Interpreting Statistical Significance Test Results: A Proposed New "What If" Method.
Kieffer, Kevin M.; Thompson, Bruce
As the 1994 publication manual of the American Psychological Association emphasized, "p" values are affected by sample size. As a result, it can be helpful to interpret the results of statistical significant tests in a sample size context by conducting so-called "what if" analyses. However, these methods can be inaccurate…
The thresholds for statistical and clinical significance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per
2014-01-01
BACKGROUND: Thresholds for statistical significance are insufficiently demonstrated by 95% confidence intervals or P-values when assessing results from randomised clinical trials. First, a P-value only shows the probability of getting a result assuming that the null hypothesis is true and does...... not reflect the probability of getting a result assuming an alternative hypothesis to the null hypothesis is true. Second, a confidence interval or a P-value showing significance may be caused by multiplicity. Third, statistical significance does not necessarily result in clinical significance. Therefore...... of the probability that a given trial result is compatible with a 'null' effect (corresponding to the P-value) divided by the probability that the trial result is compatible with the intervention effect hypothesised in the sample size calculation; (3) adjust the confidence intervals and the statistical significance...
Statistical significance of cis-regulatory modules
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Smith Andrew D
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is becoming increasingly important for researchers to be able to scan through large genomic regions for transcription factor binding sites or clusters of binding sites forming cis-regulatory modules. Correspondingly, there has been a push to develop algorithms for the rapid detection and assessment of cis-regulatory modules. While various algorithms for this purpose have been introduced, most are not well suited for rapid, genome scale scanning. Results We introduce methods designed for the detection and statistical evaluation of cis-regulatory modules, modeled as either clusters of individual binding sites or as combinations of sites with constrained organization. In order to determine the statistical significance of module sites, we first need a method to determine the statistical significance of single transcription factor binding site matches. We introduce a straightforward method of estimating the statistical significance of single site matches using a database of known promoters to produce data structures that can be used to estimate p-values for binding site matches. We next introduce a technique to calculate the statistical significance of the arrangement of binding sites within a module using a max-gap model. If the module scanned for has defined organizational parameters, the probability of the module is corrected to account for organizational constraints. The statistical significance of single site matches and the architecture of sites within the module can be combined to provide an overall estimation of statistical significance of cis-regulatory module sites. Conclusion The methods introduced in this paper allow for the detection and statistical evaluation of single transcription factor binding sites and cis-regulatory modules. The features described are implemented in the Search Tool for Occurrences of Regulatory Motifs (STORM and MODSTORM software.
"What If" Analyses: Ways to Interpret Statistical Significance Test Results Using EXCEL or "R"
Ozturk, Elif
2012-01-01
The present paper aims to review two motivations to conduct "what if" analyses using Excel and "R" to understand the statistical significance tests through the sample size context. "What if" analyses can be used to teach students what statistical significance tests really do and in applied research either prospectively to estimate what sample size…
Health significance and statistical uncertainty. The value of P-value.
Consonni, Dario; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto
2017-10-27
The P-value is widely used as a summary statistics of scientific results. Unfortunately, there is a widespread tendency to dichotomize its value in "P0.05" ("statistically not significant"), with the former implying a "positive" result and the latter a "negative" one. To show the unsuitability of such an approach when evaluating the effects of environmental and occupational risk factors. We provide examples of distorted use of P-value and of the negative consequences for science and public health of such a black-and-white vision. The rigid interpretation of P-value as a dichotomy favors the confusion between health relevance and statistical significance, discourages thoughtful thinking, and distorts attention from what really matters, the health significance. A much better way to express and communicate scientific results involves reporting effect estimates (e.g., risks, risks ratios or risk differences) and their confidence intervals (CI), which summarize and convey both health significance and statistical uncertainty. Unfortunately, many researchers do not usually consider the whole interval of CI but only examine if it includes the null-value, therefore degrading this procedure to the same P-value dichotomy (statistical significance or not). In reporting statistical results of scientific research present effects estimates with their confidence intervals and do not qualify the P-value as "significant" or "not significant".
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Priya Ranganathan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the second part of a series on pitfalls in statistical analysis, we look at various ways in which a statistically significant study result can be expressed. We debunk some of the myths regarding the ′P′ value, explain the importance of ′confidence intervals′ and clarify the importance of including both values in a paper
Caveats for using statistical significance tests in research assessments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schneider, Jesper Wiborg
2013-01-01
controversial and numerous criticisms have been leveled against their use. Based on examples from articles by proponents of the use statistical significance tests in research assessments, we address some of the numerous problems with such tests. The issues specifically discussed are the ritual practice......This article raises concerns about the advantages of using statistical significance tests in research assessments as has recently been suggested in the debate about proper normalization procedures for citation indicators by Opthof and Leydesdorff (2010). Statistical significance tests are highly...... argue that applying statistical significance tests and mechanically adhering to their results are highly problematic and detrimental to critical thinking. We claim that the use of such tests do not provide any advantages in relation to deciding whether differences between citation indicators...
Ranganathan, Priya; Pramesh, C. S.; Buyse, Marc
2015-01-01
In the second part of a series on pitfalls in statistical analysis, we look at various ways in which a statistically significant study result can be expressed. We debunk some of the myths regarding the ‘P’ value, explain the importance of ‘confidence intervals’ and clarify the importance of including both values in a paper PMID:25878958
Understanding the Sampling Distribution and Its Use in Testing Statistical Significance.
Breunig, Nancy A.
Despite the increasing criticism of statistical significance testing by researchers, particularly in the publication of the 1994 American Psychological Association's style manual, statistical significance test results are still popular in journal articles. For this reason, it remains important to understand the logic of inferential statistics. A…
The insignificance of statistical significance testing
Johnson, Douglas H.
1999-01-01
Despite their use in scientific journals such as The Journal of Wildlife Management, statistical hypothesis tests add very little value to the products of research. Indeed, they frequently confuse the interpretation of data. This paper describes how statistical hypothesis tests are often viewed, and then contrasts that interpretation with the correct one. I discuss the arbitrariness of P-values, conclusions that the null hypothesis is true, power analysis, and distinctions between statistical and biological significance. Statistical hypothesis testing, in which the null hypothesis about the properties of a population is almost always known a priori to be false, is contrasted with scientific hypothesis testing, which examines a credible null hypothesis about phenomena in nature. More meaningful alternatives are briefly outlined, including estimation and confidence intervals for determining the importance of factors, decision theory for guiding actions in the face of uncertainty, and Bayesian approaches to hypothesis testing and other statistical practices.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Melissa Coulson
2010-07-01
Full Text Available A statistically significant result, and a non-significant result may differ little, although significance status may tempt an interpretation of difference. Two studies are reported that compared interpretation of such results presented using null hypothesis significance testing (NHST, or confidence intervals (CIs. Authors of articles published in psychology, behavioural neuroscience, and medical journals were asked, via email, to interpret two fictitious studies that found similar results, one statistically significant, and the other non-significant. Responses from 330 authors varied greatly, but interpretation was generally poor, whether results were presented as CIs or using NHST. However, when interpreting CIs respondents who mentioned NHST were 60% likely to conclude, unjustifiably, the two results conflicted, whereas those who interpreted CIs without reference to NHST were 95% likely to conclude, justifiably, the two results were consistent. Findings were generally similar for all three disciplines. An email survey of academic psychologists confirmed that CIs elicit better interpretations if NHST is not invoked. Improved statistical inference can result from encouragement of meta-analytic thinking and use of CIs but, for full benefit, such highly desirable statistical reform requires also that researchers interpret CIs without recourse to NHST.
Your Chi-Square Test Is Statistically Significant: Now What?
Sharpe, Donald
2015-01-01
Applied researchers have employed chi-square tests for more than one hundred years. This paper addresses the question of how one should follow a statistically significant chi-square test result in order to determine the source of that result. Four approaches were evaluated: calculating residuals, comparing cells, ransacking, and partitioning. Data…
Significance levels for studies with correlated test statistics.
Shi, Jianxin; Levinson, Douglas F; Whittemore, Alice S
2008-07-01
When testing large numbers of null hypotheses, one needs to assess the evidence against the global null hypothesis that none of the hypotheses is false. Such evidence typically is based on the test statistic of the largest magnitude, whose statistical significance is evaluated by permuting the sample units to simulate its null distribution. Efron (2007) has noted that correlation among the test statistics can induce substantial interstudy variation in the shapes of their histograms, which may cause misleading tail counts. Here, we show that permutation-based estimates of the overall significance level also can be misleading when the test statistics are correlated. We propose that such estimates be conditioned on a simple measure of the spread of the observed histogram, and we provide a method for obtaining conditional significance levels. We justify this conditioning using the conditionality principle described by Cox and Hinkley (1974). Application of the method to gene expression data illustrates the circumstances when conditional significance levels are needed.
On detection and assessment of statistical significance of Genomic Islands
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chaudhuri Probal
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many of the available methods for detecting Genomic Islands (GIs in prokaryotic genomes use markers such as transposons, proximal tRNAs, flanking repeats etc., or they use other supervised techniques requiring training datasets. Most of these methods are primarily based on the biases in GC content or codon and amino acid usage of the islands. However, these methods either do not use any formal statistical test of significance or use statistical tests for which the critical values and the P-values are not adequately justified. We propose a method, which is unsupervised in nature and uses Monte-Carlo statistical tests based on randomly selected segments of a chromosome. Such tests are supported by precise statistical distribution theory, and consequently, the resulting P-values are quite reliable for making the decision. Results Our algorithm (named Design-Island, an acronym for Detection of Statistically Significant Genomic Island runs in two phases. Some 'putative GIs' are identified in the first phase, and those are refined into smaller segments containing horizontally acquired genes in the refinement phase. This method is applied to Salmonella typhi CT18 genome leading to the discovery of several new pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance and metabolic islands that were missed by earlier methods. Many of these islands contain mobile genetic elements like phage-mediated genes, transposons, integrase and IS elements confirming their horizontal acquirement. Conclusion The proposed method is based on statistical tests supported by precise distribution theory and reliable P-values along with a technique for visualizing statistically significant islands. The performance of our method is better than many other well known methods in terms of their sensitivity and accuracy, and in terms of specificity, it is comparable to other methods.
Sibling Competition & Growth Tradeoffs. Biological vs. Statistical Significance.
Kramer, Karen L; Veile, Amanda; Otárola-Castillo, Erik
2016-01-01
Early childhood growth has many downstream effects on future health and reproduction and is an important measure of offspring quality. While a tradeoff between family size and child growth outcomes is theoretically predicted in high-fertility societies, empirical evidence is mixed. This is often attributed to phenotypic variation in parental condition. However, inconsistent study results may also arise because family size confounds the potentially differential effects that older and younger siblings can have on young children's growth. Additionally, inconsistent results might reflect that the biological significance associated with different growth trajectories is poorly understood. This paper addresses these concerns by tracking children's monthly gains in height and weight from weaning to age five in a high fertility Maya community. We predict that: 1) as an aggregate measure family size will not have a major impact on child growth during the post weaning period; 2) competition from young siblings will negatively impact child growth during the post weaning period; 3) however because of their economic value, older siblings will have a negligible effect on young children's growth. Accounting for parental condition, we use linear mixed models to evaluate the effects that family size, younger and older siblings have on children's growth. Congruent with our expectations, it is younger siblings who have the most detrimental effect on children's growth. While we find statistical evidence of a quantity/quality tradeoff effect, the biological significance of these results is negligible in early childhood. Our findings help to resolve why quantity/quality studies have had inconsistent results by showing that sibling competition varies with sibling age composition, not just family size, and that biological significance is distinct from statistical significance.
Sibling Competition & Growth Tradeoffs. Biological vs. Statistical Significance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karen L Kramer
Full Text Available Early childhood growth has many downstream effects on future health and reproduction and is an important measure of offspring quality. While a tradeoff between family size and child growth outcomes is theoretically predicted in high-fertility societies, empirical evidence is mixed. This is often attributed to phenotypic variation in parental condition. However, inconsistent study results may also arise because family size confounds the potentially differential effects that older and younger siblings can have on young children's growth. Additionally, inconsistent results might reflect that the biological significance associated with different growth trajectories is poorly understood. This paper addresses these concerns by tracking children's monthly gains in height and weight from weaning to age five in a high fertility Maya community. We predict that: 1 as an aggregate measure family size will not have a major impact on child growth during the post weaning period; 2 competition from young siblings will negatively impact child growth during the post weaning period; 3 however because of their economic value, older siblings will have a negligible effect on young children's growth. Accounting for parental condition, we use linear mixed models to evaluate the effects that family size, younger and older siblings have on children's growth. Congruent with our expectations, it is younger siblings who have the most detrimental effect on children's growth. While we find statistical evidence of a quantity/quality tradeoff effect, the biological significance of these results is negligible in early childhood. Our findings help to resolve why quantity/quality studies have had inconsistent results by showing that sibling competition varies with sibling age composition, not just family size, and that biological significance is distinct from statistical significance.
Test for the statistical significance of differences between ROC curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metz, C.E.; Kronman, H.B.
1979-01-01
A test for the statistical significance of observed differences between two measured Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves has been designed and evaluated. The set of observer response data for each ROC curve is assumed to be independent and to arise from a ROC curve having a form which, in the absence of statistical fluctuations in the response data, graphs as a straight line on double normal-deviate axes. To test the significance of an apparent difference between two measured ROC curves, maximum likelihood estimates of the two parameters of each curve and the associated parameter variances and covariance are calculated from the corresponding set of observer response data. An approximate Chi-square statistic with two degrees of freedom is then constructed from the differences between the parameters estimated for each ROC curve and from the variances and covariances of these estimates. This statistic is known to be truly Chi-square distributed only in the limit of large numbers of trials in the observer performance experiments. Performance of the statistic for data arising from a limited number of experimental trials was evaluated. Independent sets of rating scale data arising from the same underlying ROC curve were paired, and the fraction of differences found (falsely) significant was compared to the significance level, α, used with the test. Although test performance was found to be somewhat dependent on both the number of trials in the data and the position of the underlying ROC curve in the ROC space, the results for various significance levels showed the test to be reliable under practical experimental conditions
Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Kloukos, Dimitrios; Petridis, Haralampos; Pandis, Nikolaos
2015-10-01
To assess the hypothesis that there is excessive reporting of statistically significant studies published in prosthodontic and implantology journals, which could indicate selective publication. The last 30 issues of 9 journals in prosthodontics and implant dentistry were hand-searched for articles with statistical analyses. The percentages of significant and non-significant results were tabulated by parameter of interest. Univariable/multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to identify possible predictors of reporting statistically significance findings. The results of this study were compared with similar studies in dentistry with random-effects meta-analyses. From the 2323 included studies 71% of them reported statistically significant results, with the significant results ranging from 47% to 86%. Multivariable modeling identified that geographical area and involvement of statistician were predictors of statistically significant results. Compared to interventional studies, the odds that in vitro and observational studies would report statistically significant results was increased by 1.20 times (OR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.66-2.92) and 0.35 times (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.05-1.73), respectively. The probability of statistically significant results from randomized controlled trials was significantly lower compared to various study designs (difference: 30%, 95% CI: 11-49%). Likewise the probability of statistically significant results in prosthodontics and implant dentistry was lower compared to other dental specialties, but this result did not reach statistical significant (P>0.05). The majority of studies identified in the fields of prosthodontics and implant dentistry presented statistically significant results. The same trend existed in publications of other specialties in dentistry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Statistical significance of trends in monthly heavy precipitation over the US
Mahajan, Salil
2011-05-11
Trends in monthly heavy precipitation, defined by a return period of one year, are assessed for statistical significance in observations and Global Climate Model (GCM) simulations over the contiguous United States using Monte Carlo non-parametric and parametric bootstrapping techniques. The results from the two Monte Carlo approaches are found to be similar to each other, and also to the traditional non-parametric Kendall\\'s τ test, implying the robustness of the approach. Two different observational data-sets are employed to test for trends in monthly heavy precipitation and are found to exhibit consistent results. Both data-sets demonstrate upward trends, one of which is found to be statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. Upward trends similar to observations are observed in some climate model simulations of the twentieth century, but their statistical significance is marginal. For projections of the twenty-first century, a statistically significant upwards trend is observed in most of the climate models analyzed. The change in the simulated precipitation variance appears to be more important in the twenty-first century projections than changes in the mean precipitation. Stochastic fluctuations of the climate-system are found to be dominate monthly heavy precipitation as some GCM simulations show a downwards trend even in the twenty-first century projections when the greenhouse gas forcings are strong. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Statistically significant relational data mining :
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.
2014-02-01
This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.
Testing statistical significance scores of sequence comparison methods with structure similarity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leunissen Jack AM
2006-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past years the Smith-Waterman sequence comparison algorithm has gained popularity due to improved implementations and rapidly increasing computing power. However, the quality and sensitivity of a database search is not only determined by the algorithm but also by the statistical significance testing for an alignment. The e-value is the most commonly used statistical validation method for sequence database searching. The CluSTr database and the Protein World database have been created using an alternative statistical significance test: a Z-score based on Monte-Carlo statistics. Several papers have described the superiority of the Z-score as compared to the e-value, using simulated data. We were interested if this could be validated when applied to existing, evolutionary related protein sequences. Results All experiments are performed on the ASTRAL SCOP database. The Smith-Waterman sequence comparison algorithm with both e-value and Z-score statistics is evaluated, using ROC, CVE and AP measures. The BLAST and FASTA algorithms are used as reference. We find that two out of three Smith-Waterman implementations with e-value are better at predicting structural similarities between proteins than the Smith-Waterman implementation with Z-score. SSEARCH especially has very high scores. Conclusion The compute intensive Z-score does not have a clear advantage over the e-value. The Smith-Waterman implementations give generally better results than their heuristic counterparts. We recommend using the SSEARCH algorithm combined with e-values for pairwise sequence comparisons.
Statistical significance versus clinical relevance.
van Rijn, Marieke H C; Bech, Anneke; Bouyer, Jean; van den Brand, Jan A J G
2017-04-01
In March this year, the American Statistical Association (ASA) posted a statement on the correct use of P-values, in response to a growing concern that the P-value is commonly misused and misinterpreted. We aim to translate these warnings given by the ASA into a language more easily understood by clinicians and researchers without a deep background in statistics. Moreover, we intend to illustrate the limitations of P-values, even when used and interpreted correctly, and bring more attention to the clinical relevance of study findings using two recently reported studies as examples. We argue that P-values are often misinterpreted. A common mistake is saying that P < 0.05 means that the null hypothesis is false, and P ≥0.05 means that the null hypothesis is true. The correct interpretation of a P-value of 0.05 is that if the null hypothesis were indeed true, a similar or more extreme result would occur 5% of the times upon repeating the study in a similar sample. In other words, the P-value informs about the likelihood of the data given the null hypothesis and not the other way around. A possible alternative related to the P-value is the confidence interval (CI). It provides more information on the magnitude of an effect and the imprecision with which that effect was estimated. However, there is no magic bullet to replace P-values and stop erroneous interpretation of scientific results. Scientists and readers alike should make themselves familiar with the correct, nuanced interpretation of statistical tests, P-values and CIs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Wetterslev, Jorn; Winkel, Per
2014-01-01
BACKGROUND: Thresholds for statistical significance when assessing meta-analysis results are being insufficiently demonstrated by traditional 95% confidence intervals and P-values. Assessment of intervention effects in systematic reviews with meta-analysis deserves greater rigour. METHODS......: Methodologies for assessing statistical and clinical significance of intervention effects in systematic reviews were considered. Balancing simplicity and comprehensiveness, an operational procedure was developed, based mainly on The Cochrane Collaboration methodology and the Grading of Recommendations...... Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. RESULTS: We propose an eight-step procedure for better validation of meta-analytic results in systematic reviews (1) Obtain the 95% confidence intervals and the P-values from both fixed-effect and random-effects meta-analyses and report the most...
Are studies reporting significant results more likely to be published?
Koletsi, Despina; Karagianni, Anthi; Pandis, Nikolaos; Makou, Margarita; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Eliades, Theodore
2009-11-01
Our objective was to assess the hypothesis that there are variations of the proportion of articles reporting a significant effect, with a higher percentage of those articles published in journals with impact factors. The contents of 5 orthodontic journals (American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Angle Orthodontist, European Journal of Orthodontics, Journal of Orthodontics, and Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research), published between 2004 and 2008, were hand-searched. Articles with statistical analysis of data were included in the study and classified into 4 categories: behavior and psychology, biomaterials and biomechanics, diagnostic procedures and treatment, and craniofacial growth, morphology, and genetics. In total, 2622 articles were examined, with 1785 included in the analysis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied with statistical significance as the dependent variable, and whether the journal had an impact factor, the subject, and the year were the independent predictors. A higher percentage of articles showed significant results relative to those without significant associations (on average, 88% vs 12%) for those journals. Overall, these journals published significantly more studies with significant results, ranging from 75% to 90% (P = 0.02). Multivariate modeling showed that journals with impact factors had a 100% increased probability of publishing a statistically significant result compared with journals with no impact factor (odds ratio [OR], 1.99; 95% CI, 1.19-3.31). Compared with articles on biomaterials and biomechanics, all other subject categories showed lower probabilities of significant results. Nonsignificant findings in behavior and psychology and diagnosis and treatment were 1.8 (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.51-2.67) and 3.5 (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 2.27-5.37) times more likely to be published, respectively. Journals seem to prefer reporting significant results; this might be because of authors
Swiss solar power statistics 2007 - Significant expansion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hostettler, T.
2008-01-01
This article presents and discusses the 2007 statistics for solar power in Switzerland. A significant number of new installations is noted as is the high production figures from newer installations. The basics behind the compilation of the Swiss solar power statistics are briefly reviewed and an overview for the period 1989 to 2007 is presented which includes figures on the number of photovoltaic plant in service and installed peak power. Typical production figures in kilowatt-hours (kWh) per installed kilowatt-peak power (kWp) are presented and discussed for installations of various sizes. Increased production after inverter replacement in older installations is noted. Finally, the general political situation in Switzerland as far as solar power is concerned are briefly discussed as are international developments.
Xu, Kuan-Man
2006-01-01
A new method is proposed to compare statistical differences between summary histograms, which are the histograms summed over a large ensemble of individual histograms. It consists of choosing a distance statistic for measuring the difference between summary histograms and using a bootstrap procedure to calculate the statistical significance level. Bootstrapping is an approach to statistical inference that makes few assumptions about the underlying probability distribution that describes the data. Three distance statistics are compared in this study. They are the Euclidean distance, the Jeffries-Matusita distance and the Kuiper distance. The data used in testing the bootstrap method are satellite measurements of cloud systems called cloud objects. Each cloud object is defined as a contiguous region/patch composed of individual footprints or fields of view. A histogram of measured values over footprints is generated for each parameter of each cloud object and then summary histograms are accumulated over all individual histograms in a given cloud-object size category. The results of statistical hypothesis tests using all three distances as test statistics are generally similar, indicating the validity of the proposed method. The Euclidean distance is determined to be most suitable after comparing the statistical tests of several parameters with distinct probability distributions among three cloud-object size categories. Impacts on the statistical significance levels resulting from differences in the total lengths of satellite footprint data between two size categories are also discussed.
688,112 statistical results : Content mining psychology articles for statistical test results
Hartgerink, C.H.J.
2016-01-01
In this data deposit, I describe a dataset that is the result of content mining 167,318 published articles for statistical test results reported according to the standards prescribed by the American Psychological Association (APA). Articles published by the APA, Springer, Sage, and Taylor & Francis
Statistical mechanics rigorous results
Ruelle, David
1999-01-01
This classic book marks the beginning of an era of vigorous mathematical progress in equilibrium statistical mechanics. Its treatment of the infinite system limit has not been superseded, and the discussion of thermodynamic functions and states remains basic for more recent work. The conceptual foundation provided by the Rigorous Results remains invaluable for the study of the spectacular developments of statistical mechanics in the second half of the 20th century.
Increasing the statistical significance of entanglement detection in experiments.
Jungnitsch, Bastian; Niekamp, Sönke; Kleinmann, Matthias; Gühne, Otfried; Lu, He; Gao, Wei-Bo; Chen, Yu-Ao; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei
2010-05-28
Entanglement is often verified by a violation of an inequality like a Bell inequality or an entanglement witness. Considerable effort has been devoted to the optimization of such inequalities in order to obtain a high violation. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that such an optimization does not necessarily lead to a better entanglement test, if the statistical error is taken into account. Theoretically, we show for different error models that reducing the violation of an inequality can improve the significance. Experimentally, we observe this phenomenon in a four-photon experiment, testing the Mermin and Ardehali inequality for different levels of noise. Furthermore, we provide a way to develop entanglement tests with high statistical significance.
Testing the Difference of Correlated Agreement Coefficients for Statistical Significance
Gwet, Kilem L.
2016-01-01
This article addresses the problem of testing the difference between two correlated agreement coefficients for statistical significance. A number of authors have proposed methods for testing the difference between two correlated kappa coefficients, which require either the use of resampling methods or the use of advanced statistical modeling…
Reporting Statistical Results in Medical Journals
Arifin, Wan Nor; Sarimah, Abdullah; Norsa’adah, Bachok; Najib Majdi, Yaacob; Siti-Azrin, Ab Hamid; Kamarul Imran, Musa; Aniza, Abd Aziz; Naing, Lin
2016-01-01
Statistical editors of the Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences (MJMS) must go through many submitted manuscripts, focusing on the statistical aspect of the manuscripts. However, the editors notice myriad styles of reporting the statistical results, which are not standardised among the authors. This could be due to the lack of clear written instructions on reporting statistics in the guidelines for authors. The aim of this editorial is to briefly outline reporting methods for several important and common statistical results. It will also address a number of common mistakes made by the authors. The editorial will serve as a guideline for authors aiming to publish in the MJMS as well as in other medical journals. PMID:27904419
688,112 statistical results: Content mining psychology articles for statistical test results
Hartgerink, C.H.J.
2016-01-01
In this data deposit, I describe a dataset that is the result of content mining 167,318 published articles for statistical test results reported according to the standards prescribed by the American Psychological Association (APA). Articles published by the APA, Springer, Sage, and Taylor & Francis were included (mining from Wiley and Elsevier was actively blocked). As a result of this content mining, 688,112 results from 50,845 articles were extracted. In order to provide a comprehensive set...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Zhang
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic mutation, selective pressure for translational efficiency and accuracy, level of gene expression, and protein function through natural selection are all believed to lead to codon usage bias (CUB. Therefore, informative measurement of CUB is of fundamental importance to making inferences regarding gene function and genome evolution. However, extant measures of CUB have not fully accounted for the quantitative effect of background nucleotide composition and have not statistically evaluated the significance of CUB in sequence analysis. Results Here we propose a novel measure--Codon Deviation Coefficient (CDC--that provides an informative measurement of CUB and its statistical significance without requiring any prior knowledge. Unlike previous measures, CDC estimates CUB by accounting for background nucleotide compositions tailored to codon positions and adopts the bootstrapping to assess the statistical significance of CUB for any given sequence. We evaluate CDC by examining its effectiveness on simulated sequences and empirical data and show that CDC outperforms extant measures by achieving a more informative estimation of CUB and its statistical significance. Conclusions As validated by both simulated and empirical data, CDC provides a highly informative quantification of CUB and its statistical significance, useful for determining comparative magnitudes and patterns of biased codon usage for genes or genomes with diverse sequence compositions.
Van Aert, R.C.M.; Van Assen, M.A.L.M.
2018-01-01
The unrealistically high rate of positive results within psychology has increased the attention to replication research. However, researchers who conduct a replication and want to statistically combine the results of their replication with a statistically significant original study encounter
The (mis)reporting of statistical results in psychology journals.
Bakker, Marjan; Wicherts, Jelte M
2011-09-01
In order to study the prevalence, nature (direction), and causes of reporting errors in psychology, we checked the consistency of reported test statistics, degrees of freedom, and p values in a random sample of high- and low-impact psychology journals. In a second study, we established the generality of reporting errors in a random sample of recent psychological articles. Our results, on the basis of 281 articles, indicate that around 18% of statistical results in the psychological literature are incorrectly reported. Inconsistencies were more common in low-impact journals than in high-impact journals. Moreover, around 15% of the articles contained at least one statistical conclusion that proved, upon recalculation, to be incorrect; that is, recalculation rendered the previously significant result insignificant, or vice versa. These errors were often in line with researchers' expectations. We classified the most common errors and contacted authors to shed light on the origins of the errors.
Zhang, Zhang
2012-03-22
Background: Genetic mutation, selective pressure for translational efficiency and accuracy, level of gene expression, and protein function through natural selection are all believed to lead to codon usage bias (CUB). Therefore, informative measurement of CUB is of fundamental importance to making inferences regarding gene function and genome evolution. However, extant measures of CUB have not fully accounted for the quantitative effect of background nucleotide composition and have not statistically evaluated the significance of CUB in sequence analysis.Results: Here we propose a novel measure--Codon Deviation Coefficient (CDC)--that provides an informative measurement of CUB and its statistical significance without requiring any prior knowledge. Unlike previous measures, CDC estimates CUB by accounting for background nucleotide compositions tailored to codon positions and adopts the bootstrapping to assess the statistical significance of CUB for any given sequence. We evaluate CDC by examining its effectiveness on simulated sequences and empirical data and show that CDC outperforms extant measures by achieving a more informative estimation of CUB and its statistical significance.Conclusions: As validated by both simulated and empirical data, CDC provides a highly informative quantification of CUB and its statistical significance, useful for determining comparative magnitudes and patterns of biased codon usage for genes or genomes with diverse sequence compositions. 2012 Zhang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Statistical Significance for Hierarchical Clustering
Kimes, Patrick K.; Liu, Yufeng; Hayes, D. Neil; Marron, J. S.
2017-01-01
Summary Cluster analysis has proved to be an invaluable tool for the exploratory and unsupervised analysis of high dimensional datasets. Among methods for clustering, hierarchical approaches have enjoyed substantial popularity in genomics and other fields for their ability to simultaneously uncover multiple layers of clustering structure. A critical and challenging question in cluster analysis is whether the identified clusters represent important underlying structure or are artifacts of natural sampling variation. Few approaches have been proposed for addressing this problem in the context of hierarchical clustering, for which the problem is further complicated by the natural tree structure of the partition, and the multiplicity of tests required to parse the layers of nested clusters. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo based approach for testing statistical significance in hierarchical clustering which addresses these issues. The approach is implemented as a sequential testing procedure guaranteeing control of the family-wise error rate. Theoretical justification is provided for our approach, and its power to detect true clustering structure is illustrated through several simulation studies and applications to two cancer gene expression datasets. PMID:28099990
Farrell, Mary Beth
2018-06-01
This article is the second part of a continuing education series reviewing basic statistics that nuclear medicine and molecular imaging technologists should understand. In this article, the statistics for evaluating interpretation accuracy, significance, and variance are discussed. Throughout the article, actual statistics are pulled from the published literature. We begin by explaining 2 methods for quantifying interpretive accuracy: interreader and intrareader reliability. Agreement among readers can be expressed simply as a percentage. However, the Cohen κ-statistic is a more robust measure of agreement that accounts for chance. The higher the κ-statistic is, the higher is the agreement between readers. When 3 or more readers are being compared, the Fleiss κ-statistic is used. Significance testing determines whether the difference between 2 conditions or interventions is meaningful. Statistical significance is usually expressed using a number called a probability ( P ) value. Calculation of P value is beyond the scope of this review. However, knowing how to interpret P values is important for understanding the scientific literature. Generally, a P value of less than 0.05 is considered significant and indicates that the results of the experiment are due to more than just chance. Variance, standard deviation (SD), confidence interval, and standard error (SE) explain the dispersion of data around a mean of a sample drawn from a population. SD is commonly reported in the literature. A small SD indicates that there is not much variation in the sample data. Many biologic measurements fall into what is referred to as a normal distribution taking the shape of a bell curve. In a normal distribution, 68% of the data will fall within 1 SD, 95% will fall within 2 SDs, and 99.7% will fall within 3 SDs. Confidence interval defines the range of possible values within which the population parameter is likely to lie and gives an idea of the precision of the statistic being
Increasing the statistical significance of entanglement detection in experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jungnitsch, Bastian; Niekamp, Soenke; Kleinmann, Matthias; Guehne, Otfried [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Innsbruck (Austria); Lu, He; Gao, Wei-Bo; Chen, Zeng-Bing [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany)
2010-07-01
Entanglement is often verified by a violation of an inequality like a Bell inequality or an entanglement witness. Considerable effort has been devoted to the optimization of such inequalities in order to obtain a high violation. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that such an optimization does not necessarily lead to a better entanglement test, if the statistical error is taken into account. Theoretically, we show for different error models that reducing the violation of an inequality can improve the significance. We show this to be the case for an error model in which the variance of an observable is interpreted as its error and for the standard error model in photonic experiments. Specifically, we demonstrate that the Mermin inequality yields a Bell test which is statistically more significant than the Ardehali inequality in the case of a photonic four-qubit state that is close to a GHZ state. Experimentally, we observe this phenomenon in a four-photon experiment, testing the above inequalities for different levels of noise.
