gallstone patients with pre and peri-menopause. Conclusion: Raised serum TC, serum TG and decreased serum HDL-C in addition to pre- and peri-menopausal status may be considered as biomarkers for female gallstone patients.

  5. Retinyl β-glucoronide: its occurrence in human serum, chemical synthesis and biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barua, A.B.; Batres, R.O.; Olson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    When retinol is administered to rats, retinyl and retinoyl β-glucuronides appear in the bile. Retinyl or retinoyl β-glucuronide is also synthesized in vitro when rat liver microsomes are incubated with uridinediphosphoglucuronic acid and either retinol or retinoic acid. Retinoyl β-glucuronide, a major metabolite of retinoic acid in a number of tissues, is highly active biologically, has been chemically synthesized, and is found in human blood. The physiological significance of the glucuronides of vitamin A are not known yet. To investigate further its metabolism and possible physiological role, retinyl β-glucuronide was chemically synthesized from retinol and characterized by study of its ultra-violet spectrum (γ/sub max/ 325 nm in methanol, 329 nm in water), 1 H-NMR and mass spectra. Retinyl β-glucuronide was extensively hydrolyzed by bacterial β-glucuronidase to retinol. Retinyl β-glucuronide is soluble in water and was detected in significant amounts in the serum of healthy human adults. The biological activity of synthetic retinyl β-glucuronide was determined in rats by the rat growth bioassay method

  6. Plasma concentrations of retinol in obese children and adolescents: relationship to metabolic syndrome components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Teske

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate obese children and adolescents' retinol plasma levels and to correlate them with metabolic syndrome components. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 61 obese children and adolescents (body mass index Z score - ZBMI>+2. Pubertal development, arterial blood pressure, body weight and height for nutritional classification and waist circumference were obtained. A 15mL blood sample was collected (after a 12-hour fasting in a low luminosity room for retinol determination (cut-off inadequate if <30µg/dL, lipid profile (HDL-c, LDL-c, and triglycerides, oral glucose tolerance test (fasting and 120 minutes and for high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. Results: Mean age was 10.7±2.7 years. There was a predominance of male gender 38/61 (62% and pre-pubertal 35/61 (57% subjects. The average plasmatic retinol was 48.5±18.6ug/dL. Retinol deficiency and severe obesity were observed in 6/61 (10% and 36/61 (59%, respectively. Glucose level at 120 minutes was the independent and predictive variable of plasma retinol levels [β=-0.286 (95%CI -0.013 - -0.001]. Conclusions: An independent and inverse association between plasma retinol levels and glucose tolerance was observed, suggesting an important contribution of this vitamin in the morbidities associated to obesity in children and adolescents.

  7. Retinol sérico de adolescentes de uma escola da cidade de São Paulo Retinol blood levels in high school students of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Vítolo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os níveis séricos de retinol de 218 adolescentes de ambos os sexos com idade entre 10 e 19 anos, matriculados em colégio da rede privada de ensino da cidade de São Paulo, foi o objetivo deste trabalho. MÉTODOS: Para a avaliação da condição nutricional dos adolescentes, utilizaram-se as medidas antropométricas de peso e altura e também a história dietética. A dosagem de retinol foi realizada pela técnica de espectrofotometria, considerando como níveis séricos inadequados valores OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to examine plasma retinol levels in 218 adolescents of both sexes, ages 10 to 19 years old. All the subjects attended a private high school in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: In order to evaluate the students' nutritional condition, the researchers performed anthropometrical measurements - weight and height - in addition to investigating the subjects' diet history. The retinol level was measured through the spectrophotometer technique, considering as inadequate values of concentration under <1.05µmol/L (30µg/dL. RESULTS: The results indicate that the average intake, according to the age range, was higher than recommended, even though presenting high deviation patterns for both genders. The percentage of teenagers with plasma concentrations of vitamin A under the adequate level was 30% for both genders, and neither the analysis of the correlation between Body Mass Index and plasma concentrations of retinol, nor the analysis of the correlation between the density of vitamin A intake and plasma concentration of retinol, were significant. CONCLUSION: The research findings point out to the need for further investigation of vitamin A concentrations during adolescence, in order to check more accurately whether the low plasma concentration of this nutrient should be considered a risk factor, or the result of the accelerated absorption which takes place in adolescence to fulfill the metabolic

  8. Effect of single-dose albendazole and vitamin A supplementation on the iron status of pre-school children in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Xie, Hu Mina; Tian, Weizheng; Zheng, Xiaoling; Jiang, Alice C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of single-dose albendazole and vitamin A intervention on the anaemic status and Fe metabolism of pre-school children. This study was a randomised, placebo-controlled and double-blinded intervention trial. All eligible anaemic pre-school children were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 received no intervention, which served as the control group, group 2 received 400 mg single-dose albendazole administration and group 3 received a 60000 μg vitamin A capsule combined with 400 mg single-dose albendazole at the beginning of the study. The follow-up period was for 6 months. Anthropometry and biochemical index about Fe metabolism were measured before and after intervention. A total of 209 pre-school anaemic children were randomly divided into three intervention groups (sixty-four, sixty-two and sixty for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively). The mean age of the children in the study was 4·4 (sd 0·7) years and 50·5 % of the children were female (94/186). After a follow-up period of 6 months, the levels of serum retinol, ferritin, transferrin receptor-ferritin index and body total Fe content of children in group 3 were significantly higher compared with children in groups 1 and 2 (PAlbendazole plus vitamin A administration showed more efficacy on the improvement of serum retinol and Fe metabolic status.

  9. Serum levels of antioxidant vitamins in foetal haemoglobin (HbF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is one of the commonest health problems of Nigerian children. Method: The serum levels of antioxidant vitamins A (retinol), C (ascorbic acid) and E (alpha-tocopherol) were determined in foetal haemogbobin persistent sickle cell anaemic (Hb SS + F), sickle cell anaemic (Hb SS) and ...

  10. marital status and occupation versus serum total cholesterol and hdl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ABSTRACT. The influence of marital status and occupation on serum total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL – CH) concentrations was studied in sixty one (61) adult male and female Hausa subjects aged 20 – 50 years. Irrespective of marital status and occupation, female subjects had higher ...

  11. Serial changes in selected serum constituents in low birth weight infants on peripheral parenteral nutrition with different zinc and copper supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockitch, G; Pendray, M R; Godolphin, W J; Quigley, G

    1985-07-01

    One hundred and five infants of birth weight 2000 g or less who received peripherally administered parenteral nutrition for periods of three or more weeks, were randomly assigned to groups receiving different amounts of zinc and copper supplement. The blood concentrations of zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase were followed weekly. Mean serum zinc, retinol-binding protein and prealbumin declined significantly over time while alkaline phosphatase rose. Only the group receiving the highest zinc supplement maintained a mean serum zinc concentration within the normal range at seven weeks. No difference in the protein or enzyme concentrations was found between the different zinc supplement groups. No difference was seen in serum copper or ceruloplasmin between copper dose groups although one intravenous supplement was double that of the other.

  12. Relationship between stress levels and the status of serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between stress levels and the status of serum antioxidant vitamins. ... Abstract. Background: Alternative methods for stress monitoring and evaluation prove very useful in proper dealing with it. Thus ... from 32 Countries: Algeria (5) ...

  13. Antioxidant status of serum bilirubin and uric acid in patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhibo; Su, Zhongqian; Pang, Wanhui; Huang, Yuanyuan; Lin, Jie; Ding, Zhangna; Wu, Senmin; Xu, Shunyao; Quan, Weiwei; Zheng, Juzeng; Chen, Huale; Li, Zhengzheng; Li, Xiang; Li, Jia; Weng, Yiyun; Zhang, Xu

    2017-07-01

    Oxidative stress and variations in antioxidant status are implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis (PM/DM) are autoimmune diseases with inflammatory cells infiltrating into skeletal muscles, and the antioxidant status is still controversial. The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between PM/DM and the antioxidant status of serum bilirubin (Tbil, Dbil and Ibil) and uric acid (UA). We measured serum concentrations of bilirubin (Tbil, Dbil and Ibil) and uric acid in 384 individuals, including 110 PM/DM patients and 274 healthy controls. We found that PM/DM patients had significantly lower serum concentrations of bilirubin (Tbil and Ibil) and uric acid than healthy controls, whether male or female. Also, after separately adjusting the covariances of age and gender, Tbil, Dbil, Ibil and UA were all relevant factors for PM/DM. Moreover, there were no significant differences in serum antioxidant molecule levels between PM and DM subgroups. Our study demonstrated the low serum levels of bilirubin and uric acid in patients with PM/DM. This suggested low antioxidant status in PM/DM patients with excessive oxidative stress.

  14. Serum zinc status of neonates with seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olia Sharmeen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seizure is a common neurological disorder in neonatal age group!. Primary metabolic derangement is one of the important reason behind this convulsion during this period. Among primary metabolic derangement hypoglycemia, is most common followed by bypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia, low zinc status etc. As causes of many cases of convul­sion remain unknown in neonate. Objectives: To see the zinc status in the sera of neonate with convulsion. So that if needed early intervention can be taken up and thereby prevent complications. Method: A total of 50 neonates (1-28 days who had convulsion with no apparent reasons of convulsion were enrolled as cases and 50 healthy age and sex matched neonates were enrolled as controls. After a quick clinical evaluation serum zinc status was estimated from venous blood by atomic absorption method in Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Centre. Low zinc was considered if serum value was <0.7mg/L. Results: Among a total of 50 cases 6% had low zinc value & 2% of controls also had low zinc level. The mean serwu zinc level of cases and controls were 1.57±0.95 and 2.37±1.06 mmol/1 respectively (p<0.01. Conclusion: From the study it is seen that low zinc value is an important cause of neonatal seizure due to primary metabolic abnormalities. So early recognition and treatment could save these babies from long term neurological sequelies.

  15. Human Serum Vitamin A and β-Carotene Contents in Relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of the levels of vitamin A (as retinol) and β-carotene in locally consumed foods in relationship to their occurrence in the serum of individuals grouped according to different social groups and sexes was carried out in Kano metropolis. Both raw and prepared foods (meals/snacks) investigated showed the ...

  16. Relation between serum lipoperoxide concentrations and iron or copper status over one year in Cuban adult men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, J.; Renversez, J.C.; Favier, A.E. [Dept. de Biologie Integree, CHUG, Grenoble (France); Fleites, P.; Perez-Cristia, R. [Centro national de Toxicologia (CENATOX), La Habana (Cuba); Chassagne, M.; Barnouin, J. [INRA, Unite d' Ecopathologie, Saint Genes Champanelle (France); Verdura, T. [Inst. Finlay, La Lisa, La Habana (Cuba); Garcia, I.G. [Inst. de Farmacia y Alimentos, La Coronela, La Lisa, Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba); Tressol, J.C. [INRA, Unite maladies metaboliques et micronutriments, Saint Genes Champanelle (France)

    2001-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the relations between iron and copper status and lipid peroxidation at different periods over one year in low-income and low-energy intake healthy subjects. The study was conducted in 199 middle-aged healthy Cuban men from March 1995 to February 1996. Iron status was assessed by the determination of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, whole blood hemoglobin and iron intakes. Copper status was evaluated by the determination of serum copper and copper intakes. Serum thiobarbituric acid substances (TBARS) determination was used as an index of lipid peroxidation. Rank correlations were observed between serum TBARS concentrations and iron or copper status indices at different periods. In period 3 (end of the rainy season), serum TBARS and ferritin concentrations were maximum whereas blood hemoglobin levels and iron intake were minimum. Serum TBARS concentrations were significantly higher than the reference values of the laboratory whereas, iron and copper status were within the reference ranges. These results suggested that iron and copper status may be associated with lipid peroxidation in subjects without metal overloads and that variations over the year needed to be taken in account. (orig.)

  17. Relationship between Carotenoids, Retinol, and Estradiol Levels in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maggio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In vitro evidence suggests anti-estrogenic properties for retinol and carotenoids, supporting a chemo-preventive role of these phytochemicals in estrogen-dependent cancers. During aging there are significant reductions in retinol and carotenoid concentrations, whereas estradiol levels decline during menopause and progressively increase from the age of 65. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis of a potential relationship between circulating levels of retinol, carotenoids, and estradiol (E2 in a cohort of late post-menopausal women. Methods. We examined 512 women ≥ 65 years from the InCHIANTI study. Retinol, α-caroten, β-caroten, β-criptoxantin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene levels were assayed at enrollment (1998–2000 by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Estradiol and testosterone (T levels were assessed by Radioimmunometry (RIA and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio (T/E2, as a proxy of aromatase activity, was also calculated. General linear models adjusted for age (Model 1 and further adjusted for other confounders including Body Mass Index (BMI BMI, smoking, intake of energy, lipids, and vitamin A; C-Reactive Protein, insulin, total cholesterol, liver function, and testosterone (Model 2 were used to investigate the relationship between retinol, carotenoids, and E2 levels. To address the independent relationship between carotenoids and E2 levels, factors significantly associated with E2 in Model 2 were also included in a fully adjusted Model 3. Results. After adjustment for age, α-carotene (β ± SE = −0.01 ± 0.004, p = 0.02 and β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.07 ± 0.02, p = 0.0007 were significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels. α-Carotene was also significantly and positively associated with T/E2 ratio (β ± SE = 0.07 ± 0.03, p = 0.01. After adjustment for other confounders (Model 2, the inverse relationship between α-carotene (β ± SE = −1.59 ± 0.61, p = 0.01, β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.29

  18. Relationship between Carotenoids, Retinol, and Estradiol Levels in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Marcello; de Vita, Francesca; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Semba, Richard D; Bartali, Benedetta; Cherubini, Antonio; Cappola, Anne R; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-08-05

    In vitro evidence suggests anti-estrogenic properties for retinol and carotenoids, supporting a chemo-preventive role of these phytochemicals in estrogen-dependent cancers. During aging there are significant reductions in retinol and carotenoid concentrations, whereas estradiol levels decline during menopause and progressively increase from the age of 65. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis of a potential relationship between circulating levels of retinol, carotenoids, and estradiol (E2) in a cohort of late post-menopausal women. We examined 512 women ≥ 65 years from the InCHIANTI study. Retinol, α-caroten, β-caroten, β-criptoxantin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene levels were assayed at enrollment (1998-2000) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Estradiol and testosterone (T) levels were assessed by Radioimmunometry (RIA) and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio (T/E2), as a proxy of aromatase activity, was also calculated. General linear models adjusted for age (Model 1) and further adjusted for other confounders including Body Mass Index (BMI) BMI, smoking, intake of energy, lipids, and vitamin A; C-Reactive Protein, insulin, total cholesterol, liver function, and testosterone (Model 2) were used to investigate the relationship between retinol, carotenoids, and E2 levels. To address the independent relationship between carotenoids and E2 levels, factors significantly associated with E2 in Model 2 were also included in a fully adjusted Model 3. After adjustment for age, α-carotene (β ± SE = -0.01 ± 0.004, p = 0.02) and β-carotene (β ± SE = -0.07 ± 0.02, p = 0.0007) were significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels. α-Carotene was also significantly and positively associated with T/E2 ratio (β ± SE = 0.07 ± 0.03, p = 0.01). After adjustment for other confounders (Model 2), the inverse relationship between α-carotene (β ± SE = -1.59 ± 0.61, p = 0.01), β-carotene (β ± SE = -0.29 ± 0.08, p = 0.0009), and E2 persisted whereas the

  19. Lecithin:Retinol Acyltransferase: A Key Enzyme Involved in the Retinoid (visual) Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Avery E.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) catalyzes the acyl transfer from the sn-1 position of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to all-trans-retinol, creating fatty acid retinyl esters (palmitoyl, stearoyl, and some unsaturated derivatives). In the eye, these retinyl esters are substrates for the 65 kDa retinoid isomerase (RPE65). LRAT is well characterized biochemically, and recent structural data from closely related family members of the NlpC/P60 superfamily and a chimeric protein have established ...

  20. No detectable carotenoid concentrations in serum of llamas and alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raila, J; Schweigert, F J; Stanitznig, A; Lambacher, B; Franz, S; Baldermann, S; Wittek, T

    2017-08-01

    Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments and important for a variety of physiological functions. They are major dietary vitamin A precursors and act as lipophilic antioxidants in a variety of tissues and are associated with important health benefits in humans and animals. All animals must acquire carotenoids from their diet, but to our knowledge, there are no studies investigating the intestinal carotenoid absorption and their blood concentrations in New World camelids. The present study aimed to assess the serum concentrations of selected carotenoids in llamas (n = 13) and alpacas (n = 27). Serum carotenoids as well as retinol (vitamin A) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and these were unable to detect any carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, α- and β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene) in the samples. The concentrations of retinol in alpacas (2.89 ± 1.13 μmol/l; mean ± SD) were higher (p = 0.024) than those found in llamas (2.05 ± 0.87 μmol/l); however, the concentrations of α-tocopherol were not significantly (p = 0.166) different (llamas: 3.98 ± 1.83 μmol/l; alpacas: 4.95 ± 2.14 μmol/l). The results show that both llamas and alpacas are not able to absorb intact carotenoids, but efficiently convert provitamin A carotenoids to retinol. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Poor micronutrient intake and status is a public health problem among adolescent Mozambican girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkalo, Liisa; Freese, Riitta; Alfthan, Georg; Fidalgo, Lourdes; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-08-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies can damage the health of adolescent girls and their offspring. There is a lack of population-based data on the micronutrient status of adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study to examine the biochemical status, prevalence of deficiency, dietary intake, and food sources of selected micronutrients among adolescent girls in Central Mozambique. Separate groups of study participants were recruited in 2 seasons in 2010. The participants were girls between 14 and 19 years of age (n = 551) from 1 urban area and 2 rural districts. Micronutrient status indicators were analyzed from blood and urine samples. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were also carried out. The overall prevalence with 95% confidence interval (calculated using sampling weights) among nonpregnant girls was 42.4% (37.2%-47.8%; n = 466) for anemia, 27.4% (23.1%-32.2%; n = 427) for low serum ferritin, 32.7% (27.7%-38.1%; n = 423) for low serum zinc, 14.7% (11.2%-19.0%; n = 426) for low plasma retinol, and 4.1% (2.9%-5.8%; n = 448) for low serum folate. The selenium status was considered sufficient. Mild to moderate iodine deficiency was found in the rural districts, whereas the iodine status of urban girls was adequate. Significantly lower serum folate concentrations were found in the urban area compared to the rural districts. The seasonal differences in vitamin A intake were significant. The intakes of micronutrients from animal source foods were small. In summary, adolescent Mozambican girls are at risk of several micronutrient deficiencies. This raises concern especially because adolescent motherhood is common in the region. Actions need to be taken to prevent and control micronutrient deficiencies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of retinol on the in vitro development of Bos indicus embryos to blastocysts in two different culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, P F; Oliveira, M A L; Gonçalves, P B D; Montagner, M M; Reichenbach, H-D; Weppert, M; Neto, C C C; Pina, V M R; Santos, M H B

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of retinol on the in vitro development of early embryos of cultured Bos indicus (Expt 1) to the blastocyst stage in medium simplex of optimization (KSOM) or sintetic fluid of oviduct (SOF) or co-cultured (Expt 2) with an oviduct cell monolayer (OCM) in KSOM or SOF. A total of 3149 cumulus-oocyte complexes obtained by aspirating follicles (2-5 mm diameter) from ovaries of slaughtered animals were selected for IVM and incubated in TCM 199 supplemented with 25 mM HEPES at 39 degrees C in air with 5% CO(2) and maximum humidity for 24 h. In vitro fertilization (IVF) was performed in modified defined medium (mDM) medium. Eighteen hours after IVF, cumulus cells were removed and presumptive zygotes were randomly allocated to the experimental groups. Zygotes cultured (Expt 1) in KSOM + retinol, KSOM, SOF + retinol and SOF were incubated in maximum humidity at 39 degrees C, 5% CO(2), 5% O(2) and 90% N(2). Zygotes co-cultured (Expt 2) in KSOM + retinol + OCM, KSOM + OCM, SOF + retinol + OCM and SOF + OCM were incubated at 39 degrees C, 5% CO(2). In both experiments media were partially changed 48 h after IVF and unfertilized ova were removed. Afterwards embryos were kept in culture or co-culture for further 9 days. In Expt 1, blastocyst rates (day 7) were 14.6% (KSOM + retinol), 15.8% (KSOM), 16.4% (SOF + retinol) and 15.9% (SOF). In Expt 2, the blastocyst rates (day 7) were 25.4% (KSOM + retinol + OCM) 14.2% (KSOM + OCM), 24.3% (SOF + retinol + OCM) and 15.9% (SOF + OCM). The same influence profile of retinol was observed in the formation of the expanded (day 9) and hatched (day 11) blastocysts. The results obtained in Expt 2 demonstrated that the addition of 0.28 microg/ml retinol to the embryo culture media used in this study had a significant (p < 0.05) positive effect on bovine early embryonic development, under the conditions tested, and can be used to enhance in vitro embryo production.

  3. Influence of different thyroid functional statuses on human serum IL-8, TNF levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Feng; Jiao Yanxiang; Guang Yancen; Zhang Zhu; Wei Cuiying

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different statuses of thyroid function (hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism as well as euthyroid status) on serum IL-8, TNF levels. Methods: Serum IL-8, TNF levels of 95 hyperthyroidism patients (41 males, 54 females), 53 hypothyroidism patients (23 males, 30 females), 45 euthyroid controls (24 males, 21 females) were measured with RIA. Results: 1. Serum IL-8 levels in hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease) patients were significantly higher than those in controls. (F=2.93, p 0.05). IL-8 and TNF levels were also not correlated to age and thyroid hormone levels. Conclusion: Both IL-8 and TNF took part in many auto-immure pathological processes including hyper-and hypo-thyroidism

  4. Use of stable isotopes in studies of vitamin A nutrition in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solon, F.S.; Ribaya-Mercado, J.D.; Russell, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is recognized as a public health problem in the Philippines as confirmed by the 1993 National Nutrition Survey which showed an increasing prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among school children. This proposed study aims to determine whether the intake of fruits and vegetables that are rich in provitamin A carotenoids will result in an improvement in vitamin A liver stores of 7- 10 year old children who are malnourished in vitamin A. To meet this objective, vitamin A malnourished children (serum retinol, < 25 μg/dL) in two villages (experimental and control) will be identified and enrolled. Deworming will be done one month before the start of the study. Vitamin A status measurements - the deuterated retinol dilution method, serum retinol, dietary vitamin A intake, and conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) procedure - will be done at baseline. Then the experimental group (n = 25) will be fed with fruits/vegetables to provide 2.4 mg of β-carotene, i.e., 400 μg retinol equivalents (RE) daily, for five days a week for twelve weeks. The control group (n = 25) will be fed an equivalent amount of calories and no vitamin A or carotenes. At the end of the feeding period, all measurements for determining vitamin A status will be repeated. Other determinations before and after intervention, will include total blood haemoglobin, and serum ferritin, albumin, transthyretin, and C-reactive protein concentrations. The proposed study will provide information regarding the adequacy of vitamin A measures, and the efficacy of food-based intervention programs in improving the vitamin A status of malnourished populations. (author)

  5. Periodontal status and serum creatine kinase levels among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... Key words: Periodontal disease, serum creatine kinase, soccer players ... has also been reported that poor oral health status influences the quality of life of an individual ..... A short‑term longitudinal randomized case‑control study. Clin Oral ... crevicular fluid from chronic periodontitis patients before and after.

  6. Vitamin A deficiency among children in a periurban South African settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutsoudis, A; Mametja, D; Jinabhai, C C; Coovadia, H M

    1993-06-01

    Preschool children (aged 3-6 y) who were living in an informal settlement within metropolitan Durban, South Africa, were assessed for vitamin A status. The serum retinol concentration of 169 children tested was 0.73 +/- 0.26 mumol/L (mean +/- SD). Nine children (5%) had vitamin A deficiency (poor vitamin A status as defined by two abnormal conjunctival specimens. The CIC test was a feasible and reproducible method; however, it correlated poorly with the traditionally accepted serum retinol threshold of deficiency in this population where overt vitamin A deficiency is not prevalent. This survey demonstrated that regardless of the measurement tool, there is a prevalence of subclinical vitamin A deficiency in this typical periurban informal settlement and accordingly we suggest that these children should be targeted for vitamin A-intervention strategies.

  7. Evaluation of Serum Iron Status of Lactating Mothers on Exclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Serum Iron Status of Lactating Mothers on Exclusive Breastfeeding in Enugu, South East Nigeria. F.F Ejezie, U.I Nwagha, J.E Ikekpeazu, I.C Maduka, E Neboh, D.C Nwachukwu, T.U Nwagha ...

  8. Dietary vitamin A intakes of Filipino elders with adequate or low liver vitamin A concentrations as assessed by the deuterated-retinol-dilution method: implications for dietary requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Solon, Florentino S; Fermin, Liza S; Perfecto, Christine S; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M

    2004-04-01

    The vitamin A requirements of elderly humans have not been studied. In a cross-sectional study of 60-88-y-old men (n = 31) and women (n = 31) in rural Philippines, we assessed the dietary intakes of elders with adequate (> or = 0.07 micromol/g) or low (value for elders. The mean (+/- SD) vitamin A intakes of the men and women with adequate vitamin A in liver were 135 +/- 86 and 134 +/- 104 microg retinol activity equivalents (RAE)/d, respectively; intakes of the men and women with low vitamin A in liver were 75 +/- 53 and 60 +/- 27 microg RAE/d, respectively. Total-body vitamin A or liver vitamin A but not serum retinol correlated with dietary RAE, preformed vitamin A, beta-carotene, fat, and protein. An estimated acceptable or sufficient dietary vitamin A intake associated with adequate liver vitamin A concentrations in elders is 6.45 microg RAE/kg body wt; for a reference 76-kg man and a 61-kg woman, these values are approximately 500 and 400 microg RAE/d, respectively. The dietary vitamin A intakes of elders with adequate or low liver vitamin A concentrations as estimated by use of the deuterated-retinol-dilution technique are useful for assessing vitamin A requirements.

  9. Electrospun bioactive mats enriched with Ca-polyphosphate/retinol nanospheres as potential wound dressing

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Werner E.G.; Tolba, Emad; Dorweiler, Bernhard; Schröder, Heinz C.; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Background While electrospun materials have been frequently used in tissue engineering no wound dressings exist that significantly improved wound healing effectively. Methods We succeeded to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) electrospun poly(D,l-lactide) (PLA) fiber mats into which nanospheres, formed from amorphous calcium polyphosphate (polyP) nanoparticles (NP) and encapsulated retinol (“retinol/aCa-polyP-NS” nanospheres [NS]), had been incorporated. Results Experiments with MC3T3-E1 cells ...

  10. Significance of Serum Total Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Patients with Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wu

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in a variety of diseases. Prospective studies investigating the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers and the status and development of colorectal cancer (CRC are scarce; previous studies have failed to establish a relationship between the serum total oxidant/antioxidant status and CRC. Therefore, we compared the total serum oxidant/antioxidant levels of CRC patients and healthy subjects, and analyzed their clinical significance in the CRC. Fasting blood samples from 132 CRC patients and 64 healthy subjects were collected. Oxidative stress parameters, including total oxidant status (TOS and total antioxidant status (TAS, were measured, and the oxidative stress index (OSI was calculated. The TOS and OSI levels increased significantly (P0.05.However, the levels of TOS, TAS, and OSI were significantly different between patients with no metastasis and those with metastases to two organs (P<0.05 Finally, the parameters are affected by smoking and drinking, and subsequent research should be conducted excluding the relevant influencing factors.

  11. Selenium status of South Bohemia seniors characterized by INAA of blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvicala, J.; Zamrazil, V.; Nemecek, J.; Jiranek, J.

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the status of selenium in seniors of the South Bohemia region, Czech Republic, 481 serum samples from seniors living in 17 Asylum Houses for seniors in the age between 60 and 99 years were obtained. Samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis with concurrent analysis of 4 reference materials for quality assurance. Average concentration of serum Se, arithmetic means in individual Asylum Houses, frequency distribution of serum Se concentrations as well as five years running monitoring of serum Se concentrations of one group of seniors proved selenium deficiency of the elderly population of the region South Bohemia. (author)

  12. Retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the milk of lactating adolescents and relationships with plasma concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azeredo, Vilma B; Trugo, Nadia M F

    2008-02-01

    We determined the concentrations of retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherols in breast milk of adolescents and evaluated their associations with plasma levels and with maternal characteristics (period of lactation, body mass index, age of menarche, and years postmenarche). This was a single cross-sectional survey of retinol, carotenoid, and tocopherol composition of milk and plasma of lactating adolescent mothers (n = 72; 30-120 d postpartum) attending public daycare clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Milk and plasma components were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Nutrient concentrations (micromoles per liter, mean +/- SE) in plasma and milk were, respectively, retinol 2.1 +/- 0.5 and 0.62 +/- 0.44, beta-carotene 0.18 +/- 0.19 and 0.016 +/- 0.017, alpha-carotene 0.05 +/- 0.04 and 0.0035 +/- 0.002, lutein plus zeaxanthin 0.15 +/- 0.11 and 0.025 +/- 0.024, lycopene 0.1 +/- 0.11 and 0.016 +/- 0.025, alpha-tocopherol 10.8 +/- 5.3 and 2.7 +/- 1.8, gamma-tocopherol 2.6 +/- 2.3 and 0.37 +/- 0.15. The milk/plasma molar ratios of retinol and tocopherols were two times higher than those of carotenoids. Significant correlations (P milk and plasma nutrient levels were observed for beta-carotene (r = 0.41), alpha-carotene (r = 0.60), and lutein plus zeaxanthin (r = 0.57), but not for lycopene, retinol, and tocopherols. Nutrient concentrations in plasma and in milk were not associated with the maternal characteristics investigated. Concentrations of the nutrients studied, especially retinol and alpha-tocopherol, in mature milk of lactating adolescents were, in general, lower than in milk of adult lactating women. Milk concentrations were associated with plasma concentrations only for beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin.

  13. Application of hight performance liquid chromatography with spectrofluorimetric detection for determination of human milk retinol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falahat Pisheh HR

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available World health organization has introduced concentration of vitamin A in breast milk as a proper indicator for characterization of vitamin A deficiency in lactating mothers and their infants (<6 mo. A normal phase high performance liquid chromatography with spectrofluorometric detection as a specific and sensitive detector was used for characterization of all-trans retional from 13-Cis retinal. The method was sensitive (0.009 ppm and accurate (1±0.054 µ mol/l and had a good recovery percentage (99.36%. This method was more better than before methods and was compatible with the other useful methods. Effect of freezing and defreezing on all-trans retinol content of milk sample was investigated. The result was interesting, whatever all-trans retinol content was bigger, it’s destroying was bigger too. Because of that reseon, day today reproducibility wasn’t good. Standard of retinol was 95% all-trans and pure so we should use this method because two retinol isomers wasn’t separated from each other by reversed phase chromatography and UV detection.

  14. Oxidative status and serum PON1 activity in beta-thalassemia minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selek, Sahbettin; Aslan, Mehmet; Horoz, Mehmet; Gur, Mustafa; Erel, Ozcan

    2007-03-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) deficiency is related to increased susceptibility to low density lipoprotein oxidation and development of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate paraoxonase and arylesterase activities along with oxidative status parameters, and to find out if there is any increased susceptibility to atherogenesis, which might be reflected with increased oxidative stress and decreased serum PON1 activity in beta-thalassemia minor (BTM) subjects. Thirty-two subjects with BTM and 28 healthy subjects as control were enrolled in the study. Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) levels, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) were determined. Serum TAC, paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were significantly lower in BTM subjects than controls (for all p<0.001), while TOS, LOOH levels and OSI were significantly higher (p<0.001, p<0.05 and p<0.001; respectively). In BTM subjects, OSI, TOS, LOOH levels and TAC were significantly correlated with serum paraoxonase (r=-0.245, p<0.05; r=-0.231, p<0.05; r=-0.264, p<0.05 and, r=0.342, p<0.05, respectively) and arylesterase activities (r=-0.332, p<0.05, r=-0.308, p<0.05; r=-0.320, p<0.05 and r=0.443, p<0.05). Additionally, hemoglobin level was also correlated with serum paraoxonase (r=0.501, p<0.001) and arylesterase activities (r=0.501, p<0.001), TAC (r=0.402, p<0.05), TOS (r=-0.274, p<0.05) and OSI (r=-0.352, p<0.05). Oxidative stress is increased, while serum PON1 activity is decreased in BTM subjects. Decrease in PON1 activity seems to be associated with both the degree of oxidative stress and anemia. BTM subjects may be more prone to development of atherogenesis due to low serum PON1 activity.

  15. Use of biomarkers of sub-clinical infection, nutrition and neonatal maturity to interpret plasma retinol in Nigerian neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelekan, Delana A; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A; Owa, Joshua A; Oyedeji, Adesola O; Owoeye, Adedayo A; Thurnham, David I

    2003-08-01

    Using the World Health Organization criterion, the prevalence of sub-clinical vitamin A deficiency can be assessed using plasma retinol concentrations lutein (0.080) were low. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was 72 %, indicating a severe public health problem. Babies who were of low birth weight (Pmilk and a coincidental increasing capacity to synthesise APP. Subsequently, negative correlations between retinol and ACT (r -0.28, P=0.02) and AGP (r -0.29, P=0.018) from day 6 onwards reflected the continuing increase in plasma retinol, but no further increase in the APP. Overall, weight, ACT, lutein and age explained 30 % of the variance in retinol, but lutein was the most significant (r(2) 0.18, Plutein) than infection.

  16. Existing and emerging technologies for measuring stable isotope labelled retinol in biological samples: isotope dilution analysis of body retinol stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the recent improvements in instrumentation used for stable isotope tracer measurements in the context of measuring retinol stores, in vivo. Tracer costs, together with concerns that larger tracer doses may perturb the parameter under study, demand that ever more sensitive mass spectrometric techniques are developed. GCMS is the most widely used technique. It has high sensitivity in terms of sample amount and uses high resolution GC, yet its ability to detect low isotope ratios is limited by background noise. LCMSMS may become more accessible for tracer studies. Its ability to measure low level stable isotope tracers may prove superior to GCMS, but it is isotope ratio MS (IRMS) that has been designed specifically for low level stable isotope analysis through accurate analysis of tracer:tracee ratios (the tracee being the unlabelled species). Compound-specific isotope analysis, where GC is interfaced to IRMS, is gaining popularity. Here, individual 13C-labelled compounds are separated by GC, combusted to CO2 and transferred on-line for ratiometric analysis by IRMS at the ppm level. However, commercially-available 13C-labelled retinol tracers are 2 - 4 times more expensive than deuterated tracers. For 2H-labelled compounds, GC-pyrolysis-IRMS has now become more generally available as an operating mode on the same IRMS instrument. Here, individual compounds are separated by GC and pyrolysed to H2 at high temperature for analysis by IRMS. It is predicted that GC-pyrolysis-IRMS will facilitate low level tracer procedures to measure body retinol stores, as has been accomplished in the case of fatty acids and amino acids. Sample size requirements for GC-P-IRMS may exceed those of GCMS, but this paper discusses sample preparation procedures and predicts improvements, particularly in the efficiency of sample introduction.

  17. RBP-to-retinol ratio, but not total RBP, is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, C; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Nielsen, A R

    2009-01-01

    : We studied the ratio between RBP and retinol in 233 humans divided into groups depending on normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and presence or absence of obesity. RESULTS: Plasma RBP and retinol levels were lower in patients with T2DM than...

  18. Characterization of human short chain dehydrogenase/reductase SDR16C family members related to retinol dehydrogenase 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark K; Lee, Seung-Ah; Belyaeva, Olga V; Wu, Lizhi; Kedishvili, Natalia Y

    2017-10-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) is a bioactive derivative of vitamin A that serves as an activating ligand for nuclear transcription factors, retinoic acid receptors. RA biosynthesis is initiated by the enzymes that oxidize retinol to retinaldehyde. It is well established that retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10, SDR16C4), which belongs to the 16C family of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily of proteins, is the major enzyme responsible for the oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde for RA biosynthesis during embryogenesis. However, several lines of evidence point towards the existence of additional retinol dehydrogenases that contribute to RA biosynthesis in vivo. In close proximity to RDH10 gene on human chromosome 8 are located two genes that are phylogenetically related to RDH10. The predicted protein products of these genes, retinol dehydrogenase epidermal 2 (RDHE2, SDR16C5) and retinol dehydrogenase epidermal 2-similar (RDHE2S, SDR16C6), share 59% and 56% sequence similarity with RDH10, respectively. Previously, we showed that the single ortholog of the human RDHE2 and RDHE2S in frogs, Xenopus laevis rdhe2, oxidizes retinol to retinaldehyde and is essential for frog embryonic development. In this study, we explored the potential of each of the two human proteins to contribute to RA biosynthesis. The results of this study demonstrate that human RDHE2 exhibits a relatively low but reproducible activity when expressed in either HepG2 or HEK293 cells. Expression of the native RDHE2 is downregulated in the presence of elevated levels of RA. On the other hand, the protein encoded by the human RDHE2S gene is unstable when expressed in HEK293 cells. RDHE2S protein produced in Sf9 cells is stable but has no detectable catalytic activity towards retinol. We conclude that the human RDHE2S does not contribute to RA biosynthesis, whereas the low-activity RA-sensitive human RDHE2 may have a role in adjusting the cellular levels of RA in accord with

  19. Cambios en las concentraciones de retinol, hemoglobina y ferritina en niños palúdicos colombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Magdalena Uscátegui

    2009-06-01

    Conclusión. El día 30, la hemoglobina y el retinol aumentaron, y la proteína C reactiva y la ferritina disminuyeron. El suplemento de retinol y antiparasitarios simultáneos previno la reducción de hemoglobina al día 8, sin afectar los cambios en otras variables.

  20. Distribution of vitamins A (retinol) and E (alpha-tocopherol) in polar bear kidney: Implications for biomarker studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, T.Ø.; Jakobsen, Jette; Sonne, C.

    2011-01-01

    of the organ to sample in order to get a representative value for this important biomarker. The aim here was to assess the distribution of vitamins A (retinol) and E (α-tocopherol) within the polar bear multireniculate kidney (i.e. polar vs. medial position) and also within the cortex vs. medulla of each...... separate renculi. The results showed no significant difference between the medial and polar renculi with regards to either retinol (p=0.44) or α-tocopherol (p=0.75). There were, however, significant differences between cortex and medulla for both vitamins (retinol, p=0.0003; α-tocopherol, p...

  1. Sitagliptin down-regulates retinol-binding protein 4 and reduces insulin resistance in gestational diabetes mellitus: a randomized and double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xia; Zhang, Zhendong; Ning, Hui; Sun, Hong; Ji, Xianghong

    2017-06-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition that affects increasing number of pregnant women worldwide. Sitagliptin was reported to alleviate symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus by reducing serum levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4). We investigated the effectiveness of sitagliptin on insulin sensitivity parameters in GDM patients. Pregnant GDM women in the 2nd trimester were recruited for this study. Participants were then assigned randomly to sitagliptin treatment group or placebo treatment group, and administered sitagliptin or placebo daily for 16 weeks. Glucose and insulin profiles, as well as serum RBP-4 level, were measured at both baseline and end of the study. After 16 weeks of treatment, participants in the STL group exhibited significantly improved levels of fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin, homeostasis model of assessment of β cell function (HOMA-β) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), compared with those in the placebo group. Serum levels of RBP-4 were also markedly decreased in the sitagliptin treatment group, and more importantly it was positively correlated with improved insulin resistance parameters. Our study supports a potentially promising role of sitagliptin in improving insulin resistance by decreasing RBP-4 in GDM-affected women.

  2. Evaluation of serum Vitamin B12 level and related nutritional status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-29

    Mar 29, 2016 ... This study was aimed to investigate the association between serum. Vitamin B12 ... Consumption of certain types of food contributes to increase vitB12 level. Key words: ... nutritional status among apparently healthy obese.

  3. Assessment of iron status of Sudanese pregnant women by serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, E.A.; Khangi, F.A.; Satti, G.M.; Abu Salab, A.

    2004-03-01

    Eighty five normal pregnant women were included in the study at the start of the second trimester. Two blood samples were taken during the second trimester and two blood samples during the third trimester. The height of all subjects was measured. The weights of the subjects were under iron-supplementation throughout the gestation period. Sixty four normal non-parentage women were included in the study to serve as controls. Iron status was assessed for the groups with following parameters, haemoglobin (Hb), packed corpuscular volume (PCV), red blood cells count, peripheral blood film, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), Mean haemoglobin concentration (MCH C), serum iron (Si), total iron binding capacity (T IBC), serum transferrin saturation (Ts) and serum ferritin (Sf). No significant difference was observed in the mean haemoglobin concentrations but the PCV of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women at different stages of gestation (p<0.05). MCV, MCH and MCH C values of the non-pregnant women were lower than those of the of the pregnant at different stages of gestation (p<0.05). Serum iron and transferrin saturation of the non-pregnant women were higher than those of the pregnant women, this difference was statistically significant at weeks (16-18) and (22-24) (p<0.05). Serum ferritin of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women and decreased continuously during the pregnancy, but this decrease was not statistically significant. Iron deficiency anaemia was observed in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. The best parameter that could be used as a marker for iron deficiency is serum ferritin. Iron supplementation s corrected for haemoglobin but not for iron status, but more studies were needed to cover this issue using different parameters.(Author)

  4. Retinol and α-Tocopherol in the Breast Milk of Women after a High-Risk Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sámano, Reyna; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Hernández, Rosa M; Ramírez, Cristina; Flores Quijano, María E; Espíndola-Polis, José M; Veruete, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    There is scant information about whether, after a high-risk pregnancy, breast milk provides enough vitamins for assuring satisfactory bodily reserves in newborns. To comparatively evaluate, in women with high-risk and normal pregnancy, the concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in breast milk. This cross-sectional, analytical study was evaluated with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Informed consent was signed by 95 mothers with a high-risk pregnancy and 32 mothers with a normal pregnancy. From the mothers with a high-risk pregnancy were obtained: 23 samples of colostrum, 24 of transitional milk, and 48 of mature milk. From the normal pregnancy group, 32 mature milk samples were collected. Pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI) and the gestational weight gain were noted. Models of logistic regression were constructed to identify the variables related to a low concentration of either retinol or α-tocopherol in breast milk. The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in mature milk was 60 (interquartile range (IQR), 41-90) and 276 (103-450) μg/dL, respectively, for the high-risk pregnancy group, and 76 (65-91) and 673 (454-866) µg/dL, respectively, for the normal pregnancy group ( p = 0.001). The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol was similar in the subgroups of mothers with different disorders during gestation. A clear correlation was found between a greater pregestational weight and a lower concentration of retinol ( Rho = -0.280, p = 0.006), and between α-tocopherol and retinol in all cases ( Rho = 0.463, p = 0.001). Among women having a high-risk pregnancy, those delivering prematurely rather than carrying their pregnancy to term had a reduced concentration of retinol (54 (37-78) vs. 70 (49-106) µg/dL; p = 0.002) and a tendency to a lower concentration of α-tocopherol in breast milk (185 (75-410) vs. 339 (160-500) µg/dL; p = 0.053). Compared to mothers with a normal pregnancy, those with a high-risk pregnancy

  5. Serum Copper and Plasma Protein Status in Normal Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nushrat Noor, Nasim Jahan, Nayma Sultana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Gradual alteration of serum copper and some plasma protein levels may occur with advancement of pregnancy, which is associated with increased maternal and infant morbidity and mortality.Objective: To observe serum copper and plasma protein levels in normal pregnant women of different trimesters in order to find out their nutritional status.Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Sir Salimullah Medical College (SSMC, Dhaka, between 1st January 2010 and December 2010. Ninety normal pregnant women of different trimesters with age 20-30 years were included in the study group. They were selected from Out Patient Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SSMC. Age matched 30 non-pregnant women were taken as control. Serum copper level was measured by Spectrophotometric method, serum total protein and albumin levels were estimated by standard method. Statistical analysis was done by one way ANOVA, Bonferroni and Pearson’s correlation coefficient test as applicable.Results: Serum Cu levels were significantly higher in all trimesters of pregnant women compared to control. Again, this value was significantly higher in 3rd trimester than that of in 1st and 2nd trimester and also in 2nd trimester than that of in 1st trimester. In addition, mean serum total protein level was significantly lower in 3rd trimester than control but no statistically significant difference was observed among different trimesters. Again, mean serum albumin level was significantly lower in 2nd and 3rd trimester than 1st trimester and control. In addition, serum Cu concentration showed significant positive correlation with different trimesters of gestation.Conclusion: This study reveals that hypercupremia along with hypoproteinemia occur in pregnant women from 1st to 3rd trimester of gestation. This gradual alteration of micro and macronutrients become more profound with advancement of pregnancy.

  6. Low antioxidant status of serum bilirubin, uric acid, albumin and creatinine in patients with myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dehao; Su, Zhongqian; Wu, Shengjie; Bi, Yong; Li, Xiang; Li, Jia; Lou, Kangliang; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Xu

    2016-12-01

    Oxidative stress and low antioxidant status play a major role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune condition targeting the neuromuscular junction, and its antioxidant status is still controversial. Our study aimed to investigate the correlation between the clinical characteristics of MG and the serum antioxidant status of bilirubin (Tbil, Dbil and Ibil), uric acid, albumin and creatinine. We measured serum antioxidant molecule levels of bilirubin (Tbil, Dbil and Ibil), uric acid, albumin and creatinine in 380 individuals, including 166 MG and 214 healthy controls. We found that MG patients had significantly lower serum levels of bilirubin (Tbil, Dbil and Ibil), uric acid, albumin and creatinine than healthy controls, whether male or female. Moreover, it was also shown in our study that uric acid, albumin and creatinine levels in patients with MG were correlated with disease activity and classifications performed by the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America. Our findings demonstrated that serum levels of bilirubin (Tbil, Dbil and Ibil), uric acid, albumin and creatinine were reduced in patients with MG. This suggested an active oxidative process in MG patients who had low antioxidant status.

  7. Amplification of tumor inducing putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) by vitamin A/retinol from mammary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rohit B. [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Wang, Qingde [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Khillan, Jaspal S., E-mail: khillan@pitt.edu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Vitamin A supports self renewal of putative CSCs from mammary tumors. •These cells exhibit impaired retinol metabolism into retinoic acid. •CSCs from mammary tumors differentiate into mammary specific cell lineages. •The cells express mammary stem cell specific CD29 and CD49f markers. •Putative CSCs form highly metastatic tumors in NOD SCID mouse. -- Abstract: Solid tumors contain a rare population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are responsible for relapse and metastasis. The existence of CSC however, remains highly controversial issue. Here we present the evidence for putative CSCs from mammary tumors amplified by vitamin A/retinol signaling. The cells exhibit mammary stem cell specific CD29{sup hi}/CD49f{sup hi}/CD24{sup hi} markers, resistance to radiation and chemo therapeutic agents and form highly metastatic tumors in NOD/SCID mice. The cells exhibit indefinite self renewal as cell lines. Furthermore, the cells exhibit impaired retinol metabolism and do not express enzymes that metabolize retinol into retinoic acid. Vitamin A/retinol also amplified putative CSCs from breast cancer cell lines that form highly aggressive tumors in NOD SCID mice. The studies suggest that high purity putative CSCs can be isolated from solid tumors to establish patient specific cell lines for personalized therapeutics for pre-clinical translational applications. Characterization of CSCs will allow understanding of basic cellular and molecular pathways that are deregulated, mechanisms of tumor metastasis and evasion of therapies that has direct clinical relevance.

  8. The Role of Lecithin: Retinol Acyltransferase (LRAT)-Mediated Esterification of Vitamin A in Regulating Human Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    involved in thetranscriptional regulation of the human LRAT gene. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast cancer, lecithin : Retinol Acyltransferase (LRAT...R.R., Nanus, D.M., Scherr, D.S., and Gudas, L.J. 2004. Reduced lecithin : retinol acyltransferase expression correlates with increased pathologic...Solubilization and partial characterization of lecithin -retinol acyltransferase from rat liver. J Nutr Biochem 2: 503-511. Isogai, M., Chiantore, M.V., Haque

  9. Molecular characterization of an aldo-keto reductase from Marivirga tractuosa that converts retinal to retinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung-Hye; Nam, Hyun-Koo; Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Kim, Seon-Won; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant aldo-keto reductase (AKR) from Marivirga tractuosa was purified with a specific activity of 0.32unitml(-1) for all-trans-retinal with a 72kDa dimer. The enzyme had substrate specificity for aldehydes but not for alcohols, carbonyls, or monosaccharides. The enzyme turnover was the highest for benzaldehyde (kcat=446min(-1)), whereas the affinity and catalytic efficiency were the highest for all-trans-retinal (Km=48μM, kcat/Km=427mM(-1)min(-1)) among the tested substrates. The optimal reaction conditions for the production of all-trans-retinol from all-trans-retinal by M. tractuosa AKR were pH 7.5, 30°C, 5% (v/v) methanol, 1% (w/v) hydroquinone, 10mM NADPH, 1710mgl(-1) all-trans-retinal, and 3unitml(-1) enzyme. Under these optimized conditions, the enzyme produced 1090mgml(-1) all-trans-retinol, with a conversion yield of 64% (w/w) and a volumetric productivity of 818mgl(-1)h(-1). AKR from M. tractuosa showed no activity for all-trans-retinol using NADP(+) as a cofactor, whereas human AKR exhibited activity. When the cofactor-binding residues (Ala158, Lys212, and Gln270) of M. tractuosa AKR were changed to the corresponding residues of human AKR (Ser160, Pro212, and Glu272), the A158S and Q270E variants exhibited activity for all-trans-retinol. Thus, amino acids at positions 158 and 270 of M. tractuosa AKR are determinant residues of the activity for all-trans-retinol. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutritional and Micronutrient Status of Female Workers in a Garment Factory in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makurat, Jan; Friedrich, Hanna; Kuong, Khov; Wieringa, Frank T; Chamnan, Chhoun; Krawinkel, Michael B

    2016-11-02

    Concerns about the nutritional status of Cambodian garment workers were raised years ago but data are still scarce. The objectives of this study are to examine the nutritional, hemoglobin and micronutrient status of female workers in a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and to assess if body mass index is associated with hemoglobin and/or micronutrient status. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 223 female workers (nulliparous, non-pregnant) at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Anthropometric measurements were performed and blood samples were taken to obtain results on hemoglobin, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12 and inflammation status (hemoglobinopathies not determined). Bivariate correlations were used to assess associations. Overall, 31.4% of workers were underweight, 26.9% showed anemia, 22.1% showed iron deficiency, while 46.5% had marginal iron stores. No evidence of vitamin A or vitamin B12 deficiency was found. Body mass index was associated with serum ferritin (negative) and serum retinol-binding protein (positive) concentrations, but not strongly. A comparison between underweight and not underweight workers resulted in distinctions for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, with a higher prevalence among not underweight. The prevalence of underweight, anemia and poor iron status was high. Young and nulliparous female garment workers in Cambodia might constitute a group with elevated risk for nutritional deficiencies. Strategies need to be developed for improving their nutritional, micronutrient and health status. The poor iron status seems to contribute to the overall prevalence of anemia. Low hemoglobin and iron deficiency affected both underweight and those not underweight. Despite the fact that body mass index was negatively associated with iron stores, true differences in iron status between underweight and not underweight participants cannot be confirmed.

  11. Nutritional and Micronutrient Status of Female Workers in a Garment Factory in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Makurat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Concerns about the nutritional status of Cambodian garment workers were raised years ago but data are still scarce. The objectives of this study are to examine the nutritional, hemoglobin and micronutrient status of female workers in a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and to assess if body mass index is associated with hemoglobin and/or micronutrient status. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 223 female workers (nulliparous, non-pregnant at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Anthropometric measurements were performed and blood samples were taken to obtain results on hemoglobin, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12 and inflammation status (hemoglobinopathies not determined. Bivariate correlations were used to assess associations. Results: Overall, 31.4% of workers were underweight, 26.9% showed anemia, 22.1% showed iron deficiency, while 46.5% had marginal iron stores. No evidence of vitamin A or vitamin B12 deficiency was found. Body mass index was associated with serum ferritin (negative and serum retinol-binding protein (positive concentrations, but not strongly. A comparison between underweight and not underweight workers resulted in distinctions for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, with a higher prevalence among not underweight. Conclusions: The prevalence of underweight, anemia and poor iron status was high. Young and nulliparous female garment workers in Cambodia might constitute a group with elevated risk for nutritional deficiencies. Strategies need to be developed for improving their nutritional, micronutrient and health status. The poor iron status seems to contribute to the overall prevalence of anemia. Low hemoglobin and iron deficiency affected both underweight and those not underweight. Despite the fact that body mass index was negatively associated with iron stores, true differences in iron status between underweight and not underweight participants cannot be confirmed.

  12. Retinoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in breast adipose tissue and serum of benign breast disease and breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various retinoic acid (RA) isomers (all-trans, 13-cis, 11-cis, and 9-cis) as well as retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherol concentrations were determined in both serum and breast adipose tissue of 22 benign breast disease patients and 52 breast cancer patients categorized into 4 stages by malignancy....

