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Sample records for status behavior problems

  1. Early Adolescent Romantic Partner Status, Peer Standing, and Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S.; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a…

  2. PREMATURITY, NEONATAL HEALTH STATUS, AND LATER CHILD BEHAVIORAL/EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassiano, Rafaela G M; Gaspardo, Claudia M; Linhares, Maria Beatriz M

    2016-05-01

    Preterm birth can impact on child development. As seen previously, children born preterm present more behavioral and/or emotional problems than do full-term counterparts. In addition to gestational age, neonatal clinical status should be examined to better understand the differential impact of premature birth on later developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review empirical studies on the relationship between prematurity, neonatal health status, and behavioral and/or emotional problems in children. A systematic search of the PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and LILACS databases for articles published from 2009 to 2014 was performed. The inclusion criteria were empirical studies that evaluated behavioral and/or emotional problems that are related to clinical neonatal variables in children born preterm. Twenty-seven studies were reviewed. Results showed that the degree of prematurity and birth weight were associated with emotional and/or behavioral problems in children at different ages. Prematurity that was associated with neonatal clinical conditions (e.g., sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and hemorrhage) and such treatments as corticoids and steroids increased the risk for these problems. The volume and abnormalities of specific brain structures also were associated with these outcomes. In conclusion, the neonatal health problems associated with prematurity present a negative impact on later child emotional and adapted behavior. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  3. Oral health status, dental anxiety, and behavior-management problems in children with oppositional defiant disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser A; Najafpour, Ebrahim; Erfanparast, Leila; Jamali, Zahra; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh; Tamjid-Shabestari, Shabnam; Shirazi, Sajjad

    2016-02-01

    Mental disorders have been shown to affect children's oral health. This study was carried out to investigate the oral health status, dental anxiety (DA), and behavior-management problems (BMPs) during dental treatment in 6- to 9-yr-old children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study and control groups included 40 children with ODD/ADHD and 80 normal children, respectively. All participants received an amalgam restoration. During the procedure, the children's behavior was assessed using the Frankl Rating Scale and the Verbal Skill Scale. Parents rated their children's DA using the parental version of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule-Dental subscale (CFSS-DS). Comorbid anxiety disorders were assessed using the Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed using the gingival index and the decayed, missing, and filled teeth score for permanent (DMFT) and primary (dmft) teeth. The findings showed that DA and BMPs were significantly higher in children with ODD/ADHD than in the controls. Furthermore, the frequency of DA and BMPs was higher in children with both ODD/ADHD and a comorbid anxiety disorder than in those without comorbid anxiety disorder. Children with ODD/ADHD had significantly higher DMFT/dmft scores than those in the control group, whereas the difference in gingival index was not statistically significant. In conclusion, children with ODD/ADHD had higher levels of DA, BMP and poorer oral health status. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  4. Child care, socio-economic status and problem behavior: a study of gene-environment interaction in young Dutch twins.

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    Middeldorp, Christel M; Lamb, Diane J; Vink, Jacqueline M; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-07-01

    The influences of formal child care before age 4 on behavioral problems at 3, 5, and 7 years of age were assessed in 18,932 Dutch twins (3,878 attended formal child care). The effect of formal child care was studied on the average level of problem behavior and as moderator of genetic and non-genetic influences, while taking into account effects of sex and parental socio-economic status (SES). There was a small association between attending formal child care and higher externalizing problems, especially when SES was low. Heritability was lower for formal child care and in lower SES conditions. These effects were largest at age 7 and for externalizing problems. In 7 year-old boys and girls, the difference in heritability between the formal child care group of low SES and the home care group of high SES was 30% for externalizing and ~20% for internalizing problems. The decrease in heritability was explained by a larger influence of the environment, rather than by a decrease in genetic variance. These results support a bioecological model in which heritability is lower in circumstances associated with more problem behavior.

  5. Social Network Centrality and Leadership Status: Links with Problem Behaviors and Tests of Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip R.; Grimes, Christina; Putallaz, Martha; Miller, Shari; Malone, Patrick S.

    2009-01-01

    Seventh-grade students (N = 324) completed social cognitive maps to identify peer groups and peer group leaders, sociometric nominations to describe their peers' behaviors, and questionnaires to assess their own behaviors. Peer group members resembled one another in levels of direct and indirect aggression and substance use; girls' cliques were…

  6. The Relationship of Smoking Status to Alcohol Use, Problems, and Health Behaviors in College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Amie L.; Smith, Shelby K.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in drinking, consequences, and perceptions were examined between alcohol-using college students by smoking status (current, past, and lifetime nonsmoker). Entering freshmen (N = 558: 45% male, 72% Caucasian, age M = 18) completed a questionnaire assessing smoking, drinking and current health perceptions. Results indicated current…

  7. The Effect of Psychological Suzhi on Problem Behaviors in Chinese Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Subjective Social Status and Self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Guangzeng Liu; Dajun Zhang; Yangu Pan; Yuanxiao Ma; Xingyue Lu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined subjective social status (SSS) and self-esteem as potential mediators between the association of psychological suzhi and problem behaviors in a sample of 1271 Chinese adolescents (44.5% male, grades 7–12). The results showed that SSS and self-esteem were fully mediating the relationship between psychological suzhi and problem behaviors. Moreover, the indirect effect was stronger via self-esteem than via SSS. These findings perhaps provide insight into the preliminar...

  8. Child care, socio-economic status and problem behavior: A study of gene-environment interaction in young Dutch twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, C.M.; Lamb, D.J.; Vink, J.M.; Bartels, M.; Beijsterveldt, C.E.M. van; Boomsma, D.I.

    2014-01-01

    The influences of formal child care before age 4 on behavioral problems at 3, 5, and 7 years of age were assessed in 18,932 Dutch twins (3,878 attended formal child care). The effect of formal child care was studied on the average level of problem behavior and as moderator of genetic and non-genetic

  9. The interplay among socioeconomic status, household chaos, and parenting in the prediction of child conduct problems and callous-unemotional behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Willoughby, Michael T; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Wagner, Nicholas; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2016-08-01

    Child conduct problems (CP) reflect a heterogeneous collection of oppositional, aggressive, norm-violating, and sometimes violent behaviors, whereas child callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors reflect interpersonal styles of interactions reflecting a lack of guilt and empathy as well as uncaring and shallow emotional responses to others. Taken together, high levels of child CP and CU behaviors are thought to identify a relatively homogenous group of children at elevated risk for persistent and more severe problem behaviors across childhood and into adulthood. Although a large body of research has examined the developmental etiology of CP behaviors, only recently has a developmental psychopathology approach been applied to early CU behaviors. The current study examines multiple levels of contextual influences during the first years of life, including family socioeconomic status, household chaos, and parenting behaviors, on CP and CU behaviors assessed during the first-grade year. Whereas previous studies found associations between parenting behaviors and child problem behaviors moderated by household chaos, the current study found no evidence of moderation. However, path analyses suggest that the associations between child CP and CU behaviors and the contextual variables of socioeconomic status (family income and parental education) and household chaos (disorganization and instability) were mediated by maternal sensitive and harsh-intrusive parenting behavior. Analyses are presented, interpreted, and discussed with respect to both bioecological and family stress models of development.

  10. The Effect of Psychological Suzhi on Problem Behaviors in Chinese Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Subjective Social Status and Self-esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzeng Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined subjective social status (SSS and self-esteem as potential mediators between the association of psychological suzhi and problem behaviors in a sample of 1271 Chinese adolescents (44.5% male, grades 7–12. The results showed that SSS and self-esteem were fully mediating the relationship between psychological suzhi and problem behaviors. Moreover, the indirect effect was stronger via self-esteem than via SSS. These findings perhaps provide insight into the preliminary effect that SSS and self-esteem underlie psychological suzhi’s effect on adolescents’ problem behaviors, and also are important in helping school-teachers and administrators to develop a better understanding of problem behaviors in their schools as a pre-requisite to the development of more effective behaviors management practices from the perspective of psychological suzhi. Implications and limitations in the present study have also been discussed.

  11. The Effect of Psychological Suzhi on Problem Behaviors in Chinese Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Subjective Social Status and Self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangzeng; Zhang, Dajun; Pan, Yangu; Ma, Yuanxiao; Lu, Xingyue

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined subjective social status (SSS) and self-esteem as potential mediators between the association of psychological suzhi and problem behaviors in a sample of 1271 Chinese adolescents (44.5% male, grades 7-12). The results showed that SSS and self-esteem were fully mediating the relationship between psychological suzhi and problem behaviors. Moreover, the indirect effect was stronger via self-esteem than via SSS. These findings perhaps provide insight into the preliminary effect that SSS and self-esteem underlie psychological suzhi's effect on adolescents' problem behaviors, and also are important in helping school-teachers and administrators to develop a better understanding of problem behaviors in their schools as a pre-requisite to the development of more effective behaviors management practices from the perspective of psychological suzhi. Implications and limitations in the present study have also been discussed.

  12. The Impact of Ethnic-Immigrant Status and Obesity-Related Risk Factors on Behavioral Problems among US Children and Adolescents

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    Gopal K. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the prevalence and correlates of parent-reported behavioral problems among immigrants and US-born children aged 6–17 years. The 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health was used to develop an 11-item factor-based behavioral problems index (BPI and a dichotomous serious behavioral problems (SBP measure. Logistic and least-squares regression and disparity indices were used to analyze differentials. BPI scores varied from 92.3 for immigrant Asian children to ≥102.4 for native Hispanic and Black children. The prevalence of SBP ranged from 2.9% for immigrant Asian children to 17.0% for native Black children. Children in most ethnic-immigrant groups had higher adjusted levels of behavioral problems than immigrant Asian children. Native Hispanic children, native and immigrant White children, immigrant Black children, and native Asian children had ≥3.0 times higher adjusted odds of SBP than immigrant Asian children. Lower socioeconomic status, obesity, physical inactivity, lack of sports participation, increased television viewing, and sleep disruption were associated with greater behavioral problems. Sociodemographic and behavioral factors accounted for 37.0% and 48.5% of ethnic-immigrant disparities in BPI and SBP, respectively. Immigrant children had fewer behavioral problems than native-born children. Policies aimed at modifying obesity-related behaviors and social environment may lead to improved behavioral/emotional health in both immigrant and native children.

  13. When a parent has a stroke - Clinical course and prediction of mood, behavior problems, and health status of their young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-Meily, A; Post, M; van de Port, [No Value; Maas, C; Lindeman, E

    2005-01-01

    Background and Purpose - The purpose of this research was to describe the clinical course of children's functioning (depression, behavioral problems, and health status) during the first year after parental stroke and to determine which patient-, spouse-, or child-related factors at the start of

  14. Psychopathological status, behavior problems, and family adjustment of Kuwaiti children whose fathers were involved in the first gulf war

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    Ohaeri Jude U

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Following the end of the Gulf War that resulted in the liberation of Kuwait, there are no reports on the impact of veterans' traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on their children. We compared the severity of anxiety, depression, deviant behavior and poor family adjustment among the children of a stratified random sample of four groups of Kuwaiti military men, viz: the retired; an active -in-the-army group (AIA (involved in duties at the rear; an in-battle group (IB (involved in combat; and a prisoners -of- war (POWs group. Also, we assessed the association of father's PTSD/combat status and mother's characteristics with child psychosocial outcomes. Method Subjects were interviewed at home, 6 years after the war, using: the Child Behavior Index to assess anxiety, depression, and adaptive behavior; Rutter Scale A2 for deviant behavior; and Family Adjustment Device for adjustment at home. Both parents were assessed for PTSD. Results The 489 offspring (250 m, 239 f; mean age 13.8 yrs belonged to 166 father-mother pairs. Children of POWs tended to have higher anxiety, depression, and abnormal behavior scores. Those whose fathers had PTSD had significantly higher depression scores. However, children of fathers with both PTSD and POW status (N = 43 did not have significantly different outcome scores than the other father PTSD/combat status groups. Mother's PTSD, anxiety, depression and social status were significantly associated with all the child outcome variables. Parental age, child's age and child's level of education were significant covariates. Although children with both parents having PTSD had significantly higher anxiety/depression scores, the mother's anxiety was the most frequent and important predictor of child outcome variables. The frequency of abnormal test scores was: 14% for anxiety/depression, and 17% for deviant behavior. Conclusion Our findings support the impression that child emotional

  15. Maternal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status during early pregnancy and children's risk of problem behavior at age 5-6 years.

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    Loomans, Eva M; Van den Bergh, Bea R H; Schelling, Maaike; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; van Eijsden, Manon

    2014-04-01

    To prospectively investigate the association between maternal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status and ratio during pregnancy and children's risk of problem behavior at 5 years of age. Maternal LCPUFA status in plasma phospholipids during pregnancy (M = 13.3, SD = 3 weeks) was available for 4336 women. Children's behavior was rated by their mother (n = 2502) and teacher (n = 2061). When using multivariate logistic regression analyses, we found that greater concentrations of omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.56-0.99; P = .05) decreased children's risk for emotional symptoms. Although lower eicosapentaenoic acid and a greater omega-6:omega-3 LCPUFA (ie, arachidonic acid/[docosahexaenoic acid + eicosapentaenoic acid]) tended to increase the risk for emotional symptoms and the risk of hyperactivity/inattention problems for the omega-6:omega-3 LCPUFA, the results were nonsignificant (P = .07). No evidence was found for mediation by preterm birth and being small for gestational age. The child's sex and infant feeding pattern did not modify the associations. Our results suggest long-term developmental programming influences of maternal LCPUFA status during pregnancy and stress the importance of an adequate and balanced supply of fatty acids in pregnant women for optimal fetal brain development and subsequent long-term behavioral outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gambling behaviors and attitudes in adolescent high-school students: Relationships with problem-gambling severity and smoking status

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    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Franco, Christine A.; Hoff, Rani A.; Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Wampler, Jeremy; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Methods Analyses utilized survey data from 1,591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. Results For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Discussion Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Conclusion Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. PMID:25959617

  17. Gambling behaviors and attitudes in adolescent high-school students: Relationships with problem-gambling severity and smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Franco, Christine A; Hoff, Rani A; Pilver, Corey E; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen; Wampler, Jeremy; Cavallo, Dana A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Analyses utilized survey data from 1591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Behavior problems in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Wei-Chieh; Lee, Li-Ang; Liu, Tien-Chen; Tsou, Yung-Ting; Chan, Kai-Chieh; Wu, Che-Ming

    2015-05-01

    (1) To examine behavior problems in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs); (2) to investigate the associated factors of problem behaviors; (3) to understand the relationships between behavior problems and parenting stress. Sixty patients (25 boys, 35 girls) aged 6-18 years (mean=12.2±3.2) who used CIs for a mean duration of eight years participated in the study. Behavior problems were assessed by Achenbach's child behavior checklist (CBCL). Categorical auditory performance (CAP) and speech intelligibility rating (SIR) scales were utilized to investigate auditory performance and speech production intelligibility. Parenting stress index (PSI) was filled out by parents to measure parenting stress level. Significantly more CI subjects had problems with 'Withdrawn/Depressed' (p=0.010), 'Social Problems' (pProblems' (pProblems' (pProblems' was the most common problem and could be independently associated with gender, socioeconomic status and CAP (R(2)=0.361). CAP score was also associated with Overall Behaviors (R(2)=0.081). The results of PSI had a significant positive correlation with almost all CBCL subscales (pproblems, which may in turn increase parenting stress. Good family support as well as aural-verbal rehabilitation are of particular importance in determining behavioral outcomes in CI children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavior Problems in Secondary Schools.

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    Feldhusen, John F.

    1978-01-01

    This article reviews and clarifies the problems of antisocial student behavior in schools, ranging from talking out of turn to violent attacks upon fellow students or teachers. It focuses on the high school and junior high school, and attempts to identify causes while examining programs and procedures for remediating or preventing such behavior.…

  20. Problem behavior in Dutch preschoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Koot (Hans)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe present study was an attempt to contribute to the standardized assessment and the study of prevalence of problem behavior in children 2- to 3-years old by means of empirically derived rating scales. The basic questions were: 1. What are the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch

  1. Parent Predictors of Changes in Child Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Arnold, David H.; Baker, Courtney N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether ineffective discipline, single parent status, social support, parent involvement, and parent depression predicted changes in preschoolers’ (N = 129) behavior problems. This study also evaluated whether child sex and ethnicity moderated the relationships between these variables and changes in problem behavior. Parents completed questionnaires at the beginning of the study, and parent, teacher, and observational ratings of children’s behavior problems were col...

  2. Generational Differences in Children's Externalizing Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ui Jeong; Hofferth, Sandra L

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the effects of time spent with parents and peers on generational differences in children's externalizing behavior problems in immigrant families. Using the Child Development Supplement and Time Diaries from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we found that first and second generation children exhibited fewer externalizing behavior problems than did third generation children, despite their lower socioeconomic status. First and second generation children spent more time with either one or both parents, and less time with peers, on the weekend day than did third generation children. We found a marginal but beneficial effect of time spent with fathers on the weekday, but not on the weekend day. The implications are that time spent with fathers on weekdays differs from time spent with fathers on the weekend, and that promoting immigrant father involvement on the weekday through school or community programs could benefit immigrant children.

  3. Understanding disruptive behavior problems in preschool children.

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    Breitenstein, Susan M; Hill, Carri; Gross, Deborah

    2009-02-01

    Disruptive behavior problems in young children are the number one reason for referral to mental health agencies. However, owing to difficulties differentiating clinically significant disruptive behaviors from typical development, a significant proportion of young children with disruptive behavior problems go unidentified and untreated. Research supports the existence of disruptive behavior disorders in young children, and early identification and treatment are critical to interrupt the trajectory of early problems to more significant and impairing difficulties. The purposes of this article were to identify and discuss disruptive behavior problems in preschool children and to introduce readers to current definitions of disruptive behavior problems and emotion regulation. A review of risk factors and underlying emotion and behavior regulation difficulties implicated in the development of disruptive behavior problems is provided. Furthermore, clinical implications for nurses in the identification of disruptive behavior problems in preschool children for pediatric nurses are discussed.

  4. Behavioral Treatment for Common Childhood Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hodson, Gary; Mathews, Judith R.; MacDonald, G. Wayne; McNeill, Gillian; Grantmyre, Jane

    1984-01-01

    Parents often consult family physicians about child rearing, child development, and school-related problems. Behavioral treatment is one method of dealing with such concerns. It involves identifying problems with a child's behavior, working to resolve them by rewarding desirable behavior and withholding rewards for undesirable behavior, and evaluating the outcome. Before treatment begins, it is necessary to establish that the parents feel the child's behavior is a problem; that the child can ...

  5. Relationship between Peer Status and Health Behaviors.

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    Terre, Lisa; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated relative influence of background characteristics (age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, family type) and peer status on health-related behaviors (physical activity, eating habits, smoking, alcohol use, stress-related behaviors) in 589 junior high school students. Peer popularity provided no significant increment in prediction of…

  6. BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN WITH MILD AND MODERATE INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

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    Vesna KOSTIKJ-IVANOVIKJ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Large number of children with intellectual disabilities encounters behavioral problems or show disharmonic behavior within the family, at school and in the community. Researches show that 30-50% of persons with intellectual disabilities have some behavioral problems. The behavior of children with intellectual disabilities depends on many factors: age of the child, level of intellectual disability, cognitive potentials, level of psycho-physical development, differentiation of emotions, communicative skills, social status and conditions of the environment (in the family and the wider community where the child lives. The influence of some of these factors has been analyzed by this research. There are many ins truments (questionnaires, scales that evaluate behavior of persons with intellectual disabilities, and reveal problems that these persons have in their psychosocial development and social life. This research used the AAMD Adaptive behavior Scale (part II and Scale for evaluating behavior of the child in school by authors Bojanin, Savanovikj.

  7. Parents' Perception of Adolescent Behavior Problems

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    Campbell, Mary M.; Cooper, Kathleen

    1975-01-01

    Parents, usually mothers, of adolescents who were participants in clinical programs for counseling were asked to rate their teenager's behavior by use of the Walker Checklist. The results show an increase of behavior problems at adolescence. (DEP)

  8. Intergenerational transmission of child problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. van Meurs (Inge)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn the present thesis, the intergenerational transmission of child problem behavior will be investigated. In this introduction, we will explain why it is important to study transmission of problem behavior from parents to their offspring. In addition, we will describe the study design

  9. Problem behavior, parental stress and enuresis.

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    De Bruyne, Elke; Van Hoecke, Eline; Van Gompel, Katrien; Verbeken, Sandra; Baeyens, Dieter; Hoebeke, Piet; Vande Walle, Johan

    2009-10-01

    We determined maternal and paternal ratings of problem behavior in 5 to 13-year-old children with (non)monosymptomatic enuresis and investigated parental stress and the association between parental ratings of child behavior and parental stress. We compared problem behavior in 78 children with (non)monosymptomatic enuresis vs that in 110 without enuresis using the Child Behavior Checklist and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale. Parental stress was measured using the Parenting Stress Index. Maternal results replicated previous findings of significantly higher Child Behavior Checklist scores for externalizing and total problems compared with those in the control group, whereas no significant differences were found for paternal ratings. Mothers and fathers of enuretic children reported significantly higher scores on the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity and oppositional defiant disorder subscales than parents of children without enuresis. The Parenting Stress Index revealed significantly higher overall stress in mothers and fathers of children with (non)monosymptomatic enuresis compared with that in parents of controls. Especially parental stress related to child characteristics was associated with a greater report of child behavior problems. Each parent but especially mothers reported more problem behavior in children with (non)monosymptomatic enuresis than in controls. They also reported more stress, which correlates highly with parental ratings of problem behavior in children with (non)monosymptomatic enuresis.

  10. Child labor and childhood behavioral and mental health problems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    the children. Results: A total of 2000 child laborers and 400 non-laborers were interviewed using RQC to screen for probable cases of behavioral and mental problems. Of these, 50% of the ..... Table 4: Logistic regression model for prediction of group status “any DSM III-R diagnosis vs no diagnosis” of. 2400 child laborers ...

  11. Language ability predicts the development of behavior problems in children.

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    Petersen, Isaac T; Bates, John E; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Coyne, Claire A; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Van Hulle, Carol A

    2013-05-01

    Prior studies have suggested, but not fully established, that language ability is important for regulating attention and behavior. Language ability may have implications for understanding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorders, as well as subclinical problems. This article reports findings from two longitudinal studies to test (a) whether language ability has an independent effect on behavior problems, and (b) the direction of effect between language ability and behavior problems. In Study 1 (N = 585), language ability was measured annually from ages 7 to 13 years by language subtests of standardized academic achievement tests administered at the children's schools. Inattentive-hyperactive (I-H) and externalizing (EXT) problems were reported annually by teachers and mothers. In Study 2 (N = 11,506), language ability (receptive vocabulary) and mother-rated I-H and EXT problems were measured biannually from ages 4 to 12 years. Analyses in both studies showed that language ability predicted within-individual variability in the development of I-H and EXT problems over and above the effects of sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and performance in other academic and intellectual domains (e.g., math, reading comprehension, reading recognition, and short-term memory [STM]). Even after controls for prior levels of behavior problems, language ability predicted later behavior problems more strongly than behavior problems predicted later language ability, suggesting that the direction of effect may be from language ability to behavior problems. The findings suggest that language ability may be a useful target for the prevention or even treatment of attention deficits and EXT problems in children. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  12. Behavior Problems and the Power Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Alta R.

    1991-01-01

    This article recommends strategies to speech-language pathologists for modifying behavior problems pertaining to authority relationships within the clinical setting and which interfere with the speech/language-impaired child's progress in therapy. (Author/DB)

  13. Children with behavioral problems and motor problems have a worse neurological condition than children with behavioral problems only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Lieke H. J.; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some evidence suggests that children with specific behavioral problems are at risk for motor problems. It is unclear whether neurological condition plays a role in the propensity of children with behavioral problems to develop Motor problems. Aims: To examine the relation between

  14. Prevalence of Multiply Controlled Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Gracie A.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined articles in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" in which results of functional analyses indicated that problem behavior was maintained by multiple sources of reinforcement. Data for 88 (16.9%) of 521 subjects reported in 168 studies met the criteria for multiple control. Data for 11 subjects (2.1%) involved a single response…

  15. Behavioral/Emotional Problems of Preschoolers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, L.A.; Achenbach, T.M.; Ivanova, M.Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested societal effects on caregiver/teacher ratings of behavioral/emotional problems for 10,521 preschoolers from 15 societies. Many societies had problem scale scores within a relatively narrow range, despite differences in language, culture, and other characteristics. The small age...

  16. Identifying Unbiased Items for Screening Preschoolers for Disruptive Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studts, Christina R; Polaha, Jodi; van Zyl, Michiel A

    2017-05-01

    Efficient identification and referral to behavioral services are crucial in addressing early-onset disruptive behavior problems. Existing screening instruments for preschoolers are not ideal for pediatric primary care settings serving diverse populations. Eighteen candidate items for a new brief screening instrument were examined to identify those exhibiting measurement bias (i.e., differential item functioning, DIF) by child characteristics. Parents/guardians of preschool-aged children ( N = 900) from four primary care settings completed two full-length behavioral rating scales. Items measuring disruptive behavior problems were tested for DIF by child race, sex, and socioeconomic status using two approaches: item response theory-based likelihood ratio tests and ordinal logistic regression. Of 18 items, eight were identified with statistically significant DIF by at least one method. The bias observed in 8 of 18 items made them undesirable for screening diverse populations of children. These items were excluded from the new brief screening tool.

  17. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins.

  18. Eliminating Problem Behaviors with Positive Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoi, Margaret

    A teacher describes her efforts to deal with an 11-year-old severely emotionally impaired girl in a classroom with other acting out, aggressive students. The girl's behavior problems included breaking, tearing, spitting, swearing, running, and sexual aggression. A positive reinforcedment system was found to be primarily responsible for success in…

  19. Robot response behaviors to accommodate hearing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroon, Jered Hendrik; Kim, Jaebok; Koster, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    One requirement that arises for a social (semi-autonomous telepresence) robot aimed at conversations with the elderly, is to accommodate hearing problems. In this paper we compare two approaches to this requirement; (1) moving closer, mimicking the leaning behavior commonly observed in elderly with

  20. Behavioral and emotional problems of schoolchildren according to gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Martins Saur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate mental health problems, including behavioral and emotional problems, in a cohort of schoolchildren according to gender and to assess the associations of family characteristics and behavioral performance for boys and girls. Data from 677 children born in Ribeirão Preto (SP, Brazil, when they were 10/11 years old was available. The mental health assessment was performed using the Brazilian version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results showed that the prevalence rates for boys and girls were, respectively: 41.7% and 34.5% for total difficulties score, 50.4% and 57.6% for emotional symptoms, 31.2% and 18.8% for hyperactivity, 38.8% and 27.6% for conduct problems, 27.1% and 26.7% for peer problems and, 4.7% and 2.7% for prosocial behavior. The family characteristics associated with behavioral problems were low socioeconomic status for boys and low maternal education and families with more than four members for girls.

  1. Biosocial models of adolescent problem behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J R

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops a biosocial model of adolescent age-graded norm violations ("problem behaviors"), combining a traditional social control model with a biological model using steroid hormones. Subjects were 101 white boys drawn from the 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade rosters of selected public schools, and ranging in age from 13 to 16. Subjects completed self-administered questionnaires and provided blood samples which were assayed for the behaviorally relevant hormones. Boys' problem behavior shows strong hormone effects. Social and biological variables have both additive and indirect effects. Using a biosocial model leads to conclusions which are different from those which would have been drawn from the sociological model alone.

  2. Effect on behavior problems of teen online problem-solving for adolescent traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L; Walz, Nicolay C; Carey, Joanne; McMullen, Kendra M; Cass, Jennifer; Mark, Erin; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2011-10-01

    To report the results of a randomized clinical trial of teen online problem-solving (TOPS) meant to improve behavioral outcomes of adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). A randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of TOPS with access to Internet resources in teenagers with TBI in improving parent and self-reported behavior problems and parent-teen conflicts. Participants included 41 adolescents aged 11 to 18 years (range: 11.47-17.90 years) who had sustained a moderate-to-severe TBI between 3 and 19 months earlier. Teens in the TOPS group received 10 to 14 online sessions that provided training in problem-solving, communication skills, and self-regulation. Outcomes were assessed before treatment and at a follow-up assessment an average of 8 months later. Groups were compared on follow-up scores after we controlled for pretreatment levels. Injury severity and socioeconomic status were examined as potential moderators of treatment efficacy. Forty-one participants provided consent and completed baseline assessments, and follow-up assessments were completed for 35 participants (16 TOPS, 19 Internet resource comparison). The TOPS group reported significantly less parent-teen conflict at follow-up than did the Internet-resource-comparison group. Improvements in teen behavior after TOPS were moderated by injury severity; there were greater improvements in the teens' internalizing symptoms after TOPS among adolescents with severe TBI. Family socioeconomic status also moderated the efficacy of TOPS in improving behavior problems reported by both parents and teens, although the nature of the moderation effects varied. Our findings suggest that TOPS contributes to improvements in parent-teen conflict generally and parent and self-reported teen behavior problems for certain subsets of participants.

  3. Assessment of Behavioral Problems in Children With Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, Caitlin E; Rashidi, Vania; Westgate, Philip M; Jacobs, Julie A; Bush, Matthew L; Studts, Christina R

    2017-12-01

    To compare the prevalence of disruptive behavior problems between preschool-aged children with hearing loss and normal hearing. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary academic center. Caregivers of children (2-5 yr old) with normal hearing (NH) (n = 39), hearing loss using hearing aid(s) (HA) (n = 29), or cochlear implant(s) (CI) (n = 21). Demographic information and a mental health history were obtained. Child behavior and language development were assessed. The Young Child-Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV and the MacArthur-Bates Communication Development Inventory III. Distributions of race, socioeconomic status, insurance status, and parental home situation (single versus two parent family) were similar across all groups. Parents of children with hearing loss were significantly more likely to report behavior problems (HA = 41%, CI = 38%) than parents of NH children (10%; p = 0.002). Children with hearing loss were significantly more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for oppositional defiant disorder (HA = 48%, CI = 48%) than NH children (23%; p = 0.02). More NH children (8%) than hearing impaired children (0%) had accessed mental health services (p = 0.08). NH children were found to have more advanced language development than hearing-impaired children (p children with hearing loss have higher prevalence of and impairment from disruptive behaviors than their NH peers. These children are less likely to receive appropriate behavioral interventions. Further research is warranted to investigate the impact of disruptive behaviors on speech and hearing rehabilitation. Methods to improve access to effective behavioral interventions in this population are needed.

  4. Weight Concerns, Problem Eating Behaviors, and Problem Drinking Behaviors in Female Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutgesell, Margaret E.; Moreau, Kerrie L.; Thompson, Dixie L.

    2003-01-01

    Compared eating behaviors and alcohol drinking habits between female varsity college athletes and female controls (non-athletes). Data from a student survey indicated that self-reported problem drinking and eating behaviors existed in both groups at similar rates. There did not appear to be a significant relationship between self-reported alcohol…

  5. Behavioral problems and parenting style among Taiwanese children with autism and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chou, Miao-Churn; Lee, Ju-Chin; Wong, Ching-Ching; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chen, Ming-Fang; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the behavioral problems and parenting style among children with autism and their siblings in an ethnic Chinese population. A total of 151 children with DSM-IV autistic disorder, aged 3-12, 134 siblings without autism, and 113 normally developing controls were recruited. Both parents reported their parenting styles and psychological status and mothers also reported children's behavioral problems. Children with autism had significantly more severe behavioral problems and obtained less affection and more overprotection and authoritarian controlling from their parents than the other two groups. Compared to the controls, unaffected siblings showed some behavioral problems, and obtained less maternal care. Withdrawal and attention, social, and thought problems were the most associated behavioral syndromes to distinguish children with autism from those without. In addition to children with autism, who have a wide range of behavioral problems and impaired parent-child interactions, their siblings may be at risk for such problems.

  6. Study of behavioral problems in multi-transfused thalassemic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongally, Chandrashekar; Benakappa, Asha D; Reena, Shankar

    2012-10-01

    Beta-thalassemia major is a chronic disorder of blood, having an extensive impact on the affected child. It involves lifelong therapeutic regime, with repeated blood transfusions. With improved life expectancy, due to improved medical management psychosocial aspects of thalassemia are gaining importance. To assess the behavioral problems in multi-transfused thalassemic children and psychosocial factors affecting them. The study was conducted in a tertiary care level hospital and research institute catering mainly to a population of low socioeconomic status. The study was a cross-sectional study involving 50 multi-transfused thalassemic children of age 5-10 years. Fifty multi-transfused thalassemic children, aged 5-10 years, not suffering from any other major medical illness, were included. Child Behavior Check List (Achenbach) (CBCL) was used to collect data from each parent regarding the child's behavior. Parental Attitude Scale (Rangaswamy 1989) was applied. Descriptive statistical analysis was used with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student's t test to find the significance of data. The CBCL total scores were high in 32% patients, indicating the presence of behavioral problems. Higher CBCL scores were found in children of older age group, those with poor school performance, whose mothers' education was more than eighth standard, had history of death of thalassemic relative in family, greater duration of diagnosed illness, poor pre-transfusion hemoglobin level, and who had longer periods of school absenteeism. Behavioral problems are common in multi-transfused thalassemic children. Early diagnosis and intervention of behavioral problems in these children would make them cope with thalassemia better.

  7. Ant Foraging Behavior for Job Shop Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahad Diyana Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is a new algorithm approach, inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants. It has frequently been applied to many optimization problems and one such problem is in solving the job shop problem (JSP. The JSP is a finite set of jobs processed on a finite set of machine where once a job initiates processing on a given machine, it must complete processing and uninterrupted. In solving the Job Shop Scheduling problem, the process is measure by the amount of time required in completing a job known as a makespan and minimizing the makespan is the main objective of this study. In this paper, we developed an ACO algorithm to minimize the makespan. A real set of problems from a metal company in Johor bahru, producing 20 parts with jobs involving the process of clinching, tapping and power press respectively. The result from this study shows that the proposed ACO heuristics managed to produce a god result in a short time.

  8. Prediction of behavior management problems in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, A; Schröder, U; Ek, L; Hallonsten, A L; Crossner, C G

    1988-10-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study non-dental and dental background variables with a view to estimating their influence on behavior management problems by means of a structured interview and analyzing their separate and combined predictive power. The material consisted of a case group, 101 children aged 3-16 yr, referred for management problems to clinics of specialized pedodontics, and a control group, individually matched with the cases as regards age, sex, residential area, number of tooth surfaces restored, and dentist. The children or their parents were interviewed concerning background variables. Logistic regression was used for the analyses. Three non-dental variables turned out to be statistically significant as predictors (P less than 0.05): problems on visiting a medical doctor, dental fear in the mother or father, and anxiety when meeting unfamiliar people. Management problems might be expected if one of these attributes is found. Four dental variables had significant predictive power: earlier problems on seeing a dentist, dislike of the dentist, not enough time to adjust to the dental situation, and fear of injection. However, none of these dental variables was found to have predictive power in 3-6-yr-olds, and none of them improved the predictive power of the three main non-dental variables.

  9. Mothers' night work and children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Crosby, Danielle A; Su, Jessica Houston

    2013-10-01

    Many mothers work in jobs with nonstandard schedules (i.e., schedules that involve work outside of the traditional 9-5, Monday through Friday schedule); this is particularly true for economically disadvantaged mothers. In the present article, we used longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (n = 2,367 mothers of children ages 3-5 years) to examine the associations between maternal nonstandard work and children's behavior problems, with a particular focus on mothers' night shift work. We employed 3 analytic strategies with various approaches to adjusting for observed and unobserved selection factors; these approaches provided an upper and lower bound on the true relationship between night shift work and children's behavior. Taken together, the results provide suggestive evidence for modest associations between exposure to maternal night shift work and higher levels of aggressive and anxious or depressed behavior in children compared with children whose mothers who are not working, those whose mothers work other types of nonstandard shifts, and, for aggressive behavior, those whose mothers work standard shifts.

  10. Alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, problem drinking, and socioeconomic status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. van Oers (Johannes Anna Maria); I.M.B. Bongers (Inge); L.A. van de Goor; H.F.L. Garretsen (Henk)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn general, a lower socioeconomic status (SES) is related to a lower health status, more health problems, and a shorter life expectancy. Although causal relations between SES and health are unclear, lifestyle factors play an intermediate role. The purpose of

  11. Behavioral problems and their correlates in adolescence: Longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Irena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings of a one-year follow-up longitudinal study of problem behaviors and their correlates. The sample included 494 pupils in the fifth, the sixth and the seventh grade of elementary school in the first wave of data collection, and 269 of them participated in the second wave. It was found that problem behaviors increase in frequency with age. Boys express higher levels of problem behaviors than girls. Statistically significant predictors of concurrent problem behaviors are conflict with parents, peer pressure to accept socially disapproved behaviors, negative school experience and excessive control by father. The longitudinal findings that problem behaviors predict negative school experience one year later, when controlled at the initial levels of school experience, and that excessive control by father and peer pressure predict problem behaviors one year later, when controlled at the initial level of problem behaviors, suggest bidirectional influence between problem behaviors and their correlates.

  12. Peer status beyond adolescence: Types and behavioral associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschoff, Britta; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, René; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the types and behavioral associations of peer status in school-bound young adults in the Netherlands. We argue that adolescent peer popularity and its link with aggressive and norm-breaking behavior result from adolescents' desire to create an image of maturity among their peers. We expect that in young adults who are approaching working life, peer status is defined by affective measures of status and prosociality rather than adverse behaviors. Analyses revealed a three cluster solution of (1) liked, (2) liked-popular and (3) neutral members of the peer group, showing that status is primarily defined by being well-liked, though popularity remains relevant. Status was primarily associated with prosocial behavior, especially for females. Peer status in young males remained associated with overt aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of neonatal risk and temperament on behavioral problems in toddlers born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme Monte Cassiano, Rafaela; Gaspardo, Claudia Maria; Cordaro Bucker Furini, Guilherme; Martinez, Francisco Eulogio; Martins Linhares, Maria Beatriz

    2016-12-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for later developmental disorders. The present study examined the predictive effects of neonatal, sociodemographic, and temperament characteristics on behavioral outcomes at toddlerhood, in children born preterm. The sample included 100 toddlers born preterm and with very-low-birth-weight, and their mothers. Neonatal characteristics were evaluated using medical records. The mothers were interviewed using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire for temperament assessment, and the Child Behavior Checklist for behavioral assessment. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Predictors of 39% of the variability of the total behavioral problems in toddlers born prematurely were: temperament with more Negative Affectivity and less Effortful Control, lower family socioeconomic status, and younger mothers at childbirth. Temperament with more Negative Affectivity and less Effortful Control and lower family socioeconomic status were predictors of 23% of the variability of internalizing behavioral problems. Additionally, 37% of the variability of externalizing behavioral problems was explained by temperament with more Negative Affectivity and less Effortful Control, and younger mothers at childbirth. The neonatal characteristics and stressful events in the neonatal intensive care unit did not predict behavioral problems at toddlerhood. However, temperament was a consistent predictor of behavioral problems in toddlers born preterm. Preventive follow-up programs could assess dispositional traits of temperament to provide early identification of preterm infants at high-risk for behavioral problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. African Refugees: Criteria of Definition and the Status Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Modibo Mamadou Konate

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author regards the problems of definition of the refugee as a legal and social concept, and also criteria of the status of the refugee with reference to the African realities. It is underlined that for defining the status of refugees there are often no accurate criteria. In particular, it is impossible to separate refugees gone from the borders of the country from the internal migrants because both of them frequently are supervised by the same factors. The main criterion to define refugees, more likely, is to search in the fact of leaving from a permanent home place because of the further impossibility to remain there.

  15. African Refugees: Criteria of Definition and the Status Problem

    OpenAIRE

    - Modibo Mamadou Konate

    2011-01-01

    In the article the author regards the problems of definition of the refugee as a legal and social concept, and also criteria of the status of the refugee with reference to the African realities. It is underlined that for defining the status of refugees there are often no accurate criteria. In particular, it is impossible to separate refugees gone from the borders of the country from the internal migrants because both of them frequently are supervised by the same factors. The main criterion to...

  16. Assessment of adolescents' victimization, aggression, and problem behaviors: Evaluation of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Sullivan, Terri N; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Le, Anh-Thuy H

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale (PBFS), a self-report measure designed to assess adolescents' frequency of victimization, aggression, and other problem behaviors. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 5,532 adolescents from 37 schools at 4 sites. About half (49%) of participants were male; 48% self-identified as Black non-Hispanic; 21% as Hispanic, 18% as White non-Hispanic. Adolescents completed the PBFS and measures of beliefs and values related to aggression, and delinquent peer associations at the start of the 6th grade and over 2 years later. Ratings of participants' behavior were also obtained from teachers on the Behavioral Assessment System for Children. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 7-factor model that differentiated among 3 forms of aggression (physical, verbal, and relational), 2 forms of victimization (overt and relational), drug use, and other delinquent behavior. Support was found for strong measurement invariance across gender, sites, and time. The PBFS factors generally showed the expected pattern of correlations with teacher ratings of adolescents' behavior and self-report measures of relevant constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Google search behavior for status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2015-08-01

    Millions of people surf the Internet every day as a source of health-care information looking for materials about symptoms, diagnosis, treatments and their possible adverse effects, or diagnostic procedures. Google is the most popular search engine and is used by patients and physicians to search for online health-related information. This study aimed to evaluate changes in Google search behavior occurring in English-speaking countries over time for the term "status epilepticus" (SE). Using Google Trends, data on global search queries for the term SE between the 1st of January 2004 and 31st of December 2014 were analyzed. Search volume numbers over time (downloaded as CSV datasets) were analyzed by applying the "health" category filter. The research trends for the term SE remained fairly constant over time. The greatest search volume for the term SE was reported in the United States, followed by India, Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, the Netherlands, Thailand, and Germany. Most terms associated with the search queries were related to SE definition, symptoms, subtypes, and treatment. The volume of searches for some queries (nonconvulsive, focal, and refractory SE; SE definition; SE guidelines; SE symptoms; SE management; SE treatment) was enormously increased over time (search popularity has exceeded a 5000% growth since 2004). Most people use search engines to look for the term SE to obtain information on its definition, subtypes, and management. The greatest search volume occurred not only in developed countries but also in developing countries where raising awareness about SE still remains a challenging task and where there is reduced public knowledge of epilepsy. Health information seeking (the extent to which people search for health information online) reflects the health-related information needs of Internet users for a specific disease. Google Trends shows that Internet users have a great demand for information concerning some aspects of SE

  18. Contributions of circadian tendencies and behavioral problems to sleep onset problems of children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruber Reut

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are two to three times more likely to experience sleep problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the relative contributions of circadian preferences and behavioral problems to sleep onset problems experienced by children with ADHD and to test for a moderation effect of ADHD diagnosis on the impact of circadian preferences and externalizing problems on sleep onset problems. Methods After initial screening, parents of children meeting inclusion criteria documented child bedtime over 4 nights, using a sleep log, and completed questionnaires regarding sleep, ADHD and demographics to assess bedtime routine prior to PSG. On the fifth night of the study, sleep was recorded via ambulatory assessment of sleep architecture in the child’s natural sleep environment employing portable polysomnography equipment. Seventy-five children (26 with ADHD and 49 controls aged 7–11 years (mean age 8.61 years, SD 1.27 years participated in the present study. Results In both groups of children, externalizing problems yielded significant independent contributions to the explained variance in parental reports of bedtime resistance, whereas an evening circadian tendency contributed both to parental reports of sleep onset delay and to PSG-measured sleep-onset latency. No significant interaction effect of behavioral/circadian tendency with ADHD status was evident. Conclusions Sleep onset problems in ADHD are related to different etiologies that might require different interventional strategies and can be distinguished using the parental reports on the CSHQ.

  19. Intimate Partner Violence and Child Behavioral Problems in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Pratibha; Kvalsvig, Jane; Mellins, Claude A; Kauchali, Shuaib; Arpadi, Stephen M; Taylor, Myra; Knox, Justin R; Davidson, Leslie L

    2017-03-01

    Research in high-income countries has repeatedly demonstrated that intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by women negatively affects the health and behavior of children in their care. However, there is little research on the topic in lower- and middle-income countries. The population-based Asenze Study gathered data on children and their caregivers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. This data analysis explores the association of caregiver IPV on child behavior outcomes in children Africa. This population-based study was set in 5 Zulu tribal areas characterized by poverty, food insecurity, unemployment, and a high HIV prevalence. The Asenze Study interviewed caregivers via validated measures of IPV, alcohol use, caregiver mental health difficulties, and child behavior disorders in their preschool children. Among the 980 caregivers assessed, 37% had experienced IPV from their current partner. Experience of partner violence (any, physical, or sexual) remained strongly associated with overall child behavior problems (odds ratio range: 2.46-3.10) even after age, HIV status, cohabitation with the partner, alcohol use, and posttraumatic stress disorder were accounted for. Childhood behavioral difficulties are associated with their caregiver's experience of IPV in this population, even after other expected causes of child behavior difficulties are adjusted for. There is a need to investigate the longer-term impact of caregiver partner violence, particularly sexual IPV, on the health and well-being of vulnerable children in lower- and middle-income countries. Studies should also investigate whether preventing IPV reduces the occurrence of childhood behavior difficulties. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Asthma and child behavioral skills: does family socioeconomic status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jen-Hao

    2014-08-01

    Asthma is associated with poorer behavioral and psychological outcomes in children, yet little is known about whether and how the social stratification process affects the impacts of asthma on children's outcomes. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, this study considered the role of socioeconomic status in shaping the developmental consequences of children's asthma. Results showed that asthma was negatively associated with attention and social competence and positively associated with externalizing problem behaviors for children with low-educated mothers and children who lived in poor households. However, the adverse consequences of asthma disappeared for children with high-educated mothers and children who did not experience poverty. Additionally, the socioeconomic disparities were not fully explained by healthcare resources, family process, and exposure to environment risks and the disparities were found for both mild and severe cases. These findings suggest that, to fully understand the developmental consequences of illness in children, it is important to place socioeconomic status at the center of investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Romantic Relationship Status and Alcohol Use and Problems Across the First Year of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Jessica E; Kendler, Kenneth S; Dick, Danielle M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We examined the associations between romantic relationship status and alcohol use and problems in a large sample of first-year college students. Method: Participants (n = 2,056) came from a longitudinal study of college students who answered questions about relationship status (single, in an exclusive relationship, or dating several people), alcohol use, and alcohol problems at two time points across their first year. Results: After we controlled for a number of covariates (parental alcohol problems, high school conduct problems, peer deviance, and extraversion), we found that dating several people was associated with higher alcohol use and problems, compared with being single or being in an exclusive relationship, at the follow-up assessment only, with modest effect sizes. Being in an exclusive relationship was not associated with lower alcohol use or problems compared with being single. Relationship dissolution was associated with a modest longitudinal increase in alcohol problems. Conclusions: It is important to consider alternative relationship statuses (e.g., dating several people) for understanding the association of romantic status with alcohol use and problems in college-aged samples. Involvement in an exclusive romantic relationship (vs. being single) in this age group is not associated with the behavioral health benefits documented in older-adult samples. College students dating several people may be at risk for high levels of alcohol use or problems and may benefit from targeted interventions. Those who have recently experienced a breakup also may be at risk for increases in alcohol problems, although the clinical relevance of this finding should be tempered by the small observed effect size. PMID:24988257

  2. Romantic relationship status and alcohol use and problems across the first year of college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Jessica E; Kendler, Kenneth S; Dick, Danielle M

    2014-07-01

    We examined the associations between romantic relationship status and alcohol use and problems in a large sample of first-year college students. Participants (n = 2,056) came from a longitudinal study of college students who answered questions about relationship status (single, in an exclusive relationship, or dating several people), alcohol use, and alcohol problems at two time points across their first year. After we controlled for a number of covariates (parental alcohol problems, high school conduct problems, peer deviance, and extraversion), we found that dating several people was associated with higher alcohol use and problems, compared with being single or being in an exclusive relationship, at the follow-up assessment only, with modest effect sizes. Being in an exclusive relationship was not associated with lower alcohol use or problems compared with being single. Relationship dissolution was associated with a modest longitudinal increase in alcohol problems. It is important to consider alternative relationship statuses (e.g., dating several people) for understanding the association of romantic status with alcohol use and problems in college-aged samples. Involvement in an exclusive romantic relationship (vs. being single) in this age group is not associated with the behavioral health benefits documented in older-adult samples. College students dating several people may be at risk for high levels of alcohol use or problems and may benefit from targeted interventions. Those who have recently experienced a breakup also may be at risk for increases in alcohol problems, although the clinical relevance of this finding should be tempered by the small observed effect size.