Reporting effect sizes as a supplement to statistical significance ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The purpose of the article is to review the statistical significance reporting practices in reading instruction studies and to provide guidelines for when to calculate and report effect sizes in educational research. A review of six readily accessible (online) and accredited journals publishing research on reading instruction ...
Statistical Analysis Of Tank 19F Floor Sample Results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harris, S.
2010-01-01
Representative sampling has been completed for characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 19F as per the statistical sampling plan developed by Harris and Shine. Samples from eight locations have been obtained from the tank floor and two of the samples were archived as a contingency. Six samples, referred to in this report as the current scrape samples, have been submitted to and analyzed by SRNL. This report contains the statistical analysis of the floor sample analytical results to determine if further data are needed to reduce uncertainty. Included are comparisons with the prior Mantis samples results to determine if they can be pooled with the current scrape samples to estimate the upper 95% confidence limits (UCL95%) for concentration. Statistical analysis revealed that the Mantis and current scrape sample results are not compatible. Therefore, the Mantis sample results were not used to support the quantification of analytes in the residual material. Significant spatial variability among the current scrape sample results was not found. Constituent concentrations were similar between the North and South hemispheres as well as between the inner and outer regions of the tank floor. The current scrape sample results from all six samples fall within their 3-sigma limits. In view of the results from numerous statistical tests, the data were pooled from all six current scrape samples. As such, an adequate sample size was provided for quantification of the residual material on the floor of Tank 19F. The uncertainty is quantified in this report by an UCL95% on each analyte concentration. The uncertainty in analyte concentration was calculated as a function of the number of samples, the average, and the standard deviation of the analytical results. The UCL95% was based entirely on the six current scrape sample results (each averaged across three analytical determinations).
Diedrich, Alice; Schlegl, Sandra; Greetfeld, Martin; Fumi, Markus; Voderholzer, Ulrich
2018-03-01
This study examines the statistical and clinical significance of symptom changes during an intensive inpatient treatment program with a strong psychotherapeutic focus for individuals with severe bulimia nervosa. 295 consecutively admitted bulimic patients were administered the Structured Interview for Anorexic and Bulimic Syndromes-Self-Rating (SIAB-S), the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) at treatment intake and discharge. Results indicated statistically significant symptom reductions with large effect sizes regarding severity of binge eating and compensatory behavior (SIAB-S), overall eating disorder symptom severity (EDI-2), overall psychopathology (BSI), and depressive symptom severity (BDI-II) even when controlling for antidepressant medication. The majority of patients showed either reliable (EDI-2: 33.7%, BSI: 34.8%, BDI-II: 18.1%) or even clinically significant symptom changes (EDI-2: 43.2%, BSI: 33.9%, BDI-II: 56.9%). Patients with clinically significant improvement were less distressed at intake and less likely to suffer from a comorbid borderline personality disorder when compared with those who did not improve to a clinically significant extent. Findings indicate that intensive psychotherapeutic inpatient treatment may be effective in about 75% of severely affected bulimic patients. For the remaining non-responding patients, inpatient treatment might be improved through an even stronger focus on the reduction of comorbid borderline personality traits.
Statistical significance of epidemiological data. Seminar: Evaluation of epidemiological studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, K.H.
1993-01-01
In stochastic damages, the numbers of events, e.g. the persons who are affected by or have died of cancer, and thus the relative frequencies (incidence or mortality) are binomially distributed random variables. Their statistical fluctuations can be characterized by confidence intervals. For epidemiologic questions, especially for the analysis of stochastic damages in the low dose range, the following issues are interesting: - Is a sample (a group of persons) with a definite observed damage frequency part of the whole population? - Is an observed frequency difference between two groups of persons random or statistically significant? - Is an observed increase or decrease of the frequencies with increasing dose random or statistically significant and how large is the regression coefficient (= risk coefficient) in this case? These problems can be solved by sttistical tests. So-called distribution-free tests and tests which are not bound to the supposition of normal distribution are of particular interest, such as: - χ 2 -independence test (test in contingency tables); - Fisher-Yates-test; - trend test according to Cochran; - rank correlation test given by Spearman. These tests are explained in terms of selected epidemiologic data, e.g. of leukaemia clusters, of the cancer mortality of the Japanese A-bomb survivors especially in the low dose range as well as on the sample of the cancer mortality in the high background area in Yangjiang (China). (orig.) [de
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TANK 18F FLOOR SAMPLE RESULTS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harris, S.
2010-09-02
Representative sampling has been completed for characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 18F as per the statistical sampling plan developed by Shine [1]. Samples from eight locations have been obtained from the tank floor and two of the samples were archived as a contingency. Six samples, referred to in this report as the current scrape samples, have been submitted to and analyzed by SRNL [2]. This report contains the statistical analysis of the floor sample analytical results to determine if further data are needed to reduce uncertainty. Included are comparisons with the prior Mantis samples results [3] to determine if they can be pooled with the current scrape samples to estimate the upper 95% confidence limits (UCL{sub 95%}) for concentration. Statistical analysis revealed that the Mantis and current scrape sample results are not compatible. Therefore, the Mantis sample results were not used to support the quantification of analytes in the residual material. Significant spatial variability among the current sample results was not found. Constituent concentrations were similar between the North and South hemispheres as well as between the inner and outer regions of the tank floor. The current scrape sample results from all six samples fall within their 3-sigma limits. In view of the results from numerous statistical tests, the data were pooled from all six current scrape samples. As such, an adequate sample size was provided for quantification of the residual material on the floor of Tank 18F. The uncertainty is quantified in this report by an upper 95% confidence limit (UCL{sub 95%}) on each analyte concentration. The uncertainty in analyte concentration was calculated as a function of the number of samples, the average, and the standard deviation of the analytical results. The UCL{sub 95%} was based entirely on the six current scrape sample results (each averaged across three analytical determinations).
Statistical Significance and Effect Size: Two Sides of a Coin.
Fan, Xitao
This paper suggests that statistical significance testing and effect size are two sides of the same coin; they complement each other, but do not substitute for one another. Good research practice requires that both should be taken into consideration to make sound quantitative decisions. A Monte Carlo simulation experiment was conducted, and a…
Significant Statistics: Viewed with a Contextual Lens
Tait-McCutcheon, Sandi
2010-01-01
This paper examines the pedagogical and organisational changes three lead teachers made to their statistics teaching and learning programs. The lead teachers posed the research question: What would the effect of contextually integrating statistical investigations and literacies into other curriculum areas be on student achievement? By finding the…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engsted, Tom
I comment on the controversy between McCloskey & Ziliak and Hoover & Siegler on statistical versus economic significance, in the March 2008 issue of the Journal of Economic Methodology. I argue that while McCloskey & Ziliak are right in emphasizing 'real error', i.e. non-sampling error that cannot...... be eliminated through specification testing, they fail to acknowledge those areas in economics, e.g. rational expectations macroeconomics and asset pricing, where researchers clearly distinguish between statistical and economic significance and where statistical testing plays a relatively minor role in model...
Statistical literacy and sample survey results
McAlevey, Lynn; Sullivan, Charles
2010-10-01
Sample surveys are widely used in the social sciences and business. The news media almost daily quote from them, yet they are widely misused. Using students with prior managerial experience embarking on an MBA course, we show that common sample survey results are misunderstood even by those managers who have previously done a statistics course. In general, they fare no better than managers who have never studied statistics. There are implications for teaching, especially in business schools, as well as for consulting.
A tutorial on hunting statistical significance by chasing N
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Denes Szucs
2016-09-01
Full Text Available There is increasing concern about the replicability of studies in psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Hidden data dredging (also called p-hacking is a major contributor to this crisis because it substantially increases Type I error resulting in a much larger proportion of false positive findings than the usually expected 5%. In order to build better intuition to avoid, detect and criticise some typical problems, here I systematically illustrate the large impact of some easy to implement and so, perhaps frequent data dredging techniques on boosting false positive findings. I illustrate several forms of two special cases of data dredging. First, researchers may violate the data collection stopping rules of null hypothesis significance testing by repeatedly checking for statistical significance with various numbers of participants. Second, researchers may group participants post-hoc along potential but unplanned independent grouping variables. The first approach 'hacks' the number of participants in studies, the second approach ‘hacks’ the number of variables in the analysis. I demonstrate the high amount of false positive findings generated by these techniques with data from true null distributions. I also illustrate that it is extremely easy to introduce strong bias into data by very mild selection and re-testing. Similar, usually undocumented data dredging steps can easily lead to having 20-50%, or more false positives.
Wilkinson, Michael
2014-03-01
Decisions about support for predictions of theories in light of data are made using statistical inference. The dominant approach in sport and exercise science is the Neyman-Pearson (N-P) significance-testing approach. When applied correctly it provides a reliable procedure for making dichotomous decisions for accepting or rejecting zero-effect null hypotheses with known and controlled long-run error rates. Type I and type II error rates must be specified in advance and the latter controlled by conducting an a priori sample size calculation. The N-P approach does not provide the probability of hypotheses or indicate the strength of support for hypotheses in light of data, yet many scientists believe it does. Outcomes of analyses allow conclusions only about the existence of non-zero effects, and provide no information about the likely size of true effects or their practical/clinical value. Bayesian inference can show how much support data provide for different hypotheses, and how personal convictions should be altered in light of data, but the approach is complicated by formulating probability distributions about prior subjective estimates of population effects. A pragmatic solution is magnitude-based inference, which allows scientists to estimate the true magnitude of population effects and how likely they are to exceed an effect magnitude of practical/clinical importance, thereby integrating elements of subjective Bayesian-style thinking. While this approach is gaining acceptance, progress might be hastened if scientists appreciate the shortcomings of traditional N-P null hypothesis significance testing.
Systematic reviews of anesthesiologic interventions reported as statistically significant
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Imberger, Georgina; Gluud, Christian; Boylan, John
2015-01-01
statistically significant meta-analyses of anesthesiologic interventions, we used TSA to estimate power and imprecision in the context of sparse data and repeated updates. METHODS: We conducted a search to identify all systematic reviews with meta-analyses that investigated an intervention that may......: From 11,870 titles, we found 682 systematic reviews that investigated anesthesiologic interventions. In the 50 sampled meta-analyses, the median number of trials included was 8 (interquartile range [IQR], 5-14), the median number of participants was 964 (IQR, 523-1736), and the median number...
van Tulder, M.W.; Malmivaara, A.; Hayden, J.; Koes, B.
2007-01-01
STUDY DESIGN. Critical appraisal of the literature. OBJECIVES. The objective of this study was to assess if results of back pain trials are statistically significant and clinically important. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. There seems to be a discrepancy between conclusions reported by authors and
P-Value, a true test of statistical significance? a cautionary note ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
While it's not the intention of the founders of significance testing and hypothesis testing to have the two ideas intertwined as if they are complementary, the inconvenient marriage of the two practices into one coherent, convenient, incontrovertible and misinterpreted practice has dotted our standard statistics textbooks and ...
Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Happell, Brenda
2014-05-01
improvement. Most importantly, researchers should abandon the misleading practice of interpreting the results from inferential tests based solely on whether they are statistically significant (or not) and, instead, focus on reporting and interpreting effect sizes, confidence intervals, and significance levels. Nursing researchers also need to conduct and report a priori power analyses, and to address the issue of Type I experiment-wise error inflation in their studies. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brouwer, D.; Meijer, R.R.; Zevalkink, D.J.
2013-01-01
Several researchers have emphasized that item response theory (IRT)-based methods should be preferred over classical approaches in measuring change for individual patients. In the present study we discuss and evaluate the use of IRT-based statistics to measure statistical significant individual
Fidalgo, Angel M.; Alavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amirian, Seyed Mohammad Reza
2014-01-01
This study examines three controversial aspects in differential item functioning (DIF) detection by logistic regression (LR) models: first, the relative effectiveness of different analytical strategies for detecting DIF; second, the suitability of the Wald statistic for determining the statistical significance of the parameters of interest; and…
Statistical significance estimation of a signal within the GooFit framework on GPUs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cristella Leonardo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In order to test the computing capabilities of GPUs with respect to traditional CPU cores a high-statistics toy Monte Carlo technique has been implemented both in ROOT/RooFit and GooFit frameworks with the purpose to estimate the statistical significance of the structure observed by CMS close to the kinematical boundary of the J/ψϕ invariant mass in the three-body decay B+ → J/ψϕK+. GooFit is a data analysis open tool under development that interfaces ROOT/RooFit to CUDA platform on nVidia GPU. The optimized GooFit application running on GPUs hosted by servers in the Bari Tier2 provides striking speed-up performances with respect to the RooFit application parallelised on multiple CPUs by means of PROOF-Lite tool. The considerable resulting speed-up, evident when comparing concurrent GooFit processes allowed by CUDA Multi Process Service and a RooFit/PROOF-Lite process with multiple CPU workers, is presented and discussed in detail. By means of GooFit it has also been possible to explore the behaviour of a likelihood ratio test statistic in different situations in which the Wilks Theorem may or may not apply because its regularity conditions are not satisfied.
A Note on Comparing the Power of Test Statistics at Low Significance Levels.
Morris, Nathan; Elston, Robert
2011-01-01
It is an obvious fact that the power of a test statistic is dependent upon the significance (alpha) level at which the test is performed. It is perhaps a less obvious fact that the relative performance of two statistics in terms of power is also a function of the alpha level. Through numerous personal discussions, we have noted that even some competent statisticians have the mistaken intuition that relative power comparisons at traditional levels such as α = 0.05 will be roughly similar to relative power comparisons at very low levels, such as the level α = 5 × 10 -8 , which is commonly used in genome-wide association studies. In this brief note, we demonstrate that this notion is in fact quite wrong, especially with respect to comparing tests with differing degrees of freedom. In fact, at very low alpha levels the cost of additional degrees of freedom is often comparatively low. Thus we recommend that statisticians exercise caution when interpreting the results of power comparison studies which use alpha levels that will not be used in practice.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gallaher, B.; Mercier, T.; Black, P.; Mullen, K.
2000-01-01
Four governmental agencies conducted a round of groundwater, surface water, and spring water sampling at the Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1998. Samples were split among the four parties and sent to independent analytical laboratories. Results from three of the agencies were available for this study. Comparisons of analytical results that were paired by location and date were made between the various analytical laboratories. The results for over 50 split samples analyzed for inorganic chemicals, metals, and radionuclides were compared. Statistical analyses included non-parametric (sign test and signed-ranks test) and parametric (paired t-test and linear regression) methods. The data pairs were tested for statistically significant differences, defined by an observed significance level, or p-value, less than 0.05. The main conclusion is that the laboratories' performances are similar across most of the analytes that were measured. In some 95% of the laboratory measurements there was agreement on whether contaminant levels exceeded regulatory limits. The most significant differences in performance were noted for the radioactive suite, particularly for gross alpha particle activity and Sr-90
Jokhio, Gul A.; Syed Mohsin, Sharifah M.; Gul, Yasmeen
2018-04-01
It has been established that Adobe provides, in addition to being sustainable and economic, a better indoor air quality without spending extensive amounts of energy as opposed to the modern synthetic materials. The material, however, suffers from weak structural behaviour when subjected to adverse loading conditions. A wide range of mechanical properties has been reported in literature owing to lack of research and standardization. The present paper presents the statistical analysis of the results that were obtained through compressive and flexural tests on Adobe samples. Adobe specimens with and without wire mesh reinforcement were tested and the results were reported. The statistical analysis of these results presents an interesting read. It has been found that the compressive strength of adobe increases by about 43% after adding a single layer of wire mesh reinforcement. This increase is statistically significant. The flexural response of Adobe has also shown improvement with the addition of wire mesh reinforcement, however, the statistical significance of the same cannot be established.
The estimation of the measurement results with using statistical methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ukrmetrteststandard, 4, Metrologichna Str., 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine))" data-affiliation=" (State Enterprise Ukrmetrteststandard, 4, Metrologichna Str., 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine))" >Velychko, O; UkrNDIspirtbioprod, 3, Babushkina Lane, 03190, Kyiv (Ukraine))" data-affiliation=" (State Scientific Institution UkrNDIspirtbioprod, 3, Babushkina Lane, 03190, Kyiv (Ukraine))" >Gordiyenko, T
2015-01-01
The row of international standards and guides describe various statistical methods that apply for a management, control and improvement of processes with the purpose of realization of analysis of the technical measurement results. The analysis of international standards and guides on statistical methods estimation of the measurement results recommendations for those applications in laboratories is described. For realization of analysis of standards and guides the cause-and-effect Ishikawa diagrams concerting to application of statistical methods for estimation of the measurement results are constructed
The estimation of the measurement results with using statistical methods
Velychko, O.; Gordiyenko, T.
2015-02-01
The row of international standards and guides describe various statistical methods that apply for a management, control and improvement of processes with the purpose of realization of analysis of the technical measurement results. The analysis of international standards and guides on statistical methods estimation of the measurement results recommendations for those applications in laboratories is described. For realization of analysis of standards and guides the cause-and-effect Ishikawa diagrams concerting to application of statistical methods for estimation of the measurement results are constructed.
Recent Literature on Whether Statistical Significance Tests Should or Should Not Be Banned.
Deegear, James
This paper summarizes the literature regarding statistical significant testing with an emphasis on recent literature in various discipline and literature exploring why researchers have demonstrably failed to be influenced by the American Psychological Association publication manual's encouragement to report effect sizes. Also considered are…
The (mis)reporting of statistical results in psychology journals
Bakker, Marjan; Wicherts, Jelte M.
2011-01-01
In order to study the prevalence, nature (direction), and causes of reporting errors in psychology, we checked the consistency of reported test statistics, degrees of freedom, and p values in a random sample of high- and low-impact psychology journals. In a second study, we established the generality of reporting errors in a random sample of recent psychological articles. Our results, on the basis of 281 articles, indicate that around 18% of statistical results in the psychological literature...
p-Curve and Effect Size: Correcting for Publication Bias Using Only Significant Results.
Simonsohn, Uri; Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph P
2014-11-01
Journals tend to publish only statistically significant evidence, creating a scientific record that markedly overstates the size of effects. We provide a new tool that corrects for this bias without requiring access to nonsignificant results. It capitalizes on the fact that the distribution of significant p values, p-curve, is a function of the true underlying effect. Researchers armed only with sample sizes and test results of the published findings can correct for publication bias. We validate the technique with simulations and by reanalyzing data from the Many-Labs Replication project. We demonstrate that p-curve can arrive at conclusions opposite that of existing tools by reanalyzing the meta-analysis of the "choice overload" literature. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ji, Jun; Ling, Jeffrey; Jiang, Helen; Wen, Qiaojun; Whitin, John C; Tian, Lu; Cohen, Harvey J; Ling, Xuefeng B
2013-03-23
Mass spectrometry (MS) has evolved to become the primary high throughput tool for proteomics based biomarker discovery. Until now, multiple challenges in protein MS data analysis remain: large-scale and complex data set management; MS peak identification, indexing; and high dimensional peak differential analysis with the concurrent statistical tests based false discovery rate (FDR). "Turnkey" solutions are needed for biomarker investigations to rapidly process MS data sets to identify statistically significant peaks for subsequent validation. Here we present an efficient and effective solution, which provides experimental biologists easy access to "cloud" computing capabilities to analyze MS data. The web portal can be accessed at http://transmed.stanford.edu/ssa/. Presented web application supplies large scale MS data online uploading and analysis with a simple user interface. This bioinformatic tool will facilitate the discovery of the potential protein biomarkers using MS.
Cucherat, Michel; Laporte, Silvy
2017-09-01
The use of statistical test is central in the clinical trial. At the statistical level, obtaining a Pinformation about the plausibility of the existence of treatment effect. With "Pfalse positive is very high. This is the case if the power is low, if there is an inflation of the alpha risk or if the result is exploratory or chance discoveries. This possibility is important to take into consideration when interpreting the results of clinical trials in order to avoid pushing ahead significant results in appearance, but which are likely to be actually false positive results. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Perneger, Thomas V; Combescure, Christophe
2017-07-01
Published P-values provide a window into the global enterprise of medical research. The aim of this study was to use the distribution of published P-values to estimate the relative frequencies of null and alternative hypotheses and to seek irregularities suggestive of publication bias. This cross-sectional study included P-values published in 120 medical research articles in 2016 (30 each from the BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine). The observed distribution of P-values was compared with expected distributions under the null hypothesis (i.e., uniform between 0 and 1) and the alternative hypothesis (strictly decreasing from 0 to 1). P-values were categorized according to conventional levels of statistical significance and in one-percent intervals. Among 4,158 recorded P-values, 26.1% were highly significant (P values values equal to 1, and (3) about twice as many P-values less than 0.05 compared with those more than 0.05. The latter finding was seen in both randomized trials and observational studies, and in most types of analyses, excepting heterogeneity tests and interaction tests. Under plausible assumptions, we estimate that about half of the tested hypotheses were null and the other half were alternative. This analysis suggests that statistical tests published in medical journals are not a random sample of null and alternative hypotheses but that selective reporting is prevalent. In particular, significant results are about twice as likely to be reported as nonsignificant results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crow, C.J.
1985-01-01
Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.
PI-3 correlations and statistical evaluation results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pernica, R.; Cizek, J.
1992-01-01
Empirical Critical Heat Flux (CHF) correlations PI-3 having the widest range of validity for flow conditions in both hexagonal and square rod bundle geometries and compared with published CHF correlations are presented. They are valid for vertical water upflow through rod bundles with relatively wide and very tight rod lattices, and include axial and radial non-uniform heating. The correlations were developed with the use of more than 6000 data obtained from 119 electrically heated rod bundles. Comprehensive results of statistical evaluations of the new correlations are presented for various data bases. Also presented is a comparison of statistical evaluations of several well-known CHF correlations in the experimental data base used. A procedure which makes it possible to directly determine the probability that CHF does not occur is described for the purpose of nuclear safety assessment. (author) 8 tabs., 32 figs., 11 refs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jones, Allan; Sommerlund, Bo
2007-01-01
The uses of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) and statistical power analysis within psychological research are critically discussed. The article looks at the problems of relying solely on NHST when dealing with small and large sample sizes. The use of power-analysis in estimating...... the potential error introduced by small and large samples is advocated. Power analysis is not recommended as a replacement to NHST but as an additional source of information about the phenomena under investigation. Moreover, the importance of conceptual analysis in relation to statistical analysis of hypothesis...
Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas
2016-04-01
Longer data series (e.g. >10 a) of ground temperatures in alpine regions are helpful to improve the understanding regarding the effects of present climate change on distribution and thermal characteristics of seasonal frost- and permafrost-affected areas. Beginning in 2004 - and more intensively since 2006 - a permafrost and seasonal frost monitoring network was established in Central and Eastern Austria by the University of Graz. This network consists of c.60 ground temperature (surface and near-surface) monitoring sites which are located at 1922-3002 m a.s.l., at latitude 46°55'-47°22'N and at longitude 12°44'-14°41'E. These data allow conclusions about general ground thermal conditions, potential permafrost occurrence, trend during the observation period, and regional pattern of changes. Calculations and analyses of several different temperature-related parameters were accomplished. At an annual scale a region-wide statistical significant warming during the observation period was revealed by e.g. an increase in mean annual temperature values (mean, maximum) or the significant lowering of the surface frost number (F+). At a seasonal scale no significant trend of any temperature-related parameter was in most cases revealed for spring (MAM) and autumn (SON). Winter (DJF) shows only a weak warming. In contrast, the summer (JJA) season reveals in general a significant warming as confirmed by several different temperature-related parameters such as e.g. mean seasonal temperature, number of thawing degree days, number of freezing degree days, or days without night frost. On a monthly basis August shows the statistically most robust and strongest warming of all months, although regional differences occur. Despite the fact that the general ground temperature warming during the last decade is confirmed by the field data in the study region, complications in trend analyses arise by temperature anomalies (e.g. warm winter 2006/07) or substantial variations in the winter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. A. Tatokchin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Development of the modern educational technologies caused by broad introduction of comput-er testing and development of distant forms of education does necessary revision of methods of an examination of pupils. In work it was shown, need transition to mathematical criteria, exami-nations of knowledge which are deprived of subjectivity. In article the review of the problems arising at realization of this task and are offered approaches for its decision. The greatest atten-tion is paid to discussion of a problem of objective transformation of rated estimates of the ex-pert on to the scale estimates of the student. In general, the discussion this question is was con-cluded that the solution to this problem lies in the creation of specialized intellectual systems. The basis for constructing intelligent system laid the mathematical model of self-organizing nonequilibrium dissipative system, which is a group of students. This article assumes that the dissipative system is provided by the constant influx of new test items of the expert and non-equilibrium – individual psychological characteristics of students in the group. As a result, the system must self-organize themselves into stable patterns. This patern will allow for, relying on large amounts of data, get a statistically significant assessment of student. To justify the pro-posed approach in the work presents the data of the statistical analysis of the results of testing a large sample of students (> 90. Conclusions from this statistical analysis allowed to develop intelligent system statistically significant examination of student performance. It is based on data clustering algorithm (k-mean for the three key parameters. It is shown that this approach allows you to create of the dynamics and objective expertise evaluation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anita Lindmark
Full Text Available When profiling hospital performance, quality inicators are commonly evaluated through hospital-specific adjusted means with confidence intervals. When identifying deviations from a norm, large hospitals can have statistically significant results even for clinically irrelevant deviations while important deviations in small hospitals can remain undiscovered. We have used data from the Swedish Stroke Register (Riksstroke to illustrate the properties of a benchmarking method that integrates considerations of both clinical relevance and level of statistical significance.The performance measure used was case-mix adjusted risk of death or dependency in activities of daily living within 3 months after stroke. A hospital was labeled as having outlying performance if its case-mix adjusted risk exceeded a benchmark value with a specified statistical confidence level. The benchmark was expressed relative to the population risk and should reflect the clinically relevant deviation that is to be detected. A simulation study based on Riksstroke patient data from 2008-2009 was performed to investigate the effect of the choice of the statistical confidence level and benchmark value on the diagnostic properties of the method.Simulations were based on 18,309 patients in 76 hospitals. The widely used setting, comparing 95% confidence intervals to the national average, resulted in low sensitivity (0.252 and high specificity (0.991. There were large variations in sensitivity and specificity for different requirements of statistical confidence. Lowering statistical confidence improved sensitivity with a relatively smaller loss of specificity. Variations due to different benchmark values were smaller, especially for sensitivity. This allows the choice of a clinically relevant benchmark to be driven by clinical factors without major concerns about sufficiently reliable evidence.The study emphasizes the importance of combining clinical relevance and level of statistical
Lindmark, Anita; van Rompaye, Bart; Goetghebeur, Els; Glader, Eva-Lotta; Eriksson, Marie
2016-01-01
When profiling hospital performance, quality inicators are commonly evaluated through hospital-specific adjusted means with confidence intervals. When identifying deviations from a norm, large hospitals can have statistically significant results even for clinically irrelevant deviations while important deviations in small hospitals can remain undiscovered. We have used data from the Swedish Stroke Register (Riksstroke) to illustrate the properties of a benchmarking method that integrates considerations of both clinical relevance and level of statistical significance. The performance measure used was case-mix adjusted risk of death or dependency in activities of daily living within 3 months after stroke. A hospital was labeled as having outlying performance if its case-mix adjusted risk exceeded a benchmark value with a specified statistical confidence level. The benchmark was expressed relative to the population risk and should reflect the clinically relevant deviation that is to be detected. A simulation study based on Riksstroke patient data from 2008-2009 was performed to investigate the effect of the choice of the statistical confidence level and benchmark value on the diagnostic properties of the method. Simulations were based on 18,309 patients in 76 hospitals. The widely used setting, comparing 95% confidence intervals to the national average, resulted in low sensitivity (0.252) and high specificity (0.991). There were large variations in sensitivity and specificity for different requirements of statistical confidence. Lowering statistical confidence improved sensitivity with a relatively smaller loss of specificity. Variations due to different benchmark values were smaller, especially for sensitivity. This allows the choice of a clinically relevant benchmark to be driven by clinical factors without major concerns about sufficiently reliable evidence. The study emphasizes the importance of combining clinical relevance and level of statistical confidence when
Shaikh, Masood Ali
2017-09-01
Assessment of research articles in terms of study designs used, statistical tests applied and the use of statistical analysis programmes help determine research activity profile and trends in the country. In this descriptive study, all original articles published by Journal of Pakistan Medical Association (JPMA) and Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan (JCPSP), in the year 2015 were reviewed in terms of study designs used, application of statistical tests, and the use of statistical analysis programmes. JPMA and JCPSP published 192 and 128 original articles, respectively, in the year 2015. Results of this study indicate that cross-sectional study design, bivariate inferential statistical analysis entailing comparison between two variables/groups, and use of statistical software programme SPSS to be the most common study design, inferential statistical analysis, and statistical analysis software programmes, respectively. These results echo previously published assessment of these two journals for the year 2014.
Sierevelt, Inger N.; van Oldenrijk, Jakob; Poolman, Rudolf W.
2007-01-01
In this paper we describe several issues that influence the reporting of statistical significance in relation to clinical importance, since misinterpretation of p values is a common issue in orthopaedic literature. Orthopaedic research is tormented by the risks of false-positive (type I error) and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jelte M Wicherts
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The widespread reluctance to share published research data is often hypothesized to be due to the authors' fear that reanalysis may expose errors in their work or may produce conclusions that contradict their own. However, these hypotheses have not previously been studied systematically. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We related the reluctance to share research data for reanalysis to 1148 statistically significant results reported in 49 papers published in two major psychology journals. We found the reluctance to share data to be associated with weaker evidence (against the null hypothesis of no effect and a higher prevalence of apparent errors in the reporting of statistical results. The unwillingness to share data was particularly clear when reporting errors had a bearing on statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings on the basis of psychological papers suggest that statistical results are particularly hard to verify when reanalysis is more likely to lead to contrasting conclusions. This highlights the importance of establishing mandatory data archiving policies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DUDEK, J; SZPAK, B; FORNAL, B; PORQUET, M-G
2011-01-01
In this and the follow-up article we briefly discuss what we believe represents one of the most serious problems in contemporary nuclear structure: the question of statistical significance of parametrizations of nuclear microscopic Hamiltonians and the implied predictive power of the underlying theories. In the present Part I, we introduce the main lines of reasoning of the so-called Inverse Problem Theory, an important sub-field in the contemporary Applied Mathematics, here illustrated on the example of the Nuclear Mean-Field Approach.
Linting, Marielle; van Os, Bart Jan; Meulman, Jacqueline J.
2011-01-01
In this paper, the statistical significance of the contribution of variables to the principal components in principal components analysis (PCA) is assessed nonparametrically by the use of permutation tests. We compare a new strategy to a strategy used in previous research consisting of permuting the columns (variables) of a data matrix…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leitner Dietmar
2005-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background A reliable prediction of the Xaa-Pro peptide bond conformation would be a useful tool for many protein structure calculation methods. We have analyzed the Protein Data Bank and show that the combined use of sequential and structural information has a predictive value for the assessment of the cis versus trans peptide bond conformation of Xaa-Pro within proteins. For the analysis of the data sets different statistical methods such as the calculation of the Chou-Fasman parameters and occurrence matrices were used. Furthermore we analyzed the relationship between the relative solvent accessibility and the relative occurrence of prolines in the cis and in the trans conformation. Results One of the main results of the statistical investigations is the ranking of the secondary structure and sequence information with respect to the prediction of the Xaa-Pro peptide bond conformation. We observed a significant impact of secondary structure information on the occurrence of the Xaa-Pro peptide bond conformation, while the sequence information of amino acids neighboring proline is of little predictive value for the conformation of this bond. Conclusion In this work, we present an extensive analysis of the occurrence of the cis and trans proline conformation in proteins. Based on the data set, we derived patterns and rules for a possible prediction of the proline conformation. Upon adoption of the Chou-Fasman parameters, we are able to derive statistically relevant correlations between the secondary structure of amino acid fragments and the Xaa-Pro peptide bond conformation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frome, E.L.; Khare, M.