  13. Serum ferritin in normal subjects and assessment of iron status during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, Ahmed Eltayeb

    1997-12-01

    This study was conducted with two main objectives;the estimation of serum ferritin level in normal subjects in khartoum area and the assessment of iron status during pregnancy at second and third trimesters. To fulfill the first objective,two hundred and sixty symptoms-free subjects were included in the study,103 males with ages ranging from 15 to 36 years and 157 females with ages ranging from 15 to 45 years.Serum ferritin was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). It was found that the mean concentration of male serum ferritin was much higher than that of the females. For the assessment of iron status during pregnancy,eighty five normal pregnant women were included in the study at the start of the second trimester.Two blood samples were taken during the second trimester and two blood samples during the third trimester. The height of all subjects was measured.The weights of the subjects were measured with each sample. All subjects were under iron-supplementations throughout the gestation period.Sixty four normal non pregnant women were included in the study to serve as controls. No significant difference was observed in the mean haemoglobin concentrations but the PCV of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women at different stages of gestation. MCV, MCH and MCHC values of the non-pregnant women were lower than those of the pregnant women at different stages of gestation. Serum iron and transferrin saturation of the non-pregnant women were higher than those of the pregnant women,this difference was statistically significant at weeks (16 -18) and weeks (22-24). Serum ferritin of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women and decreased continously during the prgnancy, but this decrease was not statistically significant. Iron deficiency anaemia was observed in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. The best parameter which could be used as a marker for iron deficiency is serum ferritin. Iron supplementations corrected for

  14. Serum ferritin in normal subjects and assessment of iron status during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltayeb, Ahmed Eltayeb [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1997-12-01

    This study was conducted with two main objectives;the estimation of serum ferritin level in normal subjects in khartoum area and the assessment of iron status during pregnancy at second and third trimesters. To fulfill the first objective,two hundred and sixty symptoms-free subjects were included in the study,103 males with ages ranging from 15 to 36 years and 157 females with ages ranging from 15 to 45 years.Serum ferritin was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). It was found that the mean concentration of male serum ferritin was much higher than that of the females. For the assessment of iron status during pregnancy,eighty five normal pregnant women were included in the study at the start of the second trimester.Two blood samples were taken during the second trimester and two blood samples during the third trimester. The height of all subjects was measured.The weights of the subjects were measured with each sample. All subjects were under iron-supplementations throughout the gestation period.Sixty four normal non pregnant women were included in the study to serve as controls. No significant difference was observed in the mean haemoglobin concentrations but the PCV of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women at different stages of gestation. MCV, MCH and MCHC values of the non-pregnant women were lower than those of the pregnant women at different stages of gestation. Serum iron and transferrin saturation of the non-pregnant women were higher than those of the pregnant women,this difference was statistically significant at weeks (16 -18) and weeks (22-24). Serum ferritin of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women and decreased continously during the prgnancy, but this decrease was not statistically significant. Iron deficiency anaemia was observed in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. The best parameter which could be used as a marker for iron deficiency is serum ferritin. Iron supplementations corrected for

  15. Retinol and α-Tocopherol in the Breast Milk of Women after a High-Risk Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Sámano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is scant information about whether, after a high-risk pregnancy, breast milk provides enough vitamins for assuring satisfactory bodily reserves in newborns. Objective: To comparatively evaluate, in women with high-risk and normal pregnancy, the concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in breast milk. Methods: This cross-sectional, analytical study was evaluated with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Informed consent was signed by 95 mothers with a high-risk pregnancy and 32 mothers with a normal pregnancy. From the mothers with a high-risk pregnancy were obtained: 23 samples of colostrum, 24 of transitional milk, and 48 of mature milk. From the normal pregnancy group, 32 mature milk samples were collected. Pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI and the gestational weight gain were noted. Models of logistic regression were constructed to identify the variables related to a low concentration of either retinol or α-tocopherol in breast milk. Results: The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in mature milk was 60 (interquartile range (IQR, 41–90 and 276 (103–450 μg/dL, respectively, for the high-risk pregnancy group, and 76 (65–91 and 673 (454–866 µg/dL, respectively, for the normal pregnancy group (p = 0.001. The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol was similar in the subgroups of mothers with different disorders during gestation. A clear correlation was found between a greater pregestational weight and a lower concentration of retinol (Rho = –0.280, p = 0.006, and between α-tocopherol and retinol in all cases (Rho = 0.463, p = 0.001. Among women having a high-risk pregnancy, those delivering prematurely rather than carrying their pregnancy to term had a reduced concentration of retinol (54 (37–78 vs. 70 (49–106 µg/dL; p = 0.002 and a tendency to a lower concentration of α-tocopherol in breast milk (185 (75–410 vs. 339 (160–500 µg/dL; p = 0.053. Compared to mothers with

  16. Disposable cartridge extraction of retinol and alpha-tocopherol from fatty samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, C F; Ciba, N

    1988-01-01

    A new approach is proposed for liquid/solid extraction of retinol and alpha-tocopherol from samples, using a disposable kieselguhr cartridge. The substitution of the mixture methanol-ethanol-n-butanol (4 + 3 + 1) for methanol in the alkaline hydrolysis solution makes it now possible to process fatty samples. Methanol is necessary to solubilize the antioxidant ascorbic acid, and a linear chain alcohol such as n-butanol is necessary to reduce the size of soap micelles so that they can penetrate into the kieselguhr pores. In comparisons of the proposed method with conventional methods on mineral premixes and fatty feedstuffs, recovery and accuracy are at least as good by the proposed method. Advantages are increased rate of determinations and the ability to hydrolyze and extract retinol and alpha-tocopherol together from the same sample.

  17. Metformin Lowers Serum Cobalamin without Changing Other Markers of Cobalamin Status: A Study on Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebba Nexo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with the anti-diabetic drug metformin is followed by a decline in plasma cobalamin, but it is unsettled whether this denotes an impaired cobalamin status. This study has explored changes in the markers of cobalamin status in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome treated with metformin (1.5–2.5 g per day (n = 29 or placebo (n = 23 for six months. Serum samples were collected before and after two, four, and six months of treatment. We found serum cobalamin to decline and reach significant lower levels after six months of treatment (p = 0.003. Despite the decline in serum cobalamin, we observed no reductions in the physiological active part of cobalamin bound to transcobalamin (holotranscobalamin, or increase in the metabolic marker of cobalamin status, methylmalonic acid. Instead, the non-functional part of circulating cobalamin bound to haptocorrin declined (p = 0.0009. Our results have two implications: The data questions whether metformin treatment induces an impaired cobalamin status in PCOS patients, and further suggests that serum cobalamin is a futile marker for judging cobalamin status in metformin-treated patients.

  18. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancheva, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus, Round Goby (Neogobius rattan, Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus and Shad (Alosa pontica. Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously using an HPLC system. The highest content of retinol was established in the Sprat (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g and the highest content of alphatocopherol was found in the Black Sea Horse Mackerel (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. The fatty acid (FA composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The content of omega 3 (n3 FAs was significantly higher (p , 0.001 than the content of omega 6 (n6 FAs in each of the analyzed fish samples. The n6/n3 FA ratio was within the recommended range (0.20–1.50 for Sprat, Round Goby and Shad. Relatively high levels of retinol and alpha-tocopherol, FA composition, n3/n6 FA and PUFA/SFA ratios indicate that these fish species have good nutritional quality.

    El objeto de la investigación presentada es definir y comparar los lípidos totales, el perfil de ácidos grasos y el contenido de retinol y alfa-tocoferol en el tejido comestible de cuatro especies de peces con importancia comercial del Mar Negro búlgaro —espadín (Sprattus Sprattus, gobio de boca negra (Neogobius Melanostomus, chicharro (Trachurus Trachurus y sábalo del Mar Negro (Caspialosa Pontica. Dos vitaminas liposolubles son analizadas simultáneamente mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. El contenido mayor de retinol se encuentra en el espadín (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g, y de alfa-tocoferol en el chicharro (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. El contenido de ácidos grasos ha sido analizado mediante cromatografía gaseosa/espectrometría de masas (GC/MS. El contenido de ácidos grasos (AG

  19. Serum HER 2 extracellular domain level is correlated with tissue HER 2 status in metastatic gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Qin Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the association between serum human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER 2 extracellular domain (ECD levels and tissue HER 2 status in metastatic gastric cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: HER 2 status was retrospectively analyzed in 219 advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ patients. Serum HER 2 ECD was measured by chemiluminescent assay and tissue HER 2 was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH and immunohistochemistry (IHC assay. RESULTS: Significant associations were found between serum HER 2 ECD levels and tissue HER 2 status. Twenty-four patients had HER 2 ECD levels >16.35 ng/mL, which has a sensitivity of 51.4% and a specificity of 97.3% to predict tissue HER 2 status. When the cut-off value was increased to 22 ng/mL, then all 12 patients with serum HER 2 ECD levels>22 ng/mL were tissue HER 2 positive, corresponding to a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 32.4%. High serum HER 2 ECD levels were strongly associated with the intestinal histological type (Lauren's classification, liver metastasis, multiple metastasis (>2 and increased LDH levels, but not with overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: The high specificity of the serum HER 2 ECD assay in predicting tissue HER 2 status suggests its potential as a surrogate marker of the HER 2 status in gastric cancer.

  20. Comparison of the ligand binding properties of two homologous rat apocellular retinol-binding proteins expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M S; Locke, B; Yang, N C; Li, E; Gordon, J I

    1988-11-25

    Cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP) and cellular retinol-binding protein II (CRBP II) are 132-residue cytosolic proteins which have 56% amino acid sequence identity and bind all-trans-retinol as their endogenous ligand. They belong to a family of cytoplasmic proteins which have evolved to bind distinct hydrophobic ligands. Their patterns of tissue-specific and developmental regulation are distinct. We have compared the ligand binding properties of rat apo-CRBP and apo-CRBP II that have been expressed in Escherichia coli. Several observations indicate that the E. coli-derived apoproteins are structurally similar to the native rat proteins: they co-migrate on isoelectric focusing gels; and when complexed with all-trans-retinol, their absorption and excitation/emission spectra are nearly identical to those of the authentic rat holoproteins. Comparative lifetime and acrylamide quenching studies suggest that there are differences in the conformations of apo-CRBP and apo-CRBP II. The interaction of E. coli-derived apo-CRBP and apo-CRBP II with a variety of retinoids was analyzed using spectroscopic techniques. Both apoproteins formed high affinity complexes with all-trans-retinol (K'd approximately 10 nM). In direct binding assays, all-trans-retinal bound to both apoproteins (K'd approximately 50 nM for CRBP; K'd approximately 90 nM for CRBP II). However, all-trans-retinal could displace all-trans-retinol bound to CRBP II but not to CRBP. These observations suggests that there is a specific yet distinct interaction between these two proteins and all-trans-retinal. Apo-CRBP and apo-CRBP II did not demonstrate significant binding to either retinoic acid or methyl retinoate, an uncharged derivative of all-trans-retinoic acid. This indicates that the carboxymethyl group of methyl retinoate cannot be sterically accommodated in their binding pockets and that failure to bind retinoic acid probably is not simply due to the negative charge of its C-15 carboxylate group

  1. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption of retinol from cosmetic formulations: Significance of the skin reservoir and prediction of systemic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yourick, Jeffrey J.; Jung, Connie T.; Bronaugh, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The percutaneous absorption of retinol (Vitamin A) from cosmetic formulations was studied to predict systemic absorption and to understand the significance of the skin reservoir in in vitro absorption studies. Viable skin from fuzzy rat or human subjects was assembled in flow-through diffusion cells for in vitro absorption studies. In vivo absorption studies using fuzzy rats were performed in glass metabolism cages for collection of urine, feces, and body content. Retinol (0.3%) formulations (hydroalcoholic gel and oil-in-water emulsion) containing 3 H-retinol were applied and absorption was measured at 24 or 72 h. All percentages reported are % of applied dose. In vitro studies using human skin and the gel and emulsion vehicles found 0.3 and 1.3% retinol, respectively, in receptor fluid at 24 h. Levels of absorption in the receptor fluid increased over 72 h with the gel and emulsion vehicles. Using the gel vehicle, in vitro rat skin studies found 23% in skin and 6% in receptor fluid at 24 h, while 72-h studies found 18% in skin and 13% in receptor fluid. Thus, significant amounts of retinol remained in rat skin at 24 h and decreased over 72 h, with proportional increases in receptor fluid. In vivo rat studies with the gel found 4% systemic absorption of retinol after 24 h and systemic absorption did not increase at 72 h. Retinol remaining in rat skin after in vivo application was 18% and 13% of the applied dermal dose after 24 and 72 h, respectively. Similar observations were made with the oil-in water emulsion vehicle in the rat. Retinol formed a reservoir in rat skin both in vivo and in vitro. Little additional retinol was bioavailable after 24 h. Comparison of these in vitro and in vivo results for absorption through rat skin indicates that the 24-h in vitro receptor fluid value accurately estimated 24-h in vivo systemic absorption. Therefore, the best single estimate of retinol systemic absorption from in vitro human skin studies is the 24-h receptor fluid

  2. Multinutrient-fortified juices improve vitamin D and vitamin E status in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, Christina D; Moore, Carolyn E; Hyatt, Raymond R; Kuder, Julia; Chen, Tai; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Meydani, Mohsen; Klein, Ellen; Biancuzzo, Rachael M; Holick, Michael F

    2014-05-01

    Provision of fortified juices may provide a convenient method to maintain and increase blood fat-soluble vitamins. To determine whether children consuming orange juice fortified with calcium and combinations of vitamins D, E, and A could increase serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], α-tocopherol, and retinol levels. A 12-week randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. One hundred eighty participants (aged 8.04±1.42 years) were recruited at Tufts (n=70) and Boston University (n=110) during 2005-2006. Of those recruited, 176 children were randomized into three groups: CaD (700 mg calcium+200 IU vitamin D), CaDEA (700 mg calcium+200 IU vitamin D+12 IU vitamin E+2,000 IU vitamin A as beta carotene), or Ca (700 mg calcium). Children consumed two 240-mL glasses of CaD, CaDEA, or Ca fortified orange juice daily for 12 weeks. Serum 25(OH)D, α-tocopherol, and retinol concentrations. Changes in 25(OH)D, α-tocopherol, retinol, and parathyroid hormone concentrations were examined. Covariates included sex, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and baseline 25(OH)D, α-tocopherol, retinol, or parathyroid hormone levels. Multivariate models and repeated measures analysis of variance tested for group differences with pre-post measures (n=141). Baseline 25(OH)D was 68.4±27.7 nmol/L (27.4±11.10 ng/mL) ), with 21.7% of participants having inadequate 25(OH)D (vitamin D and 12 IU vitamin E increased 25(OH)D and α-tocopherol concentrations in young children within 12 weeks. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fat-Soluble Vitamin Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, G.; Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is a form of elder mistreatment. The systematic characterization of self-neglecting individuals is the goal of the CREST project. Reported here is the evaluation of fat-soluble vitamin status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects were recruited and consented following referral from Adult Protective Services. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socioeconomic status, as possible. We report here on 47 SN subjects (age 77 plus or minus 7, mean plus or minus SD; body weight 76 kg plus or minus 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 y plus or minus 7, 79 kg plus or minus 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of fat-soluble vitamin status. Plasma retinol (p less than 0.01) was lower in SN subjects. Plasma tocopherol tended (p less than 0.06) to be lower in SN subjects, while gamma-tocopherol was unchanged. SN subjects tended to have lower serum 25-OH vitamin D (p less than 0.11), and to be vitamin D deficient (26% below 23 mmol/L). Hypercalcemia occurred more often in SN subjects (23% had values above 2.56 mmol/L), as did elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations (p less than 0.05). These data demonstrate that many nutrients are affected in the self-neglecting elderly, and that long-term deficits are evident by the nature of changes in fat soluble vitamins.

  4. Função renal de pacientes de unidade de terapia intensiva: creatinina plasmática e proteína carreadora do retinol urinário Renal function of intensive care unit patients: plasma creatinine and urinary retinol-binding protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Satoko Mizoi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A avaliação precoce da disfunção renal usando marcadores usuais não supre uma indicação quer da sensitividade e da especificidade da disfunção renal de pacientes críticos. Seriam desejáveis marcadores mais específicos e sensíveis para a detecção precoce de um processo fisiopatológico renal em fase inicial. A proteína carreadora do retinol urinário poderia ser um método alternativo para avaliação precoce da função renal destes pacientes. MÉTODOS: O estudo acompanhou 100 pacientes em terapia intensiva e avaliou suas variáveis clinicas e laboratoriais, incluindo a dosagem de creatinina plasmática e proteina carreadora do retinol urinário e as variáveis demográficas. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi caracterizada por pacientes geriátricos (63,4±15,6 anos, homens (68%, sendo 53% cirúrgicos. Análise estatística mostrou associação entre creatinina plasmática e as seguintes variáveis: gênero (p=0,026, idade (p=0,038, uso de medicação vasoativa (p=0,003, proteinúria (p=0,025, escore Acute Physiological Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II (p=0,000, uréia (p=0,000, potássio (p=0,003 clearance de creatinina estimado (p=0,000. A proteína carreadora do retinol urinário correlacionava-se com outras variáveis: peso usa de ventilação invasiva (p=0,000, uso de medicamentos antinfamatórios não-esteróides (p=0,018, uso de medicação vasoativa (p=0,021, temperatura alta (>37,5ºC (p=0,005, proteinúria (p=0,000, bilirubinúria (p=0,004, fluxo urinário (p=0,019, pressão diastólica mínima (p=0,032, pressão sistólica mínima (p=0,029, APACHE II (p=0.000, creatinina (p=0,001, uréia (p=0,001 e clearance de creatinina estimado (p=0,000. A proteína carreadora do retinol urinário também tende a ser associada com doença renal anterior, vasculopatias e neoplasias. Na análise univariada, a fração de excreção de sódio se correlacionou com creatinina plasmática e proteina carreadora do retinol urin

  5. Serum oxidant and antioxidant status in adolescents undergoing professional endurance sports training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tom K; Lin, Hua; Lippi, Giuseppe; Nie, Jinlei; Tian, Ye

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of professional training on serum oxidant and antioxidant status in adolescent endurance athletes and compared it with that of untrained individuals. Firstly, serum thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARSs), xanthine oxidase (XO), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were measured in 67 male runners, cyclists, and untrained adolescents. Seven-day dietary intakes were also assessed. Secondly, for age- and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 36 out of the 67 subjects (12 for each group) were then selected and investigated. In cyclists, XO, GSH, and CAT were higher as compared with runners and controls. The CAT in runners, but not GSH and XO, was also higher than in controls. TBARS, T-AOC, and SOD did not differ among the study populations. Regarding the inter-individual relationships among serum redox statuses and dietary nutrient intakes, significant correlations were noted in CAT versus carbohydrates, protein, magnesium, and manganese; GSH versus carbohydrates, protein, fat, selenium, zinc, iron, and magnesium; XO versus cholesterol; CAT versus GSH. These findings suggest that the resting blood redox balance in the professional adolescent athletes was well maintained partly by the increase of individual antioxidant in adaptation to chronic exercise.

  6. Validation of blood vitamin A concentrations in cattle: comparison of a new cow-side test (iCheck™ FLUORO) with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raila, Jens; Kawashima, Chiho; Sauerwein, Helga; Hülsmann, Nadine; Knorr, Christoph; Myamoto, Akio; Schweigert, Florian J

    2017-05-10

    Plasma concentration of retinol is an accepted indicator to assess the vitamin A (retinol) status in cattle. However, the determination of vitamin A requires a time consuming multi-step procedure, which needs specific equipment to perform extraction, centrifugation or saponification prior to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentrations of retinol in whole blood (n = 10), plasma (n = 132) and serum (n = 61) were measured by a new rapid cow-side test (iCheck™ FLUORO) and compared with those by HPLC in two independent laboratories in Germany (DE) and Japan (JP). Retinol concentrations in plasma ranged from 0.033 to 0.532 mg/L, and in serum from 0.043 to 0.360 mg/L (HPLC method). No significant differences in retinol levels were observed between the new rapid cow-side test and HPLC performed in different laboratories (HPLC vs. iCheck™ FLUORO: 0.320 ± 0.047 mg/L vs. 0.333 ± 0.044 mg/L, and 0.240 ± 0.096 mg/L vs. 0.241 ± 0.069 mg/L, lab DE and lab JP, respectively). A similar comparability was observed when whole blood was used (HPLC vs. iCheck™ FLUORO: 0.353 ± 0.084 mg/L vs. 0.341 ± 0.064 mg/L). Results showed a good agreement between both methods based on correlation coefficients of r 2  = 0.87 (P < 0.001) and Bland-Altman blots revealed no significant bias for all comparison. With the new rapid cow-side test (iCheck™ FLUORO) retinol concentrations in cattle can be reliably assessed within a few minutes and directly in the barn using even whole blood without the necessity of prior centrifugation. The ease of the application of the new rapid cow-side test and its portability can improve the diagnostic of vitamin A status and will help to control vitamin A supplementation in specific vitamin A feeding regimes such as used to optimize health status in calves or meat marbling in Japanese Black cattle.

  7. Impact of dietary vitamin A interventions on total body stores in Thai lactating women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasanwisut, E.; West, K.P.

    1997-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is increasingly being recognized as a public health problem among pregnant and lactating women in developing countries. This proposed study will be a randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of consuming provitamin A-rich foods in one prepared, on-site meal per weekday for 3 months on total body vitamin A stores and other aspects of vitamin A status in marginally nourished lactating women in rural Northeast Thailand. Approximately 400 lactating women, 2-18 months post-partum, will be screened in the population for marginal vitamin A status by a tier of indicators beginning from low intake or history of night blindness or impaired dark adaptability followed by low serum retinol. Assuming a prevalence of low serum retinol of ∼20%, 90 women will be identified and recruited, matched by serum retinol and month post-partum and randomized in a block fashion into three groups to receive daily cooked (fat-added) meal and snack with (1) dark green leafy and yellow/orange vegetables and fruits, (2) beta-carotene- enriched rice chips and (3) non-enriched rice chips. Groups 1 and 2 will receive ∼3.6 mg of beta-carotene per day. Prior to and following the intervention hepatic vitamin A reserves will be estimated by isotopic dilution techniques and other indicators of vitamin A status. In addition, serum C-reactive protein and maternal anthropometry will be measured. Food consumption data based on 24-hour recall for 3 randomized days will be collected every 2 weeks to assess routine intakes of vitamin A, fat and other nutrients. Morbidity will be monitored on a weekly basis throughout the study. Between-group comparisons will provide a basis for (1) estimating the adequacy of local diets to improve or maintain total body stores of vitamin A in women during lactation and (2) assessing the validity and responsiveness of widely used measures of vitamin A status in this high-risk group

  8. Effect of vitamin A supplementation with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status at 6 wk and 4 mo of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter

    2007-01-01

    concentrations indicated vitamin A deficiency in 32% of the children at age 6 wk and in 16% at age 4 mo. VAS was not associated with higher RBP concentrations overall or in either sex. However, the effect of VAS varied with maternal education (P for interaction = 0.004): At age 6 wk, VAS was associated...... with higher (9%; 95% CI: 2, 17%) RBP concentrations in children of noneducated mothers but not in children of educated mothers. Overall, RBP concentrations increased between 6 wk and 4 mo of age. The increase correlated inversely with the number of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines received...... placebo-controlled trial of VAS, we obtained blood from 614 children at 6 wk of age and from 369 mother-infant pairs at 4 mo of age. We assessed vitamin A status on the basis of serum retinol-binding protein (RBP) and measured serum C-reactive protein to monitor for concurrent infections. RESULTS: RBP...

  9. Glycosylation is essential for translocation of carp retinol-binding protein across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devirgiliis, Chiara; Gaetani, Sancia; Apreda, Marianna; Bellovino, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Retinoid transport is well characterized in many vertebrates, while it is still largely unexplored in fish. To study the transport and utilization of vitamin A in these organisms, we have isolated from a carp liver cDNA library retinol-binding protein, its plasma carrier. The primary structure of carp retinol-binding protein is very conserved, but presents unique features compared to those of the correspondent proteins isolated and characterized so far in other species: it has an uncleavable signal peptide and two N-glycosylation sites in the NH 2 -terminal region of the protein that are glycosylated in vivo. In this paper, we have investigated the function of the carbohydrate chains, by constructing three mutants deprived of the first, the second or both carbohydrates. The results of transient transfection of wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein in Cos cells followed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis have shown that the absence of both carbohydrate moieties blocks secretion, while the presence of one carbohydrate group leads to an inefficient secretion. Experiments of carp RBP mRNA in vitro translation in a reticulocyte cell-free system in the presence of microsomes have demonstrated that N-glycosylation is necessary for efficient translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Moreover, when Cos cells were transiently transfected with wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein (aa 1-67)-green fluorescent protein fusion constructs and semi-permeabilized with streptolysin O, immunofluorescence analysis with anti-green fluorescent protein antibody revealed that the double mutant is exposed to the cytosol, thus confirming the importance of glycan moieties in the translocation process

  10. Comparison of adsorptive with extractive stripping voltammetry in electrochemical determination of retinol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Sýs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV of retinol at solid glassy carbon electrode (GCE, carbon paste electrode (CPE covered by thin layer of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CPE/MWCNTs and carbon paste electrode covered by thin layer of single layer graphene (CPE/Graphene was compared with an extractive stripping voltammetry (ExSV into silicone oil (SO as lipophilic binder of glassy carbon paste electrode (GCPE. All types of selected working electrodes were characterized by a scanning electron microscopy to determine overall morphology of electrode surfaces together with spatial arrangement of used carbon particles. The retinol, also known as vitamin A1, was chosen as a model analyte because it is the most biologically active representative of retinoids which are classified as a significant group of lipophilic vitamins. Based on this comparison, it was observed that electrochemical method with high sensitivity (ExSV at GPCE is generally characterized by shorter linear range of the calibration curve than in case of AdSV at CPE/MWCNTs or CPE/Graphene. Unlike AdSV at solid GCE, all other tested electrochemical methods could represent suitable analytical tools for monitoring of retinoids in different types of foodstuffs. Especially, content of retinol up to tenths milligrams can be easily determined using ExSV. Additionally, negative interference of chemical species present in real samples is minimal in comparison with direct voltammetric methods performed in supporting electrolytes based on organic solvents due to application of accumulation step in "ex-situ" mode.

  11. The effect on serum myeloperoxidase activity and oxidative status of eradication treatment in patients Helicobacter pylori infected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazligul, Yaşar; Aslan, Mehmet; Horoz, Mehmet; Celik, Yilmaz; Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur; Celik, Hakim; Erel, Ozcan

    2011-06-01

    Myeloperoxidase activity has been investigated after eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in infected patients in previous studies but the results are controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate effect on serum myeloperoxidase activity and oxidative status of eradication treatment in H. pylori-infected patients. Gastric biopsy specimens were obtained from 30 H. pylori infected patients. Serum myeloperoxidase activity was measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Oxidative status was determined using total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) measurement and calculation of oxidative stress index (OSI). After 2 weeks of the eradication treatment, serum myeloperoxidase activity, TOS and OSI values were significantly lower (all; p<0.001), while TAC was significantly higher (p<0.001). Our results indicate that eradication treatment in H. pylori-infected patients may affect both oxidative stress and myeloperoxidase activity which is an important biomarker in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2011 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Retinol binding protein 4, obesity, and insulin resistance in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldi Noor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity is a global problem. Even in poor and developing countries, obesity has reached alarming levels. In childhood, obesity may lead to insulin resistance. Retinol binding protein (RBP4, secreted primarily by liver and adipose tissues, was recently proposed as a link between obesity and insulin resistance. The role of RBP4 in pediatric obesity and its relationship with insulin resistance have not been well elucidated. Objective To compare RBP4 levels in obese and lean adolescents and to assess for a relationship between RBP4 levels and insulin resistance. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted in three senior high schools in Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia. Subjects were adolescents aged 14-18 years, who were obese or normal weight (n=56. We measured subjects’ body mass index (BMI and serum RBP4 concentrations. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index. Results Similar RBP4 levels were found in the obese and normoweight groups (P>0.05. Higher RBP4 levels were found in the insulin resistant compared to the non-insulin resistant group, but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05. Conclusion There is no significant difference in mean RBP4 levels in obese adolescents compared to normoweight adolescents. Nor are mean RBP4 levels significantly different between obese adolescents with and without insulin resistance.

  13. The association of markers of oxidative-inflammatory status with malnutrition in hemodialysis patients with serum ferritin lower than 500 ng/mL

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    Simone Gonçalves de Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Enhanced inflammatory-oxidative status is well established in chronic kidney disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the oxidative- inflammatory status and iron indices in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD with serum ferritin lower than 500ng/mL, and to correlate them with nutritional status. METHOD: In a cross-sectional survey 35 HD patients (23 with normal nutritional status, 12 with Protein-Energy-Wasting syndrome, PEW, and healthy volunteers (n = 35 were studied. Serum concentration of iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation, malondialdehyde (MDA, protein carbonyl (PC, high-sensitive serum C -reactive protein (hs-CRP and blood counts were determined. The nutritional status was determined by anthropometric and biochemical criteria. RESULTS: HD patients showed low values of hemoglobin and higher values of ferritin, MDA and PC when compared with healthy volunteers. HD subjects with PEW had higher values of PC and hs-PCR as compared to HD patients with normal nutritional status. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the independent variables PC (Wald Statistic 4.25, p = 0.039 and hs-CRP (Wald Statistic 4.83, p = 0.028 where related with the patients' nutritional condition. CONCLUSION: In HD patients with serum ferritin below 500 ng/mL was observed one association of the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation with poor nutritional status independently of serum ferritin, gender and age.

  14. Acute but not chronic ethanol exposure impairs retinol oxidation in the small and large intestine of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Ellendt, K.; Lindros, K.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Ethanol has been shown to inhibit retinol oxidation at the level of alcohol dehydrogenase in liver and colon but not previously in the small intestine. In the present study we investigated how chronic alcohol feeding and acute ethanol exposure affects retinol dehydrogenase...... higher, respectively). While chronic alcohol feeding did not affect these parameters, acute ethanol exposure reduced V(max) and V(max)/K(m) dose-dependently (p

  15. Iron status of pregnant Filipino women as measured by serum ferritin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlas, L A; Kuizon, M D; Tajaon, R T; Desnacido, J A

    1992-12-01

    Iron status of pregnant women at different stages of pregnancy was evaluated by comparing values for hemoglobin (Hb), red cell indices, serum iron (SI), transferrin saturation (TS) and serum ferritin (SF) values with those of a group of non-pregnant women of comparable age and socio-economic status. Mean SF values on the second and third trimesters (9.3 +/- 2.60 ng/ml and 7.1 +/- 2.19 ng/ml) were significantly lower compared to that in the first trimester (22.6 +/- 2.20 ng/ml). These levels were also lower than that found in the non-pregnant controls. The trend was the same for TS. Hemoglobin levels of the pregnant subjects were significantly lower than those of the non-pregnant women. Prevalence of iron deficiency based on SF < 12.0 ng/ml and TS < 16.0% was highest at term and lowest during the first trimester indicating a decrease in iron stores as pregnancy progressed. Sensitivity for each of the iron parameters was computed, and it was found that for the diagnosis of iron deficiency in pregnant women, SF has a greater sensitivity than TS, SI, MCV and MCH.

  16. Níveis plasmáticos de vitamina A em crianças carentes com pneumonia na fase aguda e após recuperação Plasma vitamin A levels in deprived children with pneumonia during the acute phase and after recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela da Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os níveis plasmáticos de retinol em crianças de baixo nível socioeconômico com pneumonia, antes e depois da resolução do processo infeccioso; investigar a associação entre os níveis plasmáticos de retinol, após a resolução da infecção, com algumas variáveis socioeconômicas, a condição nutricional e a gravidade da pneumonia. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte prospectivo desenvolvido com 40 crianças, hospitalizadas por pneumonia, na faixa etária de 6 meses a 5 anos. Foram avaliados o nível plasmático de retinol na fase aguda e após a resolução da infecção, a escolaridade do chefe da família, a renda per capita, o peso ao nascer, a condição nutricional, os níveis de hemoglobina e a gravidade da pneumonia. RESULTADOS: O valor médio de retinol plasmático após a resolução do processo infeccioso foi maior em relação à fase aguda da infecção (1,4±0,6 versus 1,7±0,6 µmol/l, p = 0,03. A freqüência de níveis inadequados de retinol (OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the plasma retinol of children in the acute phase of pneumonia and after recovery and to investigate the association between plasma levels of retinol after recovery with socioeconomic variables, nutritional status and severity of pneumonia. METHODS: A prospective cohort study which included 40 low-income hospitalized children with pneumonia, aged 6 months to 5 years. We evaluated: plasma retinol level during the acute phase and after recovery, years of schooling of the head of the family, per capita income, birth weight, nutritional status, hemoglobin levels and severity of pneumonia. RESULTS: Mean plasma retinol levels were significantly higher after recovery than during the acute phase of infection (1.4±0.6 vs. 1.7±0.6 µmol/l, p = 0.03. The frequency of inadequate plasma retinol levels (< 1.05 µmol/l was 32.5 and 17.5% for the acute phase and after recovery, respectively. There were no statistically significant

  17. Disruption of Retinol (Vitamin A Signaling by Phthalate Esters: SAR and Mechanism Studies.

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    Yanling Chen

    Full Text Available A spectrum of reproductive system anomalies (cryptorchidism, hypospadias, dysgenesis of Wolffian duct-derived tissues and prostate, and reduced sperm production in male rats exposed in utero to phthalate esters (PEs are thought to be caused by PE inhibition of fetal testosterone production. Recently, dibutyl and dipentyl phthalate (DBuP, DPnP were shown to disrupt the retinol signaling pathway (RSP in mouse pluripotent P19 embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro. The RSP regulates the synthesis and cellular levels of retinoic acid (RA, the active metabolite of retinol (vitamin A. In this new study, a total of 26 di- and mono-esters were screened to identify additional phthalate structures that disrupt the RSP and explore their mechanisms of action. The most potent PEs, those causing > 50% inhibition, contained aryl and cycloalkane groups or C4-C6 alkyl ester chains and were the same PEs reported to cause malformations in utero. They shared similar lipid solubility; logP values were between 4 and 6 and, except for PEs with butyl and phenyl groups, were stable for prolonged periods in culture. Mono- and cognate di-esters varied in ability to disrupt the RSP; e.g., DEHP was inactive but its monoester was active while DBuP was active yet its monoester was inactive. DBuP and dibenzyl phthalate both disrupted the synthesis of RA from retinol but not the ability of RA to activate gene transcription. Both PEs also disrupted the RSP in C3H10T1/2 multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. Based on this in vitro study showing that some PEs disrupt retinol signaling and previous in vivo studies that vitamin A/RA deficiency and PEs both cause strikingly similar anomalies in the male rat reproductive system, we propose that PE-mediated inhibition of testosterone and RA synthesis in utero are both causes of malformations in male rat offspring.

  18. Plasma retinol, carotene and vitamin E concentrations and lung function in a crocidolite-exposed cohort from Wittenoom, Western Australia: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosini Gina

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased rates of death from asbestos related diseases have been reported for people previously employed in the mining and milling operations at Wittenoom (Western Australia, and people who lived in the nearby town, where they were environmentally exposed to crocidolite. Methods Annual measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC and plasma concentrations of retinol, carotene and vitamin E have been made since 1992. Mixed effects models were used to examine the associations between lung function and the plasma vitamin levels of retinol, carotene and vitamin E. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, higher plasma retinol and carotene concentrations were significantly associated with higher levels of lung function at entry into the study, while vitamin E concentrations were associated with lower entry lung function. Retinol was associated with a less steep decline of lung function over time, while carotene concentrations were associated with an increased decline of lung function over time and vitamin E levels were not associated with changes of lung function over time. Conclusion These results support a beneficial relationship between plasma concentrations of retinol on the levels and rates of change of lung function, while showing no such consistent beneficial effect for plasma levels of beta-carotene or vitamin E.

  19. Insulin resistance and serum parameters of iron status in type 2 diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, U.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a predominant public health concern worldwide, accounting for 90% of the cases of diabetes globally. Pathogenesis of T2DM involves insulin resistance, defective insulin secretion and increased glucose production by the liver. Subclinical haemochromatosis has been considered as one of the probable causes of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to determine and correlate insulin resistance and serum parameters of iron status (serum ferritin and transferrin saturation) in type 2 diabetics. Methods: It was a correlational study. This study was conducted on sixty male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fasting blood sample was taken from each subject and analysed for glucose, haemoglobin, insulin, iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) and ferritin. Insulin resistance was determined by HOMA-IR index. Transferrin saturation was calculated from serum iron and TIBC. Data was analysed using SPSS-17. Results: There was significant positive correlation between insulin resistance and transferrin saturation, but there was no significant correlation of insulin resistance with blood haemoglobin, serum iron and serum ferritin in type 2 diabetics. Conclusion: Correlation between insulin resistance and transferrin saturation reveals that iron has negative impact on insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetics. (author)

  20. The effect of postoperative radiotherapy on leukocyte zinc, serum trace elements and nutritional status of breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antila, H.M.J.; Salo, M.S.; Kirvelae, O.; Nikkanen, V.

    1992-01-01

    Mononuclear (MNC) and polymorphonuclear cell (PMNC) zinc content was determined together with serum zinc, copper, selenium and iron concentrations in 24 operable breast cancer patients during and after postoperative radiotherapy. Anthropometric and biochemical indices of nutritional status were measured as background data. The measurements were carried out in the years 1987-1988. Nine patients used unconventional multivitamin or trace element preparations. A steady but statistically insignificant decrease in PMNC zinc was seen during treatment. No changes occurred in MNC zinc. Serum copper levels increased in five patients possibly due to tamoxifen treatment, but no other alterations occurred in serum trace element levels. Appetite was well maintained and nutritional status remained unaltered. Postoperative radiotherapy for breast carcinoma had thus no effect on either trace element or nutritional status. Patient-initiated alternative treatments did not significantly affect their trace element levels. This was probably due to small supplementation doses or irregular use of the preparations. (orig.)

  1. Estudo das variações dos níveis de retinol no colostro humano de parturientes a termo e pré-termo Study of retinol level variations of human colostrum among parturient women with term and pre-term newborns

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    Illana Louise Pereira de Melo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar as variações dos níveis de retinol no colostro de parturientes a termo e pré-termo. MÉTODOS: foram analisadas amostras de leite de 78 lactantes, sendo metade delas mães de recém-nascidos prematuros. As amostras de colostro foram obtidas por expressão manual de uma mama, até 72 horas após o parto, no turno vespertino e no início da mamada, até atingir um volume de 2,0 ml. A determinação do retinol foi realizada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência e os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística através do teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: o valor médio do retinol no colostro de mães a termo (n = 39 e pré-termo (n = 39 foram, respectivamente, 89,4 ± 46,1 mig/dL e 55,6 ± 27,7 mig/dL. A diferença entre as médias foi estatisticamente significante (p OBJECTIVES: to analyze retinol levels variations in the colostrum of term and pre-term parturient women. METHODS: colostrum samples of 78 lactating women, half of which were mothers of premature newborns, were analyzed. The samples were manually extracted from one breast until 2.0 ml were obtained. They were collected up to 72 hours after birth, during the morning hours and right before nursing. Retinol levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed by the T-test for means comparison. RESULTS: the mean retinol values in the colostrums of women with term (n = 39 and pre-term newborns (n = 39 were 89,4 ± 46,1 mug/dL and 55,6 ± 27,7 mug/dL, respectively. The difference of means was considered statistically significant at (p < 0,001. Human milk meets the need for Vitamin A in the term newborn. However, for the premature newborn, it only supplied 66% of the needs. CONCLUSIONS: results suggest that exclusive use of human milk does not meet the needs of pre-term newborn completely and that a Vitamin A supplement for the mother is necessary in order to reduce Vitamin A risk deficiency.

  2. Concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, D K; Most, E; Schlegel, G; Kupczyk, K; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) changes the concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows. To investigate this hypothesis, Holstein cows received daily from 3 weeks ante-partum to 14 weeks post-partum either 172 g of a CLA-free rumen-protected control fat (control group, n = 20) or the same amount of a rumen-protected CLA fat, supplying 4.3 g of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and 3.8 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA per d (CLA group, n = 20). Milk samples (collected at weeks 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 of lactation) were analysed for retinol, α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Milk of cows supplemented with CLA had higher concentrations of retinol (+34%), α-tocopherol (+44%) and γ-tocopherol (+21%) than milk of control cows (p tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, respectively, p tocopherols, concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, determined in milk of week 5, were lower in cows of the CLA group than in control cows, indicative of a lower susceptibility of milk lipids to peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of retinol and α-tocopherol, determined at 1 and 5 weeks post-partum, were not different between the two groups of cows. In conclusion, this study shows that supplementing dairy cows with a moderate amount of CLA causes an increase of the concentrations of vitamins A and E in the milk and results in an increased output of those vitamins via milk. These effects might be beneficial with respect to the nutritional value of dairy products and the susceptibility of milk fat to oxidative deterioration. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Assessment of vitamin A status in rats by isotope dilution: A simplified model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furr, H.C.; Cooper, D.A.; Olson, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Isotope-dilution analysis of vitamin A status requires giving a known quantity of labeled vitamin A to the subject and measuring the ratio of labeled to unlabeled retinol in the blood after a period for equilibration. To calculate total body stores from the isotopic ratio of plasma retinol, several assumptions must be made. In considering new ways of better calculating liver vitamin A stores from isotope-dilution data, the authors used the data of Green et al. to estimate loss of vitamin A tracer as a function of time and of vitamin A status. This correction markedly improves the correlation between calculated and analyzed liver vitamin A stores and also quantitively explains the hyperbolic relationship between fraction of tracer dose recovered in liver and mass of liver vitamin A stores. Agreement of this model with experimental data suggests that efficiency of absorption and storage of vitamin A is not affected by vitamin A status. This model can be used to estimate both the amount of tracer needed for a given lower limit of detection and an optimum sampling time

  4. A simple and robust quantitative analysis of retinol and retinyl palmitate using a liquid chromatographic isocratic method

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    Satoshi Yokota

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is a vital nutritional substances that regulates biological activities including development, but is also associated with disease onset. The extent of vitamin A intake influences the retinoid content in the liver, the most important organ for the storage of vitamin A. Measurement of endogenous retinoid in biological samples is important to understand retinoid homeostasis. Here we present a reliable, highly sensitive, and robust method for the quantification of retinol and retinyl palmitate using a reverse-phase HPLC/UV isocratic method. We determined the impact of chronic dietary vitamin A on retinoid levels in livers of mice fed an AIN-93G semi-purified diet (4 IU/g compared with an excess vitamin A diet (1000 IU/g over a period from birth to 10 weeks of age. Coefficients of variation for intra-assays for both retinoids were less than 5%, suggesting a higher reproducibility than any other HPLC/UV gradient method. Limits of detection and quantification for retinol were 0.08 pmol, and 0.27 pmol, respectively, which are remarkably higher than previous results. Supplementation with higher doses of vitamin A over the study period significantly increased liver retinol and retinyl palmitate concentrations in adult mice. The assays described here provide a sensitive and rigorous quantification of endogenous retinol and retinyl palmitate, which can be used to help determine retinoid homeostasis in disease states, such as toxic hepatitis and liver cancer. Keywords: Vitamin A excess, Retinol, Retinyl palmitate, Liver

  5. Plasma Carotenoids, Tocopherols, and Retinol in the Age-Stratified (35-74 Years) General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Weber, Daniela; Dollé, Martijn E T; Jansen, Eugène; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Fiegl, Simone; Toussaint, Olivier; Bernhardt, Juergen; Gonos, Efstathios S; Franceschi, Claudio; Sikora, Ewa; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Breusing, Nicolle; Grune, Tilman; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-09-30

    Blood micronutrient status may change with age. We analyzed plasma carotenoids, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol and their associations with age, demographic characteristics, and dietary habits (assessed by a short food frequency questionnaire) in a cross-sectional study of 2118 women and men (age-stratified from 35 to 74 years) of the general population from six European countries. Higher age was associated with lower lycopene and α-/β-carotene and higher β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol levels. Significant correlations with age were observed for lycopene ( r = -0.248), α-tocopherol ( r = 0.208), α-carotene ( r = -0.112), and β-cryptoxanthin ( r = 0.125; all p tocopherol with age remained when all covariates including cholesterol and use of vitamin supplements were included (1.7% vs. 2.4% per five-year age increase). The association of higher β-cryptoxanthin with higher age was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for fruit consumption, whereas the inverse association of α-carotene with age remained in the fully adjusted multivariable model (-4.8% vs. -3.8% per five-year age increase). We conclude from our study that age is an independent predictor of plasma lycopene, α-tocopherol, and α-carotene.

  6. Serum anti-Mullerian hormone assessment of ovarian reserve and polycystic ovary syndrome status over the reproductive lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremellen, Kelton; Zander-Fox, Deidre

    2015-08-01

    To determine normal ranges for serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) using the new automated Elecsys AMH assay platform, with a view to establishing values that signify premature loss of ovarian reserve, increased risk for an excessive response during IVF stimulation and a likely diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Serum AMH was measured by the Elecsys automated electrochemiluminescence assay in 654 women undergoing gynaecological assessment. Serum AMH levels peaked before 25 years of age, with mean AMH levels halving by 36 and falling to a quarter of their peak by 40 years of age. Overall, AMH results of 95% of patients with PCOS exceeded the 50th percentile for their age, with 72.1% having an AMH result in the top quartile for age. ROC analysis suggested that a serum AMH ≥36 pmol L(-1) is the best determinant of PCOS status (sensitivity 83.7% and specificity 82.3%). Serum AMH exhibited an excellent correlation with ultrasound-assessed antral follicle count (AFC) (r = 0.836, P ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) during IVF treatment. Serum AMH is a sensitive marker of age-related decline in ovarian reserve status. A serum AMH result >36 pmol L(-1) , or above the 75th percentile for age, is highly suggestive of a diagnosis of PCOS. A serum AMH result below the 10th percentile for age suggests accelerated loss of ovarian reserve, while an AMH result exceeding 20 pmol L(-1) suggests an increased risk of OHSS during IVF treatment. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Retinol sérico en mujeres mexicanas urbanas durante el periodo perinatal

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    Casanueva Esther

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Establecer la prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina A durante el embarazo y la lactancia en un grupo de mujeres mexicanas urbanas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se invitó a participar a un grupo de gestantes que acudían a control prenatal, que carecían de patología agregada y contaban con menos de 20 semanas de embarazo. Fueron evaluadas tres veces durante el embarazo y hasta la semana 24 del posparto. La determinación de vitamina A en suero se realizó por cromatografía de líquidos de alta presión. Se consideró como punto de corte para riesgo de deficiencia una concentración de retinol < 1.05 µmol/L. RESULTADOS. En las tres evaluaciones durante la gestación las concentraciones de vitamina A fueron de 2.34±0.70, 2.41±1.03 y 1.86±0.66 µmol/L, respectivamente, lo cual muestra una disminución significativa. Sin embargo, sólo 1/30 se ubicó por debajo del punto de corte aceptado para considerar riesgo de deficiencia y ninguno para deficiencia. Durante el posparto las concentraciones se conservaron relativamente constantes, alrededor de 2.10 µmol/L. La práctica de la lactancia no tuvo impacto sobre las concentraciones séricas de retinol, no así la pérdida de peso. CONCLUSIONES. En la población estudiada no se documentaron casos de deficiencia de vitamina A durante el periodo perinatal. La pérdida de peso materna tiene influencia sobre las concentraciones de retinol en el posparto.

  8. Serum homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and total antioxidant status in vegetarian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, J; Klemarczyk, W; Chełchowska, M; Gajewska, J; Laskowska-Klita, T

    2006-01-01

    The results of several studies point to the positive role of vegetarian diets in reducing the risk of diabetes, some cancers and cardiovascular diseases. However, exclusion of animal products in vegetarian diets may affect the cobalamin status and cause an elevation of the plasma homocysteine level. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vegetarian diets on serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and total antioxidant status (TAS) in children. The study included 32 vegetarians (including 5 vegans), age 2-10 years. Dietary constituents were analyzed using a local nutritional programme. Serum homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 were determined with fluorescence and chemiluminescence immunoassays. The concentration of TAS was measured by a colorimetric method. Average daily energy intake and the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates in the diets of the studied children were just above or similar to the recommended amounts. It could be shown that vegetarian diets contain high concentrations of folate. In vegan diets it even exceeds the recommended dietary allowance. Mean daily intake of vitamin B12 in the studied diets was adequate but in vegans was below the recommended range. The serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and TAS in vegetarian children remained within the physiological range. The presented data indicate that vegetarian children, contrary to adults, have enough vitamin B12 in their diet (excluding vegans) and normal serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12. Therefore, in order to prevent deficiencies in the future, close monitoring of vegetarian children (especially on a vegan diet) is important to make sure that they receive adequate quantities of nutrients needed for healthy growth.

  9. Serum Levels of ApoA1 and ApoA2 Are Associated with Cognitive Status in Older Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cheng; Li, Jin; Bao, Zhijun; Ruan, Qingwei; Yu, Zhuowei

    2015-01-01

    Background. Advancing age, chronic inflammation, oxidative damage, and disorders of lipid metabolism are positively linked to the late-life cognitive impairment. Serum biomarkers may be associated with the cognitive status in older men. Methods. 440 old male subjects with different cognitive functions were recruited to investigate probable serum markers. Pearson Chi-Squared test, univariate analysis, and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate biomarkers which may be associated with cognitive status. Results. Levels of fundus atherosclerosis (AS) (P age (P age, AS levels, POD, IL-6, HDL-C, ApoA2, and ApoC2 were significantly related to cognitive status. Moreover, ApoA1 and ApoA2 were independently associated with cognitive impairment and late-life dementia. PMID:26682220

  10. Microheterogeneity of transthyretin in serum and ascitic fluid of ovarian cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gericke, Beate; Raila, Jens; Sehouli, Jalid; Haebel, Sophie; Könsgen, Dominique; Mustea, Alexander; Schweigert, Florian J

    2005-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR), a traditional biomarker for nutritional and inflammatory status exists in different molecular variants of yet unknown importance. A truncated form of TTR has recently been described to be part of a set of biomarkers for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. The main aim of the study was therefore to characterize differences in microheterogeneity between ascitic fluid and plasma of women affected with ovarian cancer and to evaluate the tumor site as the possible source of TTR. Subjects were 48 women with primary invasive epithelial ovarian cancer or recurrent ovarian carcinoma. The control group consisted of 20 postmenopausal women. TTR and retinol-binding protein (RBP) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels by a high-sensitivity latex particle turbidimetric assay. The molecular heterogeneity of TTR was analysed using immunoprecipitation and matrix-associated laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Presence of TTR in tumor tissue was determined with indirect peroxidase immunostaining. TTR and RBP (μg/ml) levels in serum were 148.5 ± 96.7 and 22.5 ± 14.8 in affected women compared to 363.3 ± 105.5 and 55.8 ± 9.3 in healthy postmenopausal women (p < 0.01). In ascitic fluid, levels were 1.02 ± 0.24 and 4.63 ± 1.57 μg/ml, respectively. The mean levels of TTR and RBP in serum showed a tendency to decrease with the severity of the disease and were lower in affected women whose CRP levels were > 40 mg/ml (p = 0.08 for TTR; p < 0.05 for RBP). No differences in TTR microheterogeneity were observed between TTR isolated from serum of affected and healthy women or from ascitic fluid. TTR occurred rather consistently in four variants. Mass signals were at 13758 ± 7, 13876 ± 13 (greatest intensity), 13924 ± 21 and 14062 ± 24 Da, representing native, S-cysteinylated, S-cysteinglycinylated and glutathionylated TTR, respectively. Serum of healthy and affected women

  11. HBsAg carrier status and the association between gestational diabetes with increased serum ferritin concentration in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Terence T; Tse, Ka-Yu; Chan, Louis Y; Tam, Kar-Fai; Ho, Lai-Fong

    2003-11-01

    To determine whether the high prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriage in our population can explain the previous observation of an association between increased maternal serum ferritin concentration and gestational diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese women. A retrospective study was performed on 767 nonanemic women with singleton pregnancy who had iron status assessed at 28-30 weeks. The result of the routine antenatal HBsAg screening was retrieved from patient records. The HBsAg-positive and -negative groups were compared for maternal characteristics, prevalence of gestational diabetes in the third trimester, prevalence of high serum ferritin and iron concentrations, and transferrin saturation, which is defined as a value in the highest quartile established by the measurements obtained from the HBsAg-negative group. The incidences of oral glucose tolerance test and gestational diabetes were significantly increased in the HBsAg-positive group. The HBsAg-positive women with gestational diabetes had significantly increased prevalence of high serum ferritin compared with the HBsAg-negative women, irrespective of the latter's gestational diabetes status. Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the independent association between HBsAg carrier status with gestational diabetes (relative risk 3.51, 95% CI 1.83-6.73) but excluded high ferritin as an independent factor. Our results indicate that maternal HBsAg carriage could explain in part the association between increased serum ferritin concentration with gestational diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese women, and that HBsAg carrier status is an independent risk factor for gestational diabetes.