  3. Critical thinking, perceived health status, and participation in health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settersten, Lori; Lauver, Diane Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Critical thinking has been proposed as crucial for processing conflicting information when people make decisions about participation in health behaviors. The critical thinking of individuals about participation in health behaviors may depend on their perceived health status. To examine the relations between critical thinking and participation in three categories of health behaviors, and to determine whether these relations are moderated by perceived health status. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used to study a sample of 112 community-dwelling adults who resided in a large, urban Midwest community. The participants were women and men 18 to 90 years of age (mean, 55 +/- 20.47 years) who completed self-report, written questionnaires including the Test of Everyday Reasoning and the Health Practices Instrument. According to hierarchical multiple regression analyses, the relation between critical thinking and health promotion behaviors and the relation between critical thinking and secondary prevention behaviors were moderated by perceived health status, whereas the relation between critical thinking and health protection behaviors was not. The relation between critical thinking and participation in health behaviors depends on perceived health status and category of health behaviors. Researchers can explore the role of other variables (e.g., functional status and perceived susceptibility to disease) to explain why perceived health status moderates the relations between critical thinking and participation in various types of health behaviors differently.

  4. [Effects of family cohesion and adaptability on behavioral problems in preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Ni; Xue, Hong-Li; Chen, Qian

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effects of family cohesion and adaptability on behavioral problems in preschool children. The stratified cluster multistage sampling method was used to perform a questionnaire survey in the parents of 1 284 children aged 3-6 years in the urban area of Lanzhou, China. The general status questionnaire, Conners Child Behavior Checklist (Parent Symptom Question), and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, Second edition, Chinese version (FACESII-CV) were used to investigate behavioral problems and family cohesion and adaptability. The overall detection rate of behavioral problems in preschool children was 17.13%. The children with different types of family cohesion had different detection rates of behavioral problems, and those with free-type family cohesion showed the highest detection rate of behavioral problems (40.2%). The children with different types of family adaptability also had different detection rates of behavioral problems, and those with stiffness type showed the highest detection rate of behavioral problems (25.1%). The behavioral problems in preschool children were negatively correlated with family cohesion and adaptability. During the growth of preschool children, family cohesion and adaptability have certain effects on the mental development of preschool children.

  5. Independence Pending: Teacher Behaviors Preceding Learner Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Rebecca A.

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to identify the teacher behaviors that preceded learners' active participation in solving musical and technical problems and describe learners' roles in the problem-solving process. I applied an original model of problem solving to describe the behaviors of teachers and students in 161 rehearsal frames…

  6. Behavior Problems in Children Adopted from Psychosocially Depriving Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Emily C.; McCall, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Behavior problems were investigated in 342 6- to 18-year-old children adopted from psychosocially depriving Russian institutions that provided adequate physical resources but not consistent, responsive caregiving. Results indicated that attention and externalizing problems were the most prevalent types of behavior problems in the sample as a…

  7. Does Early Childhood Callous-Unemotional Behavior Uniquely Predict Behavior Problems or Callous-Unemotional Behavior in Late Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2016-01-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) behavior has been linked to behavior problems in children and adolescents. However, few studies have examined whether CU behavior in "early childhood" predicts behavior problems or CU behavior in "late childhood". This study examined whether indicators of CU behavior at ages 2-4 predicted aggression,…

  8. Basing assessment and treatment of problem behavior on behavioral momentum theory: Analyses of behavioral persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M; Wacker, David P; Ringdahl, Joel E; Berg, Wendy K

    2017-08-01

    The connection, or bridge, between applied and basic behavior analysis has been long-established (Hake, 1982; Mace & Critchfield, 2010). In this article, we describe how clinical decisions can be based more directly on behavioral processes and how basing clinical procedures on behavioral processes can lead to improved clinical outcomes. As a case in point, we describe how applied behavior analyses of maintenance, and specifically the long-term maintenance of treatment effects related to problem behavior, can be adjusted and potentially enhanced by basing treatment on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We provide a brief review of the literature including descriptions of two translational studies that proposed changes in how differential reinforcement of alternative behavior treatments are conducted based on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We then describe current clinical examples of how these translations are continuing to impact the definitions, designs, analyses, and treatment procedures used in our clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Behavioral problems in deaf populations: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guita Movallali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Studies have found that deaf individuals have higher rates of psychiatric disorders, such as behavioral problems, than those who can hear. The aim of this review was to provide a summary of the literature on behavioral problems, with specific reference to deaf individuals. The objectives of the review were to establish the prevalence of behavioral problems in deaf populations; describe the risk factor for behavioral problems in deaf populations; and describe approaches to intervention and behavioral problems prevention that have been used in deaf populations.Recent Findings: A review of articles published between 1991 and 2013 showed that the prevalence of behavioral problems in deaf people is higher than that of hearing people. Risk factors for behavioral problems in deaf populations include language impairments, communication problems, the role of parents, and the community’s beliefs and attitudes regarding the issue.Conclusion: Given the high prevalence of behavioral problems in deaf people, the effectiveness of prevention strategies should be examined. Consequently, it would be advantageous to increase the availability of specialist mental health services, promote deaf awareness including their abilities, promote awareness and skills development among teachers, staff, and specialists and implement behavior change programs.

  10. The Current Status of Behaviorism and Neurofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fultz, Dwight E.

    2009-01-01

    There appears to be no dominant conceptual model for the process and outcomes of neurofeedback among practitioners or manufacturers. Behaviorists are well-positioned to develop a neuroscience-based source code in which neural activity is described in behavioral terms, providing a basis for behavioral conceptualization and education of…

  11. Predicting Change in Early Adolescent Problem Behavior in the Middle School Years: A Mesosystemic Perspective on Parenting and Peer Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the…

  12. Physiological Sociology. Endocrine Correlates of Status Behaviors,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    affiliative bonding. One psychiatric illness which manifests itself in social structural relationships in a profound was is sociopathic behavior. By the...very nature of the sociopathic individual, persons with the disorder display altered social behavior (Robins, 1966). The question as to whether such...Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971. Goldman, H., Lindner, L., Dinitz, S., and Allen, H. The simple sociopath : Physiologic and sociologic

  13. Proposers’ Economic Status Affects Behavioral and Neural Responses to Unfairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijie Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic status played an important role in the modulation of economic decision making. The present fMRI study aimed at investigating how economic status modulated behavioral and neural responses to unfairness in a modified Ultimatum Game (UG. During scanning, participants played as responders in the UG, and they were informed of the economic status of proposers before receiving offers. At the behavioral level, higher rejection rates and lower fairness ratings were revealed when proposers were in high economic status than in low economic status. Besides, the most time-consuming decisions tended to occur at lower unfairness level when the proposers were in high (relative to low economic status. At the neural level, stronger activation of left thalamus was revealed when fair offers were proposed by proposers in high rather than in low economic status. Greater activation of right medial prefrontal cortex was revealed during acceptance to unfair offers in high economic status condition rather than in low economic status condition. Taken together, these findings shed light on the significance of proposers’ economic status in responders’ social decision making in UG.

  14. Peer status beyond adolescence : Types and behavioral associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruschoff, Britta; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, René; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the types and behavioral associations of peer status in school-bound young adults in the Netherlands. We argue that adolescent peer popularity and its link with aggressive and norm-breaking behavior result from adolescents' desire to create an image of maturity among their

  15. Behaviorism: part of the problem or part of the solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J G

    1978-01-01

    The form frequently taken by behavior-modification programs is analyzed in terms of the parent science, Behaviorism. Whereas Behaviorism assumes that behavior is the result of contingencies, and that lasting behavior change involves changing the contingencies that give rise to and support the behavior, most behavior-modification programs merely arrange special contingencies in a special environment to eliminate the "problem" behavior. Even when the problem behavior is as widespread as alcoholism and crime, behavior modifiers focus on "fixing" the alcoholic and the criminal, not on changing the societal contingencies that prevail outside the therapeutic environment and continue to produce alcoholics and criminals. The contingencies that shape this method of dealing with behavioral problems are also analyzed, and this analysis leads to a criticism of the current social structure as a behavior control system. Although applied behaviorists have frequently focused on fixing individuals, the science of Behaviorism provides the means to analyze the structures, the system, and the forms of societal control that produce the "problems". PMID:649524

  16. Sleep and Behavioral Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Sohl, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk for sleep disturbance and behavioral dysregulation. However, the relationships between these difficulties are not fully understood. The current study examined the relationships between specific types of sleep and behavioral problems among 81 children with ASD. Sleep problems were…

  17. Problem Behaviors Associated with 15q- Angelman Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David J.; Marston, Geoff

    2000-01-01

    Seventy-three caregivers of persons with Angelman syndrome completed the Aberrant Behavior checklist and Reiss Screen for Maladaptive Behavior. Responses indicate that 15q- Angelman syndrome is associated with problems such as lack of speech, over activity, restlessness, and eating and sleeping problems. Inappropriate laughter was only reported…

  18. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy, Child Behavior Problems, and Adolescent Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Used longitudinal sample of 187 mother-child dyads to examine the role of child behavior problems in explaining the effect of maternal prenatal smoking on adolescent daughters' smoking. Found that maternal prenatal smoking retained a unique effect on girls' current smoking with controls for current maternal smoking, child behavior problems, and…

  19. Longitudinal Course of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Williams Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Rees, Vaughan W.

    2001-01-01

    A follow-up study of behavior and emotional problems in 53 young people with Williams syndrome 5 years after first assessment found substantial persistence in the overall level of behavior and emotional problems. Comparison with young people with mental retardation due to other causes found Williams subjects had significantly higher overall…

  20. Sleep Deprivation, Allergy Symptoms, and Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Craig H.; Meyer, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the relationship between presence or absence of sleep deprivation, allergy symptoms, and the rate and function of problem behavior in three adolescents with moderate to profound mental retardation found that problem behavior was negatively reinforced by escape from instruction, and both allergy symptoms and sleep deprivation influenced…

  1. Psychiatric Disorders and Behavior Problems in People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrbakk, Even; von Tetzchner, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between behavior problems and psychiatric disorders in individuals with intellectual disability is still unresolved. The present study compares the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric disorders in individuals with intellectual disability who were assessed on the ABC to have moderate and severe behavior problems and a matched…

  2. Parenting Practices and Behavior Problems among Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakowski, Amy; Brubaker, Robert G.

    2000-01-01

    Parents of 39 deaf and 37 hearing children (ages 3-8) completed the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire and the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory. Inconsistent discipline was positively correlated with behavior problems for both groups. There was no evidence that greater prevalence of problems among deaf children resulted from inadequate parenting.…

  3. The role of DCDC2 genetic variants and low socioeconomic status in vulnerability to attention problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Valentina; Marino, Cecilia; Giorda, Roberto; Molteni, Massimo; Nobile, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Both genetic and socio-demographic factors influence the risk for behavioral problems in the developmental age. Genetic studies indicate that shared genetic factors partially contribute to behavioral and learning problems, in particular reading disabilities (RD). For the first time, we explore the conjoint role of DCDC2 gene, an identified RD candidate gene, and socioeconomic status (SES) upon behavioral phenotypes in a general population of Italian children. Two of the most replicated DCDC2 markers [i.e., regulatory element associated with dyslexia 1 (READ1), rs793862] were genotyped in 631 children (boys = 314; girls = 317) aged 11-14 years belonging to a community-based sample. Main and interactive effects were tested by MANOVA for each combination of DCDC2 genotypes and socioeconomic status upon emotional and behavioral phenotypes, assessed by Child Behavior Check-List/6-18. The two-way MANOVA (Bonferroni corrected p value = 0.01) revealed a trend toward significance of READ1(4) effect (F = 2.39; p = 0.016), a significant main effect of SES (F = 3.01; p = 0.003) and interactive effect of READ1(4) × SES (F = 2.65; p = 0.007) upon behavioral measures, showing higher attention problems scores among subjects 'READ1(4+) and low SES' compared to all other groups (p values range 0.00003-0.0004). ANOVAs stratified by gender confirmed main and interactive effects among girls, but not boys. Among children exposed to low socioeconomic level, READ1 genetic variant targets the worst outcome in children's attention.

  4. Functional analysis screening for problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querim, Angie C; Iwata, Brian A; Roscoe, Eileen M; Schlichenmeyer, Kevin J; Ortega, Javier Virués; Hurl, Kylee E

    2013-01-01

    A common finding in previous research is that problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement continues to occur in the alone condition of a functional analysis (FA), whereas behavior maintained by social reinforcement typically is extinguished. Thus, the alone condition may represent an efficient screening procedure when maintenance by automatic reinforcement is suspected. We conducted a series of 5-min alone (or no-interaction) probes for 30 cases of problem behavior and compared initial predictions of maintenance or extinction to outcomes obtained in subsequent FAs. Results indicated that data from the screening procedure accurately predicted that problem behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement in 21 of 22 cases and by social reinforcement in 7 of 8 cases. Thus, results of the screening accurately predicted the function of problem behavior (social vs. automatic reinforcement) in 28 of 30 cases. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  5. Sexual Behaviors in Autism: Problems of Definition and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, George M.; Ruble, Lisa A.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the problems of definition of sexual behaviors in individuals with autism and describes a case that highlights the difficulties of management. After failure of behavioral and educational programs, a testosterone-suppressing medication was used resulting in suppression of public masturbation behaviors and retention of the participant's…

  6. Computer Use and Behavior Problems in Twice-Exceptional Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Elsworth, Miquela; Miley, Neal; Seckinger, Sean

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study investigated how engagement with computer games and TV exposure may affect behaviors of gifted students. We also compared behavioral and cognitive profiles of twice-exceptional students and children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Gifted students were divided into those with behavioral problems and those…

  7. Child Behavior Problems & Competencies: Individual and Dyadic Parental Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgays, Deborah Kirby

    This study examined individual parent personality dynamics and partner-as-parent ratings as each relate to child problem behaviors and competencies. Subjects were 30 Caucasian heterosexual couples with 6-year-old children. Data were collected with the Adult/Adolescent Type A Behavior Scale (AATABS), Parenting Alliance, Child Behavior Checklist…

  8. [Relations between problems on sleeping and suicidal behaviors in middle school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Wan, Yuhui; Sun, Ying; Tao, Fangbiao

    2014-02-01

    To understand the epidemiological characteristics and possible associations between sleeping problems and suicidal behaviors among middle school students. A total of 13 817 middle school students were selected in Shenyang,Xinxiang, Chongqing and Guangzhou cities and cluster sampling method was used. Questionnaires would include information on demographics, quality of sleep, psychopathological status and suicidal behaviors. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality index (PSQI) and Adolescent Multidimensional Sub-health Questionnaire (MSQA) were used to assess the quality of sleep and psychosomatic symptoms, respectively. Rates on sleeping problems and suicidal behaviors were compared in students with specific characteristics. Effects related to sleeping problems and suicidal behaviors were analyzed, using the multivariate logistic regression model. The overall prevalence of problems related to sleeping among middle school students was 26.5%. 28.2% of the girls and 35.2% of senior students reported as having more sleeping problems. Rates on suicide related ideation, planning and attempts were 16.6%, 9.6% and 4.7% , respectively. Girls reported more suicide ideation than boys. However, no gender differences were found in suicide planning or attempted suicide. It also suggested that the incidence of the suicidal behavior among students with sleeping problems was significantly higher than students without sleeping problems. Data from Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that sleeping problems appeared as independent risk factors on suicidal behavior. Higher PSQI scores seemed coincide with the increased risk of suicidal behaviors. Students having sleeping time less than 5 hours per day showed higher risk of suicidal behaviors. Problems on sleeping seemed a strong risk factor for suicidal behaviors among middle school students. Improvement on the quality of sleep and reasonable arrangement of sleeping time could help prevent related suicidal behaviors among middle school

  9. Obesogenic eating behaviors mediate the relationships between psychological problems and BMI in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; Nicholson, Jan M

    2017-05-01

    To examine the association between psychological problems and weight status in children aged 3.5 to 4 years and test whether obesogenic eating behaviors mediate this relationship. This study is a cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from first-time mothers (N = 194) in the control arm of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial. At child age 3.5 to 4 years, maternal-reported child eating behaviors and psychological problems were collected via valid tools, and child weight and height data were collected by trained study staff. Pearson's correlations and linear regressions examined associations between eating behaviors, psychological problems, and BMI z score. Multiple mediation models were tested by assessing indirect effects of psychological problems on BMI z score via obesogenic eating behaviors. Peer problems were associated with both higher food responsiveness and emotional overeating and directly with higher BMI z score. This relationship was partially mediated by emotional overeating. Both emotional overeating and food responsiveness fully mediated the association between emotional problems and BMI z score, and food responsiveness fully mediated the association between conduct problems and BMI z score. The findings suggest that children with psychological problems may also display obesogenic eating behaviors, which may result in higher BMI. This needs to be considered in the clinical management of both pediatric overweight/obesity and psychological problems. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  10. Psycho-cognitive behavioral problems in sleep disordered children☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Parvaneh

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in childhood and adolescence. Sleep problems in early infants tend to be persistent and prominent in preschool and school-aged children. Chronic sleep disorders, especially in young children may lead to neurobehavioral problems and psycho-cognitive impairment. Sleep difficulties may be the result of underlying medical conditions, (breathing disorders) or psychological problems. Research studies have shown the association between sleep disorders and day time cognitive impairment, behavioral problems, poor school performance and inattention in children. Appropriate diagnosis and early management of sleep disorders in children lead to improvement of neurocognitive function and behavioral problems in these children. PMID:25745456

  11. Experimental analysis of precursors to severe problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jennifer N; Iwata, Brian A; Hammond, Jennifer L; Bloom, Sarah E

    2013-01-01

    Some individuals engage in both mild and severe forms of problem behavior. Research has shown that when mild behaviors precede severe behaviors (i.e., the mild behaviors serve as precursors), they can (a) be maintained by the same source of reinforcement as severe behavior and (b) reduce rates of severe behavior observed during assessment. In Study 1, we developed an objective checklist to identify precursors via videotaped trials for 16 subjects who engaged in problem behavior and identified at least 1 precursor for every subject. In Study 2, we conducted separate functional analyses of precursor and severe problem behaviors for 8 subjects, and obtained correspondence between outcomes in 7 cases. In Study 3, we evaluated noncontingent reinforcement schedule thinning plus differential reinforcement of alternative behavior to reduce precursors, increase appropriate behavior, and maintain low rates of severe behavior during 3 treatment analyses for 2 subjects. Results showed that this treatment strategy was effective for behaviors maintained by positive and negative reinforcement. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  12. Hyperkinetic Impulse Disorder in Children's Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Maurice W.; Denhoff, Eric; Solomons, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    A very common cause of children's behavior disorder disturbance is an entity described as the hyperkinetic impulse disorder. This is characterized by hyperactivity, short attention span and poor powers of concentration, irritability, impulsiveness, variability, and poor schoolwork. The existence of this complexity may lead to many psychological…

  13. Behavioral Functioning among Mexican-Origin Children: Does Parental Legal Status Matter?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landale, Nancy S.; Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Oropesa, R. S.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.

    2015-01-01

    Using data on 2,535 children included in the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey, we investigate how the legal status of immigrant parents shapes their children’s behavioral functioning. Variation in internalizing and externalizing problems among Mexican youth with undocumented mothers, documented or naturalized citizen mothers, and U.S.-born mothers is analyzed using a comparative framework that contrasts their experience with that of other ethnoracial groups. Our findings reinforce the importance of differentiating children of immigrants by parental legal status in studying health and well-being. Children of undocumented Mexican migrants have significantly higher risks of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems than their counterparts with documented or naturalized citizen mothers. Regression results are inconsistent with simple explanations that emphasize group differences in socioeconomic status, maternal mental health, or family routines. PMID:25722124

  14. Peer Status Among Incarcerated Female Offenders: Associations With Social Behavior and Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2014-12-01

    Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N = 86, age 15-24 years), our study is the first to examine the association between peer status and psychopathology in a correctional facility. Results indicated that a key indicator of likeability was prosocial behavior; popularity was related to leadership; and social impact was associated with aggression. Popularity might serve as a buffer against, and social impact as a risk factor for, psychosocial problems. Findings shed light on peer status as a mechanism underpinning female offenders' problem behaviors and an entry point for targeted interventions.

  15. Problem Solving and Behavior Therapy Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezu, Arthur M.

    2004-01-01

    Over three decades ago, D'Zurilla and Goldfried (1971) published a seminal article delineating a model of problem-solving training geared to enhance social competence and decrease psychological distress. Since that time, a substantial amount of research has been conducted to test various hypotheses that this model has engendered. Much of this…

  16. Sleep Characteristics and Behavioral Problems among Children of Alcoholics and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Maria M; Brower, Kirk J; Conroy, Deirdre A; Lachance, Kathryn; Craun, Elizabeth A

    2017-12-19

    Past research has indicated that both sleep difficulties (Gregory and Sadeh, 2012) and a parental history of alcoholism (Zucker, 2006) increase the risk of behavioral problems. But it is not known whether sleep difficulties differentially increase the risk of problem behaviors among children of alcoholics and controls. We compared multiple measures of sleep and the relationships between sleep and behavioral problems in these two groups of children. One hundred and fifteen children aged 8-12 (67% children of alcoholics or COAs; 56% girls; Mage =10.85, SDage =1.51) participated in this study. Data presented here were taken from Time 1 of a larger prospective study designed to understand the relationship between sleep and alcohol use. All participants were naïve to alcohol and other illicit drugs. Participants were asked to wear an actigraph watch on their non-dominant wrists for one week. Parents completed the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire and the Achenbach Child Behavioral Checklist. Parents of COAs were more likely to rate their children as overtired compared with parents of non-COAs. SEM analyses focusing on overall internalizing and externalizing problems did not reveal any group differences on the relationships between sleep measures and behavioral problems. Regression analyses focusing on specific behavioral problems showed that longer TST, parental ratings of "sleep more" and "sleep less" than other children interacted with COA status to predict specific behavioral problems. Sleep difficulties and duration appear to be a general risk factor for behavioral problems in both COAs and non-COAs, yet the relationships between specific sleep parameters and behavioral problems appear to be different between the two groups. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Manipulating parameters of reinforcement to reduce problem behavior without extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnavatana, S Shanun; Bloom, Sarah E; Samaha, Andrew L; Slocum, Timothy A; Clay, Casey J

    2018-02-23

    Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) most often includes extinction as a treatment component. However, extinction is not always feasible and it can be counter-therapeutic if implemented without optimal treatment integrity. Researchers have successfully implemented DRA without extinction by manipulating various parameters of reinforcement such that alternative behavior is favored. We extended previous research by assessing three participants' sensitivities to quality, magnitude, and immediacy using arbitrary responses and reinforcers that maintain problem behavior. The results were used to implement an intervention for problem behavior using DRA without extinction. Our findings indicate that arbitrary responses can be used to identify individual and relative sensitivity to parameters of reinforcement for reinforcers that maintain problem behavior. Treatment was effective for all participants when we manipulated parameters of reinforcement to which they were most sensitive, and, for two participants, the treatment was less effective when we manipulated parameters to which they were least sensitive. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  18. Parental corporal punishment predicts behavior problems in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Matthew K; Mebert, Carolyn J

    2007-09-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (Research Triangle Institute, 2002), this study examined the impact of corporal punishment (CP) on children's behavior problems. Longitudinal analyses were specified that controlled for covarying contextual and parenting variables and that partialed child effects. The results indicate that parental CP uniquely contributes to negative behavioral adjustment in children at both 36 months and at 1st grade, with the effects at the earlier age more pronounced in children with difficult temperaments. Parents and mental health professionals who work to modify children's negative behavior should be aware of the unique impact that CP likely plays in triggering and maintaining children's behavior problems. Broad-based family policies that reduce the use of this parenting behavior would potentially increase children's mental health and decrease the incidence of children's behavior problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Management of behavioral problems in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Serge; Cummings, Jeffrey; Ballard, Clive; Brodaty, Henry; Grossberg, George; Robert, Philippe; Lyketsos, Constantine

    2010-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex progressive brain degenerative disorder that has effects on multiple cerebral systems. In addition to cognitive and functional decline, diverse behavioral changes manifest with increasing severity over time, presenting significant management challenges for caregivers and health care professionals. Almost all patients with AD are affected by neuropsychiatric symptoms at some point during their illness; in some cases, symptoms occur prior to diagnosis of the dementia syndrome. Further, behavioral factors have been identified, which may have their origins in particular neurobiological processes, and respond to particular management strategies. Improved clarification of causes, triggers, and presentation of neuropsychiatric symptoms will guide both research and clinical decision-making. Measurement of neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD is most commonly by means of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory; its utility and future development are discussed, as are the limitations and difficulties encountered when quantifying behavioral responses in clinical trials. Evidence from clinical trials of both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments, and from neurobiological studies, provides a range of management options that can be tailored to individual needs. We suggest that non-pharmacological interventions (including psychosocial/psychological counseling, interpersonal management and environmental management) should be attempted first, followed by the least harmful medication for the shortest time possible. Pharmacological treatment options, such as antipsychotics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, need careful consideration of the benefits and limitations of each drug class.

  20. Smoking status and the practice of other unhealthy behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revicki, D; Sobal, J; DeForge, B

    1991-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between smoking behavior and other unhealthy practices in the US. Data from the 1979 National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences were used to compare alcohol use, sleep behavior, overweight status, physical activity, and skipping breakfast with smoking status. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers were more likely to sleep fewer than six hours per night, skip breakfast, not actively exercise, and drink heavily. Smokers were less likely to be significantly overweight than former smokers or those who never smoked. These associations were present for both men and women for sleep behavior, skipping breakfast, overweight status, and alcohol use, but not for physical activity. These findings may assist physicians in understanding the association between smoking and other practices that influence morbidity and mortality.

  1. Korean immigrant discipline and children's social competence and behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjung; Guo, Yuqing; Koh, Chinkang; Cain, Kevin C

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between Korean immigrant discipline (e.g., positive, appropriate, and harsh discipline) and children's social competence and behavior problems. Self-report data were collected from 58 mothers and 20 fathers of children aged from 3 to 8 years. Only paternal harsh discipline was positively correlated with children's behavior problems. Among specific discipline strategies, maternal physical affection, correcting misbehaviors, and reasoning were positively correlated with children's social competence. Paternal physical punishment (e.g., spanking, hitting, and raising arms) was positively correlated with children's behavior problems. Immigrant fathers need to learn alternative ways of managing children's misbehaviors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Gender Differences in the Relation between Mothering Behaviors and Child-Behavior Problems among Hispanic Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Mills, Britain

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of an examination of gender differences in behavior problems and a prediction of their changes from 2.5 to 3.5 years from mothering qualities among 209 low-income Hispanic children. Externalizing behaviors declined over this time somewhat more for girls than for boys. Fewer externalizing behavior problems at age 3.5 were…

  3. Behavioral Intervention for Problem Behavior in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Lauren J.; Carr, Edward G.; Durand, V. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Parents and professionals typically report problem behavior as a significant concern for children with fragile X syndrome. In the present study, the authors explored whether behaviorally based interventions would result in a reduction in problem behavior and an improvement in quality of life for 3 children with fragile X syndrome and their…

  4. Predicting Change in Early Adolescent Problem Behavior in the Middle School Years: A Mesosystemic Perspective on Parenting and Peer Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the middle school years. A longitudinal sample (580 boys, 698 girls) was assessed in Grades 6 and 8. Peer acceptance, peer rejection, and their interaction predicted increases in problem behavior. Having high-achieving friends predicted less problem behavior. Parental monitoring predicted less problem behavior in general, but also acted as a buffer for students who were most vulnerable to developing problem behavior on the basis of being well liked by some peers, and also disliked by several others. These findings highlight the importance of studying the family–peer mesosystem when considering risk and resilience in early adolescence, and when considering implications for intervention. PMID:20532814

  5. A diagnostic classification of problem behavior in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odendaal, J S

    1997-05-01

    Veterinary clinical ethology is a relatively new field in veterinary practice; with the development of a new discipline, problems often arise regarding diagnosis and the use of terminology. This article proposes a diagnostic system that can be applied by practitioners and researchers. The classification is divided into six main etiologic categories of behavior problems: (1) problems of a genetic origin, (2) problems caused during the animal's developmental stages, (3) ethogram deviations, (4) disturbed social interaction, (5) disease-related behavior, and (6) adaptation inabilities. Conditions may overlap, and all categories involved in a diagnosis should be mentioned for the sake of clarity and completeness.

  6. How to Dax? Preschool Children’s Prosocial Behavior, But Not Their Social Norm Enforcement Relates to Their Peer Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined correlates of preschool children’s (n = 82) peer status. In particular, we assessed children’s prosocial behavior, social problem behavior, norm enforcement, language abilities, and temperament. Children’s prosocial behavior, pragmatic language abilities, and gender correlated with peer status. A regression analysis revealed that prosocial behavior and gender were independent predictors. There was some evidence for a mediation effect: The link between pragmatic language and peer status was mediated by prosocial behavior. Children’s norm enforcement was not related to peer status, neither was it related to any other factor such as temperament or language. Overall, the study supports approaches claiming that prosocial behavior plays a role in children’s social functioning and are in line with social-interactionist accounts to social and social-cognitive development. PMID:29163247

  7. How to Dax? Preschool Children's Prosocial Behavior, But Not Their Social Norm Enforcement Relates to Their Peer Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined correlates of preschool children's (n = 82) peer status. In particular, we assessed children's prosocial behavior, social problem behavior, norm enforcement, language abilities, and temperament. Children's prosocial behavior, pragmatic language abilities, and gender correlated with peer status. A regression analysis revealed that prosocial behavior and gender were independent predictors. There was some evidence for a mediation effect: The link between pragmatic language and peer status was mediated by prosocial behavior. Children's norm enforcement was not related to peer status, neither was it related to any other factor such as temperament or language. Overall, the study supports approaches claiming that prosocial behavior plays a role in children's social functioning and are in line with social-interactionist accounts to social and social-cognitive development.

  8. How to Dax? Preschool Children’s Prosocial Behavior, But Not Their Social Norm Enforcement Relates to Their Peer Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Paulus

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined correlates of preschool children’s (n = 82 peer status. In particular, we assessed children’s prosocial behavior, social problem behavior, norm enforcement, language abilities, and temperament. Children’s prosocial behavior, pragmatic language abilities, and gender correlated with peer status. A regression analysis revealed that prosocial behavior and gender were independent predictors. There was some evidence for a mediation effect: The link between pragmatic language and peer status was mediated by prosocial behavior. Children’s norm enforcement was not related to peer status, neither was it related to any other factor such as temperament or language. Overall, the study supports approaches claiming that prosocial behavior plays a role in children’s social functioning and are in line with social-interactionist accounts to social and social-cognitive development.

  9. Alcohol Use Problem Severity and Problem Behavior Engagement among School-Based Youths in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas-Neese, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2010-01-01

    This study created an alcohol use problem severity taxonomy and examined its association to engagement in other problem behaviors. Minnesota youths were categorized based on their frequency of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence criteria. Greater alcohol use problem severity was generally associated with higher prevalence of…

  10. Biosocial models of adolescent problem behavior: extension to panel design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drigotas, S M; Udry, J R

    1993-01-01

    We extended the biosocial model of problem behavior tested by Udry (1990) to a panel design, following a sample of over one hundred boys in adolescence for three years. We found the expected results for sociological variables, but weaker effects for testosterone than Udry found on cross-sectional data. Using panel models with lagged hormone effects, we identified relationships between Time-1 testosterone and problem behavior one year or more later. The relationship between testosterone and problem behavior was not present for subsequent measures of testosterone, either in cross-section or with time-lagged models. Therefore we cannot interpret the results as showing testosterone effects on problem behavior. Rather it appears that testosterone level in early adolescence is a marker for a more general growth trajectory of early development.

  11. Does early childhood callous-unemotional behavior uniquely predict behavior problems or callous-unemotional behavior in late childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2016-01-01

    Callous unemotional (CU) behavior has been linked to behavior problems in children and adolescents. However, few studies have examined whether CU behavior in early childhood predicts behavior problems or CU behavior in late childhood. This study examined whether indicators of CU behavior at ages 2–4 predicted aggression, rule-breaking, and CU behavior across informants at age 9.5. To test the unique predictive and convergent validity of CU behavior in early childhood, we accounted for stability in behavior problems and method effects to rule out the possibility that rater biases inflated the magnitude of any associations found. Cross-informant data were collected from a multi-ethnic, high-risk sample (N = 731; female = 49%) at ages 2–4 and again at age 9.5. From age 3, CU behavior uniquely predicted aggression and rule-breaking across informants. There were also unique associations between CU behavior assessed at ages 3 and 4 and CU behavior assessed at age 9.5. Findings demonstrate that early-childhood indicators of CU behavior account for unique variance in later childhood behavior problems and CU behavior, taking into account stability in behavior problems over time and method effects. Convergence with a traditional measure of CU behavior in late childhood provides support for the construct validity of a brief early childhood measure of CU behavior. PMID:27598253

  12. Language Ability Predicts the Development of Behavior Problems in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Isaac T.; Bates, John E.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Coyne, Claire A; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Van Hulle, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested, but not fully established, that language ability is important for regulating attention and behavior. Language ability may have implications for understanding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorders, as well as subclinical problems. This article reports findings from two longitudinal studies to test (a) whether language ability has an independent effect on behavior problems, and (b) the direction of effect between language ability and...

  13. Adaptive Behavior and Problem Behavior in Young Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Laura J.; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares the adaptive behavior profile of 18 young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and a developmentally matched group of 19 children with developmental disabilities and examines the relationship between adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in WS. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales--Interview…

  14. Social and behavioral problems among five gambling severity groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Jacquelene F; Yoon, Gihyun; Campos, Michael D; Fong, Timothy W

    2015-12-15

    Gambling has been associated with various social and behavioral problems, but previous analyses have been limited by sample bias regarding gambling symptom severity range and the role of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). This study utilized a nationally representative data set and examined various characteristics of behavioral problems and ASPD among five gambling severity groups. Participants were 42,038 individuals who took part in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and provided information on social and behavioral problems, ASPD, and gambling. Using DSM-IV criteria, we derived five gambling groups from the total sample: non-gambling, low-risk, at-risk, problem, and pathological gambling. Associations between all problematic behaviors and nearly every gambling severity level were significant prior to adjustment for sociodemographic variables and ASPD. Following the adjustment, all significant associations persisted, with the exception of sexual coercion. In the adjusted model, the financially oriented behaviors had the strongest associations with gambling. All gambling severity levels were associated with an increased risk for a number of problematic behaviors and social problems in comparison to non-gamblers.Further examination of gambling problems in financial and criminal justice settings is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Behavior problems and prevalence of asthma symptoms among Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Caroline A; Santos, Darci N; Barreto do Carmo, Maria B; Santos, Letícia M; Teles, Carlos A S; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2011-09-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood and has been designated a public health problem due to the increase in its prevalence in recent decades, the amount of health service expenditure it absorbs and an absence of consensus about its etiology. The relationships among psychosocial factors and the occurrence, symptomatology, and severity of asthma have recently been considered. There is still controversy about the association between asthma and a child's mental health, since the pathways through which this relationship is established are complex and not well researched. This study aims to investigate whether behavior problems are associated with the prevalence of asthma symptoms in a large urban center in Latin America. It is a cross-section study of 869 children between 6 and 12 years old, residents of Salvador, Brazil. The International Study of Allergy and Asthma in Childhood (ISAAC) instrument was used to evaluate prevalence of asthma symptoms. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was employed to evaluate behavioral problems. 19.26% (n=212) of the children presented symptoms of asthma. 35% were classified as having clinical behavioral problems. Poisson's robust regression model demonstrated a statistically significant association between the presence of behavioral problems and asthma symptoms occurrence (PR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.10-1.85). These results suggest an association between behavioral problems and pediatric asthma, and support the inclusion of mental health care in the provision of services for asthma morbidity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM MANAGEMENT: STATUS, TRENDS, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Panasyuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The current stage of development of education in Russia, characterized by the continuation of reforms and intense innovation processes, require essential changes in management. It takes not only a revision of the paradigmatic foundations of such management, but also the adoption of complex measures for improving its efficiency, and reducing excessive centralization.The aim of the present publication is to study the status and prospects of education management in the Russian Federation.Methodology and research methods. The author used the methodology of an interdisciplinary and system-based approaches to the analysis of the considered phenomenon; methods of theoretical analysis, synthesis and generalization.Results. Negative tendencies and contradictions in modern management of education and educational systems, including problems of differentiation of the rights, competences and powers of bodies of various levels of management are revealed. The condition of education management is considered in the context of common problems of its modernization and key innovative vectors of development of the society. Detailed analysis of paradigmatic foundations of management is carried out; its systemacity and balance are presented from the positions of management members and a specific variety of the functions realized by them. System-genetic foundations of management, its recurrence, compliance with the principles of system inheritance are analysed; effectiveness, equifinality, management efficiency in its social, economic, pedagogical and organizational measurements are studied.Scientific novelty concludes in the reasons identification of a gap between the proper and existing management of an educational system. The perspective directions of improvement of this field are singled out.Practical significance. The author provides the recommendations on the use of the proposed ideas concerning the revision of the current approaches to the

  17. Mediation and moderation of divorce effects on children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from age 5 to 15 years in relation to whether they had experienced a parental divorce. Children from divorced families had more behavior problems compared with a propensity-score-matched sample of children from intact families, according to both teachers and mothers. They exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems at the first assessment after the parents' separation and at the last available assessment (age 11 years for teacher reports, or 15 years for mother reports). Divorce also predicted both short-term and long-term rank-order increases in behavior problems. Associations between divorce and child behavior problems were moderated by family income (assessed before the divorce) such that children from families with higher incomes prior to the separation had fewer internalizing problems than children from families with lower incomes prior to the separation. Higher levels of predivorce maternal sensitivity and child IQ also functioned as protective factors for children of divorce. Mediation analyses showed that children were more likely to exhibit behavior problems after the divorce if their postdivorce home environment was less supportive and stimulating, their mother was less sensitive and more depressed, and their household income was lower. We discuss avenues for intervention, particularly efforts to improve the quality of home environments in divorced families. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers' Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers' lives and/or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother-child interaction (Time 2). Of the…

  19. Teaching Students with Behavior Problems to Take a Break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormont, Melissa A.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Reinke, Wendy M.

    2016-01-01

    This column presents a strategy for teachers to use with students with challenging behaviors motivated by a desire to escape a setting. Although many detailed strategies are available for students with behavior problems, few provide a structured approach for working with the students motivated by escape or avoidance. To effectively intervene with…

  20. Drama Teaching Strategies That Encourage Problem Solving Behavior in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jeanette S.; Cantino, Heather Berman

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes talk to discover what teacher verbal behaviors are associated with critical thinking and problem-solving behavior in children. Finds that teacher questioning and structuring in role enhanced the amount of children's evaluative and divergent thinking most. Offers an analytical comparison of two lessons to demonstrate teaching strategies.…

  1. Adolescent problem behavior in school : the role of peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geven, S.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a notable period during which a considerable share of students tends to engage in problem behavior in school. Students for example skip class, fail to do their best in school, or have serious arguments with their teachers. A student’s decision to engage in such behavior is not usually

  2. Understanding child sexual behavior problems: a developmental psychopathology framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkovitch, Natasha; Latzman, Robert D; Hansen, David J; Flood, Mary Fran

    2009-11-01

    Children exhibiting sexual behavior have increasingly gained the attention of child welfare and mental health systems, as well as the scientific community. While a heterogeneous group, children with sexual behavior problems consistently demonstrate a number of problems related to adjustment and overall development. In order to appropriately intervene with these children, a comprehensive understanding of etiology is imperative. The overarching goal of the present paper is to review the extant research on mechanisms associated with the development of problematic sexual behavior in childhood within a developmental psychopathology framework. What is known about normative and nonnormative sexual behavior in childhood is reviewed, highlighting definitional challenges and age-related developmental differences. Further, the relationship between child sexual abuse and child sexual behavior problems is discussed, drawing attention to factors impacting this relationship. Risk factors for child sexual behavior problems, beyond that of sexual abuse, are also reviewed utilizing a transactional-ecological framework. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of implications of a developmental psychopathology perspective on problematic child sexual behaviors to inform future research and intervention efforts. Such implications include the need for attention to normative childhood sexual behavior, developmental sensitivity, and examinations of ecological domain in concert.

  3. Countervailing Social Network Influences on Problem Behaviors among Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Stein, Judith A.; Milburn, Norweeta

    2008-01-01

    The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and…

  4. Parental Marital Status Effects on Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Susan; Udry, J. Richard

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed white virgin junior high school students in 1980 and again in 1982. Found effects of parental marital status on sexual behavior and on age-graded deviance, suggesting general loss of parental control. Control loss was associated with disruption of two-parent household for boys and with the state of living in a fatherless household for…

  5. Material behavior and materials problems in TFTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylla, H. F.; Ulrickson, M. A.; Owens, D. K.; Heifetz, D. B.; Mills, B. E.; Pontau, A. E.; Wampler, W. R.; Doyle, B. L.; Lee, S. R.; Watson, R. D.; Croessmann, C. D.

    1988-07-01

    This paper reviews the experience with first-wall materials in TFTR over a 20 month period of operatiori during 1985-1987. Experience with the axisymmetric inner wall limiter, constructed of graphite tiles, is described, including the necessary conditioning procedures needed for impurity and particle control of high power (≤ 20 MW) neutral injection experiments. The thermal effects in disruptions have been quantified and no significant damage to the bumper limiter has occurred as a result of disruptions. Carbon and metal impurity redeposition effects have been quantified through surface analysis of wall samples. Estimates of the tritium retention in the graphite limiter tiles and redeposited carbon films have been made, based on analysis of deuterium retention in removed graphite tiles and wall samples. New limiter structures have been designed using a 2D carbon/carbon ( {C}/{C}) composite material for RF antenna protection. Laboratory tests of the important thermal, mechanical, and vacuum properties of {C}/{C} materials are described. Finally, the last series of experiments in TFTR with in-situ {Zr}/{Al} surface pumps are discussed. Problems with {Zr}/{Al} embrittlement have led to the removal of the getter material from the in-torus environment.

  6. Parenting Stress among Parents of Deaf and Hearing Children: Associations with Language Delays and Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quittner, Alexandra L; Barker, David H; Cruz, Ivette; Snell, Carolyn; Grimley, Mary E; Botteri, Melissa

    2010-04-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates predictors of both general and context-specific parenting stress in a cross-sectional sample of hearing parents of young deaf and hearing children. DESIGN: Participants were 181 children who were deaf and 92 children with normal hearing. Perceived parenting stress was measured using both general and context-specific measures. Predictors of parenting stress included parent-reported and observed child behavior problems and language delays. RESULTS: After controlling for maternal education and family income, parents of deaf children reported more context-specific but not general parenting stress than parents of hearing children. Both parent-reported and observed behavior problems were higher in the deaf group compared to the hearing group. Children's hearing status related to child behavior problems by way of oral language delays. Furthermore, hearing status related to parenting stress by way of language delays and child behavior difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Context-specific measures of parenting stress reflect unique challenges of this population. Both language delays and child behavior problems are associated with increased parenting stress. Identification of specific stressors related to parenting a deaf child helps to inform the development of early interventions.

  7. International students at an American university: health problems and status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D F; Harwell, D J

    1983-01-01

    Eighty-eight international students enrolled at the University of Toledo were surveyed in order to ascertain their health care needs since arriving at the university. This study of the health status of international students indicated that the four leading problems experienced since arriving at the university were fatigue, homesickness, headaches and colds. Fatigue and colds were more commonly reported by students from Latin America than those from Asia or the Middle East. Both community health services and the university health service are not used by a majority of international students. Friends and the telephone book yellow pages are the most commonly used sources for finding a physician if one becomes sick. The drug store was indicated as being the place the international students would go for medicine if they became sick. The findings of this study suggest that international students must be oriented to the health services available in the community and at the university health service. A health education program needs to be conducted to inform these students about personal health practices and available services.