1980-01-01
Brodsky's paper 'A Statistical Method for Testing Epidemiological Results, as applied to the Hanford Worker Population', (Health Phys., 36, 611-628, 1979) proposed two test statistics for use in comparing the survival experience of a group of employees and controls. This letter states that both of the test statistics were computed using incorrect formulas and concludes that the results obtained using these statistics may also be incorrect. In his reply Brodsky concurs with the comments on the proper formulation of estimates of pooled standard errors in constructing test statistics but believes that the erroneous formulation does not invalidate the major points, results and discussions of his paper. (author)
Comparison of long-term Moscow and Danish NLC observations: statistical results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Dalin
2006-11-01
Full Text Available Noctilucent clouds (NLC are the highest clouds in the Earth's atmosphere, observed close to the mesopause at 80–90 km altitudes. Systematic NLC observations conducted in Moscow for the period of 1962–2005 and in Denmark for 1983–2005 are compared and statistical results both for seasonally summarized NLC parameters and for individual NLC appearances are described. Careful attention is paid to the weather conditions during each season of observations. This turns out to be a very important factor both for the NLC case study and for long-term data set analysis. Time series of seasonal values show moderate similarity (taking into account the weather conditions but, at the same time, the comparison of individual cases of NLC occurrence reveals substantial differences. There are positive trends in the Moscow and Danish normalized NLC brightness as well as nearly zero trend in the Moscow normalized NLC occurrence frequency but these long-term changes are not statistically significant. The quasi-ten-year cycle in NLC parameters is about 1 year shorter than the solar cycle during the same period. The characteristic scale of NLC fields is estimated for the first time and it is found to be less than 800 km.
CONFIDENCE LEVELS AND/VS. STATISTICAL HYPOTHESIS TESTING IN STATISTICAL ANALYSIS. CASE STUDY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ILEANA BRUDIU
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Estimated parameters with confidence intervals and testing statistical assumptions used in statistical analysis to obtain conclusions on research from a sample extracted from the population. Paper to the case study presented aims to highlight the importance of volume of sample taken in the study and how this reflects on the results obtained when using confidence intervals and testing for pregnant. If statistical testing hypotheses not only give an answer "yes" or "no" to some questions of statistical estimation using statistical confidence intervals provides more information than a test statistic, show high degree of uncertainty arising from small samples and findings build in the "marginally significant" or "almost significant (p very close to 0.05.
Bianchi, Bernardo; Ferri, Andrea; Ferrari, Silvano; Copelli, Chiara; Sesenna, Enrico
2011-04-01
The purpose of this article was to analyze the efficacy of facelift incision, sternocleidomastoid muscle flap, and superficial musculoaponeurotic system flap for improving the esthetic results in patients undergoing partial parotidectomy for benign parotid tumor resection. The usefulness of partial parotidectomy is discussed, and a statistical evaluation of the esthetic results was performed. From January 1, 1996, to January 1, 2007, 274 patients treated for benign parotid tumors were studied. Of these, 172 underwent partial parotidectomy. The 172 patients were divided into 4 groups: partial parotidectomy with classic or modified Blair incision without reconstruction (group 1), partial parotidectomy with facelift incision and without reconstruction (group 2), partial parotidectomy with facelift incision associated with sternocleidomastoid muscle flap (group 3), and partial parotidectomy with facelift incision associated with superficial musculoaponeurotic system flap (group 4). Patients were considered, after a follow-up of at least 18 months, for functional and esthetic evaluation. The functional outcome was assessed considering the facial nerve function, Frey syndrome, and recurrence. The esthetic evaluation was performed by inviting the patients and a blind panel of 1 surgeon and 2 secretaries of the department to give a score of 1 to 10 to assess the final cosmetic outcome. The statistical analysis was finally performed using the Mann-Whitney U test for nonparametric data to compare the different group results. P less than .05 was considered significant. No recurrence developed in any of the 4 groups or in any of the 274 patients during the follow-up period. The statistical analysis, comparing group 1 and the other groups, revealed a highly significant statistical difference (P esthetic results in benign parotid surgery. The evaluation of functional complications and the recurrence rate in this series of patients has confirmed that this technique can be safely
Gardenier, John S
2012-12-01
This paper recommends how authors of statistical studies can communicate to general audiences fully, clearly, and comfortably. The studies may use statistical methods to explore issues in science, engineering, and society or they may address issues in statistics specifically. In either case, readers without explicit statistical training should have no problem understanding the issues, the methods, or the results at a non-technical level. The arguments for those results should be clear, logical, and persuasive. This paper also provides advice for editors of general journals on selecting high quality statistical articles without the need for exceptional work or expense. Finally, readers are also advised to watch out for some common errors or misuses of statistics that can be detected without a technical statistical background.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Serviss, Jason T.; Gådin, Jesper R.; Eriksson, Per
2017-01-01
, e.g. genes in a specific pathway, alone can separate samples into these established classes. Despite this, the evaluation of class separations is often subjective and performed via visualization. Here we present the ClusterSignificance package; a set of tools designed to assess the statistical...... significance of class separations downstream of dimensionality reduction algorithms. In addition, we demonstrate the design and utility of the ClusterSignificance package and utilize it to determine the importance of long non-coding RNA expression in the identity of multiple hematological malignancies....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, A.
1979-01-01
Some recent reports of Mancuso, Stewart and Kneale claim findings of radiation-produced cancer in the Hanford worker population. These claims are based on statistical computations that use small differences in accumulated exposures between groups dying of cancer and groups dying of other causes; actual mortality and longevity were not reported. This paper presents a statistical method for evaluation of actual mortality and longevity longitudinally over time, as applied in a primary analysis of the mortality experience of the Hanford worker population. Although available, this method was not utilized in the Mancuso-Stewart-Kneale paper. The author's preliminary longitudinal analysis shows that the gross mortality experience of persons employed at Hanford during 1943-70 interval did not differ significantly from that of certain controls, when both employees and controls were selected from families with two or more offspring and comparison were matched by age, sex, race and year of entry into employment. This result is consistent with findings reported by Sanders (Health Phys. vol.35, 521-538, 1978). The method utilizes an approximate chi-square (1 D.F.) statistic for testing population subgroup comparisons, as well as the cumulation of chi-squares (1 D.F.) for testing the overall result of a particular type of comparison. The method is available for computer testing of the Hanford mortality data, and could also be adapted to morbidity or other population studies. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sadreyev Ruslan I
2004-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Profile-based analysis of multiple sequence alignments (MSA allows for accurate comparison of protein families. Here, we address the problems of detecting statistically confident dissimilarities between (1 MSA position and a set of predicted residue frequencies, and (2 between two MSA positions. These problems are important for (i evaluation and optimization of methods predicting residue occurrence at protein positions; (ii detection of potentially misaligned regions in automatically produced alignments and their further refinement; and (iii detection of sites that determine functional or structural specificity in two related families. Results For problems (1 and (2, we propose analytical estimates of P-value and apply them to the detection of significant positional dissimilarities in various experimental situations. (a We compare structure-based predictions of residue propensities at a protein position to the actual residue frequencies in the MSA of homologs. (b We evaluate our method by the ability to detect erroneous position matches produced by an automatic sequence aligner. (c We compare MSA positions that correspond to residues aligned by automatic structure aligners. (d We compare MSA positions that are aligned by high-quality manual superposition of structures. Detected dissimilarities reveal shortcomings of the automatic methods for residue frequency prediction and alignment construction. For the high-quality structural alignments, the dissimilarities suggest sites of potential functional or structural importance. Conclusion The proposed computational method is of significant potential value for the analysis of protein families.
DYNAMIC STABILITY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM: STATISTICALLY INCONCLUSIVE RESULTS FROM ENSEMBLE INTEGRATIONS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeebe, Richard E., E-mail: zeebe@soest.hawaii.edu [School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1000 Pope Road, MSB 629, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)
2015-01-01
Due to the chaotic nature of the solar system, the question of its long-term stability can only be answered in a statistical sense, for instance, based on numerical ensemble integrations of nearby orbits. Destabilization of the inner planets, leading to close encounters and/or collisions can be initiated through a large increase in Mercury's eccentricity, with a currently assumed likelihood of ∼1%. However, little is known at present about the robustness of this number. Here I report ensemble integrations of the full equations of motion of the eight planets and Pluto over 5 Gyr, including contributions from general relativity. The results show that different numerical algorithms lead to statistically different results for the evolution of Mercury's eccentricity (e{sub M}). For instance, starting at present initial conditions (e{sub M}≃0.21), Mercury's maximum eccentricity achieved over 5 Gyr is, on average, significantly higher in symplectic ensemble integrations using heliocentric rather than Jacobi coordinates and stricter error control. In contrast, starting at a possible future configuration (e{sub M}≃0.53), Mercury's maximum eccentricity achieved over the subsequent 500 Myr is, on average, significantly lower using heliocentric rather than Jacobi coordinates. For example, the probability for e{sub M} to increase beyond 0.53 over 500 Myr is >90% (Jacobi) versus only 40%-55% (heliocentric). This poses a dilemma because the physical evolution of the real system—and its probabilistic behavior—cannot depend on the coordinate system or the numerical algorithm chosen to describe it. Some tests of the numerical algorithms suggest that symplectic integrators using heliocentric coordinates underestimate the odds for destabilization of Mercury's orbit at high initial e{sub M}.
Statistical Learning Theory: Models, Concepts, and Results
von Luxburg, Ulrike; Schoelkopf, Bernhard
2008-01-01
Statistical learning theory provides the theoretical basis for many of today's machine learning algorithms. In this article we attempt to give a gentle, non-technical overview over the key ideas and insights of statistical learning theory. We target at a broad audience, not necessarily machine learning researchers. This paper can serve as a starting point for people who want to get an overview on the field before diving into technical details.
Statistical phenomena - experiments results. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schnell, W.
1977-01-01
The stochastic cooling of proton and antiproton beams is discussed. Stochastic cooling is the gradual reduction of emittance of a coasting beam by a feedback system, sensing and correcting the statistical fluctuations of the beam's position or momentum. The correction at every turn can be partial or complete. Transverse and longitudinal emittance of the beam are considered and the systems designed to cool the beams are described. (B.D.)
Using robust statistics to improve neutron activation analysis results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Ticianelli, Regina B.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.
2011-01-01
Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an analytical technique where an unknown sample is submitted to a neutron flux in a nuclear reactor, and its elemental composition is calculated by measuring the induced activity produced. By using the relative NAA method, one or more well-characterized samples (usually certified reference materials - CRMs) are irradiated together with the unknown ones, and the concentration of each element is then calculated by comparing the areas of the gamma ray peaks related to that element. When two or more CRMs are used as reference, the concentration of each element can be determined by several different ways, either using more than one gamma ray peak for that element (when available), or using the results obtained in the comparison with each CRM. Therefore, determining the best estimate for the concentration of each element in the sample can be a delicate issue. In this work, samples from three CRMs were irradiated together and the elemental concentration in one of them was calculated using the other two as reference. Two sets of peaks were analyzed for each element: a smaller set containing only the literature-recommended gamma-ray peaks and a larger one containing all peaks related to that element that could be quantified in the gamma-ray spectra; the most recommended transition was also used as a benchmark. The resulting data for each element was then reduced using up to five different statistical approaches: the usual (and not robust) unweighted and weighted means, together with three robust means: the Limitation of Relative Statistical Weight, Normalized Residuals and Rajeval. The resulting concentration values were then compared to the certified value for each element, allowing for discussion on both the performance of each statistical tool and on the best choice of peaks for each element. (author)
Planck 2015 results. XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB
Ade, P.A.R.; Akrami, Y.; Aluri, P.K.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Casaponsa, B.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Liu, H.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Pant, N.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J.P.; Zonca, A.
2016-01-01
We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we consider the CMB anisotropy maps derived from the multi-frequency Planck data by several component-separation methods. For the temperature anisotropies, we find excellent agreement between results based on these sky maps over both a very large fraction of the sky and a broad range of angular scales, establishing that potential foreground residuals do not affect our studies. Tests of skewness, kurtosis, multi-normality, N-point functions, and Minkowski functionals indicate consistency with Gaussianity, while a power deficit at large angular scales is manifested in several ways, for example low map variance. The results of a peak statistics analysis are consistent with the expectations of a Gaussian random field. The "Cold S...
Planck 2013 results. XXIII. Isotropy and Statistics of the CMB
Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, M.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J.D.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Pogosyan, D.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rath, C.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-01-01
The two fundamental assumptions of the standard cosmological model - that the initial fluctuations are statistically isotropic and Gaussian - are rigorously tested using maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from the Planck satellite. Deviations from isotropy have been found and demonstrated to be robust against component separation algorithm, mask choice and frequency dependence. Many of these anomalies were previously observed in the WMAP data, and are now confirmed at similar levels of significance (about 3 sigma). However, we find little evidence for non-Gaussianity, with the exception of a few statistical signatures that seem to be associated with specific anomalies. In particular, we find that the quadrupole-octopole alignment is also connected to a low observed variance of the CMB signal. A power asymmetry is now found to persist to scales corresponding to about l=600, and can be described in the low-l regime by a phenomenological dipole modulation model. However, any primordial powe...
Indirectional statistics and the significance of an asymmetry discovered by Birch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kendall, D.G.; Young, G.A.
1984-01-01
Birch (1982, Nature, 298, 451) reported an apparent 'statistical asymmetry of the Universe'. The authors here develop 'indirectional analysis' as a technique for investigating statistical effects of this kind and conclude that the reported effect (whatever may be its origin) is strongly supported by the observations. The estimated pole of the asymmetry is at RA 13h 30m, Dec. -37deg. The angular error in its estimation is unlikely to exceed 20-30deg. (author)
Planck 2013 results. XXIII. Isotropy and Statistics of the CMB
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.
2013-01-01
The two fundamental assumptions of the standard cosmological model - that the initial fluctuations are statistically isotropic and Gaussian - are rigorously tested using maps of the CMB anisotropy from the \\Planck\\ satellite. The detailed results are based on studies of four independent estimates...
Fang, Yongxiang; Wit, Ernst
2008-01-01
Fisher’s combined probability test is the most commonly used method to test the overall significance of a set independent p-values. However, it is very obviously that Fisher’s statistic is more sensitive to smaller p-values than to larger p-value and a small p-value may overrule the other p-values and decide the test result. This is, in some cases, viewed as a flaw. In order to overcome this flaw and improve the power of the test, the joint tail probability of a set p-values is proposed as a ...
Alves, Gelio; Wang, Guanghui; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y; Drake, Steven K; Gucek, Marjan; Sacks, David B; Yu, Yi-Kuo
2018-06-05
Rapid and accurate identification and classification of microorganisms is of paramount importance to public health and safety. With the advance of mass spectrometry (MS) technology, the speed of identification can be greatly improved. However, the increasing number of microbes sequenced is complicating correct microbial identification even in a simple sample due to the large number of candidates present. To properly untwine candidate microbes in samples containing one or more microbes, one needs to go beyond apparent morphology or simple "fingerprinting"; to correctly prioritize the candidate microbes, one needs to have accurate statistical significance in microbial identification. We meet these challenges by using peptide-centric representations of microbes to better separate them and by augmenting our earlier analysis method that yields accurate statistical significance. Here, we present an updated analysis workflow that uses tandem MS (MS/MS) spectra for microbial identification or classification. We have demonstrated, using 226 MS/MS publicly available data files (each containing from 2500 to nearly 100,000 MS/MS spectra) and 4000 additional MS/MS data files, that the updated workflow can correctly identify multiple microbes at the genus and often the species level for samples containing more than one microbe. We have also shown that the proposed workflow computes accurate statistical significances, i.e., E values for identified peptides and unified E values for identified microbes. Our updated analysis workflow MiCId, a freely available software for Microorganism Classification and Identification, is available for download at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/downloads.html . Graphical Abstract ᅟ.
Kim, Sung-Min; Choi, Yosoon
2017-06-18
To develop appropriate measures to prevent soil contamination in abandoned mining areas, an understanding of the spatial variation of the potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) in the soil is necessary. For the purpose of effective soil sampling, this study uses hot spot analysis, which calculates a z -score based on the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic to identify a statistically significant hot spot sample. To constitute a statistically significant hot spot, a feature with a high value should also be surrounded by other features with high values. Using relatively cost- and time-effective portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) analysis, sufficient input data are acquired from the Busan abandoned mine and used for hot spot analysis. To calibrate the PXRF data, which have a relatively low accuracy, the PXRF analysis data are transformed using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) data. The transformed PXRF data of the Busan abandoned mine are classified into four groups according to their normalized content and z -scores: high content with a high z -score (HH), high content with a low z -score (HL), low content with a high z -score (LH), and low content with a low z -score (LL). The HL and LH cases may be due to measurement errors. Additional or complementary surveys are required for the areas surrounding these suspect samples or for significant hot spot areas. The soil sampling is conducted according to a four-phase procedure in which the hot spot analysis and proposed group classification method are employed to support the development of a sampling plan for the following phase. Overall, 30, 50, 80, and 100 samples are investigated and analyzed in phases 1-4, respectively. The method implemented in this case study may be utilized in the field for the assessment of statistically significant soil contamination and the identification of areas for which an additional survey is required.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sung-Min Kim
2017-06-01
Full Text Available To develop appropriate measures to prevent soil contamination in abandoned mining areas, an understanding of the spatial variation of the potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs in the soil is necessary. For the purpose of effective soil sampling, this study uses hot spot analysis, which calculates a z-score based on the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic to identify a statistically significant hot spot sample. To constitute a statistically significant hot spot, a feature with a high value should also be surrounded by other features with high values. Using relatively cost- and time-effective portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF analysis, sufficient input data are acquired from the Busan abandoned mine and used for hot spot analysis. To calibrate the PXRF data, which have a relatively low accuracy, the PXRF analysis data are transformed using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES data. The transformed PXRF data of the Busan abandoned mine are classified into four groups according to their normalized content and z-scores: high content with a high z-score (HH, high content with a low z-score (HL, low content with a high z-score (LH, and low content with a low z-score (LL. The HL and LH cases may be due to measurement errors. Additional or complementary surveys are required for the areas surrounding these suspect samples or for significant hot spot areas. The soil sampling is conducted according to a four-phase procedure in which the hot spot analysis and proposed group classification method are employed to support the development of a sampling plan for the following phase. Overall, 30, 50, 80, and 100 samples are investigated and analyzed in phases 1–4, respectively. The method implemented in this case study may be utilized in the field for the assessment of statistically significant soil contamination and the identification of areas for which an additional survey is required.
Variability analysis of AGN: a review of results using new statistical criteria
Zibecchi, L.; Andruchow, I.; Cellone, S. A.; Romero, G. E.; Combi, J. A.
We present here a re-analysis of the variability results of a sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN), which have been observed on several sessions with the 2.15 m "Jorge Sahade" telescope (CASLEO), San Juan, Argentina, and whose results are published (Romero et al. 1999, 2000, 2002; Cellone et al. 2000). The motivation for this new analysis is the implementation, dur- ing the last years, of improvements in the statistical criteria applied, taking quantitatively into account the incidence of the photometric errors (Cellone et al. 2007). This work is framed as a first step in an integral study on the statistical estimators of AGN variability. This study is motivated by the great diversity of statistical tests that have been proposed to analyze the variability of these objects. Since we note that, in some cases, the results of the object variability depend on the test used, we attempt to make a com- parative study of the various tests and analyze, under the given conditions, which of them is the most efficient and reliable.
Detecting Statistically Significant Communities of Triangle Motifs in Undirected Networks
2016-04-26
Systems, Statistics & Management Science, University of Alabama, USA. 1 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. Contents 1 Summary 5...13 5 Application to Real Networks 18 5.1 2012 FBS Football Schedule Network... football schedule network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 14 Stem plot of degree-ordered vertices versus the degree for college football
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Lasse Majgaard; Johansen, Rasmus Johan; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard
2015-01-01
of modified characteristic stress resultants, which are compared to a pre-defined tolerance value, without any thorough statistical evaluation. In the present paper, it is tested whether three widely-used statistical pattern-recognition-based damage-detection methods can provide an effective statistical...... evaluation of the characteristic stress resultants, hence facilitating general discrimination between damaged and undamaged elements. The three detection methods in question enable outlier analysis on the basis of, respectively, Euclidian distance, Hotelling’s statistics, and Mahalanobis distance. The study...... alternately to an undamaged reference model with known stiffness matrix, hereby, theoretically, yielding characteristic stress resultants approaching zero in the damaged elements. At present, the discrimination between potentially damaged elements and undamaged ones is typically conducted on the basis...
Conducting tests for statistically significant differences using forest inventory data
James A. Westfall; Scott A. Pugh; John W. Coulston
2013-01-01
Many forest inventory and monitoring programs are based on a sample of ground plots from which estimates of forest resources are derived. In addition to evaluating metrics such as number of trees or amount of cubic wood volume, it is often desirable to make comparisons between resource attributes. To properly conduct statistical tests for differences, it is imperative...
NLO error propagation exercise: statistical results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pack, D.J.; Downing, D.J.
1985-09-01
Error propagation is the extrapolation and cumulation of uncertainty (variance) above total amounts of special nuclear material, for example, uranium or 235 U, that are present in a defined location at a given time. The uncertainty results from the inevitable inexactness of individual measurements of weight, uranium concentration, 235 U enrichment, etc. The extrapolated and cumulated uncertainty leads directly to quantified limits of error on inventory differences (LEIDs) for such material. The NLO error propagation exercise was planned as a field demonstration of the utilization of statistical error propagation methodology at the Feed Materials Production Center in Fernald, Ohio from April 1 to July 1, 1983 in a single material balance area formed specially for the exercise. Major elements of the error propagation methodology were: variance approximation by Taylor Series expansion; variance cumulation by uncorrelated primary error sources as suggested by Jaech; random effects ANOVA model estimation of variance effects (systematic error); provision for inclusion of process variance in addition to measurement variance; and exclusion of static material. The methodology was applied to material balance area transactions from the indicated time period through a FORTRAN computer code developed specifically for this purpose on the NLO HP-3000 computer. This paper contains a complete description of the error propagation methodology and a full summary of the numerical results of applying the methodlogy in the field demonstration. The error propagation LEIDs did encompass the actual uranium and 235 U inventory differences. Further, one can see that error propagation actually provides guidance for reducing inventory differences and LEIDs in future time periods
Operational statistical analysis of the results of computer-based testing of students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Виктор Иванович Нардюжев
2018-12-01
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of statistical analysis of results of computer-based testing for evaluation of educational achievements of students. The issues are relevant due to the fact that computerbased testing in Russian universities has become an important method for evaluation of educational achievements of students and quality of modern educational process. Usage of modern methods and programs for statistical analysis of results of computer-based testing and assessment of quality of developed tests is an actual problem for every university teacher. The article shows how the authors solve this problem using their own program “StatInfo”. For several years the program has been successfully applied in a credit system of education at such technological stages as loading computerbased testing protocols into a database, formation of queries, generation of reports, lists, and matrices of answers for statistical analysis of quality of test items. Methodology, experience and some results of its usage by university teachers are described in the article. Related topics of a test development, models, algorithms, technologies, and software for large scale computer-based testing has been discussed by the authors in their previous publications which are presented in the reference list.
Kossobokov, V.G.; Romashkova, L.L.; Keilis-Borok, V. I.; Healy, J.H.
1999-01-01
Algorithms M8 and MSc (i.e., the Mendocino Scenario) were used in a real-time intermediate-term research prediction of the strongest earthquakes in the Circum-Pacific seismic belt. Predictions are made by M8 first. Then, the areas of alarm are reduced by MSc at the cost that some earthquakes are missed in the second approximation of prediction. In 1992-1997, five earthquakes of magnitude 8 and above occurred in the test area: all of them were predicted by M8 and MSc identified correctly the locations of four of them. The space-time volume of the alarms is 36% and 18%, correspondingly, when estimated with a normalized product measure of empirical distribution of epicenters and uniform time. The statistical significance of the achieved results is beyond 99% both for M8 and MSc. For magnitude 7.5 + , 10 out of 19 earthquakes were predicted by M8 in 40% and five were predicted by M8-MSc in 13% of the total volume considered. This implies a significance level of 81% for M8 and 92% for M8-MSc. The lower significance levels might result from a global change in seismic regime in 1993-1996, when the rate of the largest events has doubled and all of them become exclusively normal or reversed faults. The predictions are fully reproducible; the algorithms M8 and MSc in complete formal definitions were published before we started our experiment [Keilis-Borok, V.I., Kossobokov, V.G., 1990. Premonitory activation of seismic flow: Algorithm M8, Phys. Earth and Planet. Inter. 61, 73-83; Kossobokov, V.G., Keilis-Borok, V.I., Smith, S.W., 1990. Localization of intermediate-term earthquake prediction, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 19763-19772; Healy, J.H., Kossobokov, V.G., Dewey, J.W., 1992. A test to evaluate the earthquake prediction algorithm, M8. U.S. Geol. Surv. OFR 92-401]. M8 is available from the IASPEI Software Library [Healy, J.H., Keilis-Borok, V.I., Lee, W.H.K. (Eds.), 1997. Algorithms for Earthquake Statistics and Prediction, Vol. 6. IASPEI Software Library]. ?? 1999 Elsevier
Lifescience Database Archive (English)
Full Text Available List Contact us RGP estmap2001 Statistics information of rice EST mapping results Data detail Data name Statistics...of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Statistics information of rice EST mapping results - RGP estmap2001 | LSDB Archive ...
Statistical lamb wave localization based on extreme value theory
Harley, Joel B.
2018-04-01
Guided wave localization methods based on delay-and-sum imaging, matched field processing, and other techniques have been designed and researched to create images that locate and describe structural damage. The maximum value of these images typically represent an estimated damage location. Yet, it is often unclear if this maximum value, or any other value in the image, is a statistically significant indicator of damage. Furthermore, there are currently few, if any, approaches to assess the statistical significance of guided wave localization images. As a result, we present statistical delay-and-sum and statistical matched field processing localization methods to create statistically significant images of damage. Our framework uses constant rate of false alarm statistics and extreme value theory to detect damage with little prior information. We demonstrate our methods with in situ guided wave data from an aluminum plate to detect two 0.75 cm diameter holes. Our results show an expected improvement in statistical significance as the number of sensors increase. With seventeen sensors, both methods successfully detect damage with statistical significance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Ning; Spitz, H.B.; Tomezak, L.
1996-01-01
A comprehensive real-time, environmental radon monitoring program is being conducted at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, where a large quantity of radium-bearing residues have been stored in two covered earth-bermed silos. Statistical analyses was conducted to determine what impact radon emitted by the radium bearing materials contained in the silos has on the ambient radon concentration at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site. The distribution that best describes the outdoor radon monitoring data was determined before statistical analyses were conducted. Random effects associated with the selection of radon monitoring locations were accommodated by using nested and nested factorial classification models. The Project site was divided into four general areas according to their characteristics and functions: (1) the silo area, where the radium-bearing waste is stored; (2) the production/administration area; (3) the perimeter area, or fence-line, of the Fernald Environmental Management Project site; and (4) a background area, located approximately 13 km from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site, representing the naturally-occurring radon concentration. A total of 15 continuous, hourly readout radon monitors were installed to measure the outdoor radon concentration. Measurement results from each individual monitor were found to be log-normally distributed. A series of contrast tests, which take random effects into account, were performed to compare the radon concentration between different areas of the site. These comparisons demonstrate that the radon concentrations in the production/administration area and the perimeter area are statistically equal to the natural background, whereas the silo area is significantly higher than background. The study also showed that the radon concentration in the silo area was significantly reduced after a sealant barrier was applied to the contents of the silos. 10 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs
Exact statistical results for binary mixing and reaction in variable density turbulence
Ristorcelli, J. R.
2017-02-01
We report a number of rigorous statistical results on binary active scalar mixing in variable density turbulence. The study is motivated by mixing between pure fluids with very different densities and whose density intensity is of order unity. Our primary focus is the derivation of exact mathematical results for mixing in variable density turbulence and we do point out the potential fields of application of the results. A binary one step reaction is invoked to derive a metric to asses the state of mixing. The mean reaction rate in variable density turbulent mixing can be expressed, in closed form, using the first order Favre mean variables and the Reynolds averaged density variance, ⟨ρ2⟩ . We show that the normalized density variance, ⟨ρ2⟩ , reflects the reduction of the reaction due to mixing and is a mix metric. The result is mathematically rigorous. The result is the variable density analog, the normalized mass fraction variance ⟨c2⟩ used in constant density turbulent mixing. As a consequence, we demonstrate that use of the analogous normalized Favre variance of the mass fraction, c″ 2˜ , as a mix metric is not theoretically justified in variable density turbulence. We additionally derive expressions relating various second order moments of the mass fraction, specific volume, and density fields. The central role of the density specific volume covariance ⟨ρ v ⟩ is highlighted; it is a key quantity with considerable dynamical significance linking various second order statistics. For laboratory experiments, we have developed exact relations between the Reynolds scalar variance ⟨c2⟩ its Favre analog c″ 2˜ , and various second moments including ⟨ρ v ⟩ . For moment closure models that evolve ⟨ρ v ⟩ and not ⟨ρ2⟩ , we provide a novel expression for ⟨ρ2⟩ in terms of a rational function of ⟨ρ v ⟩ that avoids recourse to Taylor series methods (which do not converge for large density differences). We have derived
Liu, Wei; Ding, Jinhui
2018-04-01
The application of the principle of the intention-to-treat (ITT) to the analysis of clinical trials is challenged in the presence of missing outcome data. The consequences of stopping an assigned treatment in a withdrawn subject are unknown. It is difficult to make a single assumption about missing mechanisms for all clinical trials because there are complicated reactions in the human body to drugs due to the presence of complex biological networks, leading to data missing randomly or non-randomly. Currently there is no statistical method that can tell whether a difference between two treatments in the ITT population of a randomized clinical trial with missing data is significant at a pre-specified level. Making no assumptions about the missing mechanisms, we propose a generalized complete-case (GCC) analysis based on the data of completers. An evaluation of the impact of missing data on the ITT analysis reveals that a statistically significant GCC result implies a significant treatment effect in the ITT population at a pre-specified significance level unless, relative to the comparator, the test drug is poisonous to the non-completers as documented in their medical records. Applications of the GCC analysis are illustrated using literature data, and its properties and limits are discussed.
Statistics for NAEG: past efforts, new results, and future plans
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.; Kinnison, R.R.; Engel, D.W.
1983-06-01
A brief review of Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) objectives is followed by a summary of past statistical analyses conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the NAEG. Estimates of spatial pattern of radionuclides and other statistical analyses at NS's 201, 219 and 221 are reviewed as background for new analyses presented in this paper. Suggested NAEG activities and statistical analyses needed for the projected termination date of NAEG studies in March 1986 are given
Significance evaluation in factor graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet
2017-01-01
in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical...... significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...
Planck 2015 results: XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.
2016-01-01
We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we consi...
Hashim, Muhammad Jawad
2010-09-01
Post-hoc secondary data analysis with no prespecified hypotheses has been discouraged by textbook authors and journal editors alike. Unfortunately no single term describes this phenomenon succinctly. I would like to coin the term "sigsearch" to define this practice and bring it within the teaching lexicon of statistics courses. Sigsearch would include any unplanned, post-hoc search for statistical significance using multiple comparisons of subgroups. It would also include data analysis with outcomes other than the prespecified primary outcome measure of a study as well as secondary data analyses of earlier research.
Preventing statistical errors in scientific journals.
Nuijten, M.B.
2016-01-01
There is evidence for a high prevalence of statistical reporting errors in psychology and other scientific fields. These errors display a systematic preference for statistically significant results, distorting the scientific literature. There are several possible causes for this systematic error
Davis, B. J.; Feiveson, A. H.