  12. The positive impact of red palm oil in school meals on vitamin A status: study in Burkina Faso

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    Somé Issa T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A (VA deficiency is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and school-age children are a vulnerable group. In Burkina Faso, the production and consumption of red palm oil (RPO is being promoted as a food supplement for VA. The objective of the study was to assess the impact on serum retinol of adding RPO to school lunch in two test zones of Burkina Faso. Methods Over one school year, 15 ml RPO was added to individual meals 3 times a week in selected primary schools in two sites. Serum retinol was measured with HPLC at baseline and exactly 12 months later to take account of seasonality. A simple pre-post test design was used in the Kaya area (north-central Burkina, where 239 pupils from 15 intervention schools were randomly selected for the evaluation. In Bogandé (eastern Burkina, 24 schools were randomised for the controlled intervention trial: 8 negative controls (G1 with only the regular school lunch; 8 positive controls (G2 where the pupils received a single VA capsule (60 mg at the end of the school year; and 8 schools with RPO through the school year (G3. A random sample of 128 pupils in each school group took part in the evaluation. Results In Kaya, serum retinol went from 0.77 ± 0.37 μmol/L at baseline to 1.07 ± 0.40 μmol/L one year later (p Conclusion RPO given regularly in small amounts appears highly effective in the reduction of VA deficiency. RPO deserves more attention as a food supplement for VA and as a potential source of rural income in Sahelian countries.

  13. DEFISIENSI VITAMIN A DAN ZINC SEBAGAIFAKTOR RISIKO TERJADINYA STUNTING PADA BALITA DI NUSA TENGGARA BARAT

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    Taufiqurrahman Taufiqurrahman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Children of 1 - 5 years old often face nutrition problems such as undernourishment, vitamin A and zinc deficiency, anemia, stunting and low mental development index (MDI. Vitamin A deficiency can cause growth disorder and declining zinc transport and mobilization in the heart meanwhile zinc is needed in retinol binding protein synthesis. If the deficiency lasts for long it can cause growth disorder as manifested in stunting incidence. To study vitamin A and zinc deficiency as risk factors for the incidence of stunting among underfives at Nusa Tenggara Barat. The study was analytic observational with cross sectional design. Subject of the study were 327 underfives of 6 - 59 months at the Province of Nusa Tenggara Barat. Nutrition status was assessed through measurement of anthopometry, retinol serum level using HPLC, zinc serum level using AAS and hemoglobin using hemoCue. Data of individual characteristics and rearing pattern were obtained through interview and nutrient intake were measured using recall 2 x 24 hours. Data analysis used bivariate technique for variable related to stunting, chi square test for category data, independent t-test for ratio and logistic regression test to measure risk of some variables simultaneously related to incidence of stunting. The result of bivariate analysis showed that was difference in age between stunted and normal underfives (p<0.05 . In the group of underfives that were no longer breastfed there was difference in intake of zinc between stunted and normal underfives (p<0.05. The result of multivariate analysis showed that underfives that were no longer breastfed had risk 2 times greater for being stunted after the control of age, status of vitamin A and zinc. The effect is modified by age and breast-feeding. There was no evidence that showed that vitamin A and zinc deficiency among underfives were risk factors for the incidence of stunting. Variable that was individually as well as simultaneously

  14. Folate status, folate-related genes and serum miR-21 expression: Implications for miR-21 as a biomarker

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    Emma Louise Beckett

    2015-12-01

    General significance: This study demonstrates that serum miR-21 expression correlates with folate status and related genetic status. This may have consequences for the proposed use of miR-21 as a colorectal cancer biomarker.

  15. Thermodynamic stability and retinol binding property of {beta}-lactoglobulin in the presence of cationic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahihi, M. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bordbar, A.K., E-mail: bordbar@chem.ui.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghayeb, Y. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > The stability parameters of {beta}-lactoglobulin, BLG, in the presence of C{sub n}TAB have been evaluated. > Rising in hydrocarbon chain length increases the denaturating power of surfactants. > C{sub n}TAB enhances the retinol binding affinity of BLG in all of its concentration range. - Abstract: In this work the stability parameters of bovine {beta}-lactoglobulin, variant A (BLG-A), with regard to their transition curves induced by dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C{sub 12}TAB), tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C{sub 14}TAB) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C{sub 16}TAB) as cationic surfactants, were determined at 298 K. For each transition curve, the conventional method of analysis which assumes a linear concentration dependence of the pre- and post-transition base lines, gave the most realistic values for {Delta}G{sub D}(H{sub 2}O). The results represent the increase in the denaturating power of surfactants with an increase in hydrocarbon chain length. The value of about 22.27 kJ . mol{sup -1} was obtained for {Delta}G{sub D}(H{sub 2}O) from transition curves. Subsequently, the retinol binding property of BLG as its functional indicator was investigated in the presence of these surfactants using the spectrofluorimeter titration method. The results represent the substantial enhancement of retinol binding affinity of BLG in the presence of these surfactants.

  16. Distribution of vitamins A (retinol) and E (α-tocopherol) in polar bear kidney: Implications for biomarker studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechshøft, T Ø; Jakobsen, J; Sonne, C; Dietz, R

    2011-08-15

    Vitamins A and E content of inner organs, among these the kidneys, are increasingly being used as an indicator of adverse effects caused to the organism by e.g. environmental contaminants. In general, only a renal sub sample is used for analyses, and it is thus essential to know which part of the organ to sample in order to get a representative value for this important biomarker. The aim here was to assess the distribution of vitamins A (retinol) and E (α-tocopherol) within the polar bear multireniculate kidney (i.e. polar vs. medial position) and also within the cortex vs. medulla of each separate renculi. The results showed no significant difference between the medial and polar renculi with regards to either retinol (p=0.44) or α-tocopherol (p=0.75). There were, however, significant differences between cortex and medulla for both vitamins (retinol, p=0.0003; α-tocopherol, ppolar bear kidneys. Prior to analysis, the renculi should be separated into medulla and cortex. The results indicated no significant differences between renculi from different parts of the kidney. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum proteomic analysis reveals potential serum biomarkers for occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis caused by trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peiwu; Ren, Xiaohu; Huang, Zhijun; Yang, Xifei; Hong, Wenxu; Zhang, Yanfang; Zhang, Hang; Liu, Wei; Huang, Haiyan; Huang, Xinfeng; Wu, Desheng; Yang, Linqing; Tang, Haiyan; Zhou, Li; Li, Xuan; Liu, Jianjun

    2014-08-17

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent with widespread occupational exposure and also a major environmental contaminant. Occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis induced by trichloroethylene (OMLDT) is an autoimmune disease and it has become one major hazard in China. In this study, sera from 3 healthy controls and 3 OMLDT patients at different disease stages were used for a screening study by 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. Eight proteins including transthyretin (TTR), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), haptoglobin, clusterin, serum amyloid A protein (SAA), apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein C-III and apolipoprotein C-II were found to be significantly altered among the healthy, acute-stage, healing-stage and healed-stage groups. Specifically, the altered expression of TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin were further validated by Western blot analysis and ELISA. Our data not only suggested that TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin could serve as potential serum biomarkers of OMLDT, but also indicated that measurement of TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin or their combination could help aid in the diagnosis, monitoring the progression and therapy of the disease. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of serum oxidative and antioxidative status in patients with erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, M; Okulu, E; Neşelioğlu, S; Erel, O; Ener, K; Kayıgil, Ö

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated and compared serum oxidative and antioxidative parameters of patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and control subjects. Twenty married male patients with ED for at least 12 months (Group 1) and 20 volunteer healthy, sexually active, married and age-matched men (Group 2) were included in the study. Group 1 and 2 were compared concerning serum mean total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), paraoxonase1 (PON1), arylesterase, total thiol and oxidative stress index (OSI). Mean patient age was 47.9 ± 8.1 and 44.4 ± 10.6, respectively, in Group 1 and 2. Serum TAC levels were 1.7 ± 0.5 and 2.3 ± 0.3, respectively, in Group 1 and 2 (P = 0.002). Serum TOS levels were 21.8 ± 20.5 and 11.7 ± 2.2, respectively, in Group 1 and 2 (P = 0.035). Serum PON1 levels were 69.8 ± 13.1 and 164.9 ± 56.5, respectively, in Group 1 and 2 (P total thiol levels were 733.1 ± 253 and 885.5 ± 95.3, respectively, in Group 1 and 2 (P = 0.016). Serum OSI was 0.14 ± 0.17 and 0.05 ± 0.11, respectively, in Group 1 and 2 (P = 0.021). Mean blood platelet count was significantly higher in Group 1 (P = 0.001). A positive correlation between platelets and oxidative state and a negative correlation between platelets and antioxidative state were found. Oxidative stress was detected to be increased, whereas antioxidative parameters were detected to be decreased in patients with ED. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Associations of Socioeconomic Status and Processed Food Intake with Serum Phosphorus in Community-Living Adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M.; Katz, Ronit; Peralta, Carmen A.; de Boer, Ian H.; Siscovick, David; Wolf, Myles; Roux, Ana Diez; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Ix, Joachim H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Higher serum phosphorus concentrations are associated with cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Low socioeconomic status is linked with higher serum phosphorus, but the reasons are unclear. Poor individuals disproportionately consume inexpensive processed foods commonly enriched with phosphorus-based food preservatives. Accordingly, we hypothesized that excess intake of these foods accounts for a relationship between lower socioeconomic status and higher serum phosphorus. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting and Participants We examined a random cohort of 2,664 participants with available phosphorus measurements in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based sample of individuals free of clinically apparent cardiovascular disease from across the United States. Predictor Variables Socioeconomic status, the intake of foods commonly enriched with phosphorus additives (processed meats, sodas) and frequency of fast food consumption. Outcomes Fasting morning serum phosphorus concentrations. Results In unadjusted analyses, lower income and lower educational achievement categories were associated with modestly higher serum phosphorus (by 0.02 to 0.10 mg/dL, P fast-food consumption with serum phosphorus in multivariable-adjusted analyses. In contrast, each serving per day higher soda intake was associated with 0.02 mg/dl lower serum phosphorus (95% confidence interval, −0.04, −0.01). Conclusions Greater intake of foods commonly enriched with phosphorus additives was not associated with higher serum phosphorus in a community-living sample with largely preserved kidney function. These results suggest that excess intake of processed and fast foods may not impact fasting serum phosphorus concentrations among individuals without kidney disease. PMID:22217539

  20. Inhibition of retinol oxidation by ethanol in the rat liver and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Menzl, Ina; Feuchter, Anette

    2000-01-01

    the efficiency in the small intestine was negligible (0.20). In the presence of increasing ethanol concentrations (9, 17, and 34 mM), V(max)/K(m) for retinol oxidation decreased in a dose dependent manner to 7.8% of the initial value in the large intestine and to 12% in the liver. The V(max)/K(m) of retinoic...

  1. Comparison of Serum Adipocytokine Levels according to Metabolic Health and Obesity Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hoon Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMetabolic health is an emerging concept that is highly correlated with various metabolic complications, and adipocytokines have been causally linked to a wide range of metabolic diseases. Thus, this study compared serum adipocytokine levels according to metabolic health and obesity status.MethodsFour hundred and fifty-six nondiabetic subjects (mean age, 40.5 years were categorized into four groups according to metabolic health and obesity status: metabolically healthy nonobese (MHNO, metabolically healthy obese (MHO, metabolically unhealthy nonobese (MUHNO, and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO. Being metabolically healthy was defined as the presence of fewer than two of the following five metabolic abnormalities: high blood pressure, high fasting blood glucose, high triglyceride, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and being in the highest decile of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index. Obesity status was assessed using body mass index (BMI, with obesity defined as a BMI higher than 25 kg/m2. Levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP were also evaluated.ResultsOf the 456 subjects, 247 (54.2% were in the MHNO group, 66 (14.5% were in the MHO group, 66 (14.5% were in the MUHNO group, and 77 (16.9% were in the MUHO group. There were no significant differences in IL-6 or MCP-1 levels among the groups, but levels of TNF-α and A-FABP were significantly higher in the MUHNO group compared to the MHNO group.ConclusionHigh TNF-α and A-FABP levels are significantly associated with metabolically unhealthiness in nonobese Korean individuals.

  2. Proteomics Analysis for Finding Serum Markers of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushan Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of peptide ligand library beads (PLLB and 1D gel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (1DGel-LC-MS/MS was employed to analyze serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer and from healthy controls. Proteomic analysis identified 1200 serum proteins, among which 57 proteins were upregulated and 10 were downregulated in the sera from cancer patients. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 is highly upregulated in the ovarian cancer serum samples. ELISA was employed to measure plasma concentrations of RBP4 in 80 samples from ovarian cancer patients, healthy individuals, myoma patients, and patients with benign ovarian tumor, respectively. The plasma concentrations of RBP4 ranging from 76.91 to 120.08 ng/mL with the mean value 89.13±1.67 ng/mL in ovarian cancer patients are significantly higher than those in healthy individuals (10.85±2.38 ng/mL. Results were further confirmed with immunohistochemistry, demonstrating that RBP4 expression levels in normal ovarian tissue were lower than those in ovarian cancer tissues. Our results suggested that RBP4 is a potential biomarker for diagnostic of screening ovarian cancer.

  3. Pre-pregnancy obesity and maternal nutritional biomarker status during pregnancy: a factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomedi, Laura E; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Newby, P K; Evans, Rhobert W; Luther, James F; Wisner, Katherine L; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2013-08-01

    Pre-pregnancy obesity has been associated with adverse birth outcomes. Poor essential fatty acid (EFA) and micronutrient status during pregnancy may contribute to these associations. We assessed the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI and nutritional patterns of maternal micronutrient and EFA status during mid-pregnancy. A cross-sectional analysis from a prospective cohort study. Women provided non-fasting blood samples at ≥ 20 weeks’ gestation that were assayed for red cell EFA; plasma folate, homocysteine and ascorbic acid; and serum retinol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, a-tocopherol, soluble transferrin receptors and carotenoids. These nutritional biomarkers were employed in a factor analysis and three patterns were derived: EFA, Micronutrients and Carotenoids. The Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy Study, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Pregnant women (n 129). After adjustment for parity, race/ethnicity and age, obese pregnant women were 3.0 (95% CI 1.1, 7.7) times more likely to be in the lowest tertile of the EFA pattern and 4.5 (95% CI 1.7, 12.3) times more likely to be in the lowest tertile of the Carotenoid pattern compared with their lean counterparts. We found no association between pre-pregnancy obesity and the Micronutrient pattern after confounder adjustment. Our results suggest that obese pregnant women have diminished EFA and carotenoid concentrations.

  4. Blood concentrations of carotenoids and retinol and lung cancer risk: an update of the WCRF-AICR systematic review of published prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Leila; Vieira, Ana Rita; Aune, Dagfinn; Stevens, Christophe; Vingeliene, Snieguole; Navarro Rosenblatt, Deborah A; Chan, Doris; Greenwood, Darren C; Norat, Teresa

    2016-08-01

    Carotenoids and retinol are considered biomarkers of fruits and vegetables intake, and are of much interest because of their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties; however, there is inconsistent evidence regarding their protective effects against lung cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies of blood concentrations of carotenoids and retinol, and lung cancer risk. We identified relevant prospective studies published up to December 2014 by searching the PubMed and several other databases. We calculated summary estimates of lung cancer risk for the highest compared with lowest carotenoid and retinol concentrations and dose-response meta-analyses using random effects models. We used fractional polynomial models to assess potential nonlinear relationships. Seventeen prospective studies (18 publications) including 3603 cases and 458,434 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Blood concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, total carotenoids, and retinol were significantly inversely associated with lung cancer risk or mortality. The summary relative risk were 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55-0.80) per 5 μg/100 mL of α-carotene (studies [n] = 5), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.76-0.94) per 20 μg/100 mL of β-carotene (n = 9), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.54-0.81) per 100 μg/100 mL of total carotenoids (n = 4), and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.73-0.90) per 70 μg/100 mL of retinol (n = 8). In stratified analysis by sex, the significant inverse associations for β-carotene and retinol were observed only in men and not in women. Nonlinear associations were observed for β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lycopene, with stronger associations observed at lower concentrations. There were not enough data to conduct stratified analyses by smoking. In conclusion, higher blood concentrations of several carotenoids and retinol are associated with reduced lung cancer risk. Further studies in never and former smokers are needed to rule out confounding by smoking

  5. Retinol and retinyl esters in parenchymal and nonparenchymal rat liver cell fractions after long-term administration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, M.; Blomhoff, R.; Helgerud, P.; Solberg, L.A.; Berg, T.; Norum, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption reduces the liver retinoid store in man and rat. We have studied the effect of ethanol on some aspects of retinoid metabolism in parenchymal and nonparenchymal liver cells. Rats fed 36% of total energy intake as ethanol for 5-6 weeks had the liver retinoid concentration reduced to about one-third, as compared to pair-fed controls. The reduction in liver retinoid affected both the parenchymal and the nonparenchymal cell fractions. Plasma retinol level was normal. Liver uptake of injected chylomicron [3H]retinyl ester was similar in the experimental and control group. The transport of retinoid from the parenchymal to the nonparenchymal cells was not found to be significantly retarded in the ethanol-fed rats. Despite the reduction in total retinoid level in liver, the concentrations of unesterified retinol and retinyl oleate were increased in the ethanol fed rats. Hepatic retinol esterification was not significantly affected in the ethanol-fed rats. Since our study has demonstrated that liver uptake of chylomicron retinyl ester is not impaired in the ethanol-fed rat, we suggest that liver retinoid metabolism may be increased

  6. Cell nanomechanics and focal adhesions are regulated by retinol and conjugated linoleic acid in a dose-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberberg, Yaron R; Horton, Michael A; Pelling, Andrew E; Yakubov, Gleb E

    2009-01-01

    Retinol and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) have previously been shown to have an important role in gene expression and various cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation and cell death. In this study we have investigated the effect of retinol and CLA, both individually and in combination, on the intracellular cytoskeleton, focal adhesions (FAs) and the nanomechanical properties of 3T3 fibroblasts. We observed a dose-dependent decrease in the formation of FAs following treatment with either compound, which was directly correlated to an increase in cell height (>30%) and a decrease in the measured Young's modulus (∼28%). Furthermore, treatments with both compounds demonstrated an increased effect and led to a reduction of>70% in the average number of FAs per cell and a decrease of >50% in average cell stiffness. These data reveal that retinol and CLA disrupt FA formation, leading to an increase in cell height and a significant decrease in stiffness. These results may broaden our understanding of the interplay between cell nanomechanics and cellular contact with the external microenvironment, and help to shed light on the important role of retinoids and CLA in health and disease.

  7. Associations of socioeconomic status and processed food intake with serum phosphorus concentration in community-living adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Katz, Ronit; Peralta, Carmen A; de Boer, Ian H; Siscovick, David; Wolf, Myles; Diez Roux, Ana; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Ix, Joachim H

    2012-09-01

    Higher serum phosphorus concentrations are associated with cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Low socioeconomic status is linked with higher serum phosphorus concentration, but the reasons are unclear. Poor individuals disproportionately consume inexpensive processed foods commonly enriched with phosphorus-based food preservatives. Accordingly, we hypothesized that excess intake of these foods accounts for a relationship between lower socioeconomic status and higher serum phosphorus concentration. Cross-sectional analysis. We examined a random cohort of 2,664 participants with available phosphorus measurements in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based sample of individuals free of clinically apparent cardiovascular disease from across the United States. Socioeconomic status, the intake of foods commonly enriched with phosphorus-based food additives (processed meats, sodas), and frequency of fast-food consumption. Fasting morning serum phosphorus concentrations. In unadjusted analyses, lower income and lower educational achievement categories were associated with modestly higher serum phosphorus concentration (by 0.02 to 0.10 mg/dL, P fast-food consumption with serum phosphorus. In contrast, each serving per day higher soda intake was associated with 0.02 mg/dL lower serum phosphorus concentration (95% confidence interval, -0.04, -0.01). Greater intake of foods commonly enriched with phosphorus additives was not associated with higher serum phosphorus concentration in a community-living sample with largely preserved kidney function. These results suggest that excess intake of processed and fast foods may not impact fasting serum phosphorus concentrations among individuals without kidney disease. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Variation in retinol and carotenoid content of milk and milk products in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, P.J.M.; Roekel-Jansen, van G.C.; Bovenkamp, van de P.; West, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    Retinol and carotenoids were measured in Dutch milk and dairy products using a validated approach based on complete extraction of fat, followed by mild saponification and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Raw milk, full fat milk, semi-skimmed milk and butter contain about 10 ¿g

  9. Serum lipids, recent suicide attempt and recent suicide status in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Kang, Eun-Suk; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Yu, Bum-Hee; Lee, Dongsoo; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2014-06-03

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with suicide. Although several studies have reported its association with low serum lipid, few studies have investigated relationships between current suicidality and lipid profiles, comparing with other blood measures in MDD patients. The study population consisted of 555 subjects with MDD who were ≥ 18 years old, evaluated by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) with the suicidality module. At the evaluation visit, we measured serum lipid profiles including total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and blood measures such as fasting glucose, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, thyroid hormones, red and white blood cells, platelet count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Recent attempters who had attempted suicide within the past month showed significantly lower TG and higher HDL levels than lifetime and never attempters, using Tukey's post-hoc analysis. Recent attempters exhibited lower TG and higher HDL than those with recent suicide ideation and wish to self-harm and those without previous attempt. Linear regression analysis revealed that TG was negatively associated with current suicidality scores (β = -0.187, p = 0.039), whereas VLDL was positively associated with the recent suicide status (β = 0.198, p = 0.032) after controlling for age and sex. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of other serum lipid profiles and blood measures. Low serum TG, high HDL and VLDL levels are associated with recent suicide attempt or recent suicide status in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Food consumption and serum nutritional status of people living in the Kathmandu valley in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoshimi; Hirai, Kazuko; Sakata, Susumu; Shimizu, Satoshi; Akai, Yuko; Ogoshi, Kumiko; Sherchand, Sarala; Gurung, Rajesh; Sherchand, Jeevan B; Shrestha, Mathura P

    2005-03-01

    The food consumption and serum nutritional status of people living in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal, were examined to obtain actual data for comparison with our previous findings. A dietary survey of 45 males and 60 females was carried out in March 1997 by the 24-hr dietary recall method and nutrient intake was calculated from food tables of India and Japan. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained and serum biochemical parameters were measured using clinical kits. The mean body mass index values was at about the same level in both sexes, although the mean percentage body fat of females was higher than that of males, and vice versa for packed red cell volume. The main foods consumed by both sexes, were rice, potatoes, meats, milk & dairy products and vegetables, with a difference in the amounts consumed. Females did not drink alcoholic beverages. The mean daily intakes of energy, protein, lipids, iron and vitamin B group for the males were higher than those for the females, while those of vitamins A and C for the males were lower than those for the females. The mean values of serum biochemical parameters for both sexes were generally at the normal levels, but those of ALT and TG were at the higher end of the normal range. Differences of correlation between food groups and between serum parameters were observed depending on the sex, however, no clear relationship between food and nutrient intake and serum biochemical parameters were observed. The present food intake study revealed that the amounts of food consumption for both sexes, especially for the females, were mostly insufficient although the serum parameters were at the normal levels. The energy intake of both sexes was lower than that of estimated requirements and those in Terai region. The relatively high serum TG level of the subjects may be due to the consumption of large amounts of cereals containing much carbohydrate. Our findings suggested a marked influence on food consumption by food price and income

  11. Relationship between the Nutritional Status of Vitamin A per Trimester of Pregnancy with Maternal Anthropometry and Anemia after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Sabrina; Matos, Andréa; da Cruz, Suelem Pereira; Pereira, Silvia; Saboya, Carlos; Ramalho, Andréa

    2017-09-08

    The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional status of vitamin A per trimester of pregnancy, as well as to assess its influence on pre-pregnancy BMI, total gestational weight gain (TGWG) and presence of anemia in women who had previously undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). An analytical, longitudinal and retrospective study comprising 30 pregnant women who had previously undergone RYGB was undertaken. In all trimesters of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of retinol, β-carotene, stages of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), night blindness (NB), anemia and anthropometric variables were assessed. VAD in pregnancy affected 90% of women, 86.7% developed NB and 82.8% had mild VAD. TGWG above/below the recommended range was related to the low serum concentrations of β-carotene ( p = 0.045) in the second trimester and women with TGWG above the recommended range showed 100% of inadequacy of this nutrient in the third trimester. Among the pregnant women with anemia, 90.9% had VAD and 86.4% had NB. This study highlights the importance of monitoring the nutritional status of vitamin A in prenatal care, due to its relationship with TGWG and the high percentage of VAD and NB found since the beginning of pregnancy. It also reaffirms the use of the cut-off <1.05 μmol/L for determining VAD.

  12. Effects of Red Palm Oil on Serum Lipids and Plasma Carotenoids Level in Chinese Male Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN ZHANG; CHUN-RONG WANG; AN-NA XUE; KE-YOU GE

    2003-01-01

    Objective Effects of red palm oil on major plasma carotenoids, tocopherol, retinol and serumlipids were evaluated when used in Chinese diet. Methods Red palm oil group (RPO) composed of 20 male subjects(aged 18-32) and soybean oil group (SBO) composed of 22 male subjects (aged18-32). Dietary fat provided about 28% of total calories, and the test oil accounted for about 60% of total dietary fat. In the 3 weeks of pretest period, diets were prepared with soybean oil, and then in the next 6 weeks subjects in each group consumed the diet prepared by test oil. Results Plasmaα-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene concentration of RPO group significantly increased at the time of interim (21 days) and of the end (42 days) (P<0.05), and α-tocopherol concentration significantly increased at the time of the end (42 days) in this study. Though Chinese plasma retinol level was relatively low when compared with that of Westerners, red palm oil diet showed no significant effect on adult Chinese plasma retinol level. Serum concentration of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI and apolipoprotein B of all subjects showed no significant changes in RPO group during the study. Conclusions The data in our study suggest that red palm oil is a good source of carotenoids and vitamin E when used in Chinese diet preparation, and it can significantly increase plasma concentration of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene andα-tocopherol.

  13. Vitamin A metabolism is changed in donors after living-kidney transplantation: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henze Andrea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kidneys are essential for the metabolism of vitamin A (retinol and its transport proteins retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 and transthyretin. Little is known about changes in serum concentration after living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT as a consequence of unilateral nephrectomy; although an association of these parameters with the risk of cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance has been suggested. Therefore we analyzed the concentration of retinol, RBP4, apoRBP4 and transthyretin in serum of 20 living-kidney donors and respective recipients at baseline as well as 6 weeks and 6 months after LDKT. Results As a consequence of LDKT, the kidney function of recipients was improved while the kidney function of donors was moderately reduced within 6 weeks after LDKT. With regard to vitamin A metabolism, the recipients revealed higher levels of retinol, RBP4, transthyretin and apoRBP4 before LDKT in comparison to donors. After LDKT, the levels of all four parameters decreased in serum of the recipients, while retinol, RBP4 as well as apoRBP4 serum levels of donors increased and remained increased during the follow-up period of 6 months. Conclusion LDKT is generally regarded as beneficial for allograft recipients and not particularly detrimental for the donors. However, it could be demonstrated in this study that a moderate reduction of kidney function by unilateral nephrectomy, resulted in an imbalance of components of vitamin A metabolism with a significant increase of retinol and RBP4 and apoRBP4 concentration in serum of donors.

  14. Study on the relationship between peripheral blood red blood cells imuno-function status and serum gastrin level in patients with peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Fan Rong; Luo Honglai; Wang Ying; Tao Liangliang; Wang Zhenkai

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between changes of peripheral blood red blood cells immuno-function status and serum gastrin level in patients with peptic ulcer. Methods: RBC immuno-function status was studied with immune methods and serum gastrin level was measured with RIA in 51 patients with peptic ulcer and compared with 35 healthy control group. Results: RBC-C3bRR percentage was significantly lower in patients with peptic ulcer than that in controls (P<0.01), while serum gastrin level was significantly higher (P<0.01). RBC-C3bRR was significantly nagatively correlated to serum gastrin (r=-0.3828, P<0.01). RBC-ICRRR percentage was prominently higher than that in healthy controls (P<0.01), and RBC-ICRRR was positively correlated to serum gastrin level (r=0.4185, P<0.01). Conclusion: There were disturbance of RBC immune-regulation with suppressed immune function and higher gastrin levels in patients with peptic ulcer. (authors)

  15. Comparative Analysis of Serum (Antioxidative Status Parаmeters in Healthy Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Ruskovska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Five antioxidant and two oxidative stress assays were applied to serum samples of 43 healthy males. The antioxidant tests showed different inter-assay correlations. A very good correlation of 0.807 was observed between the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and total antioxidant status (TAS assay and also a fair correlation of 0.501 between the biological antioxidant potential (BAP and TAS assay. There was no statistically significant correlation between the BAP and FRAP assay. The anti-oxidant assays have a high correlation with uric acid, especially the TAS (0.922 and FRAP assay (0.869. The BAP assay has a much lower and no statistically significant correlation with uric acid (0.302, which makes BAP more suitable for the antioxidant status. The total thiol assay showed no statistically significant correlation with uric acid (0.114. The total thiol assay, which is based on a completely different principle, showed a good and statistically significant correlation with the BAP assay (0.510 and also to the TAS assay, but to a lower and not significant extent (0.279 and not with the FRAP assay (−0.008. The oxy-adsorbent test (OXY assay has no correlation with any of the other assays tested. The oxidative stress assays, reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM and total oxidant status (TOS, based on a different principle, do not show a statistically significant correlation with the serum samples in this study. Both assays showed a negative, but not significant, correlation with the antioxidant assays. In conclusion, the ROM, TOS, BAP and TTP assays are based on different principles and will have an additional value when a combination of these assays will be applied in large-scale population studies.

  16. EFFECT OF SEASON ON SERUM COPPER AND ZINC CONCENTRATIONS IN CROSSBRED GOATS HAVING DIFFERENT REPRODUCTIVE STATUS UNDER SEMIARID RANGELAND CONDITIONS IN SOUTHERN MEXICO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Vázquez-Armijo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of season (rainy: RS, and dry: DS and reproductive status on copper (Cu and zinc (Zn concentrations in blood serum of crossbred goats (BW= 36.01 ± 1.59 kg were studied under semiarid rangeland conditions in Southern Mexico State. Blood samples from 80 crossbred goats were taken each season (RS and DS. The goats were clustered into 10 different groups considering their reproductive status. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in serum were assayed using atomic absorption. Data were analyzed using a general linear model procedure for a completely randomized design and differences among means were examined using a Tukey test. Blood serum concentrations of Cu and Zn were affected by reproductive status and season (P

  17. [Correlation of retinol binding protein 4 with 
metabolic indexes of glucose and 
lipid, bile cholesterol saturation index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Li, Nianfeng

    2015-06-01

    To measure retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels in serum and bile and to analyze their relationship with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia or cholesterol saturation index (CSI).
 A total of 60 patients with gallstone were divided into a diabetes group (n=30) and a control group (n=30). The concentrations of RBP4 in serum and bile were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Enzyme colorimetric method was used to measure the concentration of biliary cholesterol, bile acid and phospholipid. Biliary CSI was calculated by Carey table. Partial correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were used to evaluate the correlation between the RBP4 levels in serum or bile and the above indexes.
 The RBP4 concentrations in serum and bile in the diabetes group were significantly elevated compared with those in the control group (both Ptriglyceride (TG), serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL), bile TBA, bile total cholesterol (TC) , bile phospholipids and bile CSI between the 2 groups (all P>0.05); but the serum TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the diabetes group were significantly increased compared to those in the control group (all Pindex (BMI), waist circumference (WC), FINS, FBG, TC, LDL and HOMA-IR (r=0.283, 0.405, 0.685, 0.667, 0.553, 0.424 and 0.735, respectively), and the serum RBP4 was also positively correlated with the WC, FINS, FBG, TC, LDL and HOMA-IR (r=0.317, 0.734, 0.609, 0.528, 0.386 and 0.751, respectively). Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis suggested that the HOMA-IR, BMI and WC were independently correlated with the level of bile RBP4 (multiple regression equation: Ybile RBP4=2.372XHOMA-IR+0.420XBMI+0.178XWC-26.813), and the serum RBP4 level was correlated with the HOMA-IR and WC independently (multiple regression equation: Yserum RBP4=2.832XHOMA-IR +0.235XWC-20.128). Multiple regression equations

  18. Genetic Variations Associated with Vitamin A Status and Vitamin A Bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Borel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood concentration of vitamin A (VA, which is present as different molecules, i.e., mainly retinol and provitamin A carotenoids, plus retinyl esters in the postprandial period after a VA-containing meal, is affected by numerous factors: dietary VA intake, VA absorption efficiency, efficiency of provitamin A carotenoid conversion to VA, VA tissue uptake, etc. Most of these factors are in turn modulated by genetic variations in genes encoding proteins involved in VA metabolism. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS and candidate gene association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with blood concentrations of retinol and β-carotene, as well as with β-carotene bioavailability. These genetic variations likely explain, at least in part, interindividual variability in VA status and in VA bioavailability. However, much work remains to be done to identify all of the SNPs involved in VA status and bioavailability and to assess the possible involvement of other kinds of genetic variations, e.g., copy number variants and insertions/deletions, in these phenotypes. Yet, the potential usefulness of this area of research is exciting regarding the proposition of more personalized dietary recommendations in VA, particularly in populations at risk of VA deficiency.

  19. Helminth infections and micronutrients in school-age children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; van de Bor, Margot; Doak, Colleen M; Polman, Katja

    2014-06-01

    Helminth infections and micronutrient deficiencies are highly prevalent in developing countries. Neither condition typically causes overt disease, but they do lead to indirect morbidity such as impaired physical and cognitive development. We aimed to systematically review current evidence on the relation of helminth infections with micronutrient status in school-age children worldwide. We included both observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We applied a random-effects meta-analysis to estimate 1) cross-sectional associations between helminths and micronutrient status, 2) effects of anthelminthic treatment on micronutrient status, and 3) effects of micronutrient supplementation on helminth infection and reinfection. Meta-analyses of observational studies showed an association between helminth infections and serum retinol [standardized mean difference (SMD): -0.30; 95% CI: -0.48, -0.13] but not serum ferritin (SMD: 0.00; 95% CI: -0.7, 0.7). Conversely, meta-analyses of anthelminthic treatment RCTs showed a positive effect on ferritin (SMD: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.22) but not retinol (SMD: 0.04; 95% CI: -0.06, 0.14). The number of studies on micronutrients other than ferritin and retinol was not sufficient for pooling. Meta-analyses of micronutrient-supplementation RCTs showed only a modest protective effect for multimicronutrient interventions on helminth infection and reinfection rates (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.97). In this review, we show evidence of distinct associations between helminth infections and micronutrients in school-age children. More studies are needed on micronutrients other than iron and vitamin A and on possible helminth species-specific effects. A thorough comprehension of the interplay between helminth infections and micronutrients will help guide integrated and sustainable intervention strategies in affected children worldwide. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Selenium, zinc, copper, Cu/Zn ratio and total antioxidant status in the serum of vitiligo patients treated by narrow-band ultraviolet-B phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacewicz, Marta; Socha, Katarzyna; Soroczyńska, Jolanta; Niczyporuk, Marek; Aleksiejczuk, Piotr; Ostrowska, Jolanta; Borawska, Maria H

    2018-03-01

    Vitiligo is a chronic, depigmenting skin disorder, whose pathogenesis is still unknown. Narrow band ultraviolet-B (NB-UVB) is now one of the most widely used treatment of vitiligo. It was suggested that trace elements may play a role in pathogenesis of vitiligo. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentration of selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and Cu/Zn ratio as well as total antioxidant status (TAS) in the serum of patients with vitiligo. We assessed 50 patients with vitiligo and 58 healthy controls. Serum levels of Se, Zn and Cu were determined by the atomic absorption spectrometry method, and the Cu/Zn ratio was also calculated. TAS in serum was measured spectrophotometrically. Serum concentration of Se in patients with vitiligo before and after phototherapy was significantly lower as compared to the control group. Zn level in the serum of patients decreased significantly after phototherapy. We observed higher Cu/Zn ratio (p vitiligo patients after NB-UVB. The current study showed some disturbances in the serum levels of trace elements and total antioxidant status in vitiligo patients.

  1. Effect of improved vitamin A status on response to iron supplementation in Pakistani infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrop-Clewes, C A; Paracha, P I; McLoone, U J; Thurnham, D I

    1996-11-01

    We report an apparently protective effect of vitamin A in infants who received iron supplements (15 mg/d) for 3 mo. Those receiving iron showed increases in hemoglobin (8 g/L), ferritin (3.7 micrograms/L), and the acute-phase protein alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (ACT; 0.06 g/L). In both the placebo and iron-supplemented groups there were increases in plasma retinol, lutein, alpha-tocopherol, immunoglobulin A, and immunoglobulin G. The improvement in vitamin A status could only have been from a seasonal increase in dietary sources of vitamin A, eg, breast milk and early weaning foods, and there were no obvious effects on iron utilization (hemoglobin concentrations). However, in the infants receiving iron, those whose retinol concentrations increased also showed reductions in ACT, ferritin, immunoglobulin A, and immunoglobulin M. Vitamin A is well known for its antiinfective properties and we suggest that these observations illustrate the importance of even small increases in dietary vitamin A or differences in vitamin A status in reducing the potentially toxic effects of iron supplements in persons in developing countries. These conclusions should now be confirmed with an intervention study to show that the benefits of vitamin A on iron status are due to reduced levels of infection.

  2. Prenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation impact on biochemical indicators during pregnancy and postpartum Efecto de la suplementación prenatal con micronutrimentos múltiples en indicadores bioquímicos durante el embarazo y el posparto

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    Armando García-Guerra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this analysis was to test the impact of daily supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MM during pregnancy on Zn, vitamin A and folate status compared to iron only (Fe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out during 1997-2000 in a semi-urban community in Morelos state, Mexico. Women were randomly assigned to MM (n= 249 or Fe (n= 258 and received supplements daily (6 d/wk under supervision by the field team from recruitment (approximately 9 weeks pregnancy until delivery. Blood samples were collected on a sub-sample of women at baseline, 32 weeks pregnancy and one month postpartum (1PP and assessed for serum zinc, retinol and whole blood folate (baseline and 1PP only. A breast milk sample was extracted at 1PP and assessed for retinol content. RESULT: At baseline there was no significant difference between supplementation groups in mean Zn, retinol or folate concentrations or the prevalence of deficiencies (Zn 12.2%, vitamin A 2.8%, folate 5.3%. Mean change in Zn and retinol concentrations from baseline to 32 weeks pregnancy did not differ between groups or between baseline and 1PP for Zn, retinol or folate. At 1PP, there was a tendency (p= 0.09 towards a lower prevalence of folate deficiency/depletion in the MM group (10.0% than the Fe group (18.5%. CONCLUSIONS: MM supplementation during pregnancy did not improve zinc or vitamin A status compared to Fe only. There is some indication that folate status may have improved with MM supplementation despite low prevalence of deficiency. While lack of response in serum retinol may be explained by generally adequate status, the lack of impact on zinc status requires further exploration.OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de la suplementación diaria con múltiples micronutrimentos (MM durante el embarazo en el estado de zinc, vitamina A y folato comparado con la suplementación sólo con hierro (Fe. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El estudio se realizó en una comunidad semiurbana en

  3. Serum carotenoid concentrations in postmenopausal women from the United States with and without osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhifang; Zhang, Zhumin; Penniston, Kristina L; Binkley, Neil; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2008-05-01

    Antioxidant defenses may be compromised in osteoporotic women. Little is known about fruit and vegetable or carotenoid consumption among postmenopausal women. The primary carotenoids in human serum are alpha- and beta-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. This study investigated the interrelationships among serum carotenoid concentrations, fruit and vegetable intake, and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women (n = 59, 62.7 +/- 8.8 y). Bone density was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and osteoporosis diagnosis was based upon T-scores. Serum samples (n = 53) and three-day diet records (n = 49) were analyzed. Logistic regression analyzed differences between carotenoids after adjusting for serum retinol; supplement usage; milk, yogurt, fruit, and vegetable intake; and body mass index (BMI). Pearson statistics correlated carotenoids with specific fruit or vegetable intake. Serum lycopene concentrations were lower in the osteoporosis group than controls (p = 0.03). Beta-cryptoxanthin intake was higher in the osteoporosis group (p = 0.0046). Total fruit and vegetable intakes were correlated with serum lycopene and beta-cryptoxanthin (p = 0.03, 0.006, respectively). Serum alpha-carotene concentration was associated with carrot intake, and zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin with lettuce intake. Carotenoids that may have beneficial skeletal effects are lower in women with osteoporosis. Research is needed to identify potential protective mechanisms or utilization of carotenoids during osteoporosis.

  4. Quantitative secretion and maximal secretion capacity of retinol, b-carotene and a-tocopherol into cows' milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Krogh; Kjær, Anna Kirstin Bjørnbak; Hermansen, John Erik

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the contents of retinol, a-tocopherol and b-carotene in plasma, milk and milk fat from 38 Holstein-Friesian cows were followed during their ®rst lactation, and the quantitative and kinetic relationships for secretion of a-tocopherol and b-carotene from blood into milk were determined....... The cows were assigned to three groups such that all cows in the same group had the same sire. Milk yield and milk fat content differed with stage of lactation, but not according to sire. The plasma concentrations of retinol, a-tocopherol and b-carotene differed with stage of lactation; in addition...... on increasing milk and milk fat yield will result in a steady dilution in the milk fat of these vitamins and antioxidants important for the immune defence of the cows and oxidative stability of milk products. The genetic variation found offers the possibility of utilizing these variations in breeding systems....

  5. Valores séricos de vitamina A e teste terapêutico em pré-escolares atendidos em uma Unidade de Saúde do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Serum vitamin A levels and therapeutic test in preschool children attended in a Health Unit of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Rejane Andréa RAMALHO

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o impacto da suplementação com doses maciças de vitamina A (200.000 UI em pré-escolares atendidos em unidade de saúde do Rio de Janeiro. Inicialmente avaliou-se o nível de retinol sérico e as medidas antropométricas em 175 pré-escolares atendidos pelo Serviço Materno-infantil da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Forneceu-se, então, uma dose maciça de 200.000 UI de vitamina A solicitando o retorno após 30 dias. Nas crianças que retornaram após este período (n=99, refez-se a avaliação de retinol sérico. A prevalência de hipovitaminose A (The impact of a massive dose of vitamin A on preschool children attended in a health unit from Rio de Janeiro was evaluated. Initially, serum retinol levels and anthropometric measurements were determined in 175 preschool children attended in the Children's Service of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, after which a massive (200.000 IU dose of vitamin A was provided. The children were requested to return to the unit after 30 days. Serum retinol levels were measured in the children who returned (n=99. The prevalence of low (below 1.05 µmol/L levels of circulating retinol was of 34.3% in all children evaluated in the first attendance. After 30 days the prevalence was reduced from 42.4 to 3.0%. The lower the initial retinol levels the better the benefit from the massive dose. The proportion of children with protein-energy malnutrition was of 4.6%, but no clear association was found between vitamin A deficiency and protein-energy malnutrition. Vitamin A deficiency was independent of the household income and educational level of the parents. The response of children with vitamin A deficiency to the massive dose indicates that a low vitamin A intake may play an important role in the etiology of the problem. The prevalence figures also demonstrate that this problem is not exclusive of the traditionally poor areas of the country.

  6. Effects of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons on vitamin A catabolism and the regulation of vitamin A homeostasis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bank, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAH) are known to adversely affect vitamin A status resulting in the hepatic depletion and enhanced excretion of vitamin A. Increased renal and serum vitamin A content occurs subsequent to these PHAH-related alterations. Vitamin A, a highly regulated system, appears to undergo rapid compensatory changes to maintain homeostasis in response to nutritional, metabolic, or toxicologic conditions. The present study was undertaken in order to elucidate the mechanism(s) responsible for these PHAH-related effects on vitamin A homeostasis. To this end, the toxin prototype of the PHAH class 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and the 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexabromo- or hexachloro-biphenyls were used in this study. Results presented in this study indirectly showed that PHAH caused enhanced hepatic and extrahepatic catabolism of intravenously administered 3 H-retinol-retinol binding protein-transthyretin as evidenced by increased inactive polar retinoids in liver, kidney, bile, and excreta. These polar retinoids were isolated from tissues and bile and are thought to represent oxidized and/or glucuronidated, elimination metabolites of vitamin A. PHAH increased the microsomal activity of cytochrome P-450 MFO and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase toward retinoic acid (RA), enzyme systems that are also known to be coordinately induced by PHAH. Increased serum and kidney vitamin A is likely a homeostatic response to PHAH-related increased target tissue catabolism. For serum, this was shown directly by the finding that PHAH caused decreased liver esterification of retinol recycled from the extrahepatic tissues and indirectly by the administration of the active target tissue metabolite, RA. After RA, both control and PHAH-treated rats lowered their serum vitamin A

  7. Retinol-induced changes in the phosphorylation levels of histones and high mobility group proteins from Sertoli cells

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    Moreira J.C.F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin proteins play a role in the organization and functions of DNA. Covalent modifications of nuclear proteins modulate their interactions with DNA sequences and are probably one of the multiple factors involved in the process of switch on/off transcriptionally active regions of DNA. Histones and high mobility group proteins (HMG are subject to many covalent modifications that may modulate their capacity to bind to DNA. We investigated the changes induced in the phosphorylation pattern of cultured Wistar rat Sertoli cell histones and high mobility group protein subfamilies exposed to 7 µM retinol for up to 48 h. In each experiment, 6 h before the end of the retinol treatment each culture flask received 370 KBq/ml [32P]-phosphate. The histone and HMGs were isolated as previously described [Moreira et al. Medical Science Research (1994 22: 783-784]. The total protein obtained by either method was quantified and electrophoresed as described by Spiker [Analytical Biochemistry (1980 108: 263-265]. The gels were stained with Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 and the stained bands were cut and dissolved in 0.5 ml 30% H2O2 at 60oC for 12 h. The vials were chilled and 5.0 ml scintillation liquid was added. The radioactivity in each vial was determined with a liquid scintillation counter. Retinol treatment significantly changed the pattern of each subfamily of histone and high mobility group proteins.

  8. Use of serum biochemistry to evaluate nutritional status and health of incubating common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmen, T.; Franson, J.C.; Hario, Martti; Sankari, S.; Kilpi, Mikael; Lindstrom, K.

    2001-01-01

    During 1997–1999, we collected serum samples from 156 common eider (Somateria mollissima) females incubating eggs in the Finnish archipelago of the Baltic Sea. We used serum chemistry profiles to evaluate metabolic changes in eiders during incubation and to compare the health and nutritional status of birds nesting at a breeding area where the eider population has declined by over 50% during the past decade, with birds nesting at two areas with stable populations. Several changes in serum chemistries were observed during incubation, including (1) decreases in serum glucose, total protein, albumin, β‐globulin, and γ‐globulin concentrations and (2) increases in serum uric acid, creatine kinase, and β‐hydroxybutyrate concentrations. However, these changes were not consistent throughout the 3‐yr period, suggesting differences among years in the rate of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein utilization during incubation. The mean serum concentrations of free fatty acids, glycerol, and albumin were lowest and the serum α‐ and γ‐globulin levels were highest in the area where the eider population has declined, suggesting a role for nutrition and diseases in the population dynamics of Baltic eiders.

  9. Serum oxidant and antioxidant status of patients with chronic tension-type headache: possible effects of medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe Çokal, Burcu; Aytaç, Bilal; Durak, Zahide Esra; Güneş, Hafize Nalan; Öztürk, Bahadır; Keskin Güler, Selda; Durak, İlker; Yoldaş, Tahir Kurtuluş

    2015-10-01

    Tension-type headache (TTH) is one of the most common and costly primary types of headache in clinical practice, with an unknown etiology. This study assessed to investigate oxidative and antioxidative status in patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH), and to evaluate possible effect of medical treatment. The study included 41 CTTH patients and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects without headache as controls. The CTTH group comprised 20 patients receiving treatment and 21 untreated patients. We evaluated oxidant/antioxidant status by measuring serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes, namely glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT). Comparison of oxidative parameters in the patient and control groups revealed significantly lower CAT activities and higher MDA level and GSH-Px activities in the patient group. In the CTTH group, serum CAT activities were found to be significantly decreased in patient groups, while serum MDA levels and GSH-Px activities were found to be higher in the untreated CTTH patients. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is increased in the patients with CTTH, and medical treatment abolishes the stress in part. It has been concluded that antioxidant support might be helpful for the patients with CTTH to prevent oxidant stress and peroxidation damages further.

  10. Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols levels and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: a nested case-control study: plasma micronutrients and pancreatic cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurnink, Suzanne M; Ros, Martine M; Leenders, Max; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J B; Siersema, Peter D; Jansen, Eugene H J M; van Gils, Carla H; Bakker, Marije F; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Cadeau, Claire; Grote, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Valanou, Elisavet; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Castaño, José María Huerta; Duell, Eric J; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Argüelles, Marcial; Dorronsoro, Mire; Johansen, Dorthe; Lindkvist, Björn; Sund, Malin; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Riboli, E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B

    2015-03-15

    Evidence of a protective effect of several antioxidants and other nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association for prediagnostic plasma levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). 446 incident exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were matched to 446 controls by age at blood collection, study center, sex, date and time of blood collection, fasting status and hormone use. Plasma carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein), α- and γ-tocopherol and retinol were measured by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and plasma vitamin C by a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for pancreatic cancer risk were estimated using a conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking status, smoking duration and intensity, waist circumference, cotinine levels and diabetes status. Inverse associations with pancreatic cancer risk were found for plasma β-carotene (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.52, 95%CI 0.31-0.88, p for trend = 0.02), zeaxanthin (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.53, 95%CI 0.30-0.94, p for trend = 0.06) and α-tocopherol (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.62, 95%CI 0.39-0.99, p for trend = 0.08. For α- and β-carotene, lutein, sum of carotenoids and γ-tocopherol, heterogeneity between geographical regions was observed. In conclusion, our results show that higher plasma concentrations of β-carotene, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol may be inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, but further studies are warranted. © 2014 UICC.

  11. Monitoring Maternal Beta Carotene and Retinol Consumption May Decrease the Incidence of Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Offspring

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    Joel S. Goldberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acids (13-cis and 13-trans are known teratogens, and their precursor is retinol, a form of vitamin A. In 1995, Rothman et al demonstrated an association between excessive vitamin A, > 10,000 IU/day, during the first trimester of pregnancy and teratogenic effects, particularly in the central nervous system. However, vitamin A deficiency has long been known to be deleterious to the mother and fetus. Therefore, there may be a narrow therapeutic ratio for vitamin A during pregnancy that has not previously been fully appreciated. Neurodevelopmental disorders may not be apparent by macroscopic brain examination or imaging, and proving the existence of a behavioral teratogen is not straightforward. However, an excess of retinoic acid and some neurodevelopmental disorders are both associated with abnormalities in cerebellar morphology. Physical and chemical evidence strongly supports the notion that beta carotene crosses the placenta and is metabolized to retinol. Only very limited amounts of beta carotene are stored in fetal fat cells as evidenced by the fact that maternal fat is yellow from beta carotene, whereas non-brown neonatal fat is white. Furthermore, newborns of carotenemic mothers do not share the yellow complexion of their mothers. The excess 13-trans retinoic acid derived from metabolized beta carotene in the fetus increases the concentration of the more teratogenic 13-cis retinoic acid since the isomerization equilibrium is shifted to the left. Therefore, this paper proposes that consideration be given to monitoring all potential sources of fetal 13-cis and 13-trans retinoic acid, including nutritional supplements, dietary retinol, and beta carotene, particularly in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with vitamin A deficiency in children and adolescents

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    Rita de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with vitamin A deficiency (VAD in children and adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 546 schoolchildren, aged between 7 and 14 years, of both genders, enrolled in public elementary schools. Blood was collected for measurement of serum retinol. The retinol concentration in the samples was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Data were collected on anthropometrics, dietary, demographic, and socioeconomic factors. Polytomous logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of interest. Results: Approximately 27.5% of the students had retinol values < 30 μg/dL. The multivariate analysis showed, after the appropriate adjustments, a positive and statistically significant association of moderate/severe VAD (OR = 2.19; 95% CI 1.17 to 4.10 and marginal VAD (OR = 2.34; 95% CI 1.47 to 3.73 with age < 10 years. There was also association of VAD moderate/severe (OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.01 to 5.05 and borderline VAD (OR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.08 to 4.21 with the anthropometric status of underweight. Lower intake of retinol was detected among those with severe VAD. Conclusion: VAD is a health concern among children and adolescents. Lower weight and younger schoolchildren had greater vulnerability to VAD.

  13. Iron status and systemic inflammation, but not gut inflammation, strongly predict gender-specific concentrations of serum hepcidin in infants in rural Kenya.

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    Tanja Jaeggi

    Full Text Available Hepcidin regulation by competing stimuli such as infection and iron deficiency has not been studied in infants and it's yet unknown whether hepcidin regulatory pathways are fully functional in infants. In this cross-sectional study including 339 Kenyan infants aged 6.0±1.1 months (mean±SD, we assessed serum hepcidin-25, biomarkers of iron status and inflammation, and fecal calprotectin. Prevalence of inflammation, anemia, and iron deficiency was 31%, 71%, 26%, respectively. Geometric mean (±SD serum hepcidin was 6.0 (±3.4 ng/mL, and was significantly lower in males than females. Inflammation (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 and iron status (serum ferritin, zinc protoporphyrin and soluble transferrin receptor were significant predictors of serum hepcidin, explaining nearly 60% of its variance. There were small, but significant differences in serum hepcidin comparing iron deficient anemic (IDA infants without inflammation to iron-deficient anemic infants with inflammation (1.2 (±4.9 vs. 3.4 (±4.9 ng/mL; P<0.001. Fecal calprotectin correlated with blood/mucus in the stool but not with hepcidin. Similarly, the gut-linked cytokines IL-12 and IL-17 did not correlate with hepcidin. We conclude that hepcidin regulatory pathways are already functional in infancy, but serum hepcidin alone may not clearly discriminate between iron-deficient anemic infants with and without infection. We propose gender-specific reference values for serum hepcidin in iron-replete infants without inflammation.