  8. An Approach to Simulate Understanding Student Problem-Solving Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. W.; Willoughby, T. L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a method of understanding student problem-solving behavior during computer-assisted instruction using trigonometry as the example domain. Instead of attempting to model the student's process for solving problems, techniques which infer the equivalence between two adjacent steps in the student's process are used to determine…

  9. PREVALENCE OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS SYMPTOMS IN CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL AND BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandelaki, E; Kavlashvili, N; Kherkheulidze, M; Chkhaidze, I

    2015-06-01

    A link between atopic dermatitis (AD,eczema) and emotional and behavioral dysfunction is more or less well recognized but concern still exists. Children with a chronic health condition have long been considered at excess risk for psychosocial morbidity. But psychosocial morbidity is less linked and studied in connection with other disease, especially AD. As mentioned before, AD is the most prevalent chronic disease in young children. The aim of the study was assessment of incidence of atopic dermatitis in children of 5-6 years with developmental and behavioral problems. The cross sectional study was conducted. Children with developmental and behavioral problems according to medical records and aged five to six years were recruited consecutively from a preventive care register in M. Iashvili Childrens Hospital Child Developmental Center in 2010-2014 years. Recruitment was done according developmental and behavioral assessment performed on the basis of team approach by pediatrician and psychologist. Parents evaluation of development status: developmental milestones (PEDS:DM) and Pictorial Checklist ( PIK -17) was used for assessment. 639 children with language delays, problems of externalization and internalization were enrolled in study. Children were examined by pediatricians based on the presence of at least three major and three minor criteria of Hanifin and Rajka's diagnostic criteria(H&R) and by semi structured, one-to-one interview with the parents. According our study: 1. Significant amount of children with developmental and behavioral problems and symptoms are developing AD(36%). 2. Children with language delay were more frequently developing AD symptoms than children with behavioral problems.3.There was not significant difference in children with language delay and behavioral problems in terms of impact on QL. In both cases everyday activities, sleep and recreational actives were affected and there more affected then in children with developmental and

  10. Correlation of sense of coherence with oral health behaviors, socioeconomic status, and periodontal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kommuri Sahithi Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The sense of coherence (SOC has been suggested to be highly applicable concept in the public health area because a strong SOC is stated to decrease the likelihood of perceiving the social environment as stressful. This reduces the susceptibility to the health-damaging effect of chronic stress by lowering the likelihood of repeated negative emotions to stress perception. Materials and Methods: The demographic data and general information of subjects' oral health behaviors such as frequency of cleaning teeth, aids used to clean teeth, and dental attendance were recorded in the self-administered questionnaire. The SOC-related data were obtained using the short version of Antonovsky's SOC scale. The periodontal status was recorded based on the modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. Results: The total of 780 respondents comprising 269 (34.5% males and 511 (65.5% females participated in the study. A significant difference was noted among the subjects for socioeconomic status based on gender (P = 0.000. The healthy periodontal status (community periodontal index [CPI] code 0 was observed for 67 (24.9% males and 118 (23.1% females. The overall SOC showed statistically negative correlation with socioeconomic status scale (r = −0.287. The CPI and loss of attachment (periodontal status were significantly and negatively correlated with SOC. Conclusion: The present study concluded that a high level of SOC was associated with good oral health behaviors, periodontal status, and socioeconomic status.

  11. Young child socioemotional/behavioral problems and cumulative psychosocial risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Carol; Edmonds, Diana; Davagnino, Judith; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available about the rates and risk correlates of socioemotional/behavioral problems in young children in pediatric primary care settings serving low-income families. Our objective was to determine rates of clinically significant socioemotional/behavior problems in 12- to 48-month-olds from low-income families and identify associations between problems and individual and cumulative demographic and psychosocial risks. In this study, 378 Spanish- and English-speaking mothers attending a pediatric primary care practice serving low-income families were surveyed before well-child visits to assess socioemotional/behavioral problems (Brief Infant-Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment; M.J. Briggs-Gowan & A.S. Carter, ) and psychosocial and demographic risks (e.g., unemployment, low social support) (Parent Risk Questionnaire; D.I. Lowell, A.S. Carter, L. Godoy, B. Paulicin, & M.J. Briggs-Gowan, ). We found that 19.8% of children had clinically significant problems, and 53.2% experienced one or more psychosocial risks. Clinically significant socioemotional/behavioral problems were modestly to strongly associated with individual psychosocial risks, with the strongest associations with parental medical problems, parent depression/anxiety, and extreme parental distress, Adjusted Relative Risk (ARR) = 4.8-6.6, p psychosocial risk were uniquely associated with clinically significant problems, particularly among children experiencing three to four psychosocial risks, ARR = 3.0-11.6, p Psychosocial risks affect the majority of low-income families with young children, with a steep increase in likelihood of clinically significant socioemotional/behavioral problems as risks accumulate, underscoring the need to address both socioemotional/behavioral issues and psychosocial risk in young children. © 2013 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  12. Gender differences in behavioral problems and shool outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. Grøne; Obel, Carsten; Smith, Nina

    2014-01-01

    with extensive register data on parental background and student outcomes. Our findings show a large negative association between indicators of externalizing behavioral and school outcomes. Only a minor percentage of the gender difference in average reading and math test scores, however, can be attributed......This study analyzes gender differences in behavioral problems and school outcomes. The study is based on teacher and parent evaluations using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for approximately 6000 Danish children 10–12 years of age who were born in 1990–1992. The sample has been merged...... to gender differences in the prevalence of low-scoring individuals with behavioral problems....

  13. Using Functional Assessment to Treat Behavior Problems of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Thomas; Carlson, Mark; Estep, David; Quinn, Mike

    2013-01-01

    A defining feature of autism spectrum disorders is atypical behaviors, e.g., stereotypy, noncompliance, rituals, and aggression. Deaf and hard of hearing individuals with autism present a greater challenge because of additional issues related to their hearing status. One conceptualization of problem behavior is that it serves a communication…

  14. Behavioral symptoms and sleep problems in children with anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwadare, Yoshitaka; Kamei, Yuichi; Usami, Masahide; Ushijima, Hirokage; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Kyota; Kodaira, Masaki; Saito, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Sleep disorders are frequently associated with childhood behavioral problems and mental illnesses such as anxiety disorder. To identify promising behavioral targets for pediatric anxiety disorder therapy, we investigated the associations between specific sleep and behavioral problems. We conducted retrospective reviews of 105 patients aged 4-12 years who met the DSM-IV criteria for primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (n = 33), separation anxiety disorder (n = 23), social phobia (n = 21), or obsessive compulsive disorder (n = 28). Sleep problems were evaluated using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and behavioral problems by the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, Oppositional Defiant Behavior Inventory (ODBI), and Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children. Depressive behavior was weakly correlated with CSHQ subscores for sleep onset delay and night waking but not with total sleep disturbance. Anxiety was correlated with bedtime resistance, night waking, and total sleep disturbance score. Oppositional defiance was correlated with bedtime resistance, daytime sleepiness, sleep onset delay, and most strongly with total sleep disturbance. On multiple regression analysis ODBI score had the strongest positive association with total sleep disturbance and the strongest negative association with total sleep duration. Sleep problems in children with anxiety disorders are closely related to anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  15. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancha, Brent E; Rojas, Vanessa C; Latimer, William W

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol-use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7-12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol-use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Several alcohol-use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol-use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Behavioral Problems in Iranian Epileptic Children; A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Aludari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Epilepsy is among the most common neurological disorders in childhood, prevalence of which is increasing. Unpredictable and chronic nature of the disease affects physical, social and mental functions of the children and their family. This study was aimed to compare behavioral problems in epileptic children group versus healthy control group. Materials and Methods This study is a case-control one conducted from January 2013 to June 2016 in Tehran, Iran. The epileptic children in age of 7-10 years old that were diagnosed by neurologist referred to the researcher for further process. Their parents were provided with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL to be completed. For matching by age and gender, the healthy group was sampled after the epilepsy group. Multivariate Analysis of Variance was used for statistical analysis. Results In this study 94 children with epilepsy and 83 healthy children in age of 7-10 years old were studied. The results indicated that there were significantly higher behavioral problems in the children with epilepsy than in control group in nine categories of seclusiveness, physical complaints, anxiety and depression, social problems, thought problems, attention problems, delinquent behaviors, aggressive behaviors, and other problems. Comparison of two generalized and partial epilepsy groups indicated that there was a significant difference only in attention problems (p = 0.024. Conclusion The present study indicates that the children with epilepsy have more behavioral problems as compared to control group. Therefore, educational and psychological interventions are necessary for supporting desirable psychosocial growth and development of such children.

  17. Interactive Influences of Neighborhood and Individual Socioeconomic Status on Alcohol Consumption and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, Nina; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To assess cross-level interactions between neighborhood and individual socioeconomic status (SES) on alcohol consumption and problems, and investigate three possible explanations for such interactions, including the double jeopardy, status inconsistency and relative deprivation hypotheses. Methods: Data from the 2000 and 2005 US National Alcohol Surveys were linked to the 2000 US Census to define respondent census tracts as disadvantaged, middle-class and advantaged. Risk drinking (consumption exceeding national guidelines), monthly drunkenness and alcohol problems were examined among low-, middle- and high-SES past-year drinkers (n = 8728). Gender-stratified, multiple logistic regression models were employed, and for outcomes with a significant omnibus F-test, linear contrasts were used to interpret interactions. Results: Cross-level SES interactions observed for men indicated that residence in advantaged neighborhoods was associated with markedly elevated odds of risk drinking and drunkenness for low-SES men. Linear contrasts further revealed a nearly 5-fold increased risk for alcohol problems among these men, relative to middle-SES and high-SES men also living in advantaged neighborhoods. Among women, neighborhood disadvantage was related to increased risk for alcohol problems, but there were no significant SES interactions. These findings did not support theories of double jeopardy and status inconsistency. Conclusion: Consistent with the relative deprivation hypothesis, findings highlight alcohol-related health risks among low-SES men living in affluent neighborhoods. Future research should assess whether this pattern extends to other health risk behaviors, investigate causal mechanisms and consider how gender may influence these. PMID:22262507

  18. Panel: Implementing Behavior Modification in the Classroom: Problems and Strategies. Problems of the Implementor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, G. Mann

    Problems and strategies in implementing classroom token economy systems as a means of behavior modification are reviewed. Discussed is the importance of such factors in the original token plan as the reinforcement schedule, and time-out procedures. Among implementation issues considered are observing and counting behaviors. (CL)

  19. [Comorbidities and behavioral problems in children with functional articulation disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun-Jing; Sun, Hong-Wei; Ma, Hong-Wei; Zhao, Ya-Ru

    2009-03-01

    To study the incidences of comorbidities and behavioral problems in children with functional articulation disorders. One hundred and twelve children with functional articulation disorders (aged 4-11 years) were enrolled. Their comorbidities were identified based on clinical investigations and the DSM-IV diagnosis criteria of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), stuttering, tic disorders and enuresis. Behavioral problems were evaluated by the Conners Parent Symptom Questionnaire and the Child Behavior Checklist. Sixty-nine patients (61.6%) had one or more comorbidities. The incidence of comorbidity in children with middle-severe functional articulation disorders was higher than in those with mild disorders. The most common comorbidity was language impairment (30.4%), followed by stuttering (16.1%), enuresis (13.4%), and tic disorders (6.3%). In school age children, ADHD (47.5%) was the most common comorbidity. The incidence of behavioral problems was 40.2% by the Child Behavior Checklist and 57.1% by the Parent Symptom Questionnaire. The children with functional articulation disorders have high incidence of comorbidity and many behavioral problems.

  20. Maternal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status during early pregnancy and children’s risk of problem behaviour at age 5-6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, E.M.; Van den Bergh, B.R.H.; Schelling, M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; van Eijsden, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To prospectively investigate the association between maternal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status and ratio during pregnancy and children's risk of problem behavior at 5 years of age. Study design Maternal LCPUFA status in plasma phospholipids during pregnancy (M = 13.3,

  1. Peer Preference and Friendship Quantity in Children with Externalizing Behavior: Distinct Influences on Bully Status and Victim Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Mary; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the predictive relations between externalizing behavior, peer preference and friendship quantity, and bully status and victim status among children becoming acquainted with one another for the first time. Children ages 6.8-9.8 years (24 with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; 113 typically developing; 72 girls) attended a 2-week summer day camp grouped into same-age, same-sex classrooms with previously unacquainted peers. Externalizing behavior (via parent and teacher ratings) was measured before the start of camp; peer preference and friendship quantity (via peer nominations) were measured in the middle of camp, and bully status and victim status (via peer nominations) were measured at the end of camp. Low peer preference mediated the positive association between externalizing behavior and bully status. Both peer preference and friendship quantity moderated the relation between externalizing behavior and bully status as well as between externalizing behavior and victim status; whereas high peer preference protected against both bully status and victim status, friendship quantity protected against victim status but exacerbated bully status. Some gender differences were found within these pathways. Peer preference, compared to friendship quantity, appears to have a more consistently protective role in the relation between externalizing behavior and bully status as well as victim status.

  2. Which behavioral, emotional and school problems in middle-childhood predict early sexual behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Alison; Waylen, Andrea; Sayal, Kapil; Heron, Jon; Henderson, Marion; Wight, Daniel; Macleod, John

    2014-04-01

    Mental health and school adjustment problems are thought to distinguish early sexual behavior from normative timing (16-18 years), but little is known about how early sexual behavior originates from these problems in middle-childhood. Existing studies do not allow for co-occurring problems, differences in onset and persistence, and there is no information on middle-childhood school adjustment in relationship to early sexual activity. This study examined associations between several middle-childhood problems and early sexual behavior, using a subsample (N = 4,739, 53 % female, 98 % white, mean age 15 years 6 months) from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Adolescents provided information at age 15 on early sexual behavior (oral sex and/or intercourse) and sexual risk-taking, and at age 13 on prior risk involvement (sexual behavior, antisocial behavior and substance use). Information on hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems, depressive symptoms, peer relationship problems, school dislike and school performance was collected in middle-childhood at Time 1 (6-8 years) and Time 2 (10-11 years). In agreement with previous research, conduct problems predicted early sexual behavior, although this was found only for persistent early problems. In addition, Time 2 school dislike predicted early sexual behavior, while peer relationship problems were protective. Persistent early school dislike further characterized higher-risk groups (early sexual behavior preceded by age 13 risk, or accompanied by higher sexual risk-taking). The study establishes middle-childhood school dislike as a novel risk factor for early sexual behavior and higher-risk groups, and the importance of persistent conduct problems. Implications for the identification of children at risk and targeted intervention are discussed, as well as suggestions for further research.

  3. Differential Effects of a Tier Two Behavior Intervention Based on Function of Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Campbell, Amy L.; Carter, Deborah Russell; Dickey, Celeste Rossetto

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a tier two daily behavior card intervention and differential effects based on function of problem behavior. The participants were 36 elementary school students nominated for additional intervention beyond universal School-Wide Positive Behavior Support. Measures included…

  4. Nutritional status and feeding problems in pediatric attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha'ari, Norsuhaila; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Ahmad, Mahadir; Rahman, Fairuz Nazri Abd

    2017-04-01

    Children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be at risk of nutrient deficiency due to the inability to sit through meals. This comparative cross-sectional study was therefore carried out to determine the nutritional status and feeding problems of ADHD children aged 4-12 years. Sociodemographic data, anthropometric measurements and 3 day dietary intake record were collected from 54 ADHD children and 54 typical development (TD) children. The Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale was used to assess feeding problems. Mean subject age was 8.6 ± 2.1 years. On anthropometric assessment, 11.1% of the ADHD children had wasting, while 1.9% had severe wasting. In contrast, none of the TD children had wasting. Approximately 5.6% of the ADHD children had stunting, as compared with 3.7% of the TD children, while none of the TD children had severe stunting compared with 3.7% of the ADHD children. More than half of the ADHD children had mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) below the 5th percentile, indicating undernutrition, compared with only 35.2% of TD children. More than one-third of the ADHD children had feeding problems compared with 9.3% of TD children. There was a significant negative relationship between the ADHD children's feeding problems and bodyweight (r = -0338, P = 0.012), body mass index (r = -0322, P = 0.017) and MUAC (r = -0384, P = 0.004). Almost half of the ADHD children had suboptimal nutrition compared with 11.1% of the TD children. It is imperative to screen ADHD children for nutritional status and feeding problems to prevent negative health impacts later on. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. Brief report: Affluence and college alcohol problems: the relevance of parent- and child-reported indicators of socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Zaje A T; Huang, Jason L; Kepler, Dawn M

    2013-10-01

    A mediational model predicting alcohol problems was tested in a sample of college students (n = 130) and their parents (n = 115). The indirect effect of substance-use coping and the age of onset of alcohol use were examined in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and alcohol problems. Findings indicated that parent-reported SES was associated with increased alcohol problems; the age of onset of alcohol use partially mediated this relationship. Substance-use coping was not a significant mediator in the model. Student-reported SES was not associated with alcohol problems. Implications for examining social status in relation to college drinking behaviors are discussed. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prenatal cigarette smoking: Long-term effects on young adult behavior problems and smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L

    2012-01-01

    We examined the long-term effects of prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) on the behavior problems and smoking behavior of 22-year-old offspring. The mothers of these offspring were interviewed about their tobacco and other drug use during pregnancy at the fourth and seventh gestational months, and at delivery. Data on the offspring are from interviews at age 22 (n=608). Behavior problems were measured by the Adult Self-Report (ASR) with the following outcome scales: total behavior problems, externalizing, internalizing, attention, anxiety/depression, withdrawn, thought, intrusive, aggression, somatic and rule breaking behavioral problems. Young adult smoking behavior was measured using self-reported average daily cigarettes, and was validated with urine cotinine. Nicotine dependence was measured with the Fagerström Tobacco and Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scale. Regression analyses tested the relations between trimester-specific PCSE and young adult's behavioral problems and smoking behavior, adjusting for demographic and maternal psychological characteristics, and other prenatal substance exposures. Exposed young adults had significantly higher scores on the externalizing, internalizing, aggression, and somatic scales of the ASR. These young adults were also more likely to have a history of arrests. Young adults with PCSE also had a higher rate of smoking and nicotine dependence. Our previous findings of the relations between PCSE and aggressive behavior in early childhood and PCSE and smoking behavior in early adolescence extend into young adulthood. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Dimensions of Peer Influences and Their Relationship to Adolescents' Aggression, Other Problem Behaviors and Prosocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Thompson, Erin L; Mehari, Krista R

    2017-06-01

    Although peers are a major influence during adolescence, the relative importance of specific mechanisms of peer influence on the development of problem behavior is not well understood. This study investigated five domains of peer influence and their relationships to adolescents' problem and prosocial behaviors. Self-report and teacher ratings were obtained for 1787 (53 % female) urban middle school students. Peer pressure for fighting and friends' delinquent behavior were uniquely associated with aggression, drug use and delinquent behavior. Friends' prosocial behavior was uniquely associated with prosocial behavior. Friends' support for fighting and friends' support for nonviolence were not as clearly related to behavior. Findings were generally consistent across gender. This study highlights the importance of studying multiple aspects of peer influences on adolescents' behavior.

  8. Sexual behavior problems in sexually abused children: a preliminary typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Darlene Kordich; Mathews, Fred; Pearce, John

    2002-03-01

    The goal was to develop an empirically derived typology for sexually abused children exhibiting sexual behavior problems to assist practitioners in differential assessment, treatment, and case planning. Data were systematically gathered from the clinical records of 100 sexually abused children, aged 3 years to 7 years, enrolled in two treatment programs. Twelve indexes were created corresponding to major areas of child and family history, functioning, and treatment response. After initial sorting into subgroups based on the presence or absence of interpersonal sexual behavior problems, further subdivision was based on hierarchical cluster analysis. Five distinctive sexual behavior profiles emerged: (1) developmentally expected; and developmentally problematic (2) interpersonal, unplanned, (3) self-focused, (4) interpersonal, planned (noncoercive), and (5) interpersonal, planned (coercive). Elements of the child's sexual abuse experience, opportunities to learn/practice problematic sexual behavior, and familial variables best differentiated between the types. The five types differed not only in child sexual behavior but in most areas of child and family functioning, including treatment outcome. The findings offer support for the development of an empirically-based typology for children with sexual behavior problems utilizing a range of variables which go beyond typical classification systems based on offender and victim characteristics.

  9. Cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosomatic problems in dental settings

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, Hirofumi; Chiba, Itsuo; Sakano, Yuji; Toyofuku, Akira; Abiko, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been applied for various problems, including psychiatric diseases such as depression and anxiety, and for physical symptoms such as pain. It has also been applied for dental problems. Although the effect of CBTs on temporomandibular disorders and dental anxiety are well documented, its effectiveness on other types of oral symptoms remain unclear. Little information comparing the different types of CBTs in the dental setting is currently available. Becaus...

  10. Caffeine intake during pregnancy and risk of problem behavior in 5- to 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomans, Eva M; Hofland, Laura; van der Stelt, Odin; van der Wal, Marcel F; Koot, Hans M; Van den Bergh, Bea R H; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2012-08-01

    Human studies that have investigated the association between caffeine intake during pregnancy and offspring's behavioral outcomes are scant and inconclusive. We prospectively investigated the association between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and children's problem behavior at age 5 to 6 years. Mediation by fetal growth restriction and gestational age as well as effect modification by the child's gender and maternal smoking was tested. In a community based multiethnic birth cohort, dietary caffeine intake (coffee, caffeinated tea, and cola) was measured (maternal self-report, n = 8202) around the 16th week of gestation. At age 5, children's overall problem behavior, emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention problems, peer relationship problems, and prosocial behavior were rated by both mother and teacher (n = 3439) with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Analyses were adjusted for maternal age, ethnicity, cohabitant status, education, smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, child's gender, family size, and prenatal maternal anxiety. Caffeine intake was not associated with a higher risk for behavior problems or with suboptimal prosocial behavior. No evidence was found for mediation by fetal growth restriction or gestational age, nor for effect modification by the child's gender. Results did not provide evidence for developmental programming influences of intrauterine exposure to caffeine on offspring's problem behavior at age 5. Present results give no indication to advise pregnant women to reduce their caffeine intake to prevent behavior problems in their children.

  11. Depressed mood and antisocial behavior problems as correlates for suicide-related behaviors in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Kimberly B; Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria-Elena; Orozco, Ricardo; Ouéda, Christiane; Wilcox, Holly C

    2011-05-01

    Suicide rates in Mexico have been rising steadily for several decades. This study examined the relationship of depressed mood and antisocial behavior problems with thoughts of death, suicide plans and attempts. Data from 22,966 individuals who participated in a population-based nationally-representative survey in Mexico were analyzed. After adjusting for covariates, all odds ratios for thoughts of death and suicidal behaviors were statistically significant in relation to antisocial behavior problems and depressed mood, both moderate and severe. Multiplicative effects of depressed mood and antisocial problems were found, with comorbid individuals showing increased risk of thoughts of death and suicidal plans and attempts, compared to individuals displaying none. Possible explanations, particularly for the multiplicative effect of both mood and problem behaviors on suicide-related behaviors, are discussed in the context of prior findings and directions for future research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Correlation analysis of sub-health status and health-related risk behaviors in college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, De-qin; Yao, Rong-ying; Yuan, Chang-jiang; Hu, Lan

    2011-01-01

    To study the sub-health status in college students in relation to health-related risk behaviors. Using convenient sampling method, 6176 college students (3285 male and 2891 female students) were surveyed with questionnaires for general demographical data, sub-health state and health-risk behaviors. The reported rate of sub-health state was 10.2%. The reported rate of physical sub-health was 11.7%, and the rate was 21.7%, 13.9% and 15.0% for inadequate physical activities, poor physical function and poor immunity, respectively. The reported rate of psychological sub-health was 10.5%, with a rate of 14.7%, 22.6% and 7.3% for emotional problems, behavioral problems and social adaptation difficulties, respectively. The risk factors for college students included insufficient sleeping, inadequate sport activities, missing breakfast, partial dietary, smoking and drinking (Pcollege students.

  13. Impact of Inuit customary adoption on behavioral problems in school-age Inuit children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaluwe, Béatrice; Jacobson, Sandra W; Poirier, Marie-Andrée; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2015-05-01

    A large proportion of Inuit children in Arctic Quebec are adopted in accordance with traditional Inuit customs. In contrast to adoptions in Southern Canada and the United States, the child is adopted at birth and by a close family member; he or she knows who his or her biological parents are, and will typically have contact with them. Studies of other populations have reported an increased incidence of behavior problems in adopted compared with nonadopted children. This study examined the actual extent of the increase in the number of behavior problems seen in Inuit children adopted in accordance with traditional customs. In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in the Canadian Arctic (n = 46 adopted and 231 nonadopted children), prenatal and familial variables were documented at birth and at school age (M = 11.3 years). Behavior problems were assessed on the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Adopted children lived in more economically disadvantaged families, but their caregivers were less prone to depression, domestic violence, or alcohol abuse compared with those of the nonadopted children. The adoption status was not related to the teacher's report of attention problems, externalizing or internalizing behaviors, after controlling for confounders. Despite less favorable socioeconomic circumstances, a higher extent of behavioral problems was not seen at school age in Inuit children adopted at birth by a family member. Psychosocial stressors associated with adoption are more likely to be responsible for an association with higher levels of childhood behavior problems rather than adoption per se. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Health behaviors and weight status among urban and rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ann M; Boles, Richard E; James, Rochelle L; Sullivan, Debra K; Donnelly, Joseph E; Swirczynski, Deborah L; Goetz, Jeannine

    2008-01-01

    Pediatric overweight is currently reaching epidemic proportions but little information exists on differences in weight related behaviors between urban and rural children. To assess health behaviors and weight status among urban and rural school-age children. Fifth-grade children at two urban and two rural schools were invited to participate in an assessment study of their health behaviors and weight status. A total of 138 children (mean age = 10 years; % female = 54.6) chose to participate. Children in rural and urban areas consumed equivalent calories per day and calories from fat, but rural children ate more junk food and urban children were more likely to skip breakfast. Urban children engaged in more metabolic equivalent tasks and had slightly higher total sedentary activity than rural children. The BMI percentile was equivalent across rural and urban children but rural children were more often overweight and urban children were more often at risk for overweight. Although some variables were equivalent across urban and rural children, results indicate some key health behavior differences between groups. Results should be interpreted with caution as the sample size was small and there were demographic differences between urban and rural samples.

  15. A Spanish Translation of the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Patrick A.; Schmidt, Laura L.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers planning to use a Spanish translation of the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist with a primarily Puerto Rican population found that it had been designed for Cuban speakers of the language and, therefore, decided to develop a new translation. Suggests the need to be sensitive to the differences in vocabulary among Hispanic subcultures.…

  16. How Digital Scaffolds in Games Direct Problem-Solving Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuen-Tsai; Wang, Dai-Yi; Chan, Hui-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Digital systems offer computational power and instant feedback. Game designers are using these features to create scaffolding tools to reduce player frustration. However, researchers are finding some unexpected effects of scaffolding on strategy development and problem-solving behaviors. We used a digital Sudoku game named "Professor Sudoku" to…

  17. Parental Perceptions and Child Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Jolynn L.; Houser, Linda; Cullen, Jennifer A.

    2018-01-01

    Emotional and behavioral difficulties in children with autism often present problems for families seeking appropriate treatment interventions. Using data from the 2011 Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services, ordinal logistic regression models were used to examine the association between parental perceptions about autism and their reports of…

  18. Children's Behavior Problems in the United States and Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcel, Toby L.; Campbell, Lori Ann; Zhong, Wenxuan

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the effects of family capital on child behavior problems in the United States and Great Britain by comparing a longitudinal survey sample of 5- to 13-year-old children from the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,864) with a similar sample of children from the 1991 National Child Development Study "British Child"…

  19. Parent Involvement, Emotional Support, and Behavior Problems: An Ecological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin E.; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2013-01-01

    We examined relations between parent involvement and kindergarten students' behavior problems in classrooms with varying levels of teacher emotional support. Multi-informant data were collected on "n" = 255 low-income Black and Hispanic students, and "n" = 60 kindergarten classrooms in the baseline year of an intervention…

  20. Parental Body Mass Index and Behavioral Problems in Their Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Susanne Hvolgaard; Hohwü, Lena; Olsen, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    Maternal obesity has been associated with increased risk of offspring behavioral problems. We examined whether this association could be explained by familial factors by comparing associations for maternal body mass index (BMI) with associations for paternal BMI. We studied 38,314 children born...

  1. Early Pubertal Timing and Girls' Problem Behavior: Integrating Two Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stattin, Hakan; Kerr, Margaret; Skoog, Therese

    2011-01-01

    Girls' early pubertal timing has been linked in many studies to behavioral problems such as delinquency and substance use. The theoretical explanations for these links have often involved the girls' peer relationships, but contexts have also been considered important in some explanations. By integrating two theoretical models, the…

  2. Future Orientation, School Contexts, and Problem Behaviors: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    The association between future orientation and problem behaviors has received extensive empirical attention; however, previous work has not considered school contextual influences on this link. Using a sample of N = 9,163 9th to 12th graders (51.0% females) from N = 85 high schools of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the…

  3. Future Orientation, Impulsivity, and Problem Behaviors: A Longitudinal Moderation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, based on a sample of 1,873 adolescents between 11.4 and 20.9 years of age from the first 3 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we investigated the longitudinal effects of future orientation on levels of and developmental changes in problem behaviors, while controlling for the effects by impulsivity;…

  4. Effects of Domestic Violence on Children's Behavior Problems and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Kathleen J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Parents and children completed measures that assessed children's behavior problems and depression. Children had experienced abuse, witnessed spouse abuse, experienced and witnessed abuse, or experienced no domestic violence. Reports of effects of domestic violence on children varied, depending on the type of violence and the person reporting it.…

  5. A Genetic Study of Problem Behaviors in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.C.G. van den Oord (Edwin)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractBehavioral/emotional problems are common among children of preschool and school age. Verhulst, and Koot (1992, p. 130) reviewed prevalence studies published since 1965. They reported a median prevalence rate for general psychiatric dysfunction in children and adolescents of l3%. This

  6. Cognitive Processes, Problem-Solving, and Effective Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Zurilla, Thomas J.; Goldfried, Marvin R.

    A self-controlled problem-solving approach to the facilitation of effective behavior is presented. This approach involves training in the use of a cognitive strategy for dealing with real life problematic situations. An individual will progress through five phases with respect to real or hypothetical problematic situations. The first phase,…

  7. Configurations of Adolescents' Peer Experiences : Associations With Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Parental Problem Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Meeus, Wim; Verhulst, Frank C.; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    Adolescents' peer experiences embrace behavior, relationship quality, status, and victimization, but studies that account for multiple dimensions are rare. Using latent profile modeling and measures of peer behavior, relationship quality, peer status, and victimization assessed from 1,677

  8. Configurations of Adolescents' Peer Experiences: Associations With Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Parental Problem Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Meeus, Wim; Verhulst, Frank C.; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    Adolescents' peer experiences embrace behavior, relationship quality, status, and victimization, but studies that account for multiple dimensions are rare. Using latent profile modeling and measures of peer behavior, relationship quality, peer status, and victimization assessed from 1,677

  9. Configurations of adolescents' peer experiences : Associations with parent-child relationship quality and parental problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Meeus, W.H.J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    Adolescents' peer experiences embrace behavior, relationship quality, status, and victimization, but studies that account for multiple dimensions are rare. Using latent profile modeling and measures of peer behavior, relationship quality, peer status, and victimization assessed from 1,677

  10. Differential Reinforcement of Low Rate Schedules Reduce Severe Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Andrew C; Borrero, John C

    2017-09-01

    Differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) schedules are reinforcement contingencies designed to reduce response rates. A common variation of the DRL arrangement is known as full-session DRL ( f-DRL), in which a reinforcer is presented at the end of an interval if the response rate during that interval is below a predetermined criterion. Prior human operant research involving arbitrary mouse clicks has shown that the f-DRL is likely to reduce target responding to near zero rates. Similarly, applied research has shown that the f-DRL is likely to reduce minimally disruptive classroom behavior. There are, however, relatively few successful applications of the f-DRL to severe forms of problem behavior (e.g., self-injurious behavior). Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of f-DRL on the severe problem behavior of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. For four participants, the f-DRL reduced severe problem behavior by clinically significant levels. Furthermore, results of a contingency strength analysis showed a strong negative contingency strength between target responding and reinforcer delivery for all participants.

  11. Attachment Characteristics and Behavioral Problems in Children and Adolescents with Congenital Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Türkay; Bolat, Nurullah; Yavuz, Mesut; Karaçetin, Gül; Doğangün, Burak; Kayaalp, Levent

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the behavioral problems and the attachment characteristics of children and adolescents with congenital blindness (CB). Forty children and adolescents aged 11-14 years with CB were included as the case group. Forty healthy children and adolescents who were matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status with the case group served as the comparison group. Behavioral problems were assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 4-18 (CBCL 4/18). Attachment characteristics were assessed via the Short Form of Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (s-IPPA). The case group had lower CBCL total problems scores as well as anxiety/depression, withdrawal/depression, and attention problems subscales scores with respect to the comparison group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in s-IPPA scores. Children and adolescents with CB did not differ from the comparison group in terms of attachment, whereas, they had lower scores on behavioral problems than the comparison group. Although previous studies indicate that children and adolescents with CB may be at the risk of insecure attachment, our study suggested that adaptive mechanisms of their families together with professional help from specialized teachers and services provided by schools for children and adolescents with CB may play compensatory roles.

  12. Attachment Characteristics and Behavioral Problems in Children and Adolescents with Congenital Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    DEMİR, Türkay; BOLAT, Nurullah; YAVUZ, Mesut; KARAÇETİN, Gül; DOĞANGÜN, Burak; KAYAALP, Levent

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to assess the behavioral problems and the attachment characteristics of children and adolescents with congenital blindness (CB). Method Forty children and adolescents aged 11–14 years with CB were included as the case group. Forty healthy children and adolescents who were matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status with the case group served as the comparison group. Behavioral problems were assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 4–18 (CBCL 4/18). Attachment characteristics were assessed via the Short Form of Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (s-IPPA). Results The case group had lower CBCL total problems scores as well as anxiety/depression, withdrawal/depression, and attention problems subscales scores with respect to the comparison group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in s-IPPA scores. Conclusion Children and adolescents with CB did not differ from the comparison group in terms of attachment, whereas, they had lower scores on behavioral problems than the comparison group. Although previous studies indicate that children and adolescents with CB may be at the risk of insecure attachment, our study suggested that adaptive mechanisms of their families together with professional help from specialized teachers and services provided by schools for children and adolescents with CB may play compensatory roles. PMID:28360610

  13. Diet and behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Høigaard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Discussion about dietary factors in relation to behavioral problems in children and adolescents has been going on for a long time. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relation between diet and self-reported behavioral problems at school in adolescents in the southern part of Norway. Design: In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students (236 boys and 239 girls out of 625 eligible students from four different secondary schools in three different communities in Vest-Agder County, Norway, participated, giving a participation rate of 77%. The students filled in a questionnaire with food frequency questions of selected healthy (e.g. fruits, vegetables, and fish and unhealthy (e.g. sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and crisps food items, questions of meal frequency, and four questions regarding behavioral problems at school. Results: Having breakfast regularly was significantly associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems (OR: 0.29 (0.15 − 0.55, p≤0.001. A high intake of unhealthy foods, such as sugar-sweetened soft drinks (OR: 2.8 (1.06 − 7.42, p=0.03 and sweets (OR: 2.63 (1.39 − 4.98, p=0.003, was significantly associated with increased odds of behavioral problems. At the same time, a high intake of fruits was associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems in Norwegian adolescents (OR: 0.30 (0.10 − 0.87, p=0.03. All ORs are adjusted for sex and BMI. Conclusions: This study shows that having an optimal diet and not skipping meals are associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents. Hence, it is important to improve the dietary intake and meal pattern of Norwegian adolescents. The cross-sectional design of this study limits any causal interpretations of the results of the study.

  14. Dimensions of problem gambling behavior associated with purchasing sports lottery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai; Mao, Luke Lunhua; Zhang, James J; Wu, Yin; Li, Anmin; Chen, Jing

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine the dimensions of problem gambling behaviors associated with purchasing sports lottery in China. This was accomplished through the development and validation of the Scale of Assessing Problem Gambling (SAPG). The SAPG was initially developed through a comprehensive qualitative research process. Research participants (N = 4,982) were Chinese residents who had purchased sports lottery tickets, who responded to a survey packet, representing a response rate of 91.4%. Data were split into two halves, one for conducting an EFA and the other for a CFA. A five-factor model with 19 items (Social Consequence, Financial Consequence, Harmful Behavior, Compulsive Disorder, and Depression Sign) showed good measurement properties to assess problem gambling of sports lottery consumers in China, including good fit to the data (RMSEA = 0.050, TLI = 0.978, and CFI = 0.922), convergent and discriminate validity, and reliability. Regression analyses revealed that except for Depression Sign, the SAPG factors were significantly (P lottery. This study represents an initial effort to understand the dimensions of problem gambling associated with Chinese sports lottery. The developed scale may be adopted by researchers and practitioners to examine problem gambling behaviors and develop effective prevention and intervention procedures based on tangible evidence.

  15. Neurobiologic bases of noncognitive behavioral problems in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskind, M A; Peskind, E R

    1994-01-01

    Abnormalities of neurochemical systems in Alzheimer disease, which are potentially relevant to the pathophysiology of such noncognitive problems as agitation and depression, have been demonstrated. However, the role of these abnormalities in the etiology of noncognitive problem behaviors remains poorly understood. Such abnormalities in brain noradrenergic and serotonergic systems are of particular interest because of their apparent involvement in normal regulation of mood, arousal, and aggressive behavior. The nature of the noradrenergic abnormalities in Alzheimer disease is particularly complex, with evidence suggesting both structural damage and compensatory increased norepinephrine release from remaining noradrenergic neurons. Currently available drugs that alter brain noradrenergic or serotonergic activity should be evaluated for efficacy in the management of noncognitive behavioral disorders complicating Alzheimer disease.

  16. Associations Between Behavioral Inhibition and Children's Social Problem Solving Behavior During Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Olga L; Henderson, Heather A; Degnan, Kathryn A; Penela, Elizabeth C; Fox, Nathan A

    2014-08-01

    The current study examined the associations between the early childhood temperament of behavioral inhibition and children's displays of social problem-solving (SPS) behavior during social exclusion. During toddlerhood (ages 2-3), maternal report and behavioral observations of behavioral inhibition were collected. At age 7, children's SPS behaviors were observed during a laboratory social exclusion task based on the commonly used Cyberball game. Results showed that behavioral inhibition was positively associated with displayed social withdrawal and negatively associated with assertive behavior during the observed social exclusion task at 7 years of age. These results add to our understanding of inhibited children's SPS behaviors during social exclusion and provide evidence for the associations between toddler temperament and children's social behavior during middle childhood.

  17. A Longitudinal Examination of the Relation Between Internalizing Problem Behaviors and Early Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloise-Young, Patricia A; Zaleski, Adam C; Swaim, Randall C

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the longitudinal relation between internalizing problem behaviors (measured with the anxious/depressed and somatic complaints subscales of the Achenbach Teacher's Report Form) and self-reported cigarette smoking behavior and intentions during early adolescence. In addition, a possible mediating role of perceived harm was investigated. Sixth graders and their teachers were surveyed in the sixth grade and students were surveyed again in the seventh grade. Smoking behavior and intentions were assessed with five items including lifetime use, 30-day use, tobacco user status (nonsmoker to heavy smoker), and two intentions/behavioral expectations items. In addition to perceived harm from smoking, reasons for smoking and reasons for not smoking were included on the survey. As hypothesized, teacher reports of sixth-grade internalizing problem behaviors were negatively related to seventh-grade smoking behavior and intentions. Moreover, perceived harm from smoking was negatively related to smoking and intentions. The hypothesized mediating role of perceived harm in the internalizing to smoking relationship was not supported. Potential differences in the relation between internalizing and smoking across adolescence are discussed. Specifically, the results of the present study and an examination of prior literature suggest that in early adolescence internalizing problems are negatively related to cigarette smoking, whereas in middle and late adolescence the opposite is true.

  18. Does social capital reduce child behavior problems? Results from the Great East Japan Earthquake follow-up for Children Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Junko; Fujiwara, Takeo; Yambe, Takehito; Okuyama, Makiko; Kawachi, Ichiro; Sakai, Akio

    2016-08-01

    We sought to investigate the association between social capital and child behavior problems in Iwate prefecture, Japan, in the aftermath of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. Children and their caregivers were recruited from four nursery schools in coastal areas affected by the tsunami, as well as one in an unaffected inland area (N = 94). We assessed the following via caregiver questionnaire: perceptions of social capital in the community, child behavior problems (Child Behavior Checklist, Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, child's exposure to trauma (e.g. loss of family members), and caregiver's mental health (Impact of Event Scale-R for PTSD symptoms; K6 for general mental health). We collected details on trauma exposure by interviewing child participants. Structural equation modeling was used to assess whether the association between social capital and child behavior problems was mediated by caregiver's mental health status. Children of caregivers who perceived higher community social capital (trust and mutual aid) showed fewer PTSD symptoms. Furthermore, caregiver's mental health mediated the association between social trust and child PTSD symptoms. Social capital had no direct impact on child behavior problems. Community social capital was indirectly associated (via caregiver mental health status) with child behavior problems following exposure to disaster. Community development to boost social capital among caregivers may help to prevent child behavior problems.

  19. Adolescents' use of care for behavioral and emotional problems: types, trends, and determinants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijmen A Reijneveld

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: While adolescents use various types of care for behavioral and emotional problems, evidence on age trends and determinants per type is scarce. We aimed to assess use of care by adolescents because of behavioral and emotional problems, overall and by type, and its determinants, for ages 10-19 years. METHODS: We obtained longitudinal data on 2,230 adolescents during ages 10-19 from four measurements regarding use of general care and specialized care (youth social care and mental healthcare in the preceding 6 months, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and Youth Self-Report, and child and family characteristics. We analyzed data by multilevel logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall rates of use increased from 20.1% at age 10/11 to 32.2% at age 19: general care was used most. At age 10/11 use was higher among boys, at age 19 among girls. Use of general care increased for both genders, whereas use of specialized care increased among girls but decreased among boys. This differential change was associated with CBCL externalizing and internalizing problems, school problems, family socioeconomic status, and parental divorce. Preceding CBCL problems predicted more use: most for mental health care and least for general care. Moreover, general care was used more frequently by low and medium socioeconomic status families, with odds ratios (95%-confidence intervals: 1.52 (1.23;1.88 and 1.40 (1.17;1.67; youth social care in case of parental divorce, 2.07 (1.36;3.17; and of special education, 2.66 (1.78;3.95; and mental healthcare in case of special education, 2.66 (1.60;4.51. DISCUSSION: Adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems use general care most frequently. Overall use increases with age. Determinants of use vary per type.

  20. Smoking during teenage pregnancies: effects on behavioral problems in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; DeGenna, Natacha; Day, Nancy L

    2007-07-01

    We prospectively examined the relationship between prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) and child behavior in a birth cohort of 357 offspring of teenage mothers. PTE was defined as any exposure across pregnancy and, in separate analyses, exposure within each trimester. Outcomes included measures of behavior problems, activity, and attention. On average, the children were 6.4 years of age, 48% were females, and 69% were Black. Data on maternal tobacco and other substance use were collected prenatally and postnatally: 46% of the mothers smoked in the first trimester and 58% smoked 6 years later. Child urinary cotinine measured exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Stepwise multiple regressions were run. PTE predicted significantly increased offspring activity; impulsivity; and aggression, externalizing, and total behavior problems in step 1. PTE remained a significant predictor of increased activity when maternal psychological characteristics, home environment, and ETS were added. The results were similar when PTE was examined by trimesters, although later pregnancy tobacco exposure predicted the most behavioral outcomes. In the final model, PTE (all three trimesters) and PTE (second trimester) were significant predictors of increased activity and attention problems, respectively. Other predictors of child behavior included maternal anxiety, depression, hostility, and home environment. ETS was not a significant predictor of child behavior when PTE was considered. Smoking during pregnancy among adolescents is a significant predictor of increased activity and attention problems in their offspring after controlling for covariates in the prenatal and current environments. Smoking cessation interventions are recommended for this population to avoid the effects of PTE on the offspring of pregnant adolescents. This is particularly important because these mothers will likely become pregnant again and many will increase their level of tobacco use as they mature.

  1. Status of Environmental Degradation: Problems and Prospects for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian environment today is faced with many problems of degradation arising from the impacts of human activities and natural phenomena with less prospect for economic development. Some of the problems include gully erosion; coastal erosion; flooding; drought and desertification; oil spillage and pollution; urban ...