1975-01-01
Results are presented of CITARS data processing in raw form. Tables of descriptive statistics are given along with descriptions and results of inferential analyses. The inferential results are organized by questions which CITARS was designed to answer.
Maric, Marija; de Haan, Else; Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Wolters, Lidewij H; Huizenga, Hilde M
2015-03-01
Single-case experimental designs are useful methods in clinical research practice to investigate individual client progress. Their proliferation might have been hampered by methodological challenges such as the difficulty applying existing statistical procedures. In this article, we describe a data-analytic method to analyze univariate (i.e., one symptom) single-case data using the common package SPSS. This method can help the clinical researcher to investigate whether an intervention works as compared with a baseline period or another intervention type, and to determine whether symptom improvement is clinically significant. First, we describe the statistical method in a conceptual way and show how it can be implemented in SPSS. Simulation studies were performed to determine the number of observation points required per intervention phase. Second, to illustrate this method and its implications, we present a case study of an adolescent with anxiety disorders treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques in an outpatient psychotherapy clinic, whose symptoms were regularly assessed before each session. We provide a description of the data analyses and results of this case study. Finally, we discuss the advantages and shortcomings of the proposed method. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Di Florio, Adriano
2017-10-01
In order to test the computing capabilities of GPUs with respect to traditional CPU cores a high-statistics toy Monte Carlo technique has been implemented both in ROOT/RooFit and GooFit frameworks with the purpose to estimate the statistical significance of the structure observed by CMS close to the kinematical boundary of the J/ψϕ invariant mass in the three-body decay B + → J/ψϕK +. GooFit is a data analysis open tool under development that interfaces ROOT/RooFit to CUDA platform on nVidia GPU. The optimized GooFit application running on GPUs hosted by servers in the Bari Tier2 provides striking speed-up performances with respect to the RooFit application parallelised on multiple CPUs by means of PROOF-Lite tool. The considerable resulting speed-up, evident when comparing concurrent GooFit processes allowed by CUDA Multi Process Service and a RooFit/PROOF-Lite process with multiple CPU workers, is presented and discussed in detail. By means of GooFit it has also been possible to explore the behaviour of a likelihood ratio test statistic in different situations in which the Wilks Theorem may or may not apply because its regularity conditions are not satisfied.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura Badenes-Ribera
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Publications arguing against the null hypothesis significance testing (NHST procedure and in favor of good statistical practices have increased. The most frequently mentioned alternatives to NHST are effect size statistics (ES, confidence intervals (CIs, and meta-analyses. A recent survey conducted in Spain found that academic psychologists have poor knowledge about effect size statistics, confidence intervals, and graphic displays for meta-analyses, which might lead to a misinterpretation of the results. In addition, it also found that, although the use of ES is becoming generalized, the same thing is not true for CIs. Finally, academics with greater knowledge about ES statistics presented a profile closer to good statistical practice and research design. Our main purpose was to analyze the extension of these results to a different geographical area through a replication study.Methods: For this purpose, we elaborated an on-line survey that included the same items as the original research, and we asked academic psychologists to indicate their level of knowledge about ES, their CIs, and meta-analyses, and how they use them. The sample consisted of 159 Italian academic psychologists (54.09% women, mean age of 47.65 years. The mean number of years in the position of professor was 12.90 (SD = 10.21.Results: As in the original research, the results showed that, although the use of effect size estimates is becoming generalized, an under-reporting of CIs for ES persists. The most frequent ES statistics mentioned were Cohen's d and R2/η2, which can have outliers or show non-normality or violate statistical assumptions. In addition, academics showed poor knowledge about meta-analytic displays (e.g., forest plot and funnel plot and quality checklists for studies. Finally, academics with higher-level knowledge about ES statistics seem to have a profile closer to good statistical practices.Conclusions: Changing statistical practice is not
Structure of Small and Medium-Sized Business: Results of Total Statistic Observations in Russia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iuliia S. Pinkovetskaia
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The aim of the research is estimation of regularities and tendencies, characteristic for modern sectoral structure of small and mediumsized business in Russia. The subject of the research is a set of processes of structural changes on the types of economic activities of such enterprises, as well as the differentiation of the number of employees in enterprises. The research methodology included consideration of aggregates of subjects of small and medium-sized business, formed according to sectoral and territorial features. As the initial data used the official statistical information, which was obtain in the course of total observation of the activities of small and medium-sized businesses in 2010 and 2015. The study was conducted on indicators characterizing the full range of legal entities and individual entrepreneurs in the country. The materiality of structural changes was carried out on the basis of the Ryabtsev index. Modeling the differentiation of the values of the number of employees per enterprise was based on the development of density normal distribution functions. According to the hypothesis it is assumed that the differentiation of the number of employees working in enterprises depend on six main types of economic activity and on the subjects of Russia. Based on the results of the study was proved that there are no significant structural changes for the period from 2010 to 2015, both in terms of the number of enterprises and the number of their employees. Based on the results of the simulation, the average values of the number of employees for the six main types of activity were established, as well as the intervals for changing these indicators for the aggregates of small and medium-sized enterprises located in the majority of the country's subjects. The results of research can be used in the performance of scientific works related to the justification of the expected number and number of employees of enterprises, the formation of
Fang, Yongxiang; Wit, Ernst
2008-01-01
Fisher’s combined probability test is the most commonly used method to test the overall significance of a set independent p-values. However, it is very obviously that Fisher’s statistic is more sensitive to smaller p-values than to larger p-value and a small p-value may overrule the other p-values
Statistical Reporting Errors and Collaboration on Statistical Analyses in Psychological Science.
Veldkamp, Coosje L S; Nuijten, Michèle B; Dominguez-Alvarez, Linda; van Assen, Marcel A L M; Wicherts, Jelte M
2014-01-01
Statistical analysis is error prone. A best practice for researchers using statistics would therefore be to share data among co-authors, allowing double-checking of executed tasks just as co-pilots do in aviation. To document the extent to which this 'co-piloting' currently occurs in psychology, we surveyed the authors of 697 articles published in six top psychology journals and asked them whether they had collaborated on four aspects of analyzing data and reporting results, and whether the described data had been shared between the authors. We acquired responses for 49.6% of the articles and found that co-piloting on statistical analysis and reporting results is quite uncommon among psychologists, while data sharing among co-authors seems reasonably but not completely standard. We then used an automated procedure to study the prevalence of statistical reporting errors in the articles in our sample and examined the relationship between reporting errors and co-piloting. Overall, 63% of the articles contained at least one p-value that was inconsistent with the reported test statistic and the accompanying degrees of freedom, and 20% of the articles contained at least one p-value that was inconsistent to such a degree that it may have affected decisions about statistical significance. Overall, the probability that a given p-value was inconsistent was over 10%. Co-piloting was not found to be associated with reporting errors.
Statistical determination of significant curved I-girder bridge seismic response parameters
Seo, Junwon
2013-06-01
Curved steel bridges are commonly used at interchanges in transportation networks and more of these structures continue to be designed and built in the United States. Though the use of these bridges continues to increase in locations that experience high seismicity, the effects of curvature and other parameters on their seismic behaviors have been neglected in current risk assessment tools. These tools can evaluate the seismic vulnerability of a transportation network using fragility curves. One critical component of fragility curve development for curved steel bridges is the completion of sensitivity analyses that help identify influential parameters related to their seismic response. In this study, an accessible inventory of existing curved steel girder bridges located primarily in the Mid-Atlantic United States (MAUS) was used to establish statistical characteristics used as inputs for a seismic sensitivity study. Critical seismic response quantities were captured using 3D nonlinear finite element models. Influential parameters from these quantities were identified using statistical tools that incorporate experimental Plackett-Burman Design (PBD), which included Pareto optimal plots and prediction profiler techniques. The findings revealed that the potential variation in the influential parameters included number of spans, radius of curvature, maximum span length, girder spacing, and cross-frame spacing. These parameters showed varying levels of influence on the critical bridge response.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dai, Wu-Sheng; Xie, Mi
2013-01-01
In this paper, we give a general discussion on the calculation of the statistical distribution from a given operator relation of creation, annihilation, and number operators. Our result shows that as long as the relation between the number operator and the creation and annihilation operators can be expressed as a † b=Λ(N) or N=Λ −1 (a † b), where N, a † , and b denote the number, creation, and annihilation operators, i.e., N is a function of quadratic product of the creation and annihilation operators, the corresponding statistical distribution is the Gentile distribution, a statistical distribution in which the maximum occupation number is an arbitrary integer. As examples, we discuss the statistical distributions corresponding to various operator relations. In particular, besides the Bose–Einstein and Fermi–Dirac cases, we discuss the statistical distributions for various schemes of intermediate statistics, especially various q-deformation schemes. Our result shows that the statistical distributions corresponding to various q-deformation schemes are various Gentile distributions with different maximum occupation numbers which are determined by the deformation parameter q. This result shows that the results given in much literature on the q-deformation distribution are inaccurate or incomplete. -- Highlights: ► A general discussion on calculating statistical distribution from relations of creation, annihilation, and number operators. ► A systemic study on the statistical distributions corresponding to various q-deformation schemes. ► Arguing that many results of q-deformation distributions in literature are inaccurate or incomplete
McSharry, Patrick E
2007-12-22
To assess the effect of altitude on match results and physiological performance of a large and diverse population of professional athletes. Statistical analysis of international football (soccer) scores and results. FIFA extensive database of 1460 football matches in 10 countries spanning over 100 years. Altitude had a significant (Pnegative impact on physiological performance as revealed through the overall underperformance of low altitude teams when playing against high altitude teams in South America. High altitude teams score more and concede fewer goals with increasing altitude difference. Each additional 1000 m of altitude difference increases the goal difference by about half of a goal. The probability of the home team winning for two teams from the same altitude is 0.537, whereas this rises to 0.825 for a home team with an altitude difference of 3695 m (such as Bolivia v Brazil) and falls to 0.213 when the altitude difference is -3695 m (such as Brazil v Bolivia). Altitude provides a significant advantage for high altitude teams when playing international football games at both low and high altitudes. Lowland teams are unable to acclimatise to high altitude, reducing physiological performance. As physiological performance does not protect against the effect of altitude, better predictors of individual susceptibility to altitude illness would facilitate team selection.
Yilmaz, Ferkan
2012-06-01
The exact analysis of the higher-order statistics of the channel capacity (i.e., higher-order ergodic capacity) often leads to complicated expressions involving advanced special functions. In this paper, we provide a generic framework for the computation of the higher-order statistics of the channel capacity over generalized fading channels. As such, this novel framework for the higher-order statistics results in simple, closed-form expressions which are shown to be asymptotically tight bounds in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime of a variety of fading environment. In addition, it reveals the existence of differences (i.e., constant capacity gaps in log-domain) among different fading environments. By asymptotically tight bound we mean that the high SNR limit of the difference between the actual higher-order statistics of the channel capacity and its asymptotic bound (i.e., lower bound) tends to zero. The mathematical formalism is illustrated with some selected numerical examples that validate the correctness of our newly derived results. © 2012 IEEE.
Application of Statistical Methods to Activation Analytical Results near the Limit of Detection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heydorn, Kaj; Wanscher, B.
1978-01-01
Reporting actual numbers instead of upper limits for analytical results at or below the detection limit may produce reliable data when these numbers are subjected to appropriate statistical processing. Particularly in radiometric methods, such as activation analysis, where individual standard...... deviations of analytical results may be estimated, improved discrimination may be based on the Analysis of Precision. Actual experimental results from a study of the concentrations of arsenic in human skin demonstrate the power of this principle....
Renyi statistics in equilibrium statistical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parvan, A.S.; Biro, T.S.
2010-01-01
The Renyi statistics in the canonical and microcanonical ensembles is examined both in general and in particular for the ideal gas. In the microcanonical ensemble the Renyi statistics is equivalent to the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics. By the exact analytical results for the ideal gas, it is shown that in the canonical ensemble, taking the thermodynamic limit, the Renyi statistics is also equivalent to the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics. Furthermore it satisfies the requirements of the equilibrium thermodynamics, i.e. the thermodynamical potential of the statistical ensemble is a homogeneous function of first degree of its extensive variables of state. We conclude that the Renyi statistics arrives at the same thermodynamical relations, as those stemming from the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics in this limit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shakespeare, T.P.; Mukherjee, R.K.; Gebski, V.J.
2003-01-01
Confidence levels, clinical significance curves, and risk-benefit contours are tools improving analysis of clinical studies and minimizing misinterpretation of published results, however no software has been available for their calculation. The objective was to develop software to help clinicians utilize these tools. Excel 2000 spreadsheets were designed using only built-in functions, without macros. The workbook was protected and encrypted so that users can modify only input cells. The workbook has 4 spreadsheets for use in studies comparing two patient groups. Sheet 1 comprises instructions and graphic examples for use. Sheet 2 allows the user to input the main study results (e.g. survival rates) into a 2-by-2 table. Confidence intervals (95%), p-value and the confidence level for Treatment A being better than Treatment B are automatically generated. An additional input cell allows the user to determine the confidence associated with a specified level of benefit. For example if the user wishes to know the confidence that Treatment A is at least 10% better than B, 10% is entered. Sheet 2 automatically displays clinical significance curves, graphically illustrating confidence levels for all possible benefits of one treatment over the other. Sheet 3 allows input of toxicity data, and calculates the confidence that one treatment is more toxic than the other. It also determines the confidence that the relative toxicity of the most effective arm does not exceed user-defined tolerability. Sheet 4 automatically calculates risk-benefit contours, displaying the confidence associated with a specified scenario of minimum benefit and maximum risk of one treatment arm over the other. The spreadsheet is freely downloadable at www.ontumor.com/professional/statistics.htm A simple, self-explanatory, freely available spreadsheet calculator was developed using Excel 2000. The incorporated decision-making tools can be used for data analysis and improve the reporting of results of any
Müller-Kirsten, Harald J W
2013-01-01
Statistics links microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, and requires for this reason a large number of microscopic elements like atoms. The results are values of maximum probability or of averaging. This introduction to statistical physics concentrates on the basic principles, and attempts to explain these in simple terms supplemented by numerous examples. These basic principles include the difference between classical and quantum statistics, a priori probabilities as related to degeneracies, the vital aspect of indistinguishability as compared with distinguishability in classical physics, the differences between conserved and non-conserved elements, the different ways of counting arrangements in the three statistics (Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein), the difference between maximization of the number of arrangements of elements, and averaging in the Darwin-Fowler method. Significant applications to solids, radiation and electrons in metals are treated in separate chapters, as well as Bose-Eins...
Preliminary results of statistical dynamic experiments on a heat exchanger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corran, E.R.; Cummins, J.D.
1962-10-01
The inherent noise signals present in a heat exchanger have been recorded and analysed in order to determine some of the statistical dynamic characteristics of the heat exchanger. These preliminary results show that the primary side temperature frequency response may be determined by analysing the inherent noise. The secondary side temperature frequency response and cross coupled temperature frequency responses between primary and secondary are poorly determined because of the presence of a non-stationary noise source in the secondary circuit of this heat exchanger. This may be overcome by correlating the dependent variables with an externally applied noise signal. Some preliminary experiments with an externally applied random telegraph type of signal are reported. (author)
Saputra, K. V. I.; Cahyadi, L.; Sembiring, U. A.
2018-01-01
Start in this paper, we assess our traditional elementary statistics education and also we introduce elementary statistics with simulation-based inference. To assess our statistical class, we adapt the well-known CAOS (Comprehensive Assessment of Outcomes in Statistics) test that serves as an external measure to assess the student’s basic statistical literacy. This test generally represents as an accepted measure of statistical literacy. We also introduce a new teaching method on elementary statistics class. Different from the traditional elementary statistics course, we will introduce a simulation-based inference method to conduct hypothesis testing. From the literature, it has shown that this new teaching method works very well in increasing student’s understanding of statistics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dominic Beaulieu-Prévost
2006-03-01
Full Text Available For the last 50 years of research in quantitative social sciences, the empirical evaluation of scientific hypotheses has been based on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis. However, more than 300 articles demonstrated that this method was problematic. In summary, null hypothesis testing (NHT is unfalsifiable, its results depend directly on sample size and the null hypothesis is both improbable and not plausible. Consequently, alternatives to NHT such as confidence intervals (CI and measures of effect size are starting to be used in scientific publications. The purpose of this article is, first, to provide the conceptual tools necessary to implement an approach based on confidence intervals, and second, to briefly demonstrate why such an approach is an interesting alternative to an approach based on NHT. As demonstrated in the article, the proposed CI approach avoids most problems related to a NHT approach and can often improve the scientific and contextual relevance of the statistical interpretations by testing range hypotheses instead of a point hypothesis and by defining the minimal value of a substantial effect. The main advantage of such a CI approach is that it replaces the notion of statistical power by an easily interpretable three-value logic (probable presence of a substantial effect, probable absence of a substantial effect and probabilistic undetermination. The demonstration includes a complete example.
Singer, Meromit; Engström, Alexander; Schönhuth, Alexander; Pachter, Lior
2011-09-23
Recent experimental and computational work confirms that CpGs can be unmethylated inside coding exons, thereby showing that codons may be subjected to both genomic and epigenomic constraint. It is therefore of interest to identify coding CpG islands (CCGIs) that are regions inside exons enriched for CpGs. The difficulty in identifying such islands is that coding exons exhibit sequence biases determined by codon usage and constraints that must be taken into account. We present a method for finding CCGIs that showcases a novel approach we have developed for identifying regions of interest that are significant (with respect to a Markov chain) for the counts of any pattern. Our method begins with the exact computation of tail probabilities for the number of CpGs in all regions contained in coding exons, and then applies a greedy algorithm for selecting islands from among the regions. We show that the greedy algorithm provably optimizes a biologically motivated criterion for selecting islands while controlling the false discovery rate. We applied this approach to the human genome (hg18) and annotated CpG islands in coding exons. The statistical criterion we apply to evaluating islands reduces the number of false positives in existing annotations, while our approach to defining islands reveals significant numbers of undiscovered CCGIs in coding exons. Many of these appear to be examples of functional epigenetic specialization in coding exons.
Statistics 101 for Radiologists.
Anvari, Arash; Halpern, Elkan F; Samir, Anthony E
2015-10-01
Diagnostic tests have wide clinical applications, including screening, diagnosis, measuring treatment effect, and determining prognosis. Interpreting diagnostic test results requires an understanding of key statistical concepts used to evaluate test efficacy. This review explains descriptive statistics and discusses probability, including mutually exclusive and independent events and conditional probability. In the inferential statistics section, a statistical perspective on study design is provided, together with an explanation of how to select appropriate statistical tests. Key concepts in recruiting study samples are discussed, including representativeness and random sampling. Variable types are defined, including predictor, outcome, and covariate variables, and the relationship of these variables to one another. In the hypothesis testing section, we explain how to determine if observed differences between groups are likely to be due to chance. We explain type I and II errors, statistical significance, and study power, followed by an explanation of effect sizes and how confidence intervals can be used to generalize observed effect sizes to the larger population. Statistical tests are explained in four categories: t tests and analysis of variance, proportion analysis tests, nonparametric tests, and regression techniques. We discuss sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, receiver operating characteristic analysis, and likelihood ratios. Measures of reliability and agreement, including κ statistics, intraclass correlation coefficients, and Bland-Altman graphs and analysis, are introduced. © RSNA, 2015.
Encounter Probability of Significant Wave Height
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.
The determination of the design wave height (often given as the significant wave height) is usually based on statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurement or hindcast. The result of such extreme wave height analysis is often given as the design wave height corresponding to a c...
Meckfessel, Sandra; Stühmer, Constantin; Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Kupka, Thomas; Behrends, Marianne; Matthies, Herbert; Vaske, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rücker, Martin
2011-01-01
Because a traditionally instructed dental radiology lecture course is very time-consuming and labour-intensive, online courseware, including an interactive-learning module, was implemented to support the lectures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of students who have worked with web-based courseware as well as the effect on their results in final examinations. Users (n(3+4)=138) had access to the e-program from any networked computer at any time. Two groups (n(3)=71, n(4)=67) had to pass a final exam after using the e-course. Results were compared with two groups (n(1)=42, n(2)=48) who had studied the same content by attending traditional lectures. In addition a survey of the students was statistically evaluated. Most of the respondents reported a positive attitude towards e-learning and would have appreciated more access to computer-assisted instruction. Two years after initiating the e-course the failure rate in the final examination dropped significantly, from 40% to less than 2%. The very positive response to the e-program and improved test scores demonstrated the effectiveness of our e-course as a learning aid. Interactive modules in step with clinical practice provided learning that is not achieved by traditional teaching methods alone. To what extent staff savings are possible is part of a further study. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The (mis)reporting of statistical results in psychology journals
Bakker, M.; Wicherts, J.M.
2011-01-01
In order to study the prevalence, nature (direction), and causes of reporting errors in psychology, we checked the consistency of reported test statistics, degrees of freedom, and p values in a random sample of high- and low-impact psychology journals. In a second study, we established the
Medical Statistics – Mathematics or Oracle? Farewell Lecture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gaus, Wilhelm
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Certainty is rare in medicine. This is a direct consequence of the individuality of each and every human being and the reason why we need medical statistics. However, statistics have their pitfalls, too. Fig. 1 shows that the suicide rate peaks in youth, while in Fig. 2 the rate is highest in midlife and Fig. 3 in old age. Which of these contradictory messages is right? After an introduction to the principles of statistical testing, this lecture examines the probability with which statistical test results are correct. For this purpose the level of significance and the power of the test are compared with the sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic procedure. The probability of obtaining correct statistical test results is the same as that for the positive and negative correctness of a diagnostic procedure and therefore depends on prevalence. The focus then shifts to the problem of multiple statistical testing. The lecture demonstrates that for each data set of reasonable size at least one test result proves to be significant - even if the data set is produced by a random number generator. It is extremely important that a hypothesis is generated independently from the data used for its testing. These considerations enable us to understand the gradation of "lame excuses, lies and statistics" and the difference between pure truth and the full truth. Finally, two historical oracles are cited.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sreeram V Ramagopalan
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Background: We and others have shown a significant proportion of interventional trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov have their primary outcomes altered after the listed study start and completion dates. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether changes made to primary outcomes are associated with the likelihood of reporting a statistically significant primary outcome on ClinicalTrials.gov. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of all interventional clinical trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov as of 20 November 2014 was performed. The main outcome was any change made to the initially listed primary outcome and the time of the change in relation to the trial start and end date. Findings: 13,238 completed interventional trials were registered with ClinicalTrials.gov that also had study results posted on the website. 2555 (19.3% had one or more statistically significant primary outcomes. Statistical analysis showed that registration year, funding source and primary outcome change after trial completion were associated with reporting a statistically significant primary outcome. Conclusions: Funding source and primary outcome change after trial completion are associated with a statistically significant primary outcome report on clinicaltrials.gov.
Review of Statistical Analyses Resulting from Performance of HLDWD-DWPF-005
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beck, R.S.
1997-01-01
The Engineering Department at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has reviewed two reports from the Statistical Consulting Section (SCS) involving the statistical analysis of test results for analysis of small sample inserts (references 1 ampersand 2). The test results cover two proposed analytical methods, a room temperature hydrofluoric acid preparation (Cold Chem) and a sodium peroxide/sodium hydroxide fusion modified for insert samples (Modified Fusion). The reports support implementation of the proposed small sample containers and analytical methods at DWPF. Hydragard sampler valve performance was typical of previous results (reference 3). Using an element from each major feed stream. lithium from the frit and iron from the sludge, the sampler was determined to deliver a uniform mixture in either sample container.The lithium to iron ratios were equivalent for the standard 15 ml vial and the 3 ml insert.The proposed method provide equivalent analyses as compared to the current methods. The biases associated with the proposed methods on a vitrified basis are less than 5% for major elements. The sum of oxides for the proposed method compares favorably with the sum of oxides for the conventional methods. However, the average sum of oxides for the Cold Chem method was 94.3% which is below the minimum required recovery of 95%. Both proposed methods, cold Chem and Modified Fusion, will be required at first to provide an accurate analysis which will routinely meet the 95% and 105% average sum of oxides limit for Product Composition Control System (PCCS).Issued to be resolved during phased implementation are as follows: (1) Determine calcine/vitrification factor for radioactive feed; (2) Evaluate covariance matrix change against process operating ranges to determine optimum sample size; (3) Evaluate sources for low sum of oxides; and (4) Improve remote operability of production versions of equipment and instruments for installation in 221-S.The specifics of
Significance analysis of lexical bias in microarray data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Falkow Stanley
2003-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes that are determined to be significantly differentially regulated in microarray analyses often appear to have functional commonalities, such as being components of the same biochemical pathway. This results in certain words being under- or overrepresented in the list of genes. Distinguishing between biologically meaningful trends and artifacts of annotation and analysis procedures is of the utmost importance, as only true biological trends are of interest for further experimentation. A number of sophisticated methods for identification of significant lexical trends are currently available, but these methods are generally too cumbersome for practical use by most microarray users. Results We have developed a tool, LACK, for calculating the statistical significance of apparent lexical bias in microarray datasets. The frequency of a user-specified list of search terms in a list of genes which are differentially regulated is assessed for statistical significance by comparison to randomly generated datasets. The simplicity of the input files and user interface targets the average microarray user who wishes to have a statistical measure of apparent lexical trends in analyzed datasets without the need for bioinformatics skills. The software is available as Perl source or a Windows executable. Conclusion We have used LACK in our laboratory to generate biological hypotheses based on our microarray data. We demonstrate the program's utility using an example in which we confirm significant upregulation of SPI-2 pathogenicity island of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by the cation chelator dipyridyl.
Xia, Li C; Ai, Dongmei; Cram, Jacob A; Liang, Xiaoyi; Fuhrman, Jed A; Sun, Fengzhu
2015-09-21
Local trend (i.e. shape) analysis of time series data reveals co-changing patterns in dynamics of biological systems. However, slow permutation procedures to evaluate the statistical significance of local trend scores have limited its applications to high-throughput time series data analysis, e.g., data from the next generation sequencing technology based studies. By extending the theories for the tail probability of the range of sum of Markovian random variables, we propose formulae for approximating the statistical significance of local trend scores. Using simulations and real data, we show that the approximate p-value is close to that obtained using a large number of permutations (starting at time points >20 with no delay and >30 with delay of at most three time steps) in that the non-zero decimals of the p-values obtained by the approximation and the permutations are mostly the same when the approximate p-value is less than 0.05. In addition, the approximate p-value is slightly larger than that based on permutations making hypothesis testing based on the approximate p-value conservative. The approximation enables efficient calculation of p-values for pairwise local trend analysis, making large scale all-versus-all comparisons possible. We also propose a hybrid approach by integrating the approximation and permutations to obtain accurate p-values for significantly associated pairs. We further demonstrate its use with the analysis of the Polymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) microbial community time series from high-throughput sequencing data and found interesting organism co-occurrence dynamic patterns. The software tool is integrated into the eLSA software package that now provides accelerated local trend and similarity analysis pipelines for time series data. The package is freely available from the eLSA website: http://bitbucket.org/charade/elsa.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fhager, V
2000-01-01
In order to make correct predictions of the second moment of statistical nuclear variables, such as the number of fissions and the number of thermalized neutrons, the dependence of the energy distribution of the source particles on their number should be considered. It has been pointed out recently that neglecting this number dependence in accelerator driven systems might result in bad estimates of the second moment, and this paper contains qualitative and quantitative estimates of the size of these efforts. We walk towards the requested results in two steps. First, models of the number dependent energy distributions of the neutrons that are ejected in the spallation reactions are constructed, both by simple assumptions and by extracting energy distributions of spallation neutrons from a high-energy particle transport code. Then, the second moment of nuclear variables in a sub-critical reactor, into which spallation neutrons are injected, is calculated. The results from second moment calculations using number dependent energy distributions for the source neutrons are compared to those where only the average energy distribution is used. Two physical models are employed to simulate the neutron transport in the reactor. One is analytical, treating only slowing down of neutrons by elastic scattering in the core material. For this model, equations are written down and solved for the second moment of thermalized neutrons that include the distribution of energy of the spallation neutrons. The other model utilizes Monte Carlo methods for tracking the source neutrons as they travel inside the reactor material. Fast and thermal fission reactions are considered, as well as neutron capture and elastic scattering, and the second moment of the number of fissions, the number of neutrons that leaked out of the system, etc. are calculated. Both models use a cylindrical core with a homogenous mixture of core material. Our results indicate that the number dependence of the energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fhager, V.
2000-01-01
In order to make correct predictions of the second moment of statistical nuclear variables, such as the number of fissions and the number of thermalized neutrons, the dependence of the energy distribution of the source particles on their number should be considered. It has been pointed out recently that neglecting this number dependence in accelerator driven systems might result in bad estimates of the second moment, and this paper contains qualitative and quantitative estimates of the size of these efforts. We walk towards the requested results in two steps. First, models of the number dependent energy distributions of the neutrons that are ejected in the spallation reactions are constructed, both by simple assumptions and by extracting energy distributions of spallation neutrons from a high-energy particle transport code. Then, the second moment of nuclear variables in a sub-critical reactor, into which spallation neutrons are injected, is calculated. The results from second moment calculations using number dependent energy distributions for the source neutrons are compared to those where only the average energy distribution is used. Two physical models are employed to simulate the neutron transport in the reactor. One is analytical, treating only slowing down of neutrons by elastic scattering in the core material. For this model, equations are written down and solved for the second moment of thermalized neutrons that include the distribution of energy of the spallation neutrons. The other model utilizes Monte Carlo methods for tracking the source neutrons as they travel inside the reactor material. Fast and thermal fission reactions are considered, as well as neutron capture and elastic scattering, and the second moment of the number of fissions, the number of neutrons that leaked out of the system, etc. are calculated. Both models use a cylindrical core with a homogenous mixture of core material. Our results indicate that the number dependence of the energy
Statistical characterization report for Single-Shell Tank 241-T-107
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cromar, R.D.; Wilmarth, S.R.; Jensen, L.
1994-01-01
This report contains the results of the statistical analysis of data from three core samples obtained from single-shell tank 241-T-107 (T-107). Four specific topics are addressed. They are summarized below. Section 3.0 contains mean concentration estimates of analytes found in T-107. The estimates of open-quotes errorclose quotes associated with the concentration estimates are given as 95% confidence intervals (CI) on the mean. The results given are based on three types of samples: core composite samples, core segment samples, and drainable liquid samples. Section 4.0 contains estimates of the spatial variability (variability between cores and between segments) and the analytical variability (variability between the primary and the duplicate analysis). Statistical tests were performed to test the hypothesis that the between cores and the between segments spatial variability is zero. The results of the tests are as follows. Based on the core composite data, the between cores variance is significantly different from zero for 35 out of 74 analytes; i.e., for 53% of the analytes there is no statistically significant difference between the concentration means for two cores. Based on core segment data, the between segments variance is significantly different from zero for 22 out of 24 analytes and the between cores variance is significantly different from zero for 4 out of 24 analytes; i.e., for 8% of the analytes there is no statistically significant difference between segment means and for 83% of the analytes there is no difference between the means from the three cores. Section 5.0 contains the results of the application of multiple comparison methods to the core composite data, the core segment data, and the drainable liquid data. Section 6.0 contains the results of a statistical test conducted to determine the 222-S Analytical Laboratory's ability to homogenize solid core segments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bostroem, Aasa; Lindman, Henrik; Swartling, Carl; Berne, Berit; Bergh, Jonas
2001-01-01
Purpose: Radiation-induced dermatitis is a very common side effect of radiation therapy, and may necessitate interruption of the therapy. There is a substantial lack of evidence-based treatments for this condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mometasone furoate cream (MMF) on radiation dermatitis in a prospective, double-blind, randomized study. Material and methods: The study comprised 49 patients with node-negative breast cancer. They were operated on with sector resection and scheduled for postoperative radiotherapy using photons with identical radiation qualities and dosage to the breast parenchyma. The patients were randomized to receive either MMF or emollient cream. The cream was applied on the irradiated skin twice a week from the start of radiotherapy until the 12th fraction (24 Gy) and thereafter once daily until 3 weeks after completion of radiation. Both groups additionally received non-blinded emollient cream daily. The intensity of the acute radiation dermatitis was evaluated on a weekly basis regarding erythema and pigmentation, using a reflectance spectrophotometer together with visual scoring of the skin reactions. Results: MMF in combination with emollient cream treatment significantly decreased acute radiation dermatitis (P=0.0033) compared with emollient cream alone. There was no significant difference in pigmentation between the two groups. Conclusions: Adding MMF, a potent topical corticosteroid, to an emollient cream is statistically significantly more effective than emollient cream alone in reducing acute radiation dermatitis
After statistics reform : Should we still teach significance testing?