  14. Teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol em leites bovinos comercializados na cidade de São Paulo Amounts of retinol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in cow milk comercialized in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute BIANCHINI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Os teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência em leites em pó, pasteurizados e esterilizados, comercializados na Cidade de São Paulo. Após a saponificação e extração, os compostos foram determinados simultaneamente utilizando-se coluna de sílica, fase móvel constituída por hexano:isopropanol (99:1 e fluxo de 2,0mL/min. O retinol e o beta-caroteno foram determinados no detector UV/visível e o alfa-tocoferol no detector de fluorescência, ligado em série com o anterior. Os valores de vitamina A dos leites foram calculados com e sem a consideração do beta-caroteno. A maior contribuição deste nutriente no valor de vitamina A esteve entre os leites em pó, cerca de 17% em uma das marcas. Os altos teores das vitamina A e E encontrados em alguns leites, indicam que os mesmos provavelmente receberam adição destas vitaminas, não trazendo, entretanto, tal informação no rótulo. A análise de vitaminas nestes produtos indica a necessidade de maior controle de qualidade dos mesmos.The amount of retinol, beta-carotene, alpha -tocopherol in powder, pasteurized and sterilized milk, comercialized in the city of São Paulo, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. After saponification and extraction, compounds were determined simultaneously through a normal-phase column, mobile phase composed by hexan:2-propanol (99:1 and 2 mL/min flow. The retinol and beta-carotene were analysed by a UV/visible detector and the alpha-tocopherol by a fluorescence detector, both linked in series. The milk vitamin A values were calculated with and without beta-carotene. The major contribution of beta-carotene in the vitamin A value was in powder milks, around 17% in one of the brands. The high amounts of vitamin A and E found in some milks indicate that they probably were enriched with these vitamins but nothing is mentioned about this in their labels. The analysis of

  15. Fatty acid profile and cholesterol and retinol contents in different locations of Celta pig breed

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    Domínguez, R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid profile (total, neutral and polar lipids and cholesterol and retinol contents of the intramuscular -Longissimus dorsi (LD and Psoas major (PM-, adipose -rump, covering Biceps femoris muscle, ventral and dorsal-, perirenal and hepatic fat of the Celta pig breed (Galicia, northwest Spain were evaluated. Oleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid, except in the polar lipids of the intramuscular fat, where the most abundant fatty acid was linoleic acid. The fatty acid composition of total and neutral lipids was influenced more by the location than the fatty acids of polar lipids. There were some differences only in minor fatty acids of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat between castrated females and castrated males. The fatty acids of neutral lipids were also more influenced by sex than the fatty acids of polar lipids. The cholesterol and retinol contents showed no significant differences by sex. The LD muscle showed a higher content of intramuscular fat than the PM muscle. The greatest cholesterol values were described in the liver. Subcutaneous locations showed higher cholesterol levels than muscles.Se estudió el perfil de los ácidos grasos y los contenidos en colesterol y retinol en la grasa intramuscular - Longissimus dorsi (LD y Psoas mayor (PM -, subcutánea -grupa, ventral, dorsal y la grasa que rodea al músculo Bíceps femoris -, perirrenal y hepática de cerdos de raza Celta (Galicia, noroeste de España. El ácido oleico fue el ácido graso más importante, excepto en los lípidos polares de la grasa intramuscular, donde el ácido graso más abundante fue el ácido linoleico. La composición de ácidos grasos de los lípidos totales y neutros estuvo más influenciada por la localización grasa que los ácidos grasos de los lípidos polares. Se encontraron ligeras diferencias entre hembras y machos castrados en algunos ácidos grasos minoritarios en la grasa intramuscular y subcutánea. Los ácidos grasos de los l

  16. Association of Serum Triglyceride Level and Gemfibrozil Consumption With Periodontal Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Ferena; Akhondi, Nasrin; Fallah, Soltanali; Moalemnia, Amir Abbas; Cheraghi, Azra

    2017-05-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Considering the suggested association between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases, this study sought to assess the association, if any, between serum triglyceride (TG) levels and gemfibrozil consumption with periodontal parameters. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 90 participants, including 30 individuals with a normal lipid profile (group H), 30 patients with hypertriglyceridemia and not on medication (group N), and 30 patients with hypertriglyceridemia and taking gemfibrozil over a 3-month period (group M). Periodontal parameters including probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), and plaque index were measured at four sites of each tooth. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), TG, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein were measured. Mean values for PD and CAL in the two hypertriglyceridemic groups were significantly higher than those of the H group (P <0.001). After controlling for confounding variables, significant linear correlations were noted between PD and BOP, PD and TC, PD and TG, and CAL and TG in each group (P <0.01). Patients with hypertriglyceridemia had worse periodontal status than healthy controls. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia who were taking gemfibrozil did not show significant differences in CAL and PD compared with untreated patients with hypertriglyceridemia.

  17. Relação entre o estado nutricional de vitamina a e a regressão da esteatose hepática após gastroplastia em Y- de- Roux para tratamento da obesidade classe III Relationship of the nutritional status of vitamin a and the regression of hepatic steatosis after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for treatment of class III obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo de Oliveira e Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A vitamina A participa de várias funções primordiais no organismo humano e as suas concentrações séricas podem estar diminuídas nas doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre o estado nutricional da vitamina A, e a regressão da esteatose hepática em indivíduos submetidos à gastroplastia em Y-de-Roux para tratamento da obesidade classe III. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 30 pacientes obesos classe III, de ambos os sexos, com esteatose hepática, submetidos à gastroplastia em Y-de-Roux. Seis meses após a operação, os pacientes foram submetidos à ultrassonografia abdominal e distribuídos em dois grupos: grupo 1 - pacientes com esteatose detectada na ultrassonografia e grupo 2 - pacientes sem esteatose detectada na ultrassonografia. No pré-operatório e seis meses após a operação foram realizadas análises antropométricas e exames bioquímicos: insulina basal, glicemia, Homeostasis Model Assessment Index (HOMA IR, colesterol, HDL, LDL, triglicerídeos, AST, ALT, Gama-GT, albumina, bilirrubina total, retinol, e beta caroteno. RESULTADOS: A média de perda de peso foi de 35,05 + 10,47 (pBACKGROUND: Vitamin A participates in several essentials functions in the human body and their serum concentrations may be decreased in non-transmissible diseases. AIM: To assess the relationship of the nutritional status of Vitamin A through the serum concentrations of retinol and beta carotene, with regression of hepatic steatosis in individuals who undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for treatment of class III obesity. METHODS: Were included 30 individuals, male and female, submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for treatment of class III obesity, who were diagnosed through an abdominal ultrasonography as presenting hepatic steatosis. From the result of an ultrasonography screened six months after the surgical procedure those subjects were divided into two groups: group 1 - patients with steatosis

  18. Combined segregation and linkage analysis of genetic hemochromatosis using affection status, serum iron, and HLA.

    OpenAIRE

    Borecki, I B; Lathrop, G M; Bonney, G E; Yaouanq, J; Rao, D C

    1990-01-01

    Characterizing the distribution of parameters of iron metabolism by hemochromatosis genotype remains an important goal vis-à-vis potential screening strategies to identify individuals at genetic risk, since a specific marker to detect the abnormal gene has not been identified as yet. In the present investigation, we analyze serum iron values in ascertained families using a method which incorporates both segregation of the clinical affection status and the HLA linkage information to identify t...

  19. Association of thyroid function with human serum ghrelin and leptin levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinping; Xu Hao; Wu Qiulian

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of different status of thyroid function (hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism as well as euthyroid status) on serum ghrelin and leptin levels. Methods: The levels of serum ghrelin and leptin were determined by radio immunoassay in 46 untreated subjects with hyperthyroidism, 15 hyperthyroid patients achieved a euthyroid status after radioiodine 131 I therapy, 21 cases of hypothyroidism and 18 cases of normal controls, respectively. Meanwhile, the serum levels of free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ), free thyroxine (FT 4 ) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured by chemiluminescence immune assay. Results: (1) The levels of serum ghrelin in untreated hyperthyroidism were significantly lower than those in hyperthyroid patients achieved a euthyroid status (t=3.21, P 3 (r=-0.29, P 4 (r=-0.26, P< 0.05), positively correlated with serum TSH (r=0.36, P<0.05); serum leptin levels did not correlate with thyroid hormone. Conclusion: The levels of serum ghrelin were differently under different thyroid functional status and correlated with thyroid hormone, while serum leptin were not. (authors)

  20. The relationship between dental status, food selection, nutrient intake, nutritional status, and body mass index in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Marcenes

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed the findings from a national survey in Great Britain which assessed whether dental status affected older people's food selection, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. The survey analyzed national random samples of free-living and institution subjects for dental examination, interview, and four-day food diary as well as blood and urine tests In the free-living sample, intakes of non-starch polysaccharides, protein, calcium, non-heme iron, niacin, and vitamin C were significantly lower in edentulous as compared to dentate subjects. People with 21 or more teeth consumed more of most nutrients, particularly non-starch polysaccharides. This relationship in intake was not apparent in the hematological analysis. Plasma ascorbate and retinol were the only analytes significantly associated with dental status. Having 21 or more teeth increased the likelihood of having an acceptable body mass index (BMI. Thus, maintaining a natural and functional dentition defined as having more than twenty teeth into old age plays an important role in having a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables, a satisfactory nutritional status, and an acceptable BMI.

  1. Impact of Food Rations and Supplements on Micronutrient Status by Trimester of Pregnancy: Cross-Sectional Studies in the Maela Refugee Camp in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Stuetz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient fortified flour (MFF, supplementary food rations and micronutrient (MN supplements may prevent deficiencies among pregnant women. Objectives of cross-sectional surveys in 2004 (n = 533 and 2006 (n = 515 were to assess the impact of new food rations (flour, oil and supplements on MN status by trimester of pregnancy in the Maela refugee camp. Hemoglobin, iron status, zinc, retinol, β-carotene and tryptophan decreased, while α-/γ-tocopherol and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF increased from first to third trimester. In 2006, mean zinc and α-tocopherol for each trimester was significantly higher than in 2004. The weeks of supplemented thiamine and folic acid were positively correlated with thiamine diphosphate (TDP and 5-MTHF, but not for ferrous sulfate as iron deficiency was observed in 38.5% of third-trimester women. Frequent consumption of fish paste and owning a garden or animal were associated with significantly higher iron status, retinol, β-carotene, and 5-MTHF. In conclusion, MFF and supplementary oil were most likely to explain improved zinc and α-tocopherol status, while thiamine and folate supplements ensured high TDP and 5-MTHF in late pregnancy. MN supplements, MN-rich staple food, small gardens, and programs to improve iron compliance are promising strategies to prevent MN deficiencies during pregnancy in vulnerable populations.

  2. Association of serum lipid indices and statin consumption with periodontal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, F; Fallah, S; Akhondi, N; Jamshidi, S

    2016-11-01

    Periodontal and cardiovascular diseases share some common underlying mechanisms. Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to assess the association of hyperlipidemia and statin consumption with periodontal status. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 participants including 50 individuals with normal lipid profile (group C), 50 hyperlipidemic patients without drug therapy (group N), and 50 hyperlipidemic patients on drug therapy for a minimum of 3 months (group S). Periodontal parameters including plaque index (PI), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), and pocket depth (PD) were measured for all teeth except for the third molars. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), HDL, LDL, and triglycerides (TGs) were measured. The mean values of CAL and PD were significantly higher in the two hyperlipidemic groups compared with the C group (P < 0.005). Also, CAL and PD had significant associations with serum levels of TGs, LDL, and TC (P < 0.0001); PI in the group S was significantly lower than that in the other groups (P < 0.005). Hyperlipidemic patients showed higher values of periodontal parameters compared with the statin-treated and control groups. Lower PI in the group S may indicate the anti-inflammatory effect of statin. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Serum prolidase activity and oxidative status in patients with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Alpay; Zeyrek, Dost; Atas, Ali; Celik, Hakim; Aksoy, Nurten; Erel, Ozcan

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is a disease where there is an accumulation of collagen in the reticular basal membrane of the airway leading to chronic inflammation. The enzyme prolidase plays an important role in the breakdown of collagen and the breakdown of intracellular protein especially in the final stage when peptides and dipeptides contain a high level of proline. To evaluate the relationship between prolidase activity and oxidative status in asthma patients. Comparison was made between 42 patients diagnosed with bronchial asthma and 32 healthy children of similar age and gender. Serum prolidase activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Oxidative status was determined using total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) measurement. The prolidase activity of the asthma patient group was statistically significant compared with the control group (P< or =0.001). TAC and TOS levels in the asthma patient group were higher than the control group (P< or =0.001, P< or =0.002, respectively). No correlation was found between the prolidase and oxidative levels of the two groups. A positive correlation was determined between the prolidase activity and TAC in the asthma patient group (P< or =0.001, r=0.501). The prolidase enzyme activity, which plays a role in the collagen turnover, was low in the asthma patients; therefore, their collagen metabolism had undergone a change and this indicates that there may be an effect on the accumulation of collagen in the reticular basal membrane. Moreover, the high level of TOS indicates that these patients were exposed to severe oxidative stress with an increased TAC response. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Food fortification improves the intake of all fortified nutrients, but fails to meet the estimated dietary requirements for vitamins A and B6, riboflavin and zinc, in lactating South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathakis, Peggy C; Pearson, Kerry E

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the impact of fortification by comparing food records and selected biochemical indicators of nutritional status pre- and post-fortification. Mean intake from 24 h recalls (n 142) was compared with the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) to determine the proportion with inadequate intake. In a subsample (n 34), diet and serum retinol, folate, ferritin and Zn were compared pre- and post-fortification for fortified nutrients vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, Fe and Zn. South Africa. Breast-feeding women (ninety-four HIV-infected, forty eight HIV-uninfected) measured at ~6, 14, 24 weeks, and 9 and 12 months postpartum. Pre-fortification, >80 % of women did not meet the EAR for vitamins A, C, D, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, B12 and folate and minerals Zn, iodine and Ca. Dietary intake post-fortification increased for all fortified nutrients. In post-fortification food records, >70 % did not meet the EAR for Zn and vitamins A, riboflavin and B6. Serum folate and Zn increased significantly post-fortification (P 93 % were retinol replete. There was no change in Fe deficiency (16.7 % pre v. 19.4 % post; P = 0.728). Micronutrient intake improved with fortification, but >70 % of lactating women did not meet the EAR for Zn, vitamins A, riboflavin and B6. Although 100 % exceeded the EAR for Fe after fortification, Fe status did not improve.

  5. Serum Levels of Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin as Indicator of the Inflammatory Status in Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kafkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease and the acute clinical manifestations represent acute on chronic inflammation. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL is found in the granules of human neutrophils, with many diverse functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that levels NGAL in blood may reflect the inflammatory process in various stages of coronary artery disease. Methods. We studied 140 patients, with SA 40, UA 35, NSTEMI 40, and STEMI 25, and 20 healthy controls. Serum NGAL was measured upon admission and before coronary angiography. Results. Significant differences were observed in median serum-NGAL(ng/mL between patients with SA (79.23 (IQR, 37.50–100.32, when compared with UA (108.00 (68.34–177.59, NSTEMI (166.49 (109.24–247.20, and STEMI (178.63 (111.18–305.92 patients and controls (50.31 (44.30–69.78 with significant incremental value from SA to STEMI. We observed a positive and significant correlation between serum-NGAL and hs-CRP (spearman coefficient rho = 0.685, <0.0001 as well as with neutrophil counts (r = 0.511, <0.0001. Conclusions. In patients with coronary artery disease serum levels of NGAL increase and reflect the degree of inflammatory process. In patients with acute coronary syndromes, serum levels of NGAL have high negative predictive value and reflecting the inflammatory status could show the severity of coronary clinical syndrome.

  6. Newborn serum retinoic acid level is associated with variants of genes in the retinol metabolism pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolescu, Daniel C; El-Kares, Reyhan; Lakhal-Chaieb, Lajmi; Montpetit, Alexandre; Bhat, Pangala V; Goodyer, Paul

    2010-06-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a critical regulator of gene expression during embryonic development. In rodents, moderate maternal vitamin A deficiency leads to subtle morphogenetic defects and inactivation of RA pathway genes causes major disturbances of embryogenesis. In this study, we quantified RA in umbilical cord blood of 145 healthy full-term Caucasian infants from Montreal. Sixty seven percent of values were ROL). However, we found that the (A) allele of the rs12591551 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the ALDH1A2 gene (ALDH1A2rs12591551(A)), occurring in 19% of newborns, was associated with 2.5-fold higher serum RA levels. ALDH1A2 encodes retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) 2, which synthesizes RA in fetal tissues. We also found that homozygosity for the (A) allele of the rs12724719 SNP in the CRABP2 gene (CRABP2rs12724719(A/A)) was associated with 4.4-fold increase in umbilical cord serum RA. CRABP2 facilitates RA binding to its cognate receptor complex and transfer to the nucleus. We hypothesize that individual variation in RA pathway genes may account for subtle variations in RA-dependent human embryogenesis.

  7. HIV and other predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Gomo, E; Kæstel, Pernille

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Folate and iron status and hemoglobin concentrations are important to maternal and infant health. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to identify predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 1669 pregnant women (22-35 wk of gestation) in ...

  8. Association of serum total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status with pain perception in patients with myofacial pain dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etoz, Osman A; Ataoglu, Hanife; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Herken, Emine Nur; Bayazit, Yildirim Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to find out the association of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) with generalized pressure pain thresholds (PPT) of patients with myofacial pain dysfunction (MPD). PPT scores of patients with MPD (n = 37) and healthy individuals (n = 43) were measured on the hypothenar region of the hand using a mechanical algometer. Serum samples were collected and TAC and TOS were measured by novel methods. The TAC of patients was significantly lower than that of the control subjects. The difference between the TOS measurements of patients and control subjects was not significant. The PPT scores of the patients were significantly lower than that of control subjects. There may be an association between serum antioxidant capacity and MPD. Low serum TAC might also be related with pain perception.

  9. An Open Label Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Tolerance of a Retinol and Vitamin C Facial Regimen in Women With Mild-to-Moderate Hyperpigmentation and Photodamaged Facial Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, James H; Jiang, Lily I; Kononov, Tatiana; Fox, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    A 12-week open-label, single-center clinical usage trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a dual product regimen consisting of a 0.5% retinol treatment and an anti-aging moisturizer with 30% vitamin C in women with mild to moderate hyperpigmented and photodamaged facial skin. Clinical grading of several efficacy parameters, tolerability evaluations, subject self-assessment questionnaires, and digital photography were completed at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. A total of 44 women completed the study. Effective ingredients incorporated into the 0.5% retinol treatment included encapsulated retinol for a retinol concentration of 0.5%, bakuchiol, and Ophiopogon japonicus root extract. The anti-aging moisturizer with 30% vitamin C contained 30% vitamin C in the form of tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate (THD ascorbate), alpha-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E) and ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10). The facial regimen produced a statistically significant decrease (improvement) in clinical grading scores for all parameters assessed at weeks 8 and 12 when compared with baseline scores. In addition, the majority of these parameters were improved at week 4. The test regimen was well-perceived by the subjects for various inquiries regarding facial skin condition, product efficacy, and product attributes. Several tolerability parameters were assessed with no statistically significant increase except for dryness. A statistically significant increase in clinical grading scores for dryness on the face occurred at weeks 4 and 8 when compared to baseline scores. The increase in dryness is expected when introducing a retinol product to a facial regimen and the dryness did not persist to the week 12 time point.

  10. Sobrevida e processos infecciosos em pacientes com AIDS: análise de acordo com os níveis séricos iniciais de vitamina A Survival and infectious processes in pacients with AIDS: analysis according to inicial serum vitamin A levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando de Castro Figueiredo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes com Aids (n=39 foram acompanhados por um período máximo de 36 meses, após os quais se analisou os tipos e topografias das complicações infecciosas apresentadas e a sobrevida dos mesmos, correlacionado-se esses parâmetros com os níveis de vitamina A que apresentavam no início do seguimento clínico. Vinte e um (53,8%pacientes tinham níveis de retinol no soro abaixo de 1,6mimol/L, dos quais 12 (57% abaixo de 1,05mimol/L. Não houve associação de carência de vitamina A com os tipos ou topografias das complicações infecciosas que ocorreram durante o período de seguimento. Muito embora a sobrevida média no final dos 36 meses tenha sido semelhante nos dois grupos, os pacientes com carência de retinol apresentaram menor probabilidade de sobrevida nos primeiros 24 meses de acompanhamento (8,44 meses x 16,42 meses; p= 0,003.Patients with Aids (n = 39 were followed up for a maximum period of 36 weeks, after which the types and topographies of infectious complications presented and patient survival were analyzed and correlated with the vitamin A levels presented by the patients at the beginning of clinical follow-up. Twenty-one (53,8% patients presented serum retinol levels below 1.6mumol/L, 12 (57% of whom had values lower than 1.05mumol/L. There was no correlation between low serum vitamin A levels and the types or topographies of the infectious complications that occurred during the follow-up period. Although mean survival at the end of the 36 months follow-up period was similar for the two groups, patients with retinol deficiency presented a lower probability of survival during the first 24 months of follow-up compared to patients without hypovitaminosis A (8.44 x 1.42 months; p = 0.003.

  11. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae: the sensitivities of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detecting vaccinated sows of unknown disease status using serum and colostrum, and the correlation of the results for sow serum, colostrum, and piglet serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenvey, Caitlin J; Reichel, Michael P; Cockcroft, Peter D

    2015-03-01

    Due to relatively high concentrations of immunoglobulins, colostrum has the potential to improve the sensitivity of diagnostic tests for diseases in pigs when compared with serum. It is possible that colostrum could improve the sensitivity of the antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) compared with serum. Colostrum is also essential for piglets, providing protection against infections in the first few weeks and months of life. The sensitivity of 2 commercially available ELISAs, one for the detection of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and the second for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antibodies, when used with sow colostrum in comparison with serum was investigated. The correlation of maternal E. rhusiopathiae- and M. hyopneumoniae-specific antibody levels with specific-antibody serum levels in the piglet was also determined. The sensitivity was defined as the proportion of vaccinated sows that were correctly identified as vaccinated at a given cutoff point. The true disease status of the sows with regard to the 2 infections was unknown. Blood and colostrum samples were collected from 20 sows, 10 primiparous and 10 multiparous, and blood samples were also collected from the piglets of each sow, 48-72 hr post-farrowing. The sensitivities of both ELISAs were significantly improved when using colostrum compared with serum. Sow serum and colostrum optical density (OD) values were significantly correlated. The mean sow OD values for serum for E. rhusiopathiae and M. hyopneumoniae and colostrum for E. rhusiopathiae were significantly correlated with piglet serum OD levels. If the improved sensitivity of colostrum can be demonstrated in infected animals, this will increase the ability of the test to identify infected animals using both individual and pooled colostrum. Testing serum and/or colostrum using ELISA can be useful predictors of piglet disease-specific OD values. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Combined analysis of circulating epithelial cells and serum thyroglobulin for distinguishing disease status of the patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Hung-Chih; Liou, Miaw-Jene; Hsu, Hsung-Ling; Hsieh, Jason Chia-Hsun; Chen, Yi-An; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Lin, Jen-Der

    2015-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) accounts for about 80% of the cases in thyroid cancer. Routine surveillance by serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and medical imaging is the current practice to monitor disease progression of the patients. Whether enumeration of circulating epithelial cells (CECs) helps to define disease status of PTC patients was investigated. CECs were enriched from the peripheral blood of the healthy control subjects (G1, n = 17) and the patients at disease-free status (G2, n = 26) ...

  13. Ligand Binding Induces Conformational Changes in Human Cellular Retinol-binding Protein 1 (CRBP1) Revealed by Atomic Resolution Crystal Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvaroli, Josie A; Arne, Jason M; Chelstowska, Sylwia; Kiser, Philip D; Banerjee, Surajit; Golczak, Marcin

    2016-04-15

    Important in regulating the uptake, storage, and metabolism of retinoids, cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (CRBP1) is essential for trafficking vitamin A through the cytoplasm. However, the molecular details of ligand uptake and targeted release by CRBP1 remain unclear. Here we report the first structure of CRBP1 in a ligand-free form as well as ultra-high resolution structures of this protein bound to either all-trans-retinol or retinylamine, the latter a therapeutic retinoid that prevents light-induced retinal degeneration. Superpositioning of human apo- and holo-CRBP1 revealed major differences within segments surrounding the entrance to the retinoid-binding site. These included α-helix II and hairpin turns between β-strands βC-βD and βE-βF as well as several side chains, such as Phe-57, Tyr-60, and Ile-77, that change their orientations to accommodate the ligand. Additionally, we mapped hydrogen bond networks inside the retinoid-binding cavity and demonstrated their significance for the ligand affinity. Analyses of the crystallographic B-factors indicated several regions with higher backbone mobility in the apoprotein that became more rigid upon retinoid binding. This conformational flexibility of human apo-CRBP1 facilitates interaction with the ligands, whereas the more rigid holoprotein structure protects the labile retinoid moiety during vitamin A transport. These findings suggest a mechanism of induced fit upon ligand binding by mammalian cellular retinol-binding proteins. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Recombinant fusion protein of albumin-retinol binding protein inactivates stellate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soyoung; Park, Sangeun; Kim, Suhyun; Lim, Chaeseung; Kim, Jungho; Cha, Dae Ryong; Oh, Junseo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We designed novel recombinant albumin-RBP fusion proteins. ► Expression of fusion proteins inactivates pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). ► Fusion proteins are successfully internalized into and inactivate PSCs. ► RBP moiety mediates cell specific uptake of fusion protein. -- Abstract: Quiescent pancreatic- (PSCs) and hepatic- (HSCs) stellate cells store vitamin A (retinol) in lipid droplets via retinol binding protein (RBP) receptor and, when activated by profibrogenic stimuli, they transform into myofibroblast-like cells which play a key role in the fibrogenesis. Despite extensive investigations, there is, however, currently no appropriate therapy available for tissue fibrosis. We previously showed that the expression of albumin, composed of three homologous domains (I–III), inhibits stellate cell activation, which requires its high-affinity fatty acid-binding sites asymmetrically distributed in domain I and III. To attain stellate cell-specific uptake, albumin (domain I/III) was coupled to RBP; RBP-albumin domain III (R-III) and albumin domain I -RBP-albumin III (I-R-III). To assess the biological activity of fusion proteins, cultured PSCs were used. Like wild type albumin, expression of R-III or I-R-III in PSCs after passage 2 (activated PSCs) induced phenotypic reversal from activated to fat-storing cells. On the other hand, R-III and I-R-III, but not albumin, secreted from transfected 293 cells were successfully internalized into and inactivated PSCs. FPLC-purified R-III was found to be internalized into PSCs via caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and its efficient cellular uptake was also observed in HSCs and podocytes among several cell lines tested. Moreover, tissue distribution of intravenously injected R-III was closely similar to that of RBP. Therefore, our data suggest that albumin-RBP fusion protein comprises of stellate cell inactivation-inducing moiety and targeting moiety, which may lead to the development of effective anti

  15. Expression Profiles of Cellular Retinol-binding Protein, Type II (CRBP II in Erlang Mountainous Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Yin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellular retinol-binding protein II (CRBP II belongs to the family of cellular retinol-binding proteins and plays a major role in absorption, transport, and metabolism of vitamin A. In addition, because vitamin A is correlated with reproductive performance, we measured CRBP II mRNA abundance in erlang mountainous chickens by real-time PCR using the relative quantification method. The expression of CRBP II showed a tissue-specific pattern and egg production rate-dependent changes. The expression was very high (p<0.05 in jejunum and liver, intermediate in kidney, ovary, and oviduct, and lowest (p<0.05 in heart, hypothalamus, and pituitary. In the hypothalamus, oviduct, ovary, and pituitary, CRBP II mRNA abundance were correlated to egg production rate, which increased from 12 wk to 32 wk, peaked at 32 wk relative to the other time points, and then decreased from 32 wk to 45 wk. In contrast, the expression of CRBP II mRNA in heart, jejunum, kidney, and liver was not different at any of the ages evaluated in this study. These data may help to understand the genetic basis of vitamin A metabolism, and suggest that CRBP II may be a candidate gene to affect egg production traits in chickens.

  16. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is associated with disease status in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders in south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Yilong; Tan, Sha; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Jianhua; Sun, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuge; Cai, Wei; Qiu, Wei; Hu, Xueqiang; Lu, Zhengqi

    2016-10-15

    Here, we investigated the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (25[OH]D 3 ) levels and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Patients with NMOSD had lower 25(OH)D 3 levels than healthy people, with lower levels in patients in the acute phase than those in remission. An inverse correlation was found between 25(OH)D 3 and Expanded Disability Status Scale scores of patients during attacks. Higher serum 25(OH)D 3 levels were associated with greater amelioration of symptoms during corticosteroid therapy. These results indicate that decreased vitamin D may be involved in NMOSD pathogenesis, and that 25(OH)D 3 serum levels may reflect the severity of NMOSD in the acute phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Selected maternal, fetal and placental trace element and heavy metal and maternal vitamin levels in preterm deliveries with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukaydin, Zehra; Kurdoglu, Mertihan; Kurdoglu, Zehra; Demir, Halit; Yoruk, Ibrahim H

    2018-01-25

    To compare maternal, fetal and placental trace element (magnesium, zinc and copper) and heavy metal (cadmium and lead) and maternal vitamin (retinol, α [alpha]-tocopherol, vitamin D 3 , 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 ) levels in preterm deliveries with and without preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Sixty-eight patients giving birth preterm were grouped into preterm deliveries with PPROM (n = 35) and without PPROM (n = 33). Following delivery, maternal and umbilical cord blood sera and placental tissue samples were obtained. While magnesium, zinc, copper, cadmium and lead levels were measured in all samples, the levels of retinol, α-tocopherol, vitamin D 3 , 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 were measured only in maternal serum. While magnesium level in maternal serum and zinc levels in both maternal and umbilical cord sera were lower, placental magnesium level was higher in preterm deliveries with PPROM (P 0.05). In preterm deliveries with PPROM, 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 and retinol levels were higher, while vitamin D 3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 levels were lower in maternal serum (P < 0.05). Maternal serum α-tocopherol levels were similar between the groups. Compared to spontaneous preterm births, PPROM is associated with low maternal serum together with high placental tissue magnesium and low maternal and umbilical cord sera zinc levels. Higher retinol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 and lower vitamin D 3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 maternal serum levels are also evident in these patients. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Association of serum retinoic acid with hepatic steatosis and liver injury in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Hongen; Wang, Jingjing; Zhou, Wenjing; Sun, Ruifang; Xia, Min

    2015-07-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), an active metabolite of vitamin A (retinol), has been implicated in the regulation of lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis in animal models. However, the relation between RA and liver histology in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is unknown. This study aimed at examining the association of RA with NAFLD and NASH in Chinese subjects. Serum RA concentration was determined by ELISA in 41 control subjects, 45 patients with NAFLD, and 38 patients with NASH. The associations of RA with adiposity, serum glucose, lipid profiles, and markers of liver damage were studied. Moreover, both mRNA and protein levels of retinoic X receptor α (RXRα) in the liver were analyzed in subjects with different degrees of hepatic steatosis. Serum RA concentrations in patients with NAFLD (1.42 ± 0.47 ng/mL) and NASH (1.14 ± 0.26 ng/mL) were significantly lower than those in control subjects (2.70 ± 0.52 ng/mL) (P hepatic steatosis. Both serum RA concentrations and RXRα mRNA levels were inversely correlated with intrahepatic triglyceride content (r = -0.700, P hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01940263. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Influence of Fasting Status and Sample Preparation on Metabolic Biomarker Measurements in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Neil; Falk, Roni T; Messinger, Diana B; Pollak, Michael; Xue, Xiaonan; Lin, Juan; Sgueglia, Robin; Strickler, Howard D; Gaudet, Mia M; Gunter, Marc J

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic data linking metabolic markers-such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)-and adipose tissue-derived factors with cancer are inconsistent. Between-study differences in blood collection protocols, in particular participant's fasting status, may influence measurements. We investigated the impact of fasting status and blood sample processing time on components of the insulin/IGF axis and in adipokines in a controlled feeding study of 45 healthy postmenopausal-women aged 50-75 years. Fasting blood samples were drawn (T0), after which subjects ate a standardized breakfast; subsequent blood draws were made at 1 hour (T1), 3 hours (T3), and 6 hours (T6) after breakfast. Serum samples were assayed for insulin, C-peptide, total- and free-IGF-I, IGF-binding protein [BP]-1 and -3, total and high molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin, retinol binding protein-4, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, and resistin. Insulin and C-peptide levels followed similar postprandial trajectories; intra-class correlation coefficients [ICC] for insulin = 0.75, (95%CI:0.64-0.97) and C-peptide (ICC = 0.66, 95%CI:0.54-0.77) were similarly correlated in fasting (Spearman correlation, r = 0.78, 95%CI:0.64-0.88) and postprandial states (T1, r = 0.77 (95%CI: 0.62-0.87); T3,r = 0.78 (95%CI: 0.63-0.87); T6,r = 0.77 (95%CI: 0.61-0.87)). Free-IGF-I and IGFBP-1 levels were also affected by fasting status, whereas total-IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels remained unchanged. Levels of adipokines were largely insensitive to fasting status and blood sample processing delays. Several components of the insulin/IGF axis were significantly impacted by fasting state and in particular, C-peptide levels were substantially altered postprandially and in a similar manner to insulin.

  20. Folate status and concentrations of serum folate forms in the US population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Sternberg, Maya R.; Fazili, Zia; Lacher, David A.; Zhang, Mindy; Johnson, Clifford L.; Hamner, Heather C.; Bailey, Regan L.; Rader, Jeanne I.; Yamini, Sedigheh; Berry, R. J.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Serum and red blood cell (RBC) total folate are indicators of folate status. No nationally representative population data exist for folate forms. We measured serum folate forms [5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF), unmetabolized folic acid (UMFA), non-methyl folate (sum of THF, 5-formylTHF, 5,10-methenylTHF), and MeFox (5-methylTHF oxidation product)] by HPLC-MS/MS and RBC total folate by microbiologic assay in US persons ≥1 year (n ~7500) participating in the National Health and Nutrition...

  1. Assessment of vitamin D status and serum CrossLaps levels in adults with primary lactose malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enko, D; Kriegshäuser, G; Stolba, R; Mangge, H; Brandstetter, D; Mayr, N; Forstner, T; Halwachs-Baumann, G

    2016-09-01

    Primary adult-type lactose malabsorption (PALM) is a widespread inherited autosomal recessive condition, which is considered to be associated with osteoporosis. This prospective study aimed at assessing the 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) status and serum CrossLaps levels in individuals with PALM and normal controls. All participants (n=210) underwent genotyping for the LCT C/T-13910 polymorphism, 25(OH)D and CrossLaps measurements and clinical examinations. In addition, the anthropometric data (that is, height, weight and body mass index) were determined. Fifty-five individuals with PALM (that is, LCT C/C-13910 homozygotes) showed lower 25(OH)D (mean: 24.95±10.04 vs 28.59±9.56 ng/ml, P=0.018) and higher CrossLaps serum levels (mean: 0.46±0.31 vs 0.43±0.49 ng/ml, P=0.251) compared with 155 normal controls (that is, LCT C/T-13910 hetero- or T/T-13910 homozygotes). Anthropometric data were similar between PALM probands and controls. Individuals with PALM were found to have lower 25(OH)D and higher CrossLaps serum levels compared with normal controls. In order to preserve life-long bone health, routine 25(OH)D and CrossLaps serum measurements should be performed in individuals with PALM.

  2. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantification of bioavailability and bioconversion of beta-carotene to retinol in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan Wang,; Xiaoying Xu,; Lieshout, van M.; West, C.E.; Lugtenburg, J.; Verhoeven, M.A.; Creemers, A.F.L.

    2000-01-01

    A method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI LC-MS) was developed for the quantification of the bioavailability of retinyl palmitate and -carotene and the bioconversion of -carotene to retinol in humans. Following oral

  3. Characterization of a dehydrogenase activity responsible for oxidation of 11-cis-retinol in the retinal pigment epithelium of mice with a disrupted RDH5 gene. A model for the human hereditary disease fundus albipunctatus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jang, G.F.; Hooser, J.P. van; Kuksa, V.; McBee, J.K.; He, Y.G.; Janssen, J.J.M.; Driessen, C.A.G.G.; Palczewski, K.

    2001-01-01

    In the vertebrate retina, the final step of visual chromophore production is the oxidation of 11-cis-retinol to 11-cis-retinal. This reaction is catalyzed by 11-cis-retinol dehydrogenases (11-cis-RDHs), prior to the chromophore rejoining with the visual pigment apo-proteins. The RDH5 gene encodes a

  4. Lack of utility of measuring serum bilirubin concentration in distinguishing perforation status of pediatric appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadio, William; Bruno, Santina; Attaway, David; Dharmar, Logesh; Tam, Derek; Homel, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Pediatric appendicitis is a common, potentially serious condition. Determining perforation status is crucial to planning effective management. Determine the efficacy of serum total bilirubin concentration [STBC] in distinguishing perforation status in children with appendicitis. Retrospective review of 257 cases of appendicitis who received abdominal CT scan and measurement of STBC. There were 109 with perforation vs 148 without perforation. Although elevated STBC was significantly more common in those with [36%] vs without perforation [22%], the mean difference in elevated values between groups [0.1mg/dL] was clinically insignificant. Higher degrees of hyperbilirubinemia [>2mg/dL] were rarely encountered [5%]. Predictive values for elevated STBC in distinguishing perforation outcome were imprecise [sensitivity 38.5%, specificity 78.4%, PPV 56.8%, NPV 63.4%]. ROC curve analysis of multiple clinical and other laboratory factors for predicting perforation status was unenhanced by adding the STBC variable. Specific analysis of those with perforated appendicitis and percutaneously-drained intra-abdominal abscess which was culture-positive for Escherichia coli showed an identical rate of STBC elevation compared to all with perforation. The routine measurement of STBC does not accurately distinguish perforation status in children with appendicitis, nor discern infecting organism in those with perforation and intra-abdominal abscess. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between trajectories of serum albumin levels and technique failure according to diabetic status in peritoneal dialysis patients: A joint modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Khoshhali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In peritoneal dialysis, technique failure is an important metric to be considered. This study was performed in order to identify the relationship between trajectories of serum albumin levels and peritoneal dialysis technique failure on end-stage renal disease patients according to diabetic status. Furthermore, this study was performed to reveal predictors of serum albumin and technique failure simultaneously. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 300 (189 non-diabetic and 111 diabetic end-stage renal disease patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis treated in Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, from May 2005 to March 2015. Bayesian joint modeling was carried out in order to determine the relationship between trajectories of serum albumin levels and peritoneal dialysis technique failure in the patients according to diabetic status. Death from all causes was considered as a competing risk. Results: Using joint modeling approach, a relationship between trajectories of serum albumin with hazard of transfer to hemodialysis was estimated as −0.720 (95% confidence interval [CI], −0.971 to −0.472 for diabetic and −0.784 (95% CI, −0.963 to −0.587 for non-diabetic patients. From our findings it was showed that predictors of low serum albumin over time were time on peritoneal dialysis for diabetic patients and increase in age and time on peritoneal dialysis, history of previous hemodialysis, and lower body mass index in non-diabetic patients. Conclusion: The results of current study showed that controlling serum albumin over time in non-diabetic and diabetic patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis treatment can decrease risk of adverse outcomes during the peritoneal dialysis period.

  6. [Vitamin status of citizens from Moscow Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketova, N A; Pogozheva, A V; Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Aristarhova, T V; Levin, L G; Danisova, N N; Baturin, A K

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of vitamin status in healthy individuals (68 men and 70 women) aged from 18 to 60 years (median - 37 years), residents of Moscow and the Moscow region has been performed by means of determination of vitamin C, A, E, B2, B12 and folic acid level in blood serum. The nutrition was investigated by questionnaire method on frequency of food consumption. Both diet of men and women had excessive fat content (41.7 and 42.7% of total calories), saturated fatty acids (14.1 and 13.6%), added sugars (11.1 and 11.0%), sodium, and had lack of dietary fiber (2.5-fold reduced level comparing with RDA). Daily intake of vitamin B1 was 1.37±0.04 mg for men and 1.06±0.07 mg for women, vitamin B2 - respectively 1.72±0.06 and 1.62±0.07 mg, niacin - 18.5±0.72 and 14.8±0.88 mg and did not reach the optimal level. All persons were sufficiently supplied with vitamins A, C, E and B12: mean and median of blood serum level of retinol, tocopherols, ascorbic acid and cobalamins were in the range of optimum values. The lack of vitamins A and B12 has not been found in any person. The frequency of vitamin C and E insufficiency was insignificant and amounted to 2 and 8% respectively. The lack of vitamin B2, and β-carotene was most pronounced and took place in about a half of individuals. Only 34% of healthy people of working age were sufficiently supplied with all vitamins. A combined lack of two vitamins was detected in 26%, of three vitamins - in 8%. Women were better supplied with riboflavin and β-carotene. The blood serum level of β-carotene and vitamin E was significantly higher in individuals older than 30 years compared with persons of younger age. Individuals with overweight or obesity were worse supplied with β-carotene and folate. A negative correlation was detected between the levels of serum folate and homocysteine concentration (r=-0.262, p<0.05). A positive correlation has been revealed between the concentration of folic acid and the level of HDL-C (r=0.356, p<0

  7. Serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, vitamins A and E, and carotenoids in six canid and four ursid species at four zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissey, S; Ange, K; Slifka, K; Bowen, P; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, M; Langman, C; Sadler, W; Ward, A

    2001-01-01

    Nutritional status for six captive canid species (n=34) and four captive ursid species (n=18) were analyzed. The species analyzed included: African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), gray wolf (Canis lupus), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baleiyi), red wolf (Canis rufus), brown bear (Ursus arctos), polar bear (Ursus maritimus), spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), and sun bear (Ursus malayanus). Diet information was collected for these animals from each participating zoo (Brookfield Zoo, Fort Worth Zoo, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens, and North Carolina Zoological Park). The nutritional composition of the diet for each species at each institution met probable dietary requirements. Blood samples were collected from each animal and analyzed for vitamin D metabolites 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D, vitamin A (retinol, retinyl stearate, retinyl palmitate), vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol) and selected carotenoids. Family differences were found for 25(OH)D, retinol, retinyl stearate, retinyl palmitate and gamma-tocopherol. Species differences were found for all detectable measurements. Carotenoids were not detected in any species. The large number of animals contributing to these data, provides a substantial base for comparing the nutritional status of healthy animals and the differences among them.

  8. Validation of the Use of Dried Blood Spot (DBS) Method to Assess Vitamin A Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Elham; Peighambardoust, Seyed Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A deficiency is an important dietary deficiency in the world. Thus, the ne¬cessity of screening for deficient populations is obvious. This paper introduces a fast, cheap and relatively reliable method called “dried blood spot” (DBS) method in screening the deficient populations. The validity of this method for retinol measurement was investigated. Method: The “precision” and “agreement” criteria of the DBS method were assessed. The preci¬sion was calculated and compared with those of plasma using F-test. The agreement was eva¬luated using Bland-Altman plot. Results: The imprecision of retinol measurements in dried spots was not significantly different from those of the control (plasma). A good correlation coefficient (r2=0.78) was obtained for dried spots’ retinol measurements versus plasma’s retinol analysis (P dried spots was stable for 90 days. Overall, the DBS method provided a precise measurement of retinol, showing results that were comparable with the measurement of retinol in plasma. PMID:24688932

  9. Effects of exogenous retinol and retinoic acid on the biosynthesis of 14C-mannose labelled glycolipids and glycoproteins in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Mayumi; DeLuca, L.M.; Muto, Yasutoshi

    1978-01-01

    The in vivo and in vitro effects of retinol and retionic acid was investigated on the synthesis of mannolipids and mannopeptides in rat liver. Weanling male, Wister-strain rats (Japan Clea Inc., Tokyo), weighing 35 to 40g are housed in hanging wire bottom cages and maintained on a vitamin A-deficient diet. The incorporation of 14 C-mannose into glycolipids and glycoproteins showed a decrease in vitamin A-depleted rats as compared with vitamin A-fed rats. The mannose-containing lipids were separated into retinyl phosphate (MRP, R sub(f) 0.2) and dolichyl mannosyl phosphate (DMP, R sub(f) 0.4), respectively, by DEAE-cellulose, silicic acid and thin-layer chromatography. A rapid increase in the synthesis of labelled MPR was observed, exhibiting a peak between 25 and 60 minutes after intraperitoneal administration of retinol to vitamin A-depleted rats. Similarly, administration of retionic acid brought about elevation of 14 C-mannolipid (R sub(f) 0.2) synthesis with a peak at 60 minutes after injection. On the other hand, the incorporation of 14 C-mannose into DMP (R sub(f) 0.4) remained unchanged by such treatment. These results suggest that not only retinol but also retionic acid plays an important biological role in manosyl transfer reaction in rat liver. However, the molecular participation of a metabolite of retionic acid in the formation of manolipid and the structure of such a metabolite remain to be established. (Iwakiri, K.)

  10. Oxygen status of cervical cancers prior and during definitive radiotherapy: possible impact of pretreatment with INF-α-2a/retinol acid on oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensgen, Gabriele; Haensgen, Klaus; Dunst, Juergen

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Modern techniques have raised the possibility to measure intratumoral pO 2 with needle electrodes. We have investigated the oxygenation status of cervical cancers in patients undergoing definitive radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: From July 1995 through February 1996, 28 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix uteri FIGO II/III underwent polarographic measurement of tumor oxygenation prior to and during definitive radiotherapy. All received combined external irradiation and HDR-brachytherapy. 14 patients were enrolled in a phase II-protocol and received additional treatment with interferon-alpha-2a (INF-α-2a, daily dose 6x10 6 IU s.c. over 12 days) and cis-retinol acid (cRA, daily dose 1 mg/kg orally) starting 12 days before radiotherapy. During radiotherapy, INF-α-2a was given three times weekly in a dosage of 3x10 6 IU s.c. and cRA in daily doses of 0.5 mg/kg. Tumor oxygenation was measured with an Eppendorf-pO 2 -histograph prior to radiotherapy, after 20Gy and after completion of radiotherapy. Results: We found a broad range of pO 2 -values in the 28 patients. Significant hypoxic areas were detectable in about one third of the patients. The mean and median pO 2 -values did not correlate with tumor stage or tumor volume. At the beginning of radiotherapy, the patients with INF-α-2a/cRA-pretreatment had significant higher mean pO 2 -values as compared to patients without INF-α-2a/cRA-pretreatment: mean pO 2 34.7 ± 25.9 mmHg versus 18.0 ± 9.9 mmHg, p=0.03, median pO 2 28.6 versus 17.3 mmHg). Only two patients had pO 2 -measurements before and after INF-α-2a/cRA-pretreatment; in both the mean pO 2 increased threefold during INF-α-2a/cRA. During radiotherapy, the median pO 2 -value increased in both groups of patients. In patients with primary hypoxia, different patterns of oxygenation were detectable after 20Gy showing persistent hypoxia or an increase in the mean pO 2 . Persistent hypoxia without 'reoxygenation' was associated with

  11. Serum nutritional biomarkers and their associations with sleep among US adults in recent national surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May A Beydoun

    Full Text Available The associations between nutritional biomarkers and measures of sleep quantity and quality remain unclear.Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 2005-2006 were used. We selected 2,459 adults aged 20-85, with complete data on key variables. Five sleep measures were constructed as primary outcomes: (A Sleep duration; (B Sleep disorder; (C Three factors obtained from factor analysis of 15 items and labeled as "Poor sleep-related daytime dysfunction" (Factor 1, "Sleepiness" (Factor 2 and "Sleep disturbance" (Factor 3. Main exposures were serum concentrations of key nutrients, namely retinol, retinyl esters, carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein+zeaxanthin, lycopene, folate, vitamin B-12, total homocysteine (tHcy, vitamin C, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and vitamin E. Main analyses consisted of multiple linear, logistic and multinomial logit models.Among key findings, independent inverse associations were found between serum vitamin B-12 and sleep duration, 25(OHD and sleepiness (as well as insomnia, and between folate and sleep disturbance. Serum total carotenoids concentration was linked to higher odds of short sleep duration (i.e. 5-6 h per night compared to normal sleep duration (7-8 h per night.A few of the selected serum nutritional biomarkers were associated with sleep quantity and quality. Longitudinal studies are needed to ascertain temporality and assess putative causal relationships.

  12. Nutritional risk factors and status of serum 25(OH)D levels in patients with breast cancer: A case control study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, Nighat Y; Jain, Monika; Kapil, Umesh; Seenu, Vuthaluru; Kamal, Vineet Kumar; Pandey, Ravinder Mohan

    2018-01-01

    To study the nutritional risk factors and status of serum 25(OH)D levels in patients with breast cancer. A total of 100 women (cases) with confirmed breast cancer (BC) matched with equal number of healthy females (controls) of similar age and socioeconomic status (SES) were included in study. Controls included were nonbreast cancer patients who accompanied the patients to a tertiary care hospital. All the subjects (cases and controls) were administered a questionnaires to collect data on socioeconomic status, dietary pattern and the frequency of food consumption using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric assessment was done for waist and hip circumference to calculate waist to hip ratio (WHR). Non fasting blood samples were collected for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels estimation using chemiluminescent immunoassay technique and total serum calcium levels by colorimetric assay technique. Serum 25(OH)D and total calcium levels were expressed in ng/ml and mg/dl. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as per the guidelines set by United States Endocrine Society. The mean age of cases and controls was 45±9 and 46±10 years respectively. On multivariate analysis, an inverse association with BC was found for less frequency of fruits consumption with an adjusted (ORs, 95% CI) (2.7, 0.5-15.7) respectively. Mushroom intake was inversely associated with risk of BC (ORs, 95% CI) (5.6, 1.9-16.6). Saturated fat intake and high WHR were significantly associated with high risk of BC with adjusted ORs, 95% CI of (3.4, 1.4-8.1) and (5, 1.4-17). A significant association (pnutritional risk factors determined by higher WHR was found to be significantly associated with the risk of BC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Status of serum adiponectin related to insulin resistance in prediabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, S.; Ahmed, S.D.H.; Nauman, K

    2014-01-01

    Obejctive: To find the status of serum adiponectin in individuals progressing towards Type 2 diabetes mellitus and compare it with normal glucose tolerant subjects to determine the stage where alteration of adiponectin occurred. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out at the Department of Biochemistry, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, during January to August 2008. Subjects were invited through various diabetes screening camps. A total of 608 subjects >30 years of age without prior history of diabetes were screened through fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Forty randomly selected pre-diabetic subjects and 40 age and gender-matched subjects were included in the study. Anthropometric measurements were done. Serum insulin and adiponectin were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to calculate insulin resistance mathematically. Result: Mean fasting and two-hour plasma glucose, body mass index, waist, hip circumference and blood pressure were significantly raised in pre-diabetics compared to those with normal glucose tolerance. Adiponectin was significantly decreased, while insulin and HOMA-IR were raised significantly in the pre-diabetics. Adiponectin showed significant negative correlation with body mass index (r=-0.31, p=0.005), fasting plasma glucose (r=-0.24, p= 0.032), 2-hour plasma glucose (r=-0.42, p<0.0001)), insulin (r-0.43, p<0.0001) and HOMA-IR (r= -0.43, p<0.0001) and remained significant after adjustment of body mass index, gender and insulin level in pre-diabetics. Conclusion: Adiponectin estimation may help in earlier identification of impending diabetes. However, casual link between adiponectin and pre-diabetes remained unexplored due to the study design and small sample size that warrants longitudinal large-scale studies. (author)

  14. Assessment of serum CX3CL1/fractalkine level in Han Chinese girls with anorexia nervosa and its correlation with nutritional status: a preliminary cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengkang; Tang, Hanfeng; Gong, Cai; Liu, Jiang; Chen, Jindong

    2017-02-01

    The chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1), also named fractalkine (FKN), has been implicated in psychiatric disorders and functions as a novel adipocytokine. However, no attention has been paid to the role of FKN in anorexia nervosa (AN). The current study was performed to explore FKN levels in AN to determine its role in the involvement of AN. A total of 96 girls aged 11-18 years with AN (n=34), healthy controls (HC; n=32) and simple obesity (OB, n=30) were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. Blood samples were collected during the fasting state. Serum FKN concentrations were determined using ELISA. The skinfold thickness (TSF) of the biceps and triceps as well as mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) were used to determine the nutritional status. Our results showed that serum FKN levels were significantly lower in the AN group than in the control and OB groups. After adjusting for body mass index (BMI), FKN concentrations in the AN group were statistically higher than in the HC and OB groups. Significant correlations between serum FKN and body weight, BMI, Cole index and serum insulin were observed. In addition, serum FKN levels were positively related to TSF and MAMC in all subjects. Serum FKN concentrations are attenuated in girls with AN compared with healthy adolescents and are positively related to nutritional status. The lower FKN levels may be regulated by nutrition status and response to starvation. After adjusting for BMI, higher FKN levels may reflect that persistent inflammation is present in patients with AN. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  15. Interrelationships between maternal carotenoid status and newborn infant macular pigment optical density and carotenoid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Bradley S; Chan, Gary; Hoffman, Robert O; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakov, Igor V; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S

    2013-08-15

    Deposition of the macular pigment carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin in the human retina occurs early in life. In this study, we examined the interrelationships of maternal carotenoid status and newborn infant macular pigment levels and systemic carotenoid status. As a secondary measure, we also evaluated the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on carotenoid status in term newborn infants. We measured mother and infant skin carotenoids using resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS), serum carotenoids by HPLC, and mother breast milk carotenoids by HPLC. We measured infant macular pigment levels using noninvasive blue light reflectometry. We enrolled 30 healthy term infants, their mothers, and 10 IUGR infants and their mothers. A subset of 16 infants was imaged for macular pigment optical density (MPOD). Infant serum zeaxanthin levels correlated with MPOD (r = 0.68, P = 0.007). Mother serum zeaxanthin levels correlated with infant MPOD (r = 0.59, P = 0.032). Infant and mother serum lutein did not correlate with MPOD. Mother-infant correlations were found for total serum carotenoids (r = 0.42, P = 0.020) and skin carotenoids (r = 0.48, P = 0.001). No difference was seen between IUGR infants and controls in total serum or skin carotenoids. Mothers of IUGR infants had lower total serum carotenoids (P = 0.019) and breast milk carotenoids than controls (P = 0.006). Our findings suggest that maternal zeaxanthin status may play a more important role than lutein status in macular pigment deposition in utero. Controlled trials are needed to determine whether maternal zeaxanthin prenatal supplementation can raise infant macular pigment levels and/or improve ocular function.