  2. Misperceptions of weight status among adolescents: sociodemographic and behavioral correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodde AE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amy E Bodde,1 Timothy J Beebe,1 Laura P Chen,2 Sarah Jenkins,3 Kelly Perez-Vergara,4 Lila J Finney Rutten,5 Jeanette Y Ziegenfuss6 1Division of Health Care Policy and Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 4Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 5Division of Epidemiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN USA; 6HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research, Minneapolis, MN, USA Objective: Accurate perceptions of weight status are important motivational triggers for weight loss among overweight or obese individuals, yet weight misperception is prevalent. To identify and characterize individuals holding misperceptions around their weight status, it may be informative for clinicians to assess self-reported body mass index (BMI classification (ie, underweight, normal, overweight, obese in addition to clinical weight measurement. Methods: Self-reported weight classification data from the 2007 Current Visit Information – Child and Adolescent Survey collected at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, were compared with measured clinical height and weight for 2,993 adolescents. Results: While, overall, 74.2% of adolescents accurately reported their weight status, females, younger adolescents, and proxy (vs self reporters were more accurate. Controlling for demographic and behavioral characteristics, the higher an individual's BMI percentile, the less likely there was agreement between self-report and measured BMI percentile. Those with high BMI who misperceive their weight status were less likely than accurate perceivers to attempt weight loss. Conclusion: Adolescents’ and proxies’ misperception of weight status increases with BMI percentile. Obtaining an adolescent's self-perceived weight status in addition to measured height and weight offers clinicians valuable baseline information to discuss motivation for weight

  3. On the Ontological Status of Autism: The "Double Empathy Problem"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Damian E. M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades there has been much debate over the ontological status of autism and other neurological "disorders", diagnosed by behavioural indicators, and theorised primarily within the field of cognitive neuroscience and psychological paradigms. Such cognitive-behavioural discourses abstain from acknowledging the universal issue of…

  4. Parental Attributions for the Behavior Problems of Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Schaidle, Emily M.; Burnson, Cynthia F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The authors examined parental attributions for child behavior problems in 63 married couples of children and adolescents (aged 3–20 years) with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Both child-referent attributions (i.e., beliefs about causes related to the child or adolescent) and parent-referent attributions (i.e., beliefs about causes related to the parent) were examined along the dimensions of locus, stability, and controllability. Parent and child/adolescent factors related to parental attributions were identified, and the associations between parental attributions and parenting burden were explored. Method Mothers and fathers independently completed self-reported measures of parental attributions, parenting burden, and child behavior problems. Couples jointly reported on their son or daughter’s severity of autism symptoms, intellectual disability status, age, and gender. Results Parents tended to attribute the behavior problems of their child/adolescent with an ASD to characteristics that were not only internal to and stable in the child/adolescent but also controllable by the child/adolescent. Mothers were more likely to attribute their son or daughter’s behavior problems to characteristics that were less internal to and less stable in the child/adolescent with an ASD than were fathers. In addition, parents with a higher level of symptoms of the broader autism phenotype, parents of younger children, and parents of children/adolescents with intellectual disability, a higher severity of autism symptoms, and a higher severity of overall behavior problems were more likely to attribute their son or daughter’s behavior problems to characteristics that were more internal to and stable in the child/adolescent and factors that were less controllable by the child/adolescent. Parental attributions were related to parents’ level of parenting burden. Implications Findings have implications for designing appropriate interventions and services for families

  5. Maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems: a fixed effects regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Ystrom, Eivind; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Torgersen, Leila

    2015-10-01

    Using data from the longitudinal Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, the aims of the current study were to examine associations between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems, taking both observed and unobserved confounding factors into account by employing fixed effects regression models. Postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use (defined as drinking alcohol 4 or more times a week, or drinking 7 units or more per alcohol use episode) and toddler internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were assessed when the toddlers were aged 18 and 36 months. Maternal psychopathology, civil status and negative life events last year were included as time-variant covariates. Maternal heavy alcohol use was associated with toddler internalizing and externalizing behavior problems (p < 0.001) in the population when examined with generalized estimating equation models. The associations disappeared when observed and unobserved sources of confounding were taken into account in the fixed effects models [(p = 0.909 for externalizing behaviors (b = 0.002, SE = 0.021), p = 0.928 for internalizing behaviors (b = 0.002, SE = 0.023)], with an even further reduction of the estimates with the inclusion of time-variant confounders. No causal effect was found between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems. Increased levels of behavior problems among toddlers of heavy drinking mothers should therefore be attributed to other adverse characteristics associated with these mothers, toddlers and families. This should be taken into account when interventions aimed at at-risk families identified by maternal heavy alcohol use are planned and conducted.

  6. Health promotion behaviors in adolescents: prevalence and association with mental health status in a statewide sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Molly; Charlesworth-Attie, Sarah; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth; Becker, Linda

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the proportion of adolescents meeting Healthy People 2020 health behavior recommendations for the prevention of chronic disease and to determine the association between mental health status (depression and/or conduct problems) and the likelihood of meeting these recommendations. The data used for this study are from the 2010 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey. Descriptive statistics and linear regression were utilized to estimate the proportion of adolescents meeting recommendations and associations between youth mental health status indicators and health-promoting behaviors. A small minority (5.8 %) of youth met all six recommendations in domains of tobacco abstinence, substance use abstinence, daily physical activity, breakfast consumption, weight below obese levels, and adequate sleep, though most (84.3 %) met at least three. At the aggregate level, the proportion of Washington State youth who met Healthy People 2020 guidelines exceeded targets, with the exception of substance use abstinence. A minority of youth reported guideline levels of daily physical activity (23.3 %) and sleep (39.8 %). Mental health status was strongly associated with the number of health-promoting behaviors adolescents endorsed. Interventions to increase the adoption of sleep hygiene and exercise habits should be added to an integrative positive youth development framework within school-, community-, and primary care-based adolescent health initiatives. Attention to adolescent mental health and shared risk factors may be critical for reducing barriers to healthy behavior.

  7. Does Helping Keep Teens Protected? Longitudinal Bidirectional Relations Between Prosocial Behavior and Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Carlo, Gustavo; Nielson, Matthew G

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined bidirectional, longitudinal links between prosocial and problem behavior. Participants (N = 500) were recruited from a Northwestern city in the United States and assessed for 3 consecutive years from 2009 to 2011 (M(age) of youth at Time 1 = 13.32, SD = 1.05; 52% girls; 67% European American, 33% single-parent families). Results suggested that effects of earlier prosocial behavior toward family and strangers were predictive of fewer problem behaviors 2 years later, while results for prosocial behavior toward friends were more mixed. Results also suggested depression predicted lower prosocial behavior toward family members and anxiety predicted higher prosocial behavior toward friends. Findings show a complex pattern of relations that demonstrate the need to consider targets of helping. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. A Behavior Modification Classroom for Head Start Children with Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, K. Eileen; And Others

    A demonstration Head Start class enrolled 12 to 15 children with problem behaviors. The class utilized behavior modification procedures with individualized programing and natural contingencies. Favorable results were noted; three case studies presented concern an aggressively disruptive child, a severely withdrawn child, and a child whose total…

  9. Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Depressive Mothers of Children with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hye Ha, Eun

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBT) for depressed mothers of children between 5-12 years old, with behavior problems and to examine the effectiveness of the program. The CBT group met 8 times in total (2-hour weekly sessions for 8 weeks), followed by a booster session 3 months after the program was…

  10. The Effect of Parenting Behaviors on Subsequent Child Behavior Problems in Autistic Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Lisa A.; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The current research explored the relationship between parenting behaviors in parents of children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and subsequent child behavior problems. The sample consisted of 72 children (aged 5-16 years) and their parents, who were assessed over a period of 9-10 months. There was a relationship between parenting…

  11. Functional Communication Training: A Contemporary Behavior Analytic Intervention for Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, V. Mark; Merges, Eileen

    2001-01-01

    This article describes functional communication training (FCT) with students who have autism. FCT involves teaching alternative communication strategies to replace problem behaviors. The article reviews the conditions under which this intervention is successful and compares the method with other behavioral approaches. It concludes that functional…

  12. Resilience as a protective factor for the behavioral problems in school-aged children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hee; Im, Yeo Jin

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the relationships between resilience and behavioral problems in school-aged children with atopic dermatitis (AD) and identifies factors associated with these behavioral problems. A total of 102 school-aged children suffering from chronic AD were administered a self-report questionnaire on resilience, and the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist, to measure their internalizing/externalizing behavioral problems. The means of the internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems of children with AD were 6.58 and 7.26, respectively. Both resilience and economic status were negatively correlated with the internalizing, r = -0.262, p Resilience was identified as the single potent variable affecting children's behavioral problems. The higher the children's resilience scores, the lower was the chance of both internalizing, β = -1.648, p = 0.034, and externalizing behavioral problems, β = -1.382, p = 0.041. To prevent possible behavioral problems in children with chronic AD, a care plan enhancing their resilience (i.e. promoting parenting skills and social supports for children) should be developed.

  13. Acculturation strategies and ethnic identity as predictors of behavior problems in arctic minority adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvernmo, Siv; Heyerdahl, Sonja

    2003-01-01

    To explore the effect of acculturation attitudes and ethnic and national identity on behavior problems in arctic minority adolescents in northern Norway. The Youth Self-Report, the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, and acculturation strategies were completed by 581 indigenous Sami and 291 Kven high school students in 1994-1995, at age 15-18 years. Response rate was 85%. Behavior problems were in addition to ethnic/national identity and acculturation attitudes studied in relation to ethnicity, gender, age, socioeconomic status, parentage, ethnic language, and ethnic context. Although there were no ethnic group differences in behavior problems, the impact of ethnocultural predictors differed between ethnocultural and indigenous adolescents. Acculturation attitudes were most significant for indigenous adolescents' mental health, and identity issues showed the strongest impact on ethnocultural peers. The study revealed significant gender differences regarding the influence of ethnocultural factors, and contextual variation among Sami adolescents with the strongest impact in contexts with low density of Sami people. The significant ethnic group variations emphasize the importance of conducting both between- and within-group analysis on the impact of ethnocultural issues on behavior problems in minority adolescents.

  14. Behavioral problems and intelligence quotient changes in pediatric epilepsy: A case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyama Choudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disease and has neurological impairment as an important comorbidity. Objective: To find behavioral problems and intelligence quotient (IQ changes associated with epilepsy and to know the association of variables such as frequency, type of seizures, and duration of disease with cognitive impairment. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study, consisting of 50 cases (patients of epilepsy and 50 controls (other patients of same socioeconomic status was conducted at S.P. Medical College, Bikaner. The patients were subjected to detailed clinical history, thorough examination, Pediatric Symptom Checklist, and Bhatia's Battery of Performance intelligence Test. Data analysis was carried out with the help of SPSS 22 software. Results: The prevalence of behavioral problems in generalized and partial seizure group was high (42% and 53.8% as compared to control group (9%. Low IQ was present more in the patients (44% of generalized and partial seizure group as compared with the control group, and results were statistically significant. Furthermore, behavioral problems were more in patients who were having more number of seizures (≥3 per year with significant P values (χ2 = 5.067, P = 0.024. Conclusion: We conclusively found that behavioral problems and cognitive factors, apart from control of seizures, must be kept in mind to determine how well a child with epilepsy progresses toward independence.

  15. Management strategies for problem behaviors in the patient with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehninger, F W; Ravindran, V L; Stewart, J T

    1998-04-01

    Psychiatric and behavioral problems are present in most patients with dementia and are usually the clinician's main focus of management. Differential diagnosis of these problems can be challenging, but the effort is essential for planning appropriate therapy. Pharmacologic interventions are available for treatment of depression, agitation, aggression, psychotic symptoms, wandering, and sleep disorders. Given the less than favorable risk-benefit ratio of most psychotropic drugs in the population of older patients with dementia, the importance of nonpharmacologic strategies and limiting treatment goals should not be overlooked.

  16. Problem Behavior and Urban, Low-Income Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Schure, Marc B.; Bavarian, Niloofar; DuBois, David L.; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Silverthorn, Naida; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Flay, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Youth problem behaviors remain a public health issue. Youth in low-income, urban areas are particularly at risk for engaging in aggressive, violent, and disruptive behaviors. Purpose To evaluate the effects of a school-based social–emotional learning and health promotion program on problem behaviors and related attitudes among low-income, urban youth. Design A matched-pair, cluster RCT. Setting/participants Participants were drawn from 14 Chicago Public Schools over a 6-year period of program delivery with outcomes assessed for a cohort of youth followed from Grades 3 to 8. Data were collected from Fall 2004 to Spring 2010, and analyzed in Spring 2012. Intervention The Positive Action program includes a scoped and sequenced K–12 classroom curriculum with six components: self-concept, social and emotional positive actions for managing oneself responsibly, and positive actions directed toward physical and mental health, honesty, getting along with others, and continually improving oneself. The program also includes teacher, counselor, family, and community training as well as activities directed toward schoolwide climate development. Main outcome measures Youth reported on their normative beliefs in support of aggression and on their bullying, disruptive and violent behaviors; parents rated youths’ bullying behaviors and conduct problems; schoolwide data on disciplinary referrals and suspensions were obtained from school records. Results Multilevel growth-curve modeling analyses conducted on completion of the trial indicated that Positive Action mitigated increases over time in (1) youth reports of normative beliefs supporting aggressive behaviors and of engaging in disruptive behavior and bullying (girls only); and (2) parent reports of youth bullying behaviors (boys only). At study end-point, students in Positive Action schools also reported a lower rate of violence-related behavior than students in control schools. Schoolwide findings indicated

  17. Association of eveningness with problem behavior in children: a mediating role of impaired sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; de Sonneville, Leo M J; Swaab, Hanna

    2013-08-01

    Eveningness, the preference of being active during the evening in contrast to the morning, has been associated with markedly increased problem behavior in adolescents; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not understood. This study investigates the association of eveningness with behavior and cognition in children aged 7-12 yrs, and explores the potential mediating role of a variety of sleep factors. Parents of 333 school-aged children (mean age=9.97 yrs; 55% girls) completed a sleep log and several questionnaires regarding eveningness, sleep habits, and behavioral problems. Intellectual abilities, working memory, and attention were assessed using the short-form of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and subtasks of the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks. Results showed that eveningness predicted behavioral problems over and above the effects of demographic variables (age, sex, and familial socioeconomic status) (p=0.003). Significant partial correlation was found for eveningness and sleep duration during weekdays (p=0.005), and not during weekends. Furthermore, evening orientation was associated with a reduced rested feeling on weekday mornings (psleep characteristic showing association with many cognitive and behavioral measures was the subjective feeling upon awakening-particularly during weekdays. Bootstrap mediation analyses demonstrated that sleep significantly mediated the effects of eveningness on behavioral problems, working memory, and sustained attention. Interestingly, mediation was only significant through the subjective feeling upon awakening on weekdays. The current findings indicate that the subjective feeling upon awakening is a much better predictor of daytime problems than subjective sleep quantity. Furthermore, the data suggest that negative outcomes in evening types are due to the fact that they wake up before their circadian drive for arousal and prior to complete dissipation of sleep pressure during weekdays

  18. Emotional and behavioral problems associated with sleep disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Kelmanson

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers whether parasomnia may be associated with emotional and behavioral problems. It gives data on the relationship of impaired sleep duration and integrity to increased emotional responsiveness and lability, high levels of anxiety, and depression symptoms. Whether the clinical symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, aggression, and academic underachievement are related to sleep disorders, including those in the presence of sleep disordered breathing, restless leg...

  19. Maternal thyroid hormone trajectories during pregnancy and child behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endendijk, Joyce J; Wijnen, Hennie A A; Pop, Victor J M; van Baar, Anneloes L

    2017-08-01

    There is ample evidence demonstrating the importance of maternal thyroid hormones, assessed at single trimesters in pregnancy, for child cognition. Less is known, however, about the course of maternal thyroid hormone concentrations during pregnancy in relation to child behavioral development. Child sex might be an important moderator, because there are sex differences in externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems. The current study examined the associations between maternal thyroid hormone trajectories versus thyroid assessments at separate trimesters of pregnancy and child behavioral problems, as well as sex differences in these associations. In 442 pregnant mothers, serum levels of TSH and free T4 (fT4) were measured at 12, 24, and 36weeks gestation. Both mothers and fathers reported on their children's behavioral problems, between 23 and 60months of age. Latent growth mixture modeling was used to determine the number of different thyroid hormone trajectories. Three trajectory groups were discerned: 1) highest and non-increasing TSH with lowest fT4 that decreased least of the three trajectories; 2) increasing TSH and decreasing fT4 at intermediate levels; 3) lowest and increasing TSH with highest and decreasing fT4. Children of mothers with the most flattened thyroid hormone trajectories (trajectory 1) showed the most anxiety/depression symptoms. The following trimester-specific associations were found: 1) lower first-trimester fT4 was associated with more child anxiety/depression, 2) higher first-trimester TSH levels were related to more attention problems in boys only. A flattened course of maternal thyroid hormone concentrations during pregnancy was a better predictor of child anxiety/depression than first-trimester fT4 levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Decreased sleep in children and their behavioral problems in dental operatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya Kumar Kulkarni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was conducted to examine the contribution of inadequate sleep and its associated factors, on behavior and cooperation of children in the dental operatory. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 healthy children at the time of their initial visit to the dental hospital, ranging from preschoolers to adolescents. Data acquisition was done by a questionnaire. Interview with the accompanying person was done to ask about the sleep duration, naps, and sleep habits of the child. Children's behavior during their preliminary examination was studied and categorized according to Frankl's behavior rating scale. Data were analyzed by linear regression analysis and Spearman's correlation with the aid of SPSS 16.0 software. Results: Total duration of sleep accounted for a small but significant contribution in behavioral problems of children. Significant correlation was found between duration of sleep and cooperative behavior in dental operatory (R = 0.478. However, the duration of sleep was negatively correlated to the number of siblings and socioeconomic status of the family. Conclusion: Children who had shorter total sleep duration had increased behavioral problems in dental operatory.

  1. Calculus Problem Solving Behavior of Mathematic Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, M.; Mansyur, J.

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain a description of the problem-solving behaviour of mathematics education students. The attainment of the purpose consisted of several stages: (1) to gain the subject from the mathematic education of first semester students, each of them who has a high, medium, and low competence of mathematic case. (2) To give two mathematical problems with different characteristics. The first problem (M1), the statement does not lead to a resolution. The second problem (M2), a statement leads to problem-solving. (3) To explore the behaviour of problem-solving based on the step of Polya (Rizal, 2011) by way of thinking aloud and in-depth interviews. The obtained data are analysed as suggested by Miles and Huberman (1994) but at first, time triangulation is done or data’s credibility by providing equivalent problem contexts and at different times. The results show that the behavioral problem solvers (mathematic education students) who are capable of high mathematic competency (ST). In understanding M1, ST is more likely to pay attention to an image first, read the texts piecemeal and repeatedly, then as a whole and more focus to the sentences that contain equations, numbers or symbols. As a result, not all information can be received well. When understanding the M2, ST can link the information from a problem that is stored in the working memory to the information on the long-term memory. ST makes planning to the solution of M1 and M2 by using a formula based on similar experiences which have been ever received before. Another case when implementing the troubleshooting plans, ST complete the M1 according to the plan, but not all can be resolved correctly. In contrast to the implementation of the solving plan of M2, ST can solve the problem according to plan quickly and correctly. According to the solving result of M1 and M2, ST conducts by reading the job based on an algorithm and reasonability. Furthermore, when SS and SR understand the

  2. Self reported behavioral and emotional difficulties in relation to dentition status among school going children of Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adepu Srilatha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health has strong biological, psychological, and social projections, which influence the quality of life. Thus, developing a common vision and a comprehensive approach to address children′s social, emotional, and behavioral health needs is an integral part of the child and adolescent′s overall health. Aim: To assess and compare the behavior and emotional difficulties among 15-year-olds and to correlate it with their dentition status based on gender. Study Settings and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire study among 15-year-old schoolgoing children in six private schools in Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, India. Materials and Methods: The behavior and emotional difficulties were assessed using self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The dentition status was recorded by the criteria given by the World Health Organization (WHO in the Basic Oral Health Survey Assessment Form (1997. Statistical Analysis: Independent Student′s t-test was used for comparison among the variables. Correlation between scales of SDQ and dentition status was done using Karl Pearson′s correlation coefficient method. Results: Girls reported more emotional problems and good prosocial behavior and males had more conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, and total difficulty problems. Total decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT and decayed component were significantly and positively correlated with total difficulty, emotional symptom, and conduct problems scale while missing component was correlated with the hyperactivity scale and filled component with prosocial behavior. Conclusion: DMFT and its components showed an association with all scales of SDQ except for peer problem scale. Thus, the oral health of children was significantly influenced by behavioral and emotional difficulties; so, changes in the mental health status will affect the oral health of children.

  3. Emotional and behavioral problems associated with sleep disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kelmanson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers whether parasomnia may be associated with emotional and behavioral problems. It gives data on the relationship of impaired sleep duration and integrity to increased emotional responsiveness and lability, high levels of anxiety, and depression symptoms. Whether the clinical symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, aggression, and academic underachievement are related to sleep disorders, including those in the presence of sleep disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder, is discussed. There are data on the characteristic polysomnographic changes detected in the presence of the discussed emotional and behavioral disorders in children. A possible pathophysiological rationale is provided for the found associations. Practical guidelines for examination of children with complaints about emotional and behavioral disorders for possible concomitant parasomnias are substantiated. 

  4. Adverse childhood experiences and behavioral problems in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tenah K A; Slack, Kristen S; Berger, Lawrence M

    2017-05-01

    Children who have been exposed to maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are at increased risk for various negative adult health outcomes, including cancer, liver disease, substance abuse, and depression. However, the proximal associations between ACEs and behavioral outcomes during the middle childhood years have been understudied. In addition, many of the ACE studies contain methodological limitations such as reliance on retrospective reports and limited generalizability to populations of lower socioeconomic advantage. The current study uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national urban birth cohort, to prospectively assess the adverse experiences and subsequent behavior problems of over 3000 children. Eight ACE categories to which a child was exposed by age 5 were investigated: childhood abuse (emotional and physical), neglect (emotional and physical), and parental domestic violence, anxiety or depression, substance abuse, or incarceration. Results from bivariate analyses indicated that Black children and children with mothers of low education were particularly likely to have been exposed to multiple ACE categories. Regression analyses showed that exposure to ACEs is strongly associated with externalizing and internalizing behaviors and likelihood of ADHD diagnosis in middle childhood. Variation in these associations by racial/ethnic, gender, and maternal education subgroups are examined. This study provides evidence that children as young as 9 begin to show behavioral problems after exposure to early childhood adversities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Parentification, Stress, and Problem Behavior of Adolescents who have a Parent with Mental Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, Linda M A; Van de Ven, Monique O M; Van Doesum, Karin T M; Hosman, Clemens M H; Witteman, Cilia L M

    2017-03-01

    When adolescents live with a parent with mental illness, they often partly take over the parental role. Little is known about the consequences of this so-called parentification on the adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. This survey study examined this effect cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a sample of 118 adolescents living with a parent suffering from mental health problems. In addition, the study examined a possible indirect effect via perceived stress. Path analyses were used to examine the direct associations between parentification and problem behavior as well as the indirect relations via perceived stress. The results showed that parentification was associated with both internalizing and externalizing problems cross-sectionally, but it predicted only internalizing problems 1 year later. An indirect effect of parentification on adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems via perceived stress was found, albeit only cross-sectionally. These findings imply that parentification can be stressful for adolescents who live with a parent with mental health problems, and that a greater awareness of parentification is needed to prevent adolescents from developing internalizing problems. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  6. Cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosomatic problems in dental settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Hirofumi; Chiba, Itsuo; Sakano, Yuji; Toyofuku, Akira; Abiko, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been applied for various problems, including psychiatric diseases such as depression and anxiety, and for physical symptoms such as pain. It has also been applied for dental problems. Although the effect of CBTs on temporomandibular disorders and dental anxiety are well documented, its effectiveness on other types of oral symptoms remain unclear. Little information comparing the different types of CBTs in the dental setting is currently available. Because dental professionals are often expected to conduct CBTs in the dental setting, it is important to develop proper training programs for dental professionals. In this review article, we demonstrate and discuss the application of CBTs for psychosomatic problems, including temporomandibular disorders, dental anxiety, burning mouth syndrome, and other oral complaints in dental settings.

  7. HEALTH STATUS AND PROBLEMS OF THE SPECIAL NEEDS CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Sh. Yafarova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the new data on the prevalence and structure of the children's disablement in the Russian federation. Among the causes of the children's disablement, the authors mark dominance of the infectious and somatic diseases, neuropathies, mental diseases and congenital growth anomalies, in particular. They show the role of medical and biological, social and hygienic, medical and organizational and economical factors, defining the health formation and conducing to the children's incapacitation. The researchers characterize the health status of the disabled children in respect of the major indices: physical and neuropsychic growth, psychological personality peculiarities, sickness rate and quality of life. The article depicts many issues, arising within the family of an incapacitated child.Key words: disablement, children, prevalence, structure, causes, health indices.

  8. Longitudinal Associations between Clique Membership Status and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems during Late Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Miranda; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans M.; Vitaro, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal link between clique membership status and the development of psychopathology in 451 children followed annually from age 9 to 12 years. Classroom clique membership status was identified through social network analysis, and internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed using peer nominations. Controlling…

  9. Peer Problems Mediate the Relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder and Behavioral Problems in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Bos, Klaus; Jascenoka, Julia; Jekauc, Darko; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insights into the relationship between developmental coordination disorder, peer problems, and behavioral problems in school-aged children where both internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems were considered. We assumed that the relationship between developmental coordination disorder and…

  10. Child personality and parental behavior as moderators of problem behavior: variable- and person-centered approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Karla G; Mervielde, Ivan; Braet, Caroline; Bosmans, Guy

    2004-11-01

    Parenting x Child Personality interactions in predicting child externalizing and internalizing behavior were investigated in a variable-centered study and a person-centered study. The variable-centered study used data from a 3-year longitudinal study of 600 children 7 to 15 years old at Time 1 and 512 children 10 to 18 years old at Time 2. Parents rated child personality (five factor model), negative control, positive parenting, and child problem behavior, whereas children rated parental behavior. Hierarchical moderated regression analyses showed significant Parenting x Child Personality (benevolence and conscientiousness) interactions, principally for externalizing behavior. The interactions were largely replicable across informants and across time. The person-centered study, which classified participants into 3 types, showed that negative parental control was more related to externalizing behavior for undercontrollers than for resilients. Negative parental control enhanced internalizing behavior for overcontrollers. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Parent-child discrepancies in the report of adolescent emotional and behavioral problems in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Ho, Suk-Yin; Lee, Pei-Chen; Wu, Chia-Kai; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-01-01

    The majority of studies on parent-child discrepancies in the assessment of adolescent emotional and behavioral problems have been conducted in Western countries. It is believed that parent-adolescent agreement would be higher in societies with a strong culture of familism. We examined whether parent-adolescent discrepancies in the rating of adolescent emotional and behavioral problems are related to parental and family factors in Taiwan. Participants included 1,421 child-parent pairs of 7th-grade students from 12 middle schools in Northern Taiwan and their parents. We calculated Pearson's correlation coefficients to assess the relationship between parental (Child Behavior Checklist, CBCL) and adolescent (Youth Self Report, YSR) report of emotional/behavioral problem syndromes. Regression models were used to assess parent-adolescent differences in relation to parental psychopathology and family factors. We found that parent-adolescent agreement was moderate (r = 0.37). Adolescents reported higher symptom scores than their parents (Mean Total Problem Score: CBCL: 20.79, YSR: 33.14). Parental psychopathology was related to higher parental ratings and better informant agreement. Parents with higher socioeconomic status (SES) tended to report lower scores for adolescent problem syndromes, resulting in higher levels of disagreement. Greater maternal care was related to higher parent-adolescent agreement. Based on our study findings, we conclude that familism values do not seem to improve parent-child agreement in the assessment of adolescent problem syndromes. The finding that higher SES was related to increased discrepancies speaks to the need to explore the culture-specific mechanisms giving rise to informant discrepancies.

  12. Adolescent risk-taking: an analysis of problem behaviors in problem children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, B; Siegel, A W; Cousins, J H; Rubovits, D S

    1993-04-01

    In this study adolescent risk-taking is explored from several theoretical positions: Jessor's problem-behavior perspective, risk-taking as normal and adaptive, adolescent egocentrism, and a decision-making perspective. Adolescents (ages 11-17) referred to mental health clinics (N = 80) completed a risk involvement and perception questionnaire, the Jesness Personality Inventory, and a measure of adolescent egocentrism. For purposes of concurrent validity, a diagnosis was completed by the subject's clinic therapist. As predicted, both Benefit and Risk Perception were significantly correlated with Involvement (in opposite directions), supportive of a decision-making perspective. A configuration of social maladjustment personality correlates in conjunction with a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder showed a strong, positive correlation with Involvement, supporting a problem-behavior perspective. Egocentrism measures were not significantly related to Risk Involvement or Risk and Benefit Perceptions. Adolescent risk-taking is argued to be a multidimensional phenomenon involving personality correlates and cognitive aspects of decision-making.

  13. Family Functioning and Child Behavioral Problems in Households Affected by HIV and AIDS in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Tonya R; Kidman, Rachel; Nice, Johanna; Ikamari, Lawrence

    2015-08-01

    HIV places acute stressors on affected children and families; especially in resource limited contexts like sub-Saharan Africa. Despite their importance, the epidemic's potential consequences for family dynamics and children's psychological health are understudied. Using a population-based sample of 2,487 caregivers and 3,423 children aged 8-14 years from the Central Province of Kenya, analyses were conducted to examine whether parental illness and loss were associated with family functioning and children's externalizing behaviors. After controlling for demographics, a significant relationship between parental illness and externalizing behaviors was found among children of both genders. Orphan status was associated with behavioral problems among only girls. Regardless of gender, children experiencing both parental loss and illness fared the worst. Family functioning measured from the perspective of both caregivers and children also had an independent and important relationship with behavioral problems. Findings suggest that psychological and behavioral health needs may be elevated in households coping with serious illness and reiterate the importance of a family-centered approach for HIV-affected children.

  14. Functional Behavioral Assessment for a Boy with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Problem Behavior: A Case Study from Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Zoe; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the application of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) to design a positive behavior intervention (PBI) for a boy with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who encounters serious difficulties at the mainstream school because of behavioral problems and physical limitations. After the definition of problem behavior and its…

  15. Increased Parent Reinforcement of Spontaneous Requests in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Effects on Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Rachel E.; Wehby, Joseph H.; King, Susannah M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of response classes in individuals with developmental disabilities (DD) and problem behavior have shown that mild problem behavior, precursor behavior, and mands or requests can occur as functionally equivalent to severe problem behavior in some individuals. Furthermore, participants in some studies chose to use functionally…

  16. Effects of Continuous and Intermittent Reinforcement for Problem Behavior during Functional Communication Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsdell, April S.; Iwata, Brian A.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Kahng, Sung Woo

    2000-01-01

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of functional communication training (FCT) in reducing problem behavior of 5 individuals with severe mental retardation and in strengthening alternative behavior. Four participants shifted response allocation from problem to alternative behavior as the schedule of reinforcement of problem behavior became more…

  17. Does socioeconomic status matter? A meta-analysis on parent training effectiveness for disruptive child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijten, Patty; Raaijmakers, Maartje A J; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Matthys, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Disadvantaged family socioeconomic status (SES) is often assumed to diminish parent training program effectiveness. In examining effects of SES, influences of initial problem severity have been largely ignored. In the present meta-analysis, we examined (a) whether there is a differential influence of SES on parent training effectiveness at immediate posttreatment and at 1-year follow-up-controlling for levels of initial problem severity--and (b) whether SES interacts with initial problem severity in its effect on program effectiveness. Seventy-five studies on parent training program effectiveness to reduce disruptive child behavior were included. Separate analyses were conducted for immediate posttreatment and approximately 1-year follow-up assessments. Immediately posttreatment, disadvantaged samples benefited less from parent training, but only when they had low levels of initial problem severity. At follow-up, disadvantaged samples benefited less from parent training regardless of initial problem severity. Initial problem severity was a strong predictor of effect sizes both immediately posttreatment and at follow-up. Parent training programs are equally effective for disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged families immediately posttreatment, at least when initial problems are severe. Maintenance of treatment gain, however, seems harder for disadvantaged families, suggesting that more sustained family support may be needed.

  18. Moral Reasoning, Classroom Behavior, and Sociometric Status among Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, George G.; Rys, Gail S.

    1994-01-01

    Investigated relations among moral reasoning, classroom behavior, and sociometric status. Among boys, hedonistic moral reasoning was associated with lack of social competencies, acting-out behavior, and low social preference. Moral reasoning influenced sociometric status indirectly through social behavior, and explained variance in sociometric…

  19. Sociodemographic disparities and behavioral factors in clinical oral health status during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Lisa H; Gregorich, Steven E; Armitage, Gary C; Gonzalez-Vargas, Judy; Adams, Sally H

    2014-04-01

    Although oral health (OH) problems are common during pregnancy, little is known about individual characteristics or behaviors relating to clinically assessed OH during pregnancy. This cross-sectional study describes the clinical OH status of a sample of pregnant women, examines relationships between sociodemographic factors and OH, behavioral factors and OH, and the influence of behavior on the relationships between sociodemographic clusters and OH. Baseline data were utilized from a pilot intervention study promoting OH during pregnancy. Participants (n = 99), recruited from CenteringPregnancy(®) prenatal care groups completed questionnaires addressing race/ethnicity, income, education, dental insurance, oral hygiene practices, and dental care utilization; and clinical examinations for periodontal probing depths (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), plaque assessment, and visual detection of untreated decay. Chi-squares and one-way anovas with Tukey's studentized range test of planned comparisons were conducted to examine bivariable relationships between both sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics to OH status. Multivariable logistic regression analyses tested whether the effects of sociodemographic variables on OH status might be mediated by behaviors, including self-reported oral hygiene and recent dental visits. Forty-five percent of the sample had untreated decay and the mean percentage of sites with BOP = 18%. Bivariable analyses of sociodemographic factors indicated that compared with Whites, Hispanic women had greater % of sites with: BOP, PD ≥5 mm plus BOP, and Plaque Index (PI) scores of ≥2, all P = 0.05; and greater untreated decay (Chi-square 13.3, P sociodemographic disparities in clinical OH during pregnancy, the importance of dental care, and provides useful findings for tailoring interventions for expectant mothers and their infants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Emotional arousal in cocaine exposed toddlers: prediction of behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M; Fahy, Thomas; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) may be associated with alterations in children's developing emotional arousal and regulation systems. We examined emotional responses to a frustrating task and subsequent behavior problems in 225 2 1/2 year olds (129 Prenatally Cocaine and Other Drug Exposed [PCE], 30 Non Cocaine but other drug Exposed [NCE], 66 Non Drug Exposed [NDE]). Children's behaviors in a frustrating toy wait task at age 2 1/2 were coded for emotional arousal and regulation behaviors. Findings indicated a trend for PCE toddlers to show greater agitated emotional arousal than NCE and NDE toddlers. Further, PCE boys made more references to their caregivers in the task than NDE boys. Higher agitated arousal at age 2 1/2 years was related to greater decreases in externalizing behaviors through age 5 1/2 years. Findings suggest a link between cocaine exposure and emotional arousal and regulation and highlight the need to understand complex relations between emotion and risk for later psychopathology in exposed youth.

  1. Mothers’ Night Work and Children’s Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Crosby, Danielle; Su, Jessica Houston

    2013-01-01

    Many mothers work in jobs with nonstandard schedules (i.e., schedules that involve work outside of the traditional 9–5, Monday through Friday schedule); this is particularly true for economically disadvantaged mothers. The present paper uses longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (n = 2,367 mothers of children ages 3–5) to examine the associations between maternal nonstandard work and children’s behavior problems, with a particular focus on mothers’ night shift work. We employ three analytic strategies that take various approaches to adjusting for observed and unobserved selection factors; these approaches provide an upper and lower bound on the true relationship between night shift work and children’s behavior. Taken together, the results provide suggestive evidence for modest associations between exposure to maternal night shift work and higher levels of aggressive and anxious/depressed behavior in children compared to mothers who are not working, those whose mothers work other types of nonstandard shifts, and, for aggressive behavior, those whose mothers work standard shifts. PMID:23294148

  2. Behavioral problems and emotional stress in children with bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Bacci, Adriana do Vale; Cardoso, Carmen Lúcia Cardoso; Díaz-Serrano, Kranya Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Bruxism has a multifactorial etiology, and psychosocial factors have been considered to increase the risk of occurrence of this parafunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior profile of a group of children diagnosed with bruxism. Eighty 7-11-year-old children of both genders (mean age 8.8 years) first recruited as eligible participants. Twenty-nine children (18 males and 11 females) whose parents/guardians reported to present frequent episodes of tooth grinding/clenching while awake or during sleep (at least 3 nights a week) in the previous 3 months were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis of bruxism was established based on the parents/guardians' report about the children's behavior, habits and possible discomforts in the components of the stomatognathic system allied to the presence of signs and symptoms such as pain on the masticatory muscles, masseter muscle hypertrophy, wear facets, fractures of restorations, dental impressions on the cheek mucosa and tongue. As part of the psychological evaluation, the Rutter's Child Behavior Scale-A2 was applied to the parents/caregivers (one for each child) and the Child Stress Scale was applied to the children. Data were analyzed descriptively based on the frequency of each studied variable. Twenty-four (82.76%) children needed psychological or psychiatric intervention; 17 of them presented neurotic disorders and 7 children presented antisocial disorders. Six (20.70%) children presented significant physical and psychological manifestations of stress. The findings of the present study suggest that behavioral problems and potential emotional problems can be risk factors to bruxism in children.

  3. Parenting Style and Child Behavior Problems: A Longitudinal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Margaret H.

    1993-01-01

    Data from the National Survey of Children were used to study the relationships between children's perceptions of parental support and control and measures of self-esteem and behavior problems over time. Data were collected in 1976 , when the children were aged 7-11; 1981, when the children were in their early to mid teens (age 12 to 16); and 1987, when the children were in their late teens and early 20s (age 17 to 22). Parenting measures , based on children's reports, were developed for each ...

  4. [Analysis of sick leaves due to mental and behavioral problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Gonzalo H; Alvarado, Sergio O; Kaufman, Jay S

    2012-02-01

    In Chile, the number of sick leaves due to mental health problems has systematically increased in recent years. To perform an analysis of sick leaves due to mental problems managed by the Fondo Nacional de Salud (FONASA) during 2008. Analysis of all sick leaves awarded during 2008 for mental or behavioral problems, that were managed at FONASA. A negative binomial regression, was performed to predict the effects of different variables on the total duration of sick leaves. A total of 546,477 sick leaves were awarded to 198,752 individuals (2.27 per subject). The mean duration of each leave was 15.6 days. Summing all leaves, the lapse off work was 98 ± 96 days (median 65 days). Women had longer leaves than men. The type of medical leave, occupation, working for private or public institutions, economic activity and diagnosis were significantly associated with duration of time off work. Sick leaves for mental problems are prolonged and related to gender and socioeconomic variables.

  5. Psychological problems and psychosocial predictors of cigarette smoking behavior among undergraduate students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Heidhy, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smokers have their own motivation and justification to smoke. For example, smoking reduces their stress or enhances their pleasure. This study aimed to identify the (a) prevalence of cigarette smokers among undergraduates in Malaysia, (b) gender differences in nicotine dependence among current smokers, (c) differences in psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) based on the status of smoking cigarettes (current, former and non-smokers) and (d) extent to which precipitating factors (tension reduction, addiction, automatism, handling, social interaction, pleasure, and stimulation) predict the smoking behavior among current smokers. In this study 780 undergraduate students participated from a private university in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor state in Malaysia. The Depression, Stress and Anxiety Scale, Modified Reason for Smoking Scale and Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test were used to measure psychological problems, predictors of smoking behavior and nicotine dependency among current smokers. The results showed that 14.7%(n=106) of the students were smokers. Current smokers exhibited more psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) compared to former and non-smokers. Addiction, tension reduction, pleasure and automatism were predictors of smoking behavior among the current smoking students. Step wise regression analysis showed that smoking behavior was highly predicted by nicotine dependency or addiction. Smoking students were motivated to smoke cigarettes as they believed that it reduced their tension and enhance pleasure. Hence, there is a need for health promotion and anti-tobacco prevention as cigarette smokers experience more psychological problems. Nicotine dependency or addition was one of the major causes for smoking behavior among the student population in Malaysia.

  6. Morbidity patterns, nutritional status, and healthcare-seeking behavior of female garment workers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Golam; Akter, Monjura; Sharafat, Shadab Ibn; Mahmuda, Ayesha

    2014-01-01

    The ready-made garment (RMG) sector is the main pillar of Bangladesh's economy, and female garment workers are the key workers in this sector. Unfortunately, they are paid very little; in fact, their pay is among the lowest anywhere in the world. This situation makes the workers very vulnerable to different kinds of health-related problems, including malnutrition, and it also results in their having poor healthcare-seeking behavior. So, the aim of this study was to determine their nutritional status, their various kinds of health-related problems, and their healthcare-seeking behavior. This was a cross-sectional study in which purposive sampling was done. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire, and the participants' heights and weights were measured according the guidelines provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). All data were computed and analyzed using SPSS version 16.01 software. Chi squared values were calculated to analyze the data and the prevalence rate ratio (PRR) was measured to determine the association of body mass index (BMI) with health problems. More than half of the participants (53.67%) had various health problems, and almost half of them (43.33%) were underweight (BMI ≤ 18.5 kg/m(2)). Among those who were underweight, about 96% of them had one or more health-related problems in the last three months (P-value workers who had one or more health-related problems, more than 22% of them did not go to see a doctor during their illnesses. Only about 12% of them went to qualified practitioners, and, surprisingly, 37% of those completed the prescribed treatment. The study showed that there is high morbidity among female garment workers who have low BMI values and poor healthcare-seeking behavior, factors that should be addressed by their employers and policy makers.

  7. Concurrent Reinforcement Schedules for Problem Behavior and Appropriate Behavior: Experimental Applications of the Matching Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Borrero, John C.; Bourret, Jason C.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated how children who exhibited functionally equivalent problem and appropriate behavior allocate responding to experimentally arranged reinforcer rates. Relative reinforcer rates were arranged on concurrent variable-interval schedules and effects on relative response rates were interpreted using the generalized matching equation.…

  8. Beyond Behavioral Modification: Benefits of Socio-Emotional/Self-Regulation Training for Preschoolers with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A.; Hart, Katie

    2016-01-01

    The current study evaluated the initial efficacy of three intervention programs aimed at improving school readiness in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 45 preschool children (76% boys; M[subscript age] = 5.16 years; 84% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically…

  9. Young Girls' and Caretakers' Reports of Problem Behavior: Comprehension and Concordance across Age, Race, and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Lee Ann; Simpson, Sally S.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses a research instrument developed and utilized by the Pittsburgh Girls Study that asked young girls (ages 7 and 8) and their caretakers to report on the girls' involvement in a variety of problem behaviors. In this article, the authors evaluate whether comprehension, prevalence, and caretaker-child concordance of problem…

  10. Is Fear to Intervene with Problem Gamblers Related to Interveners' Gender and Status? A Study with VLT Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, Alexander; Zumwald, Coralie

    2017-03-01

    We assess how video lottery terminal (VLT) operators' self-perceive their ability to recognize a problem gambler, to what extent they are approached by problem gamblers seeking for assistance, how many detections and interventions they report, and the reasons they give for not intervening with clients who show signs of problem gambling. We also examine how these variables are related to the operators' gender and status in the establishment. 177 VLT operators anonymously completed a structured questionnaire at the beginning of a responsible gambling training class held in different French-speaking Swiss towns. The operators felt confident in their ability to detect problem gambling behaviors, were rarely approached by problem gamblers seeking assistance, and reported fewer interventions compared to the number of detections. This reluctance to intervene was mainly attributed to the fear of potential negative reactions from the client. Female staff were the most reluctant to intervene and the most fearful of potential negative reactions from the client. Responsible gambling training programs should include coping strategies for dealing with potential negative reactions from clients. Our findings suggest that staff gender and status are two individual characteristics that should be taken into account when planning responsible gambling trainings.

  11. Longitudinal effects of adaptability on behavior problems and maternal depression in families of adolescents with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jason K; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S

    2011-08-01

    Research on families of individuals with autism has tended to focus on child-driven effects utilizing models of stress and coping. The current study used a family systems perspective to examine whether family level adaptability promoted beneficial outcomes for mothers and their adolescents with autism over time. Participants were 149 families of children diagnosed with autism who were between the ages of 10 and 22 years during the 3-year period examined. Mothers reported on family adaptability, the mother-child relationship, their own depressive symptoms, and the behavior problems of their children at Wave 1, and these factors were used to predict maternal depression and child behavior problems 3 years later. Family level adaptability predicted change in both maternal depression and child behavior problems over the study period, above and beyond the contribution of the dyadic mother-child relationship. These associations did not appear to depend upon the intellectual disability status of the individual with autism. Implications for autism, parent mental health, family systems theory, and intervention with this population are discussed.

  12. Association of problem behavior with sleep problems and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Katsuyoshi; Yagi, Takakazu; Maeda, Aya; Nagayama, Kunihiro; Uehara, Sawako; Saito-Sakoguchi, Yoko; Kanematsu, Kyoko; Miyawaki, Shouichi

    2014-02-01

    There are few large-scale epidemiologic studies examining the associations between sleep problems, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, lifestyle and food habits and problem behaviors (PB) in adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations among these factors in Japanese adolescents. A cross-sectional survey of 1840 junior high school students was carried out using questionnaires. The subjects were classified into PB or normal behavior (NB) groups using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC). The scores of the sleep-related factors, sleep bruxism, lifestyle and food habits, and GERD symptoms were compared. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors related to PB. Mean subject age was 13.3 ± 1.8 years. The PB group had significantly longer sleep latency and higher GERD symptom score (P skip breakfast, and have <30 min of conversation among family at dinner time. The PB group had significantly higher frequencies of sleep bruxism, difficulty falling asleep within 30 min, nightmares, feeling of low sleep quality, daytime somnolence, and daytime lack of motivation. Feelings of low sleep quality had the strongest association with PB, with an adjusted odds ratio of 12.88 (95% confidence interval: 8.99-18.46). PB in adolescents are associated with sleep problems, including sleep bruxism, as well as lifestyle and food habits and GERD symptoms. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  13. Dissociative disorders in children: behavioral profiles and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, F W

    1993-01-01

    Transient dissociative episodes are a common and normative phenomenon during childhood that generally decrease during adolescence to relatively low levels in adults. Retrospective clinical research has firmly established a connection between childhood trauma and the development of dissociative disorders in adults. A growing number of clinicians are now identifying dissociative symptoms in abused children, and there is increasing evidence that dissociative disorders represent a significant and hitherto unrecognized form of psychopathology in traumatized children. Pathological dissociation is a complex psychobiological process that results in a failure to integrate information into the normal stream of consciousness. It produces a range of symptoms and behaviors including: (a) amnesias; (b) disturbances in sense of self; (c) trance-like states; (d) rapid shifts in mood and behavior; (e) perplexing shifts in access to knowledge, memory, and skills; (f) auditory and visual hallucinations; and (g) vivid imaginary companionship in children and adolescents. Many of these symptoms and behaviors are misdiagnosed as attention, learning or conduct problems, or even psychoses. Early identification and therapeutic intervention appear to be particularly efficacious in children in contrast to adults, although systematic studies of treatment and outcome are presently lacking.