A. Hak (Tony)
2014-01-01
textabstractIn the longer term null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) will disappear because p- values are not informative and not replicable. Should we continue to teach in the future the procedures of then abolished routines (i.e., NHST)? Three arguments are discussed for not teaching NHST in
Data-driven inference for the spatial scan statistic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Duczmal Luiz H
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic for aggregated area maps searches for clusters of cases without specifying their size (number of areas or geographic location in advance. Their statistical significance is tested while adjusting for the multiple testing inherent in such a procedure. However, as is shown in this work, this adjustment is not done in an even manner for all possible cluster sizes. Results A modification is proposed to the usual inference test of the spatial scan statistic, incorporating additional information about the size of the most likely cluster found. A new interpretation of the results of the spatial scan statistic is done, posing a modified inference question: what is the probability that the null hypothesis is rejected for the original observed cases map with a most likely cluster of size k, taking into account only those most likely clusters of size k found under null hypothesis for comparison? This question is especially important when the p-value computed by the usual inference process is near the alpha significance level, regarding the correctness of the decision based in this inference. Conclusions A practical procedure is provided to make more accurate inferences about the most likely cluster found by the spatial scan statistic.
Worry, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Statistics Anxiety
Williams, Amanda S.
2013-01-01
Statistics anxiety is a problem for most graduate students. This study investigates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty was significantly related to worry, and worry was significantly related to three types of statistics anxiety. Six types of statistics anxiety were…
Chiou, Chei-Chang; Wang, Yu-Min; Lee, Li-Tze
2014-08-01
Statistical knowledge is widely used in academia; however, statistics teachers struggle with the issue of how to reduce students' statistics anxiety and enhance students' statistics learning. This study assesses the effectiveness of a "one-minute paper strategy" in reducing students' statistics-related anxiety and in improving students' statistics-related achievement. Participants were 77 undergraduates from two classes enrolled in applied statistics courses. An experiment was implemented according to a pretest/posttest comparison group design. The quasi-experimental design showed that the one-minute paper strategy significantly reduced students' statistics anxiety and improved students' statistics learning achievement. The strategy was a better instructional tool than the textbook exercise for reducing students' statistics anxiety and improving students' statistics achievement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vujović Svetlana R.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper illustrates the utility of multivariate statistical techniques for analysis and interpretation of water quality data sets and identification of pollution sources/factors with a view to get better information about the water quality and design of monitoring network for effective management of water resources. Multivariate statistical techniques, such as factor analysis (FA/principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis (CA, were applied for the evaluation of variations and for the interpretation of a water quality data set of the natural water bodies obtained during 2010 year of monitoring of 13 parameters at 33 different sites. FA/PCA attempts to explain the correlations between the observations in terms of the underlying factors, which are not directly observable. Factor analysis is applied to physico-chemical parameters of natural water bodies with the aim classification and data summation as well as segmentation of heterogeneous data sets into smaller homogeneous subsets. Factor loadings were categorized as strong and moderate corresponding to the absolute loading values of >0.75, 0.75-0.50, respectively. Four principal factors were obtained with Eigenvalues >1 summing more than 78 % of the total variance in the water data sets, which is adequate to give good prior information regarding data structure. Each factor that is significantly related to specific variables represents a different dimension of water quality. The first factor F1 accounting for 28 % of the total variance and represents the hydrochemical dimension of water quality. The second factor F2 accounting for 18% of the total variance and may be taken factor of water eutrophication. The third factor F3 accounting 17 % of the total variance and represents the influence of point sources of pollution on water quality. The fourth factor F4 accounting 13 % of the total variance and may be taken as an ecological dimension of water quality. Cluster analysis (CA is an
The significance of reporting to the thousandths place: Figuring out the laboratory limitations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joely A. Straseski
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Objectives: A request to report laboratory values to a specific number of decimal places represents a delicate balance between clinical interpretation of a true analytical change versus laboratory understanding of analytical imprecision and significant figures. Prostate specific antigen (PSA was used as an example to determine if an immunoassay routinely reported to the hundredths decimal place based on significant figure assessment in our laboratory was capable of providing analytically meaningful results when reported to the thousandths places when requested by clinicians. Design and methods: Results of imprecision studies of a representative PSA assay (Roche MODULAR E170 employing two methods of statistical analysis are reported. Sample pools were generated with target values of 0.01 and 0.20Â Î¼g/L PSA as determined by the E170. Intra-assay imprecision studies were conducted and the resultant data were analyzed using two independent statistical methods to evaluate reporting limits. Results: These statistical methods indicated reporting results to the thousandths place at the two assessed concentrations was an appropriate reflection of the measurement imprecision for the representative assay. This approach used two independent statistical tests to determine the ability of an analytical system to support a desired reporting level. Importantly, data were generated during a routine intra-assay imprecision study, thus this approach does not require extra data collection by the laboratory. Conclusions: Independent statistical analysis must be used to determine appropriate significant figure limitations for clinically relevant analytes. Establishing these limits is the responsibility of the laboratory and should be determined prior to providing clinical results. Keywords: Significant figures, Imprecision, Prostate cancer, Prostate specific antigen, PSA
Introductory statistics for the behavioral sciences
Welkowitz, Joan; Cohen, Jacob
1971-01-01
Introductory Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences provides an introduction to statistical concepts and principles. This book emphasizes the robustness of parametric procedures wherein such significant tests as t and F yield accurate results even if such assumptions as equal population variances and normal population distributions are not well met.Organized into three parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the rationale upon which much of behavioral science research is based, namely, drawing inferences about a population based on data obtained from a samp
Analysis of statistical misconception in terms of statistical reasoning
Maryati, I.; Priatna, N.
2018-05-01
Reasoning skill is needed for everyone to face globalization era, because every person have to be able to manage and use information from all over the world which can be obtained easily. Statistical reasoning skill is the ability to collect, group, process, interpret, and draw conclusion of information. Developing this skill can be done through various levels of education. However, the skill is low because many people assume that statistics is just the ability to count and using formulas and so do students. Students still have negative attitude toward course which is related to research. The purpose of this research is analyzing students’ misconception in descriptive statistic course toward the statistical reasoning skill. The observation was done by analyzing the misconception test result and statistical reasoning skill test; observing the students’ misconception effect toward statistical reasoning skill. The sample of this research was 32 students of math education department who had taken descriptive statistic course. The mean value of misconception test was 49,7 and standard deviation was 10,6 whereas the mean value of statistical reasoning skill test was 51,8 and standard deviation was 8,5. If the minimal value is 65 to state the standard achievement of a course competence, students’ mean value is lower than the standard competence. The result of students’ misconception study emphasized on which sub discussion that should be considered. Based on the assessment result, it was found that students’ misconception happen on this: 1) writing mathematical sentence and symbol well, 2) understanding basic definitions, 3) determining concept that will be used in solving problem. In statistical reasoning skill, the assessment was done to measure reasoning from: 1) data, 2) representation, 3) statistic format, 4) probability, 5) sample, and 6) association.
Interpretation of the results of statistical measurements. [search for basic probability model
Olshevskiy, V. V.
1973-01-01
For random processes, the calculated probability characteristic, and the measured statistical estimate are used in a quality functional, which defines the difference between the two functions. Based on the assumption that the statistical measurement procedure is organized so that the parameters for a selected model are optimized, it is shown that the interpretation of experimental research is a search for a basic probability model.
Large-Deviation Results for Discriminant Statistics of Gaussian Locally Stationary Processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junichi Hirukawa
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the large-deviation principle of discriminant statistics for Gaussian locally stationary processes. First, large-deviation theorems for quadratic forms and the log-likelihood ratio for a Gaussian locally stationary process with a mean function are proved. Their asymptotics are described by the large deviation rate functions. Second, we consider the situations where processes are misspecified to be stationary. In these misspecified cases, we formally make the log-likelihood ratio discriminant statistics and derive the large deviation theorems of them. Since they are complicated, they are evaluated and illustrated by numerical examples. We realize the misspecification of the process to be stationary seriously affecting our discrimination.
Statistical Symbolic Execution with Informed Sampling
Filieri, Antonio; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Visser, Willem; Geldenhuys, Jaco
2014-01-01
Symbolic execution techniques have been proposed recently for the probabilistic analysis of programs. These techniques seek to quantify the likelihood of reaching program events of interest, e.g., assert violations. They have many promising applications but have scalability issues due to high computational demand. To address this challenge, we propose a statistical symbolic execution technique that performs Monte Carlo sampling of the symbolic program paths and uses the obtained information for Bayesian estimation and hypothesis testing with respect to the probability of reaching the target events. To speed up the convergence of the statistical analysis, we propose Informed Sampling, an iterative symbolic execution that first explores the paths that have high statistical significance, prunes them from the state space and guides the execution towards less likely paths. The technique combines Bayesian estimation with a partial exact analysis for the pruned paths leading to provably improved convergence of the statistical analysis. We have implemented statistical symbolic execution with in- formed sampling in the Symbolic PathFinder tool. We show experimentally that the informed sampling obtains more precise results and converges faster than a purely statistical analysis and may also be more efficient than an exact symbolic analysis. When the latter does not terminate symbolic execution with informed sampling can give meaningful results under the same time and memory limits.
A novel statistic for genome-wide interaction analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuesen Wu
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Although great progress in genome-wide association studies (GWAS has been made, the significant SNP associations identified by GWAS account for only a few percent of the genetic variance, leading many to question where and how we can find the missing heritability. There is increasing interest in genome-wide interaction analysis as a possible source of finding heritability unexplained by current GWAS. However, the existing statistics for testing interaction have low power for genome-wide interaction analysis. To meet challenges raised by genome-wide interactional analysis, we have developed a novel statistic for testing interaction between two loci (either linked or unlinked. The null distribution and the type I error rates of the new statistic for testing interaction are validated using simulations. Extensive power studies show that the developed statistic has much higher power to detect interaction than classical logistic regression. The results identified 44 and 211 pairs of SNPs showing significant evidence of interactions with FDR<0.001 and 0.001
Solution of the statistical bootstrap with Bose statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engels, J.; Fabricius, K.; Schilling, K.
1977-01-01
A brief and transparent way to introduce Bose statistics into the statistical bootstrap of Hagedorn and Frautschi is presented. The resulting bootstrap equation is solved by a cluster expansion for the grand canonical partition function. The shift of the ultimate temperature due to Bose statistics is determined through an iteration process. We discuss two-particle spectra of the decaying fireball (with given mass) as obtained from its grand microcanonical level density
Principles of Statistics: What the Sports Medicine Professional Needs to Know.
Riemann, Bryan L; Lininger, Monica R
2018-07-01
Understanding the results and statistics reported in original research remains a large challenge for many sports medicine practitioners and, in turn, may be among one of the biggest barriers to integrating research into sports medicine practice. The purpose of this article is to provide minimal essentials a sports medicine practitioner needs to know about interpreting statistics and research results to facilitate the incorporation of the latest evidence into practice. Topics covered include the difference between statistical significance and clinical meaningfulness; effect sizes and confidence intervals; reliability statistics, including the minimal detectable difference and minimal important difference; and statistical power. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mapping the results of local statistics: Using geographically weighted regression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen A. Matthews
2012-03-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND The application of geographically weighted regression (GWR - a local spatial statistical technique used to test for spatial nonstationarity - has grown rapidly in the social, health, and demographic sciences. GWR is a useful exploratory analytical tool that generates a set of location-specific parameter estimates which can be mapped and analysed to provide information on spatial nonstationarity in the relationships between predictors and the outcome variable. OBJECTIVE A major challenge to users of GWR methods is how best to present and synthesize the large number of mappable results, specifically the local parameter parameter estimates and local t-values, generated from local GWR models. We offer an elegant solution. METHODS This paper introduces a mapping technique to simultaneously display local parameter estimates and local t-values on one map based on the use of data selection and transparency techniques. We integrate GWR software and GIS software package (ArcGIS and adapt earlier work in cartography on bivariate mapping. We compare traditional mapping strategies (i.e., side-by-side comparison and isoline overlay maps with our method using an illustration focusing on US county infant mortality data. CONCLUSIONS The resultant map design is more elegant than methods used to date. This type of map presentation can facilitate the exploration and interpretation of nonstationarity, focusing map reader attention on the areas of primary interest.
Statistical process control in nursing research.
Polit, Denise F; Chaboyer, Wendy
2012-02-01
In intervention studies in which randomization to groups is not possible, researchers typically use quasi-experimental designs. Time series designs are strong quasi-experimental designs but are seldom used, perhaps because of technical and analytic hurdles. Statistical process control (SPC) is an alternative analytic approach to testing hypotheses about intervention effects using data collected over time. SPC, like traditional statistical methods, is a tool for understanding variation and involves the construction of control charts that distinguish between normal, random fluctuations (common cause variation), and statistically significant special cause variation that can result from an innovation. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of SPC and to illustrate its use in a study of a nursing practice improvement intervention. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
VISUALIZATION OF DATA AND RESULTS AS А METHODOLOGICAL BASIS OF APPLIED STATISTICS TEACHING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. R. Nuriakhmetov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Traditional methods of teaching in medical high school of informatics as computer sciences and statistics as a section of high mathematics contradict to requirements of modern applied medicine and a medical science. A research objective is revealing of the reasons of the given discrepancy and its elimination ways. Similar discrepancy was revealed earlier by foreign researchers studying efficiency of the statistic school programs. The revealed laws appeared to be extended to a technique of teaching of statistics in a high medical school. Pursuing this aim the tests of educational achievements developed by the author were applied on the students of medical and biologic department of the Siberian State Medical Universirty that trained on specialities of “biophysics" and “biochemistry". The fundamental problem of statistical education is that symbols used by these science concern to the objects, which students still have to design. As a substantiation of this conclusion serves the ontosemiotical approach to working out of the maintenance of a course. In the article there are considered the approaches to the permission of the given contradiction, based on the experience of teaching of statistics in foreign schools and on the workings out of the author. In particular the conclusion about necessity of revision the tradition of using professional statistical packages and introduction of a special educational software. To working out the maintenance of a learning course it is offered to more widely apply the historical approach which concrete definition is represented by a principle of a guided reinvention.
Gene cluster statistics with gene families.
Raghupathy, Narayanan; Durand, Dannie
2009-05-01
Identifying genomic regions that descended from a common ancestor is important for understanding the function and evolution of genomes. In distantly related genomes, clusters of homologous gene pairs are evidence of candidate homologous regions. Demonstrating the statistical significance of such "gene clusters" is an essential component of comparative genomic analyses. However, currently there are no practical statistical tests for gene clusters that model the influence of the number of homologs in each gene family on cluster significance. In this work, we demonstrate empirically that failure to incorporate gene family size in gene cluster statistics results in overestimation of significance, leading to incorrect conclusions. We further present novel analytical methods for estimating gene cluster significance that take gene family size into account. Our methods do not require complete genome data and are suitable for testing individual clusters found in local regions, such as contigs in an unfinished assembly. We consider pairs of regions drawn from the same genome (paralogous clusters), as well as regions drawn from two different genomes (orthologous clusters). Determining cluster significance under general models of gene family size is computationally intractable. By assuming that all gene families are of equal size, we obtain analytical expressions that allow fast approximation of cluster probabilities. We evaluate the accuracy of this approximation by comparing the resulting gene cluster probabilities with cluster probabilities obtained by simulating a realistic, power-law distributed model of gene family size, with parameters inferred from genomic data. Surprisingly, despite the simplicity of the underlying assumption, our method accurately approximates the true cluster probabilities. It slightly overestimates these probabilities, yielding a conservative test. We present additional simulation results indicating the best choice of parameter values for data
The significance test controversy revisited the fiducial Bayesian alternative
Lecoutre, Bruno
2014-01-01
The purpose of this book is not only to revisit the “significance test controversy,”but also to provide a conceptually sounder alternative. As such, it presents a Bayesian framework for a new approach to analyzing and interpreting experimental data. It also prepares students and researchers for reporting on experimental results. Normative aspects: The main views of statistical tests are revisited and the philosophies of Fisher, Neyman-Pearson and Jeffrey are discussed in detail. Descriptive aspects: The misuses of Null Hypothesis Significance Tests are reconsidered in light of Jeffreys’ Bayesian conceptions concerning the role of statistical inference in experimental investigations. Prescriptive aspects: The current effect size and confidence interval reporting practices are presented and seriously questioned. Methodological aspects are carefully discussed and fiducial Bayesian methods are proposed as a more suitable alternative for reporting on experimental results. In closing, basic routine procedures...
Inverse Statistics in the Foreign Exchange Market
Jensen, M. H.; Johansen, A.; Petroni, F.; Simonsen, I.
2004-01-01
We investigate intra-day foreign exchange (FX) time series using the inverse statistic analysis developed in [1,2]. Specifically, we study the time-averaged distributions of waiting times needed to obtain a certain increase (decrease) $\\rho$ in the price of an investment. The analysis is performed for the Deutsch mark (DM) against the $US for the full year of 1998, but similar results are obtained for the Japanese Yen against the $US. With high statistical significance, the presence of "reson...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Yuming; Cao Hao; Chen Junhong; Zhang Tengfei; Yu Sijie; Zheng Huinan; Shen Chenglong; Wang, S.; Zhang Jie
2010-01-01
In this paper, we present an automated system, which has the capability to catch and track solar limb prominences based on observations from the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) 304 A passband. The characteristic parameters and their evolution, including height, position angle, area, length, and brightness, are obtained without manual interventions. By applying the system to the STEREO-B/SECCHI/EUVI 304 A data during 2007 April-2009 October, we obtain a total of 9477 well-tracked prominences and a catalog of these events available online. A detailed analysis of these prominences suggests that the system has a rather good performance. We have obtained several interesting statistical results based on the catalog. Most prominences appear below the latitude of 60 0 and at the height of about 26 Mm above the solar surface. Most of them are quite stable during the period they are tracked. Nevertheless, some prominences have an upward speed of more than 100 km s -1 , and some others show significant downward and/or azimuthal speeds. There are strong correlations among the brightness, area, and height. The expansion of a prominence is probably one major cause of its fading during the rising or erupting process.
Can Money Buy Happiness? A Statistical Analysis of Predictors for User Satisfaction
Hunter, Ben; Perret, Robert
2011-01-01
2007 data from LibQUAL+[TM] and the ACRL Library Trends and Statistics database were analyzed to determine if there is a statistically significant correlation between library expenditures and usage statistics and library patron satisfaction across 73 universities. The results show that users of larger, better funded libraries have higher…
Electricity Statistics for France. Definitive results for the year 2015
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2016-01-01
The mission of RTE, the French power transmission system operator, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents some detailed statistics on electricity flows in France, on electricity market mechanism and on facilities: consumption, generation, trade, RTE's network performance and evolution with respect to the previous year
Electricity Statistics for France. Definitive results for the year 2013
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2014-01-01
The mission of RTE, the French power transmission system operator, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents some detailed statistics on electricity flows in France, on electricity market mechanism and on facilities: consumption, generation, trade, RTE's network performance and evolution with respect to the previous year
The SACE Review Panel's Final Report: Significant Flaws in the Analysis of Statistical Data
Gregory, Kelvin
2006-01-01
The South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) is a credential and formal qualification within the Australian Qualifications Framework. A recent review of the SACE outlined a number of recommendations for significant changes to this certificate. These recommendations were the result of a process that began with the review panel…
Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James
2014-01-01
Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.
Statistical monitoring of linear antenna arrays
Harrou, Fouzi
2016-11-03
The paper concerns the problem of monitoring linear antenna arrays using the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test. When an abnormal event (fault) affects an array of antenna elements, the radiation pattern changes and significant deviation from the desired design performance specifications can resulted. In this paper, the detection of faults is addressed from a statistical point of view as a fault detection problem. Specifically, a statistical method rested on the GLR principle is used to detect potential faults in linear arrays. To assess the strength of the GLR-based monitoring scheme, three case studies involving different types of faults were performed. Simulation results clearly shown the effectiveness of the GLR-based fault-detection method to monitor the performance of linear antenna arrays.
Data-driven inference for the spatial scan statistic.
Almeida, Alexandre C L; Duarte, Anderson R; Duczmal, Luiz H; Oliveira, Fernando L P; Takahashi, Ricardo H C
2011-08-02
Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic for aggregated area maps searches for clusters of cases without specifying their size (number of areas) or geographic location in advance. Their statistical significance is tested while adjusting for the multiple testing inherent in such a procedure. However, as is shown in this work, this adjustment is not done in an even manner for all possible cluster sizes. A modification is proposed to the usual inference test of the spatial scan statistic, incorporating additional information about the size of the most likely cluster found. A new interpretation of the results of the spatial scan statistic is done, posing a modified inference question: what is the probability that the null hypothesis is rejected for the original observed cases map with a most likely cluster of size k, taking into account only those most likely clusters of size k found under null hypothesis for comparison? This question is especially important when the p-value computed by the usual inference process is near the alpha significance level, regarding the correctness of the decision based in this inference. A practical procedure is provided to make more accurate inferences about the most likely cluster found by the spatial scan statistic.
Murga Oporto, L; Menéndez-de León, C; Bauzano Poley, E; Núñez-Castaín, M J
Among the differents techniques for motor unit number estimation (MUNE) there is the statistical one (Poisson), in which the activation of motor units is carried out by electrical stimulation and the estimation performed by means of a statistical analysis based on the Poisson s distribution. The study was undertaken in order to realize an approximation to the MUNE Poisson technique showing a coprehensible view of its methodology and also to obtain normal results in the extensor digitorum brevis muscle (EDB) from a healthy population. One hundred fourteen normal volunteers with age ranging from 10 to 88 years were studied using the MUNE software contained in a Viking IV system. The normal subjects were divided into two age groups (10 59 and 60 88 years). The EDB MUNE from all them was 184 49. Both, the MUNE and the amplitude of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) were significantly lower in the older age group (page than CMAP amplitude ( 0.5002 and 0.4142, respectively pphisiology of the motor unit. The value of MUNE correlates better with the neuromuscular aging process than CMAP amplitude does.
Prevalence of significant bacteriuria among symptomatic and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Ill). Results: A total of 100 consenting participants were recruited into the study. The mean age was: 23.42 ± 8.31 years and a range of 14‑50 years. Only 9% (9/100) had significant bacteriuria while 44.4% (4/9) ...
Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2001. Production statistics (1992-2001)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2003-01-01
This is the thirty-fifth in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1992-2001 for about 200 countries and areas
Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2002. Production statistics (1993-2002)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2004-01-01
This is the thirty-sixth in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title 'The Growth of World industry' and the next eight editions under the title 'Yearbook of Industrial Statistics'. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1993-2002 for about 200 countries and areas
Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2000. Production statistics (1991-2000)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2002-01-01
This is the thirty-third in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. Most of the statistics refer to the ten-year period 1991-2000 for about 200 countries and areas
Behavioral investment strategy matters: a statistical arbitrage approach
Sun, David; Tsai, Shih-Chuan; Wang, Wei
2011-01-01
In this study, we employ a statistical arbitrage approach to demonstrate that momentum investment strategy tend to work better in periods longer than six months, a result different from findings in past literature. Compared with standard parametric tests, the statistical arbitrage method produces more clearly that momentum strategies work only in longer formation and holding periods. Also they yield positive significant returns in an up market, but negative yet insignificant returns in a down...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lutz Bornmann
Full Text Available Using the InCites tool of Thomson Reuters, this study compares normalized citation impact values calculated for China, Japan, France, Germany, United States, and the UK throughout the time period from 1981 to 2010. InCites offers a unique opportunity to study the normalized citation impacts of countries using (i a long publication window (1981 to 2010, (ii a differentiation in (broad or more narrow subject areas, and (iii allowing for the use of statistical procedures in order to obtain an insightful investigation of national citation trends across the years. Using four broad categories, our results show significantly increasing trends in citation impact values for France, the UK, and especially Germany across the last thirty years in all areas. The citation impact of papers from China is still at a relatively low level (mostly below the world average, but the country follows an increasing trend line. The USA exhibits a stable pattern of high citation impact values across the years. With small impact differences between the publication years, the US trend is increasing in engineering and technology but decreasing in medical and health sciences as well as in agricultural sciences. Similar to the USA, Japan follows increasing as well as decreasing trends in different subject areas, but the variability across the years is small. In most of the years, papers from Japan perform below or approximately at the world average in each subject area.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Tobias
2017-01-01
In the present thesis I develop, implement and apply statistical methods for detecting genomic elements implicated in cancer development and progression. This is done in two separate bodies of work. The first uses the somatic mutation burden to distinguish cancer driver mutations from passenger m...
Forbes, Valery E; Aufderheide, John; Warbritton, Ryan; van der Hoeven, Nelly; Caspers, Norbert
2007-03-01
This study presents results of the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on adult egg production, egg hatchability, egg development rates and juvenile growth rates in the freshwater gastropod, Marisa cornuarietis. We observed no adult mortality, substantial inter-snail variability in reproductive output, and no effects of BPA on reproduction during 12 weeks of exposure to 0, 0.1, 1.0, 16, 160 or 640 microg/L BPA. We observed no effects of BPA on egg hatchability or timing of egg hatching. Juveniles showed good growth in the control and all treatments, and there were no significant effects of BPA on this endpoint. Our results do not support previous claims of enhanced reproduction in Marisa cornuarietis in response to exposure to BPA. Statistical power analysis indicated high levels of inter-snail variability in the measured endpoints and highlighted the need for sufficient replication when testing treatment effects on reproduction in M. cornuarietis with adequate power.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fossum, Kristian; Mannseth, Trond
2014-01-01
We assess and compare parameter sampling capabilities of one sequential and one simultaneous Bayesian, ensemble-based, joint state-parameter (JS) estimation method. In the companion paper, part I (Fossum and Mannseth 2014 Inverse Problems 30 114002), analytical investigations lead us to propose three claims, essentially stating that the sequential method can be expected to outperform the simultaneous method for weakly nonlinear forward models. Here, we assess the reliability and robustness of these claims through statistical analysis of results from a range of numerical experiments. Samples generated by the two approximate JS methods are compared to samples from the posterior distribution generated by a Markov chain Monte Carlo method, using four approximate measures of distance between probability distributions. Forward-model nonlinearity is assessed from a stochastic nonlinearity measure allowing for sufficiently large model dimensions. Both toy models (with low computational complexity, and where the nonlinearity is fairly easy to control) and two-phase porous-media flow models (corresponding to down-scaled versions of problems to which the JS methods have been frequently applied recently) are considered in the numerical experiments. Results from the statistical analysis show strong support of all three claims stated in part I. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parvan, A.S.
2016-01-01
The Tsallis statistics was applied to describe the experimental data on the transverse momentum distributions of hadrons. We considered the energy dependence of the parameters of the Tsallis-factorized statistics, which is now widely used for the description of the experimental transverse momentum distributions of hadrons, and the Tsallis statistics for the charged pions produced in pp collisions at high energies. We found that the results of the Tsallis-factorized statistics deviate from the results of the Tsallis statistics only at low NA61/SHINE energies when the value of the entropic parameter is close to unity. At higher energies, when the value of the entropic parameter deviates essentially from unity, the Tsallis-factorized statistics satisfactorily recovers the results of the Tsallis statistics. (orig.)
Statistical mechanics of few-particle systems: exact results for two useful models
Miranda, Enrique N.
2017-11-01
The statistical mechanics of small clusters (n ˜ 10-50 elements) of harmonic oscillators and two-level systems is studied exactly, following the microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical formalisms. For clusters with several hundred particles, the results from the three formalisms coincide with those found in the thermodynamic limit. However, for clusters formed by a few tens of elements, the three ensembles yield different results. For a cluster with a few tens of harmonic oscillators, when the heat capacity per oscillator is evaluated within the canonical formalism, it reaches a limit value equal to k B , as in the thermodynamic case, while within the microcanonical formalism the limit value is k B (1-1/n). This difference could be measured experimentally. For a cluster with a few tens of two-level systems, the heat capacity evaluated within the canonical and microcanonical ensembles also presents differences that could be detected experimentally. Both the microcanonical and grand canonical formalism show that the entropy is non-additive for systems this small, while the canonical ensemble reaches the opposite conclusion. These results suggest that the microcanonical ensemble is the most appropriate for dealing with systems with tens of particles.
A shift from significance test to hypothesis test through power analysis in medical research.
Singh, G
2006-01-01
Medical research literature until recently, exhibited substantial dominance of the Fisher's significance test approach of statistical inference concentrating more on probability of type I error over Neyman-Pearson's hypothesis test considering both probability of type I and II error. Fisher's approach dichotomises results into significant or not significant results with a P value. The Neyman-Pearson's approach talks of acceptance or rejection of null hypothesis. Based on the same theory these two approaches deal with same objective and conclude in their own way. The advancement in computing techniques and availability of statistical software have resulted in increasing application of power calculations in medical research and thereby reporting the result of significance tests in the light of power of the test also. Significance test approach, when it incorporates power analysis contains the essence of hypothesis test approach. It may be safely argued that rising application of power analysis in medical research may have initiated a shift from Fisher's significance test to Neyman-Pearson's hypothesis test procedure.
Preliminary results of sup(40)Ca(e,e'c) reaction analysis c p,α, based on statistical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herdade, S.B.; Emrich, H.J.
1990-01-01
Statistical model calculations relative to the reactions sup(40)Ca (e,e'p) sup(39)K and sup(40)Ca(e,e'P sub(o)) sup(39)K sup(gs), using a modified version of the program STAPRE are compared with experimental results obtained from coincidence experiments carried out at the Mainz microtron MAMI A. Preliminary results indicate that the statistical decay of a 1 sup(-) level in the sup(40)Ca compound nucleus, at an excitation energy + 20 MeV, to the ground state of the sup(39)K residual nucleus is only about 15% of the total decay, indicating that direct and/or semi-direct mechanisms contribute to the major part of the decay. (author)
Sibling Competition & Growth Tradeoffs. Biological vs. Statistical Significance
Kramer, Karen L.; Veile, Amanda; Ot?rola-Castillo, Erik
2016-01-01
Early childhood growth has many downstream effects on future health and reproduction and is an important measure of offspring quality. While a tradeoff between family size and child growth outcomes is theoretically predicted in high-fertility societies, empirical evidence is mixed. This is often attributed to phenotypic variation in parental condition. However, inconsistent study results may also arise because family size confounds the potentially differential effects that older and younger s...
Detecting errors in micro and trace analysis by using statistics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heydorn, K.
1993-01-01
By assigning a standard deviation to each step in an analytical method it is possible to predict the standard deviation of each analytical result obtained by this method. If the actual variability of replicate analytical results agrees with the expected, the analytical method is said...... to be in statistical control. Significant deviations between analytical results from different laboratories reveal the presence of systematic errors, and agreement between different laboratories indicate the absence of systematic errors. This statistical approach, referred to as the analysis of precision, was applied...
Conversion factors and oil statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karbuz, Sohbet
2004-01-01
World oil statistics, in scope and accuracy, are often far from perfect. They can easily lead to misguided conclusions regarding the state of market fundamentals. Without proper attention directed at statistic caveats, the ensuing interpretation of oil market data opens the door to unnecessary volatility, and can distort perception of market fundamentals. Among the numerous caveats associated with the compilation of oil statistics, conversion factors, used to produce aggregated data, play a significant role. Interestingly enough, little attention is paid to conversion factors, i.e. to the relation between different units of measurement for oil. Additionally, the underlying information regarding the choice of a specific factor when trying to produce measurements of aggregated data remains scant. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the impact of conversion factors for two commonly encountered issues, mass to volume equivalencies (barrels to tonnes) and for broad energy measures encountered in world oil statistics. This paper will seek to demonstrate how inappropriate and misused conversion factors can yield wildly varying results and ultimately distort oil statistics. Examples will show that while discrepancies in commonly used conversion factors may seem trivial, their impact on the assessment of a world oil balance is far from negligible. A unified and harmonised convention for conversion factors is necessary to achieve accurate comparisons and aggregate oil statistics for the benefit of both end-users and policy makers
Statistical inference for template aging
Schuckers, Michael E.