  16. Serum total antioxidant status in cardiovascular patients and in healthy individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, R.

    2010-01-01

    The previous studies suggest that low serum total antioxidant status (TAS) might be related to oxidative stress. To further examine the TAS, we investigated its relation in patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Total 39 samples of males and females were collected; age ranged from 18 to 86 years and divided them into two groups. Group I included 30 samples of cardiovascular patients; group 2 included 9 healthy individuals as control group. In group I, patients suffering from Myocardial infarction (Ml) showed low TAS values compared to the patients suffering from angina. The rest of the patients in group I showed TAS value within the reference range (1.3- 1.77 mmoVL). The present study concluded that the TAS value in MI patients is lower than patients suffering from angina pectoris, further it was also concluded that aging and smoking both leads to the decrease in the level of T AS. (author)

  17. A prospective cohort study on intake of retinol, vitamins C and E and carotenoids and prostate cancer risk (Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brants, H.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The roles of retinol, vitamins C and E, and carotenoids as risk factors for prostate carcinoma are still questionable. We evaluated these in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Methods: The cohort study consisted of 58,279 men ages 55-69 years at baseline in 1986. After 6.3 years of follow-up,

  18. Effects of Vitamin A in Neonates and Young Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Pacifici

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is the generic name given to a group of fat-soluble compounds including retinol (the alcohol form, retinyl esters, retinaldehyde and retinol acid. Deficiency, first recognized in 1912, can damage the epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract. It can also affect immunocompetence, the reproductive function, growth and vision. The dose of vitamin A for neonates is 5,000 IU given intramuscularly 3 times weekly for 4 weeks. Retinol concentrations < 0.70 µmol/l in serum and

  19. Growth Status and Its Relationship with Serum Lipids and Albumin in Children with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Fallahi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is an autosomal recessive disease, which affects many organs as it impairs chloride channel. This study was performed to evaluate growth status and its relationship with some laboratory indices such as Cholesterol (chol, Triglyceride (TG, albumin and total protein in children with CF referred to pediatrics center. This study was designed as a cross-sectional study in one year section. Demographic features were compared with standard percentiles curves. Chol, TG, albumin, total protein, prothrombin time, and hemoglobin were measured. Stool exams were also performed. A questionnaire was designed to obtain a history of the first presentation of disease, birth weight, type of labor and parent relativity. In 52% of patients, failure to thrive (FTT was the first presentation. Steatorrhea and respiratory infections were the first presentations, which were seen in 13.7% and 33% of the cases, respectively. The weight of 88% of patients was below the 15th percentile while 82% had a height percentile below 15th. Head circumference in 53% of patients was below the 15th percentile. There was a significant association between weight percentile and serum albumin and total protein (P=0.03 and P=0.007, respectively. There was also a significant relationship between height percentile and serum albumin and total protein (P<0.001 and P<0.000, respectively. The relationships between head circumference and serum albumin and total protein were also significant (P=0.006 and P<0.000, respectively. There was also a significant association between height percentile and hemoglobin. The decrease in anthropometric percentiles leads to decreased serum albumin and total protein.

  20. Low serum and bone vitamin K status in patients with longstanding Crohn's disease: another pathogenetic factor of osteoporosis in Crohn's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoon, E; Muller, M; Vermeer, C; Schurgers, L; Brummer, R; Stockbrugger, R

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—A high prevalence of osteoporosis is reported in Crohn's disease. The pathogenesis is not completely understood but is probably multifactorial. Longstanding Crohn's disease is associated with a deficiency of fat soluble vitamins, among them vitamin K. Vitamin K is a cofactor in the carboxylation of osteocalcin, a protein essential for calcium binding to bone. A high level of circulating uncarboxylated osteocalcin is a sensitive marker of vitamin K deficiency.
AIMS—To determine serum and bone vitamin K status in patients with Crohn's disease and to elucidate its relationship with bone mineral density.
METHODS—Bone mineral density was measured in 32 patients with longstanding Crohn's disease and small bowel involvement, currently in remission, and receiving less than 5 mg of prednisolone daily. Serum levels of vitamins D and K, triglycerides, and total immunoreactive osteocalcin, as well as uncarboxylated osteocalcin ("free" osteocalcin) were determined. The hydroxyapatite binding capacity of osteocalcin was calculated. Data were compared with an age and sex matched control population.
RESULTS—Serum vitamin K levels of CD patients were significantly decreased compared with normal controls (p<0.01). "Free" osteocalcin was higher and hydroxyapatite binding capacity of circulating osteocalcin was lower than in matched controls (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively), indicating a low bone vitamin K status in Crohn's disease. In patients, an inverse correlation was found between "free" osteocalcin and lumbar spine bone mineral density (r=−0.375, p<0.05) and between "free" osteocalcin and the z score of the lumbar spine (r=−0.381, p<0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that "free" osteocalcin was an independent risk factor for low bone mineral density of the lumbar spine whereas serum vitamin D was not.
CONCLUSIONS—The finding that a poor vitamin K status is associated with low bone mineral density in longstanding Crohn

  1. Randomized structured triglycerides increase lymphatic absorption of tocopherol and retinol compared with the equivalent physical mixture in a rat model of fat malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, P; Lee, T; DeMichele, S J

    2001-08-01

    Previously we demonstrated that the digestion, absorption and lymphatic transport of lipid and key essential fatty acids (EFA) from randomly interesterified fish oil/medium-chain structured triglycerides (STG) were significantly higher than an equivalent physical mixture (PM) in a normal lymph fistula rat model and in a rat model of lipid malabsorption caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The goals of this study were to further explore the potential absorptive benefits of STG by comparing the intestinal absorption and lymphatic transport of tocopherol and retinol when delivered gastrically with either STG or PM under normal conditions and after I/R injury to the small bowel. Food-deprived male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two treatments (sham controls or I/R). Under halothane anesthesia, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was occluded for 20 min and then reperfused in I/R rats. The SMA was isolated but not occluded in control rats. In both groups, the mesenteric lymph duct was cannulated and a gastric tube was inserted. Each treatment group received 1 mL of the fish oil/MCT STG or PM (7 rats/group) along with (14)C-alpha-tocopherol and (3)H-retinol through the gastric tube followed by an infusion of PBS at 3 mL/h for 8 h. Lymph was collected hourly for 8 h. Under steady-state conditions, the amount of (14)C-alpha-tocopherol and (3)H-retinol transported into lymph was significantly higher in the STG-fed rats compared with those fed PM in both control and I/R groups. In addition, control and I/R rats given STG had earlier steady-state outputs of (14)C-alpha-tocopherol and (3)H-retinol and maintained approximately 30% higher outputs in lymph throughout the 8-h lymph collection period compared with rats given the PM. We conclude that STG provides the opportunity to potentiate improved absorption of fat-soluble vitamins under normal and malabsorptive states.

  2. Effect of integrated surgery + radiotherapy + chemotherapy treatment on survival status and serum indexes in patients with gallbladder carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Li Wei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of integrated surgery + radiotherapy + chemotherapy treatment on the survival status and serum indexes in patients with gallbladder carcinoma. Methods: A total of 68 patients with gallbladder carcinoma were divided into observation group (received integrated surgery + radiotherapy + chemotherapy treatment and control group (received surgery + radiotherapy according to different treatments. Differences in the content of tumor markers, growth factors and adhesion molecules in serum as well as the median survival time and survival rate in 5 years of follow-up were compared between the two groups 1 month after treatment. Results: Tumor markers β2-MG, CA19-9, CA242, CA125, CA724, CEA and AFP content in serum of observation group after treatment were significantly lower than those of control group; growth factors VEGF, FGF, EGFR and HER2 content in serum were significantly lower than those of control group while IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 content were significantly higher than those of control group; adhesion molecules E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and sE-Cd content in serum were significantly lower than those of control group; the median survival time of 5-year follow-up as well as 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rate were significantly greater than those of control group. Conclusions: Integrated treatment of surgery + radiotherapy + chemotherapy can optimize the short-term and long-term curative effect in patients with gallbladder carcinoma.

  3. Recombinant fusion protein of albumin-retinol binding protein inactivates stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soyoung; Park, Sangeun; Kim, Suhyun [Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, Korea University Graduate School of Medicine, Ansan, Gyeonggi do 425-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chaeseung [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungho [Department of Life Science, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Dae Ryong [Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan, Gyeonggi do 425-020 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Junseo, E-mail: ohjs@korea.ac.kr [Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, Korea University Graduate School of Medicine, Ansan, Gyeonggi do 425-707 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We designed novel recombinant albumin-RBP fusion proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of fusion proteins inactivates pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fusion proteins are successfully internalized into and inactivate PSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBP moiety mediates cell specific uptake of fusion protein. -- Abstract: Quiescent pancreatic- (PSCs) and hepatic- (HSCs) stellate cells store vitamin A (retinol) in lipid droplets via retinol binding protein (RBP) receptor and, when activated by profibrogenic stimuli, they transform into myofibroblast-like cells which play a key role in the fibrogenesis. Despite extensive investigations, there is, however, currently no appropriate therapy available for tissue fibrosis. We previously showed that the expression of albumin, composed of three homologous domains (I-III), inhibits stellate cell activation, which requires its high-affinity fatty acid-binding sites asymmetrically distributed in domain I and III. To attain stellate cell-specific uptake, albumin (domain I/III) was coupled to RBP; RBP-albumin{sup domain} {sup III} (R-III) and albumin{sup domain} {sup I}-RBP-albumin{sup III} (I-R-III). To assess the biological activity of fusion proteins, cultured PSCs were used. Like wild type albumin, expression of R-III or I-R-III in PSCs after passage 2 (activated PSCs) induced phenotypic reversal from activated to fat-storing cells. On the other hand, R-III and I-R-III, but not albumin, secreted from transfected 293 cells were successfully internalized into and inactivated PSCs. FPLC-purified R-III was found to be internalized into PSCs via caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and its efficient cellular uptake was also observed in HSCs and podocytes among several cell lines tested. Moreover, tissue distribution of intravenously injected R-III was closely similar to that of RBP. Therefore, our data suggest that albumin-RBP fusion protein comprises

  4. Effect of Consuming Zinc-fortified Bread on Serum Zinc and Iron Status of Zinc-deficient Women: A Double Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badii, Akbar; Nekouei, Niloufar; Fazilati, Mohammad; Shahedi, Mohammad; Badiei, Sajad

    2012-03-01

    After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1) a non-fortified bread, (2) a high-zinc bread, and (3) a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p 0.05). Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p bread improved iron absorption.

  5. Cross-Sectional Associations of Serum Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Thyroid Hormones in U.S. Adults: Variation According to TPOAb and Iodine Status (NHANES 2007–2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Glenys M.; Rauch, Stephen A.; Marie, Nathalie Ste; Mattman, Andre; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Venners, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFASs) are suspected thyroid toxicants, but results from epidemiological studies are inconsistent. Objectives: We examined associations between serum PFASs and thyroid hormones (THs) in a representative, cross-sectional sample of U.S. adults. We hypothesized that people with high thyroid peroxidase antibodies and low iodine would be more susceptible to PFAS-induced thyroid disruption. Methods: Our sample included 1,525 adults (≥ 18 years) from the 2007–2008 NHANES study with available serum PFASs and THs. We examined associations between four serum PFASs [perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)], and serum THs [free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), fT3/fT4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total T3 (TT3), and total T4 (TT4)] using multivariable linear regression. We stratified subjects into four groups by two indicators of thyroid “stress”: thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb ≥ 9 IU/mL) and iodine status (PFAS–TH associations were not modified by high TPOAb or low iodine alone. However, PFHxS and PFOS were negatively associated (p PFAS-associated thyroid disruption in a subset of U.S. adults with high TPOAb (a marker of autoimmune hypothyroidism) and low iodine status, who may represent a vulnerable subgroup. However, the small sample size, cross-sectional design, and possibility of reverse causation are limitations of this work. Citation: Webster GM, Rauch SA, Ste Marie N, Mattman A, Lanphear BP, Venners SA. 2016. Cross-sectional associations of serum perfluoroalkyl acids and thyroid hormones in U.S. adults: variation according to TPOAb and iodine status (NHANES 2007–2008). Environ Health Perspect 124:935–942; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409589 PMID:26517287

  6. Efecto de la suplementación con una dosis masiva de vitamina A en niños de 6 a 36 meses de edad Effect of massive vitamin A supplement in children from 6 to 36 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma E. Robles-Sardin

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de la suplementación con una dosis masiva de vitamina A en el estado nutricio de dicha vitamina y del hierro, en niños de zonas urbanas marginadas de Hermosillo, Sonora, México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 60 niños (6-36 meses, a los que se les administró una dosis de 100 000 UI (6-12 meses y 200 000 UI (12-36 meses de vitamina A en el Día Nacional de Salud de la Secretaría de Salud (junio de 1994. Se midieron niveles séricos de retinol, carotenoides, hierro, transferrina y ferritina, en tres fases: basal, a las dos semanas y después de tres meses. Resultados. En la primera fase, la mediana de retinol fue 0.7µmol/l; en la segunda aumentó a 0.97µmol/l (p 0.05. Un 6.3% de los niños presentó deficiencia severa de vitamina A al inicio, y no se encontró ningún caso en las fases posteriores a la suplementación. En la fase basal, 42% de los casos presentaron deficiencia moderada y la mayoría fue normal en las siguientes fases. No hubo diferencias en los niveles de hierro y transferrina (p > 0.05, pero sí en ferritina (p Objective. To evaluate the impact of a single massive dose of vitamin A on the vitamin and iron status in children of margined urban areas in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Material and methods. A total of 60 children received one dose of 100 000 IU (children from 6 to 12 months and of 200 000 IU (children from 12 to 36 months of retinol palmitate distributed by the Health Ministry in June, 1994. Serum levels of retinol, carotenoids, iron, transferrin and ferritin were measured at three periods: basal, after two weeks and after three months. Results. The mean for retinol basal values was 0.7 µmol/l, after two weeks it was 0.97 µmol/l (p 0.05. When basal values were measured, 6.3% of the children showed severe vitamin A deficiency, which disappeared in the periods following the supplement; additionally, 42% showed moderate deficiency which had decreased to less than 7% after three

  7. Association of subcutaneous and visceral fat mass with serum concentrations of adipokines in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Tomoyuki; Murata, Miho; Otani, Taeko; Tamemoto, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Masanobu; Ishikawa, San-e

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the association of subcutaneous and visceral fat mass with serum concentrations of adipokines in 130 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The levels of serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), adiponectin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, interleukin-18, and retinol-binding protein 4 were measured. Percentage body fat was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and subcutaneous and visceral fat areas were measured by abdominal CT. HS-CRP had significant positive correlations with percentage body fat and subcutaneous fat area, and a particularly significant positive correlation with visceral fat area. Serum adiponectin had a negative correlation with the subcutaneous and visceral fat areas, with the strongest correlation with the visceral fat area. Similar results were obtained for HMW adiponectin. Serum adiponectin had a negative correlation with visceral fat area in subjects with a visceral fat area 2 , but not in those with a visceral fat area ≥100 cm 2 . In contrast, serum HS-CRP showed a positive correlation with visceral fat area in subjects with visceral fat area ≥100 cm 2 , but not in those with a visceral fat area 2 . These findings indicate that an increased visceral fat area is associated with inflammatory changes, and that inflammatory reactions may alter the functional properties of visceral fat in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (author)

  8. Serum levels of high mobility group box 1 protein and its association with quality of life and psychological and functional status in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktayoglu, Pelin; Tahtasiz, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Mehtap; Em, Serda; Ucar, Demet; Yazmalar, Levent; Mete, Nuriye; Nas, Kemal; Gezer, Orhan

    2013-08-01

    High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a proinflammatory cytokine. Previous studies have suggested that HMGB1 can play an important role in the pathogenesis of many rheumatic diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum levels of HMGB1 in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and its association with quality of life and psychological and functional status in these patients. Twenty-nine patients who met the 1990 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for the classification of FM and 29 healthy controls (HC) were included in the present study. Serum samples were collected from both the patients and the HC, and HMGB1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) was used to assess the disease severity and functional status in patients with FM. Furthermore, the Nottingham Health Profile was used to assess quality of life in all subjects, as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess depression and anxiety. The serum levels of HMGB1 protein were positively correlated with the FIQ scores in patients with FM (P = 0.002). Mean serum levels of HMGB1 were higher in patients with FM than in HC but this difference was not statistically significant. HMGB1 protein might be a good laboratory-sourced candidate for the assessment of functional status and disease severity in patients with FM. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Ghrelin- and GH-induced insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Krag, Morten B; Poulsen, Morten M

    2013-01-01

    Supraphysiological levels of ghrelin and GH induce insulin resistance. Serum levels of retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) correlate inversely with insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine whether ghrelin and GH affect RBP4 levels in human subjects.......Supraphysiological levels of ghrelin and GH induce insulin resistance. Serum levels of retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) correlate inversely with insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine whether ghrelin and GH affect RBP4 levels in human subjects....

  10. Red palm oil supplementation does not increase blood glucose or serum lipids levels in Wistar rats with different thyroid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchová, H; Vokurková, M; Pavelka, S; Vaněčková, I; Tribulová, N; Soukup, T

    2018-01-05

    Red palm oil (RPO) is a rich natural source of antioxidant vitamins, namely carotenes, tocopherols and tocotrienols. However, it contains approximately 50 % saturated fatty acids the regular consumption of which could negatively modify lipid profile. The aim of our study was to test whether 7 weeks of RPO supplementation (1 g/kg body weight/day) would affect blood glucose and lipid metabolism in adult male Wistar rats with altered thyroid status. We induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in rats by oral administration of either methimazole or mixture of thyroid hormones. Different thyroid status (EU - euthyroid, HY - hypothyroid and HT - hyperthyroid) was characterized by different serum thyroid hormones levels (total and free thyroxine and triiodothyronine), changes in the activity of a marker enzyme of thyroid status - liver mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and altered absolute and relative heart weights. Fasting blood glucose levels were higher in HT rats in comparison with EU and HY rats, but the changes caused by RPO supplementation were not significant. The achievement of the HY status significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol, as well as with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol: 2.43+/-0.15, 1.48+/-0.09, 0.89+/-0.08 mmol/l, compared to EU: 1.14+/-0.06, 0.77+/-0.06, 0.34+/-0.05 mmol/l and HT: 1.01+/-0.06, 0.69+/-0.04, 0.20+/-0.03 mmol/l, respectively. RPO supplementation did not increase significantly levels of blood lipids but tended to increase glutathione levels in the liver. In conclusion, RPO supplementation did not induce the presumed deterioration of glucose and lipid metabolism in rats with three well-characterized alterations in thyroid status.

  11. Are Serum Levels of F2-Isoprostane and Oxidized-LDL Related to Vitamin D Status in Type 2 Diabetic Patients? A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Javanbakht

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considerable evidence suggests that oxidative stress affects diabetes mellitus (DM and contributes to its complications. Vitamin D has been shown to possess antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to determine the association between serum levels of calcifediol (25-OH-D, an indicator of vitamin D status, and lipid profiles with oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods: In this case-control study, 57 T2DM patients with low vitamin D status ( 30 ng/mL were enrolled. Fasting concentrations of 25-OH-D, calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH, lipid profiles, fasting blood sugar (FBS, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, F2-isoprostane, and oxidized-low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL were measured. Results: The mean fasting serum concentrations of 25-OH-D, calcium, and phosphorus in patients with low vitamin D status were significantly lower than in controls (p < 0.001. The mean concentrations of ox-LDL, F2-isoprostane, total cholesterol, and LDL were significantly higher in patients with low vitamin D status than in controls. There was a negative correlation between vitamin D levels and F2-isoprostane (r = 0.647and P = 0.0001, LDL (r = -0.218 and P = 0.030, and ox-LDL (r = -0.637 and P = 0.0001. Conclusions: The results of present study indicated that serum concentrations of 25-OH-D were inversely correlated with F2-isoprostane, LDL, and ox-LDL. Therefore, vitamin D may have a beneficial effect on the control of lipid profiles and oxidative stress in T2DM patients.

  12. Total antioxidant/oxidant status in meningism and meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Iscan, Akin; Erel, Ozcan; Akcali, Mustafa; Selek, Sahbettin

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant/oxidant status of serum and cerebrospinal fluid in children with meningismus and acute bacterial meningitis. Twenty-three children (age range, 0.75 to 9 years) with fever and meningeal signs that required analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid, but no cytologic or biochemical evidence of meningitis in their serum and cerebrospinal fluid, constituted the meningismus group. Thirty-one children (age range, 0.5 to 10 years) with acute bacterial meningitis constituted the meningitis group. Twenty-nine healthy children (age range, 0.5 to 11 years) were recruited as control subjects. Antioxidant status (ascorbic acid, albumin, thiol, uric acid, total bilirubin, total antioxidant capacity, catalase and ceruloplasmin concentrations) and oxidant status (lipid hydroperoxide and total oxidant status) were measured. The serum antioxidant status was lower, and oxidant status levels higher in both meningitis and meningismus subjects than in the control children (P antioxidant status was lower, and serum oxidant status was higher in children in the meningismus and meningitis groups, whereas cerebrospinal fluid oxidant status was higher in the meningismus group than in the meningitis group.

  13. Status of Serum and Salivary Levels of Superoxide Dismutase in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Oral Manifestations: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madi, Medhini; Babu, Subhas; Kumari, Suchetha; Shetty, Shishir; Achalli, Sonika; Madiyal, Ananya; Bhat, Manohar

    2016-11-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a very well known metabolic disorder that has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Evidence suggests that oxidative stress increases in Diabetes Mellitus because of the excessive production of reactive oxygen species and an impaired antioxidant defence mechanism. This study estimated, compared and correlated the serum and salivary Superoxide dismutase levels in healthy subjects and subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus having oral manifestations. In this study, serum and salivary Superoxide dismutase levels were estimated in 45 healthy subjects and 45 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with oral manifestations. The mean serum and salivary Superoxide dismutase levels were significantly decreased in subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with oral manifestations compared to the healthy subjects. Positive correlation in both healthy and diabetics was observed between serum and salivary samples. This study highlights that the abnormally high levels of oxidative stress in diabetics coupled with simultaneous decline in antioxidant defence mechanism results in complications in Diabetes mellitus. Thus exploring saliva for antioxidant markers that accurately reflect the redox status of the body is worthwhile.

  14. Early serum biomarker networks in infants with distinct retinochoroidal lesion status of congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Thádia Evelyn; Coelho-Dos-Reis, Jordana Grazziela; Béla, Samantha Ribeiro; Carneiro, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos; Machado, Anderson Silva; Cardoso, Ludmila Melo; Ribeiro, Ágata Lopes; Dias, Michelle Hallais França; Queiroz Andrade, Gláucia Manzan; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Januário, José Nélio; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida; Ferro, Eloisa Amália Vieira; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2017-07-01

    The present study characterized the early changes in the serum chemokines/cytokine signatures and networks in infants with congenital-toxoplasmosis/(TOXO) as compared to non-infected-controls/(NI). TOXO were subgrouped according to the retinochoroidal lesion status as no-lesion/(NL), active-lesion/(ARL), active/cicatricial-lesion/(ACRL) and cicatricial-lesion/(CRL). The results showed that TOXO display prominent chemokine production mediated by IL-8/CXCL8, MIG/CXCL9, IP-10/CXCL10 and RANTES/CCL5. Additionally, TOXO is accompanied by mixed proinflammatory/regulatory cytokine pattern mediated by IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10. While TNF appears as a putative biomarker for NL and IFN-γ/IL-5 as immunological features for ARL, IL-10 emerges as a relevant mediator in ACRL/CRL. IL-8/CXCL8 and IP-10/CXCL10 are broad-spectrum indicators of ocular disease, whereas TNF is a NL biomarker, IFN-γ and MIG/CXCL9 point out to ARL; and IL-10 is highlighted as a genuine serum biomarker of ACRL/CRL. The network analysis demonstrated a broad chemokine/cytokine crosstalk with divergences in the molecular signatures in patients with different ocular lesions during congenital toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of multi-micronutrient fortified rice on hemoglobin, iron and vitamin A status of Cambodian schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perignon, Marlene; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong

    2016-01-01

    In Cambodia, micronutrient deficiencies remain a critical public health problem. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of multi-micronutrient fortified rice (MMFR) formulations, distributed through a World Food Program school-meals program (WFP-SMP), on the hemoglobin concentrations and iron......Rice) or unfortified rice (placebo) six days a week for six months. Four additional schools not participating in WFP-SMP were randomly selected as controls. A total of 2440 schoolchildren (6–16 years old) participated in the biochemical study. Hemoglobin, iron status, estimated using inflammation-adjusted ferritin...... and transferrin receptors concentrations, and VA status, assessed using inflammation-adjusted retinol-binding protein concentration, were measured at the baseline, as well as at three and six months. Baseline prevalence of anemia, depleted iron stores, tissue iron deficiency, marginal VA status and VA deficiency...

  16. Combined analysis of circulating epithelial cells and serum thyroglobulin for distinguishing disease status of the patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Chih; Liou, Miaw-Jene; Hsu, Hsung-Ling; Hsieh, Jason Chia-Hsun; Chen, Yi-An; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Lin, Jen Der

    2016-03-29

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) accounts for about 80% of the cases in thyroid cancer. Routine surveillance by serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and medical imaging is the current practice to monitor disease progression of the patients. Whether enumeration of circulating epithelial cells (CECs) helps to define disease status of PTC patients was investigated. CECs were enriched from the peripheral blood of the healthy control subjects (G1, n = 17) and the patients at disease-free status (G2, n = 26) or with distant metastasis (G3, n = 22). The number of CECs expressing epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) or thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy analyses. The medium number of EpCAM+-CECs was 6 (interquartile range 1-11), 12 (interquartile range 7-16) and 91 (interquartile range 31-206) cells/ml of blood for G1, G2 and G3, respectively. EpCAM+-CEC counts were significantly higher in G3 than in G1 (p interquartile range 3-13), 16 (interquartile range 10-24) and 100 (interquartile range 31-226) cells/ml of blood for G1, G2 and G3, respectively. The TSHR+-CEC counts also distinguished G3 from G1 (p < 0.05) and G2 (p < 0.05). With an appropriate cut off value of CEC count, the disease status for 97.9% (47/48) of the cases was clearly defined. Notably, the metastatic disease for all patients in G3 (22/22) was revealed by combined analysis of serum Tg and CEC. This study implicates that CEC testing can supplement the current standard methods for monitoring disease status of PTC.

  17. Consequences of radiotherapy on nutritional status, dietary intake, serum zinc and copper levels in patients with gastrointestinal tract and head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadavi, R.; Faramarzi, E.; Mohamed-Zadeh, M.; Ghaemmaghami, J.; Jabbari, Morteza V.

    2007-01-01

    Malnutrition occurs frequently in cancer patients and is multifactorial and can lead to negative outcomes. So we studied the effect of radiotherapy on nutritional status, weight changes, dietary intake, serum zinc and copper levels. During the period of October to March 2005, 45 cancer patients who referred to the Radiotherapy Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Iran were recruited. We assessed the nutritional status of patients using Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) questionnaire. Patients on the basis of location of radiotherapy classified to mediastinum, head and neck pelvic groups. Changes in dietary intake (using 24 hour recall method) and body weight were evaluated prior to and during radiotherapy. At the onset and the end of radiotherapy, serum levels of Zinc, copper and albumin were determined. After treatment malnutrition increased significantly in all patients (p=0.01) and in head and neck (p=0.007) and pelvic groups (p=0.04). The decreased bodyweight of patients was significant in head and neck (p=0.02) and pelvic groups (p=0.05). The mean daily energy and protein intake of head and neck and pelvic groups decreased during radiotherapy while energy intake increased significantly in mediastinum group (p=0.01). After treatment, significant decreases also observed in mean serum zinc, copper and albumin levels (p<0.05). Because of negative effect of radiotherapy on oral feeding, nutritional assessment and intervention should be an integral part of treatment. Also, it would be worthwhile studying the effect of zinc supplementation on dietary intake and nutritional status of patients. (author)

  18. Determining appropriate nutritional interventions for South African children living in informal urban settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutsoudis, A; Jinabhai, C C; Coovadia, H M; Mametja, L D

    1994-09-01

    Rapid urbanisation in South Africa has led to the creation of informal shack settlements where the health status of children is in jeopardy; it needs to be monitored so that appropriate intervention strategies can be formulated. Accordingly, the nutritional status of 190 children (3-6 years of age) living in Besters, a typical urban shack settlement north of Durban, was assessed anthropometrically. In addition the following biochemical values were determined: vitamins A and E, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, albumin, haemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin and percentage of transferrin saturation. Malnutrition was evident in 13% of the children who were underweight (below the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) third weight-for-age percentile) and 27% who were stunted (below the NCHS third height-for-age percentile). Concentrations of albumin, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and vitamin E were close to normal, with no more than 10% of the sample having values outside the normal range. However, 44% of the children had low serum retinol levels (poor vitamin A and iron status. A broad multifaceted comprehensive health intervention programme is therefore required.

  19. Serum percentage undercarboxylated osteocalcin, a sensitive measure of vitamin K status, and its relationship to bone health indices in Danish girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Eibhlis; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2007-01-01

    Recent cross-sectional data suggest that better vitamin K status in young girls (aged 3-16 years) is associated with decreased bone turnover, even though it is not associated with bone mineral content (BMC). The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between serum...... percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (%ucOC), as an index of vitamin K status, and BMC and biochemical indices of bone turnover in peri-pubertal Danish girls. This peri-pubertal stage is a dynamic period of bone development, and as such, may represent an important window of opportunity for vitamin K...

  20. Two crystal forms of a helix-rich fatty acid- and retinol-binding protein, Na-FAR-1, from the parasitic nematode Necator americanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielsen, Mads; Rey-Burusco, M. Florencia; Griffiths, Kate; Roe, Andrew J.; Cooper, Alan; Smith, Brian O.; Kennedy, Malcolm W.; Corsico, Betina

    2012-01-01

    Na-FAR-1, a fatty acid- and retinol-binding protein, was expressed in bacteria, purified and crystallized. Crystals grew in two different morphologies under the same conditions. Na-FAR-1 is an unusual α-helix-rich fatty acid- and retinol-binding protein from Necator americanus, a blood-feeding intestinal parasitic nematode of humans. It belongs to the FAR protein family, which is unique to nematodes; no structural information is available to date for FAR proteins from parasites. Crystals were obtained with two different morphologies that corresponded to different space groups. Crystal form 1 exhibited space group P432 (unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 120.80 Å, α = β = γ = 90°) and diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution, whereas crystal form 2 exhibited space group F23 (unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 240.38 Å, α = β = γ = 90°) and diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution. Crystal form 2 showed signs of significant twinning

  1. Vitamin A deficiency and inflammatory markers among preschool children in the Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricks Michelle O

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exclusion of individuals with elevated acute phase proteins has been advocated in order to improve prevalence estimates of vitamin A deficiency in surveys, but it is unclear whether this will lead to sampling bias. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the exclusion of individuals with elevated acute phase proteins is associated with sampling bias and to characterize inflammation in children with night blindness. Methods In a survey in the Republic of the Marshall Islands involving 281 children, aged 1–5 years, serum retinol, C-reactive protein (CRP, and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP were measured. Results Of 281 children, 24 (8.5% had night blindness and 165 (58.7% had serum retinol 5 mg/L and/or AGP >1000 mg/L. Among children with and without night blindness, the proportion with serum retinol P = 0.03 and with anemia was 58.3% and 35.7% (P = 0.029, respectively. The proportion of children with serum retinol P = 0.016, the proportion of boys was 43.1% vs. 54.3% (P = 0.075, with no hospitalizations in the last year was 11.0% vs 23.6% (P = 0.024, and with anemia was 43.8% vs 31.7% (P = 0.05, respectively. Conclusions Exclusion of children with inflammation in this survey of vitamin A deficiency does not improve prevalence estimates for vitamin A deficiency and instead leads to sampling bias for variables such as age, gender, anemia, and hospitalization history.

  2. Identification of candidate diagnostic serum biomarkers for Kawasaki disease using proteomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yayoi; Yanagimachi, Masakatsu; Ino, Yoko; Aketagawa, Mao; Matsuo, Michie; Okayama, Akiko; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Oba, Kunihiro; Morioka, Ichiro; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Kaneko, Tetsuji; Yokota, Shumpei; Hirano, Hisashi; Mori, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis and childhood febrile disease that can lead to cardiovascular complications. The diagnosis of KD depends on its clinical features, and thus it is sometimes difficult to make a definitive diagnosis. In order to identify diagnostic serum biomarkers for KD, we explored serum KD-related proteins, which differentially expressed during the acute and recovery phases of two patients by mass spectrometry (MS). We identified a total of 1,879 proteins by MS-based proteomic analysis. The levels of three of these proteins, namely lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG1), and angiotensinogen (AGT), were higher in acute phase patients. In contrast, the level of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) was decreased. To confirm the usefulness of these proteins as biomarkers, we analyzed a total of 270 samples, including those collected from 55 patients with acute phase KD, by using western blot analysis and microarray enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Over the course of this experiment, we determined that the expression level of these proteins changes specifically in the acute phase of KD, rather than the recovery phase of KD or other febrile illness. Thus, LRG1 could be used as biomarkers to facilitate KD diagnosis based on clinical features. PMID:28262744

  3. Serum Levels of Follistatin Are Positively Associated With Serum-Free Thyroxine Levels in Patients With Hyperthyroidism or Euthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chao; Chen, Pei-Lung; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Follistatin is a glycoprotein with various biologic functions that plays a role in adipocyte differentiation, muscle stimulation, anti-inflammation, and energy homeostasis. Thyroid hormones influence energy expenditure, glucose, and lipid metabolism. The association between serum follistatin level and thyroid function statuses has seldom been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to compare serum follistatin concentrations in different thyroid function statuses and to evaluate the associations between serum follistatin and free thyroxine (fT4) levels. In this study, 30 patients with hyperthyroidism (HY group) and 30 euthyroid individuals (EU group) were recruited. The patients of HY group were treated with antithyroid regimens as clinically indicated, whereas no medication was given to EU group. The demographic and anthropometric characteristics, biochemical data, serum levels of follistatin, and thyroid function of both groups at baseline and at the 6th month were compared. Data of all patients were pooled for the analysis of the associations between the levels of follistatin and fT4. At baseline, the HY group had significantly higher serum follistatin levels than the EU group (median [Q1, Q3]: 1.81 [1.33, 2.78] vs 1.13 [0.39, 1.45] ng/mL, P hyperthyroidism had higher serum follistatin levels, which decreased after receiving antithyroid treatment. In addition, the serum follistatin concentrations were positively associated with serum fT4 levels in patients with hyperthyroidism or euthyroidism. PMID:26844494

  4. Role of maca (Lepidium meyenii) consumption on serum interleukin-6 levels and health status in populations living in the Peruvian Central Andes over 4000 m of altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gasco, Manuel; Lozada-Requena, Ivan

    2013-12-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a plant that grows at over 4,000 m above sea level in the central Peruvian Andes. The hypocotyls of this plant are traditionally consumed for their nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to determine the health status based on a health related quality of life (HRQL) questionnaire (SF-20) and serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in subjects that are maca consumers. For this, a cross-sectional study was designed to be performed in 50 subjects from Junin (4,100 m): 27 subjects were maca consumers and 23 were non-consumers. The SF-20 survey is used to obtain a summary measure of health status. The stand up from a chair and sit down (SUCSD) test (to assess lower-extremity function), hemoglobin measurement, blood pressure, sexual hormone levels, serum IL-6 levels and the score of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) were evaluated. Testosterone/estradiol ratio (P maca consumers when compared to non-consumers (P maca consumers successfully completed the SUCSD test compared to non-consumers (P maca was associated with low serum IL-6 levels and in turn with better health status scores in the SF-20 survey and low chronic mountain sickness scores.

  5. Thermometric sensing of peroxide in organic media. Application to monitor the stability of RBP-retinol-HRP complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, K; Jönsson, B R; Danielsson, B

    2000-08-01

    The stability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in aqueous and organic solvents is applied to develop a simple thermometric procedure to detect the binding of retinoic acid-HRP conjugate to retinol binding protein (RBP). Butanone peroxide (BP) in organic phase and hydrogen peroxide in aqueous phase is detected thermometrically on a HRP column, immobilized by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde on controlled pore glass (CPG). Acetone, acetonitrile, methanol, and 2-butanol are used for detection of BP, in the flow injection analysis (FIA) mode. A linear range between 1 and 50 mM BP is obtained in all the organic solvents with a precision of 5-7% (CV%). The magnitude and nature of the thermometric response is significantly different in each organic solvent. The stability of HRP in the organic phase is used to study the stability of a retinoic acid-HRP conjugate bound to immobilized RBP. The response of HRP (to 20 mM BP) in the retinoic acid-HRP conjugate is used as an indicator of the stability of the RBP-retinoic acid-HRP complex, after challenges with various organic/aqueous solvents. Both immobilized HRP and RBP are stable at least for 6 months. The effect of o-phenylene diamine on the thermometric response of HRP is also investigated. A scheme for the design of a thermometric retinol (vitamin A) biosensor is proposed.

  6. Effect of consuming zinc-fortified bread on serum zinc and iron status of zinc-deficient women: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Badii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1 a non-fortified bread, (2 a high-zinc bread, and (3 a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p 0.05. Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p < 0.01. It was concluded that fortification of flour with 50-100 ppm zinc was an effective way to achieve adequate zinc intake and absorption in zinc-deficient people. It also appeared that consuming zinc-fortified bread improved iron absorption.

  7. Serum and erythrocyte folate status of New Zealand women of childbearing age following a countrywide voluntary programme by the baking industry to fortify bread with folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Williams, Sheila M; Mann, Jim I; Oey, Indrawati; Aitchison, Cindy; Parnell, Winsome; Fleming, Liz; Brown, Rachel C; Skeaff, C Murray

    2016-11-01

    To estimate the folate status of New Zealand women of childbearing age following the introduction, in 2010, of a new voluntary folic acid fortification of bread programme. The 2011 Folate and Women's Health Survey was a cross-sectional survey of women aged 18-44 years carried out in 2011. The survey used a stratified random sampling technique with the Electoral Roll as the sampling frame. Women were asked about consumption of folic-acid-fortified breads and breakfast cereals in a telephone interview. During a clinic visit, blood was collected for serum and erythrocyte folate measurement by microbiological assay. A North Island (Wellington) and South Island (Dunedin) city centre in New Zealand. Two hundred and eighty-eight women, of whom 278 completed a clinic visit. Geometric mean serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations were 30 nmol/l and 996 nmol/l, respectively. Folate status was 30-40 % higher compared with women of childbearing age sampled as part of a national survey in 2008/09, prior to the introduction of the voluntary folic acid bread fortification programme. In the 2011 Folate and Women's Health Survey, reported consumption of fortified bread and fortified breakfast cereal in the past week was associated with 25 % (P=0·01) and 15 % (P=0·04) higher serum folate concentrations, respectively. Serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations have increased in New Zealand women of childbearing age since the number of folic-acid-fortified breads was increased voluntarily in 2010. Consumption of fortified breads and breakfast cereals was associated with a higher folate status.

  8. Effect of Omega-3 and Vitamins E + C Supplements on the Concentration of Serum B-Vitamins and Plasma Redox Aminothiol Antioxidant Status in Elderly Men after Strength Training for Three Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, Tonje Holte; Stølevik, Solvor B; Berntsen, Sveinung; Ezzathkah Bastani, Nasser; Paulsen, Gøran; Lohne Seiler, Hilde; Hetlelid, Ken J; Blomhoff, Rune; Mansoor, Mohammad Azam

    2016-01-01

    Data on redox plasma aminothiol status in individuals on strength training are very limited. Therefore, we studied the effect of omega-3 and vitamins E + C supplementation on the concentration of B-vitamins and redox aminothiol status in elderly men after strength training for 3 months. Healthy men, age 60 ± 6 (mean ± SD) were randomly divided into 3 groups: group I received placebo (n = 17), group II consumed omega-3 (700 mg, n = 17), and group III consumed vitamins E + C (235 mg +1 g, n = 16) daily for 3 months. All participants completed a strength training program for the same period. The concentration of serum vitamin B12 decreased and the concentration of serum folate increased in group I after the intervention (p = 0.01, p = 0.009). The concentration of plasma 5-pyridoxal phosphate decreased in groups II and III (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01), whereas the concentration of serum uric acid decreased only in group II (p = 0.02). We detected an increase in the concentration of reduced form of aminothiols in all groups (p vitamins E + C supplementation affect the concentrations of serum B-vitamins and redox plasma aminothiol status in healthy elderly men on strength training. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Evaluation of anti-wrinkle effects of a novel cosmetic containing retinol using the guideline of the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Akira; Konishi, Natsuko; Momma, Tomoyuki; Oiso, Naoki; Kawara, Shigeru

    2009-11-01

    Retinol is known to be effective in the treatment of sallowness, wrinkling, red blotchiness and hyperpigmented spots in aging skin. In this study, we have evaluated the anti-wrinkle effects of a new cosmetic containing retinol. An open study was performed in 30 healthy Japanese women who had wrinkles at the corners of the eyes. The tested lotion, Retin-OX+ (RoC SA, Colombes, France), was applied on wrinkles of one side of the face for 8 weeks, and not on the other site as a control. Anti-wrinkle effects were evaluated by two methods: (i) doctors' observation and photos based on the guideline of the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association; and (ii) the Robo Skin Analyzer. This lotion showed marked and moderate improvement in 34% of the subjects with a significant difference as compared with the control sites (P < 0.05). Moreover, the length and area decreased in the applied site more than the control site with a significant difference (P < 0.01). All the patients completed the study without significant adverse reactions. The tested lotion was well tolerated and may be an optional preparation for the treatment of wrinkles at the corner of the eyes.

  10. A Program of Nutritional Education in Schools Reduced the Prevalence of Iron Deficiency in Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Nieves García-Casal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron, folates and retinol deficiencies in school children and to evaluate the changes after an intervention of nutritional education. The project was developed in 17 schools. The sample included 1,301 children (678 males and 623 females. A subsample of 480 individuals, was randomly selected for drawing blood for biochemical determinations before and after the intervention of nutritional education, which included in each school: written pre and post-intervention tests, 6 workshops, 2 participative talks, 5 game activities, 1 cooking course and 1 recipe contest. Anthropometrical and biochemical determinations included weight, height, body-mass index, nutritional status, hematocrit, serum ferritin, retinol and folate concentrations. There was high prevalence of iron (25%, folates (75% and vitamin A (43% deficiencies in school children, with a low consumption of fruit and vegetables, high consumption of soft drinks and snacks and almost no physical activity. The nutritional education intervention produced a significant reduction in iron deficiency prevalence (25 to 14%, and showed no effect on vitamin A and folates deficiencies. There was a slight improvement in nutritional status. This study shows, through biochemical determinations, that nutritional education initiatives and programs have an impact improving nutritional health in school children.

  11. Soapwort extract supplementation alters antioxidant status of serum, liver and heart tissues in growing Japanese quails reared under chronic intermittent cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestami Dalkilic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant effect of dietary soapwort extract supplementation was studied in growing Japanese quails suffering from chronic intermittent cold stress. For this purpose, a total of ninety 15-d-old quails were divided into three groups with three replicates. Chronic intermittent cold stress was applied every night between 22.00 to 06.00 h; starting at 14 °C for the first week, and gradually weekly lowered to 8 °C. Three groups were fed with corn-soy based standard diets supplemented with 0, 50, and 100 ppm soapwort extract for four weeks. At the end of the study, three males and three females were slaughtered to determine total antioxidant and oxidant status of serum, malondialdehyde, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase activity, superoxide dismutase of liver and heart tissues. Although the dietary soapwort extract had no effect on serum total antioxidant capacity, it significantly lowered the total oxidant status of serum in cold stressed quails. Glutathione and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity of liver and heart tissues were similar among groups. While the dietary soapwort extract had no effect on glutathione peroxidase activity of the heart tissue, it significantly increased glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver tissue. In relation to the control group, malondialdehyde concentrations in the liver and heart tissues were significantly lower in soapwort extract groups. These data suggest that dietary soapwort extract could alleviate the detrimental effects of oxidative stress in growing Japanese quails exposed to cold stress.

  12. Reproductive factors, nutritional status and serum 25(OH)D levels in women with breast cancer: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, Nighat Y; Jain, Monika; Kapil, Umesh; Seenu, Vuthaluru; R, Lakshmy; Yadav, Chander P; Pandey, Ravindra M; Sareen, Neha

    2018-01-01

    The study was conducted with an objective to investigate the association between reproductive factors, nutritional status and serum 25(OH)D levels among women diagnosed with breast cancer (BC). A total of 200 women with BC attending a tertiary healthcare institute of Delhi, India matched with 200 healthy women for age (±2years) and socio economic status were included in the study. Data was collected on socio-demographic profile, reproductive factors, physical activity and dietary intake (24h dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire) using interviewer administered structured questionnaires and standard tools. Non fasting blood samples (5ml) were collected for the biochemical estimation of serum 25(OH)D and calcium levels by chemiluminescent immunoassay and colorimetric assay technique. Data was analyzed by univariable conditional logistic regression and significant variables with (p<0.05), were analyzed in final model by conditional multivariable logistic regression analysis. The mean age of patients at diagnosis of BC was 45±10years. Results of multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis revealed significantly higher odds of BC for reproductive factors like age at marriage (more than 23 years), number of abortions, history or current use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP), with [OR (95% CI)] of [2.4 (1.2-4.9)], [4.0 (1.6-12.6)], [2.4 (1.2-5.0)]. Women with physically light activities and occasional consumption of eggs were found to have higher odds of BC [4.6 (1.6-13.0)] and [3.2 (1.6-6.3)]. Women with serum 25(OH)D levels less than 20ng/ml and calcium levels less than 10.5mg/dl had higher odds of having BC [2.4 (1.2-5.1)] and [3.7 (1.5-8.8)]. A protective effect of urban areas as place of residence and energy intake greater than 50% of Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) per day against BC was observed (p<0.05). The findings of the present study revealed a significant association of reproductive and dietary factors in addition to sedentary

  13. ASUPAN SENG, KADAR SERUM SENG, DAN STUNTING PADA ANAK SEKOLAH DI PESISIR SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriyan Pramono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study is to determine prevalence of at risk inadequate intake of dietary zinc, and to analyze differences of zinc serum level between dietary zinc quintile and stunting status. A cross sectional study was conducted to 70 school children (9-12 years selected by simple random sampling. Height was measured by stadiometer and weight was measured using calibrated digital weight-scale. Zinc serum level was analyzed by Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometry (AAS method, and dietary intake of zinc and iron was obtained using semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Data were analyzed using Anova test. Seventy percent subjects were at risk inadequate intake of dietary zinc based on Estimated Average Requirement (EAR cut off and zinc serum levels among all subjects in this study were <65 μg/dl. There were 47.1% stunting children found in this study. Mean zinc serum levels significantly differences between dietary zinc quintile (p=0.000 and between stunting status (p=0.000. At risk inadequate dietary zinc still contributed to zinc deficiency in coastal school children population. Zinc status was significantly different between stunted and normal children.Keywords: coastal area, dietary zinc, EAR, stunting, zinc serum levelsABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui prevalensi risiko kurangnya asupan seng dan menganalisis perbedaan kadar serum seng antara kuintil asupan seng dan status stunting. Studi cross sectional dilakukan terhadap 70 anak sekolah (9-12 tahun yang dipilih secara acak sederhana. Tinggi badan diukur dengan stadiometer dan berat diukur dengan menggunakan timbangan digital terkalibrasi. Kadar seng serum dianalisis dengan metode Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometry (AAS, dan data asupan seng dan besi diperoleh melalui wawancara dengan Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Data dianalisis dengan metode analisis statistik Anova. Sejumlah 70% subjek berisiko kurangnya asupan seng makanan berdasarkan

  14. Effects of Dietary Brazilian Palm Oil (Mauritia flexuosa L. on Cholesterol Profile and Vitamin A and E Status of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailane de Souza Aquino

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In vitro studies have been carried out to establish the nutritional differences between crude and refined vegetable oils; however, the impact of the consumption of these foods on metabolism, in particular the effect of buriti oil, needs to be further evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical and murine parameters and the vitamin A and E status in young rats fed with diets supplemented with crude or refined buriti oil. The animals (n = 30 were randomized into three groups receiving diet added of soybean oil (control, crude buriti oil (CBO and refined buriti oil (RBO for 28 days. Rats fed with diet added of refined buriti oil (RBO showed reduced total cholesterol (up to 60.27%, LDL (64.75%, triglycerides (55.47% and enzyme aspartate transaminase (21.57% compared to those fed with diet added of crude oil. Serum and hepatic retinol and tocopherol were higher by two to three times in CBO and RBO groups compared to the control group, but no differences were observed for murine parameters. The results indicate that buriti oil is an important source of the antioxidant vitamins A and E, and refined buriti oil is suggested as alternative to improve the lipid profile of healthy rats.

  15. Interpreting magnesium status to enhance clinical care: key indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Rebecca B; Nielsen, Forrest

    2017-11-01

    To update advances in identifying factors affecting magnesium (Mg) status that assist in providing improved evidence-based clinical decision-making for assessing Mg status. Findings from recent cohort studies, small randomized control trials, and multiple meta-analyses reinforce earlier work that serum Mg concentrations, urinary Mg excretion, and Mg dietary intakes are inversely associated with cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes. These studies indicate that the reference range for serum Mg needs updating, and that individuals with serum Mg in the range of 0.75-0.85 mmol/l and displaying changes in other factors associated with a low Mg status may be Mg deficient. Individuals with serum Mg concentrations below this range most likely are Mg deficient and, above this range, are most likely Mg sufficient. The combined determination of serum Mg concentration, 24-h urinary Mg excretion, and dietary Mg intake is currently the most practical method to obtain a sound assessment of Mg status. The strong correlations of Mg deficiency with increased risk of several chronic diseases, some of which exist as comorbidities, indicate that Mg status should be ascertained in patients presenting such disorder.

  16. [Relationship between serum lipids and status of vitamin C and E as antioxidants in Venezuelan elderly people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meertens, Lesbia; Ruido, Tathiana; Díaz, Nayka; Naddaf, Gloria; Rodríguez, Adelmo; Solano, Liseti

    2008-12-01

    During aging there is a tendency towards hyperlipidemia and changes in the distribution of lipoproteins. A decline in the functioning of the body's antioxidant defense system is also observed at this time. The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between serum concentrations of total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and Vitamins C and E. 61 adults over 60 years of age were evaluated from January to March, 2006. Nutritional status was diagnosed by BMI (WHO); serum levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and fractions (HDL-c and LDL-c) were determined by enzyme method; Vitamin C (colorimetric method) and Vitamin E by HPLC. ATPIII values were used as a reference for risk of TG, TC, HDL, LDL-c, vitamin C: > 0.9 mg/dL (normal), < 0.9 mg/dL (deficit); vitamin E: = 1300 microg/dL (normal), 1300 = microg /dL (deficit). Consumption of vitamins C and E were estimated by the direct weighing method 3 days per week. According to BMI, 19.7% had nutritional deficit, 39.3% overweight, and 11.5% obesity. TG, TC, LDL-c levels were at risk in females, and HDL-c in both genders. Prevalence of risk for heart disease was: TG (45.2%), HDL-c (51.1%), and LDL-c (52.5%). Consumption and serum levels of vitamin E were low in both genders. There was no association between variables. A significant and positive correlation between TG, TC, LDL-C, serum vitamin E, and BMI was observed. The female group showed overweight, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia, HDL-c and LDL-c at risk, and vitamin E deficiency, all of which are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease in this age group.