  14. Mental health in migrant schoolchildren in Italy: teacher-reported behavior and emotional problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margari L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lucia Margari,1 Floriana Pinto,1 Maria Elena Lafortezza,1 Paola Alessandra Lecce,1 Francesco Craig,1 Ignazio Grattagliano,2 Giuseppina Zagaria,1 Francesco Margari31Unit of Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of "Aldo Moro," Bari, Italy; 2Department of Criminology, University of "Aldo Moro," Bari, Italy; 3Unit of Psychiatry, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of "Aldo Moro," Bari, ItalyAbstract: The migration process is a cause of physical and social stressors that may lead to mental health problems, particularly in children. In Italy, there are few studies about migrant children's mental health; thus, the aim of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of emotional and behavioral problems in migrant schoolchildren to those of native Italian children. The research involved migrant (first- and second-generation and native schoolchildren attending kindergarten, primary, and secondary school. A questionnaire was administered to parents to collect information about the sociodemographic characteristics of the children. All teachers filled in the Teacher's Report Form for migrant and native children. The findings show that teachers detect academic and adaptive problems more easily in migrant schoolchildren, but they are probably less aware of the children's psychological problems. The observations made in this study provide a starting point in understanding the psychological status and main problems noted among migrant children.Keywords: migrant children, mental health, teacher report, adaptive troubles, emotional problems

  15. Relationships between child behavior problems and family functioning: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, N.M.C. van; Janssens, J.M.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research examining the relationship between family functioning and child behavior problems. Focuses on parenting styles, intergenerational relationships, family structure, and family interaction patterns. Finds that child behavior problems are related to a lack of parental support, an

  16. A study of cognitive development and behavior problems in mentally retarded children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hashino, K; Iida, J; Iwasaka, H; Ito, N; Sakiyama, S; Kitera, K; Matsumoto, H; Tsujimoto, H; Ikawa, G; Kishimoto, T

    1997-01-01

    ...), and other developmental scales. Behavior problems were also examined. The present study reports on the utility of Ohta's stage in non-autistic children, and the relationship between cognitive development level and behavior problems in mentally retarded children...

  17. Maternal and paternal disciplinary styles: relations with preschoolers' playground behavioral orientations and peer status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, C H; DeWolf, D M; Wozniak, P; Burts, D C

    1992-08-01

    To explore relations among parents' self-reported disciplinary styles, preschoolers' playground behavioral orientations, and peer status, 106 mothers and fathers of preschool-age children (age range = 40-71 months) participated in home disciplinary style interviews. Observations of their children's playground behavior in preschool settings and measures of sociometric status were also obtained. Results indicated that children of more inductive mothers and fathers (i.e., less power assertive) exhibited fewer disruptive playground behaviors. In addition, daughters and older preschoolers of inductive mothers exhibited more prosocial behavior. Children of inductive mothers were also more preferred by peers. Few significant relations were found between paternal discipline and child behavior/peer status. Age-related patterns of behavior also indicated that older preschoolers who engaged in more prosocial and less antisocial and disruptive playground behavior were more preferred by peers. In addition, child behaviors were found to mediate maternal discipline and peer status.

  18. Maternal Attachment Status, Mother-Child Emotion Talk, Emotion Understanding, and Child Conduct Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad M. Farrant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conduct problems that emerge in childhood often persist into adolescence and are associated with a range of negative outcomes. It is therefore important to identify the factors that predict conduct problems in early childhood. The present study investigated the relations among maternal attachment status, mother-child emotion talk, child emotion understanding, and conduct problems in a sample of 92 (46 males typically developing children (M age = 61.3 months, SD = 8.3 months. The results support a model in which maternal attachment status predicts the level of appropriate/responsive mother-child emotion talk, which predicts child emotion understanding, which in turn negatively predicts child conduct problems. These findings further underline the developmental role of mother-child emotion talk as well as the importance of involving parents in programs designed to increase children’s emotion understanding and/or decrease the incidence of conduct problems.

  19. Agreement between parent and teacher reports on behavioral problems among chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shiying; Liu, Xianchen; Roosa, Mark W

    2004-12-01

    Research has consistently shown low to moderate correlations between parent and teacher reports on children's behavioral problems in Western samples. Little is known about the agreement between parent and teacher reports on behavioral problems among Chinese children. The authors examined the agreement on behavioral and emotional problems in a community sample of 2836 Chinese children aged 6 to 11 years from Mainland China. Children's behavioral problems were assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Teacher Report Form (TRF). Consistent with most previous studies in Western samples, our results indicated that parent-teacher agreement was low to moderate for attention, externalizing, and internalizing problems. Parent-teacher agreement was higher for attention and externalizing problems than for internalizing problems and decreased with increased behavioral problems. Child's gender, age, and academic performance and father's age were correlated with parent-teacher agreement on ratings of behavioral problems.

  20. Utilizing Social Stories to Increase Prosocial Behavior and Reduce Problem Behavior in Young Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Wright

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effects of a Social Story intervention on the behavior rates of 4 young children with autism using a multiple-baseline across participants design. The results of this paper indicate that the Social Story was modestly effective in increasing prosocial behavior rates in 3 of the 4 participants, though none of the participants reached the prosocial behavior rates of age and gender-matched peers. The problem behaviors of the participants modestly decreased with the intervention. Maintenance of skills over a 1-month period was demonstrated for all of the participants. The variable and inconsistent results of the research add to the current literature base in support of the use of Social Stories for some children with autism.

  1. The relationships between problem characteristics, achievement-related behaviors, and academic achievement in problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, Nachamma; Rotgans, Jerome I; Schmidt, Henk G

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem characteristics were: (1) problem clarity, (2) problem familiarity, (3) the extent to which the problem stimulated group discussion, (4) self-study, and (5) identification of learning goals. The results showed that problem clarity led to more group discussion, identification of learning goals, and self-study than problem familiarity. On the other hand, problem familiarity had a stronger and direct impact on academic achievement.

  2. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Play Therapy on Externalizing Behavior Problems Among Street and Working Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Ghodousi

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: It seems that one of the effective ways to lessen externalizing behavior problems among street and working children is cognitive-behavioral play therapy; therefore, coaches and teachers of such children are recommended to make use of this method to lower their behavioral problems

  3. An Investigation of the Impact of Function of Problem Behavior on Effectiveness of the Behavior Education Program (BEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Leanne S.; O'Neill, Robert E.; MacLeod, K. Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The Behavior Education Program (BEP) is a check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at-risk for engaging in more severe problem behavior. Previous research with middle and elementary school students found that the BEP was more effective with students who had adult attention maintained problem behavior. The purposes of this…

  4. Behavioral health risks in perinatally HIV-exposed youth: co-occurrence of sexual and drug use behavior, mental health problems, and nonadherence to antiretroviral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellins, Claude A; Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Malee, Kathleen; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Patton, Doyle; Smith, Renee; Usitalo, Ann; Allison, Susannah M; Van Dyke, Russell; Seage, George R

    2011-07-01

    In a sample of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) and perinatally HIV-exposed, uninfected (PHEU) adolescents, we examined the co-occurrence of behavioral health risks including mental health problems, onset of sexual and drug use behaviors, and (in PHIV+ youth) nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Participants, recruited from 2007 to 2010, included 349 youth, ages 10-16 years, enrolled in a cohort study examining the impact of HIV infection and ART. Measures of the above behavioral health risks were administered to participants and primary caregivers. Nearly half the participants met study criteria for at least one behavioral health risk, most frequently, mental health problems (28%), with the onset of sexual activity and substance use each reported by an average of 16%. Among the sexually active, 65% of PHIV+ and 50% of PHEU youth reported unprotected sex. For PHIV +youth, 34% reported recent ART nonadherence, of whom 45% had detectable HIV RNA levels. Between 16% (PHIV+) and 11% (PHEU) of youth reported at least two behavioral health risks. Older age, but not HIV status, was associated with having two or more behavioral health risks versus none. Among PHIV+ youth, living with a birth mother (versus other caregivers) and detectable viral load were associated with co-occurrence of behavioral health risks. In conclusion, this study suggests that for both PHIV+ and PHEU youth, there are multiple behavioral health risks, particularly mental health problems, which should be targeted by service systems that can integrate prevention and treatment efforts.

  5. Descriptive Analysis of Epileptic Seizures and Problem Behavior in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Celeste; Yoder, Paul J.; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2006-01-01

    We studied possible relations between seizures and problem behavior in 3 adults with developmental disabilities. Each person was observed for between 56 and 92 days to record occurrences of seizures and problem behavior. Results of our descriptive analysis indicated an association between seizures and problem behavior for each participant. For…

  6. Early Attachment Organization with Both Parents and Future Behavior Problems: From Infancy to Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag

    2013-01-01

    Links between children's attachment security with mothers and fathers, assessed in Strange Situation with each parent at 15 months ("N" = 101), and their future behavior problems were examined. Mothers and fathers rated children's behavior problems, and children reported their own behavior problems at age 8 ("N" = 86). Teachers…

  7. Behavior Problems and Placement Change in a National Child Welfare Sample: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A.; James, Sigrid; Monn, Amy R.; Raghavan, Ramesh; Wells, Rebecca S.; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: There is ongoing debate regarding the impact of youth behavior problems on placement change in child welfare compared to the impact of placement change on behavior problems. Existing studies provide support for both perspectives. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the relations of behavior problems and placement…

  8. The relationships between problem characteristics, achievement-related behaviors, and academic achievement in problem-based learning

    OpenAIRE

    Sockalingam, Nachamma; Rotgans, Jerome; Schmidt, Henk

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem characteristics were: (1) problem clarity, (2) problem familiarity, (3) the extent to which the problem stimulated group discussion, (4) self-study, and (5) identification of learning goals. The results sh...

  9. A meta-analysis on cognitive distortions and externalizing problem behavior : associations, moderators, and treatment effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, P.; Overbeek, G.; Brugman, D.; Gibbs, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive distortions are an important focus in many investigations and treatments of externalizing problem behavior, such as antisocial, delinquent, and aggressive behavior. Yet the overall strength of the association between cognitive distortions and externalizing behavior is unknown. Furthermore,

  10. Problems in the Evaluation of Oxygen Status in Extremely Low Birth Weight Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Perestoronina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The review summarizes data on a problem with the evaluation of oxygen transport in extremely low birth weight neonates. In particular, it discusses problems with the safety and reliability of methods to monitor the parameters of the body’s oxygen status, with the diagnostic value of some widely available estimates of the degree of respiratory system injury, and with the possibility of their use to predict the duration of ventilatory support and the development of complications and a fatal outcome. Key words: premature infants, extremely low birth weight, respiratory therapy, oxygen status, oxygen gradients.

  11. Externalizing problems and problematic sexual behaviors: same etiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Mireille; Bigras, Marc; Pauzé, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The study sought to determine whether maltreatment subtypes, family sexuality, and personal characteristics predicted and distinguished child problematic sexual behaviors (PSB) and externalizing problems (EP). Participants were families of 188 children, 6-11 years old, referred by child welfare services in four Quebec districts. Caregivers completed interviews and questionnaires. Results suggested that family environment and maltreatment subtypes had partially different impacts on PSB and EP. When EP and gender were controlled, younger children in a sexualized family environment and those verbally victimized were more likely to exhibit PSB. When PSB and gender were controlled, verbal abuse and neglect emerged as predictors of EP. Potential implications for child PSB research and interventions are discussed. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Teacher Behavior and Peer Liking and Disliking: The Teacher as a Social Referent for Peer Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Marloes M. H. G.; Mainhard, Tim; Oudman, Sophie; Boor-Klip, Henrike J.; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    According to social referencing theory, cues peers take from positive and negative teacher behavior toward a student affect the student's peer liking and disliking status. The present study was the first to test the hypothesized mediation model connecting teacher behavior with peer liking and disliking status, via peer perceptions of teacher…

  13. Stress, active coping, and problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Zimmerman, Marc A; Xue, Yange; Bauermeister, Jose A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Wang, Zhenhong; Hou, Yubo

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the stress and coping mechanisms on problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents, which might be quite different from their counterparts in Western cultures. We examined risk process of stress for internalizing outcomes (i.e., psychological distress, self-acceptance) and externalizing outcomes (i.e., substance use, delinquency, violent behavior) among Chinese adolescents. We also examined John Henryism Active Coping as a protective factor in a test of resilience from the negative effects of stress. A cross-sectional survey using self-reported questionnaires was conducted in 2 urban cities in China: Beijing and Xian. Participants included 1,356 students in Grades 7 to 12 (48% male, 52% female). Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test the conceptual model. The modifying (protective) effects of John Henryism were tested in multiple-group analysis. After controlling for demographics, we found that stress was associated with decreased self-acceptance and increased psychological distress among adolescents. Higher degree of psychological distress was then associated with increased delinquent behaviors and substance use. The results also indicated that individuals who scored higher in John Henryism reported more substance use as a result of psychological distress. Overall, our results support previous research with Western samples. Although John Henryism did not serve as a protective factor between stress and its negative outcomes, the findings underscore the relevance of addressing stress and possible coping strategies among Chinese adolescents. Further research that refines the active coping tailored for Chinese adolescents is necessary to more precisely test its protective effects.

  14. Teacher-Classified Peer Social Status: Preliminary Validation and Associations with Behavior Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Brendan F.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; King, Sara; Thurston, Catherine; McNutt, Lisa; Terrio, Branka

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated whether teacher ratings may be a valid alternative measure of social status in elementary school children, and whether teacher social status ratings are distinct from their disruptive behavior ratings. Participants were 1,596 elementary school children in seven schools in eastern Canada. Teacher ratings of social status and…

  15. Peer Status in Emerging Adulthood: Associations of Popularity and Preference with Social Roles and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansu, Tessa A. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2012-01-01

    Although peer status has been studied extensively in childhood and adolescence, little is known about social status in peer groups of emerging adults. The current study filled this gap by testing whether preference and popularity are distinct dimensions of peer status and uniquely associated with social behavior in emerging adulthood. Participants…

  16. Metaphysics, science and the asphaltene phase behavior problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockhart, T.P. [Eniricerche SpA, Milanese (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    Spontaneous phase separation and deposition of the asphaltenic component of crude oils is the source of costly problems in the petroleum industry. Over the past several decades so-called {open_quotes}colloid stabilization{close_quotes} model has dominated attempts to account for the phase behavior of the asphaltene fraction of the crude oil. We will argue that this model is not {open_quotes}scientific{close_quotes} in the sense that is has been applied only for the post-hoc rationalization of experimental results; absent have been serious attempts to experimentally test specific predictions deduced from the model. A critical examination of the colloid stabilization model brings to light several fundamental shortcomings. An alternative thermodynamic, or {open_quotes}solvation{close_quotes} model is shown to make predictions in far better agreement with experiment, and has been the key to developing an analytical model that accurately predicts the conditions under which crude oils become unstable to asphaltene deposition. This example will be used to argue that the defining elements of (good) scientific research - the formulation of explicit hypotheses of high predictive content and their critical evaluation, above all by experimental attempts at falsification - are also effective, indeed necessary, for analyzing the complex problems offered by the {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} world and for achieving technological advancement.

  17. Problem Internet Overuse Behaviors in College Students: Readiness-to-Change and Receptivity to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; Li, Wen; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study explores college students' readiness-to-change and receptivity to treatment for problem Internet overuse behaviors. Focus groups were conducted with 27 college students who self-identified as Internet over-users, and had experienced biopsychosocial problems related to Internet overuse. Participants completed standardized questionnaires assessing their Internet use and sociodemographic forms. Focus groups explored readiness to change problem Internet overuse behaviors and receptivity to treatment. Similar to college students with other addictive behaviors, students with problem Internet overuse fall along a continuum vis-à-vis readiness-to-change their behaviors. Over half of the participants were receptive to treatment for their problem Internet overuse behaviors.

  18. Emotion understanding, parent mental state language, and behavior problems in internationally adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarullo, Amanda R; Youssef, Adriana; Frenn, Kristin A; Wiik, Kristen; Garvin, Melissa C; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-05-01

    Internationally adopted postinstitutionalized (PI) children are at risk for lower levels of emotion understanding. This study examined how postadoption parenting influences emotion understanding and whether lower levels of emotion understanding are associated with behavior problems. Emotion understanding and parent mental state language were assessed in 3-year-old internationally adopted PI children (N = 25), and comparison groups of children internationally adopted from foster care (N = 25) and nonadopted (NA) children (N = 36). At 5.5-year follow-up, PI children had lower levels of emotion understanding than NA children, a group difference not explained by language. In the total sample, parent mental state language at age 3 years predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding after controlling for child language ability. The association of parent mental state language and 5.5-year emotion understanding was moderated by adoption status, such that parent mental state language predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding for the internationally adopted children, but not for the NA children. While postadoption experience does not erase negative effects of early deprivation on emotion understanding, results suggest that parents can promote emotion understanding development through mental state talk. At 5.5 years, PI children had more internalizing and externalizing problems than NA children, and these behavioral problems related to lower levels of emotion understanding.

  19. Canine behavioral problems and their effect on relinquishment of the Jindo dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Mee; Kim, Sun-A; Lee, Sang-Mok; Choi, Yoon-Ju; Kim, Byung-Joo; Shin, Nam-Shik

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate behavior problems of the Jindo dog, the native dog of Korea, based on an owner's survey and their effect on pet relinquishment. To live a better life with their own pet and prevent relinquishment, it is important to understand the innate behavior characteristics of dog breed and the potential causes of relinquishment. Information concerning various factors and demonstration of the five most common behavior problems was collected via 189 completed questionnaires. No factors significantly affected the demonstration of behavior problem. A total 151 of 189 dogs had behavior problems (79.9%) and 38 dogs did not have behavior problems (20.1%). Among 151 dogs, 139 dogs showed single behavior problem (92.1%). They were 'excessive excitability' (46.8%), 'excessive vocalization' (30.2%), 'inappropriate elimination' (17.3%), 'destructive behavior' (4.3%), and 'aggressive behavior' (1.4%), respectively. In addition, 12 dogs showed two concurrent behavior problems (7.9%) According to the results, the relinquishment of Jindo dogs was not significantly associated with canine behavior problems, which is the single greatest risk factor of relinquishment in general. The possible reasons for potential behavior problems include improper raising, lack of socialization, and insufficient dog training classes, therefore canine behavior would be improved by owner education.

  20. The Association Between Electronic Media and Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Late Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Lisa K; Canterford, Louise; Olds, Timothy; Allen, Nicholas B; Patton, George C

    2017-08-01

    There is growing concern that rising rates of electronic media use might be harmful. However, the extent to which different types of electronic media use might be associated with emotional and behavioral problems is unclear. In this study we examined associations between emotional and behavioral problems and electronic media use during late childhood, in a large community sample. Participants were 876 8- to 9-year-old children taking part in the Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study in Australia. Parents reported on their child's emotional and behavioral problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and on their child's duration of electronic media use (in hours: television, video games, general computer use). Logistic regression analyses were conducted with adjustments for age, socioeconomic status, and body mass index z score, separately for male and female participants. Boys who played more video games had significantly greater odds of scoring borderline/abnormal on conduct (odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.12) and emotional problems (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.11) for each additional hour of weekly use. This equates to 2.58-fold greater odds for a boy who plays on average 2 hours per day per week. Television viewing was associated with greater odds of hyperactivity/inattention in boys (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.07). There were no significant relationships for girls. Because of the increasing rates of electronic media use in children, these results might have important implications for child mental health. Future interventions might be more effective if they are targeted at specific types of electronic media use. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Parent psychological functioning and communication predict externalizing behavior problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Stacey P; Wade, Shari L; Cassedy, Amy; Taylor, H Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Brown, Tanya M; Kirkwood, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents sustaining traumatic brain injury (TBI) show increased prevalence of behavior problems. This study investigated the associations of parent mental health, family functioning, and parent-adolescent interaction with adolescent externalizing behavior problems in the initial months after TBI, and examined whether injury severity moderated these associations. 117 parent-adolescent dyads completed measures of family functioning, adolescent behavior, and parent mental health an average of 108 days post-TBI. Dyads also engaged in a 10-min video-recorded problem-solving activity coded for parent behavior and tone of interaction. Overall, higher ratings of effective parent communication were associated with fewer externalizing behavior problems, whereas poorer caregiver psychological functioning was associated with greater adolescent externalizing behaviors. Results failed to reveal moderating effects of TBI severity on the relationship between socio-environmental factors and behavior problems. Interventions targeting parent communication and/or improving caregiver psychological health may ameliorate potential externalizing behavior problems after adolescent TBI.

  2. Personality and Problem Behaviours as Predictors of Adolescents' Social Status: Academic Track and Gender as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubers, Mireille D.; Burk, William J.; Segers, Eliane; Kleinjan, Marloes; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent personality and problem behaviours as predictors of two types of social status: social preference and popularity. Academic track (college preparatory and vocational) and gender were expected to moderate these associations. The sample included 693 students (49.0% female; M = 15.46 years) attending classrooms in two…

  3. Reproductive health problems and health seeking behavior of female sex workers in Sabon Gari Local Government Area, Zaria, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    L O Omokanye; A G Salaudeen; A S Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Background: The sexual and reproductive health needs of sex workers have been neglected both in research and public health interventions. Among the reasons for this are the condemnation, stigma and ambiguous legal status of sex work in Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the reproductive health problems and health-seeking behavior of brothel-based female sex workers (FSW). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among brothel-based FSW in Sabon-Gari Local Gove...

  4. Developmental Trajectories of Sleep Problems from Childhood to Adolescence Both Predict and Are Predicted by Emotional and Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biyao; Isensee, Corinna; Becker, Andreas; Wong, Janice; Eastwood, Peter R.; Huang, Rae-Chi; Runions, Kevin C.; Stewart, Richard M.; Meyer, Thomas; Brüni, L. G.; Zepf, Florian D.; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence rates of sleep disorders at different stages of childhood and adolescence have been well established, little is known about the developmental course of general sleep problems. This also holds true for the bidirectional relationship between sleep problems and emotional as well as behavioral difficulties. This longitudinal study investigated the general pattern and the latent trajectory classes of general sleep problems from a large community sample aged 5–14 years. In addition, this study examined the predictive value of emotional/behavioral difficulties (i.e., anxiety/depression, attention problems, and aggressive behavior) on sleep problems latent trajectory classes, and vice-versa. Participants (N = 1993) were drawn from a birth cohort of Western Australian children born between 1989 and 1991 who were followed until 14 years of age. Sleep problems were assessed at ages 5, 8, 10, and 14, respectively, whereas anxiety/depression, attention problems, and aggressive behavior were assessed at ages 5 and 17 years. Latent growth curve modeling revealed a decline in an overall pattern of sleep problems during the observed 10-year period. Anxiety/depression was the only baseline factor that predicted the longitudinal course of sleep problems from ages 5 to 14 years, with anxious and depressed participants showing faster decreasing patterns of sleep problems over time than those without anxiety or depression. Growth mixture modeling identified two classes of sleep problem trajectories: Normal Sleepers (89.4%) and Troubled Sleepers (10.6%). Gender was randomly distributed between these groups. Childhood attention problems, aggressive behavior, and the interaction between gender and anxiety/depression were significantly predictive of membership in the group of Troubled Sleepers. Group membership in Troubled Sleepers was associated with higher probability of having attention problems and aggressive behavior in mid-adolescence. Boys and girls with

  5. Biological Risk for the Development of Problem Behavior in Adolescence: Integrating Insights from Behavioral Genetics and Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K Paige; Mann, Frank D

    2015-12-01

    Adolescence is a time of increasing engagement in a variety of problem behaviors, including substance use and delinquency. Genetic risk for problem behavior increases over adolescence, is mediated partially by individual differences in sensation seeking, and is exacerbated by involvement with deviant peers. In this article, we describe how findings from behavioral genetic research on problem behavior intersect with research from developmental neuroscience. In particular, the incentive-processing system, including the ventral striatum, responds increasingly to rewards in adolescence, particularly in peer contexts. This developmental shift may be influenced by hormonal changes at puberty. Individual differences in the structure and function of reward-responsive brain regions may be intermediary phenotypes that mediate adolescents' genetic risk for problem behavior. The study of problem behavior can be enriched by interdisciplinary research that integrates measures of brain structure and function into genetically informed studies.

  6. Behavioral medicine in China: history, current status, and future development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bo; Ji, Feng

    2014-08-01

    Behavioral medicine in China has developed quickly in the last three decades. We briefly summarized the history, the main scope and achievements, and the future development of behavioral medicine in China. We did a literature search and discussed with senior scholars in behavioral medicine in China. The concept and main scope of behavioral medicine in China have been developed largely in accordance with the international perspective. Research in behavioral medicine in China significantly contributed to the better understanding of the relationship between various health behavioral factors and psychosomatic disorders and possible mechanisms of this relationship. The following aspects will be the main areas to be further developed in behavioral medicine in China: (1) Basic theories of behavioral medicine and theoretical mechanisms of higher nervous activities in human behavior regulation. (2) Etiology, pathogenesis, and mechanisms of common diseases that are closely related to human lifestyle behaviors. (3) Assessment criteria for unhealthy and disease-related behaviors. (4) Behavioral therapy of psychosomatic disorders, and rehabilitation technologies of disability. (5) Application of major findings from research of behavioral medical science in clinical practice and in health promotion of the whole society. Behavioral medicine in China, as a multidisciplinary subject, plays a relevant role in preventing behavior-related psychosomatic diseases and in promoting health of the public.

  7. Marital Status and Problem Gambling Among Australian Older Adults: The Mediating Role of Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botterill, Emma; Gill, Peter Richard; McLaren, Suzanne; Gomez, Rapson

    2016-09-01

    Problem gambling rates in older adults have risen dramatically in recent years and require further investigation. Limited available research has suggested that social needs may motivate gambling and hence problem gambling in older adults. Un-partnered older adults may be at greater risk of problem gambling than those with a partner. The current study explored whether loneliness mediated the marital status-problem gambling relationship, and whether gender moderated the mediation model. It was hypothesised that the relationship between being un-partnered and higher levels of loneliness would be stronger for older men than older women. A community sample of Australian men (n = 92) and women (n = 91) gamblers aged from 60 to 90 years (M = 69.75, SD = 7.28) completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Problem Gambling Severity Index. The results supported the moderated mediation model, with loneliness mediating the relationship between marital status and problem gambling for older men but not for older women. It appears that felt loneliness is an important predictor of problem gambling in older adults, and that meeting the social and emotional needs of un-partnered men is important.

  8. Children's emotional and behavioral problems and their mothers' labor supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Patrick; Gaskin, Darrell J; Alexandre, Pierre K; Burke, Laura S; Younis, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    It has been documented that about 20% of children and adolescents suffer from a diagnosable mental or addictive disorder in the United States. The high prevalence of children's emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) might have a negative effect on their mothers' labor market outcomes because children with EBP require additional time for treatment. However, these children may require additional financial resources, which might promote mothers' labor supply. Previous studies have only considered chronic conditions in analyzing the impact of children's health on parental work activities. Moreover, most of these studies have not accounted for endogeneity in children's health. This article estimates the effects of children's EBP on their mothers' labor supply by family structure while accounting for endogeneity in children's health. We used the 1997 and 2002 Child Development Supplements (CDS) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). We used probit and bivariate probit models to estimate mothers' probability of employment, and tobit and instrumental variable tobit models to estimate the effects of children's EBP on their mothers' work hours. Findings show negative effects of children's EBP on their married mothers' employment and on their single mothers' work hours. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Stress, Health Risk Behaviors, and Weight Status among Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between stress, weight-related health risk behaviors (e.g., eating behaviors, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, cigarette smoking, and binge drinking), and weight status using cross-sectional data on 2-year community college students enrolled in a randomized controlled weight…

  10. Parental Satisfaction in the Adoption of Children with Learning Disorders: The Role of Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalavany, Blace A.; Glidden, Laraine M.; Ryan, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which children's behavior problems would mediate the relationship between children's learning disorders and adoption satisfaction using nationally representative data from 1,865 adoptive parents. We found that high levels of behavior problems, operationalized as internalizing and externalizing behaviors,…

  11. Trauma Focused CBT for Children with Co-Occurring Trauma and Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A.; Berliner, Lucy; Mannarino, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Childhood trauma impacts multiple domains of functioning including behavior. Traumatized children commonly have behavioral problems that therapists must effectively evaluate and manage in the context of providing trauma-focused treatment. This manuscript describes practical strategies for managing behavior problems in the context of…

  12. Randomized Trial of Treatment for Children with Sexual Behavior Problems: Ten-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Melissa Y.; Silovsky, Jane F.; Chaffin, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This study prospectively follows 135 children 5-12 years of age with sexual behavior problems from a randomized trial comparing a 12-session group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with group play therapy and follows 156 general clinic children with nonsexual behavior problems. Ten-year follow-up data on future juvenile and adult arrests and…

  13. Risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents of parents with a chronic medical condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    A wide array of risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents with chronically ill parents emerges from the literature. This study aims to identify those factors with the highest impact on internalizing problem behavior (anxious, depressed and withdrawn behavior, and somatic complaints) and

  14. Frequent nightmares in children: familial aggregation and associations with parent-reported behavioral and mood problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shirley Xin; Yu, Mandy Wai Man; Lam, Siu Ping; Zhang, Jihui; Li, Albert Martin; Lai, Kelly Yee Ching; Wing, Yun Kwok

    2011-04-01

    To conduct a systematic investigation on the prevalence, correlates, and familial aggregation of frequent nightmares in children, and to scrutinize the associations between frequent nightmares and parent-reported behavioral and mood problems in children. A cross-sectional study was conducted by collecting the data on sociodemographic, sleep, behavioral, and family-related information from a total of 6359 children (age: mean [SD]=9.2 [1.8] years; girls: 49.9%) and their reported biological parents. Community. N/A. Prevalence of frequent nightmares with a criterion of at least once per week was 5.2%. Multinomial regression analysis indicated that monthly family income, paternal and maternal nightmares, insomnia symptoms, parasomniac symptoms, and daytime consequences were significantly associated with nightmares in children. Frequent nightmares in children were significantly associated with hyper-activity (odds ratio [OR]=1.68, 95% CI 1.16-2.44), frequent temper outbursts/mood disturbance (OR=1.76, 95%CI 1.27-2.44), and poor academic performance (OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.11-2.36), after controlling for potential confounding factors. Approximately 20% of children with frequent nightmares experienced comorbid frequent insomnia. Comorbid nightmares and insomnia were associated with increased odds of hyperactivity (OR=4.13, 95% CI 2.13-8.00) and frequent temper outbursts/mood disturbance (OR=2.41, 95%CI 1.27-4.60). Frequent nightmares in children are associated with a constellation of child-, sleep-, and family-related factors, including comorbid sleep problems, such as insomnia and parasomnia, family economic status, and parental predisposition. Frequent nightmares are independently associated with emotional and behavioral problems in children.

  15. Functional Behavior Assessment in Schools: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Campbell, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment is becoming a commonly used practice in school settings. Accompanying this growth has been an increase in research on functional behavior assessment. We reviewed the extant literature on documenting indirect and direct methods of functional behavior assessment in school settings. To discern best practice guidelines…

  16. Personality Consistency and Perceived Problem-Solving Behavior and Attitudes: An Extension of Holland's Typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Used Holland's consistency theory to predict behavior and attitudes associated with successful problem solving in 210 students who completed the Vocational Preference Inventory and Problem Solving Inventory. Results confirmed that the higher the degree of personality consistency, the more students perceive problem-solving behavior and attitudes as…

  17. BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN ATTENDING PEDIATRIC OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Ahalya; Pradeep; Susan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Behavioral problems in children are one of the most common and rising problems in India. The studies of behavioral problems in children would give us data for mental health planning for children. We can identify children at risk and preventive intervention can be made at the earliest. AIMS: Aim of this study is t o ...

  18. Being poorer than the rest of the neighborhood : Relative deprivation and problem behavior of youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Jaap; van Ham, Maarten; Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Meeus, W.H.J.; Hooimeijer, Pieter

    According to the neighborhood effects hypothesis, there is a negative relation between neighborhood wealth and youth's problem behavior. It is often assumed that there are more problems in deprived neighborhoods, but there are also reports of higher rates of behavioral problems in more affluent

  19. The Relations among Cumulative Risk, Parenting, and Behavior Problems during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Hyde, Luke W.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined relations among cumulative risk, nurturant and involved parenting, and behavior problems across early childhood. Methods: Cumulative risk, parenting, and behavior problems were measured in a sample of low-income toddlers participating in a family-centered program to prevent conduct problems. Results: Path analysis…

  20. Family Structure and Its Effect on Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Valerie E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between school-related emotional and behavioral problems and variation in family structure in a sample of eighth graders. Found that among those who exhibited behavioral problems, such problems were two to four times as likely to occur in single-parent or step-families as in intact families and that gender was also a…

  1. Pre-Adoption Adversity, Maternal Stress, and Behavior Problems at School-Age in International Adoptees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noemi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Belhumeur, Celine; Jeliu, Gloria; Begin, Jean; Seguin, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Internationally adopted children present more behavior problems than non-adopted children and are overrepresented in mental health services. These problems are related to children's pre-adoption environment, but adoptive families' functioning and characteristics may also affect the development of behavior problems in adopted children. The aim of…

  2. Being Poorer Than the Rest of the Neighborhood : Relative Deprivation and Problem Behavior of Youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, J.G.; van Ham, M.; Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim; Hooimeijer, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    According to the neighborhood effects hypothesis, there is a negative relation between neighborhood wealth and youth’s problem behavior. It is often assumed that there are more problems in deprived neighborhoods, but there are also reports of higher rates of behavioral problems in more affluent

  3. Ethical Considerations When Delivering Behavior Analytic Services for Problem Behavior via Telehealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Patrick W; Schieltz, Kelly M

    2017-11-01

    Delivery of healthcare services via telehealth has been growing in popularity, and work completed by behavior analytic researchers and practitioners have supported this trend. Behavior analysts at the University of Iowa Children's Hospital (UICH) developed a telehealth model of service delivery to build upon their already established in-clinic and in-home services. Results from their telehealth studies showed positive effects. Social functions were identified for most children, and problem behavior decreased by an average of 94.14%. Additionally, parent satisfaction was quite high, suggesting this mode of service delivery was acceptable to caregivers. Given the increasing empirical support for providing behavior analytic services via telehealth, careful consideration needs to be given to the numerous ethical issues involved in telehealth service delivery. The current article describes the telehealth service delivery model developed at UICH as well as the ethical issues considered at different points when delivering these telehealth services. Following these ethical considerations, implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

  4. Family Functioning: Associations with Weight Status, Eating Behaviors, and Physical Activity in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the relationship between family functioning (e.g. communication, closeness, problem solving, behavioral control) and adolescent weight status and relevant eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods Data are from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study that assessed eating and activity among socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse youth (n = 2,793). Adolescents (46.8% boys, 53.2% girls) completed anthropometric assessments and surveys at school in 2009–2010. Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between family functioning and adolescent weight, dietary intake, family meal patterns, and physical activity. Additional regression models were fit to test for interactions by race/ethnicity. Results For adolescent girls, higher family functioning was associated with lower body mass index z-score and percent overweight, less sedentary behavior, higher intake of fruits and vegetables, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. For adolescent boys, higher family functioning was associated with more physical activity, less sedentary behavior, less fast food consumption, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. There was one significant interaction by race/ethnicity for family meals; the association between higher family functioning and more frequent family meals was stronger for non-white boys compared to white boys. Overall, strengths of associations tended to be small with effect sizes ranging from - 0.07 to 0.31 for statistically significant associations. Conclusions Findings suggest that family functioning may be protective for adolescent weight and weight-related health behaviors across all race/ethnicities, although assumptions regarding family functioning in the homes of overweight children should be avoided given small effect sizes. PMID:23299010

  5. The relationships between problem characteristics, achievement-related behaviors, and academic achievement in problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Sockalingam (Nachamma); J.I. Rotgans (Jerome); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem

  6. Examining Early Adolescents' Peer Climate Using Descriptive and Status Norms on Academic Engagement and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Huiyoung

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed to gain insights into adolescents' classroom peer climate by examining descriptive and status norms of academic and social behaviors. Descriptive norm was assessed as the average score for each behavior and status norm was assessed using the correlation between each behavior and social status within each classroom. Expanded…

  7. Beyond behavior modification: Benefits of social-emotional/self-regulation training for preschoolers with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A; Hart, Katie

    2016-10-01

    The current study evaluated the initial efficacy of three intervention programs aimed at improving school readiness in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 45 preschool children (76% boys; Mage=5.16years; 84% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP. During the summer between preschool and kindergarten, children were randomized to receive three newly developed intervention packages. The first and most cost effective intervention package was an 8-week School Readiness Parenting Program (SRPP). Families randomized into the second and third intervention packages received not only the weekly SRPP, but children also attended two different versions of an intensive kindergarten summer readiness class (M-F, 8a.m.-5p.m.) that was part of an 8-week summer treatment program for pre-kindergarteners (STP-PreK). One version included the standard behavioral modification system and academic curriculum (STP-PreK) while the other additionally contained social-emotional and self-regulation training (STP-PreK Enhanced). Baseline, post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up data were collected on children's school readiness outcomes including parent, teacher, and objective assessment measures. Analyses using linear mixed models indicated that children's behavioral functioning significantly improved across all groups in a similar magnitude. Children in the STP-PreK Enhanced group, however, experienced greater growth across time in academic achievement, emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and executive functioning compared to children in the other groups. These findings suggest that while parent training is sufficient to address children's behavioral difficulties, an intensive summer program that goes beyond behavioral modification and academic preparation by targeting socio-emotional and self-regulation skills can have incremental benefits across multiple aspects of school readiness

  8. Teacher Use of Descriptive Analysis Data to Implement Interventions to Decrease Students' Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Joseph S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A behavioral consultation approach was effectively used to reduce problem behaviors in 2 field studies with 3 students (ages 10-14) having severe or profound mental retardation and their teachers. Intervention involved extinction of inappropriate behaviors, reinforcement of appropriate play behaviors, and teaching verbal skills functionally…

  9. Being admired or being liked: Classroom social status and depressive problems in early adolescent girls and boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); J.G.M. Rosmalen (Judith); R. Veenstra (René); J.K. Dijkstra (Jan); J. Ormel (Johan Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates associations between depressive problems and classroom social status in a large population cohort of Dutch early adolescents (N = 1046, age 13.52 ± 0.51, 52.4% girls). Depressive problems were assessed by parent and self-reports and classroom status by peer

  10. Being admired or being liked : Classroom social status and depressive problems in early adolescent girls and boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, A.J.; Rosmalen, J.G.M.; Veenstra, R.; Dijkstra, J.K.; Ormel, Johan

    This study investigates associations between depressive problems and classroom social status in a large population cohort of Dutch early adolescents (N = 1046, age 13.52 +/- 0.51, 52.4% girls). Depressive problems were assessed by parent and self-reports and classroom status by peer nominations. We

  11. Behavior problems, foster home integration, and evidence-based behavioral interventions: What predicts adoption of foster children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers, Sonya J; Spielfogel, Jill E; Gleeson, James P; Rolock, Nancy

    2012-05-01

    Adoption is particularly important for foster children with special mental health needs who are unable to return home, as adoption increases parental support often critically needed by youth with mental health issues. Unfortunately, significant behavior problems frequently inhibit foster parents from adopting, and little is known about factors that predict adoption when a child has behavior problems. Previous research suggests that foster parent behavioral training could potentially increase rates of successful adoptions for pre-school-aged foster children with behavior problems (Fisher, Kim, & Pears, 2009), but this has not been previously tested in older samples. In older children, effective treatment of behavior problems might also increase adoption by reducing the interference of behavior problems and strengthening the child's foster home integration. This pilot study focused on this question by testing associations between behavior problems, foster home integration, an evidence-based foster parent intervention, and adoption likelihood. This study used an intent-to-treat design to compare foster home integration and adoption likelihood for 31 foster children with histories of abuse and neglect whose foster parents received a foster behavioral parenting intervention (see Chamberlain, 2003) or usual services. Random effect regression analyses were used to estimate outcomes across four time points. As expected, externalizing behavior problems had a negative effect on both integration and adoption, and foster home integration had an independent positive effect on adoption. Internalizing behavior problems (e.g., depression/anxiety) were not related to adoption or integration. However, the intervention did not have a direct effect on either foster home integration or adoption despite its positive effect on behavior problems. Results from this preliminary study provide further evidence of the negative effect of externalizing behavior problems on adoption. Its findings

  12. Effects of Health Status and Health Behaviors on Depression Among Married Female Immigrants in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung A; Yang, Sook Ja; Chee, Yeon Kyung; Kwon, Kyoung Ja; An, Jisook

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effects of health status and health behaviors on depression in married female immigrants in South Korea. Sampling 316 immigrant women from the Philippines, Vietnam, China, and other Asian countries, a cross-sectional research design was used with self-report questionnaires that assessed sociodemographic characteristics, health status, health behaviors, and depression. There were significant differences in stillbirth experience, induced abortion, morbidity, perceived health status, meal skipping, and physical activity between depressed and nondepressed immigrant women. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, stillbirth experience, poorer perceived health status, more meal skipping, and less physical activity were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Both health status and health behaviors had significant impacts on depression, suggesting that development of nursing interventions and educational programs should be targeted towards improving maternal health, healthy lifestyle, and subjective health perception to promote married female immigrants' psychological well-being. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Classes of disruptive behavior problems in referred adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, P.F.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ferdinand, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have found considerable overlap between attention/hyperactivity problems, aggressive/oppositional problems and delinquent/conduct problems in adolescents. Sampling and Methods: Mothers of 1,965 11- to 18-year-olds (1,116 boys, 849 girls), referred to mental health

  14. Visual Support in Children with Autism Spectrum Development as a Tool for Changing Problem Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    olpakova L.O.,

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents data of observations made in a group of 10 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 5-8 years experiencing behavioral problems and difficulties with communication and social interaction. A behavioral intervention was carried out in the group basing on the principles of applied behavioral analysis (ABA). Following the primary test and with accordance to the parents’ requests, a team of specialists worked over the period of six months attempting to change problem behaviors...

  15. Positive Affect: Phenotypic and Etiologic Associations with Prosocial Behaviors and Internalizing Problems in Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjie eWang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence for the associations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems, relatively little is known about the underlying etiology. The sample comprised over 300 twin pairs at age 3. Positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems were assessed using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (Goldsmith, 1996, the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (Hogg, Rutter, & Richman, 1997, and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5-5 (Achenbach, 1991, respectively. Positive affect correlated positively with prosocial behaviors, and negatively with internalizing problems. Prosocial behaviors were negatively associated with internalizing problems. The relations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems were due to environmental effects (shared and nonshared. In contrast, the link between prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems was entirely explained by genetic effects. The current study has moved beyond prior emphasis on negative affect and elucidated the less understood etiology underlying the associations between positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems. This study could guide the development of programs for promoting prosocial behaviors and alleviating internalizing problems in children.

  16. Positive affect: phenotypic and etiologic associations with prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Manjie; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence for the associations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems, relatively little is known about the underlying etiology. The sample comprised over 300 twin pairs at age 3. Positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems were assessed using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (Goldsmith, 1996), the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (Hogg et al., 1997), and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5-5 (Achenbach, 1991), respectively. Positive affect correlated positively with prosocial behaviors, and negatively with internalizing problems. Prosocial behaviors were negatively associated with internalizing problems. The relations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems were due to environmental effects (shared and non-shared). In contrast, the link between prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems was entirely explained by genetic effects. The current study has moved beyond prior emphasis on negative affect and elucidated the less understood etiology underlying the associations between positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems. This study could guide the development of programs for promoting prosocial behaviors and alleviating internalizing problems in children.

  17. Parenting Stress and Child Behavior Problems: A Transactional Relationship Across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, Cameron L.; Green, Shulamite A.; Baker, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    Parenting stress and child behavior problems have been posited to have a transactional effect on each other across development. However, few studies have tested this model empirically. The authors investigated the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior problems from ages 3 to 9 years old among 237 children, 144 of whom were typically developing and 93 who were identified as developmentally delayed. Behavior problems and parenting stress covaried significantly across time for both groups of children. Cross-lagged panel analyses generally supported a bidirectional relationship between parenting stress and child behavior problems for mothers and fathers. PMID:22264112

  18. Measuring Social Status and Social Behavior with Peer and Teacher Nomination Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Y.H.M. van den; Lansu, T.A.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2015-01-01

    Sociometric nomination methods are used extensively to measure social status and social behaviors among children and adolescents. In the current study, the correspondence between teacher and peer nomination methods for the identification of preference and popularity was examined. Participants were

  19. Maternal parenting behavior and child behavior problems in families of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Boonen, Hannah; Lambrechts, Greet; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    Parents of a child with ASD face specific challenges in parenting, but concrete parenting behavior has never been properly investigated in these families. This exploratory questionnaire study compared parenting behaviors among mothers of children and adolescents with ASD (n = 552) and without ASD (n = 437) and examined associations between child behavior problems and parenting behavior. Results showed that mothers of children with ASD reported significantly lower scores on Rules and Disciplin...

  20. Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors within Early Adolescent Friendship Cliques: What's Status Got to Do with It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Leanna M.

    2009-01-01

    This study involved an examination of the role of perceived popularity and social dominance in the social behaviors used within early adolescents' (N = 387) friendship cliques. A status hierarchy between cliques within each grade (based on peer-rated perceived popularity) and a status hierarchy between individuals within each clique (based on…

  1. Problem in modern deviant behavior among youth ukrainian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Znakovska

    2014-05-01

    The causes of deviant behavior, sociologists looking in different directions: the imperfection of human nature and the various evils of people; in their biological and psychological characteristics; in the social conditions of life. Because the causes of deviant behavior can be reduced to three types of explanations: biological, psychological and sociological. Every member of society should know what behavior it can expect from the people around him what behavior the rest of the society expect from him, to which social norms need to be socialized children.

  2. Brief report: The relationship between language skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-schoolers with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Carlie J; Yelland, Gregory W; Taffe, John R; Gray, Kylie M

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically developing children (n = 20). The participants were administered standardised tests of structural language skills, and parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and the Developmental Behaviour Checklist. Results indicated that for children with autism, communication skills, and in particular receptive communication skills, were associated with social and daily living skills, and behavior problems. Receptive structural language skills were associated with expressive communication skills. There were no associations found between structural language skills and social or daily living skills, nor behavior problems. The results of this study suggest that communication skills are more closely linked to functional and behavioral outcomes in autism than structural language skills.

  3. Examining the function of problem behavior in fragile X syndrome: preliminary experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter; O'Reilly, Mark F; Lang, Russell; Machalicek, Wendy; Chan, Jeffrey Michael; Rispoli, Mandy

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited cause of intellectual and developmental disability. The influence of environmental variables on behaviors associated with the syndrome has received only scant attention. The current study explored the function served by problem behavior in fragile X syndrome by using experimental functional analysis methodology with 8 children with fragile X. No child met criteria for attention-maintained problem behavior, 5 children met criteria for escape-maintained problem behavior, and 4 children met criteria for tangible-maintained problem behavior. Results are discussed and compared with previous findings on the function of problem behavior in fragile X syndrome, and implications for intervention are discussed. It is noted that the external validity of these findings is limited by the small sample size.