2006-04-01
A change in classification error rates for a biometric device is often referred to as template aging. Here we offer two methods for determining whether the effect of time is statistically significant. The first of these is the use of a generalized linear model to determine if these error rates change linearly over time. This approach generalizes previous work assessing the impact of covariates using generalized linear models. The second approach uses of likelihood ratio tests methodology. The focus here is on statistical methods for estimation not the underlying cause of the change in error rates over time. These methodologies are applied to data from the National Institutes of Standards and Technology Biometric Score Set Release 1. The results of these applications are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Parsons Nick R
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of statistics in reported research in trauma and orthopaedic surgery has become ever more important and complex. Despite the extensive use of statistical analysis, it is still a subject which is often not conceptually well understood, resulting in clear methodological flaws and inadequate reporting in many papers. Methods A detailed statistical survey sampled 100 representative orthopaedic papers using a validated questionnaire that assessed the quality of the trial design and statistical analysis methods. Results The survey found evidence of failings in study design, statistical methodology and presentation of the results. Overall, in 17% (95% confidence interval; 10–26% of the studies investigated the conclusions were not clearly justified by the results, in 39% (30–49% of studies a different analysis should have been undertaken and in 17% (10–26% a different analysis could have made a difference to the overall conclusions. Conclusion It is only by an improved dialogue between statistician, clinician, reviewer and journal editor that the failings in design methodology and analysis highlighted by this survey can be addressed.
PRIS-STATISTICS: Power Reactor Information System Statistical Reports. User's Manual
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2013-01-01
The IAEA developed the Power Reactor Information System (PRIS)-Statistics application to assist PRIS end users with generating statistical reports from PRIS data. Statistical reports provide an overview of the status, specification and performance results of every nuclear power reactor in the world. This user's manual was prepared to facilitate the use of the PRIS-Statistics application and to provide guidelines and detailed information for each report in the application. Statistical reports support analyses of nuclear power development and strategies, and the evaluation of nuclear power plant performance. The PRIS database can be used for comprehensive trend analyses and benchmarking against best performers and industrial standards.
Statistical Power in Plant Pathology Research.
Gent, David H; Esker, Paul D; Kriss, Alissa B
2018-01-01
In null hypothesis testing, failure to reject a null hypothesis may have two potential interpretations. One interpretation is that the treatments being evaluated do not have a significant effect, and a correct conclusion was reached in the analysis. Alternatively, a treatment effect may have existed but the conclusion of the study was that there was none. This is termed a Type II error, which is most likely to occur when studies lack sufficient statistical power to detect a treatment effect. In basic terms, the power of a study is the ability to identify a true effect through a statistical test. The power of a statistical test is 1 - (the probability of Type II errors), and depends on the size of treatment effect (termed the effect size), variance, sample size, and significance criterion (the probability of a Type I error, α). Low statistical power is prevalent in scientific literature in general, including plant pathology. However, power is rarely reported, creating uncertainty in the interpretation of nonsignificant results and potentially underestimating small, yet biologically significant relationships. The appropriate level of power for a study depends on the impact of Type I versus Type II errors and no single level of power is acceptable for all purposes. Nonetheless, by convention 0.8 is often considered an acceptable threshold and studies with power less than 0.5 generally should not be conducted if the results are to be conclusive. The emphasis on power analysis should be in the planning stages of an experiment. Commonly employed strategies to increase power include increasing sample sizes, selecting a less stringent threshold probability for Type I errors, increasing the hypothesized or detectable effect size, including as few treatment groups as possible, reducing measurement variability, and including relevant covariates in analyses. Power analysis will lead to more efficient use of resources and more precisely structured hypotheses, and may even
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mousseau, Jeffrey D.; Jansen, John R.; Janke, David H.; Plowman, Catherine M.
2003-01-01
Improved waste minimization practices at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are leading to a 15% reduction in the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Bechtel, BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), the prime management and operations contractor at the INEEL, applied the Six Sigma improvement process to the INEEL Waste Minimization Program to review existing processes and define opportunities for improvement. Our Six Sigma analysis team: composed of an executive champion, process owner, a black belt and yellow belt, and technical and business team members used this statistical based process approach to analyze work processes and produced ten recommendations for improvement. Recommendations ranged from waste generator financial accountability for newly generated waste to enhanced employee recognition programs for waste minimization efforts. These improvements have now been implemented to reduce waste generation rates and are producing positive results
Kadhi, Tau; Holley, D.
2010-01-01
The following report gives the statistical findings of the July 2010 TMSL Bar results. Procedures: Data is pre-existing and was given to the Evaluator by email from the Registrar and Dean. Statistical analyses were run using SPSS 17 to address the following research questions: 1. What are the statistical descriptors of the July 2010 overall TMSL…
Kadhi, T.; Holley, D.; Rudley, D.; Garrison, P.; Green, T.
2010-01-01
The following report gives the statistical findings of the 2010 Thurgood Marshall School of Law (TMSL) Texas Bar results. This data was pre-existing and was given to the Evaluator by email from the Dean. Then, in-depth statistical analyses were run using the SPSS 17 to address the following questions: 1. What are the statistical descriptors of the…
Statistical trend analysis methodology for rare failures in changing technical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ott, K.O.; Hoffmann, H.J.
1983-07-01
A methodology for a statistical trend analysis (STA) in failure rates is presented. It applies primarily to relatively rare events in changing technologies or components. The formulation is more general and the assumptions are less restrictive than in a previously published version. Relations of the statistical analysis and probabilistic assessment (PRA) are discussed in terms of categorization of decisions for action following particular failure events. The significance of tentatively identified trends is explored. In addition to statistical tests for trend significance, a combination of STA and PRA results quantifying the trend complement is proposed. The STA approach is compared with other concepts for trend characterization. (orig.)
Alekseenko, M. A.; Gendrina, I. Yu.
2017-11-01
Recently, due to the abundance of various types of observational data in the systems of vision through the atmosphere and the need for their processing, the use of various methods of statistical research in the study of such systems as correlation-regression analysis, dynamic series, variance analysis, etc. is actual. We have attempted to apply elements of correlation-regression analysis for the study and subsequent prediction of the patterns of radiation transfer in these systems same as in the construction of radiation models of the atmosphere. In this paper, we present some results of statistical processing of the results of numerical simulation of the characteristics of vision systems through the atmosphere obtained with the help of a special software package.1
Nick, Todd G
2007-01-01
Statistics is defined by the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) thesaurus as the science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The two broad categories of summarizing and analyzing data are referred to as descriptive and inferential statistics. This chapter considers the science and art of summarizing data where descriptive statistics and graphics are used to display data. In this chapter, we discuss the fundamentals of descriptive statistics, including describing qualitative and quantitative variables. For describing quantitative variables, measures of location and spread, for example the standard deviation, are presented along with graphical presentations. We also discuss distributions of statistics, for example the variance, as well as the use of transformations. The concepts in this chapter are useful for uncovering patterns within the data and for effectively presenting the results of a project.
Plasma convection in the magnetotail lobes: statistical results from Cluster EDI measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Haaland
2008-08-01
Full Text Available A major part of the plasma in the Earth's magnetotail is populated through transport of plasma from the solar wind via the magnetotail lobes. In this paper, we present a statistical study of plasma convection in the lobes for different directions of the interplanetary magnetic field and for different geomagnetic disturbance levels. The data set used in this study consists of roughly 340 000 one-minute vector measurements of the plasma convection from the Cluster Electron Drift Instrument (EDI obtained during the period February 2001 to June 2007. The results show that both convection magnitude and direction are largely controlled by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. For a southward IMF, there is a strong convection towards the central plasma sheet with convection velocities around 10 km s^{−1}. During periods of northward IMF, the lobe convection is almost stagnant. A B_{y} dominated IMF causes a rotation of the convection patterns in the tail with an oppositely directed dawn-dusk component of the convection for the northern and southern lobe. Our results also show that there is an overall persistent duskward component, which is most likely a result of conductivity gradients in the footpoints of the magnetic field lines in the ionosphere.
Statistical reporting inconsistencies in experimental philosophy.
Colombo, Matteo; Duev, Georgi; Nuijten, Michèle B; Sprenger, Jan
2018-01-01
Experimental philosophy (x-phi) is a young field of research in the intersection of philosophy and psychology. It aims to make progress on philosophical questions by using experimental methods traditionally associated with the psychological and behavioral sciences, such as null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). Motivated by recent discussions about a methodological crisis in the behavioral sciences, questions have been raised about the methodological standards of x-phi. Here, we focus on one aspect of this question, namely the rate of inconsistencies in statistical reporting. Previous research has examined the extent to which published articles in psychology and other behavioral sciences present statistical inconsistencies in reporting the results of NHST. In this study, we used the R package statcheck to detect statistical inconsistencies in x-phi, and compared rates of inconsistencies in psychology and philosophy. We found that rates of inconsistencies in x-phi are lower than in the psychological and behavioral sciences. From the point of view of statistical reporting consistency, x-phi seems to do no worse, and perhaps even better, than psychological science.
Statistical reporting inconsistencies in experimental philosophy
Colombo, Matteo; Duev, Georgi; Nuijten, Michèle B.; Sprenger, Jan
2018-01-01
Experimental philosophy (x-phi) is a young field of research in the intersection of philosophy and psychology. It aims to make progress on philosophical questions by using experimental methods traditionally associated with the psychological and behavioral sciences, such as null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). Motivated by recent discussions about a methodological crisis in the behavioral sciences, questions have been raised about the methodological standards of x-phi. Here, we focus on one aspect of this question, namely the rate of inconsistencies in statistical reporting. Previous research has examined the extent to which published articles in psychology and other behavioral sciences present statistical inconsistencies in reporting the results of NHST. In this study, we used the R package statcheck to detect statistical inconsistencies in x-phi, and compared rates of inconsistencies in psychology and philosophy. We found that rates of inconsistencies in x-phi are lower than in the psychological and behavioral sciences. From the point of view of statistical reporting consistency, x-phi seems to do no worse, and perhaps even better, than psychological science. PMID:29649220
A shift from significance test to hypothesis test through power analysis in medical research
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Singh Girish
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Medical research literature until recently, exhibited substantial dominance of the Fisher′s significance test approach of statistical inference concentrating more on probability of type I error over Neyman-Pearson′s hypothesis test considering both probability of type I and II error. Fisher′s approach dichotomises results into significant or not significant results with a P value. The Neyman-Pearson′s approach talks of acceptance or rejection of null hypothesis. Based on the same theory these two approaches deal with same objective and conclude in their own way. The advancement in computing techniques and availability of statistical software have resulted in increasing application of power calculations in medical research and thereby reporting the result of significance tests in the light of power of the test also. Significance test approach, when it incorporates power analysis contains the essence of hypothesis test approach. It may be safely argued that rising application of power analysis in medical research may have initiated a shift from Fisher′s significance test to Neyman-Pearson′s hypothesis test procedure.
Inclusion of temperature dependence of fission barriers in statistical model calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newton, J.O.; Popescu, D.G.; Leigh, J.R.
1990-08-01
The temperature dependence of fission barriers has been interpolated from the results of recent theoretical calculations and included in the statistical model code PACE2. It is shown that the inclusion of temperature dependence causes significant changes to the values of the statistical model parameters deduced from fits to experimental data. 21 refs., 2 figs
Mirosław Mrozkowiak; Hanna Żukowska
2015-01-01
Mrozkowiak Mirosław, Żukowska Hanna. Znaczenie Dobrego Krzesła, jako elementu szkolnego i domowego środowiska ucznia, w profilaktyce zaburzeń statyki postawy ciała = The significance of Good Chair as part of children’s school and home environment in the preventive treatment of body statistics distortions. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(7):179-215. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI 10.5281/zenodo.19832 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%287%29%3A179-215 https:...
Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.
Can a significance test be genuinely Bayesian?
Pereira, Carlos A. de B.; Stern, Julio Michael; Wechsler, Sergio
2008-01-01
The Full Bayesian Significance Test, FBST, is extensively reviewed. Its test statistic, a genuine Bayesian measure of evidence, is discussed in detail. Its behavior in some problems of statistical inference like testing for independence in contingency tables is discussed.
Estimation of the genetically significant dose resulting from diagnostic radiology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angerstein, W.
1978-01-01
Based on the average gonad dose received per examination or per film and on the frequency of x-ray examinations (36 million per annum), the mean annual gonad dose to individuals in the GDR has been determined to be 33 mR. Considering different age groups of patients and the fact that the gonad dose to children is often significantly reduced in comparison to adults, estimates of the genetically significant dose (GSD) range from 7 to 19 mR per annum. Examinations of women have accounted for about 66 per cent of the GSD. The highest contribution to the GSD result from examinations of the following organs: kidneys, colon, bile duct (only in women), lumbar spine, pelois, hips, and proximal femur. Despite their high frequency, examinations of the stomach account for only about 3 per cent of the GSD. All thorax examinations (nearly 10,000,000 per annum) contribute less than 0.5 per cent, and the most frequent x-ray examinations of the skeletal system, skull, cervical spine, and teeth account for less than 3 per cent. The GSD values obtained are comparable with those from countries such as India, Japan, Netherlands, USSR, and USA. (author)
Potential errors and misuse of statistics in studies on leakage in endodontics.
Lucena, C; Lopez, J M; Pulgar, R; Abalos, C; Valderrama, M J
2013-04-01
To assess the quality of the statistical methodology used in studies of leakage in Endodontics, and to compare the results found using appropriate versus inappropriate inferential statistical methods. The search strategy used the descriptors 'root filling' 'microleakage', 'dye penetration', 'dye leakage', 'polymicrobial leakage' and 'fluid filtration' for the time interval 2001-2010 in journals within the categories 'Dentistry, Oral Surgery and Medicine' and 'Materials Science, Biomaterials' of the Journal Citation Report. All retrieved articles were reviewed to find potential pitfalls in statistical methodology that may be encountered during study design, data management or data analysis. The database included 209 papers. In all the studies reviewed, the statistical methods used were appropriate for the category attributed to the outcome variable, but in 41% of the cases, the chi-square test or parametric methods were inappropriately selected subsequently. In 2% of the papers, no statistical test was used. In 99% of cases, a statistically 'significant' or 'not significant' effect was reported as a main finding, whilst only 1% also presented an estimation of the magnitude of the effect. When the appropriate statistical methods were applied in the studies with originally inappropriate data analysis, the conclusions changed in 19% of the cases. Statistical deficiencies in leakage studies may affect their results and interpretation and might be one of the reasons for the poor agreement amongst the reported findings. Therefore, more effort should be made to standardize statistical methodology. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.
Parsons, Nick R; Price, Charlotte L; Hiskens, Richard; Achten, Juul; Costa, Matthew L
2012-04-25
The application of statistics in reported research in trauma and orthopaedic surgery has become ever more important and complex. Despite the extensive use of statistical analysis, it is still a subject which is often not conceptually well understood, resulting in clear methodological flaws and inadequate reporting in many papers. A detailed statistical survey sampled 100 representative orthopaedic papers using a validated questionnaire that assessed the quality of the trial design and statistical analysis methods. The survey found evidence of failings in study design, statistical methodology and presentation of the results. Overall, in 17% (95% confidence interval; 10-26%) of the studies investigated the conclusions were not clearly justified by the results, in 39% (30-49%) of studies a different analysis should have been undertaken and in 17% (10-26%) a different analysis could have made a difference to the overall conclusions. It is only by an improved dialogue between statistician, clinician, reviewer and journal editor that the failings in design methodology and analysis highlighted by this survey can be addressed.
Pattern statistics on Markov chains and sensitivity to parameter estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nuel Grégory
2006-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background: In order to compute pattern statistics in computational biology a Markov model is commonly used to take into account the sequence composition. Usually its parameter must be estimated. The aim of this paper is to determine how sensitive these statistics are to parameter estimation, and what are the consequences of this variability on pattern studies (finding the most over-represented words in a genome, the most significant common words to a set of sequences,.... Results: In the particular case where pattern statistics (overlap counting only computed through binomial approximations we use the delta-method to give an explicit expression of σ, the standard deviation of a pattern statistic. This result is validated using simulations and a simple pattern study is also considered. Conclusion: We establish that the use of high order Markov model could easily lead to major mistakes due to the high sensitivity of pattern statistics to parameter estimation.
Reactor θ{sub 13} Results and Recent Results from FNAL Neutrino Experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, R.A., E-mail: randy.johnson@uc.edu [Physics Department, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0011 (United States)
2014-08-15
The past year has been very exciting for neutrino physics. The last mixing angle, θ{sub 13}, has been measured by a number of experiments and is quite large. These experiments will, hopefully, continue reducing systematic and statistical errors in anticipation of statistically significant CP violation experiments. At Fermilab, MiniBooNE has finished its data run and has new results for electron antineutrino excesses; MINOS has done a combined fit for their ν{sub μ} disappearance measurements for neutrinos and antineutrinos (which are now consistent) and presented results for a sterile neutrino search; and Minerνa has presented its first cross section results.
Adib, Artur B.
In the last two decades or so, a collection of results in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics that departs from the traditional near-equilibrium framework introduced by Lars Onsager in 1931 has been derived, yielding new fundamental insights into far-from-equilibrium processes in general. Apart from offering a more quantitative statement of the second law of thermodynamics, some of these results---typified by the so-called "Jarzynski equality"---have also offered novel means of estimating equilibrium quantities from nonequilibrium processes, such as free energy differences from single-molecule "pulling" experiments. This thesis contributes to such efforts by offering three novel results in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics: (a) The entropic analog of the Jarzynski equality; (b) A methodology for estimating free energies from "clamp-and-release" nonequilibrium processes; and (c) A directly measurable symmetry relation in chemical kinetics similar to (but more general than) chemical detailed balance. These results share in common the feature of remaining valid outside Onsager's near-equilibrium regime, and bear direct applicability in protein folding kinetics as well as in single-molecule free energy estimation.
Statistics for experimentalists
Cooper, B E
2014-01-01
Statistics for Experimentalists aims to provide experimental scientists with a working knowledge of statistical methods and search approaches to the analysis of data. The book first elaborates on probability and continuous probability distributions. Discussions focus on properties of continuous random variables and normal variables, independence of two random variables, central moments of a continuous distribution, prediction from a normal distribution, binomial probabilities, and multiplication of probabilities and independence. The text then examines estimation and tests of significance. Topics include estimators and estimates, expected values, minimum variance linear unbiased estimators, sufficient estimators, methods of maximum likelihood and least squares, and the test of significance method. The manuscript ponders on distribution-free tests, Poisson process and counting problems, correlation and function fitting, balanced incomplete randomized block designs and the analysis of covariance, and experiment...
Summary of the most significant results reported in this session
Sens, J C
1980-01-01
D1e most interesting although speculative result is the observation of a 4 standard deviation effect at 5. 3 GeV in the l)JK 0TI - and lj!K- 'ff+ mass plots (SPS Exp. WJ\\11) with a crosssection of 180 nb (assuming 1 % branching ratio). This is a cancliclatc bare b-state. + Tiw next most significant experimental result is the observation of Ac at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR). TI1is state was discovered at BNL by Samios et al. and has since been seen in several neutrino experiments. It was seen at the ISR by Lockman ct al. about a year ago (reported at Budapest) but not in a convincing way. The analysis has now been improved, and the result shows a peak which is most clearly present in the stnnmed A(31T)+ and K-p1T+ mass spectra. 'TI1e signal has furthennore been seen in Exp. R606 (reported - + by F. Muller in this parallel session) in both A3TI and pK TI . 111e most convincing signal comes from the Spli t-Ficlcl Magnet (SFM) in K-pn + 'TI1e three observations together, all at the ISR, make this an...
Critical analysis of adsorption data statistically
Kaushal, Achla; Singh, S. K.
2017-10-01
Experimental data can be presented, computed, and critically analysed in a different way using statistics. A variety of statistical tests are used to make decisions about the significance and validity of the experimental data. In the present study, adsorption was carried out to remove zinc ions from contaminated aqueous solution using mango leaf powder. The experimental data was analysed statistically by hypothesis testing applying t test, paired t test and Chi-square test to (a) test the optimum value of the process pH, (b) verify the success of experiment and (c) study the effect of adsorbent dose in zinc ion removal from aqueous solutions. Comparison of calculated and tabulated values of t and χ 2 showed the results in favour of the data collected from the experiment and this has been shown on probability charts. K value for Langmuir isotherm was 0.8582 and m value for Freundlich adsorption isotherm obtained was 0.725, both are mango leaf powder.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mirjam Nielen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Always wondered why research papers often present rather complicated statistical analyses? Or wondered how to properly analyse the results of a pragmatic trial from your own practice? This talk will give an overview of basic statistical principles and focus on the why of statistics, rather than on the how.This is a podcast of Mirjam's talk at the Veterinary Evidence Today conference, Edinburgh November 2, 2016.
On two methods of statistical image analysis
Missimer, J; Knorr, U; Maguire, RP; Herzog, H; Seitz, RJ; Tellman, L; Leenders, K.L.
1999-01-01
The computerized brain atlas (CBA) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) are two procedures for voxel-based statistical evaluation of PET activation studies. Each includes spatial standardization of image volumes, computation of a statistic, and evaluation of its significance. In addition,
Naghshpour, Shahdad
2012-01-01
Statistics is the branch of mathematics that deals with real-life problems. As such, it is an essential tool for economists. Unfortunately, the way you and many other economists learn the concept of statistics is not compatible with the way economists think and learn. The problem is worsened by the use of mathematical jargon and complex derivations. Here's a book that proves none of this is necessary. All the examples and exercises in this book are constructed within the field of economics, thus eliminating the difficulty of learning statistics with examples from fields that have no relation to business, politics, or policy. Statistics is, in fact, not more difficult than economics. Anyone who can comprehend economics can understand and use statistics successfully within this field, including you! This book utilizes Microsoft Excel to obtain statistical results, as well as to perform additional necessary computations. Microsoft Excel is not the software of choice for performing sophisticated statistical analy...
Hoang, David Manh; Reid, Dixie; Lentz, Christopher William
2013-01-01
Every summer, there is an increase in the number of burn injuries caused by accidents around campfires. Because of the prevalence of drought, high winds, and uncontrolled wild fires, a statewide ban on recreational fires was instituted in New Mexico from June to July 2011. We hypothesized that this legislation would have a significant impact on burn admissions caused by campfire-related injuries. A retrospective review of summer admissions to a state burn center was conducted to assess the effect of this ban on recreational fire injuries, and these data were compared with that of the previous summer when no ban was in effect. All burn admissions to a state burn center were reviewed from Memorial Day to Labor Day in 2010 and 2011. Data collected included cause, % TBSA, age, days of hospitalization, intensive care unit days, and total surface area grafted. Nonparametric statistical analysis was performed with Fisher exact test for dichotomous data and Mann-Whitney test for continuous data with significance at P fires during the study period (n = 14 [17%] in 2010 and 4 [5%] in 2011; P = .02). This resulted in a decrease in the number of patient-days from 91 in 2010 to 25 in 2011. Half of the camp fire admissions required skin grafts to definitively close the wounds (6/14 in 2010 and 2/4 in 2011). Recreational fire bans targeted at controlling wildfires during conditions favoring rapid spread were associated with a 3- to 4-fold decrease in campfire-related burn admissions. Compared with a summer when no fire ban was in effect, the number of patient-days decreased from 91 to 25.
Kanji, Gopal K
2006-01-01
This expanded and updated Third Edition of Gopal K. Kanji's best-selling resource on statistical tests covers all the most commonly used tests with information on how to calculate and interpret results with simple datasets. Each entry begins with a short summary statement about the test's purpose, and contains details of the test objective, the limitations (or assumptions) involved, a brief outline of the method, a worked example, and the numerical calculation. 100 Statistical Tests, Third Edition is the one indispensable guide for users of statistical materials and consumers of statistical information at all levels and across all disciplines.
Statistics Using Just One Formula
Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.
2018-01-01
This article advocates that introductory statistics be taught by basing all calculations on a single simple margin-of-error formula and deriving all of the standard introductory statistical concepts (confidence intervals, significance tests, comparisons of means and proportions, etc) from that one formula. It is argued that this approach will…
Statistics Anxiety among Postgraduate Students
Koh, Denise; Zawi, Mohd Khairi
2014-01-01
Most postgraduate programmes, that have research components, require students to take at least one course of research statistics. Not all postgraduate programmes are science based, there are a significant number of postgraduate students who are from the social sciences that will be taking statistics courses, as they try to complete their…
Statistical data analysis using SAS intermediate statistical methods
Marasinghe, Mervyn G
2018-01-01
The aim of this textbook (previously titled SAS for Data Analytics) is to teach the use of SAS for statistical analysis of data for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in statistics, data science, and disciplines involving analyzing data. The book begins with an introduction beyond the basics of SAS, illustrated with non-trivial, real-world, worked examples. It proceeds to SAS programming and applications, SAS graphics, statistical analysis of regression models, analysis of variance models, analysis of variance with random and mixed effects models, and then takes the discussion beyond regression and analysis of variance to conclude. Pedagogically, the authors introduce theory and methodological basis topic by topic, present a problem as an application, followed by a SAS analysis of the data provided and a discussion of results. The text focuses on applied statistical problems and methods. Key features include: end of chapter exercises, downloadable SAS code and data sets, and advanced material suitab...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tryggestad, Kjell
2004-01-01
The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...
The issue of statistical power for overall model fit in evaluating structural equation models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard HERMIDA
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Statistical power is an important concept for psychological research. However, examining the power of a structural equation model (SEM is rare in practice. This article provides an accessible review of the concept of statistical power for the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA index of overall model fit in structural equation modeling. By way of example, we examine the current state of power in the literature by reviewing studies in top Industrial-Organizational (I/O Psychology journals using SEMs. Results indicate that in many studies, power is very low, which implies acceptance of invalid models. Additionally, we examined methodological situations which may have an influence on statistical power of SEMs. Results showed that power varies significantly as a function of model type and whether or not the model is the main model for the study. Finally, results indicated that power is significantly related to model fit statistics used in evaluating SEMs. The results from this quantitative review imply that researchers should be more vigilant with respect to power in structural equation modeling. We therefore conclude by offering methodological best practices to increase confidence in the interpretation of structural equation modeling results with respect to statistical power issues.
Statistical density of nuclear excited states
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. M. Kolomietz
2015-10-01
Full Text Available A semi-classical approximation is applied to the calculations of single-particle and statistical level densities in excited nuclei. Landau's conception of quasi-particles with the nucleon effective mass m* < m is used. The approach provides the correct description of the continuum contribution to the level density for realistic finite-depth potentials. It is shown that the continuum states does not affect significantly the thermodynamic calculations for sufficiently small temperatures T ≤ 1 MeV but reduce strongly the results for the excitation energy at high temperatures. By use of standard Woods - Saxon potential and nucleon effective mass m* = 0.7m the A-dependency of the statistical level density parameter K was evaluated in a good qualitative agreement with experimental data.
Massey, J. L.
1976-01-01
The very low error probability obtained with long error-correcting codes results in a very small number of observed errors in simulation studies of practical size and renders the usual confidence interval techniques inapplicable to the observed error probability. A natural extension of the notion of a 'confidence interval' is made and applied to such determinations of error probability by simulation. An example is included to show the surprisingly great significance of as few as two decoding errors in a very large number of decoding trials.
Adaptive Maneuvering Frequency Method of Current Statistical Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei Sun; Yongjian Yang
2017-01-01
Current statistical model(CSM) has a good performance in maneuvering target tracking. However, the fixed maneuvering frequency will deteriorate the tracking results, such as a serious dynamic delay, a slowly converging speedy and a limited precision when using Kalman filter(KF) algorithm. In this study, a new current statistical model and a new Kalman filter are proposed to improve the performance of maneuvering target tracking. The new model which employs innovation dominated subjection function to adaptively adjust maneuvering frequency has a better performance in step maneuvering target tracking, while a fluctuant phenomenon appears. As far as this problem is concerned, a new adaptive fading Kalman filter is proposed as well. In the new Kalman filter, the prediction values are amended in time by setting judgment and amendment rules,so that tracking precision and fluctuant phenomenon of the new current statistical model are improved. The results of simulation indicate the effectiveness of the new algorithm and the practical guiding significance.
Second Language Experience Facilitates Statistical Learning of Novel Linguistic Materials.
Potter, Christine E; Wang, Tianlin; Saffran, Jenny R
2017-04-01
Recent research has begun to explore individual differences in statistical learning, and how those differences may be related to other cognitive abilities, particularly their effects on language learning. In this research, we explored a different type of relationship between language learning and statistical learning: the possibility that learning a new language may also influence statistical learning by changing the regularities to which learners are sensitive. We tested two groups of participants, Mandarin Learners and Naïve Controls, at two time points, 6 months apart. At each time point, participants performed two different statistical learning tasks: an artificial tonal language statistical learning task and a visual statistical learning task. Only the Mandarin-learning group showed significant improvement on the linguistic task, whereas both groups improved equally on the visual task. These results support the view that there are multiple influences on statistical learning. Domain-relevant experiences may affect the regularities that learners can discover when presented with novel stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Steganalysis based on reducing the differences of image statistical characteristics
Wang, Ran; Niu, Shaozhang; Ping, Xijian; Zhang, Tao
2018-04-01
Compared with the process of embedding, the image contents make a more significant impact on the differences of image statistical characteristics. This makes the image steganalysis to be a classification problem with bigger withinclass scatter distances and smaller between-class scatter distances. As a result, the steganalysis features will be inseparate caused by the differences of image statistical characteristics. In this paper, a new steganalysis framework which can reduce the differences of image statistical characteristics caused by various content and processing methods is proposed. The given images are segmented to several sub-images according to the texture complexity. Steganalysis features are separately extracted from each subset with the same or close texture complexity to build a classifier. The final steganalysis result is figured out through a weighted fusing process. The theoretical analysis and experimental results can demonstrate the validity of the framework.
Making Statistical Data More Easily Accessible on the Web Results of the StatSearch Case Study
Rajman, M; Boynton, I M; Fridlund, B; Fyhrlund, A; Sundgren, B; Lundquist, P; Thelander, H; Wänerskär, M
2005-01-01
In this paper we present the results of the StatSearch case study that aimed at providing an enhanced access to statistical data available on the Web. In the scope of this case study we developed a prototype of an information access tool combining a query-based search engine with semi-automated navigation techniques exploiting the hierarchical structuring of the available data. This tool enables a better control of the information retrieval, improving the quality and ease of the access to statistical information. The central part of the presented StatSearch tool consists in the design of an algorithm for automated navigation through a tree-like hierarchical document structure. The algorithm relies on the computation of query related relevance score distributions over the available database to identify the most relevant clusters in the data structure. These most relevant clusters are then proposed to the user for navigation, or, alternatively, are the support for the automated navigation process. Several appro...
Onisko, Agnieszka; Druzdzel, Marek J; Austin, R Marshall
2016-01-01
Classical statistics is a well-established approach in the analysis of medical data. While the medical community seems to be familiar with the concept of a statistical analysis and its interpretation, the Bayesian approach, argued by many of its proponents to be superior to the classical frequentist approach, is still not well-recognized in the analysis of medical data. The goal of this study is to encourage data analysts to use the Bayesian approach, such as modeling with graphical probabilistic networks, as an insightful alternative to classical statistical analysis of medical data. This paper offers a comparison of two approaches to analysis of medical time series data: (1) classical statistical approach, such as the Kaplan-Meier estimator and the Cox proportional hazards regression model, and (2) dynamic Bayesian network modeling. Our comparison is based on time series cervical cancer screening data collected at Magee-Womens Hospital, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center over 10 years. The main outcomes of our comparison are cervical cancer risk assessments produced by the three approaches. However, our analysis discusses also several aspects of the comparison, such as modeling assumptions, model building, dealing with incomplete data, individualized risk assessment, results interpretation, and model validation. Our study shows that the Bayesian approach is (1) much more flexible in terms of modeling effort, and (2) it offers an individualized risk assessment, which is more cumbersome for classical statistical approaches.