  17. Serum cobalt status during pregnancy and the risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome: A prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chunmei; Wang, Jianqing; Xia, Xun; Wang, Qunan; Li, Zhijuan; Tao, Ruiwen; Tao, Yiran; Xiang, Haiyun; Tong, Shilu; Tao, Fangbiao

    2018-03-01

    Cobalt (Co) is an essential trace element and has been suggested to be involved in blood pressure regulation, but few studies have focused on serum Co status during pregnancy and the risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome (PIH). The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the association between serum Co levels during pregnancy and the risks of PIH, and to explore how the maternal Co status contributes to the incidence of PIH. 3260 non-hypertensive women before pregnancy with singleton births in Ma'anShan birth cohort study (MABC) were recruited with the assessment of maternal Co concentrations, additionally, the levels of 7 inflammatory factors and 3 stress factors in placentas were also determined. Relative risks (RRs) [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] for the risks of PIH were assessed and the relationships between 10 factors and maternal Co status during pregnancy were evaluated as well. A total of 194 (5.95%) women were diagnosed with PIH. The concentrations of Co varied from the first trimester to the second trimester, and maternal serum Co concentrations during pregnancy were negatively associated with the incidence of PIH in a linear fashion. There was a clear trend in RRs according to decreasing exposure to Co levels in the second trimester (RR a =1.80, 95% CI (1.26, 2.56); RR b =1.73, 95% CI (1.21, 2.46) and RR c =1.43, 95% CI (1.02, 2.04) when low Co levels comparing with high Co levels before and after adjustment for confounders; and RR a =1.29, 95% CI (0.88, 1.88); RR b =1.28, 95% CI (0.87, 1.87) and RR c =1.25, 95% CI (0.86, 1.82) when medium Co levels comparing with high Co levels before and after adjustment for confounders). In addition, the trend for the first trimester was nearly identifical to those for the second trimester (RR a =1.35, 95% CI (0.94, 1.93); RR b =1.33, 95% CI (0.93, 1.91); RR c =1.22, 95%CI (0.86, 1.73) when low Co levels comparing with high Co levels before and after adjustment for confounders; and RR a =1.10, 95

  18. Folate status and concentrations of serum folate forms in the US population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Sternberg, Maya R; Fazili, Zia; Lacher, David A; Zhang, Mindy; Johnson, Clifford L; Hamner, Heather C; Bailey, Regan L; Rader, Jeanne I; Yamini, Sedigheh; Berry, R J; Yetley, Elizabeth A

    2015-06-28

    Serum and erythrocyte (RBC) total folate are indicators of folate status. No nationally representative population data exist for folate forms. We measured the serum folate forms (5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF), unmetabolised folic acid (UMFA), non-methyl folate (sum of tetrahydrofolate (THF), 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-formylTHF), 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (5,10-methenylTHF)) and MeFox (5-methylTHF oxidation product)) by HPLC-MS/MS and RBC total folate by microbiologic assay in US population ≥ 1 year (n approximately 7500) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2. Data analysis for serum total folate was conducted including and excluding MeFox. Concentrations (geometric mean; detection rate) of 5-methylTHF (37·5 nmol/l; 100 %), UMFA (1·21 nmol/l; 99·9 %), MeFox (1·53 nmol/l; 98·8 %), and THF (1·01 nmol/l; 85·2 %) were mostly detectable. 5-FormylTHF (3·6 %) and 5,10-methenylTHF (4·4 %) were rarely detected. The biggest contributor to serum total folate was 5-methylTHF (86·7 %); UMFA (4·0 %), non-methyl folate (4·7 %) and MeFox (4·5 %) contributed smaller amounts. Age was positively related to MeFox, but showed a U-shaped pattern for other folates. We generally noted sex and race/ethnic biomarker differences and weak (Spearman's rfolates. All biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations with recent folic acid-containing dietary supplement use. These first-time population data for serum folate forms generally show similar associations with demographic, physiological and lifestyle variables as serum total folate. Patterns observed for MeFox may suggest altered folate metabolism dependent on biological characteristics.

  19. Folate status and concentrations of serum folate forms in the US population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Sternberg, Maya R.; Fazili, Zia; Lacher, David A.; Zhang, Mindy; Johnson, Clifford L.; Hamner, Heather C.; Bailey, Regan L.; Rader, Jeanne I.; Yamini, Sedigheh; Berry, R. J.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Serum and red blood cell (RBC) total folate are indicators of folate status. No nationally representative population data exist for folate forms. We measured serum folate forms [5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF), unmetabolized folic acid (UMFA), non-methyl folate (sum of THF, 5-formylTHF, 5,10-methenylTHF), and MeFox (5-methylTHF oxidation product)] by HPLC-MS/MS and RBC total folate by microbiologic assay in US persons ≥1 year (n ~7500) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2. Data analysis for serum total folate was conducted including and excluding MeFox. Concentrations (geometric mean; detection rate) of 5-methylTHF (37.5 nmol/L; 100%), UMFA (1.21 nmol/L; 99.9%), MeFox (1.53 nmol/L; 98.8%), and THF (1.01 nmol/L; 85.2%) were mostly detectable. 5-FormylTHF (3.6%) and 5,10-methenylTHF (4.4%) were rarely detected. The biggest contributor to serum total folate was 5-methylTHF (86.7%); UMFA (4.0%), non-methyl folate (4.7%), and MeFox (4.5%) contributed smaller amounts. Age was positively related to MeFox but showed a U-shaped pattern for other folates. We generally noted sex and race-ethnic biomarker differences and weak (Spearman r folates. All biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations with recent folic acid-containing dietary supplement use. These first-time population data for serum folate forms generally show similar associations with demographic, physiologic, and lifestyle variables as serum total folate. Patterns observed for MeFox may suggest altered folate metabolism dependent on biological characteristics. PMID:25917925

  20. Lower fetuin-A, retinol binding protein 4 and several metabolites after gastric bypass compared to sleeve gastrectomy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Jüllig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bypass of foregut secreted factors promoting insulin resistance is hypothesized to be one of the mechanisms by which resolution of type 2 diabetes (T2D follows roux-en-y gastric bypass (GBP surgery. AIM: To identify insulin resistance-associated proteins and metabolites which decrease more after GBP than after sleeve gastrectomy (SG prior to diabetes remission. METHODS: Fasting plasma from 15 subjects with T2D undergoing GBP or SG was analyzed by proteomic and metabolomic methods 3 days before and 3 days after surgery. Subjects were matched for age, BMI, metformin therapy and glycemic control. Insulin resistance was calculated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR. For proteomics, samples were depleted of abundant plasma proteins, digested with trypsin and labeled with iTRAQ isobaric tags prior to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Metabolomic analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effect of the respective bariatric surgery on identified proteins and metabolites was evaluated using two-way analysis of variance and appropriate post-hoc tests. RESULTS: HOMA-IR improved, albeit not significantly, in both groups after surgery. Proteomic analysis yielded seven proteins which decreased significantly after GBP only, including Fetuin-A and Retinol binding protein 4, both previously linked to insulin resistance. Significant decrease in Fetuin-A and Retinol binding protein 4 after GBP was confirmed using ELISA and immunoassay. Metabolomic analysis identified significant decrease of citrate, proline, histidine and decanoic acid specifically after GBP. CONCLUSION: Greater early decrease was seen for Fetuin-A, Retinol binding protein 4, and several metabolites after GBP compared to SG, preceding significant weight loss. This may contribute to enhanced T2D remission observed following foregut bypass procedures.

  1. Urinary beta 2-microglobulin and retinol binding protein: individual fluctuations in cadmium-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormos, G.; Cseh, J.; Groszmann, M.; Timar, M.

    1985-09-01

    Urinary retinol binding protein (RBP) and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) were compared in apparently healthy population groups with and without occupational exposure to cadmium (Cd). The relationship observed in neutral urine was: RBP (micrograms/mmol creatinine) = 0.786 + 0.814 beta 2-m (micrograms/mmol creatinine). This relationship was similar to that reported for patients with various renal diseases. Analysis of urine samples collected weekly from workers exposed occupationally to Cd revealed marked fluctuations, not only in the concentration of the acid-labile beta 2-m but also in the level of the pre-analytically more stable RBP. Therefore, repeated sampling and urine analyses are suggested as means to obtain more reliable data when monitoring Cd-exposed personnel.

  2. Serum Thyroxine to Thyroxine-Binding Globulin Ratio in Pregnancy and Newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Yeul

    1982-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of the ratio of serum thyroxine(T 4 ) /thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) for the thyroid status in pregnancy and newborn serum thyroxine, TBG, triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine levels were radioimmunoassayed in normal pregnant women at each of the trimesters, and the calculated serum T 4 /TBG ratios were compared with other parameters such as T 3 /TBG ratio and free T 4 /TBG ratio and free T 4 /TBG ratio. Serum T 4 levels were elevated with the proportionate increase in TBG levels during pregnancy, leading to the nearly constant value of serum T 4 /TBG ratios as in normal non-pregnant controls. In contrast, serum T 3 /TBG and free T 4 /TBG ratios varied considerably during pregnancy. In newborn, T 4 levels were nearly not changed with compared non-pregnant control value and TBG levels were elevated. The results indicate that serum T 4 /TBG ratio is a better parameter than others in evaluating the thyroid status during pregnancy and but newborn is a no better.

  3. The effect of daily consumption of the small fish Amblypharyngodon mola or added vitamin A on iron status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anna Birkmose; Schmidt, Lise K H; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    : Bangladeshi children (n=196), aged 3-7 years, with marginal vitamin A status were randomly allocated to one of three intervention groups served different fish curries: mola curry (experimental group); rui (Labeo rohita) curry with added retinyl palmitate (positive control group); or rui curry (negative...... control group). The intervention meals were served 6 days/week for 9 weeks. The experimental and positive control meals were designed to contain similar amounts of retinol activity equivalents per portion. The mola curry contained four times more iron compared to the rui curries due to different iron...

  4. Randomized controlled trial of a protein substitute with prolonged release on the protein status of children with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Marcello; Riva, Enrica; Salvatici, Elisabetta; Cefalo, Graziella; Radaelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether a phenylalanine-free protein substitute with prolonged release may be beneficial to the protein status of children with phenylketonuria (PKU) compared to conventional substitutes. Sixty children with PKU, 7 to 16 years of age, were randomly allocated to receive either a prolonged-release (test) or the current conventional protein substitute for 30 days. Subjects were additionally sex and age matched with 60 subjects with mild hyperphenylalaninemia and 60 unaffected subjects. The protein status in children with PKU was assessed by albumin, transthyretin, and retinol-binding protein (RBP), and changes throughout the trial period were the primary outcome measures. Children with PKU did not differ in anthropometry from children with mild hyperphenylalaninemia or unaffected children but they ingested lower amounts of proteins (p phenylketonuria.

  5. In vitro maintenance of spermatogenesis in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risley, M.S.; Miller, A.; Bumcrot, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Spermatogenesis has been maintained for extended periods in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media supplemented with bovine serum albumin, insulin, transferrin, follicle-stimulating hormone, dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, retinol, ascorbate, and tocopherol. The organization of the testis fragments was maintained for 28 days, and all stages of development were present throughout the culture period. 3 H-Thymidine-labeled secondary (Type B) spermatogonia developed in 28 days into spermatids at the acrosomal vesicle stage whereas labeled zygotene spermatocytes became mature spermatids in 28 days. Spermatogonial proliferation also continued in vitro for 28 days. Germ cell differentiation was not dependent upon exogenous testosterone, ascorbate, or tocopherol since 3 H-labeled spermatogonia became mature spermatids in testes cultured 35 days in media lacking these supplements. Autoradiography demonstrated that 55% of the luminal sperm present in explants cultured 10 days had differentiated in vitro. Sperm from testes cultured 10-35 days were similar to sperm from freshly dissected testes with regard to motility and fecundity, and eggs fertilized with sperm from explant cultures developed normally into swimming tadpoles. The results demonstrate the feasibility of maintaining vertebrate spermatogenesis in culture and suggest that in vitro analysis of Xenopus spermatogenesis using defined media may provide important insights into the evolution of regulatory mechanisms in spermatogenesis

  6. Potential Role of Amino Acid/Protein Nutrition and Exercise in Serum Albumin Redox State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Wada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Albumin is the major protein in the serum of mammals. It is synthesized exclusively in the liver, before being secreted into the circulation. Similar to skeletal muscle protein, albumin synthesis is stimulated by dietary amino acids and proteins as well as exercise. Albumin has three isoforms based on the redox states of the free cysteine residue at position 34. The redox state of serum albumin has long been extensively investigated in terms of oxidative stress-related chronic diseases, with the redox state of serum albumin having been regarded as a marker of systemic oxidative stress. However, according to recent animal studies, the redox state of serum albumin is modulated by albumin turnover and may also reflect amino acid/protein nutritional status. Furthermore, as the redox state of serum albumin is modulated by exercise training, measuring the pre- and post-exercise redox states of serum albumin in athletes may be useful in assessing amino acid/protein nutritional status and exercise-induced oxidative stress, which are closely associated with skeletal muscle adaptive responses. This article extensively reviews serum albumin and the redox state of albumin in the context of amino acid/protein nutritional status and exercise training.

  7. Serum concentrations of trace elements in patients with Crohn's disease receiving enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johtatsu, Tomoko; Andoh, Akira; Kurihara, Mika; Iwakawa, Hiromi; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Sasaki, Masaya

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the trace element status in Crohn's disease (CD) patients receiving enteral nutrition, and evaluated the effects of trace element-rich supplementation. Thirty-one patients with CD were enrolled in this study. All patients were placed on an enteral nutrition regimen with Elental(R) (Ajinomoto pharmaceutical. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). Serum selenium, zinc and copper concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum selenoprotein P levels were determined by an ELISA system. Average serum levels of albumin, selenium, zinc and copper were 4.1 +/- 0.4 g/dl, 11.2 +/- 2.8 microg/dl, 71.0 +/- 14.8 microg/dl, and 112.0 +/- 25.6 microg/dl, respectively. In 9 patients of 31 CD patients, serum albumin levels were lower than the lower limit of the normal range. Serum selenium, zinc and copper levels were lower than lower limits in 12 patients, 9 patients and 1 patient, respectively. Serum selenium levels significantly correlated with both serum selenoprotein P levels and glutathione peroxidase activity. Supplementation of selenium (100 microg/day) and zinc (10 mg/day) for 2 months significantly improved the trace element status in CD patients. In conclusion, serum selenium and zinc levels are lower in many CD patients on long-term enteral nutrition. In these patients, supplementation of selenium and zinc was effective in improving the trace element status.

  8. Vitamin A intake, serum vitamin D and bone mineral density: analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Yang, Sung-Won; Song, Byeng Chun; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2015-03-10

    The association of high vitamin A intake and low bone mineral density (BMD) is still controversial. To determine the association of dietary vitamin A intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration with BMD, a total of 6481 subjects (2907 men and 3574 women) aged ≥50 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011) were divided into groups according to dietary vitamin A intake (tertiles) and serum 25(OH)D (75 nmol/L), and evaluated for BMD after adjusting for relevant variables. Mean dietary vitamin A intakes were 737 and 600 μg RE (Retinol Equivalents) in men and women, respectively. Total hip and femoral neck BMD in men and lumbar spine BMD in women were both positively correlated with dietary vitamin A intake in subjects with serum 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L. Among men with serum 25(OH)D L, both the top (mean 1353 μg RE) and bottom (mean 218 μg RE) tertiles of dietary vitamin A intake had lower BMD than the middle group (mean 577 μg RE). In this population, BMD was the highest among men and women with serum 25(OH)D = 50-75 nmol/L and that there were no differences in BMD by vitamin A intake in these vitamin D adequate groups. This cross-sectional study indicates that vitamin A intake does not affect bone mineral density as long as the serum 25(OH)D concentration is maintained in the moderate level of 50-75 nmol/L.

  9. Stunting, poor iron status and parasite infection are significant risk factors for lower cognitive performance in Cambodian school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Perignon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children <5 y were anemic and 40% stunted in 2010. Currently, no data exists on the nutritional status of Cambodian school-aged children, or on how malnutrition potentially affects their cognitive development. OBJECTIVE: To assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status (iron, vitamin A, zinc, iodine of Cambodian schoolchildren and their associations with cognitive performance. METHODS: School children aged 6-16 y (n = 2443 from 20 primary schools in Cambodia were recruited. Anthropometry, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol-binding protein and zinc concentrations, inflammation status, urinary iodine concentration and parasite infection were measured. Socio-economic data were collected in a sub-group of children (n = 616. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0.7% respectively. The prevalence of stunting was 40.0%, including 10.9% of severe stunting. Stunted children scored significantly lower than non-stunted children on all tests. In RCPM test, boys with iron-deficiency anemia had lower scores than boys with normal iron status (-1.46, p<0.05. In picture completion test, children with normal iron status tended to score higher than iron-deficient children with anemia (-0.81; p = 0.067 or without anemia (-0.49; p = 0.064. Parasite infection was associated with an increase in risk of scoring below the median value in block design test (OR = 1.62; p<0.05, and with lower scores in other tests, for girls only (both p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Poor cognitive performance of Cambodian school-children was multifactorial and

  10. Serum vitamin D status in children with protein-energy malnutrition admitted to a national referral hospital in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeta, Henry W; Kasolo, Josephine; Kiggundu, Reuben K; Kiragga, Agnes N; Kiguli, Sarah

    2015-09-07

    Vitamin D deficiency is a world-wide epidemic with recent estimates indicating that greater than 50% of the global population is at risk. In Uganda, 80% of healthy community children in a survey were found to be vitamin D insufficient. Protein-energy malnutrition is likely to be associated with vitamin D intake deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and the associated factors among children admitted with protein-energy malnutrition to the pediatrics wards of Mulago hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Consecutive sampling was done with 158 children, aged 6-24 months, enrolled in a cross sectional study. One hundred and seventeen malnourished and 41 non malnourished children were enrolled from the Acute Care unit, pediatrics in-patient wards, outpatient and immunization clinics, following informed consent obtained from the children's parents/guardians. Children with protein energy malnutrition were categorized based on anthropometric measurements of weight-for-height and weight for length compared with the recommended WHO reference Z-score. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium and phosphate were assayed. One hundred seventeen malnourished and 41 non malnourished children were enrolled. The majority of study participants were male, 91 (57.6%). The mean serum vitamin D levels among the malnourished was 32.5 mmol/L (±12.0 SD) and 32.2 mmol/L (10.9 SD) among the malnourished, p = 0.868. Fifteen (36.6%) of the non malnourished children and 51 (43.6%) of the malnourished had suboptimal levels, p = 0.689. Malnourished children admitted with meningitis and cerebral palsy had lower serum vitamin D levels than those with other infections. There was no statistically significant difference in vitamin D values between the malnourished and non malnourished children. Clinicians should actively screen for children for serum vitamin D levels regardless of nutritional status.

  11. Vitamin A Intake, Serum Vitamin D and Bone Mineral Density: Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Seok Joo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The association of high vitamin A intake and low bone mineral density (BMD is still controversial. To determine the association of dietary vitamin A intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentration with BMD, a total of 6481 subjects (2907 men and 3574 women aged ≥50 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011 were divided into groups according to dietary vitamin A intake (tertiles and serum 25(OHD (<50, 50–75, >75 nmol/L, and evaluated for BMD after adjusting for relevant variables. Mean dietary vitamin A intakes were 737 and 600 μg RE (Retinol Equivalents in men and women, respectively. Total hip and femoral neck BMD in men and lumbar spine BMD in women were both positively correlated with dietary vitamin A intake in subjects with serum 25(OHD >75 nmol/L. Among men with serum 25(OHD <50 nmol/L, both the top (mean 1353 μg RE and bottom (mean 218 μg RE tertiles of dietary vitamin A intake had lower BMD than the middle group (mean 577 μg RE. In this population, BMD was the highest among men and women with serum 25(OHD = 50–75 nmol/L and that there were no differences in BMD by vitamin A intake in these vitamin D adequate groups. This cross-sectional study indicates that vitamin A intake does not affect bone mineral density as long as the serum 25(OHD concentration is maintained in the moderate level of 50–75 nmol/L.

  12. Magnesium deficiency: What is our status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low magnesium intake has been implicated in a broad range of cardiometabolic conditions, including diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dietary magnesium and total body magnesium status have a widely-used but imperfect biomarker in serum magnesium. Despite serum magnesium’s limitation...

  13. [Changes in vitamin A intake following the social marketing of red palm oil among children and women in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagré, No l-Marie; Delisle, Hélène; Tarini, Ann; Delpeuch, Francis

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on changes in vitamin A (VA) intakes as part of the evaluation of a pilot project on social marketing of red palm oil (RPO) as a VA supplement for mothers and children in central-north Burkina Faso. The objectives of the 30-month project are to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of introducing RPO in non-consuming areas. RPO is collected from women in the South-West region and it is sold in project sites by village volunteers. RPO is promoted by community workers trained in persuasive communication and social marketing. The target population is free to buy and consume RPO. Evaluation design includes data collected at onset, then 12 and 24 months later, from the same sample of 210 mothers and their children randomly selected in seven project sites. Children were 1 to 3 years old at onset. Blood samples were collected at baseline from mothers and children for serum retinol determination by HPLC. VA intakes are estimated by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, using the conventional beta-carotene to retinol conversion factors and the newly revised lower factors. VA deficiency is a major public health problem in the area: 64% of mothers and 85% of children had serum retinol concentrations One year later, one third of respondents had consumed RPO in the previous week, and it supplied around 56% of the VA intake of children and 67% of mothers (36% and 46% respectively for the whole group). VA intakes were significantly increased at 510 +/- 493 microg ER and 801 +/- 913 microg ER for the children and their mothers respectively (347 +/- 443 microg ER and 568 +/- 803 microg ER respectively, with the revised factors). Analyzing serum retinol and dietary data collected at baseline, it was found that VA intakes one year later. The results show that promoting RPO (and other VA rich foods) was effective in improving VA intakes. This improvement will hopefully be sustained and even further enhanced during the remaining 12 months of the

  14. Study on the relationship between peripheral blood red blood cells immunofunction status and serum TNF-α levels in pediatric patients with Henoch-Schoenlein purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yue; He Haoming

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between changes of peripheral RBC immuno-function and serum TNF-α levels in pediatric patients with Henoch-Schoenlein purpura. Methods: RBC immuno-function status was studied with immunologic methods and serum TNF-α levels were measured with RIA in 31 pediatric patients with Henoch-Schoenlein purpura and 35 controls, Results: Levels of RBC-C3bRR were significantly lower and levels of serum TNF-α were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01). These two variables were significantly negatively correlated (r=-0.3018, P<0.05). On the contrary, the RBC-ICRRR levels were significantly higher in the patients (P<0.01) and were positively correlated with levels of TNF-α (r=0.3588, P<0.05). Conclusion: There were disturbances of RBC immuno-regulation with suppressed immuno-function in the purpura patients, which were related to the high levels of TNF-α. (authors)

  15. Acute radiation effects on saliva composition in rats with different vitamin a levels in serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funegard, U; Johansson, I; Franzen, L; Ericson, T [Dept. of Cardiology, Univ. Umeaa (Sweden) Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Umeaa (Sweden)

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation of the head and neck often causes loss of salivary gland function which may lead to severe oral discomfort. The effects of a single dose of 25 Gy given to rats with different serum levels of vitamin A were studied. The salivary secretion rate as well as concentrations of protein, hexosamine, amylase and electrolytes, and the activities of two antibacterial glycoproteins were measured. At an adequates of two antibacterial glycoproteins were measured. At an adequate level of vitamin A in the diet, irradiation significantly reduced whole saliva secretion rate, and decreased the concentration of salivary sodium, calcium and hexosamine as well as the activity of a glycoprotein agglutinating a serotype c strain of S. mutans. Peroxidase, amylase and potassium were not significantly affected. The reductions seen at an adequate level of vitamin A were not reduced by supplementation of excess dietary retinol. The damage caused by irradiation was enhanced by vitamin A deficiency as seen in the reduced protein and hexosamine concentrations. (orig.).

  16. Acute radiation effects on saliva composition in rats with different vitamin a levels in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funegard, U.; Johansson, I.; Franzen, L.; Ericson, T.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation of the head and neck often causes loss of salivary gland function which may lead to severe oral discomfort. The effects of a single dose of 25 Gy given to rats with different serum levels of vitamin A were studied. The salivary secretion rate as well as concentrations of protein, hexosamine, amylase and electrolytes, and the activities of two antibacterial glycoproteins were measured. At an adequates of two antibacterial glycoproteins were measured. At an adequate level of vitamin A in the diet, irradiation significantly reduced whole saliva secretion rate, and decreased the concentration of salivary sodium, calcium and hexosamine as well as the activity of a glycoprotein agglutinating a serotype c strain of S. mutans. Peroxidase, amylase and potassium were not significantly affected. The reductions seen at an adequate level of vitamin A were not reduced by supplementation of excess dietary retinol. The damage caused by irradiation was enhanced by vitamin A deficiency as seen in the reduced protein and hexosamine concentrations. (orig.)

  17. Chromatographic analysis of endogenous retinoids in tissues and serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, C.K.; Brouwer, A.; Nau, H.

    2003-01-01

    We present a reliable, highly sensitive, and versatile method for the simultaneous determination of endogenous polar (acidic) and apolar (retinol, retinal, and retinyl esters) retinoids in various biological matrices. Following a single liquid extraction of retinoids from tissues or plasma with

  18. Association of serum ferritin levels with immunological status and clinical staging of HIV patients: a retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, R. H.; Mardia, A. I.; Purba, G. C. F.; Syahrini, H.

    2018-03-01

    Serum ferritin has long known as an acute phase reactant during inflammation. It works as an oxidative stress marker beside its role in the storage of intracellular iron. The increase of serum ferritin levels (SFL) has been reported found in HIV patients. It remains unclear though whether it causes, or is the cause, to the progressivity of the disease. The purpose of this study was to find the association between the SFL and the progressivity of the HIV disease. A retrospective study of 91 patients was carried out at the Haji Adam Malik Central General Hospital. All of the study population were HIV positive inpatients admitted from January to December 2016. The data needed to be all obtained from the patient’s medical records. The WHO Clinical Staging System was used to assess the HIV clinical staging. An inverse relationship was found between the SFL with the immunological status of the HIV patients (r=-0.213) based on their CD4+ count. There was no association found between the SFL with the clinical staging of the HIV patients (p=0.953). The elevated SFL is a feature found in HIV-diagnosed patients with the low CD4+ count, and it affects the progressivity of the disease.

  19. Genetic and environmental influences of surfactant protein D serum levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, G.L.; Hjelmborg, J.V.; Kyvik, K.O.

    2006-01-01

    defining the constitutional serum level of SP-D and determine the magnitude of the genetic contribution to serum SP-D in the adult population. Recent studies have demonstrated that serum SP-D concentrations in children are genetically determined and that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located...... in the NH(2)-terminal region (Met11Thr) of the mature protein is significantly associated with the serum SP-D levels. A classic twin study was performed on a twin population including 1,476 self-reported healthy adults. The serum SP-D levels increased with male sex, age, and smoking status. The intraclass...

  20. Genetic and environmental influences of surfactant protein D serum levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Grith Lykke; Hjelmborg, Jacob v. B.; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2006-01-01

    in the NH(2)-terminal region (Met11Thr) of the mature protein is significantly associated with the serum SP-D levels. A classic twin study was performed on a twin population including 1,476 self-reported healthy adults. The serum SP-D levels increased with male sex, age, and smoking status. The intraclass...... defining the constitutional serum level of SP-D and determine the magnitude of the genetic contribution to serum SP-D in the adult population. Recent studies have demonstrated that serum SP-D concentrations in children are genetically determined and that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located...

  1. Ascorbic acid and melatonin reduce heat-induced performance inhibition and oxidative stress in Japanese quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, N; Onderci, M; Sahin, K; Gursu, M F; Smith, M O

    2004-02-01

    1. The effects of ascorbic acid (L-ascorbic acid) and melatonin supplementation on performance, carcase characteristics, malondialdehyde (MDA) as lipid peroxidation indicator, ascorbic acid, retinol, tocopherol and mineral status in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) exposed to high ambient temperature were evaluated. 2. Two hundred and forty Japanese quails (10 d old) were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups consisting of 10 replicates of three birds each. The birds were kept in a temperature-controlled room at 22 degrees C (Thermoneutral, TN groups) or 34 degrees C (for 8 h/d; 09:00 to 17:00 h; Heat stress, HS groups). Birds in both TN and HS were fed either a basal (control) diet or the basal diet supplemented with 250 mg of L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet (Ascorbic acid group), 40 mg of melatonin/kg of diet (Melatonin group) or both (Ascorbic acid + Melatonin group). 3. Supplementing heat-stressed quails with ascorbic acid and melatonin improved performance compared with the control group. Effects generally were greatest in quails supplemented with both ascorbic acid and melatonin. 4. Although supplementation did not consistently restore the concentrations of serum ascorbic acid, retinol and tocopherol to those of TN groups, these concentrations increased significantly with supplementation. Furthermore, serum and liver MDA and serum cholesterol and glucose concentrations were lower in the supplemented groups than in the heat-stressed controls. 5. Within each environment, excretion of Ca, P, Mg, Zn, Fe and Cr were lowest in the combination group and, in all cases, highest in the HS group. Interactions between diet and temperature were detected for live weight gain, cold carcase weight, MDA, ascorbic acid, tocopherol concentrations and excretion of zinc. 6. The results of the study indicate that ascorbic acid and melatonin supplementation attenuate the decline in performance and antioxidant and mineral status caused by heat stress and such

  2. The association between serum vitamin D levels and renal tubular dysfunction in a general population exposed to cadmium in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Dai, Yan; Wang, Zhongqiu; Zhu, Guoying; Ding, Xiaoqiang; Jin, Taiyi

    2018-01-01

    Cadmium exposure can cause renal tubular dysfunction. Recent studies show that vitamin D can play multiple roles in the body. However, the association between serum vitamin D levels and renal tubular dysfunction in a general population exposed to cadmium has not been clarified. We performed study to assess the effects of cadmium on serum 25(OH) D levels and the association between serum 25(OH) D levels and renal tubular dysfunction in a population environmentally exposed to cadmium. A total of 133 subjects living in control area and two cadmium polluted areas were included in the present study. Cadmium in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd), urinary β2Microglobulin (UBMG), urinary retinol binding protein (URBP) and serum 25 (OH) D were determined. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between 25 (OH) D and prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction. No significant differences were observed in serum 25(OH) D levels among the four quartile of UCd and BCd after adjusting with cofounders. After adjusted with the confounders, the odds ratio (OR) of subjects with 25(OH) D ≥ 40 ng/ml were 0.20 (95%CI: 0.1-0.8) if UBMG was chosen as indicators of renal dysfunction and 0.28 (95%CI: 0.1-1.1) if URBP was chosen as indicators of renal dysfunction, compared with those with 25(OH) D < 30 ng/ml, respectively. Similar results were observed in those subjects living in cadmium polluted areas or with high level of UCd or BCd. Our data indicated that cadmium exposure did not affect serum 25(OH) D level and high 25 (OH) D levels were associated with a decreased risk of renal tubular dysfunction induced by cadmium.

  3. Type 2 diabetes mellitus with early phase acute inflammatory protein on serum protein electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ET Tuladhar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The onset of Type 2 diabetes has been associated with low grade systemic inflammation. The inflammatory status has been studied by measuring acute phase reactant proteins like hsCRP, α1- antitrypsin, α1-acid glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen. Most of these acute phase reactants form α1 and α2 bands on electropherogram of serum proteins. The aim of this study was to evaluate inflammatory status in controlled and uncontrolled type 2 diabetes using cellulose acetate electrophoresis and to find the impact of glycemic status as indicated by HbA1c on inflammation process. Materials and Methods: Serum protein electrophoresis was done on serum samples of 60 cases of Diabetes [controlled and uncontrolled] using cellulose acetate paper technique. The electropherogram obtained was stained with Ponseu S and then quantitated using densitometer. Glycemic status was studied by HbA1c analysis. The density of α1and α2 bands in electropherogram were correlated with HbA1c level. Result: A significant increase in the percentage of α1 and α2 band proteins (0.765 and 0.716, p<0.001 were found with the increasing level of HbA1c. With cutoff of HbA1c 7% (American Diabetic Association recommended, the α1 and α2 serum proteins concentration are significantly higher (p<0.001 in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus compared to controlled diabetes mellitus Conclusion: Cellulose acetate electrophoresis of serum proteins show early phase acute inflammatory status in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus. The process of systemic inflammation worsens with uncontrolled glycemia as indicated by HbA1c. Inflammatory status should be studied adjunct to glycemic status. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i3.6024 JPN 2012; 2(3: 211-214

  4. Serum Iron and Nitric Oxide Production in Trypanosoma brucei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    reduction in the serum iron status and a modulation of nitric oxide synthase activity of T. brucei infected rats. ... inflammation and tissue damage15. ... The serum iron level was determined ... concentration or of total nitrate and nitrite ... 15. 16. 17. 18. Days. S e ru m iro n lev e l mg. /ml. Infected treated. Infected untreated. 0.

  5. Markers of Oxidative Stress in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease are Influenced by Sex, Neuter Status, and Serum Cholesterol Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, M J; Häggström, J; Møller, J E

    2017-01-01

    -tocopherol [P = .003]) was associated with body condition score (BCS), but the association disappeared when cholesterol was included in the analyses. All markers of oxidative stress (MDA, oxLDL, and vitamin E) were positively associated with serum cholesterol concentration (P ≤ .04), but none were associated...... with clinical stage of MMVD. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, markers of oxidative stress are associated with sex, BCS, neuter status, and cholesterol. The results cannot confirm a relationship between oxidative stress and clinical stage of the disease in dogs with MMVD....

  6. Relationship Between the Serum Leptin and Children with Malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jixun

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the serum leptin and the children with malnutrition, the serum leptin levels in 50 malnourished children and 50 normal children were determined by RIA. The results showed that the serum leptin levels in children with malnutrition were significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05). The serum leptin levels in children with malnutrition were positively correlated with body mass index values (r= 0.650, P<0.05), and positively correlated with serum albumin values (r= 0.740,P<0.05). The serum leptin levels in female children were higher than that in men children. The leptin may involve in the regulation of the body nutritional status of children. The serum leptin level may be correlated with the degree of child malnutrition and may be used as a laboratory indicator for the diagnosis of child malnutrition. (authors)

  7. Seasonal genetic influence on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: a twin study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Snellman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although environmental factors, mainly nutrition and UV-B radiation, have been considered major determinants of vitamin D status, they have only explained a modest proportion of the variation in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. We aimed to study the seasonal impact of genetic factors on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 204 same-sex twins, aged 39-85 years and living at northern latitude 60 degrees, were recruited from the Swedish Twin Registry. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Genetic modelling techniques estimated the relative contributions of genetic, shared and individual-specific environmental factors to the variation in serum vitamin D. The average serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 84.8 nmol/l (95% CI 81.0-88.6 but the seasonal variation was substantial, with 24.2 nmol/l (95% CI 16.3-32.2 lower values during the winter as compared to the summer season. Half of the variability in 25-hydroxyvitamin D during the summer season was attributed to genetic factors. In contrast, the winter season variation was largely attributable to shared environmental influences (72%; 95% CI 48-86%, i.e., solar altitude. Individual-specific environmental influences were found to explain one fourth of the variation in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D independent of season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There exists a moderate genetic impact on serum vitamin D status during the summer season, probably through the skin synthesis of vitamin D. Further studies are warranted to identify the genes impacting on vitamin D status.

  8. Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) protection against serum oxidative stress in elderly humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Philip, Sarah J; Riaño, Annia; Sánchez, Carlos; Viada, Carmen; Núñez-Sellés, Alberto J; Delgado, René

    2006-01-01

    We searched for the protective effect of a natural extract from stem bark of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) on age-related oxidative stress. Healthy subjects were classified in two groups, elderly (>65 years) and young group (Vimang tablets, 300 mg each, before meals) for 60 days. Serum concentration of lipid peroxides, serum peroxidation potential, extracellular superoxide dismutase activity (EC-SOD), glutathione status (GSH, GSSG, GSSG/GSH ratio)) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were determined before (both experimental groups) and 15, 30, and 60 days after treatment (only elderly group). We confirmed the existence of an age-associated oxidative stress in human serum as documented by an age-related increase in serum lipoperoxides and GSSG and a decrease in serum antioxidant capacity and EC-SOD activity. Vimang tablet supplementation increased EC-SOD activity (p Vimang tablets prevent age-associated oxidative stress in elderly humans, which could retard the onset of age-associated disease, improving the quality of life for elderly persons.

  9. Effects of metformin treatment on Iron, Zinc and Copper status concentration in the serum of female rats with induced polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhsin S. G. Al-Moziel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study conducted to investigate the effects of metformin drug on serum Iron, Zinc and Copper concentration in Estradiol Valerate(EV induced polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS in virgin rats. Thirty virgin rats were randomly allotted to constitute Normal control (NC-I group and induced polycystic ovary (PCO-I and PCO-II groups having 10 rats in each group. Rats from NC-I group were administered intramuscularly with 0.2 ml of corn oil whereas polycystic ovary was induced in rats from PCO-I and PCO-II groups by administering single intra-muscular injection of estradiol Valerate 4mg/rat. The rats from PCO-I and PCO-II groups were left for 60 days for development of polycystic ovary syndrome. Animals from PCO-I group were then administered with 0.2 ml normal saline as oral gavage for 15 days, these animals were kept as PCO control group animals whereas those from PCO-II groups received metformin (50mg/kg B.wt as oral gavage for 15 days, these animals served as metformin treated PCO group animals. All the rats were thereafter sacrificed for collecting blood from inferior vena-cava. Serum samples from each rat were assessed for iron, zinc and copper status in each experimental group. The results revealed a significant (p≤0.05 increase in serum Fe and Zn and a significant (p≤0.05 decrease in serum Cu concentration in PCO group 1 compared with control non-treated group. The PCO group2 treated with metformin showed a significant (p≤0.05 decrease in serum Fe concentration as compared with those in animals from group NC-I and PCO-I. While, no significant differences were found in serum Zn concentration between all treated groups. On the other hand, a significant (p≤0.05 increase in serum Cu concentration appeared in metformin treated group compared with PCO group 1 which appears significant decrease compared with control group.

  10. Total serum homocysteine as an indicator of vitamin B12 and folate status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, R.C.; Hall, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a modification of an assay for total serum homocysteine (Hcy) in which the Hcy plus radioactive adenosine is converted enzymatically to labeled S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). The modifications included a commerical source for the AdoHcy hydrolase, adenosine labeled with either 14 C or 3 H, and separation of the AdoHcy by thin layer chromatography. The assay was sensitive to 25 pmol. Hcy levels in sera from 18 controls ranged from 6.9 to 12.1 mumol/L with a mean of 9.1 and a SD of 1.5 mumol/L. The total serum Hcy was increased in vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The level was high in congenital defects of vitamin B12 metabolism, blocking the methylation of Hcy regardless of the serum vitamin B12 levels, but was normal in the absence of tissue deficiency even if the serum vitamin B12 levels were low. The procedure has been found practical in two years of use and requires only 0.1 mL of serum

  11. Alterations of serum cholesterol and serum lipoprotein in breast cancer of women

    OpenAIRE

    Hasija, Kiran; Bagga, Hardeep K.

    2005-01-01

    Fasting blood sample of 50 normal subjects (control) and 100 patients of breast cancer were investigated for serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein cholesterol:low density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio during breast cancer of women. Five cancer stages, types, age groups, parity and menopausal status were undertaken...

  12. Vitamin D-binding protein, vitamin D status and serum bioavailable 25(OH)D of young Asian Indian males working in outdoor and indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Ravinder; Saha, Soma; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Singh, Namrata; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan

    2017-03-01

    Urban Asian Indians generally have low serum 25(OH)D. Information on serum bioavailable 25(OH)D and the effect of prolonged sun-exposure in them is not known. We assessed serum 25(OH)D and bioavailable 25(OH)D in males with varying durations of sun-exposure in Delhi during August-September. Serum 25(OH)D, vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), bioavailable 25(OH)D, free 25(OH)D index, iPTH, ionized calcium and sun-index were assessed in outdoor, mixed outdoor-indoor and indoor workers (n = 88, 32 and 74, respectively). The mean sun-index (12.0 ± 6.25, 4.3 ± 2.20 and 0.7 ± 0.62, respectively; P < 0.001) was highest outdoors and lowest indoors. Serum 25(OH)D (29.0 ± 8.61, 19.1 ± 5.73 and 10.9 ± 4.19 ng/ml, respectively; P < 0.001), bioavailable 25(OH)D and free 25(OH)D index were maximum in outdoor workers followed by mixed-exposure and indoor workers. Their mean serum DBP levels (241.2 ± 88.77, 239.3 ± 83.40 and 216.6 ± 63.93 µg/ml, respectively; P = 0.12) were comparable. Mean serum iPTH was significantly lower in outdoor than indoor workers and showed inverse correlations with serum 25(OH)D, bioavailable 25(OH)D and free 25(OH)D index (r = -0.401, -0.269 and -0.236, respectively; P < 0.001 in all). Daily dietary-calorie intake was higher and calcium lower in outdoor than indoor workers. On regression analysis, sun-exposure was the only significant variable, increasing serum 25(OH)D by 2.03 ng/ml per hour of sun-exposure (95 % confidence interval 1.77-2.28; P < 0.001). Outdoor workers with prolonged sun-exposure were vitamin D-sufficient, with higher serum bioavailable 25(OH)D than the indoor workers during summer. Use of serum DBP levels did not affect the interpretation of their vitamin D status.

  13. Worldwide status of vitamin D nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, P

    2010-07-01

    The vitamin D status depends on the production of vitamin D3 in the skin under the influence of ultraviolet radiation and vitamin D intake through the diet or vitamin D supplements. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is the parameter of choice for the assessment of vitamin D status. Low serum levels of calcium and phosphate and an elevated level of alkaline phosphatase can also point to vitamin D deficiency. Usually, between 50% and 90% of vitamin D in the body is coming from the production in the skin and the remainder is from the diet. The production of vitamin D3 in the skin depends on sunshine exposure, latitude, skin-covering clothes, the use of sun block and skin pigmentation. In general, serum 25(OH)D is lower with higher latitudes and with darker skin types, but there are exceptions. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)DAmerica where vitamin D deficiency is uncommon but vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25(OH)D between 25 and 50 nmol/l) is still common. In the United States and Canada milk is usually supplemented with vitamin D and the use of vitamin supplements is relatively common. Vitamin D status in Latin America usually is reasonable but there are exceptions and vitamin D insufficiency still occurs quite often. In Australia and New Zealand a poor vitamin D status was seen in the elderly who were often vitamin D deficient and also in immigrants from Asia. Vitamin D deficiency also occurred in children when the mother was vitamin D deficient. Within Europe, vitamin D status usually is better in the Nordic countries than around the Mediterranean. This may be due to a lighter skin and sun seeking behaviour and a high consumption of cod liver oil in the Northern countries while in Southern Europe people stay out of the sunshine and have a somewhat darker skin. A very poor vitamin D status was observed in non-western immigrants, especially in pregnant women. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are globally still very common

  14. Retinol dehydrogenase-10 regulates pancreas organogenesis and endocrine cell differentiation via paracrine retinoic acid signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arregi, Igor; Climent, Maria; Iliev, Dobromir

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A-derived retinoic acid (RA) signals are critical for the development of several organs, including the pancreas. However, the tissue-specific control of RA synthesis in organ and cell lineage development has only poorly been addressed in vivo. Here we show that Retinol dehydrogenase-10 (Rdh......10), a key enzyme in embryonic RA production, has important functions in pancreas organogenesis and endocrine cell differentiation. Rdh10 was expressed in the developing pancreas epithelium and surrounding mesenchyme. Rdh10 null mutant mouse embryos exhibited dorsal pancreas agenesis...... and a hypoplastic ventral pancreas with retarded tubulogenesis and branching. Conditional disruption of Rdh10 from the endoderm caused increased mortality, reduced body weight and lowered blood glucose levels after birth. Endodermal Rdh10 deficiency led to a smaller dorsal pancreas with a reduced density of early...

  15. Relationship between stress levels and the status of serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-07-26

    Jul 26, 2014 ... very useful in proper dealing with it. Thus ... of examination, mean serum vitamin A levels was found to be significantly lower before than after ... [2] Cognitive and emotional signs and symptoms ... found that endurance exercise and stress can increase ... and 7 female, ages between 22-30 years) served as ...

  16. Delayed Dosing of Oral Rotavirus Vaccine Demonstrates Decreased Risk of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Associated With Serum Zinc: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgate, E Ross; Haque, Rashidul; Dickson, Dorothy M; Carmolli, Marya P; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Nayak, Uma; Qadri, Firdausi; Alam, Masud; Walsh, Mary Claire; Diehl, Sean A; Zaman, K; Petri, William A; Kirkpatrick, Beth D

    2016-09-01

    Rotavirus is the world's leading cause of childhood diarrheal death. Despite successes, oral rotavirus vaccines are less effective in developing countries. In an urban slum of Dhaka, we performed active diarrhea surveillance to evaluate monovalent G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (RV1) efficacy and understand variables contributing to risk of rotavirus diarrhea (RVD). We performed a randomized controlled trial of monovalent oral rotavirus vaccine (RV1). Seven hundred healthy infants received RV1 or no RV1 (1:1) using delayed dosing (10 and 17 weeks) and were followed for 1 year. Intensive diarrhea surveillance was performed. The primary outcome was ≥1 episode of RVD. Nutritional, socioeconomic, and immunologic factors were assessed by logistic regression best-subsets analysis for association with risk of RVD and interactions with vaccine arm. Incidence of all RVD was 38.3 cases per 100 person-years. Per-protocol RV1 efficacy was 73.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45.8%-87.0%) against severe RVD and 51% (95% CI, 33.8%-63.7%) against all RVD. Serum zinc level (odds ratio [OR], 0.77; P = .002) and lack of rotavirus immunoglobulin A (IgA) seroconversion (OR, 1.95; P = .018) were associated with risk of RVD, independent of vaccination status. Water treatment and exclusive breastfeeding were of borderline significance. Factors not associated with RVD included height for age at 10 weeks, vitamin D, retinol binding protein, maternal education, household income, and sex. In an urban slum with high incidence of RVD, the efficacy of RV1 against severe RVD was higher than anticipated in the setting of delayed dosing. Lower serum zinc level and lack of IgA seroconversion were associated with increased risk of RVD independent of vaccination. NCT01375647. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Relationship between HOMA-IR and serum vitamin D in Chinese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingli; Wang, Huiyan; Wen, Huaikai; Tao, Hongqun; Zhao, Xiaowei

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) level in Chinese children and adolescents. Anthropometric indices, lipid metabolic profile, and serum levels of glucose, insulin and 25-OHD were determined among 278 healthy prepubertal and pubertal, normal and overweight/obese children and adolescents aged 8-18 years between March 2014 and February 2015. HOMA-IR was significantly different across vitamin D statuses (pHOMA-IR negatively correlated with serum 25-OHD level for all subjects (R2=0.148, pHOMA-IR and BMI and serum 25-OHD level (R2=0.654, pHOMA-IR. Our findings supported that lower vitamin D status is strongly associated with worse HOMA-IR.

  18. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children: Nutritional Status and Associations with Serum Leptin, Ghrelin, and IGF-1 Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Gulin; Ozkan, Tanju Basarir; Ozgur, Taner; Altay, Derya; Cavun, Sinan; Goral, Guher

    2016-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastrointestinal diseases such as gastritis, peptic ulcers, malignancy and lymphoma, and extra-gastrointestinal conditions. H. pylori infection is negatively associated with children's growth. Chronic inflammation of the stomach that results in the loss of appetite and, dysregulation of neuroendocrine hormones such as leptin, and ghrelin are the probable reasons of this negative association. The objective of this study is to determine the serum levels of leptin, ghrelin, and IGF-1 in H. pylori-infected children and their relations with growth. A hundred and sixty-one school children aged between 6 and 14 years were selected randomly from five primary schools representing a cross section of population. Demographic and sociocultural characteristics, and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Serum H. pylori IgG, insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, and ghrelin levels were measured in all children. The children were grouped according to the nutritional status and Helicobacter pylori seropositivity. Nutritional indices were compared among groups in association with serum leptin, ghrelin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels. H. pylori IgG positivity was found in 34.2%, and 14.9% of children were malnourished. H. pylori seropositivity was significantly higher in older ages (10.32 ± 2.26 vs 9.53 ± 2.36 years, p = .036), and body weight and height Z scores were significantly lower in H. pylori-seropositive children (-0.33 ± 1.08 vs 0.04 ± 1.26, p = .044 and 0.13 ± 0.92 vs 0.23 ± 0.91, p = .018 respectively). H. pylori seropositivity was found to be an independent risk factor for shorter body height (p = .01). Serum leptin, ghrelin, and IGF-1 levels were not associated with H. pylori IgG seropositivity (0.35 vs 0.55 ng/mL, p = .3; 3267.4 ± 753.0 vs 2808.3 ± 911.4 pg/mL, p = .06; 470 ± 176 vs 521 ± 179 ng/mL, p = .32, respectively). Children infected with H. pylori are prone to short stature. This effect seems to be

  19. Relation of Absolute or Relative Adiposity to Insulin Resistance, Retinol Binding Protein-4, Leptin, and Adiponectin in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Lim Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCentral fat mass (CFM correlates with insulin resistance and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications; however, peripheral fat mass (PFM is associated with insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of absolute and relative regional adiposity to insulin resistance index and adipokines in type 2 diabetes.MethodsTotal of 83 overweighted-Korean women with type 2 diabetes were enrolled, and rate constants for plasma glucose disappearance (KITT and serum adipokines, such as retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4, leptin, and adiponectin, were measured. Using dual X-ray absorptiometry, trunk fat mass (in kilograms was defined as CFM, sum of fat mass on the lower extremities (in kilograms as PFM, and sum of CFM and PFM as total fat mass (TFM. PFM/TFM ratio, CFM/TFM ratio, and PFM/CFM ratio were defined as relative adiposity.ResultsMedian age was 55.9 years, mean body mass index 27.2 kg/m2, and mean HbA1c level 7.12±0.84%. KITT was positively associated with PMF/TFM ratio, PMF/CFM ratio, and negatively with CFM/TFM ratio, but was not associated with TFM, PFM, or CFM. RBP4 levels also had a significant relationship with PMF/TFM ratio and PMF/CFM ratio. Adiponectin, leptin, and apolipoprotein A levels were related to absolute adiposity, while only adiponectin to relative adiposity. In correlation analysis, KITT in type 2 diabetes was positively related with HbA1c, fasting glucose, RBP4, and free fatty acid.ConclusionThese results suggest that increased relative amount of peripheral fat mass may aggravate insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

  20. A Simple Plasma Retinol Isotope Ratio Method for Estimating β-Carotene Relative Bioefficacy in Humans: Validation with the Use of Model-Based Compartmental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jennifer Lynn; Green, Joanne Balmer; Lietz, Georg; Oxley, Anthony; Green, Michael H

    2017-09-01

    Background: Provitamin A carotenoids are an important source of dietary vitamin A for many populations. Thus, accurate and simple methods for estimating carotenoid bioefficacy are needed to evaluate the vitamin A value of test solutions and plant sources. β-Carotene bioefficacy is often estimated from the ratio of the areas under plasma isotope response curves after subjects ingest labeled β-carotene and a labeled retinyl acetate reference dose [isotope reference method (IRM)], but to our knowledge, the method has not yet been evaluated for accuracy. Objectives: Our objectives were to develop and test a physiologically based compartmental model that includes both absorptive and postabsorptive β-carotene bioconversion and to use the model to evaluate the accuracy of the IRM and a simple plasma retinol isotope ratio [(RIR), labeled β-carotene-derived retinol/labeled reference-dose-derived retinol in one plasma sample] for estimating relative bioefficacy. Methods: We used model-based compartmental analysis (Simulation, Analysis and Modeling software) to develop and apply a model that provided known values for β-carotene bioefficacy. Theoretical data for 10 subjects were generated by the model and used to determine bioefficacy by RIR and IRM; predictions were compared with known values. We also applied RIR and IRM to previously published data. Results: Plasma RIR accurately predicted β-carotene relative bioefficacy at 14 d or later. IRM also accurately predicted bioefficacy by 14 d, except that, when there was substantial postabsorptive bioconversion, IRM underestimated bioefficacy. Based on our model, 1-d predictions of relative bioefficacy include absorptive plus a portion of early postabsorptive conversion. Conclusion: The plasma RIR is a simple tracer method that accurately predicts β-carotene relative bioefficacy based on analysis of one blood sample obtained at ≥14 d after co-ingestion of labeled β-carotene and retinyl acetate. The method also provides

  1. RNA-sequencing and pathway analysis reveal alteration of hepatic steroid biosynthesis and retinol metabolism by tributyltin exposure in male rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiliang; Zhang, Chunnuan; Sun, Ping; Huang, Maoxian; Fan, Mingzhen; Liu, Min

    2017-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is widely spread in aquatic ecosystems. Although adverse effects of TBT on reproduction and lipogenesis are observed in fishes, the underlying mechanisms, especially in livers, are still scarce and inconclusive. Thus, RNA-sequencing runs were performed on the hepatic libraries of adult male rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) after TBT exposure for 60d. After differentially expressed genes were identified, enrichment analysis and validation by quantitative real-time PCR were conducted. The results showed that TBT up-regulated the profile of hepatic genes in the steroid biosynthesis pathway and down-regulated the profile of hepatic genes in the retinol metabolism pathway. In the hepatic steroid biosynthesis pathway, TBT might induce biosynthesis of cholesterol, which could affect the bioavailability of steroid hormones. More important, 3beta-hydroxysteroid 3-dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of all active steroid hormones, was up-regulated by TBT exposure. In the hepatic retinol metabolism pathway, TBT impaired retinoic acid homeostasis which plays essential roles in both reproduction and lipogenesis. The results of two pathways offered new mechanisms underlying the toxicology of TBT and represented a starting point from which detailed mechanistic links should be explored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The clinical significance of detection of serum Pre-S1 antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xuehua; Huang Zhuqing; Han Yi; Gong Shoujun

    2003-01-01

    To study the clinical significance of detection of serum Pre-S 1 Ag, the serum Pre-S 1 Ag, HBV-marks and HBV-DNA were detected in 338 patients with hepatitis B. The positive rate and the relationship between them were analyzed and compared. In 338 patients, the positive rate of serum Pre-S 1 Ag, HBeAg, HBV-DNA was 63.02%, 48.52%, 68.05% respectively, and the co-positive rate of Pre-S 1 Ag with HBV-DNA, HBeAg was 78.56%, 81.17% respectively. There was a significant correlation between Pre-S 1 Ag, HBeAg and HBV-DNA (P 1 Ag could well reflect the reproductive status of hepatitis B virus, and so it could be used as the clinical marker of the reproductive status of hepatitis B virus

  3. Retinol as a micronutrients related to cervical local immunity: The expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha specifically stimulated with E6 epitope of human papillomavirus type-16 and ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cell in natural history of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, T. W.; Aziz, M. F.; Ibrahim, F.; Andrijono

    2017-08-01

    Retinol is one of the antioxidant micronutrients that plays essential roles in the immune system, by preventing the persistence of modulating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and cytokines production. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α) is an acute pro-inflammatory cytokine which has many crucial roles in controlling HPV. In contrast, when persistent infection occurs, TNF-α induces carcinogenesis. The ratio of CD4+ cells to CD8+ T cells and adequate TNF-α production in acute HPV infection are key points for clearance. The aim of this research is to analyze the sufficiency level of retinol deposit, the expression of TNF-α, and the ratio of CD4+: CD8+ T cells in a normal cervix, clearance and persistent HPV subclinical infection, and cervical cancer group. The sufficiency level of retinol deposit was analyzed from peripheral blood using the ELISA method. The cervico-vaginal secretions, which were incubated for 24 hours, were stimulated specifically by E6 epitope HPV type-16, measuring TNF-α expression semi-quantitatively by the ELISpot method and CD4+/CD8+ T cells quantitatively by flowcytometry method. The sufficient level of retinol deposit in a normal cervix, clearance HPV subclinical infection, persistent, and cervical cancer group was 85%, 75% (OR 1.89), 33.3% (OR 11.33), and 75% (OR 1.89), respectively. The expression of TNF-α in normal cervix group was 10%, while for cervical cancer it was 75% (OR 27.00; p CD4+: CD8+ T cells in the normal cervix and cervical cancer group was 10% and 25% (OR 0.33). There was no high ratio of CD4+: CD8+ T cells in clearance (OR 1.22) and persistent (OR 0.95) HPV subclinical infection groups. This study was able to prove that the normal cervix group has the highest retinol deposit sufficiency level and the cervical cancer group has the highest TNF-α expression (OR 27; p < 0.001). The lowest of retinol deposit sufficiency level was not in cervical cancer, but in the persistent HPV subclinical infection group (OR 11.33). There was

  4. Age modifies the association between serum obestatin, appetite and nutritional status in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkov, Anna; Sinuani, Inna; Azar, Ada; Shapiro, Gregory; Efrati, Shai; Beberashvili, Ilia

    2018-01-23

    Increased age is strongly associated with anorexia and protein-energy wasting (PEW) in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) population. We hypothesized that the association of obestatin, a recently discovered anorexigenic gut hormone, with appetite and nutritional status differs by age groups. We performed a cross-sectional study on 261MHD patients. Obestatin, acyl-ghrelin, markers of inflammation (CRP, IL-6, TNF-α) and nutrition (self-reported appetite, dietary intake, biochemical nutritional parameters, and body composition) were measured. Obestatin was associated with appetite in multivariate analyses even after controlling for such confounders as lean body mass (LBM), IL-6 and acyl-ghrelin in patients younger than 71 years. For each ng/ml increase in obestatin levels, the odds for diminished appetite was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.59-0.96). However, these associations were not observed in patients 71 years and older. Multivariable logistic regression models (including appetite) also showed increasing odds for PEW (defined by ESPEN consensus-based criteria for the diagnosis of malnutrition) across increasing serum obestatin levels (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.05-2.18) in patients 71 years and older. However, after lean body mass (LBM) was added to this model, the association between obestatin and malnutrition was abolished (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 0.83-1.91). The association between serum obestatin, appetite and PEW differs depending on age in MHD patients. A positive link with appetite exists in patients younger than 71 years, whereas this relationship disappears by the age of 71. In older MHD patients, obestatin is associated with PEW through mechanisms related to LBM, but not to appetite.