  4. Reliability and validity of Brief Problem Monitor, an abbreviated form of the Child Behavior Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Brian J; Gray, Hilary M; Raber, Jacob; Birkett, Melissa A

    2014-10-01

    The parent form of the 113-item Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is widely utilized by child psychiatrists and psychologists. This report examines the reliability and validity of a recently developed abbreviated version of the CBCL, the Brief Problem Monitor (BPM). Caregivers (n = 567) completed the CBCL online and the 19 BPM items were examined separately. Internal consistency of the BPM was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.91) and satisfactory for the Internalizing (0.78), Externalizing (0.86), and Attention (0.87) scales. High correlations between the CBCL and BPM were identified for the total score (r = 0.95) as well as the Internalizing (0.86), Externalizing (0.93), and Attention (0.97) scales. The BPM and scales were sensitive and identified significantly higher behavioral and emotional problems among children whose caregiver reported a psychiatric diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, developmental disabilities, or autism spectrum disorders relative to a comparison group that had not been diagnosed with these disorders. BPM ratings also differed by the socioeconomic status and education of the caregiver. Mothers with higher annual incomes rated their children as having 38.8% fewer total problems (Cohen's d = 0.62) as well as 42.8% lower Internalizing (d = 0.53), 44.1% less Externalizing (d = 0.62), and 30.9% decreased Attention (d = 0.39). A similar pattern was evident for maternal education (d = 0.30-0.65). Overall, these findings provide strong psychometric support for the BPM, although the differences based on the characteristics of the parent indicate that additional information from other sources (e.g., teachers) should be obtained to complement parental reports. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  5. Protective behavioral strategies mediate problem-focused coping and alcohol use in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robrina; Stephens, Robert S

    2014-06-01

    Protective behavioral strategies have emerged as a construct protective against alcohol use. The current study examines the theoretical associations among general coping styles, protective behavioral strategies, drinking to cope motives, and alcohol use in college students. Analyses of fully latent variables were conducted using structural equation modeling in a sample of 327 college students. Protective behavioral strategies partially mediated the association between problem-focused coping and alcohol use. Behaviorally oriented problem-focused coping strategies accounted for the positive relationship between problem-focused coping and protective behavioral strategies whereas cognitively oriented problem-focused coping strategies were associated with less use of protective behavioral strategies and increased alcohol use. This is the first study to find that protective behavioral strategies are more likely to be used by college students who endorse using a problem-focused coping style, especially if they tend to use behaviorally oriented problem-focused coping strategies. These findings extend the literature on protective behavioral strategies and indicate that students less likely to use problem-focused coping skills to deal with stress in general may need additional interventions to increase their use of protective behavioral strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Severe Self-Injurious Behavior: The Problem of Clinical Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanczyk, Raymond G.; Goren, Elizabeth R.

    1975-01-01

    The long-term treatment program and follow-up of a case of chronic, severe, multiple self-injurious behavior is presented. Contingent electric shock and differential reinforcement of other behavior were the primary techniques utilized. Total suppression was achieved in the laboratory setting, but extending control to the natural environment proved…

  7. High Risk Behavior among Adolescent Mothers: The Problem in Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissman, Kris

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the particular consequences of high-risk behavior for adolescent women, including unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, school dropout and poverty, developmental disabilities, and poor school performance. Considers the role of male partners in teenage women's high risk behavior. Describes prevention efforts such as…

  8. Cultural Materialism and Behavior Analysis: Common Problems and Radical Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Marvin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a transcribed audio recording of the invited address the author gave to Sigrid Glenn on the relations between cultural materialism and radical behaviorism at the 12th annual conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis in Milwaukee, Wisconsin on May 23rd, 1986. In his address, the author emphasizes that the necessity…

  9. Parenting Behavior and Emotional Status of Physically Abusive Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared eight lower socioeconomic status abusive mothers with eight matched controls and eight middle class controls on three measures of emotional and somatic distress. Abusive mothers showed far greater depression and physical distress than controls and used more physical punishment. (BH)

  10. The Effects of White Noise on Agitated Behaviors, Mental Status, and Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Wei; Weng, Shu-Chuan; Wu, Hua-Shan; Tsai, Lu-Jen; Lin, Ya-Ling; Yeh, Shu-Hui

    2018-02-01

    The aging of society is a global trend, and care of older adults with dementia is an urgent challenge. As dementia progresses, patients exhibit negative emotions, memory disorders, sleep disorders, and agitated behavior. Agitated behavior is one of the most difficult problems for family caregivers and healthcare providers to handle when caring for older adults with dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of white noise in improving agitated behavior, mental status, and activities of daily living in older adults with dementia. An experimental research design was used to study elderly participants two times (pretest and posttest). Six dementia care centers in central and southern Taiwan were targeted to recruit participants. There were 63 participants: 28 were in the experimental group, and 35 were in the comparison group. Experimental group participants received 20 minutes of white noise consisting of ocean, rain, wind, and running water sounds between 4 and 5 P.M. daily over a period of 4 weeks. The comparison group received routine care. Questionnaires were completed, and observations of agitated behaviors were collected before and after the intervention. Agitated behavior in the experimental group improved significantly between pretest and posttest. Furthermore, posttest scores on the Mini-Mental Status Examination and Barthel Index were slightly better for this group than at pretest. However, the experimental group registered no significant difference in mental status or activities of daily living at posttest. For the comparison group, agitated behavior was unchanged between pretest and posttest. The results of this study support white noise as a simple, convenient, and noninvasive intervention that improves agitated behavior in older adults with dementia. These results may provide a reference for related healthcare providers, educators, and administrators who care for older adults with dementia.

  11. The Effects of White Noise on Agitated Behaviors, Mental Status, and Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Wei; Weng, Shu-Chuan; Wu, Hua-Shan; Tsai, Lu-Jen; Lin, Ya-Ling; Yeh, Shu-Hui

    2017-07-13

    The aging of society is a global trend, and care of older adults with dementia is an urgent challenge. As dementia progresses, patients exhibit negative emotions, memory disorders, sleep disorders, and agitated behavior. Agitated behavior is one of the most difficult problems for family caregivers and healthcare providers to handle when caring for older adults with dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of white noise in improving agitated behavior, mental status, and activities of daily living in older adults with dementia. An experimental research design was used to study elderly participants two times (pretest and posttest). Six dementia care centers in central and southern Taiwan were targeted to recruit participants. There were 63 participants: 28 were in the experimental group, and 35 were in the comparison group. Experimental group participants received 20 minutes of white noise consisting of ocean, rain, wind, and running water sounds between 4 and 5 P.M. daily over a period of 4 weeks. The comparison group received routine care. Questionnaires were completed, and observations of agitated behaviors were collected before and after the intervention. Agitated behavior in the experimental group improved significantly between pretest and posttest. Furthermore, posttest scores on the Mini-Mental Status Examination and Barthel Index were slightly better for this group than at pretest. However, the experimental group registered no significant difference in mental status or activities of daily living at posttest. For the comparison group, agitated behavior was unchanged between pretest and posttest. The results of this study support white noise as a simple, convenient, and noninvasive intervention that improves agitated behavior in older adults with dementia. These results may provide a reference for related healthcare providers, educators, and administrators who care for older adults with dementia.

  12. Development of emotional and behavioral problems in neurofibromatosis type 1 during young childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietman, André B; Oostenbrink, Rianne; van Noort, Kimberley; Franken, Marie-Christine J P; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; Aarsen, Femke K; Hendriksen, Jos G; de Nijs, Pieter F A

    2017-09-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study in young children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) aimed to identify if, and how early problems in behavior, intelligence, and language development are associated with later behavioral problems. At the first assessment at preschool age, we evaluated language skills, intelligence, and emotional and behavioral problems as reported by parents. The second assessment at school-age we evaluated intelligence, and emotional and behavioral problems as reported by parents and teachers. Association of baseline assessments with secondary assessment was evaluated using multivariable linear regression analysis. Of the 61 patients (25 males, 36 females; mean age 4;5 years [SD 1;1 years]) with NF1 who had a first assessment, 38 children (21 males, 17 females; mean age 7;11 years [SD 2;1 years]) had a second assessment after a mean period of 3;5 years. Longitudinal data on behavioral problems were collected for 23 of these children. Intelligence and language development were not associated with internalizing problems. Parent-rated internalizing behavioral problems significantly increased with age in this subgroup. Baseline internalizing problems predicted later internalizing problems (adjusted R2  = 0.33, p = 0.003). The presence of these problems at pre-school age may be predictive of internalizing problems at a later age. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The direct effects of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity on peer problems and mediating roles of prosocial and conduct problem behaviors in a community sample of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Brendan F; Tannock, Rosemary

    2013-11-01

    This study tested whether children's symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were associated with peer problems and whether these associations were mediated by conduct problems and prosocial behaviors. A community sample of 500 children, including 245 boys and 255 girls, who ranged in age from 6 to 9 years (M = 7.6, SD = 0.91) were recruited. Teachers' report of children's inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, conduct problems, prosocial behaviors, and peer problems was collected. Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were significantly positively associated with peer problems. Conduct problems were associated with more peer problems and prosocial behaviors with less peer problems. Conduct problems and prosocial behaviors partially mediated the association between hyperactivity/impulsivity and peer problems and fully mediated the inattention-peer problems association. Findings show that prosocial behaviors and conduct problems are important variables that account for some of the negative impact of symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity on peer functioning.

  14. Long-term analysis of health status and preventive behavior in music students across an entire university program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Claudia; Nusseck, Manfred; Zander, Mark

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze longitudinal data concerning physical and psychological health, playing-related problems, and preventive behavior among music students across their complete 4- to 5-year study period. In a longitudinal, observational study, we followed students during their university training and measured their psychological and physical health status and preventive behavior using standardized questionnaires at four different times. The data were in accordance with previous findings. They demonstrated three groups of health characteristics observed in beginners of music study: healthy students (cluster 1), students with preclinical symptoms (cluster 2), and students who are clinically symptomatic (cluster 3). In total, 64% of all students remained in the same cluster group during their whole university training. About 10% of the students showed considerable health problems and belonged to the third cluster group. The three clusters of health characteristics found in this longitudinal study with music students necessitate that prevention programs for musicians must be adapted to the target audience.

  15. Does Teaching Problem-Solving Skills Matter?: An Evaluation of Problem-Solving Skills Training for the Treatment of Social and Behavioral Problems in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bushman, Bryan B.

    2007-01-01

    Parent training combined with problem solving skills training has been proposed as a comprehensive treatment for childhood oppositional behaviors, poor child social skills, and parental stress . The current study compared Parent Training + Problem Solving Skills Training with a Parent Training + nondirective condition. Parents of 32 children first attended Parent Training . After the parents completed Parent Training, children were randomly assigned to individual therapy in either a Problem S...

  16. Social behavior and sociometric status of pre-school children attending kindergartens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The measures of temporal reliability and criterion validity of the Slovenian version of Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale – Preschool Edition (SV-P are presented and discussed in the present contribution. Test-retest reliability indexes of the basic and composite scales were obtained with a sample of 39 children assessed in a two-month interval, while the temporal stability coefficients were obtained with an independent sample of 48 children evaluated after a six-month interval. All of the temporal reliability measures were proven sufficiently high. Sociometric indicators of a child's popularity and peer rejection were chosen as an external criterion to verify the concurrent validity of the SV-P. All of the children attending the same kindergarten groups as the target children (N=54 participated in a sociometric test. It was implemented in a form of combined nomination and paired-comparison technique using a group photo of the children in a kindergarten group. The results of the composite scales of SV-P – Social Competence, Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems and Genaral Adaptation – were related to the children's sociometric positions within the kindergarten group in the expected directions and to a satisfactory degree. In addition, the results obtained by the sociometric procedure with a sample of 210 children were analysed. They highlight the proportions of kindergarten children classified into different sociometric statuses - popular, neglected, rejected, controversial and average – and suggest that during the early childhood the children clearly prefer their same-sex peers.

  17. Assessment of relationship between oral health behavior, oral hygiene and gingival status of dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsheen Lalani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Thus, it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between the oral health behavior, oral hygiene, and gingival status of dental students. Dental students with better self-reported oral health behavior had lower plaque and gingival scores indicating a better attitude toward oral health.

  18. Social Status of Adolescents with an Early Onset of Externalizing Behavior: The SNARE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Aart; Harakeh, Zeena; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the social status (i.e., popularity, likeability, and friendships) of adolescents with an early onset of externalizing behavior (i.e., alcohol use, tobacco use, and antisocial behavior). Building on Moffitt's dual-taxonomy model, it was hypothesized that early onset adolescents were more popular, but not necessarily more…

  19. Identical genetic influences underpin behavior problems in adolescence and basic traits of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary J; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the etiology of adolescent problem behavior has been of enduring interest. Only relatively recently, however, has this issue been examined within a normal personality trait framework. Research suggests that problem behaviors in adolescence and beyond may be adequately explained by the taxonomy provided by the basic dimensions of normal personality: Such problem behaviors are suggested to be extreme points on a distribution of the full range of the underlying traits. We extend work in this field examining the extent to which genetic factors underlying the five-factor model of personality are common with genetic influences on adolescent behavior problems (namely, anxiety, peer problems, conduct, hyperactivity, and low prosociality). A nationally representative twin sample (Twins Early Development Study) from the general population of England and Wales, including 2031 pairs of twins aged 16 years old, was used to decompose variation into genetic and environmental components. Behavioral problems in adolescence were assessed by self-report with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescent behavior problems were moderately associated with normal personality: Specifically, a fifth to a third of phenotypic variance in problem behaviors was accounted for by five-factor model personality traits. Of central importance here, genetic influences underpinning personality were entirely overlapping with those genetic factors underlying adolescent behavior problems. These findings suggest that adolescent behavior problems can be understood, at least in part, within a model of normal personality trait variation, with the genetic bases of these behavior problems the same as those genetic influences underpinning normal personality. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Poverty and Behavior Problems during Early Childhood: The Mediating Role of Maternal Depression Symptoms and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Julia Rachel; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Booij, Linda; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard; Lambert, Jean; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Côté, Sylvana

    2017-01-01

    Poverty is a well-established risk factor for behavior problems, yet our understanding of putative family mediators during early childhood (i.e., before age 5 years) is limited. The present study investigated whether the association between poverty and behavior problems during early childhood is mediated simultaneously by perceived parenting,…

  1. Trajectories of Problem Behaviors from 4 to 23 Years in Former Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Allie; Winchester, Suzy Barcelos; Sullivan, Mary C.

    2018-01-01

    Premature infants have significant risk for later behavior problems. This study examined growth trajectories of three problem behaviors across five developmental age points from preschool to early adulthood in a well-characterized sample of premature infants. The effects of neonatal risk, gender, and socioeconomic context were modeled on these…

  2. The Utility of a Brief Experimental Analysis for Problem Behavior Maintained by Escape from Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Shanholtzer, Alison; Mezhoudi, Nabil; Scherbak, Bailey; Kahng, SungWoo

    2014-01-01

    Brief experimental analysis (BEA) is a useful tool for quickly evaluating intervention strategies for individuals with academic deficits and minor behavior problems. However, there is a lack of research investigating BEA for intervention strategies with individuals who emit severe problem behavior to avoid academic demands. For the current study,…

  3. Influence of Assessment Setting on the Results of Functional Analyses of Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Rispoli, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    Analogue functional analyses are widely used to identify the operant function of problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. Because problem behavior often occurs across multiple settings (e.g., homes, schools, outpatient clinics), it is important to determine whether the results of functional analyses vary across settings.…

  4. Influence of assessment setting on the results of functional analyses of problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, R.B.; Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; Didden, H.C.M.; Rispoli, M.

    2010-01-01

    Analogue functional analyses are widely used to identify the operant function of problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. Because problem behavior often occurs across multiple settings (e.g., homes, schools, outpatient clinics), it is important to determine whether the

  5. Meta-Analytic Study on Treatment Effectiveness for Problem Behaviors With Individuals Who Have Mental Retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, R.; Duker, P.C.C.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Meta-analysis of 482 empirical studies on treatment of problem behaviors of individuals with mental retardation was conducted. A metric of treatment effectiveness was computed for 1,451 comparisons between baselines and treatments, 34 topographies of problem behavior, and 64 treatment procedures.

  6. Parental Divorce, Marital Conflict and Children's Behavior Problems: A Comparison of Adopted and Biological Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Cheadle, Jacob E.

    2008-01-01

    We used adopted and biological children from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households to study the links between parents' marital conflict, divorce and children's behavior problems. The standard family environment model assumes that marital conflict and divorce increase the risk of children's behavior problems. The passive…

  7. The Analysis and Treatment of Problem Behavior Evoked by Auditory Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Sarah; Healy, Olive; Leader, Geraldine; Reed, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify specific stimuli associated with music that served as an establishing operation (EO) for the problem behavior of a 6-year-old child with a diagnosis of autism. Specific EOs for problem behavior evoked by auditory stimulation could be identified. A differential negative reinforcement procedure was implemented for…

  8. Problem behavior and heart rate reactivity in adopted adolescents: Longitudinal and concurrent relations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bimmel, N.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Juffer, F.; de Geus, E.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined resting heart rate and heart rate variability and reactivity to a stressful gambling task in adopted adolescents with aggressive, delinquent, or internalizing behavior problems and adopted adolescents without behavior problems (total N=151). Early-onset

  9. Preventing preschool externalizing behavior problems through video-feedback intervention in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Velderman, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Juffer, F.; IJzendoorn, M.H. van; Mangelsdorf, S.C.; Zevalkink, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study (1) intervention effects on children's preschool behavior problems were evaluated in a high risk sample with an overrepresentation of insecure adult attachment representations in 77 first-time mothers, and (2) predictors and correlates of child problem behavior were examined.

  10. Profiles of Observed Infant Anger Predict Preschool Behavior Problems: Moderation by Life Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2014-01-01

    Using both traditional composites and novel profiles of anger, we examined associations between infant anger and preschool behavior problems in a large, longitudinal data set (N = 966). We also tested the role of life stress as a moderator of the link between early anger and the development of behavior problems. Although traditional measures of…

  11. Video Game Access, Parental Rules, and Problem Behavior: A Study of Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Mazurek, Micah O.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental correlates of problem behavior among individuals with autism spectrum disorder remain relatively understudied. The current study examined the contribution of in-room (i.e. bedroom) access to a video game console as one potential correlate of problem behavior among a sample of 169 boys with autism spectrum disorder (ranging from 8 to…

  12. Adolescents' Use of Care for Behavioral and Emotional Problems : Types, Trends, and Determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Wiegersma, P. Auke; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: While adolescents use various types of care for behavioral and emotional problems, evidence on age trends and determinants per type is scarce. We aimed to assess use of care by adolescents because of behavioral and emotional problems, overall and by type, and its determinants, for ages

  13. Adolescents' use of care for behavioral and emotional problems: Types, trends, and determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Reijneveld (Sijmen); P.A. Wiegersma (Auke); J. Ormel (Johan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); W.A.M. Vollebergh (Wilma); D.E.M.C. Jansen (Daniëlle)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: While adolescents use various types of care for behavioral and emotional problems, evidence on age trends and determinants per type is scarce. We aimed to assess use of care by adolescents because of behavioral and emotional problems, overall and by type, and its determinants,

  14. Problem behavior in children with a chronically ill parent: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Meijer, A.M.; Oort, F.J.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; van der Leij, D.A.V.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis is to examine whether children of chronically ill parents differ from norm groups in problem behavior. We report moderator effects and overall effect sizes for internalizing, externalizing and total problem behavior assessed by children and parents. In fixed effect

  15. Effects of PMTO in foster families with children with behavior problems : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, A.M.; van Rooij, F.B.; Overbeek, G.J.; Oort, F.J.; Arntz, M.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    The present randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of Parent Management Training Oregon for foster parents with foster children (aged 4–12) with severe externalizing behavior problems in long-term foster care arrangements. Foster children’s behavior problems are challenging for

  16. Problem Behaviors Associated with Deletion Prader-Willi, Smith-Magenis, and Cri Du Chat Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David J.; Boer, Harm

    1998-01-01

    Problem behaviors of 38 individuals with Cri-du-Chat syndrome, 55 individuals with Prader Willi syndrome, and 21 individuals with Smith-Magenis syndrome were investigated. All three disorders were Associated with greater ratings of problem behaviors (besides eating abnormalities and sleep abnormalities) than comparison groups. (Author/CR)

  17. Marital Satisfaction, Parental Stress, and Child Behavior Problems among Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Merideth; Neece, Cameron L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have found that low marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and child behavior problems are linked in families of children with developmental delays (DD). However, previous investigations examining the relationships between parenting stress, child behavior problems, and marital satisfaction rarely examine the interrelationships of these…

  18. Parenting Stress and Child Behavior Problems: A Transactional Relationship across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, Cameron L.; Green, Shulamite A.; Baker, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    Parenting stress and child behavior problems have been posited to have a transactional effect on each other across development. However, few studies have tested this model empirically. The authors investigated the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior problems from ages 3 to 9 years old among 237 children, 144 of whom were…

  19. A Model of Developing Communication Skills among Adolescents with Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novik, Natalia N.; Podgórecki, Józef

    2015-01-01

    The urgency of the problem under investigation is determined by the need to help the adolescents with behavioral problems to develop communication skills in the specific bilingual conditions in such regions as the Republic of Tatarstan where education should consider not only the specific skills of verbal behavior but also take into account the…

  20. Functional Communication Training in the Treatment of Problem Behavior Maintained by Access to Rituals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Mandy; Camargo, Síglia; Machalicek, Wendy; Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the assessment and treatment of problem behaviors related to rituals for children with autism. After functional analyses, we used a multiple-probe design to examine the effects of functional communication training (FCT) plus extinction and schedule thinning as a treatment package for problem behavior and appropriate…

  1. Generalized Reduction of Problem Behavior of Young Children with Autism: Building Trans-Situational Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Holly Reed; Horner, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of functional communication training on the generalized reduction of problem behavior with three 4- to 5-year-old children with autism and problem behavior were evaluated. Participants were assessed in primary teaching settings and in three secondary, generalization settings. Through baseline analysis, lower effort interventions in the…

  2. Problem Behavior and Developmental Tasks in Adolescents with Visual Impairment and Sighted Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study analyzed associations of problem behavior with the attainment of developmental tasks in 133 adolescents with visual impairment and 449 sighted peers. Higher levels of initial problem behavior predicted less progress in the attainment of developmental tasks at the one-year follow-up only in sighted adolescents. This…

  3. Relationships between Child Behavior Problems and Family Functioning: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van As, N. M. C.; Janssens, J. M. A. M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research examining the relationship between family functioning and child behavior problems. Focuses on parenting styles, intergenerational relationships, family structure, and family interaction patterns. Finds that child behavior problems are related to a lack of parental support, an imbalanced parent- child relationship, a lack of…

  4. A Longitudinal Family-Level Model of Arab Muslim Adolescent Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.; Templin, Thomas N.; Hough, Edythe Ellison; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Katz, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Arab-American Muslim adolescents in immigrant families face a number of challenges that put them at risk for behavior problems. This study of Arab-American Muslim Adolescents and their relatively recent immigrant mothers tested a longitudinal family-level model of adolescent behavior problems. Mother-adolescent dyads (N = 530) completed measures…

  5. Problem Behavior and Heart Rate Reactivity in Adopted Adolescents: Longitudinal and Concurrent Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimmel, Nicole; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie; De Geus, Eco J. C.

    2008-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined resting heart rate and heart rate variability and reactivity to a stressful gambling task in adopted adolescents with aggressive, delinquent, or internalizing behavior problems and adopted adolescents without behavior problems (total N=151). Early-onset delinquent adolescents showed heart rate…

  6. Child labor and childhood behavioral and mental health problems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    laborers and 8.5% laborers). The second ... Conclusion: The prevalence of childhood behavioral and mental disorders in this study is within the range reported in previews studies .... Sampling: Two different approaches, systematic and purposive ...

  7. Risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents of parents with a chronic medical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Oort, Frans Jeroen; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2012-08-01

    A wide array of risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents with chronically ill parents emerges from the literature. This study aims to identify those factors with the highest impact on internalizing problem behavior (anxious, depressed and withdrawn behavior, and somatic complaints) and externalizing problem behavior (aggressive and rule-breaking behavior) as measured by the Youth Self-Report (YSR). The YSR was filled in by 160 adolescents (mean age = 15.1 years) from 100 families (102 chronically ill parents and 83 healthy spouses). Linear mixed model analyses were used, enabling separation of variance attributable to individual factors and variance attributable to family membership (i.e., family cluster effect). Predictors were child, parent, illness-related and family characteristics. The results showed that almost half of the variance in internalizing problem scores was explained by family membership, while externalizing problems were mainly explained by individual factors. Roughly 60 % of the variance in internalizing problems was predicted by illness duration, adolescents' feeling of isolation, daily hassles affecting personal life and alienation from the mother. Approximately a third of the variance in externalizing problems was predicted by adolescents' male gender, daily hassles concerning ill parents and alienation from both parents. In conclusion, the variance in adolescent problem behavior is largely accounted for by family membership, children's daily hassles and parent-child attachment. To prevent marginalization of adolescents with a chronically ill parent, it is important to be alert for signs of problem behavior and foster the peer and family support system.

  8. Problem behavior in dogs. Understanding the shy dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W E

    1975-04-01

    The term "shy dog" should be qualified by examination of the dog's actual behavior and those things that stimulate the shyness. Dogs that display submissive behavior may suffer from a punishment syndrome created by overly harsh treatment. Others may suffer from kennelosis or other improper socialization during early critical periods. In all cases the dog's level of confidence must be increased vis a vis people. Rehabilitation requires avoidance of physical manipulation, gradual socialization, and demonstrative teaching for command responses.

  9. Impacts of autistic behaviors, emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Yen, Hsui-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Ying-Dar; Chen, Kuan-Lin

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the effects of autistic behaviors and individual emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism. Caregivers were interviewed with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index Short Form. Results revealed that caregivers of children with mild/moderate autistic behavior problems perceived lower parenting stress than did those of children with no or severe problems. In addition, prosocial behaviors and conduct problems respectively predicted stress in the parent-child relationship and child-related stress. The findings can provide guidance in evaluations and interventions with a focus on mitigating parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism.

  10. Agreement between parents and teachers on preschool children's behavior in a clinical sample with externalizing behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsch, Franziska; Petermann, Franz

    2014-10-01

    An accurate interpretation of information obtained from multiple assessors is indispensible when complex diagnoses of behavioral problems in children need to be confirmed. The present study examined the similarity of parents and kindergarten teachers ratings on children's behavior in a sample of 160 preschool children (a clinical group including 80 children with externalizing behavioral problems and a matched control group including 80 children). Behavioral problems were assessed using the SDQ, and the DISYPS-II questionnaires for ADHD and conduct disorders. The results revealed low levels of parent-teacher agreement for their ratings on the children's behavior in both groups with the highest correlations in the non-clinical sample. Parent-teacher agreement did not differ significantly across the samples. Parent and teacher ratings correlated with the prevalence of externalizing disorders and were found to be almost independent of each other. The results highlight the importance of multiple informants and their independent influence within the diagnostic process.

  11. A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS OF PARENTING PRACTICES, COUPLE SATISFACTION, AND CHILD BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Deanna; Chronister, Krista; Dishion, Tom; Todahl, Jeff; Miller, John; Shaw, Daniel; Gardner, Francis; Wilson, Melvin

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relationship between couple relationship satisfaction, parenting practices, parent depression, and child problem behaviors. The study participants (n = 148) were part of a larger experimental study that examined the effectiveness of a brief family-centered intervention, the Family Check-Up model. Regression analysis results indicated that our proposed model accounted for 38% of the variance in child problem behavior at Time 2, with child problem behavior and couple relationship satisfaction at child age 2 years each accounting for a significant portion of the variance in child problem behavior at age 3. Couple relationship satisfaction directly predicted child behavior problems over time. Clinical and research implications are discussed. PMID:20433599

  12. Infant Sleep Predicts Attention Regulation and Behavior Problems at 3-4 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Avi; De Marcas, Gali; Guri, Yael; Berger, Andrea; Tikotzky, Liat; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed the role of early sleep patterns in predicting attention regulation and behavior problems. Sleep of 43 infants was assessed using actigraphy at 12 months of age and then reassessed when the children were 3-4 years old. During this follow-up, their attention regulation and behavior problems were also assessed using a computerized test and parental reports. Lower quality of sleep in infancy significantly predicted compromised attention regulation and behavior problems. These findings underscore the need to identify and treat early sleep problems.

  13. Discussion topic and observed behavior in couples' problem-solving conversations: do problem severity and topic choice matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Hannah C; Hanna, Mariam A; Lavner, Justin A; Bradbury, Thomas N; Karney, Benjamin R

    2013-04-01

    Communication behavior is an integral part of relationship functioning and, therefore, a common target of relationship interventions. Between-couple variability in observed behaviors is commonly interpreted as reflecting their underlying skill in communication, but other factors, including perceived difficulty of the problem and the topic being discussed, may also covary with communication behavior. The current study examined this possibility by testing whether these two aspects of discussion topics were associated with communication behavior. Ethnically diverse newlywed couples (N = 402 couples) were observed in their homes as they engaged in conflict resolution tasks. Resulting behavioral codes were examined in relation to perceived difficulty of the problem and the topic of the discussion. Higher levels of husband-reported problem difficulty were associated with higher levels of husband and wife negativity, independent of relationship satisfaction. After controlling for problem difficulty and relationship satisfaction, the topic of the discussion was associated with husband and wife positivity, husband and wife negativity, and wife effectiveness, indicating that some topics elicited better or worse communication than others. The substantive focus of couples' conflicts may play an important role in how they communicate, suggesting that the topic of discussion merits close attention in studies of couples and in relationship interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Relationship between DHA status at birth and child problem behaviour at 7 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbendam, L; Bakker, E; Hornstra, G; van Os, J

    2007-01-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated behavioural effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) deficiencies and in humans, several psychiatric disorders have been linked to abnormal essential fatty acid metabolism. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between LC-PUFA status at birth and the later development of problem behaviour. In a sample of 393 children, higher levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at birth were associated with lower levels of internalising problem behaviour at age 7 years. The association was markedly present in the infants fed with artificial formula (n=215, Beta=-0.32, P=0.000), but absent in the infants fed with human milk (n=170, Beta=0.11, P=0.325). The associations between arachidonic acid and internalising or externalising behaviour were neither large nor significant. The results suggest that perinatal DHA status may have long-term behavioural consequences. Therefore, we suggest to include measures of problem behaviour in future trials of LC-PUFA supplementation of mothers and/or infants.

  15. Using the internet: skill related problems in users’ online behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the conventional and superficial notion of measuring digital skills by proposing definitions for operational, formal, information and strategic skills. The main purpose was to identify individual skill related problems that users experience when navigating the Internet. In

  16. Stress, Health Risk Behaviors, and Weight Status among Community College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between stress, weight-related health risk behaviors (e.g., eating behaviors, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, cigarette smoking and binge drinking), and weight status using cross-sectional data on 2-year community college students enrolled in a randomized controlled weight gain prevention trial. Modified Poisson regression and linear regression were used to examine crude and adjusted cross-sectional associations. Highe...

  17. Endorsement of Interpersonal Strategies for Dealing with Hypothetical Everyday Arthritis Problems as a Function of Marital Status, Gender, and Problem Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strough, Jonell; McFall, Joseph P.; Schuller, Kelly L.

    2010-01-01

    We used hypothetical vignettes to examine whether older adults' endorsement of interpersonal strategies for dealing with health-related (arthritis) everyday problems varied as a function of marital status, gender, and the severity of the problem. Adults 60 years and older (N= 127, M= 71.40 years, SD = 7.21) rated interpersonal (i.e., discuss with…

  18. Personal values and involvement in problem behaviors among Bahamian early adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaoming

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies, particularly in developing countries, have explored the relationship between adolescents and parental values with adolescent problem behaviors. The objectives of the study are to (1 describe adolescents' personal values, their problem behaviors, and the relationships thereof according to gender and (2 examine the relationship between parental values, adolescent values, and adolescents' problem behaviors among sixth-grade students and one of their parents. Methods The data used in these analyses were from the baseline assessment of a school-based HIV risk reduction intervention being conducted and evaluated among sixth grade students and one of their parents across 9 elementary schools in The Bahamas. Personal values were measured by the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ. Seven reported problem behaviors were queried from the students, which included physical fight with a friend, drank alcohol, beer, or wine, smoked a cigarette, pushed or carried any drugs, carried a gun, knife, screwdriver or cutlass to use as a weapon, had sex and used marijuana or other illicit drugs over the past 6 months. Multilevel modeling for binary data was performed to estimate the associations between adolescent and parental values and adolescent problem behaviors. Results Among 785 students, 47% of the students reported at least one problem behavior. More boys (54% reported having one or more problem behaviors than girls (41%, p Conclusion In designing interventions for reducing adolescents' problem behaviors, it may be important to understand the values associated with specific problem behaviors. Further exploration regarding lack of association between adolescent and parental values and problem behaviors is needed.

  19. THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TRAINING ON BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF BOYS WITH EXTERNALIZED BEHAVIOR DISORDER IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosar Moghaddam POUR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were chosen and randomly divided into two groups (20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. The experimental group received emotional intelligence training program in 17 sessions (2 sessions per week, 60 minutes per session and the control group received no training beyond their regular school program. After two months, in order to examine the stability (durability of training effect, the follow-up test was conducted. Finally, the data obtained were analyzed using the statistical method of generalized estimating equations. Results: The results showed that the intervention program had created a significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control group (p<0.001 and the rate of behavioral problems (aggression, rule breaking occurrence has dropped. This was true for the follow-up results too. Conclusions: It can be concluded that Emotional Intelligence Training decreases the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder and helps to prevent high occurrence of these problems.

  20. Canine behavioral problems and their effect on relinquishment of the Jindo dog

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Mee; Kim, Sun-A; Lee, Sang-Mok; Choi, Yoon-Ju; Kim, Byung-Joo; Shin, Nam-Shik

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate behavior problems of the Jindo dog, the native dog of Korea, based on an owner's survey and their effect on pet relinquishment. To live a better life with their own pet and prevent relinquishment, it is important to understand the innate behavior characteristics of dog breed and the potential causes of relinquishment. Information concerning various factors and demonstration of the five most common behavior problems was collected via 189 completed ques...

  1. Maximizing the potential of early childhood education to prevent externalizing behavior problems: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, HS; Kholoptseva, J; Oh, SS; Yoshikawa, H.; Duncan, GJ; Magnuson, KA; Shonkoff, JP

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Early childhood education (ECE) programs offer a promising mechanism for preventing early externalizing behavior problems and later antisocial behavior; yet, questions remain about how to best maximize ECE's potential. Using a meta-analytic database of 31 studies, we examined the overall effect of ECE on externalizing behavior problems and the differential effects of 3 levels of practice, each with increasing specificity and intensity aimed a...

  2. Antecedents and Behavior-Problem Outcomes of Parental Monitoring and Psychological Control in Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Pettit, Gregory S.; Laird, Robert D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Criss, Michael M.

    2001-01-01

    The early childhood antecedents and behavior-problem correlates of monitoring and psychological control were examined in this prospective, longitudinal, multi-informant study. Parenting data were collected during home visit interviews with 440 mothers and their 13-year-old children. Behavior problems (anxiety/depression and delinquent behavior) were assessed via mother, teacher, and/or adolescent reports at ages 8 through 10 years and again at ages 13 through 14. Home-interview data collected...

  3. Assessment of problem behavior evoked by disruption of ritualistic toy arrangements in a child with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Yanerys; Lazarchick, William N; Rooker, Griffin W; DeLeon, Iser G

    2013-01-01

    A functional analysis suggested that the problem behavior of a 9-year-old girl with autism was maintained by gaining the opportunity to restore ritualistic toy arrangements that had been disrupted. Functional communication training and extinction produced clear decreases in problem behavior in 2 contexts: 1 in which we removed a play item, and 1 in which we merely relocated the item and blocked its rearrangement. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  4. Gender differences in the transmission of risk for antisocial behavior problems across generations

    OpenAIRE

    Pin Li; Becker, Jill B.; Heitzeg, Mary M.; Michele L McClellan; Beth Glover Reed; Zucker, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that children of alcohol use disorder (AUD) parents are more likely to develop alcohol problems as well as antisocial and other behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to examine gender discordance in the effect of early maternal and paternal influences on antisocial behaviors of boys and girls, as well as the environmental factors that moderate the parental effects. Specifically, we examined the effects of childhood and adulthood antisocial behavior of th...

  5. Designing training programs for the development of emotional intelligence in adolescents with behavioral problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Degtyarev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, deviant behavior is considered as a combination of different manifestations of personality, leading eventually to its social desaptation. It is shown that an effective method of preventing deviant behavior is psychological training. Group training activity helps to solve the problems associated with the development of various behavioral skills, to provide psychological support, and can be used as a means of psychological work with teenagers with behavioral problems. We discuss the basic points required to effectively create and conduct training programs in general, as well as the challenges and opportunities of designing trainings in order to develop emotional intelligence as a method of prevention of deviant behavior

  6. Factors Related to Social-Emotional Problem Behavior in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Esther O.; And Others

    Data on demographics, physical capability and social-emotional behavioral variables for 134 residents between the ages of 50 and 96 were collected in four nursing homes to examine the dimensions related to problem behaviors. Social-emotional behaviors related on six scales of reliabilities ranging from .90 to .74. The scales included depression,…

  7. Self-reporting of behavior problems in patients with tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, L A; Brown, J; Singer, H S

    1994-04-01

    Self-awareness of behavioral or emotional problems was examined in 25 children and adolescents with tic disorders by comparing the Youth, Parent, and Teacher forms of the Child Behavior Checklist. In general, their parents reported a significant number of deviant behaviors which were denied by the patients.

  8. Impacts of Autistic Behaviors, Emotional and Behavioral Problems on Parenting Stress in Caregivers of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Yen, Hsui-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Ying-Dar; Chen, Kuan-Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of autistic behaviors and individual emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism. Caregivers were interviewed with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index Short Form. Results revealed…

  9. Behavioral Approach-Inhibition in Toddlers: Prediction From Infancy, Positive and Negative Affective Components, and Relations With Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Samuel P.; Stifter, Cynthia A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, 126 children were observed at 6 months, 12 months, and 2 years. During infancy, latencies to reach for novel objects were measured. At 2 years, positive and negative affect, and behavioral approach-inhibition to low- and high-intensity situations were coded, and mothers assessed behavior problems. Confirmatory factor analysis…

  10. Environmental Correlates of Gambling Behavior among College Students: A Partial Application of Problem Behavior Theory to Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwire, Emerson M., Jr.; McCausland, Claudia; Whelan, James P.; Luellen, Jason; Meyers, Andrew W.; Studaway, Adrienne

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relation between gambling behavior among college students and the perceived environment, the component of problem behavior theory (Jessor & Jessor, 1977) that assesses the ways that youth perceive their parents and peers. Two hundred and thirty-three ethnically diverse undergraduates at a large urban public university…

  11. Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

  12. International Comparisons of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Preschool Children: Parents’ Reports From 24 Societies

    OpenAIRE

    Rescorla, Leslie A.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Harder, Valerie S.; Otten, Laura; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Döpfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michel; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese

    2011-01-01

    International comparisons were conducted of preschool children’s behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½–5 by parents in 24 societies (N =19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–oriented scales; a Stress Problems scale; and Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems scales. Effect sizes for scale score differences among the 24 societies ranged from small to med...

  13. Emotional And Behavioral Problems of Single Parent Vs. Two Parent Children: Imam Khomeini Charity

    OpenAIRE

    Hajebi, A; L Panaghy; M Hakim Shooshtray; Sh Abedi

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this survey is to compare the emotional and behavioral problems of children with only one parent versus those from two-parent families. We analyzed behavioral problems such as aggression, delinquency and socialization issues, as well as emotional problems such as depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints.Methods: Using a multi-stage cluster sampling, 10 of the 20 geographic regions covered by Imam Khomeini Charity were selected. Using systematic random sampling, 460 f...

  14. Low blood zinc, iron, and other sociodemographic factors associated with behavior problems in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Hanlon, Alexandra; Ma, Chenjuan; Zhao, Sophie R; Cao, Siyuan; Compher, Charlene

    2014-01-27

    Previous research supports the link among malnutrition, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral outcomes; however, less research has focused on micronutrient deficiencies. This study investigates whether micronutrient deficiencies, specifically blood zinc and iron levels, will be associated with increased behavior problem scores, including internalizing and externalizing behaviors. 1314 Children (55% boys and 45% girls) from the Jintan Preschool Cohort in China participated in this study. Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for zinc and iron when the children were 3-5 years old. Behavior problems were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), which was completed by the parents when children were in their last months of preschool (mean age 5.6 years). General linear multivariate modeling was used, with adjustment for important sociodemographic variables. The results indicate that low zinc levels alone (p = 0.024) and combined low zinc and iron levels (p = 0.022) are significantly associated with increased reports of total behavior problems. We did not find an association between low iron and behavior problems. With regards to sociodemographics, living in the suburbs is associated with increased internalizing problems, while higher mother's education and being female were associated with decreased externalizing problems. This study suggests that micronutrient deficiencies and sociodemographic facts are associated with behavior problems in preschoolers.

  15. Low Blood Zinc, Iron, and Other Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Behavior Problems in Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research supports the link among malnutrition, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral outcomes; however, less research has focused on micronutrient deficiencies. This study investigates whether micronutrient deficiencies, specifically blood zinc and iron levels, will be associated with increased behavior problem scores, including internalizing and externalizing behaviors. 1314 Children (55% boys and 45% girls from the Jintan Preschool Cohort in China participated in this study. Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for zinc and iron when the children were 3–5 years old. Behavior problems were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, which was completed by the parents when children were in their last months of preschool (mean age 5.6 years. General linear multivariate modeling was used, with adjustment for important sociodemographic variables. The results indicate that low zinc levels alone (p = 0.024 and combined low zinc and iron levels (p = 0.022 are significantly associated with increased reports of total behavior problems. We did not find an association between low iron and behavior problems. With regards to sociodemographics, living in the suburbs is associated with increased internalizing problems, while higher mother’s education and being female were associated with decreased externalizing problems. This study suggests that micronutrient deficiencies and sociodemographic facts are associated with behavior problems in preschoolers.

  16. Transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and problem behavior from early childhood to early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L.; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Butner, Jonathan E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (1) how these transactions originate, (2) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (3) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth-age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803

  17. Emotion regulation as a mediator of the relation between sexual abuse and behavior problems in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Rachel; Hébert, Martine; Cossette, Louise

    2015-08-01

    Maltreated children show poor emotion regulation competencies compared to non-maltreated children. Emotion regulation has been found to mediate the association between maltreatment and behavior problems in children. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships among child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion regulation (ER), and internalized and externalized behavior problems in preschoolers using conditional process analyses. ER competencies were assessed in 127 children aged 41-79 months (62 abused, 65 non-abused) by their parents (N=124) and early childhood educators (N=88) using the Emotion Regulation Checklist (Shields & Cicchetti, 1995, 1997). Behavior problems were evaluated by parents using the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000, 2001). ER was found to completely mediate the relation between CSA and internalized behavior problems and partially mediate the relation between CSA and externalized behavior problems. Parents' and educators' evaluations of ER were also found to differ as a function of child gender. The discussion focuses on the relationships among CSA, ER, behavior problems, and child gender. The clinical implications of these findings are also examined. Promoting the optimal development of ER could prevent the emergence and exacerbation of behavior problems in these at-risk children and, in turn, foster resilience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Childhood impulsive behavior and problem gambling by adulthood: a 30-year prospective community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenassa, Edmond D; Paradis, Angela D; Dolan, Sara L; Wilhelm, Charlotte S; Buka, Stephen L

    2012-01-01

    Problem gambling can create major financial, emotional and sometimes criminal problems for an individual. This study prospectively investigated the association between impulsive behavior at age 7 and the development of life-time problem gambling by adulthood. We also examined the specificity of any observed association between impulsive behaviors and problem gambling by conducting parallel analyses examining the link between respondents' shy/depressed behavior in childhood and later problem gambling. Cohort study of 958 offspring of mothers enrolled in the Collaborative Perinatal Project who participated in an adult follow-up study at a mean age of 39.2 years. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to determine associations between psychologist-rated impulsive and shy/depressed behaviors at age 7 and life-time self-reported gambling as measured by the South Oaks Gambling Screen administered during the adult follow-up study. Children who exhibited impulsive behaviors at age 7, compared to their non-impulsive counterparts, were 3.09 (95% confidence interval: 1.40-6.82) times as likely to report problem gambling years later. In contrast, we did not find a significant association between childhood shy/depressed behavior and problem gambling by adulthood in adjusted analyses. Impulsive behaviors at age 7 are a specific and significant risk factor for later problem gambling. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Problem-based learning research in anesthesia teaching: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilkoti, G; Mohta, M; Wadhwa, R; Saxena, A K

    2014-01-01

    The teaching curriculum in anesthesia involves traditional teaching methods like topic-based didactic lectures, seminars, and journal clubs; intraoperative apprenticeship; and problem-based learning (PBL) and simulation. The advantages of incorporating PBL in anesthesia teaching include development of skills like clinical reasoning, critical thinking, and self-directed learning; in addition it also helps in developing a broader perspective of case scenarios. The present paper discusses the characteristics, key elements, and goals of PBL; various PBL methods available; lacunae in the existing knowledge of PBL research; its current status and future perspectives in anesthesia teaching.

  20. Problem-Based Learning Research in Anesthesia Teaching: Current Status and Future Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilkoti, G.; Mohta, M.; Wadhwa, R.; Saxena, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    The teaching curriculum in anesthesia involves traditional teaching methods like topic-based didactic lectures, seminars, and journal clubs; intraoperative apprenticeship; and problem-based learning (PBL) and simulation. The advantages of incorporating PBL in anesthesia teaching include development of skills like clinical reasoning, critical thinking, and self-directed learning; in addition it also helps in developing a broader perspective of case scenarios. The present paper discusses the characteristics, key elements, and goals of PBL; various PBL methods available; lacunae in the existing knowledge of PBL research; its current status and future perspectives in anesthesia teaching. PMID:24982673

  1. Behavior Problems of Psychic Nature in Shelter - Reared Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmed Yuksel Halil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the etiology, the species and the prevalence of pathoethological processes of psychic nature in sheltered dogs. The analysis was performed on the mandatory necessity of establishing the type of the dog’s temperament, in relation to the owners’ proper approach towards the specific animal, as well as its successful primary and secondary socialisation. A neurotic dog may exhibit chronic anxiety, fear, hyperactivity, obsessive behavior, and inappropriate responses to stimuli. Truly psychotic dogs, however, are deranged. Their behavior is acute and unpredictable.