Applying contemporary statistical techniques
Wilcox, Rand R
2003-01-01
Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques explains why traditional statistical methods are often inadequate or outdated when applied to modern problems. Wilcox demonstrates how new and more powerful techniques address these problems far more effectively, making these modern robust methods understandable, practical, and easily accessible.* Assumes no previous training in statistics * Explains how and why modern statistical methods provide more accurate results than conventional methods* Covers the latest developments on multiple comparisons * Includes recent advanc
Why Current Statistics of Complementary Alternative Medicine Clinical Trials is Invalid.
Pandolfi, Maurizio; Carreras, Giulia
2018-06-07
It is not sufficiently known that frequentist statistics cannot provide direct information on the probability that the research hypothesis tested is correct. The error resulting from this misunderstanding is compounded when the hypotheses under scrutiny have precarious scientific bases, which, generally, those of complementary alternative medicine (CAM) are. In such cases, it is mandatory to use inferential statistics, considering the prior probability that the hypothesis tested is true, such as the Bayesian statistics. The authors show that, under such circumstances, no real statistical significance can be achieved in CAM clinical trials. In this respect, CAM trials involving human material are also hardly defensible from an ethical viewpoint.
Chen, Yue; Cunningham, Gregory; Henderson, Michael
2016-09-01
This study aims to statistically estimate the errors in local magnetic field directions that are derived from electron directional distributions measured by Los Alamos National Laboratory geosynchronous (LANL GEO) satellites. First, by comparing derived and measured magnetic field directions along the GEO orbit to those calculated from three selected empirical global magnetic field models (including a static Olson and Pfitzer 1977 quiet magnetic field model, a simple dynamic Tsyganenko 1989 model, and a sophisticated dynamic Tsyganenko 2001 storm model), it is shown that the errors in both derived and modeled directions are at least comparable. Second, using a newly developed proxy method as well as comparing results from empirical models, we are able to provide for the first time circumstantial evidence showing that derived magnetic field directions should statistically match the real magnetic directions better, with averaged errors ˜ 5°. In addition, our results suggest that the errors in derived magnetic field directions do not depend much on magnetospheric activity, in contrast to the empirical field models. Finally, as applications of the above conclusions, we show examples of electron pitch angle distributions observed by LANL GEO and also take the derived magnetic field directions as the real ones so as to test the performance of empirical field models along the GEO orbits, with results suggesting dependence on solar cycles as well as satellite locations. This study demonstrates the validity and value of the method that infers local magnetic field directions from particle spin-resolved distributions.
Dubois, Albertine; Hérard, Anne-Sophie; Delatour, Benoît; Hantraye, Philippe; Bonvento, Gilles; Dhenain, Marc; Delzescaux, Thierry
2010-06-01
Biomarkers and technologies similar to those used in humans are essential for the follow-up of Alzheimer's disease (AD) animal models, particularly for the clarification of mechanisms and the screening and validation of new candidate treatments. In humans, changes in brain metabolism can be detected by 1-deoxy-2-[(18)F] fluoro-D-glucose PET (FDG-PET) and assessed in a user-independent manner with dedicated software, such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM). FDG-PET can be carried out in small animals, but its resolution is low as compared to the size of rodent brain structures. In mouse models of AD, changes in cerebral glucose utilization are usually detected by [(14)C]-2-deoxyglucose (2DG) autoradiography, but this requires prior manual outlining of regions of interest (ROI) on selected sections. Here, we evaluate the feasibility of applying the SPM method to 3D autoradiographic data sets mapping brain metabolic activity in a transgenic mouse model of AD. We report the preliminary results obtained with 4 APP/PS1 (64+/-1 weeks) and 3 PS1 (65+/-2 weeks) mice. We also describe new procedures for the acquisition and use of "blockface" photographs and provide the first demonstration of their value for the 3D reconstruction and spatial normalization of post mortem mouse brain volumes. Despite this limited sample size, our results appear to be meaningful, consistent, and more comprehensive than findings from previously published studies based on conventional ROI-based methods. The establishment of statistical significance at the voxel level, rather than with a user-defined ROI, makes it possible to detect more reliably subtle differences in geometrically complex regions, such as the hippocampus. Our approach is generic and could be easily applied to other biomarkers and extended to other species and applications. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Statistical Modelling of Global Tectonic Activity and some Physical Consequences of its Results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konstantin Statnikov
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Based on the analysis of global earthquake data bank for the last thirty years, a global tectonic activity indicator was proposed comprising a weekly globally averaged mean earthquake magnitude value. It was shown that 84% of indicator variability is a harmonic oscillation with a fundamental period of 37.2 years, twice the maximum period in the tidal oscillation spectrum (18.6 years. From this observation, a conclusion was drawn that parametric resonance (PR exists between global tectonic activity and low-frequency tides. The conclusion was also confirmed by the existence of the statistically significant PR response at the second lowest tidal frequency i.e. 182.6 days. It was shown that the global earthquake flow, with a determination factor 93%, is a sum of two Gaussian streams, nearly equally intense, with mean values of 23 and 83 events per week and standard deviations of 9 and 30 events per week, respectively. The Earth periphery to 'mean time interval between earthquakes' ratios in the first and the second flow modes described above match, by the order of magnitude, the sound velocity in the fluid (~1500 m/s and in elastic medium (5500 m/s.
Research design and statistical methods in Indian medical journals: a retrospective survey.
Hassan, Shabbeer; Yellur, Rajashree; Subramani, Pooventhan; Adiga, Poornima; Gokhale, Manoj; Iyer, Manasa S; Mayya, Shreemathi S
2015-01-01
Good quality medical research generally requires not only an expertise in the chosen medical field of interest but also a sound knowledge of statistical methodology. The number of medical research articles which have been published in Indian medical journals has increased quite substantially in the past decade. The aim of this study was to collate all evidence on study design quality and statistical analyses used in selected leading Indian medical journals. Ten (10) leading Indian medical journals were selected based on impact factors and all original research articles published in 2003 (N = 588) and 2013 (N = 774) were categorized and reviewed. A validated checklist on study design, statistical analyses, results presentation, and interpretation was used for review and evaluation of the articles. Main outcomes considered in the present study were - study design types and their frequencies, error/defects proportion in study design, statistical analyses, and implementation of CONSORT checklist in RCT (randomized clinical trials). From 2003 to 2013: The proportion of erroneous statistical analyses did not decrease (χ2=0.592, Φ=0.027, p=0.4418), 25% (80/320) in 2003 compared to 22.6% (111/490) in 2013. Compared with 2003, significant improvement was seen in 2013; the proportion of papers using statistical tests increased significantly (χ2=26.96, Φ=0.16, pdesign decreased significantly (χ2=16.783, Φ=0.12 pdesigns has remained very low (7.3%, 43/588) with majority showing some errors (41 papers, 95.3%). Majority of the published studies were retrospective in nature both in 2003 [79.1% (465/588)] and in 2013 [78.2% (605/774)]. Major decreases in error proportions were observed in both results presentation (χ2=24.477, Φ=0.17, presearch seems to have made no major progress regarding using correct statistical analyses, but error/defects in study designs have decreased significantly. Randomized clinical trials are quite rarely published and have high proportion of
Kepler Planet Detection Metrics: Statistical Bootstrap Test
Jenkins, Jon M.; Burke, Christopher J.
2016-01-01
This document describes the data produced by the Statistical Bootstrap Test over the final three Threshold Crossing Event (TCE) deliveries to NExScI: SOC 9.1 (Q1Q16)1 (Tenenbaum et al. 2014), SOC 9.2 (Q1Q17) aka DR242 (Seader et al. 2015), and SOC 9.3 (Q1Q17) aka DR253 (Twicken et al. 2016). The last few years have seen significant improvements in the SOC science data processing pipeline, leading to higher quality light curves and more sensitive transit searches. The statistical bootstrap analysis results presented here and the numerical results archived at NASAs Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI) bear witness to these software improvements. This document attempts to introduce and describe the main features and differences between these three data sets as a consequence of the software changes.
Statistical results 1991-1993 of the Official Personal Dosimetry Service
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boerner, E.; Drexler, G.; Wittmann, A.
1995-01-01
The report consists of a summary of relevant statistical data in the official personal dosimetry in 1988-1990 for the Federal States of Bavaria, Hesse, Schleswig-Holstein, and Baden-Wuerttemberg. The data are based on the survey of more than 8000 institutions with over 140000 occupational exposed persons and are derived from more than one million single measurements. The report covers informations on the institutions, on the persons as well as dosimetric values. The measuring method is described briefly with respect to dosimeters used, their range and the interpretation of values. Information on notional doses and the interpolation of values nearby the detection limits are given. (HP) [de
Descriptive and inferential statistical methods used in burns research.
Al-Benna, Sammy; Al-Ajam, Yazan; Way, Benjamin; Steinstraesser, Lars
2010-05-01
Burns research articles utilise a variety of descriptive and inferential methods to present and analyse data. The aim of this study was to determine the descriptive methods (e.g. mean, median, SD, range, etc.) and survey the use of inferential methods (statistical tests) used in articles in the journal Burns. This study defined its population as all original articles published in the journal Burns in 2007. Letters to the editor, brief reports, reviews, and case reports were excluded. Study characteristics, use of descriptive statistics and the number and types of statistical methods employed were evaluated. Of the 51 articles analysed, 11(22%) were randomised controlled trials, 18(35%) were cohort studies, 11(22%) were case control studies and 11(22%) were case series. The study design and objectives were defined in all articles. All articles made use of continuous and descriptive data. Inferential statistics were used in 49(96%) articles. Data dispersion was calculated by standard deviation in 30(59%). Standard error of the mean was quoted in 19(37%). The statistical software product was named in 33(65%). Of the 49 articles that used inferential statistics, the tests were named in 47(96%). The 6 most common tests used (Student's t-test (53%), analysis of variance/co-variance (33%), chi(2) test (27%), Wilcoxon & Mann-Whitney tests (22%), Fisher's exact test (12%)) accounted for the majority (72%) of statistical methods employed. A specified significance level was named in 43(88%) and the exact significance levels were reported in 28(57%). Descriptive analysis and basic statistical techniques account for most of the statistical tests reported. This information should prove useful in deciding which tests should be emphasised in educating burn care professionals. These results highlight the need for burn care professionals to have a sound understanding of basic statistics, which is crucial in interpreting and reporting data. Advice should be sought from professionals
Evaluating statistical tests on OLAP cubes to compare degree of disease.
Ordonez, Carlos; Chen, Zhibo
2009-09-01
Statistical tests represent an important technique used to formulate and validate hypotheses on a dataset. They are particularly useful in the medical domain, where hypotheses link disease with medical measurements, risk factors, and treatment. In this paper, we propose to compute parametric statistical tests treating patient records as elements in a multidimensional cube. We introduce a technique that combines dimension lattice traversal and statistical tests to discover significant differences in the degree of disease within pairs of patient groups. In order to understand a cause-effect relationship, we focus on patient group pairs differing in one dimension. We introduce several optimizations to prune the search space, to discover significant group pairs, and to summarize results. We present experiments showing important medical findings and evaluating scalability with medical datasets.
Kleibergen, F.R.
2002-01-01
We extend the novel pivotal statistics for testing the parameters in the instrumental variables regression model. We show that these statistics result from a decomposition of the Anderson-Rubin statistic into two independent pivotal statistics. The first statistic is a score statistic that tests
Generalized $L-, M-$, and $R$-Statistics
Serfling, Robert J.
1984-01-01
A class of statistics generalizing $U$-statistics and $L$-statistics, and containing other varieties of statistic as well, such as trimmed $U$-statistics, is studied. Using the differentiable statistical function approach, differential approximations are obtained and the influence curves of these generalized $L$-statistics are derived. These results are employed to establish asymptotic normality for such statistics. Parallel generalizations of $M$- and $R$-statistics are noted. Strong converg...
Sunspot activity and influenza pandemics: a statistical assessment of the purported association.
Towers, S
2017-10-01
Since 1978, a series of papers in the literature have claimed to find a significant association between sunspot activity and the timing of influenza pandemics. This paper examines these analyses, and attempts to recreate the three most recent statistical analyses by Ertel (1994), Tapping et al. (2001), and Yeung (2006), which all have purported to find a significant relationship between sunspot numbers and pandemic influenza. As will be discussed, each analysis had errors in the data. In addition, in each analysis arbitrary selections or assumptions were also made, and the authors did not assess the robustness of their analyses to changes in those arbitrary assumptions. Varying the arbitrary assumptions to other, equally valid, assumptions negates the claims of significance. Indeed, an arbitrary selection made in one of the analyses appears to have resulted in almost maximal apparent significance; changing it only slightly yields a null result. This analysis applies statistically rigorous methodology to examine the purported sunspot/pandemic link, using more statistically powerful un-binned analysis methods, rather than relying on arbitrarily binned data. The analyses are repeated using both the Wolf and Group sunspot numbers. In all cases, no statistically significant evidence of any association was found. However, while the focus in this particular analysis was on the purported relationship of influenza pandemics to sunspot activity, the faults found in the past analyses are common pitfalls; inattention to analysis reproducibility and robustness assessment are common problems in the sciences, that are unfortunately not noted often enough in review.
Comparing geological and statistical approaches for element selection in sediment tracing research
Laceby, J. Patrick; McMahon, Joe; Evrard, Olivier; Olley, Jon
2015-04-01
Elevated suspended sediment loads reduce reservoir capacity and significantly increase the cost of operating water treatment infrastructure, making the management of sediment supply to reservoirs of increasingly importance. Sediment fingerprinting techniques can be used to determine the relative contributions of different sources of sediment accumulating in reservoirs. The objective of this research is to compare geological and statistical approaches to element selection for sediment fingerprinting modelling. Time-integrated samplers (n=45) were used to obtain source samples from four major subcatchments flowing into the Baroon Pocket Dam in South East Queensland, Australia. The geochemistry of potential sources were compared to the geochemistry of sediment cores (n=12) sampled in the reservoir. The geochemical approach selected elements for modelling that provided expected, observed and statistical discrimination between sediment sources. Two statistical approaches selected elements for modelling with the Kruskal-Wallis H-test and Discriminatory Function Analysis (DFA). In particular, two different significance levels (0.05 & 0.35) for the DFA were included to investigate the importance of element selection on modelling results. A distribution model determined the relative contributions of different sources to sediment sampled in the Baroon Pocket Dam. Elemental discrimination was expected between one subcatchment (Obi Obi Creek) and the remaining subcatchments (Lexys, Falls and Bridge Creek). Six major elements were expected to provide discrimination. Of these six, only Fe2O3 and SiO2 provided expected, observed and statistical discrimination. Modelling results with this geological approach indicated 36% (+/- 9%) of sediment sampled in the reservoir cores were from mafic-derived sources and 64% (+/- 9%) were from felsic-derived sources. The geological and the first statistical approach (DFA0.05) differed by only 1% (σ 5%) for 5 out of 6 model groupings with only
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Madelaine Sarria Castro
2004-05-01
Comprehensive General Medicine], Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health, and Medicina Clínica [Clinical Medicine] (which is published in Spain. RESULTS: In the three journals that were reviewed various shortcomings were found in their use of hypothesis tests based on P values and in the limited use of new tools that have been suggested for use in their place: confidence intervals (CIs and Bayesian inference. The basic findings of our research were: minimal use of CIs, as either a complement to significance tests or as the only statistical tool; mentions of a small sample size as a possible explanation for the lack of statistical significance; a predominant use of rigid alpha values; a lack of uniformity in the presentation of results; and improper reference in the research conclusions to the results of hypothesis tests. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate the lack of compliance by authors and editors with accepted standards for the use of tests of statistical significance. The findings also highlight that the stagnant use of these tests continues to be a common practice in the scientific literature.
Flipped Statistics Class Results: Better Performance than Lecture over One Year Later
Winquist, Jennifer R.; Carlson, Keith A.
2014-01-01
In this paper, we compare an introductory statistics course taught using a flipped classroom approach to the same course taught using a traditional lecture based approach. In the lecture course, students listened to lecture, took notes, and completed homework assignments. In the flipped course, students read relatively simple chapters and answered…
Statistics: a Bayesian perspective
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Berry, Donald A
1996-01-01
...: it is the only introductory textbook based on Bayesian ideas, it combines concepts and methods, it presents statistics as a means of integrating data into the significant process, it develops ideas...
Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell's Theorem with Entangled Photons.
Giustina, Marissa; Versteegh, Marijn A M; Wengerowsky, Sören; Handsteiner, Johannes; Hochrainer, Armin; Phelan, Kevin; Steinlechner, Fabian; Kofler, Johannes; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Abellán, Carlos; Amaya, Waldimar; Pruneri, Valerio; Mitchell, Morgan W; Beyer, Jörn; Gerrits, Thomas; Lita, Adriana E; Shalm, Lynden K; Nam, Sae Woo; Scheidl, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert; Wittmann, Bernhard; Zeilinger, Anton
2015-12-18
Local realism is the worldview in which physical properties of objects exist independently of measurement and where physical influences cannot travel faster than the speed of light. Bell's theorem states that this worldview is incompatible with the predictions of quantum mechanics, as is expressed in Bell's inequalities. Previous experiments convincingly supported the quantum predictions. Yet, every experiment requires assumptions that provide loopholes for a local realist explanation. Here, we report a Bell test that closes the most significant of these loopholes simultaneously. Using a well-optimized source of entangled photons, rapid setting generation, and highly efficient superconducting detectors, we observe a violation of a Bell inequality with high statistical significance. The purely statistical probability of our results to occur under local realism does not exceed 3.74×10^{-31}, corresponding to an 11.5 standard deviation effect.
SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivo D. Dinov
2006-10-01
Full Text Available The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an integrated educational web-based framework for: interactive distribution modeling, virtual online probability experimentation, statistical data analysis, visualization and integration. Following years of experience in statistical teaching at all college levels using established licensed statistical software packages, like STATA, S-PLUS, R, SPSS, SAS, Systat, etc., we have attempted to engineer a new statistics education environment, the Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR. This resource performs many of the standard types of statistical analysis, much like other classical tools. In addition, it is designed in a plug-in object-oriented architecture and is completely platform independent, web-based, interactive, extensible and secure. Over the past 4 years we have tested, fine-tuned and reanalyzed the SOCR framework in many of our undergraduate and graduate probability and statistics courses and have evidence that SOCR resources build student's intuition and enhance their learning.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joachim I. Krueger
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.
Statistical Analysis and Evaluation of the Depth of the Ruts on Lithuanian State Significance Roads
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erinijus Getautis
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to gather information about the national flexible pavement roads ruts depth, to determine its statistical dispersijon index and to determine their validity for needed requirements. Analysis of scientific works of ruts apearance in the asphalt and their influence for driving is presented in this work. Dynamical models of ruts in asphalt are presented in the work as well. Experimental outcome data of rut depth dispersijon in the national highway of Lithuania Vilnius – Kaunas is prepared. Conclusions are formulated and presented. Article in Lithuanian
Primary and secondary cases in Escherichia coli O157 outbreaks: a statistical analysis.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Snedeker, Kate G
2009-01-01
BACKGROUND: Within outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157 (E. coli O157), at least 10-15% of cases are thought to have been acquired by secondary transmission. However, there has been little systematic quantification or characterisation of secondary outbreak cases worldwide. The aim of this study was to characterise secondary outbreak cases, estimate the overall proportion of outbreak cases that were the result of secondary transmission and to analyse the relationships between primary and secondary outbreak cases by mode of transmission, country and median age. METHODS: Published data was obtained from 90 confirmed Escherichia coli O157 outbreaks in Great Britain, Ireland, Scandinavia, Canada, the United States and Japan, and the outbreaks were described in terms of modes of primary and secondary transmission, country, case numbers and median case age. Outbreaks were tested for statistically significant differences in the number of ill, confirmed, primary and secondary cases (analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis) and in the rate of secondary cases between these variables (Generalised Linear Models). RESULTS: The outbreaks had a median of 13.5 confirmed cases, and mean proportion of 0.195 secondary cases. There were statistically significant differences in the numbers of ill, confirmed, primary and secondary cases between modes of primary transmission (p < 0.021), and in primary and secondary cases between median age categories (p < 0.039) and modes of secondary transmission (p < 0.001).Secondary case rates differed statistically significantly between modes of secondary and primary transmission and median age categories (all p < 0.001), but not between countries (p = 0.23). Statistically significantly higher rates of secondary transmission were found in outbreaks with a median age <6 years and those with secondary transmission via person to person spread in nurseries. No statistically significant interactions were found between country, mode of transmission and age
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xi Yibin; Liu Kang; Zhe Xia; Mu Yunfeng; Yin Hong; Huan Yi; Yang Xiaobin; Du Ping
2013-01-01
Objective: To study the changes of the brain white matter microstructure at the acute stage of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from a single-prolonged stress. Methods: DTI scans were performed on 17 survivors buried more than 190 h in Shanxi Wangjialing mine disaster and 17 cases of normal controls using Siemens 3.0 T MR. The differences of the FA values measured from the whole brain DTI between the two groups were analyzed based on tract based spatial statistics (TBSS). FA data were statistically compared between the two groups based on nonparametric random permutation test (RPT), and the brain areas of the PTSD patients with abnormal FA were defined. Results: Compared with control group, FA values in the PTSD (at acute stage) group decreased in genu, rostral body of corpus callosum, and increased in the left thalamic and corticospinal tract region of bilateral corona radiata and the posterior limb of the left internal capsule, the left cerebral peduncle. The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01 TFCE-corrected). Conclusions: TBSS is a comprehensive and accurate method for evaluating the changes of whole brain DTI in PTSD cases. The fiber structural abnormalities in the genu, rostral body of bilateral corpus callosum, anterior radiation of left thalamic may be due to stress. TBSS can provide a more objective basis for the early diagnosis and intervention of PTSD. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Gusev
2016-01-01
-diagrams are counted off from the direction with azimuth of 37° that represents the strike of the island arc. Before constructing rose diagrams, the modified azimuths were reduced to the [0° 180°] range by subtracting 180° when needed. One can see that with the stricter limit of 0.5 days, histograms and rose diagrams show more expressed deviations from the uniform (isotropic distribution of angles. For both variants of the maximum delay, the along-arc oriented pairs manifest themselves (at n about 0° and 180°. At the less strict limit of 5 days, this orientation begins to dominate. Although this tendency formally means a break of isotropy, it is not of particular interest because it results from the fact that a large fraction of epicenters occupy a relatively narrow strip, well seen on Fig. 1; therefore the observed 0–180° preferred direction has no connection to epicenter distribution within narrow space-time neighborhoods that we intend to analyze.To suppress the contribution of this interfering direction, a special normalization of angle histograms was performed. We additionally calculated similar histograms for larger delays, 100 to 150 days, marked T, considering these as representing pure effect of geometry of the epicenter field, and used them for normalization, performed in the following way. Values of the initial or raw (R histograms are divided (point by point by corresponding values of T-histograms. In this way the normalized (N histograms are obtained, considered as most representative of preferred directions of neighbor pairs. To make the results more convincing, we performed statistical testing of the hypothesis “N-histogram differs from a constant”; actually, the equivalent hypothesis “the R-histogram differs from the T-histogram” was tested. The Pearson’s c2 criterion was used. The significance value, Q, is indicated on plots, in most cases it is below 0.1 %. Such are the processing procedures employed; then the analysis of data was performed
Rohatgi, Vijay K
2003-01-01
Unified treatment of probability and statistics examines and analyzes the relationship between the two fields, exploring inferential issues. Numerous problems, examples, and diagrams--some with solutions--plus clear-cut, highlighted summaries of results. Advanced undergraduate to graduate level. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Probability Model. 3. Probability Distributions. 4. Introduction to Statistical Inference. 5. More on Mathematical Expectation. 6. Some Discrete Models. 7. Some Continuous Models. 8. Functions of Random Variables and Random Vectors. 9. Large-Sample Theory. 10. General Meth
SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource
Dinov, Ivo D.
2006-01-01
The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an integrated educational web-based framework for: interactive distribution modeling, virtual online probability experimentation, statistical data analysis...
Determination of Sr-90 in milk samples from the study of statistical results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Otero-Pazos Alberto
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The determination of 90Sr in milk samples is the main objective of radiation monitoring laboratories because of its environmental importance. In this paper the concentration of activity of 39 milk samples was obtained through radiochemical separation based on selective retention of Sr in a cationic resin (Dowex 50WX8, 50-100 mesh and subsequent determination by a low-level proportional gas counter. The results were checked by performing the measurement of the Sr concentration by using the flame atomic absorption spectroscopy technique, to finally obtain the mass of 90Sr. From the data obtained a statistical treatment was performed using linear regressions. A reliable estimate of the mass of 90Sr was obtained based on the gravimetric technique, and secondly, the counts per minute of the third measurement in the 90Sr and 90Y equilibrium, without having to perform the analysis. These estimates have been verified with 19 milk samples, obtaining overlapping results. The novelty of the manuscript is the possibility of determining the concentration of 90Sr in milk samples, without the need to perform the third measurement in the equilibrium.
Harari, Gil
2014-01-01
Statistic significance, also known as p-value, and CI (Confidence Interval) are common statistics measures and are essential for the statistical analysis of studies in medicine and life sciences. These measures provide complementary information about the statistical probability and conclusions regarding the clinical significance of study findings. This article is intended to describe the methodologies, compare between the methods, assert their suitability for the different needs of study results analysis and to explain situations in which each method should be used.
A scan statistic to extract causal gene clusters from case-control genome-wide rare CNV data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Scherer Stephen W
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several statistical tests have been developed for analyzing genome-wide association data by incorporating gene pathway information in terms of gene sets. Using these methods, hundreds of gene sets are typically tested, and the tested gene sets often overlap. This overlapping greatly increases the probability of generating false positives, and the results obtained are difficult to interpret, particularly when many gene sets show statistical significance. Results We propose a flexible statistical framework to circumvent these problems. Inspired by spatial scan statistics for detecting clustering of disease occurrence in the field of epidemiology, we developed a scan statistic to extract disease-associated gene clusters from a whole gene pathway. Extracting one or a few significant gene clusters from a global pathway limits the overall false positive probability, which results in increased statistical power, and facilitates the interpretation of test results. In the present study, we applied our method to genome-wide association data for rare copy-number variations, which have been strongly implicated in common diseases. Application of our method to a simulated dataset demonstrated the high accuracy of this method in detecting disease-associated gene clusters in a whole gene pathway. Conclusions The scan statistic approach proposed here shows a high level of accuracy in detecting gene clusters in a whole gene pathway. This study has provided a sound statistical framework for analyzing genome-wide rare CNV data by incorporating topological information on the gene pathway.
Understanding Statistics - Cancer Statistics
Annual reports of U.S. cancer statistics including new cases, deaths, trends, survival, prevalence, lifetime risk, and progress toward Healthy People targets, plus statistical summaries for a number of common cancer types.
Current Research and Statistical Practices in Sport Science and a Need for Change
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jake R. Bernards
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Current research ideologies in sport science allow for the possibility of investigators producing statistically significant results to help fit the outcome into a predetermined theory. Additionally, under the current Neyman-Pearson statistical structure, some argue that null hypothesis significant testing (NHST under the frequentist approach is flawed, regardless. For example, a p-value is unable to measure the probability that the studied hypothesis is true, unable to measure the size of an effect or the importance of a result, and unable to provide a good measure of evidence regarding a model or hypothesis. Many of these downfalls are key questions researchers strive to answer following an investigation. Therefore, a shift towards a magnitude-based inference model, and eventually a fully Bayesian framework, is thought to be a better fit from a statistical standpoint and may be an improved way to address biases within the literature. The goal of this article is to shed light on the current research and statistical shortcomings the field of sport science faces today, and offer potential solutions to help guide future research practices.
How to statistically analyze nano exposure measurement results: using an ARIMA time series approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein Entink, Rinke H.; Fransman, Wouter; Brouwer, Derk H.
2011-01-01
Measurement strategies for exposure to nano-sized particles differ from traditional integrated sampling methods for exposure assessment by the use of real-time instruments. The resulting measurement series is a time series, where typically the sequential measurements are not independent from each other but show a pattern of autocorrelation. This article addresses the statistical difficulties when analyzing real-time measurements for exposure assessment to manufactured nano objects. To account for autocorrelation patterns, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models are proposed. A simulation study shows the pitfalls of using a standard t-test and the application of ARIMA models is illustrated with three real-data examples. Some practical suggestions for the data analysis of real-time exposure measurements conclude this article.
Low statistical power in biomedical science: a review of three human research domains
Dumas-Mallet, Estelle; Button, Katherine S.; Boraud, Thomas; Gonon, Francois
2017-01-01
Studies with low statistical power increase the likelihood that a statistically significant finding represents a false positive result. We conducted a review of meta-analyses of studies investigating the association of biological, environmental or cognitive parameters with neurological, psychiatric and somatic diseases, excluding treatment studies, in order to estimate the average statistical power across these domains. Taking the effect size indicated by a meta-analysis as the best estimate of the likely true effect size, and assuming a threshold for declaring statistical significance of 5%, we found that approximately 50% of studies have statistical power in the 0–10% or 11–20% range, well below the minimum of 80% that is often considered conventional. Studies with low statistical power appear to be common in the biomedical sciences, at least in the specific subject areas captured by our search strategy. However, we also observe evidence that this depends in part on research methodology, with candidate gene studies showing very low average power and studies using cognitive/behavioural measures showing high average power. This warrants further investigation. PMID:28386409
Statistical analysis and data management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1981-01-01
This report provides an overview of the history of the WIPP Biology Program. The recommendations of the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) for the WIPP biology program are summarized. The data sets available for statistical analyses and problems associated with these data sets are also summarized. Biological studies base maps are presented. A statistical model is presented to evaluate any correlation between climatological data and small mammal captures. No statistically significant relationship between variance in small mammal captures on Dr. Gennaro's 90m x 90m grid and precipitation records from the Duval Potash Mine were found
Electrical Energy Statistics for France. Definitive results for the year 2012 - Synthesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2013-01-01
The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents some detailed statistics on electricity flows in France, on electricity market mechanism and on facilities: consumption, generation, trade, RTE's network performance and evolution with respect to the previous year
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daziano, C.
2010-01-01
Statistical analysis of trace elements in volcanics research s, allowed to distinguish two independent populations with the same geochemical environment. For each component they have variable index of homogeneity resulting in dissimilar average values that reveal geochemical intra telluric phenomena. On the other hand the inhomogeneities observed in these rocks - as reflected in its petrochemical characters - could be exacerbated especially at so remote and dispersed location of their pitches, their relations with the enclosing rocks for the ranges of compositional variation, due differences relative ages
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mashhood Ahmed Sheikh
2017-08-01
mediate the association between childhood adversity and ADS in adulthood. However, when education was excluded as a mediator-response confounding variable, the indirect effect of childhood adversity on ADS in adulthood was statistically significant (p < 0.05. This study shows that a careful inclusion of potential confounding variables is important when assessing mediation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei Gao; Jing Wang; Chao Zhang; Ping Qin
2017-01-01
Objective:To determine the serum inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress parameters of diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients to explore their possible role in the DR.Methods: 116 cases of type 2 diabetic patients were selected from June 2015 to June 2016 in our hospital as research subjects, divided into diabetic Diabetes without retinopathy (NDR group,n = 63) and diabetic with retinopathy patients (DR group,n = 53). And 60 cases of healthy check-ups of the same period in our hospital medical center were selected as normal control group (NC). The VEGF, IL-6, TNF-α , MDA and SOD levels of three groups of patients were detected. Results:The IL-6 levels of NC group, NDR group and DR group were increased gradually, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The TNF-α levels of NC group, NDR group and DR group were increased gradually, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The VEGF levels of NC group, NDR group and DR group were increased gradually, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of NC group, NDR group and DR group increased gradually, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels of NC group, NDR group and DR group were decreased gradually, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusions: DR patients express high levels of IL-6, TNF-α and VEGF, and there exists significant oxidative stress in DR, which shows that the inflammation occurrence and oxidative stress state play an important role in the development of DR.