  5. Determination of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in tears and blood serum of infants and parents by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaksari, Maryam; Mazzoleni, Lynn R; Ruan, Chunhai; Kennedy, Robert T; Minerick, Adrienne R

    2017-02-01

    Tears serve as a viable diagnostic fluid with advantages including less invasive sample to collect and less complex to prepare for analysis. Several water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins were detected and quantified in human tears and compared with blood serum levels. Samples from 15 family pairs, each pair consisting of a four-month-old infant and one parent were analyzed; vitamin concentrations were compared between tears and blood serum for individual subjects, between infants and parents, and against self-reported dietary intakes. Water-soluble vitamins B 1 , B 2 , B 3 (nicotinamide), B 5 , B 9 and fat-soluble vitamin E (α-tocopherol) were routinely detected in tears and blood serum while fat-soluble vitamin A (retinol) was detected only in blood serum. Water-soluble vitamin concentrations measured in tears and blood serum of single subjects were comparable, while higher concentrations were measured in infants compared to their parents. Fat-soluble vitamin E concentrations were lower in tears than blood serum with no significant difference between infants and parents. Serum vitamin A concentrations were higher in parents than infants. Population trends were compiled and quantified using a cross correlation factor. Strong positive correlations were found between tear and blood serum concentrations of vitamin E from infants and parents and vitamin B 3 concentrations from parents, while slight positive correlations were detected for infants B 3 and parents B 1 and B 2 concentrations. Correlations between infants and parents were found for the concentrations of B 1 , B 2 , B 3 , and E in tears, and the concentrations of B 2, A, and E in blood serum. Stronger vitamin concentration correlations were found between infants and parents for the breast-fed infants, while no significant difference was observed between breast-fed and bottle-fed infants. This work is the first to demonstrate simultaneous vitamin A, B, and E detection and to quantify correlations between

  6. Analytical Bias in the Measurement of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Impairs Assessment of Vitamin D Status in Clinical and Research Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda J Black

    Full Text Available Measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations vary depending on the type of assay used and the specific laboratory undertaking the analysis, impairing the accurate assessment of vitamin D status. We investigated differences in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations measured at three laboratories (laboratories A and B using an assay based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and laboratory C using a DiaSorin Liaison assay, against a laboratory using an assay based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry that is certified to the standard reference method developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and Ghent University (referred to as the 'certified laboratory'. Separate aliquots from the same original serum sample for a subset of 50 participants from the Ausimmune Study were analysed at the four laboratories. Bland-Altman plots were used to visually check agreement between each laboratory against the certified laboratory. Compared with the certified laboratory, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were on average 12.4 nmol/L higher at laboratory A (95% limits of agreement: -17.8,42.6; 12.8 nmol/L higher at laboratory B (95% limits of agreement: 0.8,24.8; and 10.6 nmol/L lower at laboratory C (95% limits of agreement: -48.4,27.1. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (defined here as 25-hydroxyvitamin D <50 nmol/L was 24%, 16%, 12% and 41% at the certified laboratory, and laboratories A, B, and C, respectively. Our results demonstrate considerable differences in the measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations compared with a certified laboratory, even between laboratories using assays based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which is often considered the gold-standard assay. To ensure accurate and reliable measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, all laboratories should use an accuracy-based quality assurance system and, ideally, comply with international

  7. Associations between Dietary Iron and Zinc Intakes, and between Biochemical Iron and Zinc Status in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are found in similar foods and absorption of both may be affected by food compounds, thus biochemical iron and zinc status may be related. This cross-sectional study aimed to: (1 describe dietary intakes and biochemical status of iron and zinc; (2 investigate associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes; and (3 investigate associations between biochemical iron and zinc status in a sample of premenopausal women aged 18–50 years who were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a 154-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 379. Iron status was assessed using serum ferritin and hemoglobin, zinc status using serum zinc (standardized to 08:00 collection, and presence of infection/inflammation using C-reactive protein (n = 326. Associations were explored using multiple regression and logistic regression. Mean (SD iron and zinc intakes were 10.5 (3.5 mg/day and 9.3 (3.8 mg/day, respectively. Median (interquartile range serum ferritin was 22 (12–38 μg/L and mean serum zinc concentrations (SD were 12.6 (1.7 μmol/L in fasting samples and 11.8 (2.0 μmol/L in nonfasting samples. For each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron intake, zinc intake increased by 0.4 mg/day. Each 1 μmol/L increase in serum zinc corresponded to a 6% increase in serum ferritin, however women with low serum zinc concentration (AM fasting < 10.7 μmol/L; AM nonfasting < 10.1 μmol/L were not at increased risk of depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <15 μg/L; p = 0.340. Positive associations were observed between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between iron and zinc status, however interpreting serum ferritin concentrations was not a useful proxy for estimating the likelihood of low serum zinc concentrations and women with depleted iron stores were not at increased risk of impaired zinc status in this cohort.

  8. Study on the relationship between serum levels of leptin thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Pingan; Zhai Chuntao; Yuan Sufen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between serum levels of leptin and thyroid functional status. Methods: Serum leptin (with RIA) and pituitary-thyroid axis hormones (with CLIA) were measured in 75 euthyroid controls, 44 hyperthyroid subjects and 27 hypothyroid subjects. Results: The levels of leptin in euthyroid controls, hyperthyroid subjects and hypothyroid subjects were (5.40 ± 3.78) ng/ml, (5.99 ± 5.24) ng/ml and (5.59 ± 4.23) ng/ml respectively with no significant differences among them. The serum leptin levels were positively correlated with serum TSH levels (r=0.27, P<0.01). Conclusion: Thyroid function has no effect on serum leptin levels and TSH levels correlates closely with those of serum leptin. (authors)

  9. Retinol-binding protein 4 in twins: regulatory mechanisms and impact of circulating and tissue expression levels on insulin secretion and action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Friedrichsen, Martin; Vaag, Allan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Retinol-binding protein (RBP) 4 is an adipokine of which plasma levels are elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aims of the study were to identify determinants of plasma RBP4 and RBP4 mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and skeletal muscle and to investigate...... expression was not associated with circulatory RBP4. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our data indicate that RBP4 levels in plasma, skeletal muscle, and fat may be linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in a secondary and noncausal manner....

  10. Utilidad de un método que determina simultáneamente retinol y α-tocoferol en leche materna por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Martínez-Rojano

    2016-10-01

    Conclusión: El método fue selectivo, lineal, preciso, sensible y exacto, características que junto con su sencillez hacen de él un método conveniente para la determinación de retinol y α-tocoferol simultáneamente en leche materna.

  11. Causal relationship between obesity and serum testosterone status in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Joel; Haring, Robin; Grarup, Niels

    2017-01-01

    randomization (MR) analysis on prospective cohorts. SETTING: Five cohorts from Denmark, Germany and Sweden (Inter99, SHIP, SHIP Trend, GOOD and MrOS Sweden). PARTICIPANTS: 7446 Caucasian men, genotyped for 97 BMI-associated SNPs and three testosterone-associated SNPs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: BMI and serum...

  12. Elevated Angiopoietin-1 Serum Levels in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Schreitmüller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. AD is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles and by massive neuronal loss in the brain. There is epidemiologic and pathologic evidence that AD is associated with vascular risk factors and vascular diseases, contributing to cerebral hypoperfusion with consecutive stimulation of angiogenesis and upregulation of proangiogenic factors such as Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1. Methods. In the present study, we measured Ang-1 serum levels in 42 patients with AD, 20 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and in 40 healthy elderly controls by ELISA. Results. We found significantly increased Ang-1 serum levels in patients with AD compared to control subjects (P=0.003. There was no significant difference between MCI patients and healthy controls (P=0.553 or between AD and MCI patients (P=0.054. The degree of cognitive impairment as measured by the mini-mental status examination (MMSE score was significantly correlated with the Ang-1 serum levels in all patients and healthy controls. Conclusions. We found significantly increased Ang-1 serum levels in AD patients. We could also show an association between Ang-1 serum levels and the cognitive status in all patients and healthy controls. Thus, serum Ang-1 could be a potential candidate for a biomarker panel for AD diagnosis.

  13. Genetic variants of retinol-binding protein 4 in adolescents are ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-03

    Sep 3, 2015 ... associated with T2D and serum triglyceride levels in another study of a Chinese ... Japan). Serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol .... a positive correlation between RBP genetic variants and obe- sity, IR or MetS ...

  14. A Comparative Assessment of Serum Vitamin C and Serum Lead Among Periodontitis and Diabetic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty Akshatha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Pre and post-operative nutritional status are not often tested on a consistent basis when patients are analyzed and diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM or have chronic periodontitis. Thus, this study pursues to evaluate the predictive value of serum vitamin C and lead levels in this population at baseline and after periodontal treatment.

  15. Cancer risk in relation to serum copper levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, R J; Weiss, N S; Daling, J R; Rettmer, R L; Warnick, G R

    1989-08-01

    A nested, matched case-control study was conducted to assess the relationship between serum levels of copper and the subsequent risk of cancer. One hundred thirty-three cases of cancer were identified during 1974-1984 among 5000 members of a northwest Washington State employee cohort from whom serum specimens had been previously obtained and stored. Two hundred forty-one controls were selected at random from the cohort and were matched to the cases on the basis of age, sex, race, and date of blood draw. Serum copper levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Risk of a subsequent diagnosis of cancer was positively associated with serum copper levels, but only among those cases diagnosed within 4 years of the time the serum specimens were collected. Among cases diagnosed more than 4 years after specimen collection, there was no consistent association between serum copper levels and risk. Adjustment for age, sex, race, occupational status, cigarette smoking, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, and, among females, use of exogenous hormones had no appreciable effect on these relationships. The findings suggest that the presence of cancer may increase serum copper levels several years prior to its diagnosis. They are less supportive of the hypothesis that serum copper levels affect cancer risk.

  16. Iron status determination in pregnancy using the Thomas plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, R; Coetzee, M J; Nel, M

    2016-04-01

    Physiological changes during pregnancy affect routine tests for iron deficiency. The reticulocyte haemoglobin equivalent (RET-He) and serum-soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) assay are newer diagnostic parameters for the detection of iron deficiency, combined in the Thomas diagnostic plot. We used this plot to determine the iron status of pregnant women presenting for their first visit to an antenatal clinic in Bloemfontein, South Africa. Routine laboratory tests (serum ferritin, full blood count and C-reactive protein) and RET-He and sTfR were performed. The iron status was determined using the Thomas plot. For this study, 103 pregnant women were recruited. According to the Thomas plot, 72.8% of the participants had normal iron stores and erythropoiesis. Iron-deficient erythropoiesis was detected in 12.6%. A third of participants were anaemic. Serum ferritin showed excellent sensitivity but poor specificity for detecting depleted iron stores. HIV status had no influence on the iron status of the participants. Our findings reiterate that causes other than iron deficiency should be considered in anaemic individuals. When compared with the Thomas plot, a low serum ferritin is a sensitive but nonspecific indicator of iron deficiency. The Thomas plot may provide useful information to identify pregnant individuals in whom haematologic parameters indicate limited iron availability for erythropoiesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Selenium status, thyroid volume, and multiple nodule formation in an area with mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Schomburg, Lutz; Kohrle, Josef

    2011-01-01

    ) introduction of iodine fortification. Serum selenium concentration and urinary iodine were measured, and the thyroid gland was examined by ultrasonography in the same subjects. Associations between serum selenium concentration and thyroid parameters were examined in multiple linear regression models...... or logistic regression models.Results: Serum selenium concentration was found to be significantly, negatively associated with thyroid volume (P=0.006), and a low selenium status significantly increased the risk for thyroid enlargement (P=0.007). Furthermore, low serum selenium status had a tendency...

  18. Vitamin D Status: United States, 2001-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sufficient vitamin D, defined by the Institute of Medicine as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) value of 50–125 nmol/L. About one-quarter ... the vitamin D status of the U.S. population based on the IOM thresholds for serum ... 25OHD values considered sufficient ( Figure 1 ). Roughly one quarter of ...

  19. Serum Transthyretin Level as a Plausible Marker for Diagnosis of Child Acute Malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behailu Tsegaye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is a major underlying condition for mortality in children under five years of age in developing countries, particularly in Ethiopia. The most important forms of malnutrition in Ethiopia are protein and energy deficiencies. There is no reliable laboratory method at present to assess acute malnutrition. Transthyretin is a homotetrameric serum protein with half-life of two days. The main objective of this study was to assess the estimation of serum transthyretin level as a useful diagnostic method to evaluate nutritional status of children. We used a newly designed transthyretin test kit to evaluate nutritional status of children admitted to our hospital. There is no national reference standard; hence we made a comparative study using anthropometric measurements and measurement of serum albumin level. A total of 102 children (51 controls and 51 study subjects were included in this study. Transthyretin was found to be more sensitive to changes in acute malnutrition than albumin, and its level reflects recent dietary intake compared to overall nutritional status. The method is more sensitive and reliable for detection of acute malnutrition, along with anthropometric methods. Measurement of serum transthyretin level can be used as a valuable diagnostic method for assessment of acute malnutrition among children.

  20. Changes in the serum protein profile during radiotherapy to the upper respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, M.; Lobera, A.; Legrand, E.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with a cancer of the upper airways of upper gastro-intestinal tract present a state of malnutrition as a result of the disease itself and, more importantly, as a result of its localisation. Loco-regional radiotherapy often leads to an aggravation, of this state. The protein profile, consisting of nine serum proteins, was determined each week in 54 patients with cancer of the upper respirato-gastro-intestinal tract receiving radiotherapy. During the course of radiotherapy, the already altered nutritional state of these patients deteriorated further, as shown by a regular and significant downturn in the weight curve. The weekly monitoring of the protein profile showed a gradual and significant decrease in the levels of nutritional proteins (prealbumin, retinol binding protein, transferrin) and immunoglobulins (IgM, IgA) and a small variation in the levels of inflammatory proteins (haptoglobin, orosomucoid, C3 complement fraction, alpha 1 -antitrypsin). The protein profile, established on the basis of carefully selected proteins, can provide useful information in the monitoring of a patient's nutritional state [fr

  1. Changes in the serum protein profile during radiotherapy to the upper respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M; Lobera, A; Legrand, E [Fondation Bergorie, Bordeaux (France)

    1984-01-01

    Patients with a cancer of the upper airways on upper gastro-intestinal tract present a state of malnutrition as a result of the disease itself and, more importantly, as a result of its localisation. Loco-regional radiotherapy often leads to an aggravation, of this state. The protein profile, consisting of nine serum proteins, was determined each week in 54 patients with cancer of the upper respirato-gastro-intestinal tract receiving radiotherapy. During the course of radiotherapy, the already altered nutritional state of these patients deteriorated further, as shown by a regular and significant downturn in the weight curve. The weekly monitoring of the protein profile showed a gradual and significant decrease in the levels of nutritional proteins (prealbumin, retinol binding protein, transferrin) and immunoglobulins (IgM, IgA) and a small variation in the levels of inflammatory proteins (haptoglobin, orosomucoid, C3 complement fraction, alpha/sub 1/-antitrypsin). The protein profile, established on the basis of carefully selected proteins, can provide useful information in the monitoring of a patient's nutritional state.

  2. Total oxidant/antioxidant status in jaundiced newborns before and after phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan

    2007-01-01

    To assess the effect of phototherapy on serum oxidant and antioxidant status in hyperbilirubinemic full-term newborns. Thirty-four full-term infants from 3 to 10 days of age exposed to phototherapy were studied. The serum antioxidant status was assessed by measuring the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and individual antioxidant components: vitamin C, uric acid, albumin, thiol contents and total bilirubin. The oxidant status was assessed by determining the total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and individual oxidant components: malondialdehyde (MDA), and lipid hydroperoxide levels. Vitamin C, uric acid, total bilirubin and MDA concentration were significantly lower, whereas serum TOS, lipid hydroperoxide and OSI levels were significantly higher after phototherapy (p total bilirubin and MDA (r = 0.434, p = 0.001). Although the MDA level was reduced after phototherapy, phototherapy has a negative impact on numerous parts of the oxidant/antioxidant defense system in jaundiced full-term newborns, exposing them to potential oxidative stress.

  3. Sun Exposure Guidelines and Serum Vitamin D Status in Denmark: The StatusD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise; Tjønneland, Anne; Køster, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how vitamin D status is affected by adherence to UVB-limiting sun exposure guidelines. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between adherence to the Danish sun exposure guidelines and vitamin D status. In total, 3194 Danes (2625 adults, 569 children) were recruited among...... who did not had an OR (95% CI) of 1.68 (1.25-2.35) of having ≥50 nmol/L during both spring and autumn. No associations were found with wearing a sunhat, and there were no clear associations for children. In conclusion, adherence to the sun exposure guidelines on shade and protective clothing...

  4. Vitamin D intake, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status and response to moderate vitamin D3 supplementation: a randomised controlled trial in East African and Finnish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Folasade A; Itkonen, Suvi T; Öhman, Taina; Skaffari, Essi; Saarnio, Elisa M; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Cashman, Kevin D; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2018-02-01

    Insufficient vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D)0·05 for differences between ethnic groups). In conclusion, high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency existed among East African women living in Finland, despite higher vitamin D intake than their Finnish peers. Moderate vitamin D3 supplementation was effective in increasing S-25(OH)D in both groups of women, and no ethnic differences existed in the response to supplementation.

  5. Examination of the relation between periodontal health status and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T; Trevisan, M; Genco, R J; Falkner, K L; Dorn, J P; Sempos, C T

    2000-02-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), the authors examined the relation between periodontal health and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen. A total of 10,146 participants were included in the analyses of cholesterol and C-reactive protein and 4,461 in the analyses of fibrinogen. Periodontal health indicators included the gingival bleeding index, calculus index, and periodontal disease status (defined by pocket depth and attachment loss). While cholesterol and fibrinogen were analyzed as continuous variables, C-reactive protein was dichotomized into two levels. The results show a significant relation between indicators of poor periodontal status and increased C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. The association between periodontal status and total cholesterol level is much weaker. No consistent association between periodontal status and high density lipoprotein cholesterol was detectable. Similar patterns of association were observed for participants aged 17-54 years and those 55 years and older. In conclusion, this study suggests that total cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen are possible intermediate factors that may link periodontal disease to elevated cardiovascular risk.

  6. Serum-protein changes in lambs given Dictyocaulus filaria vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.A.K.; Jabir, M.H.; Suresh Singh, Kr.

    1979-01-01

    The serum-protein changes in lambs given a double dose of irradiated vaccine (40 and 50 kR) were compared with those of non-vaccinated lambs in all the groups. α- and β-globulins were similar but γ-globulins were higher for some weeks in animals given vaccination. Values of serum protein could not be correlated with the vaccine or with the immune status of the animals. In all the animals, the albumin/globulin ratio remained generally well below 1. (auth.)

  7. Retinol-Binding Protein 4 and Lipids Prospectively Measured During Early to Mid-Pregnancy in Relation to Preeclampsia and Preterm Birth Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendola, Pauline; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Mills, James L; Zhang, Cuilin; Tsai, Michael Y; Liu, Aiyi; Yeung, Edwina H

    2017-06-01

    Maternal retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and lipids may relate to preeclampsia and preterm birth risk but longitudinal data are lacking. This study examines these biomarkers longitudinally during pregnancy in relation to preeclampsia and preterm birth risk. Maternal serum samples from the Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention (CPEP) trial were analyzed at baseline: average 15 gestational weeks; mid-pregnancy: average 27 weeks; and at >34 weeks. We measured RBP4, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)). Cross-sectional logistic regression analyses estimated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for preterm preeclampsia (n = 63), term preeclampsia (n = 104), and preterm delivery (n = 160) associated with RBP4 and lipids at baseline and mid-pregnancy compared with controls (n = 136). Longitudinal trajectories across pregnancy were assessed using mixed linear models with fixed effects. Adjusted models included clinical and demographic factors. RBP4 concentrations at baseline and mid-pregnancy were associated with a 4- to 8-fold increase in preterm preeclampsia risk but were not associated with term preeclampsia. RBP4 measured mid-pregnancy was also associated with preterm birth (OR = 6.67, 95% CI: 1.65, 26.84). Higher triglyceride concentrations in mid-pregnancy were associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk for both preeclampsia and preterm birth. Longitudinal models demonstrate that both preterm preeclampsia and preterm birth cases had elevated RBP4 throughout gestation. Elevated RBP4 is detectable early in pregnancy and its strong relation with preterm preeclampsia merits further investigation and confirmation to evaluate its potential use as a predictor, particularly among high-risk women. © Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of American Journal of Hypertension Ltd 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employees(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Copper and zinc concentrations in serum of healthy Greek adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouremenou-Dona, Eleni; Dona, Artemis; Papoutsis, John; Spiliopoulou, Chara

    2006-01-01

    Serum copper and zinc concentrations of 506 (414 males and 92 females) apparently healthy Greek blood donors aged 18-60 years old were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean copper and zinc concentrations were 115.46 ± 23.56 μg/dl and 77.11 ± 17.67 μg/dl, respectively. The mean value for copper and zinc in females was higher than in males, although the difference for zinc was smaller than the one observed for copper. When the subjects were divided into various age groups there appeared to be some increase in copper concentration as a function of age, whereas zinc concentration did not change. There were no significant variations in serum copper and zinc concentrations due to place of residence, occupation and socioeconomic status. This study is the first one evaluating the serum status of copper and zinc in healthy Greeks and it has shown that they are at the highest concentration range for copper and the lowest for zinc compared to literature data on copper and zinc levels for various countries

  9. Copper and zinc concentrations in serum of healthy Greek adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouremenou-Dona, Eleni [A' Hospital of IKA, Athens (Greece); Dona, Artemis [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: artedona@med.uoa.gr; Papoutsis, John [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece); Spiliopoulou, Chara [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece)

    2006-04-15

    Serum copper and zinc concentrations of 506 (414 males and 92 females) apparently healthy Greek blood donors aged 18-60 years old were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean copper and zinc concentrations were 115.46 {+-} 23.56 {mu}g/dl and 77.11 {+-} 17.67 {mu}g/dl, respectively. The mean value for copper and zinc in females was higher than in males, although the difference for zinc was smaller than the one observed for copper. When the subjects were divided into various age groups there appeared to be some increase in copper concentration as a function of age, whereas zinc concentration did not change. There were no significant variations in serum copper and zinc concentrations due to place of residence, occupation and socioeconomic status. This study is the first one evaluating the serum status of copper and zinc in healthy Greeks and it has shown that they are at the highest concentration range for copper and the lowest for zinc compared to literature data on copper and zinc levels for various countries.

  10. CORRELATION BETWEEN SERUM HER-2 ONCOPROTEIN AND PATIENTS WITH BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Yuan; Bing-he Xu; Da-tong Chu

    2004-01-01

    Objective To detect serum HER-2 oncoprotein levels in patients with operable and metastatic breast cancers, and to study the correlations between serum HER-2 level and lymph node status as well as other clinical parameters.Methods A total of 120 women were studied consisting of 10 healthy volunteers, 31 benign breast disease, 53 operable breast cancer, and 26 metastatic breast cancer patients. The levels of serum HER-2 were measured using an enzyme-liked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results The mean serum HER-2 levels were 9.6 + 1.5 ng/mL in healthy volunteers, 11.9 + 1.6 ng/mL in benign breast disease, 13.2 + 4.2 ng/mL in operable breast cancer, and 30.5 + 30.8 ng/mL in metastatic breast cancer patients. The former is much lower than the latter three (P=0.02, 0.001, 0.03, respectively). If using 15 ng/mL as a normal baseline, elevated serum HER-2 levels were observed in none of the healthy volunteers as well as patients with benign disease, but in 18.9% (10/53)operable breast cancer patients and 61.5% (16/26) metastatic patients. In patients with operable breast cancer, there was a positive correlation between serum concentrations of HER-2 and the size of primary rumor (P < 0.05), whereas there was no correlation between serum concentration and axillary lymph node or estrogen receptor status. In patients with metastatic disease, there was no correlation with site of metastases (P > 0.05).Conclusion Serum HER-2 level was strongly correlated with rumor loads and clinical stages, thus acting as a promising predictor of cancer recurrence in breast cancer patients.

  11. Visfatin and retinol-binding protein 4 concentrations in lean, glucose-tolerant women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Bulent O; Bozdag, Gurkan; Otegen, Umit; Harmanci, Ayla; Boynukalin, Kubra; Vural, Zehra; Kirazli, Serafettin; Yarali, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Since insulin resistance is accepted to be a common feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the exact molecular mechanism(s) involved in glucose and lipid metabolism have been under investigation in the syndrome. Recently, two novel adipokines, namely visfatin and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), have been suggested to play a role in insulin resistance and diabetes. This study sought to determine whether plasma concentrations of visfatin and RBP4 are altered in PCOS by comparing a total of 27 lean, normal glucose-tolerant PCOS patients with 19 age- and body mass index-matched healthy controls. The mean plasma visfatin concentrations were higher in PCOS patients than those in healthy subjects (37.9+/-18.2 versus 19.8+/-17.5, PPCOS (r=0.52, Plean, glucose-tolerant women with PCOS have increased circulating visfatin and unaltered RBP4 concentrations compared with healthy lean women. In order to clarify overlapping effects and their potential contribution to the pathophysiology of PCOS, further studies are needed. Copyright (c) 2009 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. SERUM magnesium levels as an indicator of status of Diabetes Mellitus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadass, S; Basu, Sharbari; Srinivasan, A R

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium deficiency is commonly associated with endocrine and metabolic disorders, especially with Diabetes Mellitus type 2 though the mechanism of hypomagnesemia in Diabetes Mellitus is not completely known. There is a close association between metabolic control of Diabetes Mellitus and impaired magnesium balance. To estimate the serum levels of magnesium in patients of with Diabetes Mellitus type 2 and to find a correlation if any, with the duration and control (by estimating HbA1c) of Diabetes Mellitus type 2. Fifty patients of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 were included in the study. Blood samples were analyzed for fasting and post prandial glucose, HbA1c and magnesium. The patients were grouped into three categories based upon their HbA1c levels into those with good control, need intervention and poor control. The three groups were compared with reference to their mean levels of blood glucose and magnesium. Association of serum magnesium levels with HbA1c, Fasting and postprandial blood glucose and duration of Diabetes Mellitus was also done. Serum magnesium levels were found to decline with rise in HbA1c levels and with duration of Diabetes Mellitus type 2. Hypomagnesemia is linked to poor control of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 and depletion of serum magnesium occurs exponentially with duration of disease. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Selenium status of the inhabitants in the Kaluga region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubkina, N A; Mal'tsev, G Iu; Bogdanov, N G; Vlaskina, S G; Alekseeva, I A; Khotimchenko, S A

    1995-01-01

    The human Se status of 8 areas of Kaluga region was studied. The mean serum Se levels 94 mg/l was significantly lower in the south compared to the northern area 126 mg/l. Areas with radioactive pollution possessed higher percentage of persons with low serum Se concentration than in regions without the pollution. Negative influence of radiation on serum Se level was confirmed also by epidemiological data for workers of Chernobil NNP (65 mg/l-workers attending to the reactor and 69 mg/l-for other employees). The same phenomenon was observed for males of Tula region who had taken part in the liquidation of an accident on the Chernobil NNP compared to other inhabitants of Tula region (78 mg/l and 89 mg/l correspondingly). The lowest antioxidant status (serum vitamin E, C and Se concentrations) in towns of Kaluga region with radioactive pollution possessed males of less than 60 years old.

  14. Quantitating Iron in Serum Ferritin by Use of ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Gillman, Patricia L.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory method has been devised to enable measurement of the concentration of iron bound in ferritin from small samples of blood (serum). Derived partly from a prior method that depends on large samples of blood, this method involves the use of an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Ferritin is a complex of iron with the protein apoferritin. Heretofore, measurements of the concentration of serum ferritin (as distinguished from direct measurements of the concentration of iron in serum ferritin) have been used to assess iron stores in humans. Low levels of serum ferritin could indicate the first stage of iron depletion. High levels of serum ferritin could indicate high levels of iron (for example, in connection with hereditary hemochromatosis an iron-overload illness that is characterized by progressive organ damage and can be fatal). However, the picture is complicated: A high level of serum ferritin could also indicate stress and/or inflammation instead of (or in addition to) iron overload, and low serum iron concentration could indicate inflammation rather than iron deficiency. Only when concentrations of both serum iron and serum ferritin increase and decrease together can the patient s iron status be assessed accurately. Hence, in enabling accurate measurement of the iron content of serum ferritin, the present method can improve the diagnosis of the patient s iron status. The prior method of measuring the concentration of iron involves the use of an atomic-absorption spectrophotometer with a graphite furnace. The present method incorporates a modified version of the sample- preparation process of the prior method. First, ferritin is isolated; more specifically, it is immobilized by immunoprecipitation with rabbit antihuman polyclonal antibody bound to agarose beads. The ferritin is then separated from other iron-containing proteins and free iron by a series of centrifugation and wash steps. Next, the ferritin is digested with nitric acid

  15. Validity of subjective smoking status in orthopedic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Bender,* Patrick Haubruck,* Sonja Boxriker, Sebastian Korff, Gerhard Schmidmaier, Arash Moghaddam Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Center for Orthopedics, Trauma Surgery and Spinal Cord Injury, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: In this level 1 diagnostic study, we analyzed the validity of subjective smoking status and, as secondary research question, the smoking cessation adherence in orthopedic patients during a routine hospital stay of nonunion patients by measuring serum cotinine.  Methods: We included patients undergoing revision surgery due to nonunion of long bones. Patients were interviewed about their smoking status. Blood samples were taken from all the patients prior to surgery and for an additional 6 weeks following surgery. Serum levels of cotinine were measured, and coherence between subjective smoking status and objective cotinine analysis was evaluated.  Results: Between March 2012 and August 2014, we enrolled 136 patients. Six of the 26 “previous smokers” (23% and four of the 65 “nonsmokers” (6% had serum cotinine above cutoff levels. In self-labeled smokers, serum cotinine levels averaged at 2,367.4±14,885.9 ng/mL (with a median of 100 ng/mL, whereas in previous smokers the levels averaged at 4,270±19,619.4 ng/mL (with a median of 0 ng/mL and in the nonsmokers group the levels averaged at 12±53.9 ng/mL (with a median of 0.03 ng/mL. Overall, the subjective smoking status matched serum cotinine testing in 88% of the cases. Sensitivity was 79.6% and specificity was 93.1%. Ninety-one percent of the patients with preoperative positive serum values were still positive at follow-up.  Conclusion: In this study, we could show that subjective smoking status in orthopedic patients is predominantly reliable as validated by objective cotinine measurements; however, patients who declare themselves as “previous smokers” are at elevated risk

  16. Accuracy of cotinine serum test to detect the smoking habit and its association with periodontal disease in a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, A; Martínez, P-J; Giraldo, A; Gualtero, D-F; Ardila, C-M; Contreras, A; Duarte, S; Lafaurie, G-I

    2017-07-01

    The validity of the surveys on self-reported smoking status is often questioned because smokers underestimate cigarette use and deny the habit. It has been suggested that self-report should be accompanied by cotinine test. This report evaluates the usefulness of serum cotinine test to assess the association between smoking and periodontal status in a study with a large sample population to be used in studies with other serum markers in epidemiologic and periodontal medicine researches. 578 patients who were part of a multicenter study on blood biomarkers were evaluated about smoking and its relation to periodontal disease. Severity of periodontal disease was determinate using clinical attachment loss (CAL). Smoking was assessed by a questionnaire and a blood sample drawn for serum cotinine determination. The optimal cut-off point for serum cotinine was 10 ng/ml. Serum cotinine showed greater association with severity of CAL than self-report for mild-moderate CAL [OR 2.03 (CI95% 1.16-3.53) vs. OR 1.08 (CI95% 0.62-1.87) ] advanced periodontitis [OR 2.36 (CI95% 1.30- 4.31) vs. OR 2.06 (CI95% 0.97-4.38) ] and extension of CAL > 3 mm [ OR 1.78 (CI95% 1.16-1.71) vs. 1.37 (CI95% 0.89-2.11)]. When the two tests were evaluated together were not shown to be better than serum cotinine test. Self-reported smoking and serum cotinine test ≥ 10ng/ml are accurate ,complementary and more reliable methods to assess the patient's smoking status and could be used in studies evaluating serum samples in large population and multicenter studies. The serum cotinine level is more reliable to make associations with the patient's periodontal status than self-report questionnaire and could be used in multicenter and periodontal medicine studies.

  17. Assessment of pregnancy status of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) by measurement of progestagen and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations in serum and feces, using enzyme immunoassay (EIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajaysri, Jatuporn; Nokkaew, Weerapun

    2014-03-01

    The study was to find patterns of progestagen (progesterone and its metabolite) and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations in serum and feces of pregnant Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The 5 female Asian domestic elephants were naturally mated until pregnancy. After that, blood and feces samples were collected monthly during pregnancy for progestagen, glucocorticoid and their metabolites analysis by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The results showed the serum progestagen concentration during gestation was 2.11 ± 0.60 to 18.44 ± 2.28 ng/ml. Overall, serum progestagen concentration rose from the 1st month to reach peak in the 11th month, after which it declined to its lowest level in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Fecal progestagen concentration varied from 1.18 ± 0.54 to 3.35 ± 0.45 µg/g during pregnancy. In general, fecal progestagen concentration increased from the 1st month to its highest level in the 12th month. After this, it declined reaching its lowest point in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Glucocorticoid hormones and their metabolite concentrations both in serum and feces fluctuated from low to medium throughout almost the entire pregnancy period and then rapidly increased around the last week before calving. Our study suggests that this profile of progestagen and glucocorticoid hormones and their metabolite concentration levels in serum and feces can be used to assess the pregnancy status of Asian elephants. If serum and fecal progestagen concentrations were found in very low levels and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations were found in very high levels, it was indicated that the cow elephant would calve within 7 days.

  18. Vitamin D status predicts 30 day mortality in hospitalised cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Titmarsh

    Full Text Available Vitamin D insufficiency, defined as low serum concentrations of the major circulating form of vitamin D, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, has been associated with the development of numerous infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders in humans. In addition, vitamin D insufficiency has been found to be predictive of mortality for many disorders. However, interpretation of human studies is difficult since vitamin D status is influenced by many factors, including diet, season, latitude, and exposure to UV radiation. In contrast, domesticated cats do not produce vitamin D cutaneously, and most cats are fed a commercial diet containing a relatively standard amount of vitamin D. Consequently, domesticated cats are an attractive model system in which to examine the relationship between serum 25(OHD and health outcomes. The hypothesis of this study was that vitamin D status would predict short term, all-cause mortality in domesticated cats. Serum concentrations of 25(OHD, together with a wide range of other clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters, were measured in 99 consecutively hospitalised cats. Cats which died within 30 days of initial assessment had significantly lower serum 25(OHD concentrations than cats which survived. In a linear regression model including 12 clinical variables, serum 25(OHD concentration in the lower tertile was significantly predictive of mortality. The odds ratio of mortality within 30 days was 8.27 (95% confidence interval 2.54-31.52 for cats with a serum 25(OHD concentration in the lower tertile. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that low serum 25(OHD concentration status is an independent predictor of short term mortality in cats.

  19. Influence of dominance status on adrenal activity and ovarian cyclicity status in captive African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Christine M; Freeman, Elizabeth W; Brown, Janine L

    2010-01-01

    The North American African (Loxodonta africana) elephant population is not self-sustaining, in part because of a high rate of abnormal ovarian activity. About 12% of adult females exhibit irregular cycles and 31% do not cycle at all. Our earlier work revealed a relationship between dominance status and ovarian acyclicity, with dominant females being more likely to not cycle normally. One theory is that dominant females may be expending more energy to maintaining peace within the captive herd than for supporting reproduction. The goal of this study was to determine if there was a relationship among dominance status, serum cortisol concentrations, and ovarian acyclicity. We hypothesized that adrenal glucocorticoid activity would be increased in dominant, noncycling elephants as compared with subdominant individuals. Blood samples were collected weekly over a 2-year period in 81 females of known dominance and cyclicity status, and analyzed for cortisol. Based on a path analysis model (Reticular Action Model Or Near Approximation [RAMONA]), noncycling, dominant African elephant females did not have higher mean serum cortisol concentrations, or exhibit more variability (i.e., coefficient of variation, standard deviation) in cortisol secretion. This study suggests that alterations in adrenal activity are not related to dominance status nor contribute directly to acyclicity in captive African elephants.

  20. [Current status of vitamin A deficiency in preschool children in Dongguan, China and the effect of vitamin A on serum ferritin and red blood cell parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Hong; Ni, Ming; Hu, Yuan

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the current status of vitamin A deficiency in preschool children in Dongguan, China, as well as the effect of vitamin A on serum ferritin, red blood cell, and reticulocyte parameters. Cluster sampling was performed from April 2015 to December 2016 to select 2 085 preschool children (3-6 years old) without any disease in Dongguan. Routine blood test, reticulocyte count, serum ferritin measurement, hemoglobin electrophoresis, and vitamin A measurement were performed for all children. The associations of age and sex with vitamin A and serum ferritin concentrations were analyzed. The effect of vitamin A concentration on serum ferritin, red blood cell, and reticulocyte parameters and the effect of reduced iron storage caused by vitamin A deficiency on red blood cell parameters were evaluated. Of the 2 085 children, 140 (6.71%) had reduced iron storage, and 678 (32.52%) had vitamin A deficiency. Among the 678 children with vitamin A deficiency, 647 (95.4%) had subclinical deficiency and 31 (4.6%) had clinical deficiency. There was no significant difference in vitamin A concentration between boys and girls, however girls had a significantly higher serum ferritin concentration than boys (P<0.05). The clinical vitamin A deficiency group had a significantly higher serum ferritin concentration than the subclinical vitamin A deficiency group and the normal group (P<0.05). In cases of vitamin A deficiency, the reduced iron storage group had significant reductions in mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin than the normal iron storage group (P<0.05). Compared with the normal vitamin A group, the vitamin A deficiency group had significantly lower hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit, absolute reticulocyte count, reticulocyte percentage, and reticulocyte hemoglobin content, as well as a significantly higher mean corpuscular volume (P<0.05). Vitamin A deficiency is prevalent in preschool children

  1. Vitamin D status among pulmonary TB patients and non-TB controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Range, Nyagosya; Changalucha, John

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about vitamin D status in low-income populations burdened with infectious diseases. Hence, there is a need for data on correlates of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (S-25(OH)D) and its validity during infections.......Little is known about vitamin D status in low-income populations burdened with infectious diseases. Hence, there is a need for data on correlates of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (S-25(OH)D) and its validity during infections....

  2. Elevated Serum Osmolality and Total Water Deficit Indicate Impaired Hydration Status in Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities Regardless of Low or High Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Melissa Ventura; Simmons, Sandra F; Shotwell, Matthew S; Hudson, Abbie; Hollingsworth, Emily K; Long, Emily; Kuertz, Brittany; Silver, Heidi J

    2016-05-01

    Dehydration is typically associated with underweight and malnutrition in long-term care (LTC) settings. Evidence is lacking regarding the influence of the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity on risk factors, prevalence, and presentation of dehydration. The aim of this study was to objectively assess hydration status and the adequacy of total water intake, and determine relationships between hydration status, total water intake, and body mass index (BMI) in LTC residents. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was performed. Baseline data from 247 subjects recruited from eight community-based LTC facilities participating in two randomized trials comparing nutrient and cost-efficacy of between-meal snacks vs oral nutrition supplements (ONS). Hydration status was assessed by serum osmolality concentration and total water intakes were quantified by weighed food, beverage, water, and ONS intake. Simple and multiple linear regression methods were applied. Forty-nine (38.3%) subjects were dehydrated (>300 mOsm/kg) and another 39 (30.5%) had impending dehydration (295 to 300 mOsm/kg). The variance in serum osmolality was significantly accounted for by blood urea nitrogen level, mental status score, and having diabetes (R(2)=0.46; PTotal water intake averaged 1,147.2±433.1 mL/day. Thus, 96% to 100% of subjects did not meet estimated requirements, with a deficit range of 700 to 1,800 mL/day. The variance in total water intake was significantly accounted for by type of liquid beverages (thin vs thick), type of ONS, total energy intake, total activities of daily living dependence, sex, and BMI (R(2)=0.56; Ptotal water intake is prevalent in LTC residents across all BMI categories. Type of liquid beverages, type of ONS, and type of between-meal snacks are factors that could be targeted for nutrition interventions designed to prevent or reverse dehydration. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Study on the serum oxidative stress status in silicosis patients | He ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine whether oxidative-stress damage play an important role in the mechanism of silicosis, the oxidative stress parameters were investigated in silicosis patients and controls group. 128 silicosis patients and 130 healthy controls were included. The serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the levels of ...

  4. Effects of synbiotic food consumption on glycemic status and serum hs-CRP in pregnant women: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Asemi, Zatolla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of synbiotic food consumption on glycemic status and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels of Iranian pregnant women. This randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed among 52 pregnant women, primigravida, aged 18-35 year old, in their third trimester. After a 2-wk run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to consume either a synbiotic (n=26) or control food (n=26) for 9 weeks. The synbiotic food consisted of a probiotic Lactobacillus sporogenes (1×107 CFU), 0.04 g inulin as prebiotic with 0.38 g isomalt, 0.36 g sorbitol and 0.05 g stevia as sweetener per 1 g. Control food (the same substance without probiotic bacteria and inulin) was packed in identical 9-gram packages. Patients were asked to consume the synbiotic and control foods two times a day. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after a 9-wk intervention for quantification of related factors. Consumption of a synbiotic food did not show any significant change regarding the impact of insulin actions in the synbiotic group; nonetheless, compared to the control food, it resulted in a significant decrease in serum insulin levels (-0.26 vs. 6.34 µIU/mL, P=0.014) and HOMA-IR (-0.13 vs. 1.13, P=0.033), a significant difference in HOMA-B (5.30 vs. 34.22, P=0.040) and a significant rise in QUICKI score (0.002 vs. -0.02, P=0.022). Consumption of a synbiotic food for 9 weeks by pregnant women had beneficial effects on insulin actions compared to the control food, but did not affect FPG and serum hs-CRP concentrations.

  5. Changes of serum TNF-α and sTNFR II levels in hyperthyroid patients treated with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fangdu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of 131 I therapy on the auto-immune status of hyperthyroid patients through measurement of the changes of serum TNF-α and sTNFR II levels. Methods: Serum levels of TNF-α and sTNFR II were measured with IRA and ELISA respectively in 36 hyperthyroid patients and 31 controls. Six to twelve months after 131 I therapy, the serum levels were again measured in the patients. Results: The 36 patients fell into two groups after treatment: 27 with thyroid function normalized (cured) and 9 remained hyper- thyroid (treatment failure). Before treatment, the serum TNF-α and sTNFR II levels in both groups of patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (p 0.05). In the treatment failure group, serum levels of TNF-α and sTNFR II were not much decreased after therapy (vs before treatment, p>0.05). Serum TNF-α levels were positively correlated to the serum sTNFR II levels in the patients (r=0.264, p 3 , FT 4 levels (r=0.354, p 131 I therapy would effectively suppress the auto-immune status in hyperthyroid patients; changes of serum TNF-α and sTNFR II levels would reflect the result

  6. Menstrual disorders and premenstrual symptoms in adolescents: prevalence and relationship to serum calcium and vitamin D concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Afsane; Bahrami-Taghanaki, Hamidreza; Afkhamizadeh, Mozhgan; Avan, Amir; Mazloum Khorasani, Zahra; Esmaeili, Habibollah; Amin, Bahareh; Jazebi, Samine; Kamali, Delaram; Ferns, Gordon A; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2018-03-21

    There have been several studies evaluating the association between vitamin and mineral status and menstrual disturbance. In the present study, we aimed to assess the relationship between the menstrual bleeding pattern and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and calcium levels in adolescent girls. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 897 high school girls from northeastern Iran. The prevalence of hypocalcaemia, normal serum calcium and hypercalcaemia was 27.1, 59.8 and 13.1%, respectively. The menstrual flow of participants differed significantly between the calcium status groups (p = .005). There was no significant association between the symptoms of PMS, as assessed by the questionnaire and serum vitamin D status, or serum calcium concentrations, apart from the irritability. There appears to be an association between serum calcium, menstrual blood loss and irritability in adolescent girls. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? Several studies have evaluated the association of vitamin and mineral status with menstrual disturbance, although these relationships are not consistent, specifically among calcium and vitamin D levels with a menstrual bleeding pattern. What do the results of this study add? In the present study, we investigated the correlation of menstrual bleeding patterns and PMS with calcium and vitamin D levels in a large population in adolescent girls. We found that the level of calcium was associated with the level of menstrual blood loss and irritability. However, no significant association was observed between the menstrual bleeding pattern or the PMS symptoms with a vitamin D status. What are the implications of these findings for future clinical practise/research? Further studies are required to assess the value of a calcium adequate intake or a calcium supplementation for the amelioration of PMS and a better understanding the role of calcium in PMS.

  7. Wnt/β-catenin expression does not correlate with serum alkaline phosphatase concentration in canine osteosarcoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M Piskun

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of the bone and an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase concentration has clinical prognostic value in both humans and canines. Increased serum alkaline phosphatase concentration at the time of diagnosis has been associated with poorer outcomes for osteosarcoma patients. The biology underlying this negative prognostic factor is poorly understood. Given that activation of the Wnt signaling pathway has been associated with alkaline phosphatase expression in osteoblasts, we hypothesized that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway would be differentially activated in osteosarcoma tissue based on serum ALP status. Archived canine osteosarcoma samples and primary canine osteosarcoma cell lines were used to evaluate the status of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activity through immunohistochemical staining, western immunoblot analyses, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and a Wnt-responsive promoter activity assay. We found no significant difference in β-catenin expression or activation between OSA populations differing in serum ALP concentration. Pathway activity was mildly increased in the primary OSA cell line generated from a patient with increased serum ALP compared to the normal serum ALP OSA cell line. Further investigation into the mechanisms underlying differences in serum ALP concentration is necessary to improve our understanding of the biological implications of this negative prognostic indicator.

  8. Health behaviors, nutritional status, and anthropometric parameters of Roma and non-Roma mothers and their infants in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambousková, Jolana; Dlouhý, Pavel; Krízová, Eva; Procházka, Bohumír; Hrncírová, Dana; Andel, Michal

    2009-01-01

    To compare maternal health behaviors, maternal nutritional status, and infant size at birth of Romas and non-Romas in the Czech Republic. Maternal interviews and food frequency questionnaire, maternal blood samples, physical measurements of mothers and infants. Hospital, maternal/child care center; 2-4 days postpartum. 76 Roma mothers and 151 mothers from the majority population. Infant length/weight; maternal height/weight; weight gain during pregnancy; duration of pregnancy; maternal smoking habits; dietary intake; use of food supplements during pregnancy; and maternal blood levels of folate, beta-carotene, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol. Comparison of ethnic groups by 2-sample Wilcoxon test, chi-square, Fischer's exact test, relative risk, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Pregnancy duration was about 1 week shorter in Roma women (P nutritional status of Roma mothers is worse than that of mothers from the majority Czech population. The dietary and smoking habits of pregnant Roma women should be of special concern to family doctors, obstetricians, nutrition educators, and social workers.

  9. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and self-reported mental health status in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, L L N; Ebstrup, J F; Mortensen, E L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D receptors and vitamin D-metabolising enzymes are present in the brain and in the central nervous system at sites responsible for the regulation of emotions and behaviour. This raises the hypothesis that low vitamin D is related to poor mental health. Our aim...... was to examine the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and the self-reported symptoms and diagnosis of depression and anxiety in the adult general population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Serum 25(OH)D was measured in three Danish population-based studies, including 5308 adults aged 18-64 years. After 5...