  2. How Family Socioeconomic Status, Peer Behaviors, and School-Based Intervention on Healthy Habits Influence Adolescent Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Maldonado, Concepción; Ramos, Pilar; Moreno, Carmen; Rivera, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Psychologists in schools can play an important role in developing policies and programs to promote healthy eating habits. This study analyses the contributions of family socioeconomic status, peer influence (schoolmates' food consumption), and school-based nutrition interventions to explain adolescent eating behaviors. Data were obtained from the…

  3. Dimensions of callousness in early childhood: links to problem behavior and family intervention effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W; Shaw, Daniel S; Gardner, Frances; Cheong, Jeewon; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin

    2013-05-01

    This study examined dimensions of callous behaviors in early childhood and the role of these behaviors in the development of conduct problems, as well as responsiveness to a family-centered preventative intervention. Caregiver reports of callous behaviors were examined using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Problem behavior was examined using within- and cross-informant reports of these behaviors. Parenting was measured using observational methods within the context of a randomized control trial of the Family Check-Up with a sample of 731 ethnically diverse boys and girls (followed from ages 2 to 4) at high risk for later conduct problems. Results demonstrated that a measure of deceitful-callous (DC) behaviors had acceptable factor loadings and internal consistency at ages 3 and 4. DC behaviors at age 3 predicted problem behavior concurrently and longitudinally within and across informant. However, DC behaviors did not reduce the effectiveness of the family preventative intervention. These findings have implications for our understanding of behaviors that may precede later callous-unemotional traits and for our understanding of the development and prevention of early starting conduct problems.

  4. Behavioral problems in school-aged hearing-impaired children: the influence of sociodemographic, linguistic, and medical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Stephanie C P M; Rieffe, Carolien; Kouwenberg, Maartje; De Raeve, Leo J I; Soede, Wim; Briaire, Jeroen J; Frijns, Johan H M

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine several behavioral problems in school-aged hearing-impaired children with hearing aids or cochlear implants, compared to normally hearing children. Additionally, we wanted to investigate which sociodemographic, linguistic, and medical factors contributed to the level of behavioral problems, to pinpoint where targeted interventions can take place. This large, retrospective study included a sample of 261 school-aged children (mean age = 11.8 years, SD = 1.6), that consisted of three age- and gender-matched subgroups: 75 with hearing aids, 57 with cochlear implants, and 129 normally hearing controls. Self- and parent-reports concerning reactive and proactive aggression, delinquency, and symptoms of psychopathy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder were used. In addition, several language and intelligence tests were administered. Hearing-impaired children showed significantly more proactive aggression, symptoms of psychopathy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder than their normally hearing peers. More behavioral problems were associated with special schools for the deaf, sign (-supported) language, hearing aids (in contrast to cochlear implants), higher age, male gender, lower socioeconomic status, lower intelligence, and delayed language development. Hearing-impaired children face multiple problems regarding their behavior. The outcomes implicate that professionals should be aware of the higher risk of developing behavioral problems, in order to screen, detect, and treat in time. Furthermore, the associated risk and protective factors emphasize that clinicians must always consider the heterogeneity of the group of hearing-impaired children, in order to help and support the individual patient.

  5. Understanding College Students' Problems: Dysfunctional Thinking, Mental Health, and Maladaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandracchia, Jon T.; Pendleton, Shandrea

    2015-01-01

    Many college students experience mental health problems and engage in risky behavior. These problems perpetuate negative outcomes such as poor academic performance and health problems, which may ultimately result in dropping out of college. Maladaptive cognitions, such as criminogenic thinking, have been established as an important contributor to…

  6. Consistency of the Behavior Problem Checklist across Deaf, Blind, and Non-Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittjer, Carl J.; Hirshoren, Alfred

    1984-01-01

    Compares the factor structure and degree of deviance in the Behavior Problem Checklist. Regardless of the subject child's sensory handicap, the Conduct Problem and the Personality Problem factors were consistent. The pattern for the Inadequacy-Immaturity factor was much less consistent. (Author/AS)

  7. Suicide behavior in parents with alcohol abuse problems and suicide behavior in their offspring-adult offspring and counselor perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackrill, Thomas; Hesse, Morten

    2012-10-01

    Suicide behavior is relatively common in families with alcohol problems. This study explores associations between suicide behavior in parents with alcohol abuse problems and suicide behavior in their offspring. It aims to expand our understanding of the varied experiences of treatment-seeking young adults who grew up in families with alcohol problems. 344 young adult children of alcoholics (ACAs) entering a Danish center for ACA counseling were surveyed about their childhood experiences regarding their own and their parents' attempted, threatened and completed suicide behavior. Parental suicide behavior was strongly associated with parental drinking; 46% of ACAs reported parental threatened, attempted or completed suicide behavior during their childhood, 13% of ACAs reported threatening suicide themselves, 15% of ACAs reported attempting suicide themselves. At least 54% of ACAs who had attempted suicide had done so without previously threatening suicide. There was a significant association between ACAs whose parents had committed suicide and ACAs who had attempted suicide during their childhood. There was also a significant association between ACAs where both parents had suicide behavior and ACA childhood suicide behavior. The study stresses the importance of addressing and assessing the family history of suicidal behavior in ACAs seeking counseling.

  8. Social Functioning of Students with Internalizing Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ðurišic, Maša M.; Gajic, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    The school is a period of intensive development of the child, the child's socialization, creation and formation of attitudes, opinions and behavior patterns and others. During this period, the child comes in part from the protective environment of their parents and enters the world of social relations and interactions. Through interactions with…

  9. Child labor and childhood behavioral and mental health problems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: According to ILO estimates, at least 180 million children aged 5 to 14 years are currently engaged in fulltime work in the developing countries. However, very little information exists about childhood behavioral and mental disorders in Ethiopia. Objective: The objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence ...

  10. Maternal thyroid hormone trajectories during pregnancy and child behavioral problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endendijk, Joyce; Wijnen, Hennie A.a.; Pop, Victor J.m.; van Baar, Anneloes

    2017-01-01

    There is ample evidence demonstrating the importance of maternal thyroid hormones, assessed at single trimesters in pregnancy, for child cognition. Less is known, however, about the course of maternal thyroid hormone concentrations during pregnancy in relation to child behavioral development. Child

  11. Transient hypothyroxinemia of prematurity and problem behavior in young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, J.J.; Pal, S.M. van der; Verkerk, P.H.; Rotteveel, J.; Finken, M.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preterm newborns are at risk of developing transient hypothyroxinemia of prematurity (THoP), which has been associated with subsequent neurodevelopmental impairments. Behavioral outcomes at adult age after THoP have never been reported. Aim To examine whether there is an association

  12. Improving Mathematics Problem Solving Skills for Students with Challenging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Peter J.; Wyrick, Amanda; Brown, E. Todd; Lingo, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that there is a reciprocal relationship between challenging behavior and poor academic performance and that this relationship will have a lifelong negative impact on individuals caught in this detrimental cycle. New interventions continue to be reported in the literature describing more effective ways to implement academic…

  13. Poor mental health status and aggression are associated with poor driving behavior among male traffic offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoli N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nasrin Abdoli,1,2 Vahid Farnia,3 Ali Delavar,4 Alirez Esmaeili,5 Fariborz Dortaj,4 Noorali Farrokhi,4 Majid Karami,6 Jalal Shakeri,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,7 Serge Brand7,8 1International University of Imam Reza, Mashhad, 2Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 3Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Psychiatry Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 4Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, 5Police University, Tehran, 6Baharestan Research Center, Kermanshah Transportation Terminal, Kermanshah, Iran, 7Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, 8Department of Sport and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally driver behavior rather than either technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In the present study, we explored the extent to which aggressive traits, health status, and sociodemographic variables explain driving behavior among Iranian male traffic offenders. Method: A total of 443 male driving offenders (mean age: M =31.40 years, standard deviation =9.56 from Kermanshah (Iran took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering sociodemographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results: Poor health status, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction, and also higher levels of trait aggression explained poor driving behavior. Multiple regressions indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion: Results suggest that health status concerns are associated with poor driving behavior. Prevention and intervention might therefore focus on drivers reporting poor mental health status

  14. Supermarket Choice, Shopping Behavior, Socioeconomic Status, and Food Purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Both SES and supermarket choice have been associated with diet quality. This study aimed to assess the contributions of supermarket choice and shopping behaviors to the healthfulness of purchases and social patterning in purchases. Observational panel data on purchases of fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages from 2010 were obtained for 24,879 households, stratified by occupational social class (analyzed in 2014). Households' supermarket choice was determined by whether they ever visited market-defined high- or low-price supermarkets. Analyses also explored extent of use within supermarket choice groups. Shopping behaviors included trip frequency, trip size, and number of store chains visited. Households using low-price (and not high-price) supermarkets purchased significantly lower percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables and higher percentages of energy from less-healthy foods/beverages than households using high-price (and not low-price) supermarkets. When controlling for SES and shopping behaviors, the effect of supermarket choice was reduced but remained significant for both fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages. The extent of use of low- or high-price supermarkets had limited effects on outcomes. More-frequent trips and fewer small trips were associated with healthier purchasing for both outcomes; visiting more store chains was associated with higher percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables. Although both supermarket choice and shopping behaviors are associated with healthfulness of purchases, neither appears to contribute to socioeconomic differences. Moreover, differences between supermarket environments may not be primary drivers of the relationship between supermarket choice and healthfulness of purchases. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Problems of the Status of British Troops in Egypt After the Occupation in 1882

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khizriev Ali Khizrievich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the issues of defining the status of the British occupational troops in Egypt from 1882 to 1922 and the diplomatic struggle of the great European states of that time over this problem. This whole problem is described in detail in its development since the establishment of the “veiled protectorate” designed to hide the true purpose of the British Government in the region, to the formal approval of the Protectorate status of the British Empire. It attempts to find the motives and methods of management of the British Foreign Office in this difficult situation considering counter of such powers as Russia and France. Herewith it provides data from the archives of the British Foreign Office, confirming all these facts. The evidences of the contemporaries of those events – Lord Milner and Cromer – who were representatives of the occupation authorities and published their memoirs, complete the picture. In addition to these documents we used the archival materials of India Records Office in the British Library. All these sources indicate that the official declaration of the Protectorate in 1914 only temporarily solved the problems creating additional difficulties for those officials who were responsible for the situation in the country. This decision allowed the British officials to conceal the explicit nature of the occupation and the British military presence in the Suez Canal zone. However, such policy aroused some problems, which led to a new round of the Egyptian national liberation movement in the future, and needed new solutions which were made only after the World War I and the fall of the Ottoman Empire.

  16. Temperament in infancy and behavioral and emotional problems at age 5.5: The EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulizi, Xian; Pryor, Laura; Michel, Grégory; Melchior, Maria; van der Waerden, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Early temperamental characteristics may influence children's developmental pathways and predict future psychopathology. However, the environmental context may also shape or interact with infant temperament and indirectly contribute to increased vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study is to explore the long-term contribution of temperamental traits at twelve months of age to the presence of emotional and behavioral problems later in childhood, and whether this association varies with the child's sex, parental separation, family socioeconomic status and maternal depression. 1184 mother-child pairs from the EDEN mother-child birth cohort study based in France (2003-2011), were followed from 24-28 weeks of pregnancy to the child's fifth birthday. Infant temperament at 12 months was assessed with the Emotionality Activity and Sociability (EAS) questionnaire and behavior at 5.5 years was assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Emotional temperament in infancy predicts children's overall behavioral scores (β = 1.16, pemotional difficulties (β = 0.30, pemotional problems (β = 0.22, p = 0.04). The association between the child's temperament in infancy and later behavior did not vary with children's own or family characteristics. An emotional temperament in infancy is associated with higher levels of emotional and behavioral difficulties at the age of 5.5 years. Children who show high emotionality early on may require early prevention and intervention efforts to divert possible adverse developmental pathways.

  17. Joint Trajectories of Symptoms of Disruptive Behavior Problems and Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence and Adjustment Problems during Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Eddy, J. Mark; Dishion, Thomas J.; Reid, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The joint, longitudinal trajectories of symptoms of disruptive behavior problems and of depression were examined in a community sample drawn from neighborhoods with elevated rates of delinquency. Growth mixture modeling was applied to a 6 year transition period from childhood to adolescence, age 10 to 16 years, to identify latent classes of…

  18. Nutritional status and social behavior in preschool children: the mediating effects of neurocognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    Early malnutritional status has been associated with reduced cognitive ability in childhood. However, there are almost no studies on the effect of malnutrition on positive social behavior, and no tests of possible mediating mechanisms. This study tests the hypothesis that poor nutritional status is associated with impaired social functioning in childhood, and that neurocognitive ability mediates this relationship. We assessed 1553 male and female 3-year-olds from a birth cohort on measures of malnutrition, social behavior and verbal and spatial neurocognitive functions. Children with indicators of malnutrition showed impaired social behavior (p nutritional status. These associations even persisted after controlling for social adversity and parental education. Findings were not moderated by gender or ethnicity, and there was no interaction effect with parental education. A dose-response relationship was observed between degree of malnutrition and degree of social behavior, with increased malnutrition associated with more impaired social behavior. Neurocognitive ability was found to mediate the nutrition-social behavior relationship. The mediation effect of neurocognitive functioning suggests that poor nutrition negatively impacts brain areas that play important roles in developing positive social behavior. Findings suggest that reducing poor nutrition, alternatively promoting good nutrition, may help promote positive social behavior in early childhood during a critical period for social and neurocognitive development, with implications for improving positive health in adulthood. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Personality Development and Problem Behavior in Russian Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore child and adolescent personality in the Russian culture, addressing gender and age differences, and to examine personality and family effects on children's Internalizing and Externalizing problems. Parents of 1,640 Russian children aged 3-18 years completed the Inventory of Child Individual Differences…

  20. Continuities in Problem Behavior among High Risk Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Poythress, Norman; Meyers, Kathleen; Cook, Brittany; Schmeidler, James

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of a test of a structural model reflecting the longitudinal relationships of psychosocial problems among youths involved in a Center for Substance Abuse Treatment funded clinical trial for juveniles that participated in a diversion program. The project is evaluating the efficacy of an intensive 16-week case management service…

  1. Factors predicting Behavior Management Problems during Initial Dental Examination in Children Aged 2 to 8 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Arun; Kumar, Dipanshu; Anand, Ashish; Mittal, Vipula; Singh, Aparna; Aggarwal, Nidhi

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to identify the various background variables and its influence on behavior management problems (BMP) in children. Materials and methods The study included 165 children aged 2 to 8 years. During the initial dental visit, an experienced operator obtained each child?s background variables from accompanying guardians using a standardized questionnaire. Children?s dental behavior was rated by Frankel behavior rating scale. The behavior was then analyzed in rela...

  2. Gender Differences in the Effects of Behavioral Problems on School Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Smith, Nina

    that most of the gender differences in Reading and Math cannot be related to gender differences in behavioral problems. The large overall gender gap in Reading seems mainly to be the result of gender differences between children without behavioral problems living in 'normal families', i.e. families which......Behavioral problems are important determinants of school outcomes and later success in the labor market. We analyze whether behavioral problems affect girls and boys differently with respect to school outcomes. The study is based on teacher and parent evaluations of the Strength and Difficulties...... Questionnaire (SDQ) of about 6,000 children born in 1990-92 in a large region in Denmark. The sample is merged with register information on parents and students observed until the age of 19. We find significant and large negative coefficients of the externalizing behavioral indicators. The effects tend...

  3. Parent Psychological Functioning and Communication Predict Externalizing Behavior Problems After Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Stacey P.; Cassedy, Amy; Taylor, H. Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Brown, Tanya M.; Kirkwood, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Adolescents sustaining traumatic brain injury (TBI) show increased prevalence of behavior problems. This study investigated the associations of parent mental health, family functioning, and parent–adolescent interaction with adolescent externalizing behavior problems in the initial months after TBI, and examined whether injury severity moderated these associations. Methods 117 parent–adolescent dyads completed measures of family functioning, adolescent behavior, and parent mental health an average of 108 days post-TBI. Dyads also engaged in a 10-min video-recorded problem-solving activity coded for parent behavior and tone of interaction. Results Overall, higher ratings of effective parent communication were associated with fewer externalizing behavior problems, whereas poorer caregiver psychological functioning was associated with greater adolescent externalizing behaviors. Results failed to reveal moderating effects of TBI severity on the relationship between socio-environmental factors and behavior problems. Conclusions Interventions targeting parent communication and/or improving caregiver psychological health may ameliorate potential externalizing behavior problems after adolescent TBI. PMID:24065551

  4. [Regulation of Positive and Negative Emotions as Mediator between Maternal Emotion Socialization and Child Problem Behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fäsche, Anika; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated five to six year old children's ability to regulate negative and positive emotions in relation to psychosocial problem behavior (N=53). It was explored, whether mothers' supportive and nonsupportive strategies of emotion socialization influence children's problem behavior by shaping their emotion regulation ability. Mothers reported on children's emotion regulation and internalizing and externalizing problem behavior via questionnaire, and were interviewed about their preferences for socialization strategies in response to children's expression of negative affect. Results showed that children with more adaptive expression of adequate positive emotions had less internalizing behavior problems. When children showed more control of inadequate negative emotions, children were less internalizing as well as externalizing in their behavior. Furthermore, results indicated indirect relations of mothers' socialization strategies with children's problem behavior. Control of inadequate negative emotions mediated the link between non-supportive strategies on externalizing problem behavior. Results suggest that emotion regulatory processes should be part of interventions to reduce the development of problematic behavior in young children. Parents should be trained in dealing with children's emotions in a constructive way.

  5. Can parenting practices predict externalizing behavior problems among children with hearing impairment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Pino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify possible differences in the level of externalizing behavior problems among children with and without hearing impairment and determine whether any relationship exists between this type of problem and parenting practices. Methods: The Behavior Assessment System for Children was used to evaluate externalizing variables in a sample of 118 boys and girls divided into two matched groups: 59 with hearing disorders and 59 normal-hearing controls. Results: Significant between-group differences were found in hyperactivity, behavioral problems, and externalizing problems, but not in aggression. Significant differences were also found in various aspects of parenting styles. A model for predicting externalizing behavior problems was constructed, achieving a predicted explained variance of 50%. Conclusion: Significant differences do exist between adaptation levels in children with and without hearing impairment. Parenting style also plays an important role.

  6. Can parenting practices predict externalizing behavior problems among children with hearing impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, María J; Castillo, Rosa A; Raya, Antonio; Herruzo, Javier

    2017-11-09

    To identify possible differences in the level of externalizing behavior problems among children with and without hearing impairment and determine whether any relationship exists between this type of problem and parenting practices. The Behavior Assessment System for Children was used to evaluate externalizing variables in a sample of 118 boys and girls divided into two matched groups: 59 with hearing disorders and 59 normal-hearing controls. Significant between-group differences were found in hyperactivity, behavioral problems, and externalizing problems, but not in aggression. Significant differences were also found in various aspects of parenting styles. A model for predicting externalizing behavior problems was constructed, achieving a predicted explained variance of 50%. Significant differences do exist between adaptation levels in children with and without hearing impairment. Parenting style also plays an important role.

  7. Internet use and video gaming predict problem behavior in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Peter; Appel, Markus

    2011-02-01

    In early adolescence, the time spent using the Internet and video games is higher than in any other present-day age group. Due to age-inappropriate web and gaming content, the impact of new media use on teenagers is a matter of public and scientific concern. Based on current theories on inappropriate media use, a study was conducted that comprised 205 adolescents aged 10-14 years (Md = 13). Individuals were identified who showed clinically relevant problem behavior according to the problem scales of the Youth Self Report (YSR). Online gaming, communicational Internet use, and playing first-person shooters were predictive of externalizing behavior problems (aggression, delinquency). Playing online role-playing games was predictive of internalizing problem behavior (including withdrawal and anxiety). Parent-child communication about Internet activities was negatively related to problem behavior. Copyright © 2010 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Longitudinal associations between cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization and problem behavior and mental health problems in young Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kotevski, Aneta; Heerde, Jessica A

    2015-02-01

    To investigate associations between Grade 9 and 10 cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization and Grade 11 problem behavior and mental health problems after controlling for risk factors for these outcomes in the analyses. The sample comprised 927 students from Victoria, Australia who completed a modified version of the self-report Communities That Care Youth Survey in Grades 9-11 to report on risk factors, traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, problem behavior, and mental health. Complete data on over 650 participants were analyzed. Five per cent of Grade 9 and 10 students reported cyber-bullying perpetration only, 6-8% reported victimization only, and 8-9% both cyber-bullied others and were cyber-bullied. Results showed that cyber-bullying others in Grade 10 was associated with theft in Grade 11, cyber-victimization in Grade 10 was linked with Grade 11 depressive symptoms, and Grade 10 cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization combined predicted Grade 11 school suspension and binge drinking. Prevention approaches that target traditional and cyber-bullying, and established risk factors are necessary. Such multi-faceted programs may also reduce problem behavior and mental health problems.

  9. Influence of Classroom and School Climate on Teacher Perceptions of Student Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brennan, Lindsey M; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Furlong, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    Reducing student problem behavior remains a leading concern for school staff, as disruptive and aggressive behavior interferes with student achievement and the school climate. However, the multi-systemic nature of schools makes it difficult for researchers and practitioners to identify factors influencing to students' behavior. The current study examined student problem behavior through an ecological lens by taking into account individual (e.g., gender, ethnicity, prosocial behavior), classroom (e.g., class size, average classroom behavior), and school-level factors (e.g., location, school climate). Using data from 37 elementary schools, 467 classrooms, and 8,750 students, a series of hierarchical linear models was tested. Multilevel analyses revealed that while individual student characteristics had the largest influence on problem behavior, average prosocial behavior and concentration problems of students within the classroom, as well as teacher perceptions of the school climate significantly related to how students behaved. These findings support the use of classroom-based intervention programs to reduce student problem behavior.

  10. From childhood adversity to problem behaviors: Role of psychological and structural social integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Lo-Hsin; Tsai, Meng-Che; Liang, Ya-Lun; Strong, Carol; Lin, Chung-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Childhood adversity (CA) is associated with problem behaviors in adolescence, but the mediators, that is, those factors that help build resilience and prevent some children who experience CA from engaging in problem behaviors, await more exploration, including social integration. The aim of this study was to identify the association between CA and adolescent problem behaviors, and to further examine the mediating role of social integration distinctly as psychological and structural integration. Data used were from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey, a core panel of 4,261 students (age 13) surveyed in 2001 and followed for three more waves until age 18. For psychological integration, an average score was calculated to represent adolescents' feelings about their school. Structural integration was constructed using several items about adolescents' school and extracurricular activities. We used structural equation modeling with the diagonally weighted least squares method to examine the effect of CA on the primary outcome: adolescent problem behaviors via social integration. The hypothesized structural equation model specifying the path from CA to adolescent problem behavior had good fit. Respondents with one CA were indirectly linked to problem behaviors via psychological but not structural integration (e.g. the level of participation in school and non-school activities). On mediation analysis, psychological integration significantly mediated the paths from one CA to all six problem behaviors (all P integration; two or more CA were not associated with significant paths to problem behaviors. The contribution of social integration is crucial to an adolescent's development from CA to problem behaviors. To form supportive social relationships to achieve better health, we suggest that those adolescents who have been exposed to CA should be helped to join more teams and take part in more activities, thereby increasing their opportunities for social interaction, and improving

  11. Light phase testing of social behaviors: not a problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Yang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The rich repertoire of mouse social behaviors makes it possible to use mouse models to study neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits. The fact that mice are naturally nocturnal animals raises a critical question of whether behavioral experiments should be strictly conducted in the dark phase and whether light phase testing is a major methodologically mistake. Although mouse social tasks have been performed in both phases in different laboratories, there seems to be no general consensus on whether testing phase is a critical factor or not. A recent study from our group showed remarkably similar social scores obtained from inbred mice tested in the light and the dark phase, providing evidence that light phase testing could yield reliable results as robust as dark phase testing for the sociability test. Here we offer a comprehensive review on mouse social behaviors measured in light and dark phases and explain why it is reasonable to test laboratory mice in experimental social tasks in the light phase.

  12. [A prospective cohort study on injuries among school-age children with and without behavior problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying-chun; Ni, Jin-fa; Tao, Fang-biao; Wu, Xi-ke

    2003-08-01

    To study the annual incidence of injuries and the relationship between behavior problems and injuries among school-age children. A prospective cohort study on injuries for 1-year follow-up period was conducted among 2 005 school-age children selected by cluster sampling from three primary schools in Maanshan city. They subjects were divided into two groups with or without exposure according to behavior problems rated by the Rutter Child Behavior Questionnaire at the beginning of the study. Nonparametric test was performed to analyze the differences in injuries between the two groups of children, and the influential factors for injuries were analyzed with multi-classification ordinal response variable logistic regression model. The overall incidence rate for injuries in school-age children was 42.51%, while among children with and without behavior problems were 64.87% and 38.85%, respectively. There were significant differences between the two groups (u = -6.054, P = 0.000). However, the incidence rates of injuries in school-age children with antisocial (A) behavior, neurotic (N) behavior and mixed (M) behavior were 66.99%, 67.41% and 61.40%, respectively. No significant differences were found among them (u(A,N) = -0.052, P = 0.958; u(A,M) = -0.400, P = 0.689; u(N,M) = -0.364, P = 0.716). Multivariate analysis indicated that injuries in school-age children were associated with children behavior problems, maternal age at childbirth, bad conditions during mother pregnancy, education background of mother, prevention measures for safety at home and the child accompanied to travel between school and home by adults. Behavior problems of children seemed to be the major risk factors for injuries. Children with behavior problems represented a significant risk group for injuries among school-age children. When planning intervention strategies on injuries, behavior problems should be emphasized to ensure optimal effectiveness of intervention.

  13. Social status modulates prosocial behavior and egalitarianism in preschool children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinote, Ana; Cotzia, Ioanna; Sandhu, Sanpreet; Siwa, Pramila

    2015-01-20

    Humans are a cooperative species, capable of altruism and the creation of shared norms that ensure fairness in society. However, individuals with different educational, cultural, economic, or ethnic backgrounds differ in their levels of social investment and endorsement of egalitarian values. We present four experiments showing that subtle cues to social status (i.e., prestige and reputation in the eyes of others) modulate prosocial orientation. The experiments found that individuals who experienced low status showed more communal and prosocial behavior, and endorsed more egalitarian life goals and values compared with those who experienced high status. Behavioral differences across high- and low-status positions appeared early in human ontogeny (4-5 y of age).

  14. The Intergenerational Association Between Parents' Problem Gambling and Impulsivity-Hyperactivity/Inattention Behaviors in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E

    2017-11-04

    Despite the well-established association between problem gambling and ADHD core categories of impulsivity-hyperactivity and inattention, the link between parents' problem gambling and impulsivity-hyperactivity/inattention (IH/I) behaviors in children has not been investigated. This study investigated the association between parents' problem gambling and children's IH/I behaviors while controlling for potential confounding variables. A population-based prospective cohort followed-up from kindergarten to age 30, the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC), provided data over three generations. Among 1358 participants at age 30, parents with a child aged 1 year or older (N = 468; Mean age = 4.65 years; SD = 2.70) were selected. Generalized Linear Models included measures of grandparents' and parents' problem gambling, parents' IH/I behaviors in childhood, and a host of risk factors and comorbidities to predict IH/I in children. Intergenerational bivariate associations were observed between grandparents' problem gambling, parents' IH/I in childhood and problem gambling at age 30, and between parents' IH/I, problem gambling, and children's IH/I behaviors. Parents' problem gambling predicted children's IH/I behaviors above and beyond the effects of covariates such as family and socioeconomic characteristics, alcohol and drug use, depression symptoms and parents' gambling involvement. Parents' IH/I behaviors in childhood also predicted children's IH/I and had a moderating, enhancing effect on parents' problem gambling association with their offspring's IH/I behaviors. Problem gambling is a characteristic of parents' mental health that is distinctively associated with children's IH/I behaviors, above and beyond parents' own history of IH/I and of typically related addictive, psychopathological or socioeconomic risk factors and comorbidities.

  15. Do Sedentary Behaviors Modify the Health Status of Older Adults?

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    Elizabeth K. Lenz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests sedentary behavior (SB negatively impacts the health of adults but less is known about SB impact on older adult (OA health.  Seventy OA (73.4±6years living in the southeast region of Wisconsin, United States of America (USA completed three SB diaries and had risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD assessed. Sedentary behaviors were quantified as time spent in sitting/lying activities. Pearson correlation coefficients, independent samples t-tests, and one-way ANOVA were performed to explore the relationship between SB and health. Older adults engaged in 620.3±91.2mins/d of SB with television watching (144.3±99.8mins/d being the most prominent. Total SB and television watching were correlated to multiple risk factors for CVD (r=-.241-.415, p=.009-.027 and these variables worsened as OA spent more time in those activities. Television watching was the only SB that increased across risk categories of CVD [F (2,67 =4.158, p=.020, eta squared=.11]. These results suggest SB, especially television watching to be related to risk factors of CVD in OA.

  16. Using Video to Bridge the Gap Between Problem Behavior and a Delayed Time-out Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppage, Sara; Meindl, James N

    2017-09-01

    Treatment plans focused on problem behavior often include punishment contingencies to decrease problem behavior. Immediate punishers are typically more effective than delayed punishers, but immediate delivery of a punisher is not always possible. Strategies need to be developed to increase the suppressive effects of delayed punishers. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of a treatment package involving replaying a video recording of problem behavior immediately before delivering a 15 min delayed time-out. This treatment package may prove to be an accessible and inexpensive strategy when using delayed punishers.

  17. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhaidat F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatin Mhaidat Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan Abstract: This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. Keywords: adaptive problems, female teenage refugees, behavioral adjustment

  18. Behavior problems and prevalence of asthma symptoms among Brazilian children

    OpenAIRE

    Feitosa, Caroline Alves; Santos, Darci N.; Carmo, Maria Beatriz Barreto do; Santos, Letícia Marques dos; Teles, Carlos A. S.; Rodrigues, Laura C.; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2011-01-01

    Acesso ao resumo: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21843751 Objective: Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood and has been designated a public health problem due to the increase in its prevalence in recent decades, the amount of health service expenditure it absorbs and an absence of consensus about its etiology. The relationships among psychosocial factors and the occurrence, symptomatology, and severity of asthma have recently been considered. There is still controversy...

  19. HUBUNGAN STATUS DAN KONSUMSI GIZI SEBAGAI CONSUMTIVE BEHAVIOR SOSIAL EKONOMI TERHADAP BESARAN INDEKS DMFT

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    Niniek Lely Pratiwi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on house hold survei in 2001 it showed that the community behavior in maintaining dental health was still low. The dental condition of the people who complained of having dental problem was very bad, which was shown by the fact that from out of 6-7 teeth which were in bad condition, 4-5 teeth had already been pulled out. Methods: Data were based on the Riskesdas year 2007. The dependent variables were DMFT data in ordinal scales. The independent variables were the nutritional and consumption status, central obese, socioeconomic factors data in nominal scales. Multivariate analysis was done by ordinal regression. Results: Results indicated that the nutritional and consumption status, central obese; socioeconomic faktors: age, sex, household expenditure per capita, Jobs description were significantly associated toDMFT index p = 0.000 (p < 0.05, pada a< 0.05. Recommendation: Socialitation of dental health education was important enhance the awareness brushing teeth correctly and on right times. Socialization of using a pasta maintaining fluoride was for people to all various age group especially for female, because of female was much time for a message dental health education at family especially for a children. Dental health education was important enhance the awareness brushing teeth correctly and on right times for a pregnant women besides a comsumption calsium is enough to construct for bone and teeth was to sustain caries. It was also needed to encourage the important comsumption fruits and vegetable 5 a cup per ones day for a becomes system value of community. Key words: Index DMFT, Nutritional and Consumtive States, Socioeconomic factors

  20. Temperament in infancy and behavioral and emotional problems at age 5.5: The EDEN mother-child cohort.

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    Xian Abulizi

    Full Text Available Early temperamental characteristics may influence children's developmental pathways and predict future psychopathology. However, the environmental context may also shape or interact with infant temperament and indirectly contribute to increased vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study is to explore the long-term contribution of temperamental traits at twelve months of age to the presence of emotional and behavioral problems later in childhood, and whether this association varies with the child's sex, parental separation, family socioeconomic status and maternal depression.1184 mother-child pairs from the EDEN mother-child birth cohort study based in France (2003-2011, were followed from 24-28 weeks of pregnancy to the child's fifth birthday. Infant temperament at 12 months was assessed with the Emotionality Activity and Sociability (EAS questionnaire and behavior at 5.5 years was assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ.Emotional temperament in infancy predicts children's overall behavioral scores (β = 1.16, p<0.001, emotional difficulties (β = 0.30, p<0.001, conduct problems (β = 0.51, p<0.001 and symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention (β = 0.31, p = 0.01 at 5.5 years. Infants' active temperament predicts later conduct problems (β = 0.30, p = 0.02, while shyness predicts later emotional problems (β = 0.22, p = 0.04. The association between the child's temperament in infancy and later behavior did not vary with children's own or family characteristics.An emotional temperament in infancy is associated with higher levels of emotional and behavioral difficulties at the age of 5.5 years. Children who show high emotionality early on may require early prevention and intervention efforts to divert possible adverse developmental pathways.

  1. Speech comprehension and emotional/behavioral problems in children with specific language impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregl, Ana; Kirigin, Marin; Bilać, Snjeiana; Sućeska Ligutić, Radojka; Jaksić, Nenad; Jakovljević, Miro

    2014-09-01

    This research aims to investigate differences in speech comprehension between children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their developmentally normal peers, and the relationship between speech comprehension and emotional/behavioral problems on Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Caregiver Teacher's Report Form (C-TRF) according to the DSMIV The clinical sample comprised 97preschool children with SLI, while the peer sample comprised 60 developmentally normal preschool children. Children with SLI had significant delays in speech comprehension and more emotional/behavioral problems than peers. In children with SLI, speech comprehension significantly correlated with scores on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems (CBCL and C-TRF), and Pervasive Developmental Problems scales (CBCL)(pspeech comprehension significantly correlated with scores on Affective Problems and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems (C-TRF) scales. Regression analysis showed that 12.8% of variance in speech comprehension is saturated with 5 CBCL variables, of which Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity (beta = -0.281) and Pervasive Developmental Problems (beta = -0.280) are statistically significant (p speech comprehension, (beta = -0.270, p speech comprehension, problems with attention and hyperactivity, and pervasive developmental problems. This study confirms the importance of triage for behavioral problems and attention training in the rehabilitation of children with SLI and children with normal language development that exhibit ADHD symptoms.

  2. Adolescent Pathways to Co-Occurring Problem Behavior: The Effects of Peer Delinquency and Peer Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Hawkins, J. David; Brown, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    Delinquency and substance use are more likely to co-occur in adolescence compared to earlier and later developmental periods. The present study examined developmental pathways to co-occurring problem behavior from 6th-10th grade (N=2,002), testing how peer delinquency and substance use were linked to transitioning between abstaining, delinquency, substance use, and co-occurring problem behavior. Developmentally, most youth transition from abstinence to delinquent behavior, and then escalate to co-occurring problem behavior. Once co-occurring problem behavior onsets, remitting to single problem behavior or abstinence is unlikely. The impact of peers on problem behavior are domain specific when individuals transition from abstaining to a single problem behavior, but are more general with respect to escalation of and desistance from problem behavior. PMID:25506186

  3. Maximizing the potential of early childhood education to prevent externalizing behavior problems: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Holly S; Kholoptseva, Jenya; Oh, Soojin S; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine A; Shonkoff, Jack P

    2015-06-01

    Early childhood education (ECE) programs offer a promising mechanism for preventing early externalizing behavior problems and later antisocial behavior; yet, questions remain about how to best maximize ECE's potential. Using a meta-analytic database of 31 studies, we examined the overall effect of ECE on externalizing behavior problems and the differential effects of 3 levels of practice, each with increasing specificity and intensity aimed at children's social and emotional development. In short, we found that each successive level of programs did a better job than the prior level at reducing externalizing behavior problems. Level 1 programs, or those without a clear focus on social and emotional development, had no significant effects on externalizing behavior problems relative to control groups (ES=.13 SD, p<.10). On the other hand, level 2 programs, or those with a clear but broad focus on social and emotional development, were significantly associated with modest decreases in externalizing behavior problems relative to control groups (ES=-.10 SD, p<.05). Hence, level 2 programs were significantly better at reducing externalizing behavior problems than level 1 programs (ES=-.23 SD, p<.01). Level 3 programs, or those that more intensively targeted children's social and emotional development, were associated with additional significant reductions in externalizing behavior problems relative to level 2 programs (ES=-.26 SD, p<.05). The most promising effects came from level 3 child social skills training programs, which reduced externalizing behavior problems half of a standard deviation more than level 2 programs (ES=-.50 SD, p<.05). Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinically significant behavior problems among young children 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

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    Takeo Fujiwara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On March 11, 2011, a massive undersea earthquake and tsunami struck East Japan. Few studies have investigated the impact of exposure to a natural disaster on preschool children. We investigated the association of trauma experiences during the Great East Japan Earthquake on clinically significant behavior problems among preschool children 2 years after the earthquake. METHOD: Participants were children who were exposed to the 2011 disaster at preschool age (affected area, n = 178; unaffected area, n = 82. Data were collected from September 2012 to June 2013 (around 2 years after the earthquake, thus participants were aged 5 to 8 years when assessed. Severe trauma exposures related to the earthquake (e.g., loss of family members were assessed by interview, and trauma events in the physical environment related to the earthquake (e.g. housing damage, and other trauma exposure before the earthquake, were assessed by questionnaire. Behavior problems were assessed by caregivers using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, which encompasses internalizing, externalizing, and total problems. Children who exceeded clinical cut-off of the CBCL were defined as having clinically significant behavior problems. RESULTS: Rates of internalizing, externalizing, and total problems in the affected area were 27.7%, 21.2%, and 25.9%, respectively. The rate ratio suggests that children who lost distant relatives or friends were 2.36 times more likely to have internalizing behavior problems (47.6% vs. 20.2%, 95% CI: 1.10-5.07. Other trauma experiences before the earthquake also showed significant positive association with internalizing, externalizing, and total behavior problems, which were not observed in the unaffected area. CONCLUSIONS: One in four children still had behavior problems even 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Children who had other trauma experiences before the earthquake were more likely to have behavior problems. These

  5. Clinically significant behavior problems among young children 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Yagi, Junko; Homma, Hiroaki; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Nagao, Keizo; Okuyama, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, a massive undersea earthquake and tsunami struck East Japan. Few studies have investigated the impact of exposure to a natural disaster on preschool children. We investigated the association of trauma experiences during the Great East Japan Earthquake on clinically significant behavior problems among preschool children 2 years after the earthquake. Participants were children who were exposed to the 2011 disaster at preschool age (affected area, n = 178; unaffected area, n = 82). Data were collected from September 2012 to June 2013 (around 2 years after the earthquake), thus participants were aged 5 to 8 years when assessed. Severe trauma exposures related to the earthquake (e.g., loss of family members) were assessed by interview, and trauma events in the physical environment related to the earthquake (e.g. housing damage), and other trauma exposure before the earthquake, were assessed by questionnaire. Behavior problems were assessed by caregivers using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), which encompasses internalizing, externalizing, and total problems. Children who exceeded clinical cut-off of the CBCL were defined as having clinically significant behavior problems. Rates of internalizing, externalizing, and total problems in the affected area were 27.7%, 21.2%, and 25.9%, respectively. The rate ratio suggests that children who lost distant relatives or friends were 2.36 times more likely to have internalizing behavior problems (47.6% vs. 20.2%, 95% CI: 1.10-5.07). Other trauma experiences before the earthquake also showed significant positive association with internalizing, externalizing, and total behavior problems, which were not observed in the unaffected area. One in four children still had behavior problems even 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Children who had other trauma experiences before the earthquake were more likely to have behavior problems. These data will be useful for developing future interventions in

  6. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Internalizing forms of problem behavior in school-age children with mild intellectual disability

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    Brojčin Branislav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mood disorders are very frequent affective symptoms often found in children with disabilities. Even the nonclinical depression or depressive mood in children are characterized by social withdrawal and decline in self-confidence, anger or auto-destructive behavior, as well as decrease in academic achievement. The objective of this research is to determine the prevalence of elevated expression of internalizing behavior in children with mild intellectual disability and to perceive elevated expression association of this form of problem behavior with chronological age, gender, IQ, speech comprehension and speech production of the participants. Subscale used to assess level of internalizing types of problem behavior, which is part of the teacher's Problem Behavior Rating Scale, of the Social Skills Rating System was applied on 120 participants with mild intellectual disability, aged from 8 to 16. Increased level of internalizing problem behavior is found in 25% of the participants, whereas statistically significant correlation is detected only between this variable and IQ. The results obtained in this study indicate the necessity for children and youth with intellectual disability who have elevated level of problem internalization to be identified, for the purpose of undertaking proper measures to eliminate or alleviate those problems. Development of preventive programs directed to reinforce the skills, necessary for resolving emotional and social problems is advised as well.

  8. Incidence of behavior problems in toddlers and preschool children from families living in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Casey A; Fox, Robert A; Meurer, John R

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the incidence of behavior problems in toddlers and preschool children from families living in poverty. The available research suggests behavior problems occur at higher rates in children living in poverty and may have long-term negative outcomes if not identified and properly treated. This study included an ethnically representative sample of 357 children, five years of age and younger, from a diverse, low-income, urban area. All families' incomes met the federal threshold for living in poverty. Behavior problems were assessed by parent report through a questionnaire specifically designed for low-income families. Boys and younger children were reported as demonstrating a higher rate of externalizing behaviors than girls and older children. The overall rate of children scoring at least one standard deviation above the sample's mean for challenging behaviors was 17.4% and was not related to the child's gender, age or ethnicity. This study also sampled children's positive behaviors, which is unique in studies of behavior problems. Gender and age were not related to the frequency of reported positive behaviors. Ethnicity did influence scores on the positive scale. African American children appeared to present their parents more difficulty on items reflecting cooperative behaviors than Caucasian or Latino children. The implications of the study are discussed based on the recognized need for universal screening of behavior problems in young children and the small number professional training programs targeting the identification and treatment of early childhood behavior problems, despite the availability of evidence-based treatment programs tailored to young children in low-income families.

  9. The Role of Verbal Competence and Multiple Risk on the Internalizing Behavior Problems of Costa Rican Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    CORAPCI, FEYZA; SMITH, JULIA; LOZOFF, BETSY

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined internalizing behavior problems (anxiety/depression) in early adolescence in relation to adversity in early childhood and child verbal competence. We hypothesized that verbal competence would act as a protective factor in the face of early adversity, that is, high verbal IQ would predict relatively lower internalizing problems in early adolescence primarily for those children who experienced the greatest adversity. The sample was based on 191 Costa Rican children and their mothers, who were recruited in infancy from an urban community and assessed again at 5 and 11–14 years. Families were generally lower-middle to working class. A total of 165 children (94 boys) participated in the early adolescent follow-up (mean age = 12.3 years). Internalizing problems were based on maternal report (Spanish Child Behavior Checklist). Our cumulative risk index (CRI) of adversity in early childhood consisted of home environment quality (HOME score), socioeconomic status, maternal depressed mood (CESD), and maternal IQ. Controlling for the effects of age, gender, internalizing problems at 5 years, and verbal IQ at 5 years, there was a significant interaction between early adversity and verbal IQ at age 11–14 years in predicting internalizing problems in early adolescence. Youth with high verbal IQ had comparable levels of internalizing problems regardless of high or low adversity in early childhood. In contrast, youth with low verbal IQ received higher internalizing problem ratings if they experienced high adversity early in life. The results raise the possibility that interventions to improve verbal competence might help lower the risk of internalizing problems in the face of early adversity. PMID:17347361

  10. Aggressive and Prosocial? Examining Latent Profiles of Behavior, Social Status, Machiavellianism, and Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christian; Batanova, Milena; Cance, Jessica Duncan

    2015-12-01

    The present study tests whether aggression and prosocial behavior can coexist as part of a socially functional and adaptive profile among early adolescents. Using a person-centered approach, the study examined early adolescents' likelihood of being classified into profiles involving aggressive and prosocial behavior, social status (popular, liked, cool), machiavellianism, and both affective and cognitive components of empathy (empathic concern and perspective taking, respectively). Participants were 1170 early adolescents (10-12 years of age; 52% male) from four schools in metropolitan Santiago, Chile. Through latent profile analysis, three profiles emerged (normative-low aggressive, high prosocial-low aggressive, and high aggressive-high popular status). Both empathic concern and perspective taking were higher in the high prosocial-low aggressive profile, whereas the high aggressive-high popular status profile had the lowest scores on both empathy components as well as machiavellianism. No profile emerged where aggressive and prosocial behaviors were found to co-exist, or to be significantly above the mean. The results underscore that aggressive behavior is highly contextual and likely culturally specific, and that the study of behavioral profiles should consider social status as well as socio-emotional adjustment indicators. These complex associations should be taken into consideration when planning prevention and intervention efforts to reduce aggression or school bullying and to promote positive peer relationships.

  11. Feeding Behavioral Assessment in Children with Cleft Lip and/or Palate and Parental Responses to Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpour, Marzieh; Ghazavi, Zohreh; Keshavarz, Samaneh

    2017-01-01

    Children with cleft lip and/or palate frequently experience feeding difficulties that may place them at risk of malnutrition. Parents' negative response to these problems is associated with development of problematic behaviors in the child. This study aimed to investigate feeding behavior in children with cleft lip and/or palate and parental responses to these problems. A total of 120 parents of children (aged 6 months to 6 years) with cleft lip and/or palate were recruited from the Cleft Lip and Palate Clinic in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, who gave consent and completed a two-part questionnaire through interviews. Part A of the questionnaire consisted of 25 items that evaluate children's feeding behavior during mealtimes and part B consists of 18 items that assess parental response (strategies, feelings, and anxiety) to these problems. Independent t-test showed a significant difference in the mean score of feeding behavior in mothers (P = 0.020) and parental responses in fathers (P = 0.030). The Pearson correlation coefficient showed an inverse correlation between behavioral feeding score and children's interval (P = 0.008, r = -0.381) and direct correlation between parental response and feeding behavioral difficulties (P = 0.003, r = 0.428). With regards to the results representing appropriate feeding behaviors in children with cleft lip and/or palate, it is suggested that feeding be avioral assessment is an essential nursing and nonmedical intervention for all children.

  12. Psychoeducational Services for Children and Youth in the Orient: Current Status, Problems, and some Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, T; Hu, S

    1989-01-01

    Utilizing information obtained through an international survey and existing literature, patterns in the practices, research, and preparation of professionals who deliver psychoeducational services to children and youth in six Oriental countries (i.e., China, Hong Kong(1), Japan, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Thailand) are described. Services are provided by many professional groups. While few formal programs exist for the preparation of psychologists to work in schools, those providing such services have at least a bachelor's degree. Services commonly provided include assessment, vocational and educational guidance, counseling, parent education, and teaching. School psychological services generally are not governed by legislation or professional standards. Research tends to be applied and directed toward the construction and translations of tests and toward the needs of the mentally retarded, learning disabled, and behaviorally disordered. Ten major problems creating barriers for the delivery of psychoeducational services are identified. Three suggestions to help resolve these problems are offered.

  13. Reducing Children Behavior Problems: A Pilot Study of Tuning in to Kids in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Aghaie Meybodi

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: The Tuning in to Kids program appears to be a promising parenting intervention for mothers and children with disruptive behavior problems, offering a useful addition to usual programs used in Iran.

  14. Adolescents' emotional reactions to parental cancer : effect on emotional and behavioral problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donofrio, Stacey; Hoekstra, Harald J.; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.; Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, Gea A.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.

    OBJECTIVES: We examined adolescents' emotional reactions to parental cancer and explored relationships between emotional reactions and adolescents' emotional/behavioral problems. METHODS: Two studies were performed: retrospective and prospective. A total of 221 adolescents (105 sons) of 138 patients

  15. Every child is different : differential parental treatment and adolescent problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamrouti-Makkink, Ilse Diana

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation is an important contribution to the research on differential parental treatment and adolescent problem behavior. First, it extends earlier studies by exploring possible moderating factors explaining the level of differential parental treatment and the link between differential

  16. ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions in Taiwanese children with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Ju Tsai

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Our findings imply that clinicians should assess physical and emotional/behavioral problems among children with epilepsy in order to provide interventions to offset possible adverse psychiatric outcomes.

  17. Behavioral problems and intelligence quotient changes in pediatric epilepsy: A case-control study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shyama Choudhary; N Niranjan; Satyendra Khichar; Pramod Berwal; Abhijeet Barath

    2017-01-01

    ...: To find behavioral problems and intelligence quotient (IQ) changes associated with epilepsy and to know the association of variables such as frequency, type of seizures, and duration of disease with cognitive impairment...

  18. Pervasive developmental disorder, behavior problems, and psychotropic drug use in children and adolescents with mental retardation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bildt, de A.; Mulder, E.J.; Scheers, T.; Minderaa, R.B.; Tobi, H.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study investigated the interrelationship between psychopharmacotherapy in general and the use of specific psychotropic drugs and pervasive developmental disorder and other behavior problems in children and adolescents with mental retardation. METHODS. A total of 862 participants 4 to

  19. Early Parenting, Represented Family Relationships, and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Burnson, Cynthia; Weymouth, Lindsay A.

    2015-01-01

    Through assessment of 173 preterm infants and their mothers at hospital discharge and at 9, 16, 24, 36, and 72 months, the study examined early parenting, attachment security, effortful control, and children’s representations of family relationships in relation to subsequent externalizing behavior problems. Less intrusive early parenting predicted more secure attachment, better effortful control skills, and fewer early behavior problems, although it did not directly relate to the structural or content characteristics of children’s represented family relationships. Children with higher effortful control scores at 24 months had more coherent family representations at 36 months. Moreover, children who exhibited less avoidance in their family representations at 36 months had fewer mother-reported externalizing behavior problems at 72 months. The study suggests that early parenting quality and avoidance in children’s represented relationships are important for the development of externalizing behavior problems in children born preterm. PMID:24580068

  20. Conducting Functional Communication Training via Telehealth to Reduce the Problem Behavior of Young Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, David P; Lee, John F; Padilla Dalmau, Yaniz C; Kopelman, Todd G; Lindgren, Scott D; Kuhle, Jennifer; Pelzel, Kelly E; Dyson, Shannon; Schieltz, Kelly M; Waldron, Debra B

    2013-02-01

    Functional communication training (FCT) was conducted by parents of 17 young children with autism spectrum disorders who displayed problem behavior. All procedures were conducted at regional clinics located an average of 15 miles from the families' homes. Parents received coaching via telehealth from behavior consultants who were located an average of 222 miles from the regional clinics. Parents first conducted functional analyses with telehealth consultation (Wacker, Lee, et al., in press) and then conducted FCT that was matched to the identified function of problem behavior. Parent assistants located at the regional clinics received brief training in the procedures and supported the families during the clinic visits. FCT, conducted within a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design, reduced problem behavior by an average of 93.5%. Results suggested that FCT can be conducted by parents via telehealth when experienced applied behavior analysts provide consultation.

  1. Drinking-Smoking Status and Health Risk Behaviors among High School Students in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Drinking, smoking, and health risk behaviors are significant problems for Thai adolescents. However, little is known about the association and magnitude among alcohol, tobacco, or co-using and health risk behaviors. Data of the National School Survey of 2007 were analyzed. The sample consisted of 50,033 high school and vocational college students.…

  2. INFLUENCE OF ASSESSMENT SETTING ON THE RESULTS OF FUNCTIONAL ANALYSES OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Rispoli, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    Analogue functional analyses are widely used to identify the operant function of problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. Because problem behavior often occurs across multiple settings (e.g., homes, schools, outpatient clinics), it is important to determine whether the results of functional analyses vary across settings. This brief review covers 3 recent studies that examined the influence of different settings on the results of functional analyses and identifies direc...

  3. Brief strategic family therapy: engaging drug using/problem behavior adolescents and their families in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapocznik, José; Zarate, Monica; Duff, Johnathan; Muir, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Despite the efficacy of family-based interventions for improving outcomes for adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, engaging and retaining whole families in treatment is one of the greatest challenges therapists confront. This article illustrates how the Brief Strategic Family Therapy model, a family-based, empirically validated intervention designed to treat children and adolescents' problem behaviors, can be used to increase engagement, improve retention, and bring about positive outcomes for families. Research evidence for efficacy and effectiveness is also presented.

  4. Korean Immigrant Discipline and Children’s Social Competence and Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eunjung; Guo, Yuqing; Koh, Chinkang; Cain, Kevin C.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between Korean immigrant discipline (e.g., positive, appropriate, harsh discipline) and children’s social competence and behavior problems. Self-report data were collected from 58 mothers and 20 fathers of children aged from three and eight. Only paternal harsh discipline was positively correlated with children’s behavior problems. Among specific discipline strategies, maternal physical affection, correcting misbehaviors, an...

  5. Mothers' and Fathers' Negative Responsibility Attributions and Perceptions of Children's Problem Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Jackie A.; O'Brien,Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2013-01-01

    Parents' negative responsibility attributions about their child's misbehavior are related to a perception that the child has more behavior problems. The current study used a dyadic framework to explore how mothers' and fathers' attributions relate to their own perceptions and to their partner's perceptions of the child's externalizing problems. Participants included 102 couples interviewed when children were 7 years old. Results confirmed that mothers reported more externalizing behavior prob...

  6. Predicting Caregiver-Reported Behavior Problems in Cocaine-Exposed Children at 3 Years

    OpenAIRE

    WARNER, TAMARA DUCKWORTH; Behnke, Marylou; Hou, Wei; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; WOBIE, KATHLEEN; Eyler, Fonda Davis

    2006-01-01

    Predictors of caregiver-reported behavior problems for 3-year-olds with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and matched controls were examined using structural equation modeling. We tested whether PCE had a direct effect on child behavior problems in a model that included other prenatal drug exposure, child sex, caregiver depression, and the quality of the child’s home environment. The sample (N = 256) was drawn from a longitudinal, prospective study of children of (predominantly crack) cocaine-u...

  7. ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions in Taiwanese children with epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Fang-Ju; Liu, Shu-Tsen; Lee, Chi-Mei; Lee, Wang-Tso; Fan, Pi-Chuan; Lin, Wei-Sheng; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about whether Asian children with epilepsy have more attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms, emotional/ behavioral problems, and physical conditions compared with those described in Western studies. The authors investigated the rates of ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions among pediatric patients with epilepsy. Methods: We recruited 61 patients with epilepsy, aged 6–16 years, and 122 age-, sex-, and parenta...

  8. ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR EVOKED BY DISRUPTION OF RITUALISTIC TOY ARRANGEMENTS IN A CHILD WITH AUTISM

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Yanerys; Lazarchick, William N.; Rooker, Griffin W.; Deleon, Iser G.

    2013-01-01

    A functional analysis suggested that the problem behavior of a 9-year-old girl with autism was maintained by gaining the opportunity to restore ritualistic toy arrangements that had been disrupted. Functional communication training and extinction produced clear decreases in problem behavior in 2 contexts: 1 in which we removed a play item, and 1 in which we merely relocated the item and blocked its rearrangement.

  9. Diverging trends in smoking behaviors according to mental health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, Lisa; McNeill, Ann

    2015-03-01

    People with mental health disorders are much more likely to smoke compared to those who do not. This study investigates recent trends in smoking behaviors among both these populations in England. We used survey responses from adults (aged 16 years and older) living in households in England who participated in the Health Survey for England from 1993 to 2011 (n = 11,300 per year on average). Linear regression was used to quantify annual changes over the time period in smoking prevalence, daily cigarette consumption, and desire to quit among respondents with and without 2 indicators of mental disorder (self-reported longstanding mental illness and recent use of psychoactive medication). Among survey respondents who did not report a longstanding mental illness, there were long-term declines in smoking prevalence (-0.48% per year, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.56 to -0.40) and daily cigarette consumption (-0.14% per year, 95% CI = -0.17 to -0.11). Similar declines were also seen among respondents not taking psychoactive medications. However, there were no long-term changes in smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption among respondents who reported these indicators of mental disorder, although smoking prevalence among those taking psychoactive medications may have declined during the later part of the study period. Smokers both with and without the 2 indicators of mental disorder showed similar levels of desire to quit smoking. Smoking is largely unchanged since 1993 among those with indicators of longstanding mental disorders or recent psychoactive medication usage, although declines have been observed among those without such indicators of mental disorder. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Nutritional status and social behavior in preschool children: the mediating effects of neurocognitive functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Early malnutritional status has been associated with reduced cognitive ability in childhood. However, there are almost no studies on the effect of malnutrition on positive social behavior, and no tests of possible mediating mechanisms. This study tests the hypothesis that poor nutritional status is associated with impaired social functioning in childhood, and that neurocognitive ability mediates this relationship. We assessed 1553 male and female 3-year-olds from a birth cohort on measures of malnutrition, social behavior and verbal and spatial neurocognitive functions. Children with indicators of malnutrition showed impaired social behavior (p malnutrition and degree of social behavior, with increased malnutrition associated with more impaired social behavior. Neurocognitive ability was found to mediate the nutrition–social behavior relationship. The mediation effect of neurocognitive functioning suggests that poor nutrition negatively impacts brain areas that play important roles in developing positive social behavior. Findings suggest that reducing poor nutrition, alternatively promoting good nutrition, may help promote positive social behavior in early childhood during a critical period for social and neurocognitive development, with implications for improving positive health in adulthood. PMID:27133006

  11. Co-occurring behavioral difficulties in children with severe feeding problems: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Melissa L; Stern, Karin

    2016-11-01

    Recent literature highlights the association between behavioral difficulties and the presence of feeding problems in children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) relative to children with ASD without feeding problems. However, it is not clear to what extent behavior problems (outside of the meal setting) occur in children with feeding problems without comorbid ASD. The purpose is to describe co-occurring behavioral difficulties of a sample of children with severe food refusal/selectivity and examine potential predictors of behavioral difficulties outside of the meal context. The medical charts of fifty-four patients were reviewed and data were collected on the frequency of caregiver coaching and/or behavioral intervention outside of the meal context. Age, presence of developmental delay/autism, and type of feeding problem were examined as potential predictors of behavioral support. Approximately half of the sample received coaching or individualized intervention. The percentage of caregivers who received individualize coaching were similar across groups. Younger age at admission was a predictor of individual caregiver coaching. Presence of delay/ASD, age, and type of feeding problems were not significant predictors for individualized treatment programing. These data provide evidence of difficult caregiver-child interactions that occurs outside of the meal context for some children with severe feeding difficulties and suggest that this association may not be exclusive to children with ASD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physically Abused Women's Experiences of Sexual Victimization and their Children's Disruptive Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Laura C; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Skopp, Nancy A

    2012-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the substantial co-occurrence of women's experiences of physical and sexual violence, very little is known about their separate and combined effects on child functioning. The present study examines whether sexual victimization experienced by physically abused women is associated with their children's disruptive behavior problems, after controlling for mothers' physical victimization and parent to child aggression. It also tests the hypothesis that maternal distress mediates the association between women's sexual victimization and their children's disruptive behavior problems. METHOD: The sample includes 449 mothers and their children (4-8 years) who were recruited while residing in domestic violence shelters. Mothers reported on their experiences of physical and sexual victimization over the past year and their current symptoms of psychological distress. Trained diagnosticians interviewed mothers about their children's disruptive behavior problems. RESULTS: Approximately 75% of the women reported experiences of sexual victimization. Physically abused women's experiences of sexual victimization correlated positively with their children's disruptive behavior problems and their own psychological distress. The results of path analyses indicated that maternal psychological distress mediates the relation between women's experiences of sexual victimization and their children's disruptive behavior problems. CONCLUSIONS: This research suggests that physically abused women's experiences of sexual victimization are important for understanding their children's disruptive behavior problems. Additionally, this research provides further evidence that maternal psychological distress is important for understanding how intimate partner violence might influence children.

  13. Association Between Perceived Discrimination and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Problem Behaviors Among Preadolescent Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marc N.; Kanouse, David E.; Klein, David J.; Davies, Susan L.; Cuccaro, Paula M.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the contribution of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination to disparities in problem behaviors among preadolescent Black, Latino, and White youths. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from Healthy Passages, a 3-community study of 5119 fifth graders and their parents from August 2004 through September 2006 in Birmingham, Alabama; Los Angeles County, California; and Houston, Texas. We used multivariate regressions to examine the relationships of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and race/ethnicity to problem behaviors. We used values from these regressions to calculate the percentage of disparities in problem behaviors associated with the discrimination effect. Results. In multivariate models, perceived discrimination was associated with greater problem behaviors among Black and Latino youths. Compared with Whites, Blacks were significantly more likely to report problem behaviors, whereas Latinos were significantly less likely (a “reverse disparity”). When we set Blacks’ and Latinos’ discrimination experiences to zero, the adjusted disparity between Blacks and Whites was reduced by an estimated one third to two thirds; the reverse adjusted disparity favoring Latinos widened by about one fifth to one half. Conclusions. Eliminating discrimination could considerably reduce mental health issues, including problem behaviors, among Black and Latino youths. PMID:23597387

  14. Racial differences in the association between maternal prepregnancy obesity and children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanda, Rika; Salsberry, Pamela J

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for the adverse effects of prepregnancy obesity on offspring's neurodevelopmental outcomes has begun to emerge. The authors examined the association between prepregnancy obesity and children's behavioral problems and if the association would differ by race. This observational study used a total of 3395 white (n = 2127) and African-American (n = 1268) children aged 96 to 119 months from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Behavior Problem Index (BPI) total and subscale scores were used to measure children's behavioral problems. The association between maternal prepregnancy obesity and the BPI scores for each racial group was examined using multivariate linear and logistic regressions, controlling for prenatal, child, maternal, and family background factors. Maternal prepregnancy obesity was independently associated with an increase in the BPI total scores among the white sample only. Among the African-Americans, prepregnancy obesity was not associated with the BPI scores. Subsample analyses using externalizing and internalizing subscales also revealed similar trends. Among the white sample, children born to obese women were more socially disadvantaged than those born to nonobese women, whereas no such trend was observed in children of African-American obese and nonobese women. The impact of maternal prepregnancy obesity on children's behavioral problems differed by racial groups. Obesity-related metabolic dysregulations during the intrauterine period may not contribute to later children's behavioral problems. Social and psychological factors seem to play key roles in the association between prepregnancy obesity and childhood behavioral problems among whites.

  15. Mothers' mental illness and child behavior problems: cause-effect association or observation bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najman, J M; Williams, G M; Nikles, J; Spence, S; Bor, W; O'Callaghan, M; Le Brocque, R; Andersen, M J

    2000-05-01

    A number of studies have consistently found that a mother's mental health (particularly her level of depression) is a strong predictor of mental health problems experienced by her child(ren). However, the validity of this finding is in doubt because the majority of these studies have relied on maternal reports as indicators of children's behavior. This prospective, longitudinal study examines data on the mental health of the mother from prior to the birth of her child to when the child reaches 14 years of age. Child behavior is measured at 14 years of age using reports from mother and child. Mother and child responses are compared to provide an indication of the possible magnitude of maternal observation bias in the reporting of child behavior problems. Anxious and/or depressed mothers tend to report more cases of child behavior problems than do their mentally healthy counterparts or children themselves. Differences between mothers and youths in reporting behavior problems appear to be related to the mothers' mental health. Current maternal mental health impairment appears to have a substantial effect on the reporting of child behavior problems by the mother, thereby raising questions about the validity of reports of child behavior by persons who are currently emotionally distressed.

  16. The association of parental temperament and character on their children’s behavior problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jin Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Parents have important roles in child rearing, but the influence of their personality on rearing practices and their impact on the behavior of children has received surprisingly little attention. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between parents’ personality and children’s problem behaviors.Materials and Methods. Participants consisted of 190 preschool outpatients (104 boys, 86 girls and their parents who visited traditional Korean pediatric clinics with minor physical symptoms as chief complaints. The personality profiles of the both parents were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and children’s behavior problems by the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5. Correlation and stepwise regression analysis were employed for the statistical analyses.Results. The temperament trait of Harm Avoidance and the character traits of Self-Directedness and Self-Transcendence of the parents were significantly correlated with children’s problem behaviors. Character as well as temperament, played an important role in explaining children’s problem behaviors after age and gender of children were taken into account.Conclusion. The maturity of parents’ character appears to have a key role in reducing the risk of behavior problems in their children. Suggestions are made for parental education and future research.

  17. Noncontingent reinforcement for the treatment of severe problem behavior: An analysis of 27 consecutive applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Cara L; Iannaccone, Julia A; Rooker, Griffin W; Hagopian, Louis P

    2017-04-01

    Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is a commonly used treatment for severe problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The current study sought to extend the literature by reporting outcomes achieved with 27 consecutive applications of NCR as the primary treatment for severe problem behavior. All applications of NCR were included regardless of treatment outcome to minimize selection bias favoring successful cases. Participants ranged in age from 5 to 33 years. We analyzed the results across behavioral function and with regard to the use of functional versus alternative reinforcers. NCR effectively treated problem behavior maintained by social reinforcement in 14 of 15 applications, using either the functional reinforcer or alternative reinforcers. When we implemented NCR to treat problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement, we often had to add other treatment components to produce clinically significant effects (five of nine applications). Results provide information on the effectiveness and limitations of NCR as treatment for severe problem behavior. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  18. Pediatrician identification of child behavior problems: the roles of parenting factors and cross-practice differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Robert M; Wildman, Beth G; Langkamp, Diane; Duby, John C

    2012-06-01

    While most primary care pediatricians acknowledge the importance of identifying child behavior problems, fewer than 2% of children with a diagnosable psychological disorder are referred for mental health care in any given year. The present study examined the potential role of parental characteristics (parental affect, parenting style, and parenting self-efficacy) in pediatrician identification of child behavior problems, and determined whether these relationships differed across practices. Parents of 831 children between 2 and 16 years completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, their child's behavior, their affect, their parenting style, and their parenting self-efficacy. Pediatricians completed a brief questionnaire following visits in four community-based primary care practices in the Midwest. Logistic regressions controlling for child behavior and demographic predictors of pediatrician identification found that an authoritarian parenting style, in which parents yell or strongly negatively react to problem behavior, was negatively associated with likelihood of identification in the overall sample. However, the variables that were predictive of pediatrician identification differed depending on the specific practice. Parental characteristics can aid in understanding which children are likely to be identified by their pediatrician as having behavioral problems. The finding that practices differed on which variables were associated with pediatrician identification suggests the need to potentially individualize interventions to certain physicians and practices to improve identification of child behavior problems in primary care.

  19. Review of concentrating solar thermal power industry in China: Status quo, problems, trend and countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jiajun

    2018-01-01

    Concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) industry is a strategic emerging industry in China. Its further development is of great significance for promoting the energy revolution, achieving energy saving and emission reduction. In this paper, China’s CSP industry is systematically analysed. First of all, the status quo is elaborated from the perspectives of relevant policies and regulations, market and generation technology development. Secondly, the problems and the underlying reasons of China’s CSP industry are deeply studied. On this basis, the future trends of CSP are expounded on the three levels of policy, market and power generation technology. Finally, a series of feasible countermeasures are put forward, designed to promote the development of CSP industry and the transformation of energy structure.

  20. Emotional and behavioral problems in children and adolescents with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietman, André B; van der Vaart, Thijs; Plasschaert, Ellen; Nicholson, Bethany A; Oostenbrink, Rianne; Krab, Lianne C; Descheemaeker, Mie-Jef; Wit, Marie-Claire Y de; Moll, Henriëtte A; Legius, Eric; Nijs, Pieter F A de

    2017-12-15

    To assess emotional and behavioral problems in children and adolescents with neurofibromatosis type 1,parents of 183 individuals aged 10.8 ± 3.1 years (range 6-17) completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Also, 173 teachers completed the Teacher's Report Form (TRF), and 88 adolescents (children from 11 to 17 years) completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR). According to parental ratings, 32% scored in the clinical range (above the 90th percentile). This percentage was much lower when rated by teachers or adolescents themselves. Scores from all informants on scales for Somatic complaints, Social problems, and Attention problems were significantly different from normative scores. Attentional problems were associated with lower verbal IQ, male gender, younger age, and ADHD-symptoms. Disease-related factors did not predict behavioral problems scores. Substantial emotional and behavioral problems were reported by parents, teachers, and to a lesser extent by adolescents with NF1 themselves. Possibly, a positive illusory bias affects the observation of behavioral problems by adolescents with NF1. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Mediation and Moderation of Divorce Effects on Children’s Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jennifer; Schofield, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from age 5 to age 15 in relation to whether they had experienced a parental divorce. Children from divorced families had more behavior problems compared with a propensity score-matched sample of children from intact families according to both teachers and mothers. They exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems at the first assessment after the parents’ separation and at the last available assessment (age 11 for teacher reports, or age 15 for mother reports). Divorce also predicted both short-term and long-term rank-order increases in behavior problems. Associations between divorce and child behavior problems were moderated by family income (assessed before the divorce) such that children from families with higher incomes prior to the separation had fewer internalizing problems than children from families with lower incomes prior to the separation. Higher levels of pre-divorce maternal sensitivity and child IQ also functioned as protective factors for children of divorce. Mediation analyses showed that children were more likely to exhibit behavior problems after the divorce if their post-divorce home environment was less supportive and stimulating, their mother was less sensitive and more depressed, and their household income was lower. We discuss avenues for intervention, particularly efforts to improve the quality of home environments in divorced families. PMID:25419913

  2. Current status of the development of the problem-oriented software package GYREOSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damyanova, M.; Sabchevski, S.; Zhelyazkov, I.; Vasileva, E.; Balabanova, E.; Dankov, P.; Malinov, P.

    2014-05-01

    A great number of problem-oriented software packages (e.g., DAPHNE, ESRAY, GYROSIM, just to name a few) are used for computer-aided design (CAD) and optimization of high-power gyrotrons for fusion research (most notably for ECRH and ECCD). In them, adequate self-consistent physical models formulated in a two-dimensional space (2D) are implemented. Most of the problems encountered in recent years in the development of megawatt-class gyrotrons, however, can be attributed to physical factors and phenomena that are both non-stationary (for instance various electron beam instabilities, dynamics of the trapped particles) and inherently three-dimensional by nature (e.g., non-uniformity of the emission, misalignment of the electrodes and magnetic coils, etc.). In order to address these problems and to take into account most of the physical factors that have so far been neglected, a work on the development of a novel problem-oriented software package called GYREOSS (which stands for Gyrotron Electron-Optical System Simulation) was initiated recently. Since then, GYREOSS has evolved into a test bed for experimenting with different numerical methods, algorithms, and programming techniques for ray tracing (trajectory analysis) and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. In this paper, we outline the current status of GYREOSS and present both its physical model formulated in 2D and 3D and its program realization. We illustrate the capabilities of the latest version of the code, which includes a novel 3D field solver and an efficient relativistic particle pusher. Finally, we present an outlook for a further development of GYREOSS.

  3. Perceptions of Problem Behavior in Adolescents' Families: Perceiver, Target, and Family Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manders, Willeke A.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Cook, William L.; Oud, Johan H. L.; De Bruyn, Eric E. J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2009-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on the reliability and validity of informant reports of family behavior, especially maternal reports of adolescent problem behavior. None of these studies, however, has based their orientation on a theoretical model of interpersonal perception. In this study we used the social relations model (SRM) to examine…

  4. Girls' childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior predict adjustment problems in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, E.; Blokland, A.; Hipwell, A.E.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Loeber, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that early onset of disruptive behavior is linked to a variety of detrimental outcomes in males, later in life. In contrast, little is known about the association between girls' childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior and adjustment problems in early

  5. Examining the Function of Problem Behavior in Fragile X Syndrome: Preliminary Experimental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lang, Russell; Machalicek, Wendy; Chan, Jeffrey Michael; Rispoli, Mandy

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited cause of intellectual and developmental disability. The influence of environmental variables on behaviors associated with the syndrome has received only scant attention. The current study explored the function served by problem behavior in fragile X syndrome by using experimental functional analysis…

  6. A Responsive Tier 2 Process for a Middle School Student with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Bruhn, Allison L.; Mitchell, Barbara S.

    2017-01-01

    Students requiring Tier 2 behavioral supports frequently display behavioral deficits in multiple domains (e.g., emotional symptoms and peer problems). The Tier 2 framework developed by McDaniel, Bruhn, & Mitchell (2015a) is a responsive structure for identifying and intervening at Tier 2. This process is described with a practical case example…

  7. Evaluation of a Behavioral Treatment Package to Reduce Sleep Problems in Children with Angelman Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Keith D.; Kuhn, Brett R.; DeHaai, Kristi A.; Wallace, Dustin P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a behavioral treatment package to reduce chronic sleep problems in children with Angelman Syndrome. Participants were five children, 2-11 years-of-age. Parents maintained sleep diaries to record sleep and disruptive nighttime behaviors. Actigraphy was added to provide…

  8. Treatment for Preschool Children with Interpersonal Sexual Behavior Problems: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silovsky, Jane F.; Niec, Larissa; Bard, David; Hecht, Debra B.

    2007-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated a 12-week group treatment program for preschool children with interpersonal sexual behavior problems (SBP; N = 85; 53 completed at least 8 sessions). Many children presented with co-occurring trauma symptoms and disruptive behaviors. In intent-to-treat analysis, a significant linear reduction in SBP due to number of…

  9. Assessing Callous-Unemotional Traits in Preschool Children with Disruptive Behavior Problems Using Peer Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A.; Ros, Rosmary; Haas, Sarah; Hart, Katie; Slavec, Janine; Waschbusch, Daniel; Garcia, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the extent to which preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems (EBP) can identify behaviors indicative of callous-unemotional (CU) traits among their peers. Participants for this study included 86 preschool children (69% boys; M[subscript age] = 5.07 years) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of…

  10. EMDR versus CBT for children with self-esteem and behavioral problems: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, F.; Serra, M.; de Jongh, A.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Twenty-six children (average age 10.4 years) with behavioral problems were randomly assigned to receive either 4 sessions of EMDR or CBT prior to usual treatment provided in outpatient

  11. "Tuning into Kids": Reducing Young Children's Behavior Problems Using an Emotion Coaching Parenting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havighurst, Sophie S.; Wilson, Katherine R.; Harley, Ann E.; Kehoe, Christiane; Efron, Daryl; Prior, Margot R.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated a 6-session group parenting program, "Tuning into Kids" (TIK), as treatment for young children (aged 4.0-5.11 years) with behavior problems. TIK targets parent emotion socialization (parent emotion awareness, regulation and emotion coaching skills). Fifty-four parents, recruited via a child behavior clinic, were randomized…

  12. Behavioral and emotional problems reported by parents of children ages 6 to 16 in 31 societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, L.; Achenbach, T.; Ivanova, M.Y.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared parents' ratings of behavioral and emotional problems on the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) for general population samples of children ages 6 to 16 from 31 societies (N = 55,508). Effect sizes for society ranged from .03 to .14. Effect...

  13. Self-Monitoring Interventions for Students with Behavior Problems: A Systematic Review of Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison; McDaniel, Sara; Kreigh, Christi

    2015-01-01

    Explicitly teaching skills associated with self-determination has been promoted to support students' independence and control over their own lives. This is especially important for students with behavior problems. One self-determination skill or behavior that has been studied widely is self-monitoring. Although multiple reviews of various…

  14. The Reciprocal Links between School Engagement, Youth Problem Behaviors, and School Dropout during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Fredricks, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the self-system model, this study conceptualized school engagement as a multidimensional construct, including behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement, and examined whether changes in the three types of school engagement related to changes in problem behaviors from 7th through 11th grades (approximately ages 12-17). In addition,…

  15. Longitudinal Associations of Neighborhood Collective Efficacy and Maternal Corporal Punishment with Behavior Problems in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Julie; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Neighborhood and parenting influences on early behavioral outcomes are strongly dependent upon a child's stage of development. However, little research has jointly considered the longitudinal associations of neighborhood and parenting processes with behavior problems in early childhood. To address this limitation, this study explores the…

  16. The Influence of Auditory Short-Term Memory on Behavior Problem Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Justin; Keith, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of two subcomponents of auditory short-term memory on the developmental trajectories of behavior problems. The sample included 7,058 children from the NLSY79--Children and Young Adult survey between the ages 5 and 14 years. Results suggested that anxious/depressed behavior increases…

  17. COMT Val158Met Genotype as a Risk Factor for Problem Behaviors in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaugh, Matthew D.; Harder, Valerie S.; Althoff, Robert R.; Rettew, David C.; Ehli, Erik A.; Lengyel-Nelson, Timea; Davies, Gareth E.; Ayer, Lynsay; Sulman, Julie; Stanger, Catherine; Hudziak, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and both aggressive behavior and attention problems in youth. We hypothesized that youth carrying a Met allele would have greater average aggressive behavior scores, and that youth exhibiting Val-homozygosity would have greater average…

  18. Mass Screening for Severe Problem Behavior among Infants and Toddlers in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosa; Leblanc, Judith; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Brady, Nancy; Butler, Merlin G.; Reese, R. Matthew; Richman, David M.; Peacock, Georgina; Foster, Jessica; Marquis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Severe behavior problems among people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are a major barrier to integration in the community. Recent research suggests that these behaviors often begin very early in life and might be prevented by early identification and intervention (Rojahn, Schroeder, & Hoch, 2008). The current article…

  19. Problem behaviors in adult laying hens - identifying risk factors during rearing and egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Nordgreen, Janicke; Hansen, Tone B; Muri, Karianne; Nødtvedt, Ane; Moe, Randi O; Janczak, Andrew M

    2017-10-25

    Feather pecking, toe pecking, cannibalism, smothering, social clumping, hens laying eggs outside the nest boxes, and reduced feather quality are examples of problem behaviors and consequences reported by egg producers. The aim of this study was to identify rearing- and production-related risk factors associated with producer-reported problem behaviors in Norwegian layer flocks. Questionnaires were distributed to 410 egg producers nationwide, and 120 producers responded to the survey (response rate 29%). After exclusion of data that did not comply with the instructions, the final dataset included 78 flocks (19%). The survey covered questions about the farm, the flock's production results, the housing environment, climate and management routines, and the behavior of the birds from 16 wk of age until the flock was euthanized at 70-80 wk of age. The individual problem behaviors were combined to generate a continuous index variable called "problem behavior", ranging from 0 (none) to 8 (all the listed problem behaviors) reported. Multilevel linear regression models were applied to evaluate associations between the index and selected risk factors during rearing and production. The primary predictor was housing system during egg production: producers with aviary flocks on average (± standard deviation) reported 1.6 (± 0.60) more problem behaviors compared to producers with furnished cages (P < 0.001). Within aviaries (n = 40), producers, on average reported 1.7 (± 0.50) more problem behaviors in flocks that experienced problems with climatic conditions, compared to flocks without climatic problems (P = 0.001). For respondents with furnished cages (n = 30), on average 1.1 (± 0.50) fewer problem behaviors were reported in farms with ≥ 7,500 birds compared to farms with < 7,500 birds (P = 0.027). In conclusion, this is the first study assessing management and housing factors during the rearing and laying phase associated with problem behaviors as reported by Norwegian

  20. Status and problems of wind turbine structural health monitoring techniques in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenyi; Tang, Baoping; Jiang, Yonghua [The State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Wind energy is an important renewable energy source because of its reliability due to the maturity of the technology, good infrastructure and relative cost competitiveness. Rich wind resources and strong support in regulations by the Chinese government have enabled the wind power industry to grow at a fast speed and the primary market scale has been achieved, making it the second largest wind power market in the world. There has also been an increase in wind energy research in various regions in China during the last few years. As utility-size wind turbines increase in size, and correspondingly their initial capital investment cost, there is an increasing need to monitor the health of these structures. However, most of the research papers in China are about the manufacture and production, such as the simulation of the wind turbine generator system model, the systematic resonance and stability for the world turbine, the wind speed, wind power and pitch adjustment simulation model, and so on. Few papers focus on the structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques of the wind turbine. In this paper, we review the status of the current SHM techniques in wind turbine and analyze the problems of them in China. The aims of this paper are to let more scholars and experts know the status of the current SHM techniques and to do something for building a successful industry in China. (author)

  1. Defining neighborhood boundaries in studies of spatial dependence in child behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Leonard, Tammy; Beron, Kurt; Murdoch, James

    2013-05-03

    The purpose of this study was to extend the analysis of neighborhood effects on child behavioral outcomes in two ways: (1) by examining the geographic extent of the relationship between child behavior and neighborhood physical conditions independent of standard administrative boundaries such as census tracts or block groups and (2) by examining the relationship and geographic extent of geographic peers' behavior and individual child behavior. The study neighborhood was a low income, ethnic minority neighborhood of approximately 20,000 residents in a large city in the southwestern United States. Observational data were collected for 11,552 parcels and 1,778 face blocks in the neighborhood over a five week period. Data on child behavior problems were collected from the parents of 261 school-age children (81% African American, 14% Latino) living in the neighborhood. Spatial analysis methods were used to examine the spatial dependence of child behavior problems in relation to physical conditions in the neighborhood for areas surrounding the child's home ranging from a radius of 50 meters to a radius of 1000 meters. Likewise, the spatial dependence of child behavior problems in relation to the behavior problems of neighborhood peers was examined for areas ranging from a radius 255 meters to a radius of 600 meters around the child's home. Finally, we examined the joint influence of neighborhood physical conditions and geographic peers. Poor conditions of the physical environment of the neighborhood were related to more behavioral problems, and the geographic extent of the physical environment that mattered was an area with a radius between 400 and 800 meters surrounding the child's home. In addition, the average level of behavior problems of neighborhood peers within 255 meters of the child's home was also positively associated with child behavior problems. Furthermore, these effects were independent of one another. These findings demonstrate that using flexible

  2. The Child Behavior Checklist-Obsessive-Compulsive Subscale Detects Severe Psychopathology and Behavioral Problems Among School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Laura O; do Rosario, Maria C; Cesar, Raony C; Batistuzzo, Marcelo C; Hoexter, Marcelo Q; Manfro, Gisele G; Shavitt, Roseli G; Leckman, James F; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Alvarenga, Pedro G

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to assess obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) dimensionally in a school-aged community sample and to correlate them with clinical and demographical variables; (2) to determine a subgroup with significant OCS ("at-risk for OCD") using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-OCS) and (3) to compare it with the rest of the sample; (4) To review the CBCL-OCS subscale properties as a screening tool for pediatric OCD. Data from the Brazilian High Risk Cohort were analyzed. The presence and severity of OCS were assessed through the CBCL-OCS subscale. DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses were obtained by the Developmental and Well-Being Assessment. Behavioral problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Youth Strengths Inventory, and the CBCL internalizing and externalizing behavior subscales. A total of 2512 (mean age: 8.86 ± 1.84 years; 55.0% male) children were included. Moderate correlations were found between OCS severity and functional impairment (r = 0.36, p behavioral problems (p behavioral patterns and psychiatric comorbidities (e.g., tics [odds ratios, OR = 6.41, p approach suggests that the presence of OCS in children is associated with higher rates of comorbidity, behavioral problems, and impairment. The "at-risk for OCD" group defined by the CBCL revealed a group of patients phenotypically similar to full blown OCD.

  3. Neighborhood ethnic diversity and behavioral and emotional problems in 3 year olds: results from the Generation R Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse J E Flink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that neighborhood ethnic diversity may be important when it comes to understanding ethnic inequalities in mental health. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether neighborhood ethnic diversity moderated the association between the ethnic minority status and child behavioral and emotional problems. METHODS: We included 3076 preschoolers participating in the Generation R Study, a birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. At child age 3-years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1,5-5. Individual-level data, assessed with questionnaires, was combined with neighborhood-level data. Multi-level logistic regression models predicted the Odds Ratios for the CBCL total problems score as a function of maternal ethnic background and neighborhood ethnic diversity, computed with the Racial Diversity Index and categorized into tertiles. Interaction on the additive scale was assessed using Relative Access Risk due to Interaction. RESULTS: Being from an ethnic minority was associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in unadjusted (OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.88-4.04 and adjusted models (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.79-3.92. Residing in a high diversity neighborhood was associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in unadjusted (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.13-3.64 but not in adjusted models (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.51-1.57. When stratifying by the three levels of neighborhood ethnic diversity, ethnic inequalities in behavioral and emotional problems were greatest in low diversity neighborhoods (OR 5.24, 95%CI 2.47-11.14, smaller in high diversity neighborhoods (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.66-5.99 and smallest in medium diversity neighborhoods (OR 1.59, 95% CI 0.90-2.82. Tests for interaction (when comparing medium to low diversity neighborhoods trended towards negative on both the additive and multiplicative scale for the maternal-report (RERI: -3.22, 95% CI -0.70-0.59; Ratio of ORs: 0.30, 95% CI 0.12-0.76. CONCLUSION

  4. Impact of Children's Identified Disability Status on Parent and Teacher Behavior Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwehr, Ethan; Bocanegra, Joel O.; Kwon, Kyongboon; Sheridan, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was an examination of the possible influence of a child's pre-identified disability on parent and teacher behavior ratings and whether a child's disability status affected parent ratings, when controlling for parenting stress. The sample included 206 kindergarten through third grade students and their teachers and parents from a…

  5. The Impact of Clique Membership on Children's Social Behavior and Status Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyongboon; Lease, A. Michele; Hoffman, Lesa

    2012-01-01

    The impact of children's clique membership on their peer nominations for social behaviors and status was examined in a sample of 455 third- through fifth-grade children. Social identity theory (SIT) and children's peer group affiliation and context served as primary conceptual frameworks for this investigation. As suggested by SIT, results…

  6. Effects of Health Status and Health Behaviors on Depression Among Married Female Immigrants in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung A Kim, PhD

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Both health status and health behaviors had significant impacts on depression, suggesting that development of nursing interventions and educational programs should be targeted towards improving maternal health, healthy lifestyle, and subjective health perception to promote married female immigrants' psychological well-being.

  7. Socioeconomic Status, Health Behaviors, Obesity and Self-Rated Health among Older Arabs in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaila, R N Rabia

    2017-03-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in health are well documented. Recently, researchers have shown interest in exploring the mechanisms by which measures of SES operate through it to impact SRH, such as material, psychosocial and behavioral factors. To examine the relationships between SES indicators and self-rated health (SRH); and to determine whether health behaviors and obesity mediate the association between SES indicators and SRH. A secondary analysis of data previously collected through the third survey of socioeconomic and health status of the Arab population in Israel, in which the SRH of 878 Arab-Israelis age 50 or older were analyzed using logistic regression. The results showed that higher education level and current employment in old age are associated with better SRH. However, neither subjective economic status nor family income was associated with SRH. Greater physical activity was found to be related to good\\very good SRH, while obesity was associated with less than good SRH. Finally, health behaviors (physical activity) and obesity were revealed as mediators between SES indicators (education and employment status) and SRH. The results highlight the importance of high education level and employment status in old age to reduce health inequalities. The findings also show that the relationship between SES and SRH can operate through behavioral mechanisms (i.e., physical activity) and their consequences (i.e., obesity), that can, however, be changed in old age.

  8. Supervisory Responsiveness and Employee Self-Perceived Status and Voice Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Onne; Gao, Liping

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of employees' status appraisals within their work group in relation to their challenging-promotive voice behavior. We argued that fair and respectful treatment of their voice input by the authority figure of the group (i.e., supervisory responsiveness) enhances employees'

  9. Participant roles of bullying in adolescence: Status characteristics, social behavior, and assignment criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, J.L.; Lansu, T.A.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2016-01-01

    This study had three goals. First, we examined the prevalence of the participant roles of bullying in middle adolescence and possible gender differences therein. Second, we examined the behavioral and status characteristics associated with the participant roles in middle adolescence. Third, we

  10. Relationship between oral health literacy and oral health behaviors and clinical status in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Ueno

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Our findings indicate that oral health literacy is associated with differences in oral health behaviors and clinical oral health status. An understanding of participants’ oral health literacy levels is crucial for designing effective health educational materials and creating intervention programs to promote oral health.

  11. Addictions Counselors' Credibility: The Impact of Interactional Style, Recovery Status, and Nonverbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriello, Paul J.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of addictions counselors' interactional style (confrontational vs. motivational), recovery status (recovering vs. nonrecovering), and nonverbal behavior (facilitative vs. neutral) on 116 clients' perceptions of addictions counselor credibility was examined in a fully crossed factorial design. Significant results were found, and…

  12. Adolescents Misperceive and Are Influenced By High Status Peers' Health Risk, Deviant, and Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of Jocks', Populars', Burnouts', and Brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and Populars were rated as higher status than Brains and Burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between Populars'/Jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121

  13. Fear perception and social behavioral problems in children with epilepsy: An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Maraike; Aarnoudse, Ceciel; Brouwer, O.F.; Veenstra, Wencke S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Nassau and Drotar (1997) state that children with epilepsy often show emotional and behavioral problems. They also hypothesize that these problems may be caused by impaired social competences. Golouboff et al. (2008) show that in children with temporal lobe epilepsy, impaired

  14. CARS Comprehensive Intervention for Secondary Students with Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Conceptualization and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Lee; Evans, Steven W.; Lewis, Timothy J.; State, Talida M.; Weist, Mark D.; Wills, Howard P.

    2015-01-01

    Educating children and youth with significant social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) problems continues to pose significant challenges for special and general educators. The long-term effects of challenges this group of students experience include school dropout, mental health problems, unemployment, and high incarceration rates. To date, the…

  15. Preventing preschool externalizing behavior problems through video-feedback intervention in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein Velderman, Mariska; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Juffer, Femmie; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C; Zevalkink, Jolien

    2006-09-01

    In the present study (1) intervention effects on children's preschool behavior problems were evaluated in a high risk sample with an overrepresentation of insecure adult attachment representations in 77 first-time mothers, and (2) predictors and correlates of child problem behavior were examined. Early short-term video-feedback intervention to promote positive parenting (VIPP) focusing on maternal sensitivity and implemented in the baby's first year of life significantly protected children from developing clinical Total Problems at preschool age. Also, compared with the control group, fewer VIPP children scored in the clinical range for Externalizing Problems. No intervention effects on Internalizing clinical problem behavior were found. The VIPP effects on Externalizing and Total clinical Problems were not mediated by VIPP effects on sensitivity and infant attachment or moderated by mother or child variables. Maternal satisfaction with perceived support appeared to be associated with less children's Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems. More research is needed to find the mechanisms triggered by VIPP, but the outcomes could be considered as promising first steps in the prevention of disturbing, externalizing behavior problems in young children. Copyright © 2006 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. The Analysis of Decision Making Behaviors and Perceived Problem Solving Skills in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güçray, Songül Sonay

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study is to analyze decisional self-esteem, decisional stress and perceived problem-solving skills of secondary education students and to find out whether there is a significant difference in adolescent's decision-making behaviors, and problem-solving skills from the aspect of some socio-demographic variables (gender, age, school…

  17. Abortion Research: Attitudes, Sexual Behavior, and Problems in a Community College Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Janice Westlund; Freed, Florence Wallach

    1993-01-01

    Surveys of 70 male and 80 female community college students about their attitudes toward abortion, sexual behavior, and life problems support abortion rights. Antiabortion students were more religious, less sexually active, and less likely to know someone who had an abortion. Many students currently experienced serious problems. (SLD)

  18. Behavioral/Emotional Problems of Preschoolers: Caregiver/Teacher Reports from 15 Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie A.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Denner, Silvia; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel; Guomundsson, Halldor; Jusiene, Roma; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Lobel, Sofia P.; Machado, Barbara Cesar; Markovic, Jasminka; Mas, Paola A.; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Montirosso, Rosario; Pluck, Julia; Pronaj, Adelina Ahmeti; Rodriguez, Jorge T.; Rojas, Pamela O.; Schmeck, Klaus; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested societal effects on caregiver/teacher ratings of behavioral/emotional problems for 10,521 preschoolers from 15 societies. Many societies had problem scale scores within a relatively narrow range, despite differences in language, culture, and other characteristics. The small age and gender effects were quite similar across…

  19. Where Is the Syndrome? Examining Co-Occurrence among Multiple Problem Behaviors in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Busseri, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined co-occurrence among a wide range of adolescent problem behaviors: alcohol, smoking, marijuana, hard drugs, sexual activity, major and minor delinquency, direct and indirect aggression, and gambling. Using a large self-report survey of high school students, confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the problem syndrome…

  20. Parent Reports of Behavioral and Emotional Problems among Children in Kenya, Thailand, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, John R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Found significant cultural and racial differences in 62 of 118 behavioral and emotional problems among 308 Kenyan, Thai, African-American, and Caucasian-American 11- to 15-year-old children. Caucasian-American children were rated high on undercontrolled problems such as disobedience. Embu children in Kenya were rated high on overcontrolled…