  10. Oxidative status and paraoxonase activity in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Alpay; Zeyrek, Dost; Atas, Ali; Selek, Sahabettin; Erel, Ozcan

    2009-10-01

    To compare paraoxonase activity and changes in oxidative status in asthmatic children and healthy children by determining serum paraoxonase activity and total oxidative status, total antioxidant capacity and lipid hydroperoxidation. Forty two asthmatic children were compared with 32 healthy children of similar age and sex. To evaluate the paraoxonase and oxidative status, total antioxidant capacity and lipid hydroperoxidation were examined. Serum paraoxonase activity was evaluated by measuring the rate of paraoxon hydrolosis. Oxidative status was evaluated by the method developed by Erel. Lipid hydroperoxide was measured by an iodometric method. In comparison with the healthy control group, the paraoxonase activity of the asthmatic children was found to be low (163.7 +/- 73.0 (U/L) and 349.2 +/- 153.9 (U/L), P = 0.002) and total oxidant status (9.0 +/- 3.5 micromol H2O2 Eq/L and 13.4 +/- 7.0 micromol H2O2 Eq/L, P =0.002), total antioxidant capacity (5.5 +/- 2.5 micromol Trolox Eq/L and 1.0 +/- 0.6 micromol Trolox Eq/L, P total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity and lipid hydroperoxidation levels increase, paraoxonase activity decreased.

  11. Vitamin D status, aeroallergen sensitization, and allergic rhinitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Zahra; Rezaei, Nima; Camargo, Carlos A

    2017-01-02

    The role of vitamin D status in the etiology of allergic diseases is uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of vitamin D status with risk of two main outcomes: aeroallergen sensitization and allergic rhinitis (AR). We performed a systematic review of Medline, Scopus, Science Citation Index, and Google Scholar databases. Studies were included if they reported on prevalent or incident cases of aeroallergen sensitization or AR according to vitamin D status. Quality assessment, data extraction and meta-analysis were performed. A total of 21 observational studies were included. Children with serum 25(OH)D ≥75 nmol/L had significantly reduced odds of aeroallergen sensitization, but neither vitamin D intake in pregnancy nor vitamin D supplementation in infancy were associated with risk of AR. Individuals with serum 25(OH)D ≥75 nmol/L had lower prevalence of AR compared to those with serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L (OR; 0.71, 95%CI; (0.56-0.89), p = 0.04). This association was mainly observed in adult men; prevalence of AR was lower in men with serum 25(OH)D ≥75 nmol/L compared to men with serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L, while this association was not observed in women. The current literature suggests significant age- and sex-specific relations of vitamin D status to risk of aeroallergen sensitization and AR.

  12. Serum 25(OH)D seasonality in urologic patients from central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calgani, Alessia; Iarlori, Marco; Rizi, Vincenzo; Pace, Gianna; Bologna, Mauro; Vicentini, Carlo; Angelucci, Adriano

    2016-09-01

    Hypovitaminosis D is increasingly recognized as a cofactor in several diseases. In addition to bone homeostasis, vitamin D status influences immune system, muscle activity and cell differentiation in different tissues. Vitamin D is produced in the skin upon exposure to UVB rays, and sufficient levels of serum 25(OH)D are dependent mostly on adequate sun exposure, and then on specific physiologic variables, including skin type, age and Body Mass Index (BMI). In contrast with common belief, epidemiologic data are demonstrating that hypovitaminosis D must be a clinical concern not only in northern Countries. In our study, we investigated vitamin D status in a male population enrolled in a urology clinic of central Italy. In addition, we evaluated the correlation between vitamin D status and UVB irradiance measured in our region. The two principal pathologies in the 95 enrolled patients (mean age 66years) were benign prostate hypertrophy and prostate carcinoma. >50% of patients had serum 25(OH)D values in the deficient range (pyranometer in our region (Abruzzo, central Italy) revealed a large difference during the year, with winter months characterized by an UV irradiance about tenfold lower than summer months. Then we applied a mathematical model in order to evaluate the expected vitamin D production according to the standard erythemal dose measured in the different seasons. In winter months, the low available UVB radiation and the small exposed skin area resulted not sufficient to obtain the recommended serum doses of vitamin D. Although in summer months UVB irradiance was largely in excess to produce vitamin D in the skin, serum vitamin D resulted sufficient in September only in those patients who declared an outdoor time of at least 3h per day in the previous summer. In conclusion, hypovitaminosis D is largely represented in elderly persons in our region. Seasonal fluctuation in serum 25(OH)D was explained by a reduced availability of UVB in winter and by

  13. Thyroglobulin as a marker of iodine nutrition status in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejbjerg, P.; Knudsen, N.; Perrild, H.

    2009-01-01

    of iodine status in the population. Methods: Two identical cross-sectional studies were performed before (1997-1998, n=4649) and after (2004-2005, n=3570) the initiation of the Danish iodization programme in two areas with mild and moderate iodine deficiency. Serum Tg was measured from blood samples....... Thyroid volume was measured by ultrasonography. Results: Before iodization, the median serum Tg was considerably higher in moderate than in mild iodine deficiency. Iodization led to a lower serum Tg in all examined age groups. The marked pre-iodization difference in Tg level between the regions......Objective: The iodine status of a population is traditionally evaluated by either urinary iodine (UT) excretion or by some measure of thyroid volume and the prevalence of goitre. In this prospective study of a mandatory iodization programme, we aimed to evaluate serum thyroglobulin (Tg) as a marker...

  14. Determinants of selenium status in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoeg Antonia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium (Se status in non-deficient subjects is typically assessed by the Se contents of plasma/serum. That pool comprises two functional, specific selenoprotein components and at least one non-functional, non-specific components which respond differently to changes in Se intake. A more informative means of characterizing Se status in non-deficient individuals is needed. Methods Multiple biomarkers of Se status (plasma Se, serum selenoprotein P [SEPP1], plasma glutathione peroxidase activity [GPX3], buccal cell Se, urinary Se were evaluated in relation to selenoprotein genotypes (GPX1, GPX3, SEPP1, SEP15, dietary Se intake, and parameters of single-carbon metabolism in a cohort of healthy, non-Se-deficient men (n = 106 and women (n = 155. Conclusions Plasma Se concentration was 142.0 ± 23.5 ng/ml, with GPX3 and serum-derived SEPP1 calculated to comprise 20% and 34%, respectively, of that total. The balance, comprised of non-specific components, accounted for virtually all of the interindividual variation in total plasma Se. Buccal cell Se was associated with age and plasma homocysteine (hCys, but not plasma Se. SEPP1 showed a quadratic relationship with body mass index, peaking at BMI 25-30. Urinary Se was greater in women than men, and was associated with metabolic body weight (kg0.75, plasma folate, vitamin B12 and hCys (negatively. One GPX1 genotype (679T/T was associated with significantly lower plasma Se levels than other allelic variants. Selenium intake, estimated from food frequency questionnaires, did not predict Se status as indicated by any biomarker. These results show that genotype, methyl-group status and BMI contribute to variation in Se biomarkers in Se-adequate individuals.

  15. Estimation of Serum Triglycerides, Serum Cholesterol, Total Protein, IgG Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Affected Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, A V; Ravishankar, P L; Kumar, Pradeep; Rajapandian, K; Kalaivani, V; Rajula, M Prem Blaisie

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and IgG levels in elderly patients who were affected by periodontal disease. This study was conducted at the Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital in the periodontics division. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. This study is a prospective analytical study. Sixty individuals who were systemically healthy in the age group of 50 and above were included in this study. Control and experimental groups of 30 participants each were included. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were also evaluated and correlated with the periodontal parameters. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The relationship between periodontal status and the biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were evaluated by Student's t-test. There was no significant difference in the plaque and gingival scores between the experimental and control group. It was observed that serum cholesterol level and total protein level was lower in participants suffering from chronic periodontitis. Triglycerides level was significantly elevated in the experimental group. IgG, a level which is not significant, concluded that there is no difference in control and experimental group. It was concluded from the results obtained from the study that there is an association between serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and periodontal disease. However, further longitudinal and well-controlled studies are required to evaluate the relationship between these biochemical parameters and periodontal disease.

  16. Zinc and iron status during pregnancy of Filipino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Nynke; Romano, Aurora B Ampong; Gibson, Rosalind S

    2002-01-01

    Low birthweight is associated with maternal anaemia and, in some circumstances, with low iron and zinc status, but this relationship has not been investigated in the Philippines. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of anaemia and suboptimal iron and zinc status in pregnant women from three geographical regions (mountain, coast, city) of Zamboanga del Sur province at 24 weeks (n = 305). and again at 36 weeks (n = 127), gestation. At 24 weeks, 34% were anaemic (i.e., haemoglobin values (i.e., 11 x 10(9)/L; 19%) and serum C-reactive protein (> 15 mg/L; 3%). Of the women surveyed, 20% were iron depleted but not anaemic, and 15% were zinc deficient (i.e., serum zinc values at 24 weeks gestation had infants with lower birthweights than those with values > or = 105 g/L and > or = 7.1 micromol/L, respectively. However, in the multivariate model, the contribution of maternal haemoglobin to the variance in birthweight at 24 weeks gestation was non-significant, although modest for serum zinc. Anaemia and/or suboptimal zinc status during pregnancy may be related to low birthweight in the Philippines, and their aetiology deserves further study.

  17. Low serum vitamin D-status, air pollution and obesity: A dangerous liaison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrea, Luigi; Savastano, Silvia; Di Somma, Carolina; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Nappi, Francesca; Albanese, Lidia; Orio, Francesco; Colao, Annamaria

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a general overview of the possible associations among the vitamin D status, air pollution and obesity. Sunlight exposure accounts in humans for more than 90 % of the production of vitamin D. Among emerging factors influencing sunlight-induced synthesis of vitamin D, prospective and observational studies proved that air pollution constitutes an independent risk factor in the pathogenesis of vitamin D hypovitaminosis. In addition, environmental pollutants can affect risk of obesity when inhaled, in combination with unhealthy diet and lifestyle. In turn, obesity is closely associated with a low vitamin D status and many possible mechanisms have been proposed to explain this association. The associations of air pollution with low vitamin D status on the hand and with obesity on the other hand, could provide a rationale for considering obesity as a further link between air pollution and low vitamin D status. In this respect, a vicious cycle could operate among low vitamin D status, air pollution, and obesity, with additive detrimental effects on cardio-metabolic risk in obese individuals. Besides vitamin D supplementation, nutrient combination, used to maximize the protective effects against air pollution, might also contribute to improve the vitamin D status by attenuating the "obesogen" effects of air pollution.

  18. Predictors and correlates of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in young women: results from the Safe-D study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegari, Emma T; Garland, Suzanne M; Gorelik, Alexandra; Reavley, Nicola J; Wark, John D

    2017-08-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a global public health concern. Studies of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) determinants in young women are limited and few include objective covariates. Our aims were to define the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and examine serum 25(OH)D correlates in an exploratory study of women aged 16-25 years. We studied 348 healthy females living in Victoria, Australia, recruited through Facebook. Data collected included serum 25(OH)D assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem MS, relevant serum biochemistry, soft tissue composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, skin melanin density, Fitzpatrick skin type, sun exposure using UV dosimeters and lifestyle factors. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 27) nmol/l and 26 % were vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D 2 h in the sun in summer daily, holidaying in the most recent summer period, serum Fe levels, height and multivitamin use were positively associated with 25(OH)D. Fat mass and a blood draw in any season except summer was inversely associated with 25(OH)D. Vitamin D deficiency is common in young women. Factors such as hormonal contraception, sun exposure and sun-related attitudes, as well as dietary supplement use are essential to consider when assessing vitamin D status. Further investigation into methods to safely optimise vitamin D status and to improve understanding of the impact of vitamin D status on long-term health outcomes is required.

  19. Serum thiamine level during the initiation term of hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Ono

    2012-06-01

    Although water-soluble vitamins such as thiamine are lost during dialysis session, serum thiamine level tended to restore spontaneously during the hospitalization (25.47±10.07 vs. 27.44±11.37, pre HD value, p=0.09. A three months-follow up measurement after initiation of HD, which is now in progress (so far n=3, revealed increase of serum thiamine level in all patients (35.33±7.37 ng/ml. It may reflect the improvement of nutritional status after the initiation of HD, and suggests the loss of thiamine by HD procedure can be covered.

  20. Vitamin A in pediatrics: An update from the Nutrition Committee of the French Society of Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidailhet, M; Rieu, D; Feillet, F; Bocquet, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Girardet, J-P; Hankard, R; Rozé, J-C; Siméoni, U; Turck, D; Briend, A

    2017-03-01

    Vitamin A (retinol) fulfills multiple functions in vision, cell growth and differentiation, embryogenesis, the maintenance of epithelial barriers and immunity. A large number of enzymes, binding proteins and receptors facilitate its intestinal absorption, hepatic storage, secretion, and distribution to target cells. In addition to the preformed retinol of animal origin, some fruits and vegetables are rich in carotenoids with provitamin A precursors such as β-carotene: 6μg of β-carotene corresponds to 1μg retinol equivalent (RE). Carotenoids never cause hypervitaminosis A. Determination of liver retinol concentration, the most reliable marker of vitamin A status, cannot be used in practice. Despite its lack of sensitivity and specificity, the concentration of retinol in blood is used to assess vitamin A status. A blood vitamin A concentration below 0.70μmol/L (200μg/L) indicates insufficient intake. Levels above 1.05μmol/L (300μg/L) indicate an adequate vitamin A status. The recommended dietary intake increases from 250μg RE/day between 7 and 36 months of age to 750μg RE/day between 15 and 17 years of age, which is usually adequate in industrialized countries. However, intakes often exceed the recommended intake, or even the upper limit (600μg/day), in some non-breastfed infants. The new European regulation on infant and follow-on formulas (2015) will likely limit this excessive intake. In some developing countries, vitamin A deficiency is one of the main causes of blindness and remains a major public health problem. The impact of vitamin A deficiency on mortality was not confirmed by the most recent studies. Periodic supplementation with high doses of vitamin A is currently questioned and food diversification, fortification or low-dose regular supplementation seem preferable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of Serum Vitamin D Levels in Hypertensive Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.M.; Alkady, M.M.; Saif-Elnasr, M.

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure is very prevalent worldwide, as well as vitamin D deficiency. There are several observation data that support the concept that vitamin D is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Also some clinical data demonstrate positive effect of vitamin D therapy on hypertension. We studied serum levels of vitamin D and its association with blood pressure in 30 hypertensive patients and 20 age and socioeconomic status matched healthy controls. There was no statistically significant difference in serum vitamin D levels in the group of patients compared with controls. In patients group, patients with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m 2 showed statistically significant decrease in serum vitamin D levels as compared to those with BMI ≤ 30 kg/m 2 (P = 0.021). There was no significant association between serum vitamin D levels and age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the group of patients. A negative correlation between serum vitamin D levels and BMI was found in patients group (P = 0.045). In conclusion, no association between serum levels of vitamin D and blood pressure in hypertensive patients, but it is statistically associated with BMI. Further large scale studies are needed putting in consideration the effect of genetic factor

  2. Relation between serum creatinine and postoperative results of open-heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeldin, Tamer H

    2013-10-01

    To determine the impact of preoperative serum creatinine level in non-dialyzable patients on postoperative morbidity and mortality. This is a prospective study, where serum creatinine was used to give primary assessment on renal function status preoperatively. This study includes 1,033 patients, who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, or valve(s) operations. The study took place at Al-Hada Military Hospital, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi between May 2008 and January 2012. Data were statistically analyzed using Chi square (x2) test and multivariable logistic regression, to evaluate the postoperative morbidity and mortality risks associated with low serum creatinine levels. Postoperative mortality increased with high serum creatinine level >1.8 mg/dL (pcreatinine level of more than 1.8 mg/dL was associated with increased risk of re-operation for bleeding, postoperative renal failure, prolonged ventilatory support, ICU stay, and total hospital stay. Perioperative serum creatinine is strongly related to post operative morbidity and mortality in open heart surgery. High serum creatinine in non-dialyzable patients can predict the increased morbidity and mortality after cardiac operations.

  3. Clinical significance of serum leptin levels in patients with graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Ying; Du Fuman; Teng Haikun; Yang Yuzhi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the levels of serum leptin in patients with graves' disease. Methods: Serum leptin levels were measured with IRMA in 51 patients with hyperthyroidism as well as 46 hypothyroid and 50 euthyroid subjects as controls. Serum TSH, free T 3 and free T 4 (FT 3 and FT 4 ) were also measured. Body fat percentage (% Fat) and body mass index (BMI) were calculated. Results: Serum leptin levels were significantly lower in patients with graves' disease (male 2.05 ± 1.54μg/L, female 7.47±5. 08 μg/L), than those in hypothyroid and euthyroid subjects. Levels in hypothyroid patients were significantly higher than those in controls, however, excluding the body fat factor, there were no obvious difference. Serum leptin levels in all the 3 groups were significantly positively correlated with BMI. The levels were negatively correlated with FT 3 , FT 4 levels and positively correlated with TSH levels but both were not significant. Serum leptin levels were 2-3 times higher in women than in men among all 3 groups. Conclusion: Thyroid functional status affected serum leptin levels indirectly through the amount of body fat. (authors)

  4. Serum selenium levels and the risk of progression of laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubiński, Jan; Marciniak, Wojciech; Muszynska, Magdalena; Jaworowska, Ewa; Sulikowski, Mieczyslaw; Jakubowska, Anna; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Falco, Michal; Baszuk, Piotr; Mojsiewicz, Magdalena; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A; Lubiński, Jan A

    2018-01-01

    Observational studies have reported an inverse relationship between selenium status (blood or toenail) and the risk of laryngeal cancer; however, the impact of low serum selenium level on survival has not been evaluated. We conducted a prospective study of 296 patients diagnosed with laryngeal cancer in Szczecin, Poland. Serum selenium was measured at diagnosis and prior to treatment. Patients were followed from the date of diagnosis to death at five years. Vital status was obtained by linkage to the Polish National Death Registry. The five-year survival after diagnosis was 82.0% (95% CI: 68% to 91%) for individuals in the highest quartile of serum selenium (> 66.8 μg/L) and was 28.6% (95% CI 19% to 42%) for individuals in the lowest quartile (selenium, compared to those in the highest quartile. The corresponding multivariate HR was 3.07 (95% CI 1.59 to 5.94). This study suggests that a selenium level in excess of 70 μg/L is associated with improved outcome among patients undergoing treatment for laryngeal cancer. Further studies are needed to evaluate if selenium supplementation to achieve this level might improve overall prognosis.

  5. Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guangwen; Qin, Jian; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-06-01

    Genetically engineered "Golden Rice" contains up to 35 microg beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status. The objective was to determine the vitamin A value of intrinsically labeled dietary Golden Rice in humans. Golden Rice plants were grown hydroponically with heavy water (deuterium oxide) to generate deuterium-labeled [2H]beta-carotene in the rice grains. Golden Rice servings of 65-98 g (130-200 g cooked rice) containing 0.99-1.53 mg beta-carotene were fed to 5 healthy adult volunteers (3 women and 2 men) with 10 g butter. A reference dose of [13C10]retinyl acetate (0.4-1.0 mg) in oil was given to each volunteer 1 wk before ingestion of the Golden Rice dose. Blood samples were collected over 36 d. Our results showed that the mean (+/-SD) area under the curve for the total serum response to [2H]retinol was 39.9 +/- 20.7 microg x d after the Golden Rice dose. Compared with that of the [13C10]retinyl acetate reference dose (84.7 +/- 34.6 microg x d), Golden Rice beta-carotene provided 0.24-0.94 mg retinol. Thus, the conversion factor of Golden Rice beta-carotene to retinol is 3.8 +/- 1.7 to 1 with a range of 1.9-6.4 to 1 by weight, or 2.0 +/- 0.9 to 1 with a range of 1.0-3.4 to 1 by moles. Beta-carotene derived from Golden Rice is effectively converted to vitamin A in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00680355.

  6. Estimation of Serum Triglycerides, Serum Cholesterol, Total Protein, IgG Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Affected Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, A. V.; Ravishankar, P. L.; Kumar, Pradeep; Rajapandian, K.; Kalaivani, V.; Rajula, M. Prem Blaisie

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and IgG levels in elderly patients who were affected by periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at the Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital in the periodontics division. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. This study is a prospective analytical study. Sixty individuals who were systemically healthy in the age group of 50 and above were included in this study. Control and experimental groups of 30 participants each were included. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were also evaluated and correlated with the periodontal parameters. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The relationship between periodontal status and the biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: There was no significant difference in the plaque and gingival scores between the experimental and control group. It was observed that serum cholesterol level and total protein level was lower in participants suffering from chronic periodontitis. Triglycerides level was significantly elevated in the experimental group. IgG, a level which is not significant, concluded that there is no difference in control and experimental group. Conclusion: It was concluded from the results obtained from the study that there is an association between serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and periodontal disease. However, further longitudinal and well-controlled studies are required to evaluate the relationship between these biochemical parameters and periodontal disease. PMID:28462181

  7. Use of a "Super-child" Approach to Assess the Vitamin A Equivalence of Moringa oleifera Leaves, Develop a Compartmental Model for Vitamin A Kinetics, and Estimate Vitamin A Total Body Stores in Young Mexican Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Teros, Veronica; Ford, Jennifer Lynn; Green, Michael H; Tang, Guangwen; Grusak, Michael A; Quihui-Cota, Luis; Muzhingi, Tawanda; Paz-Cassini, Mariela; Astiazaran-Garcia, Humberto

    2017-12-01

    Background: Worldwide, an estimated 250 million children children. Methods: β-Carotene was intrinsically labeled by growing MO plants in a 2 H 2 O nutrient solution. Fifteen well-nourished children (17-35 mo old) consumed puréed MO leaves (1 mg β-carotene) and a reference dose of [ 13 C 10 ]retinyl acetate (1 mg) in oil. Blood (2 samples/child) was collected 10 times (2 or 3 children each time) over 35 d. The bioefficacy of MO leaves was calculated from areas under the composite "super-child" plasma isotope response curves, and MO VA equivalence was estimated through the use of these values; a compartmental model was developed to predict VA TBS and retinol kinetics through the use of composite plasma [ 13 C 10 ]retinol data. TBS were also estimated with isotope dilution. Results: The relative bioefficacy of β-carotene retinol activity equivalents from MO was 28%; VA equivalence was 3.3:1 by weight (0.56 μmol retinol:1 μmol β-carotene). Kinetics of plasma retinol indicate more rapid plasma appearance and turnover and more extensive recycling in these children than are observed in adults. Model-predicted mean TBS (823 μmol) was similar to values predicted using a retinol isotope dilution equation applied to data from 3 to 6 d after dosing (mean ± SD: 832 ± 176 μmol; n = 7). Conclusions: The super-child approach can be used to estimate population carotenoid bioefficacy and VA equivalence, VA status, and parameters of retinol metabolism from a composite data set. Our results provide initial estimates of retinol kinetics in well-nourished young children with adequate VA stores and demonstrate that MO leaves may be an important source of VA. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) during CF pulmonary exacerbation: trends and biomarker correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, A H; Nymon, A B; Ashare, A

    2014-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by low circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a hormone produced by the liver that governs anabolism and influences immune cell function. Because treatment of CF pulmonary exacerbation (CFPE) often improves body weight and lung function, we questioned whether serum IGF-1 trends were emblematic of these responses. Initially, we compared serum levels between healthy adults with CF and controls of similar age. We then measured serum IGF-1 throughout the CFPE cycle. We also investigated correlations among IGF-1 and other serum biomarkers during CFPE. Anthopometric, spirometric, and demographic data were collected. Serum IGF-1 concentrations were measured by ELISA. CF subjects in their usual state of health had lower serum IGF-1 levels than controls. Serum IGF-1 concentrations fell significantly from baseline at the beginning of CFPE. Treatment with intravenous antibiotics was associated with significant improvement in serum IGF-1 levels, body mass index (BMI), and percent-predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 %). At early and late CFPE, serum IGF-1 was directly correlated with FEV1 %, serum iron, hemoglobin concentration, and transferrin saturation (TSAT) and indirectly correlated with alpha-1-antitrypsin. This study not only supports the paradigm that CF is characterized by IGF-1 deficiency but also that trends in lung function, nutritional status, and serum IGF-1 are related. Improvements in all three parameters after antibiotics for CFPE likely highlight the connection between lung function and nutritional status in CF. Close correlations among IGF-1 and iron-related hematologic parameters suggest that IGF-1 may participate in CF iron homeostasis, another process that is known to be influenced by CFPE. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Radioimmunoassay of haloperidol in human serum: correlation of serum haloperidol with serum prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poland, R.E.; Rubin, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of serum haloperidol is described. Compared to gaschromatography (GC), RIA vaues average 40% higher. However, a simple organic extraction of serum yields statistically equivalent RIA and GC haloperidol determinations. For both men and women combined, there was a positive correlation between dose (mg/kg/day) and steady-state serum haloperidol level (r = +0.86) and between steady-state serum haloperidol and serum prolactin (PRL) concentration

  10. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I in 1030 healthy children, adolescents, and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Bang, P; Hertel, Niels

    1994-01-01

    Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) increase with age and pubertal development. The large variation in circulating IGF-I levels in adolescence makes it difficult to use the IGF-I value of a single child in the assessment of his growth status. In addition, the interference of IGF......-binding proteins in many IGF-I assays contributes to this problem. We measured IGF-I in acid-ethanol-extracted serum from 1030 healthy children, adolescents, and adults, employing a RIA that reduces interference of IGF-binding proteins by using monoiodinated Tyr31-[125I]des-(1-3)IGF-I as radioligand. Mean serum...... volume. Multiple regression analysis revealed that serum IGF-I levels predicted height velocity in the following year (r = 0.33; P

  11. Vitamin D status and incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2013-01-01

    Low vitamin D status has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality primarily in selected groups, smaller studies, or with self-reported vitamin D intake. We investigated the association of serum vitamin D status with the incidence of a registry-based diagnosis of ischemic...... heart disease (IHD), stroke, and all-cause mortality in a large sample of the general population. A total of 9,146 individuals from the two population-based studies, Monica10 and Inter99, were included. Measurements of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at baseline were carried out using the IDS ISYS immunoassay...

  12. Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease Are Associated with Decreased Serum Selenium Concentrations and Increased Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Castro Aguilar-Tablada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and associated oxidative stress is increasing. The antioxidant mineral selenium (Se was measured in serum samples from 106 IBD patients (53 with ulcerative colitis (UC and 53 with Crohn’s disease (CD and from 30 healthy controls. Serum Se concentrations were significantly lower in UC and CD patients than in healthy controls (p < 0.001 and significantly lower in CD patients than in UC patients (p = 0.006. Se concentrations in patients were significantly influenced by sex, body mass index (BMI, the inflammatory biomarker α-1-antitrypsin, surgery, medical treatment, the severity, extent, and form of the disease and the length of time since onset (p < 0.05. Se concentrations in IBD patients were positively and linearly correlated with nutritional (protein, albumin, prealbumin, cholinesterase and total cholesterol and iron status-related (hemoglobin, Fe and hematocrit parameters (p < 0.05. A greater impairment of serum Se and cardiovascular status was observed in CD than in UC patients. An adequate nutritional Se status is important in IBD patients to minimize the cardiovascular risk associated with increased inflammation biomarkers, especially in undernourished CD patients, and is also related to an improved nutritional and body iron status.

  13. Effects of Serum Albumin, Calcium Levels, Cancer Stage and Performance Status on Weight Loss in Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide Positive or Negative Patients with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yeon Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA recent animal study showed that parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP is associated with cancer cachexia by promoting adipose tissue browning, and we previously demonstrated that PTHrP predicts weight loss (WL in patients with cancer. In this study, we investigated whether prediction of WL by PTHrP is influenced by clinical factors such as serum albumin, corrected calcium levels, cancer stage, and performance status (PS.MethodsA cohort of 219 patients with cancer whose PTHrP level was measured was enrolled and followed for body weight (BW changes. Subjects were divided into two groups by serum albumin (cutoff value, 3.7 g/dL, corrected calcium (cutoff value, 10.5 mg/dL, cancer stage (stage 1 to 3 or 4, or PS (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 0 to 1 or 2 to 4, respectively. Clinically significant WL was defined as either percent of BW change (% BW <−5% or % BW <−2% plus body mass index (BMI <20 kg/m2.ResultsAfter a median follow-up of 327 days, 74 patients (33.8% experienced clinically significant WL. A positive PTHrP level was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of WL after adjusting for age, baseline BMI, serum albumin, corrected calcium level, cancer stage, and PS. The effect of PTHrP on WL remained significant in patients with low serum albumin, stage 4 cancer, and good PS. Regardless of calcium level, the effect of PTHrP on WL was maintained, although there was an additive effect of higher calcium and PTHrP levels.ConclusionEarly recognition of patients with advanced cancer who are PTHrP positive with hypercalcemia or hypoalbuminemia is needed for their clinical management.

  14. Maternal nutritional status, breast-milk production and newborn growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concepcion, P.V.; Sanchez Jaeger, A.; Marino, A.

    2000-01-01

    Breast-feeding practice of Venezuelan mothers is very short (less than 3 months). In 1995, 52% of the lactating women stopped breast feeding before the first month. Exclusive breast-feeding is very infrequent, especially among low income women. The most important reasons for quitting breast feeding are: early weaning, working mothers in 'informal market', and lack of nutritional knowledge. There are new programs, from governmental (CONALAMA) and non-governmental (UNICEF) groups that improve this practice. There is little information regarding breast-milk production, composition, nutritional and socio-cultural behaviors of lactating women in Venezuela. With the goal of providing reliable information on this topic, we are studying maternal nutritional status, and breast-milk production of low SES mothers, and growth of their infants. In this study we selected isotopic methods to measure breast-milk intake, on the other hand, vitamin A contained in women breast milk was determined. Another objective of this project was to assess mother's vitamin A status according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Mother body composition was determined through different skinfold measurements and body mass index (BMI). Also, the babies' growth during the first three months of breast-feeding was evaluated. During that period it was possible to evaluate vitamin A reserves and corporal composition of the mother and nutritional status of their infants. No important prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was detected (6.3%), high risk of malnutrition was demonstrated by SES (92%), and between 11 and 18% of the mother began the lactating period undernourished. (author)

  15. Maternal nutritional status, breast-milk production and newborn growth and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concepcion, P V; Sanchez Jaeger, A; Marino, A [Centro de Investigaciones en Nutricion, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia (Venezuela)

    2000-07-01

    Breast-feeding practice of Venezuelan mothers is very short (less than 3 months). In 1995, 52% of the lactating women stopped breast feeding before the first month. Exclusive breast-feeding is very infrequent, especially among low income women. The most important reasons for quitting breast feeding are: early weaning, working mothers in 'informal market', and lack of nutritional knowledge. There are new programs, from governmental (CONALAMA) and non-governmental (UNICEF) groups that improve this practice. There is little information regarding breast-milk production, composition, nutritional and socio-cultural behaviors of lactating women in Venezuela. With the goal of providing reliable information on this topic, we are studying maternal nutritional status, and breast-milk production of low SES mothers, and growth of their infants. In this study we selected isotopic methods to measure breast-milk intake, on the other hand, vitamin A contained in women breast milk was determined. Another objective of this project was to assess mother's vitamin A status according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Mother body composition was determined through different skinfold measurements and body mass index (BMI). Also, the babies' growth during the first three months of breast-feeding was evaluated. During that period it was possible to evaluate vitamin A reserves and corporal composition of the mother and nutritional status of their infants. No important prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was detected (6.3%), high risk of malnutrition was demonstrated by SES (92%), and between 11 and 18% of the mother began the lactating period undernourished. (author)

  16. Serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/ protein isolate: postulated mechanism of action for management of enteropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petschow BW

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bryon W Petschow, Bruce Burnett, Audrey L Shaw, Eric M Weaver, Gerald L Klein Entera Health, Inc., Cary, NC, USA Abstract: The health and performance of the gastrointestinal tract is influenced by the interaction of a variety of factors, including diet, nutritional status, genetics, environment, stress, the intestinal microbiota, immune status, and gut barrier. Disruptions in one or more of these factors can lead to enteropathy or intestinal disorders that are known to occur in concert with certain disease states or conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Nutritional support in the form of a medical food along with current therapies could help manage the adverse effects of enteropathy, which include effects on nutrient digestion, absorption, and metabolism, as well as utilization of nutrients from foodstuffs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that oral administration of plasma- or serum-derived protein concentrates containing high levels of immunoglobulins can improve weight management, normalize gut barrier function, and reduce the severity of enteropathy in animals. Recent trials in humans provide preliminary evidence that a serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate is safe and improves symptoms, nutritional status, and various biomarkers associated with enteropathy in patients with HIV infection or diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. This review summarizes data from preclinical and clinical studies with immunoglobulin-containing plasma/serum protein concentrates, with a focus on the postulated mode of action of serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate for patients with enteropathy. Keywords: bovine immunoglobulins, nutrient, gut barrier, microbiota

  17. Penilaian gizi sederhana: alat penilaian praktis untuk menentukan status gizi pasien rawat inap di rumah sakit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Marlena

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Absence of effective and efficient screening tool for assessment of nutritional status have lead to high incidence of malnutrition among hospitalized patients. Objective: To develope practical screening tool for assessing nutritional status of hospitalized patients. Method: A simple method of nutritional assessment, called The Simple Nutritional Assessment, was compared to albumin serum as the gold standard. This study involved 50 nurses and 50 hospitalized patients in Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta. Result: There was significant concordance of nutritional status assessed by the Simple Nutritional Assessment and the level of albumin serum (k=0,92. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio of the Simple Nutritional Assessment compared to serum albumin were 92%, 67–75%, and 3.8, respectively. Internal consistence of the Simple Nutritional ssessment is high (Alpha=0.80. Average time required for doing the assessment was only 5 minutes. Conclusion: The Simple Nutritional Assessment can be used for quick screening of nutritional status of hospitalized patients with high sensitivity and reliability.

  18. Vitamin D status and health-related quality of life in patients with Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krul-Poel, Y H M; Westra, S; van Wijland, H J

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To test whether vitamin D status was associated with health-related quality of life in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Demographic and clinical characteristics, including health-related quality of life scores, were obtained from 241 adult patients with Type 2 diabetes managed...... associations were found between vitamin D status and health-related quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D status was not associated with health-related quality of life in patients with Type 2 diabetes. This could be explained by the relatively high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, good glycaemic...... of the patients included in the study was 67 ± 8 years. Their mean HbA1c concentration was 52 ± 8 mmol/mol (6.9 ± 0.7%) and their mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 59 ± 23 nmol/l. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D

  19. Fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) non-secretor status and blood group B are associated with elevated serum lipase activity in asymptomatic subjects, and an increased risk for chronic pancreatitis: a genetic association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Frank Ulrich; Schurmann, Claudia; Guenther, Annett; Ernst, Florian; Teumer, Alexander; Mayerle, Julia; Simon, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Radke, Dörte; Greinacher, Andreas; Kuehn, Jens-Peter; Zenker, Martin; Völker, Uwe; Homuth, Georg; Lerch, Markus M

    2015-04-01

    Serum lipase activities above the threefold upper reference limit indicate acute pancreatitis. We investigated whether high lipase activity-within the reference range and in the absence of pancreatitis-are associated with genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), and whether these identified SNPs are also associated with clinical pancreatitis. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on phenotypes 'serum lipase activity' and 'high serum lipase activity' were conducted including 3966 German volunteers from the population-based Study-of-Health-in-Pomerania (SHIP). Lead SNPs associated on a genome-wide significance level were replicated in two cohorts, 1444 blood donors and 1042 pancreatitis patients. Initial discovery GWAS detected SNPs within or near genes encoding the ABO blood group specifying transferases A/B (ABO), Fucosyltransferase-2 (FUT2), and Chymotrypsinogen-B2 (CTRB2), to be significantly associated with lipase activity levels in asymptomatic subjects. Replication analyses in blood donors confirmed the association of FUT-2 non-secretor status (OR=1.49; p=0.012) and ABO blood-type-B (OR=2.48; p=7.29×10(-8)) with high lipase activity levels. In pancreatitis patients, significant associations were found for FUT-2 non-secretor status (OR=1.53; p=8.56×10(-4)) and ABO-B (OR=1.69, p=1.0×10(-4)) with chronic pancreatitis, but not with acute pancreatitis. Conversely, carriers of blood group O were less frequently affected by chronic pancreatitis (OR=0.62; p=1.22×10(-05)) and less likely to have high lipase activity levels (OR=0.59; p=8.14×10(-05)). These are the first results indicating that ABO blood type-B as well as FUT2 non-secretor status are common population-wide risk factors for developing chronic pancreatitis. They also imply that, even within the reference range, elevated lipase activities may indicate subclinical pancreatic injury in asymptomatic subjects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  20. The Effect of Changing Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations on Metabolic Syndrome: A Longitudinal Analysis of Participants of a Preventive Health Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong-Minh Pham

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that a poor vitamin D status may increase the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, which leaves the question whether improving one’s vitamin D status may reduce the risk for the syndrome. Here we investigate the effect of temporal changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations on metabolic syndrome among Canadians enrolled in a preventive health program that promotes vitamin D supplementation. We accessed and analyzed data of 6682 volunteer participants with repeated observations on serum 25(OHD concentrations and metabolic syndrome. We applied logistic regression to quantify the independent contribution of baseline serum 25(OHD and temporal increases in serum 25(OHD to the development of metabolic syndrome. In the first year in the program, participants, on average, increased their serum 25(OHD concentrations by 37 nmol/L. We observed a statistical significant inverse relationship of increases in serum 25(OHD with risk for metabolic syndrome. Relative to those without improvements, those who improved their serum 25(OHD concentrations with less 25 nmol/L, 25 to 50 nmol/L, 50 to 75 nmol/L, and more 75 nmol/L had respectively 0.76, 0.64, 0.59, 0.56 times the risk for metabolic syndrome at follow up. These estimates were independent of the effect of baseline serum 25(OHD concentrations on metabolic syndrome. Improvement of vitamin D status may help reduce the public health burden of metabolic syndrome, and potential subsequent health conditions including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  1. PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS (PFCs) IN SERUM OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PFCs have been used in a wide range of consumer, including residential, products (e.g., stain-resistant coatings for carpets and upholstery). Carbon-fluoride bonds are highly stable, mak-ing PFCs extremely resistant to biodegradation. Thus, PFCs have become globally distributed and are ubiquitously present in serum of wildlife and people. Despite this, comparatively little is known as to how people are primarily exposed, and what (if any) health risk is associated with chronic, low-level exposure. It is hypothesized that house dust may represent a significant exposure route because PFCs can slough or volatilize from products used indoors, subsequently adsorbing to and accumulating within house dust. The purpose of this study was to determine if PFC serum levels in domestic cats tended to increase in proportion to time spent indoors and whether analyte patterns reflected that of food sources [e.g., fish products with high perfluoro-octane sulfonate (PFOS) but low perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS)] or with house dust (PFOS + PFHxS + perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) ─ with high PFHxS levels in the most contaminated dust). In 2008, serum was obtained from feral and pet cats presenting to shelters and clinics in the Raleigh, NC area, including the NCSU VTH. PFC serum levels were measured using high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. Data on housing status was available for 50 cats. From least to greatest indoor residential exposure, cats were grouped as

  2. Hematology and serum chemistry reference ranges of free-ranging moose (Alces Alces) in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Rostal, Melinda K.; Evans, Alina L.; Solberg, Erling L.; Arnemo, Jon Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article is also available here: http://www.jwildlifedis.org/ Baseline reference ranges of serum chemistry and hematology data can be important indicators for the status of both individuals or populations of wild animals that are affected by emerging pathogens, toxicants, or other causes of disease. Frequently, reference ranges for these values are not available for wildlife species or subspecies. We present hematologic and serum chemistry reference ranges for moose (Alces ...

  3. Adipokine serum concentrations, anthropometric measurements and socio-economic status in two ethnic groups with different prevalence levels for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisberg, R; Paiker, J E; Crowther, N J

    2011-08-01

    Obesity is more common in African than Asian-Indian populations and yet type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are more common in the latter populations. The main purpose of the current study was therefore to determine whether ethnic differences in body fat distribution, adipokine levels, and socio-economic status may explain population differences in the prevalence of these metabolic disorders. Leptin, IL-6, CRP, visceral fat, education level, and socio-economic status were measured in 50 African and the same number of Indian women residing in Johannesburg, South Africa. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in Indian than African subjects (41.3±2.0 and 34.2±2.9 ng/ml, respectively; pAfrican group, (5.22±0.86 vs. 2.54±0.52 pg/ml; peconomic status (pAfrican subjects, however, adjusting for these variables in ANCOVA did not attenuate differences in adipokine or visceral fat levels. We hypothesise that one of the reasons for the higher prevalence of obesity in the African than Indian population may be related to lower leptin levels, whilst ethnic differences in the prevalence of metabolic disorders cannot be explained by differences in adipokine levels, but maybe related to higher visceral adiposity in the Indian group. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · NewYork.

  4. Nutrient intake, serum lipids and iron status of colligiate rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Hiroyuki; Iide, Kazuhide; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Kumagai, Kenya; Oshikata, Reika; Miyahara, Keiko; Oda, Kazuto; Miyamoto, Noriko; Nakazawa, Anthony

    2013-02-13

    There are two main playing positions in rugby (backs and forwards), which demonstrate different exercise patterns, roles, and physical characteristics. The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise the athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to compare serum lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins (apo), lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity, and iron status of forwards and backs. The sporting group was divided into 18 forwards and 16 backs and were compared with 26 sedentary controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. There were significant differences among the three groups. The forwards had the highest body weight, body mass index, percentage of body fat (calculated by sum of four skinfold thicknesses), as well as the highest lean body mass, followed by the backs and the control group. The mean carbohydrate intake was marginal and protein intake was lower than the respective recommended targets in all three groups. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, and vitamins A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances or adequate dietary intakes for the rugby players. The forwards had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL2-C than the backs and had significantly higher apo B and LCAT activity than the controls. The backs showed significantly higher HDL-C, HDL3-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apo A-I, and LCAT activity than the controls. Four forwards (22%), five backs (31%), and three controls (12%) had hemolysis. None of the rugby players had anemia or iron depletion. The findings of our study indicate that as the athletes increased their carbohydrate and protein intake, their performance and lean body mass increased. Further, to increase mineral and vitamin intakes, we recommended athletes increase their consumption of green and other vegetables

  5. The reference range of serum, plasma and erythrocyte magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna Immanuel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the clinical importance of serum magnesium level has just recently begun with the analysis and findings of abnormal magnesium level in cardiovascular, metabolic and neuromuscular disorder. Although the serum level does not reflect the body magnesium level, but currently, only serum magnesium determination is widely used. Erythrocyte magnesium is considered more sensitive than serum magnesium as it reflects intracellular magnesium status. According to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards every laboratory is recommended to have its own reference range for the tests it performs, including magnesium determination. The reference range obtained is appropriate for the population and affected by the method and technique. This study aimed to find the reference range of serum and plasma magnesium and also intracellular magnesium i.e. erythrocyte magnesium by direct method, and compare the results of serum and plasma magnesium. Blood was taken from 114-blood donor from Unit Transfusi Darah Daerah (UTDD Budhyarto Palang Merah Indonesia (PMI DKI Jakarta, consisted of 57 male and 57 female, aged 17 – 65 years, clinically healthy according to PMI donor criteria. Blood was taken from blood set, collected into 4 ml vacuum tube without anticoagulant for serum magnesium determination and 3 ml vacuum tube with lithium heparin for determination of erythrocyte and plasma magnesium Determination of magnesium level was performed with clinical chemistry auto analyzer Hitachi 912 by Xylidil Blue method colorimetrically. This study showed no significant difference between serum and heparinized plasma extra cellular magnesium. The reference range for serum or plasma magnesium was 1.30 – 2.00 mEq/L and for erythrocyte magnesium was 4.46 - 7.10 mEq/L. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:229-35Keywords: Reference range, extracellular magnesium, intracellular magnesium

  6. Attempt of differentiation acute encephalopathy with febrile convulsive status epilepticus from febrile convulsive status epilepticus induced by human herpesvirus 6 at early stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junichi; Yamamuro, Miho; Togawa, Masao; Shiomi, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult for clinicians to predict the subsequent development of acute encephalopathy with febrile convulsive status epilepticus (AEFCSE), when febrile convulsive status epilepticus (FCSE) develops. Comparing clinical and laboratory characteristics between patients with AEFCSE and those with FCSE, we investigated the factors which predict the later development of febrile convulsive status caused by human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6). The subjects of this study were patients treated for FCSE or AEFCSE due to HHV6 in our hospital between April 2004 and January 2008. The AEFCSE group included 5 patients, and the FCSE group included 6 patients. There were few differences in clinical characteristics or brain images on admission between the 2 groups. Disturbance of consciousness persisted for 24 hours or more in all patients in the AEFCSE group and in 2 patients in the FCSE group. The serum creatinine concentration was significantly higher in the AEFCSE group. Serum creatinine concentration could be a good indicator for the prediction of AEFCSE in patients with FCSE. (author)

  7. Attempt of differentiation acute encephalopathy with febrile convulsive status epilepticus from febrile convulsive status epilepticus induced by human herpesvirus 6 at early stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Junichi; Yamamuro, Miho; Togawa, Masao; Shiomi, Masashi [Osaka City General Hospital, Osaka, Osaka (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    It is difficult for clinicians to predict the subsequent development of acute encephalopathy with febrile convulsive status epilepticus (AEFCSE), when febrile convulsive status epilepticus (FCSE) develops. Comparing clinical and laboratory characteristics between patients with AEFCSE and those with FCSE, we investigated the factors which predict the later development of febrile convulsive status caused by human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6). The subjects of this study were patients treated for FCSE or AEFCSE due to HHV6 in our hospital between April 2004 and January 2008. The AEFCSE group included 5 patients, and the FCSE group included 6 patients. There were few differences in clinical characteristics or brain images on admission between the 2 groups. Disturbance of consciousness persisted for 24 hours or more in all patients in the AEFCSE group and in 2 patients in the FCSE group. The serum creatinine concentration was significantly higher in the AEFCSE group. Serum creatinine concentration could be a good indicator for the prediction of AEFCSE in patients with FCSE. (author)

  8. Serum and Ascitic Fluid Superoxide Dismutase and Malondialdehyde Levels in Patients with Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Coskun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum and ascitic fluid superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were measured in 43 patients with cirrhosis and in a 10 healthy control group. Compensated cirrhotic patients had no clinically detectable ascites, but decompensated patients had massive ascites. Cirrhotic patients were divided into three groups: patients with compensated cirrhosis (n = 16, patients with decompensated cirrhosis with Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP (n = 14, and patients with decompensated cirrhosis without SBP (n = 13. All cirrhotic patients in the experimental group had significantly higher serum SOD (p 0.05. These results suggest that the increase in serum SOD and MDA levels are not related to the presence of SBP and the status of liver cirrhosis. To sum up, clarifying the impact of increased serum SOD and MDA levels in cirrhotic patients needs further investigation.

  9. Vitamin D Status of College Students: Implications for Health Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Eileen McKenna

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is considered to be a pandemic with implications for compromised bone health and other chronic diseases. Few studies have examined vitamin D status in college-aged individuals where prevention of future health consequences is still possible. Serum vitamin D 25(OH)D status and vitamin D intake were examined in 98 college…

  10. Clinical significance of determination of serum HA, PCIII and ADA levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jing; Yu Fan; Zhao Changxin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum HA, PCIII and ADA levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Methods: Serum HA, PCIII and ADA levels were detected with RIA in 42 cases with chronic hepatitis C and 35 controls. Results: The levels of serum HA, PC III and ADA in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). Serum HA, PC m and ADA levels were positive correlated (r=0.6178, 0.6211, P<0.01). Conclusion: The results suggested the serum HA, PC m and ADA levels can reflect the degree of hepatic injury in the patients with cirrhosis, detection of serum HA, PC m and ADA levels is helpful in estimating the status of the disease. (authors)

  11. Pakistani Immigrant Children and Adults in Denmark Have Severely Low Vitamin D Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Mølgaard, C.; Skovgaard, L. T.

    2008-01-01

    association with S-25OHD for men (P = 0.04) and women (P = 0.0008). Twenty-one per cent of the women and 34% of the men had osteopenia. Neither S-25OHD nor S-iPTH was associated with lumbar spine or whole body bone mineral content. Conclusions: Severely low vitamin D status and elevated S-iPTH is common among......, Copenhagen (55 degrees N), January- November. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD), serum intact parathyroid hormone (S-iPTH), bone turnover markers and whole body and lumbar spine bone mineral density were measured. Sun, smoking and clothing habits, age, body mass index (BMI), and vitamin D and calcium from......Objective: To determine vitamin D and bone status in adolescent girls, pre-menopausal women and men of Pakistani origin, to single out determinants of vitamin D status and to determine the association between vitamin D status, bone metabolism and bone status. Subjects/Methods: Cross-sectional study...

  12. Human serum protein and C-reactive protein levels among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human serum protein and C-reactive protein levels were determined among HIV patients visiting St Camillus Hospital, Uromi, Edo State, Nigeria, between January to March, 2013. Fifty (50) HIV patients (20 males; 30 females) and 50 control subjects (24 males; 26 females) were enrolled for this study. The clinical status of ...

  13. Maternal nutritional status, breast-milk production and newborn growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez Valery, M.C.; Eden Yepez, C.; Sanchez Jaeger, A.; Pontiles Colina, M.; Llovera, D.; Teran, D.

    1999-01-01

    The decrease in the practice of breast-feeding has occurred in Venezuela like in many other countries. In Venezuela, many efforts have been made to promote this practice because of its impact on children growth and development, and also because breast-feeding is not a common practice among the socioeconomic deprived groups of our urban areas. Several methodologies have been used to evaluate different breast-milk aspects, including questionnaires on beliefs and attitudes, milk composition studies, and immunity studies. However, is not an accurate and reliable technique for breast milk volume determinations. In this study we selected to use isotopic methods to measure breast-milk output, and its composition in lactating women who are at nutritional risk. Another objective of the project is to assess vitamin A status and reserves according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Body composition will be determined through different skinfold measurements, and body mass composition (BMI). Also, the growth development of their babies, during the first three months of breast-feeding will be evaluated. (author)

  14. Maternal nutritional status, breast-milk production and newborn growth and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez Valery, M C; Eden Yepez, C; Sanchez Jaeger, A; Pontiles Colina, M; Llovera, D; Teran, D [Unidad de Investigaciones en Nutricion, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia (Venezuela)

    1999-09-01

    The decrease in the practice of breast-feeding has occurred in Venezuela like in many other countries. In Venezuela, many efforts have been made to promote this practice because of its impact on children growth and development, and also because breast-feeding is not a common practice among the socioeconomic deprived groups of our urban areas. Several methodologies have been used to evaluate different breast-milk aspects, including questionnaires on beliefs and attitudes, milk composition studies, and immunity studies. However, is not an accurate and reliable technique for breast milk volume determinations. In this study we selected to use isotopic methods to measure breast-milk output, and its composition in lactating women who are at nutritional risk. Another objective of the project is to assess vitamin A status and reserves according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Body composition will be determined through different skinfold measurements, and body mass composition (BMI). Also, the growth development of their babies, during the first three months of breast-feeding will be evaluated. (author) 21 refs, 1 tab

  15. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity's association with markers of iron, 1-carbon metabolism, and antioxidant status among US adults: a structural equations modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May A Beydoun

    Full Text Available We tested a model in which Helicobacter pylori seropositivity (Hps predicted iron status, which in turn acted as a predictor for markers of 1-C metabolism that were then allowed to predict antioxidant status.National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 1999-2000 cross-sectional data among adults aged 20-85 y were analyzed (n = 3,055. Markers of Hps, iron status (serum ferritin and transferrin saturation (TS; 1-C metabolism (serum folate (FOLserum, B-12, total homocysteine (tHcy, methylmalonic acid (MMA and antioxidant status (vitamins A and E were entered into a structural equations model (SEM.Predictors of Hps included older age, lower education and income, racial/ethnic groups (lowest among Non-Hispanic Whites, and lifetime cigarette smoking. SEM modeling indicated that Hps had a direct inverse relationship with iron status (combining serum ferritin and TS which in turn was positively related to 1-C metabolites (higher serum folate, B-12 or lower tHcy/MMA that were positively associated with antioxidant status (combining serum vitamins A and E. Another pathway that was found bypassed 1-C metabolites (Hps → Iron_st → Antiox. The sum of all indirect effects from Hps combining both pathways and the other indirect pathways in the model (Hps → Iron_st → OneCarbon; Hps →OneCarbon →Antiox was estimated at β = -0.006±0.003, p<0.05.In sum, of the total effect of H. pylori seropositivity on antioxidant status, two significant indirect pathways through Iron status and 1-Carbon metabolites were found. Randomized controlled trials should be conducted to uncover the concomitant causal effect of H. pylori eradication on improving iron status, folate, B-12 and antioxidant status among H. pylori seropositive individuals.

  16. Vitamin D status and periodontal disease among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Kim A; Espinola, Janice A; Moss, Kevin; Beck, Jim; Offenbacher, Steven; Camargo, Carlos A

    2011-02-01

    Maternal periodontal disease is found in pregnancy outcomes. Vitamin D deficiency may play a role in periodontal disease and tooth loss, and insufficient vitamin D status is common among pregnant women. The objective of this study is to e