Dai, Mingwei; Ming, Jingsi; Cai, Mingxuan; Liu, Jin; Yang, Can; Wan, Xiang; Xu, Zongben
2017-09-15
Results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggest that a complex phenotype is often affected by many variants with small effects, known as 'polygenicity'. Tens of thousands of samples are often required to ensure statistical power of identifying these variants with small effects. However, it is often the case that a research group can only get approval for the access to individual-level genotype data with a limited sample size (e.g. a few hundreds or thousands). Meanwhile, summary statistics generated using single-variant-based analysis are becoming publicly available. The sample sizes associated with the summary statistics datasets are usually quite large. How to make the most efficient use of existing abundant data resources largely remains an open question. In this study, we propose a statistical approach, IGESS, to increasing statistical power of identifying risk variants and improving accuracy of risk prediction by i ntegrating individual level ge notype data and s ummary s tatistics. An efficient algorithm based on variational inference is developed to handle the genome-wide analysis. Through comprehensive simulation studies, we demonstrated the advantages of IGESS over the methods which take either individual-level data or summary statistics data as input. We applied IGESS to perform integrative analysis of Crohns Disease from WTCCC and summary statistics from other studies. IGESS was able to significantly increase the statistical power of identifying risk variants and improve the risk prediction accuracy from 63.2% ( ±0.4% ) to 69.4% ( ±0.1% ) using about 240 000 variants. The IGESS software is available at https://github.com/daviddaigithub/IGESS . zbxu@xjtu.edu.cn or xwan@comp.hkbu.edu.hk or eeyang@hkbu.edu.hk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com
Quantum information theory and quantum statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petz, D.
2008-01-01
Based on lectures given by the author, this book focuses on providing reliable introductory explanations of key concepts of quantum information theory and quantum statistics - rather than on results. The mathematically rigorous presentation is supported by numerous examples and exercises and by an appendix summarizing the relevant aspects of linear analysis. Assuming that the reader is familiar with the content of standard undergraduate courses in quantum mechanics, probability theory, linear algebra and functional analysis, the book addresses graduate students of mathematics and physics as well as theoretical and mathematical physicists. Conceived as a primer to bridge the gap between statistical physics and quantum information, a field to which the author has contributed significantly himself, it emphasizes concepts and thorough discussions of the fundamental notions to prepare the reader for deeper studies, not least through the selection of well chosen exercises. (orig.)
Local sequence alignments statistics: deviations from Gumbel statistics in the rare-event tail
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Burghardt Bernd
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal score for ungapped local alignments of infinitely long random sequences is known to follow a Gumbel extreme value distribution. Less is known about the important case, where gaps are allowed. For this case, the distribution is only known empirically in the high-probability region, which is biologically less relevant. Results We provide a method to obtain numerically the biologically relevant rare-event tail of the distribution. The method, which has been outlined in an earlier work, is based on generating the sequences with a parametrized probability distribution, which is biased with respect to the original biological one, in the framework of Metropolis Coupled Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Here, we first present the approach in detail and evaluate the convergence of the algorithm by considering a simple test case. In the earlier work, the method was just applied to one single example case. Therefore, we consider here a large set of parameters: We study the distributions for protein alignment with different substitution matrices (BLOSUM62 and PAM250 and affine gap costs with different parameter values. In the logarithmic phase (large gap costs it was previously assumed that the Gumbel form still holds, hence the Gumbel distribution is usually used when evaluating p-values in databases. Here we show that for all cases, provided that the sequences are not too long (L > 400, a "modified" Gumbel distribution, i.e. a Gumbel distribution with an additional Gaussian factor is suitable to describe the data. We also provide a "scaling analysis" of the parameters used in the modified Gumbel distribution. Furthermore, via a comparison with BLAST parameters, we show that significance estimations change considerably when using the true distributions as presented here. Finally, we study also the distribution of the sum statistics of the k best alignments. Conclusion Our results show that the statistics of gapped and ungapped local
[Big data in official statistics].
Zwick, Markus
2015-08-01
The concept of "big data" stands to change the face of official statistics over the coming years, having an impact on almost all aspects of data production. The tasks of future statisticians will not necessarily be to produce new data, but rather to identify and make use of existing data to adequately describe social and economic phenomena. Until big data can be used correctly in official statistics, a lot of questions need to be answered and problems solved: the quality of data, data protection, privacy, and the sustainable availability are some of the more pressing issues to be addressed. The essential skills of official statisticians will undoubtedly change, and this implies a number of challenges to be faced by statistical education systems, in universities, and inside the statistical offices. The national statistical offices of the European Union have concluded a concrete strategy for exploring the possibilities of big data for official statistics, by means of the Big Data Roadmap and Action Plan 1.0. This is an important first step and will have a significant influence on implementing the concept of big data inside the statistical offices of Germany.
Statistical analysis of simulation calculation of sputtering for two interaction potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shao Qiyun
1992-01-01
The effects of the interaction potentials (Moliere potential and Universal potential) are presented on computer simulation results of sputtering via Monte Carlo simulation based on the binary collision approximation. By means of Wilcoxon two-Sample paired sign rank test, the statistically significant difference for the above results is obtained
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Siri
2016-12-01
Examining the data broken down by gender, the correlations were higher and statistically significant in males than in females. GT-based data for drop-out resulted best modeled by an ARMA(1,0 model. Considering the cross correlation of Canadian regions, all of them resulted statistically significant at lag 0, apart from for New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador and the Prince Edward island. A number or cross-correlations resulted statistically significant also at lag −1 (namely, Alberta, Manitoba, New Brunswick and Saskatchewan.
Technical issues relating to the statistical parametric mapping of brain SPECT studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatton, R.L.; Cordato, N.; Hutton, B.F.; Lau, Y.H.; Evans, S.G.
2000-01-01
Full text: Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) is a software tool designed for the statistical analysis of functional neuro images, specifically Positron Emission Tomography and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and more recently SPECT. This review examines some problems associated with the analysis of SPECT. A comparison of a patient group with normal studies revealed factors that could influence results, some that commonly occur, others that require further exploration. To optimise the differences between two groups of subjects, both spatial variability and differences in global activity must be minimised. The choice and effectiveness of co registration method and approach to normalisation of activity concentration can affect the optimisation. A small number of subject scans were identified as possessing truncated data resulting in edge effects that could adversely influence the analysis. Other problems included unusual areas of significance possibly related to reconstruction methods and the geometry associated with nonparallel collimators. Areas of extra cerebral significance are a point of concern - and may result from scatter effects, or mis registration. Difficulties in patient positioning, due to postural limitations, can lead to resolution differences. SPM has been used to assess areas of statistical significance arising from these technical factors, as opposed to areas of true clinical significance when comparing subject groups. This contributes to a better understanding of the effects of technical factors so that these may be eliminated, minimised, or incorporated in the study design. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc
Replacing gasoline with corn ethanol results in significant environmental problem-shifting.
Yang, Yi; Bae, Junghan; Kim, Junbeum; Suh, Sangwon
2012-04-03
Previous studies on the life-cycle environmental impacts of corn ethanol and gasoline focused almost exclusively on energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and largely overlooked the influence of regional differences in agricultural practices. This study compares the environmental impact of gasoline and E85 taking into consideration 12 different environmental impacts and regional differences among 19 corn-growing states. Results show that E85 does not outperform gasoline when a wide spectrum of impacts is considered. If the impacts are aggregated using weights developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), overall, E85 generates approximately 6% to 108% (23% on average) greater impact compared with gasoline, depending on where corn is produced, primarily because corn production induces significant eutrophication impacts and requires intensive irrigation. If GHG emissions from the indirect land use changes are considered, the differences increase to between 16% and 118% (33% on average). Our study indicates that replacing gasoline with corn ethanol may only result in shifting the net environmental impacts primarily toward increased eutrophication and greater water scarcity. These results suggest that the environmental criteria used in the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) be re-evaluated to include additional categories of environmental impact beyond GHG emissions.
Statistics of peaks in cosmological nonlinear density fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suginohara, Tatsushi; Suto, Yasushi.
1990-06-01
Distribution of the high-density peaks in the universe is examined using N-body simulations. Nonlinear evolution of the underlying density field significantly changes the statistical properties of the peaks, compared with the analytic results valid for the random Gaussian field. In particular, the abundances and correlations of the initial density peaks are discussed in the context of biased galaxy formation theory. (author)
Exclusion statistics and integrable models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mashkevich, S.
1998-01-01
The definition of exclusion statistics that was given by Haldane admits a 'statistical interaction' between distinguishable particles (multispecies statistics). For such statistics, thermodynamic quantities can be evaluated exactly; explicit expressions are presented here for cluster coefficients. Furthermore, single-species exclusion statistics is realized in one-dimensional integrable models of the Calogero-Sutherland type. The interesting questions of generalizing this correspondence to the higher-dimensional and the multispecies cases remain essentially open; however, our results provide some hints as to searches for the models in question
National Statistical Commission and Indian Official Statistics*
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
a good collection of official statistics of that time. With more .... statistical agencies and institutions to provide details of statistical activities .... ing several training programmes. .... ful completion of Indian Statistical Service examinations, the.
Sb2Te3 and Its Superlattices: Optimization by Statistical Design.
Behera, Jitendra K; Zhou, Xilin; Ranjan, Alok; Simpson, Robert E
2018-05-02
The objective of this work is to demonstrate the usefulness of fractional factorial design for optimizing the crystal quality of chalcogenide van der Waals (vdW) crystals. We statistically analyze the growth parameters of highly c axis oriented Sb 2 Te 3 crystals and Sb 2 Te 3 -GeTe phase change vdW heterostructured superlattices. The statistical significance of the growth parameters of temperature, pressure, power, buffer materials, and buffer layer thickness was found by fractional factorial design and response surface analysis. Temperature, pressure, power, and their second-order interactions are the major factors that significantly influence the quality of the crystals. Additionally, using tungsten rather than molybdenum as a buffer layer significantly enhances the crystal quality. Fractional factorial design minimizes the number of experiments that are necessary to find the optimal growth conditions, resulting in an order of magnitude improvement in the crystal quality. We highlight that statistical design of experiment methods, which is more commonly used in product design, should be considered more broadly by those designing and optimizing materials.
Official Statistics and Statistics Education: Bridging the Gap
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gal Iddo
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This article aims to challenge official statistics providers and statistics educators to ponder on how to help non-specialist adult users of statistics develop those aspects of statistical literacy that pertain to official statistics. We first document the gap in the literature in terms of the conceptual basis and educational materials needed for such an undertaking. We then review skills and competencies that may help adults to make sense of statistical information in areas of importance to society. Based on this review, we identify six elements related to official statistics about which non-specialist adult users should possess knowledge in order to be considered literate in official statistics: (1 the system of official statistics and its work principles; (2 the nature of statistics about society; (3 indicators; (4 statistical techniques and big ideas; (5 research methods and data sources; and (6 awareness and skills for citizens’ access to statistical reports. Based on this ad hoc typology, we discuss directions that official statistics providers, in cooperation with statistics educators, could take in order to (1 advance the conceptualization of skills needed to understand official statistics, and (2 expand educational activities and services, specifically by developing a collaborative digital textbook and a modular online course, to improve public capacity for understanding of official statistics.
Online Statistics Labs in MSW Research Methods Courses: Reducing Reluctance toward Statistics
Elliott, William; Choi, Eunhee; Friedline, Terri
2013-01-01
This article presents results from an evaluation of an online statistics lab as part of a foundations research methods course for master's-level social work students. The article discusses factors that contribute to an environment in social work that fosters attitudes of reluctance toward learning and teaching statistics in research methods…
Dinov, Ivo D; Sanchez, Juana; Christou, Nicolas
2008-01-01
Technology-based instruction represents a new recent pedagogical paradigm that is rooted in the realization that new generations are much more comfortable with, and excited about, new technologies. The rapid technological advancement over the past decade has fueled an enormous demand for the integration of modern networking, informational and computational tools with classical pedagogical instruments. Consequently, teaching with technology typically involves utilizing a variety of IT and multimedia resources for online learning, course management, electronic course materials, and novel tools of communication, engagement, experimental, critical thinking and assessment.The NSF-funded Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR) provides a number of interactive tools for enhancing instruction in various undergraduate and graduate courses in probability and statistics. These resources include online instructional materials, statistical calculators, interactive graphical user interfaces, computational and simulation applets, tools for data analysis and visualization. The tools provided as part of SOCR include conceptual simulations and statistical computing interfaces, which are designed to bridge between the introductory and the more advanced computational and applied probability and statistics courses. In this manuscript, we describe our designs for utilizing SOCR technology in instruction in a recent study. In addition, present the results of the effectiveness of using SOCR tools at two different course intensity levels on three outcome measures: exam scores, student satisfaction and choice of technology to complete assignments. Learning styles assessment was completed at baseline. We have used three very different designs for three different undergraduate classes. Each course included a treatment group, using the SOCR resources, and a control group, using classical instruction techniques. Our findings include marginal effects of the SOCR treatment per individual
Statistics in the pharmacy literature.
Lee, Charlene M; Soin, Herpreet K; Einarson, Thomas R
2004-09-01
Research in statistical methods is essential for maintenance of high quality of the published literature. To update previous reports of the types and frequencies of statistical terms and procedures in research studies of selected professional pharmacy journals. We obtained all research articles published in 2001 in 6 journals: American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, Formulary, Hospital Pharmacy, and Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. Two independent reviewers identified and recorded descriptive and inferential statistical terms/procedures found in the methods, results, and discussion sections of each article. Results were determined by tallying the total number of times, as well as the percentage, that each statistical term or procedure appeared in the articles. One hundred forty-four articles were included. Ninety-eight percent employed descriptive statistics; of these, 28% used only descriptive statistics. The most common descriptive statistical terms were percentage (90%), mean (74%), standard deviation (58%), and range (46%). Sixty-nine percent of the articles used inferential statistics, the most frequent being chi(2) (33%), Student's t-test (26%), Pearson's correlation coefficient r (18%), ANOVA (14%), and logistic regression (11%). Statistical terms and procedures were found in nearly all of the research articles published in pharmacy journals. Thus, pharmacy education should aim to provide current and future pharmacists with an understanding of the common statistical terms and procedures identified to facilitate the appropriate appraisal and consequential utilization of the information available in research articles.
Statistical concepts a second course
Lomax, Richard G
2012-01-01
Statistical Concepts consists of the last 9 chapters of An Introduction to Statistical Concepts, 3rd ed. Designed for the second course in statistics, it is one of the few texts that focuses just on intermediate statistics. The book highlights how statistics work and what they mean to better prepare students to analyze their own data and interpret SPSS and research results. As such it offers more coverage of non-parametric procedures used when standard assumptions are violated since these methods are more frequently encountered when working with real data. Determining appropriate sample sizes
Melsen, W G; Rovers, M M; Bonten, M J M; Bootsma, M C J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830305
Variance between studies in a meta-analysis will exist. This heterogeneity may be of clinical, methodological or statistical origin. The last of these is quantified by the I(2) -statistic. We investigated, using simulated studies, the accuracy of I(2) in the assessment of heterogeneity and the
Cluster Statistics of BTW Automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ajanta Bhowal Acharyya
2011-01-01
The cluster statistics of BTW automata in the SOC states are obtained by extensive computer simulation. Various moments of the clusters are calculated and few results are compared with earlier available numerical estimates and exact results. Reasonably good agreement is observed. An extended statistical analysis has been made. (author)
Kowalski, Jeanne
2008-01-01
A timely and applied approach to the newly discovered methods and applications of U-statisticsBuilt on years of collaborative research and academic experience, Modern Applied U-Statistics successfully presents a thorough introduction to the theory of U-statistics using in-depth examples and applications that address contemporary areas of study including biomedical and psychosocial research. Utilizing a "learn by example" approach, this book provides an accessible, yet in-depth, treatment of U-statistics, as well as addresses key concepts in asymptotic theory by integrating translational and cross-disciplinary research.The authors begin with an introduction of the essential and theoretical foundations of U-statistics such as the notion of convergence in probability and distribution, basic convergence results, stochastic Os, inference theory, generalized estimating equations, as well as the definition and asymptotic properties of U-statistics. With an emphasis on nonparametric applications when and where applic...
Statistical analysis of metallicity in spiral galaxies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galeotti, P [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale)
1981-04-01
A principal component analysis of metallicity and other integral properties of 33 spiral galaxies is presented; the involved parameters are: morphological type, diameter, luminosity and metallicity. From the statistical analysis it is concluded that the sample has only two significant dimensions and additonal tests, involving different parameters, show similar results. Thus it seems that only type and luminosity are independent variables, being the other integral properties of spiral galaxies correlated with them.
The earth is flat (p > 0.05): significance thresholds and the crisis of unreplicable research.
Amrhein, Valentin; Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Roth, Tobias
2017-01-01
The widespread use of 'statistical significance' as a license for making a claim of a scientific finding leads to considerable distortion of the scientific process (according to the American Statistical Association). We review why degrading p -values into 'significant' and 'nonsignificant' contributes to making studies irreproducible, or to making them seem irreproducible. A major problem is that we tend to take small p -values at face value, but mistrust results with larger p -values. In either case, p -values tell little about reliability of research, because they are hardly replicable even if an alternative hypothesis is true. Also significance ( p ≤ 0.05) is hardly replicable: at a good statistical power of 80%, two studies will be 'conflicting', meaning that one is significant and the other is not, in one third of the cases if there is a true effect. A replication can therefore not be interpreted as having failed only because it is nonsignificant. Many apparent replication failures may thus reflect faulty judgment based on significance thresholds rather than a crisis of unreplicable research. Reliable conclusions on replicability and practical importance of a finding can only be drawn using cumulative evidence from multiple independent studies. However, applying significance thresholds makes cumulative knowledge unreliable. One reason is that with anything but ideal statistical power, significant effect sizes will be biased upwards. Interpreting inflated significant results while ignoring nonsignificant results will thus lead to wrong conclusions. But current incentives to hunt for significance lead to selective reporting and to publication bias against nonsignificant findings. Data dredging, p -hacking, and publication bias should be addressed by removing fixed significance thresholds. Consistent with the recommendations of the late Ronald Fisher, p -values should be interpreted as graded measures of the strength of evidence against the null hypothesis
Statistical analysis of dragline monitoring data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mirabediny, H.; Baafi, E.Y. [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran)
1998-07-01
Dragline monitoring systems are normally the best tool used to collect data on the machine performance and operational parameters of a dragline operation. This paper discusses results of a time study using data from a dragline monitoring system captured over a four month period. Statistical summaries of the time study in terms of average values, standard deviation and frequency distributions showed that the mode of operation and the geological conditions have a significant influence on the dragline performance parameters. 6 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.
Advanced statistical properties of dispersing billiards
Chernov, N
2005-01-01
A new approach to statistical properties of hyperbolic dynamical systems emerged recently; it was introduced by L.-S.~Young and modified by D.~Dolgopyat. It is based on coupling method borrowed from probability theory. We apply it here to one of the most physically interesting models -- Sinai billiards. It allows us to derive a series of new results, as well as make significant improvements in the existing results. First we establish sharp bounds on correlations (including multiple correlations). Then we use our correlation bounds to obtain the central limit theorem (CLT), the almost sure invariance principle (ASIP), the law of iterated logarithms, and integral tests.
Optimizing refiner operation with statistical modelling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Broderick, G [Noranda Research Centre, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada)
1997-02-01
The impact of refining conditions on the energy efficiency of the process and on the handsheet quality of a chemi-mechanical pulp was studied as part of a series of pilot scale refining trials. Statistical models of refiner performance were constructed from these results and non-linear optimization of process conditions were conducted. Optimization results indicated that increasing the ratio of specific energy applied in the first stage led to a reduction of some 15 per cent in the total energy requirement. The strategy can also be used to obtain significant increases in pulp quality for a given energy input. 20 refs., 6 tabs.
Statistical correlations in an ideal gas of particles obeying fractional exclusion statistics.
Pellegrino, F M D; Angilella, G G N; March, N H; Pucci, R
2007-12-01
After a brief discussion of the concepts of fractional exchange and fractional exclusion statistics, we report partly analytical and partly numerical results on thermodynamic properties of assemblies of particles obeying fractional exclusion statistics. The effect of dimensionality is one focal point, the ratio mu/k_(B)T of chemical potential to thermal energy being obtained numerically as a function of a scaled particle density. Pair correlation functions are also presented as a function of the statistical parameter, with Friedel oscillations developing close to the fermion limit, for sufficiently large density.
The Harm Done to Reproducibility by the Culture of Null Hypothesis Significance Testing.
Lash, Timothy L
2017-09-15
In the last few years, stakeholders in the scientific community have raised alarms about a perceived lack of reproducibility of scientific results. In reaction, guidelines for journals have been promulgated and grant applicants have been asked to address the rigor and reproducibility of their proposed projects. Neither solution addresses a primary culprit, which is the culture of null hypothesis significance testing that dominates statistical analysis and inference. In an innovative research enterprise, selection of results for further evaluation based on null hypothesis significance testing is doomed to yield a low proportion of reproducible results and a high proportion of effects that are initially overestimated. In addition, the culture of null hypothesis significance testing discourages quantitative adjustments to account for systematic errors and quantitative incorporation of prior information. These strategies would otherwise improve reproducibility and have not been previously proposed in the widely cited literature on this topic. Without discarding the culture of null hypothesis significance testing and implementing these alternative methods for statistical analysis and inference, all other strategies for improving reproducibility will yield marginal gains at best. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Cristea, Ioana Alina; Ioannidis, John P A
2018-01-01
P values represent a widely used, but pervasively misunderstood and fiercely contested method of scientific inference. Display items, such as figures and tables, often containing the main results, are an important source of P values. We conducted a survey comparing the overall use of P values and the occurrence of significant P values in display items of a sample of articles in the three top multidisciplinary journals (Nature, Science, PNAS) in 2017 and, respectively, in 1997. We also examined the reporting of multiplicity corrections and its potential influence on the proportion of statistically significant P values. Our findings demonstrated substantial and growing reliance on P values in display items, with increases of 2.5 to 14.5 times in 2017 compared to 1997. The overwhelming majority of P values (94%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 92% to 96%) were statistically significant. Methods to adjust for multiplicity were almost non-existent in 1997, but reported in many articles relying on P values in 2017 (Nature 68%, Science 48%, PNAS 38%). In their absence, almost all reported P values were statistically significant (98%, 95% CI 96% to 99%). Conversely, when any multiplicity corrections were described, 88% (95% CI 82% to 93%) of reported P values were statistically significant. Use of Bayesian methods was scant (2.5%) and rarely (0.7%) articles relied exclusively on Bayesian statistics. Overall, wider appreciation of the need for multiplicity corrections is a welcome evolution, but the rapid growth of reliance on P values and implausibly high rates of reported statistical significance are worrisome.
A significant-loophole-free test of Bell's theorem with entangled photons
Giustina, Marissa; Versteegh, Marijn A. M.; Wengerowsky, Sören; Handsteiner, Johannes; Hochrainer, Armin; Phelan, Kevin; Steinlechner, Fabian; Kofler, Johannes; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Abellán, Carlos; Amaya, Waldimar; Mitchell, Morgan W.; Beyer, Jörn; Gerrits, Thomas; Lita, Adriana E.; Shalm, Lynden K.; Nam, Sae Woo; Scheidl, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert; Wittmann, Bernhard; Zeilinger, Anton
2017-10-01
John Bell's theorem of 1964 states that local elements of physical reality, existing independent of measurement, are inconsistent with the predictions of quantum mechanics (Bell, J. S. (1964), Physics (College. Park. Md). Specifically, correlations between measurement results from distant entangled systems would be smaller than predicted by quantum physics. This is expressed in Bell's inequalities. Employing modifications of Bell's inequalities, many experiments have been performed that convincingly support the quantum predictions. Yet, all experiments rely on assumptions, which provide loopholes for a local realist explanation of the measurement. Here we report an experiment with polarization-entangled photons that simultaneously closes the most significant of these loopholes. We use a highly efficient source of entangled photons, distributed these over a distance of 58.5 meters, and implemented rapid random setting generation and high-efficiency detection to observe a violation of a Bell inequality with high statistical significance. The merely statistical probability of our results to occur under local realism is less than 3.74×10-31, corresponding to an 11.5 standard deviation effect.
Common misconceptions about data analysis and statistics.
Motulsky, Harvey J
2014-11-01
Ideally, any experienced investigator with the right tools should be able to reproduce a finding published in a peer-reviewed biomedical science journal. In fact, the reproducibility of a large percentage of published findings has been questioned. Undoubtedly, there are many reasons for this, but one reason maybe that investigators fool themselves due to a poor understanding of statistical concepts. In particular, investigators often make these mistakes: 1. P-Hacking. This is when you reanalyze a data set in many different ways, or perhaps reanalyze with additional replicates, until you get the result you want. 2. Overemphasis on P values rather than on the actual size of the observed effect. 3. Overuse of statistical hypothesis testing, and being seduced by the word "significant". 4. Overreliance on standard errors, which are often misunderstood.
Common misconceptions about data analysis and statistics.
Motulsky, Harvey J
2015-02-01
Ideally, any experienced investigator with the right tools should be able to reproduce a finding published in a peer-reviewed biomedical science journal. In fact, the reproducibility of a large percentage of published findings has been questioned. Undoubtedly, there are many reasons for this, but one reason may be that investigators fool themselves due to a poor understanding of statistical concepts. In particular, investigators often make these mistakes: (1) P-Hacking. This is when you reanalyze a data set in many different ways, or perhaps reanalyze with additional replicates, until you get the result you want. (2) Overemphasis on P values rather than on the actual size of the observed effect. (3) Overuse of statistical hypothesis testing, and being seduced by the word "significant". (4) Overreliance on standard errors, which are often misunderstood.
Ector, Hugo
2010-12-01
I still remember my first book on statistics: "Elementary statistics with applications in medicine and the biological sciences" by Frederick E. Croxton. For me, it has been the start of pursuing understanding statistics in daily life and in medical practice. It was the first volume in a long row of books. In his introduction, Croxton pretends that"nearly everyone involved in any aspect of medicine needs to have some knowledge of statistics". The reality is that for many clinicians, statistics are limited to a "P statistical methods. They have never had the opportunity to learn concise and clear descriptions of the key features. I have experienced how some authors can describe difficult methods in a well understandable language. Others fail completely. As a teacher, I tell my students that life is impossible without a basic knowledge of statistics. This feeling has resulted in an annual seminar of 90 minutes. This tutorial is the summary of this seminar. It is a summary and a transcription of the best pages I have detected.
Attitudes toward statistics in medical postgraduates: measuring, evaluating and monitoring
2012-01-01
Background In medical training, statistics is considered a very difficult course to learn and teach. Current studies have found that students’ attitudes toward statistics can influence their learning process. Measuring, evaluating and monitoring the changes of students’ attitudes toward statistics are important. Few studies have focused on the attitudes of postgraduates, especially medical postgraduates. Our purpose was to understand current attitudes regarding statistics held by medical postgraduates and explore their effects on students’ achievement. We also wanted to explore the influencing factors and the sources of these attitudes and monitor their changes after a systematic statistics course. Methods A total of 539 medical postgraduates enrolled in a systematic statistics course completed the pre-form of the Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics −28 scale, and 83 postgraduates were selected randomly from among them to complete the post-form scale after the course. Results Most medical postgraduates held positive attitudes toward statistics, but they thought statistics was a very difficult subject. The attitudes mainly came from experiences in a former statistical or mathematical class. Age, level of statistical education, research experience, specialty and mathematics basis may influence postgraduate attitudes toward statistics. There were significant positive correlations between course achievement and attitudes toward statistics. In general, student attitudes showed negative changes after completing a statistics course. Conclusions The importance of student attitudes toward statistics must be recognized in medical postgraduate training. To make sure all students have a positive learning environment, statistics teachers should measure their students’ attitudes and monitor their change of status during a course. Some necessary assistance should be offered for those students who develop negative attitudes. PMID:23173770
[The research protocol VI: How to choose the appropriate statistical test. Inferential statistics].
Flores-Ruiz, Eric; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel
2017-01-01
The statistical analysis can be divided in two main components: descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. An inference is to elaborate conclusions from the tests performed with the data obtained from a sample of a population. Statistical tests are used in order to establish the probability that a conclusion obtained from a sample is applicable to the population from which it was obtained. However, choosing the appropriate statistical test in general poses a challenge for novice researchers. To choose the statistical test it is necessary to take into account three aspects: the research design, the number of measurements and the scale of measurement of the variables. Statistical tests are divided into two sets, parametric and nonparametric. Parametric tests can only be used if the data show a normal distribution. Choosing the right statistical test will make it easier for readers to understand and apply the results.
The research protocol VI: How to choose the appropriate statistical test. Inferential statistics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eric Flores-Ruiz
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The statistical analysis can be divided in two main components: descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. An inference is to elaborate conclusions from the tests performed with the data obtained from a sample of a population. Statistical tests are used in order to establish the probability that a conclusion obtained from a sample is applicable to the population from which it was obtained. However, choosing the appropriate statistical test in general poses a challenge for novice researchers. To choose the statistical test it is necessary to take into account three aspects: the research design, the number of measurements and the scale of measurement of the variables. Statistical tests are divided into two sets, parametric and nonparametric. Parametric tests can only be used if the data show a normal distribution. Choosing the right statistical test will make it easier for readers to understand and apply the results.
Statistical Analysis of Deflation in Covariance and Resultant Pc Values for AQUA, AURA and TERRA
Hasan, Syed O.
2016-01-01
This presentation will display statistical analysis performed for raw conjunction CDMs received for the EOS Aqua, Aura and Terra satellites within the period of February 2015 through July 2016. The analysis performed indicates a discernable deflation in covariance calculated at the JSpOC after the utilization of the dynamic drag consider parameter was implemented operationally in May 2015. As a result, the overall diminution in the conjunction plane intersection of the primary and secondary objects appears to be leading to reduced probability of collision (Pc) values for these conjunction events. This presentation also displays evidence for this theory with analysis of Pc trending plots using data calculated by the SpaceNav CRMS system.
Statistical decay of giant resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, H.; Teruya, N.; Wolynec, E.
1986-02-01
Statistical calculations to predict the neutron spectrum resulting from the decay of Giant Resonances are discussed. The dependence of the results on the optical potential parametrization and on the level density of the residual nucleus is assessed. A Hauser-Feshbach calculation is performed for the decay of the monopole giant resonance in 208 Pb using the experimental levels of 207 Pb from a recent compilation. The calculated statistical decay is in excellent agreement with recent experimental data, showing that decay of this resonance is dominantly statistical, as predicted by continuum RPA calculations. (Author) [pt
Applied statistics for economists
Lewis, Margaret
2012-01-01
This book is an undergraduate text that introduces students to commonly-used statistical methods in economics. Using examples based on contemporary economic issues and readily-available data, it not only explains the mechanics of the various methods, it also guides students to connect statistical results to detailed economic interpretations. Because the goal is for students to be able to apply the statistical methods presented, online sources for economic data and directions for performing each task in Excel are also included.
Review of the Statistical Techniques in Medical Sciences | Okeh ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... medical researcher in selecting the appropriate statistical techniques. Of course, all statistical techniques have certain underlying assumptions, which must be checked before the technique is applied. Keywords: Variable, Prospective Studies, Retrospective Studies, Statistical significance. Bio-Research Vol. 6 (1) 2008: pp.
Role of sufficient statistics in stochastic thermodynamics and its implication to sensory adaptation
Matsumoto, Takumi; Sagawa, Takahiro
2018-04-01
A sufficient statistic is a significant concept in statistics, which means a probability variable that has sufficient information required for an inference task. We investigate the roles of sufficient statistics and related quantities in stochastic thermodynamics. Specifically, we prove that for general continuous-time bipartite networks, the existence of a sufficient statistic implies that an informational quantity called the sensory capacity takes the maximum. Since the maximal sensory capacity imposes a constraint that the energetic efficiency cannot exceed one-half, our result implies that the existence of a sufficient statistic is inevitably accompanied by energetic dissipation. We also show that, in a particular parameter region of linear Langevin systems there exists the optimal noise intensity at which the sensory capacity, the information-thermodynamic efficiency, and the total entropy production are optimized at the same time. We apply our general result to a model of sensory adaptation of E. coli and find that the sensory capacity is nearly maximal with experimentally realistic parameters.
Nam, Sung Sik
2017-06-19
Complex wireless transmission systems require multi-dimensional joint statistical techniques for performance evaluation. Here, we first present the exact closed-form results on order statistics of any arbitrary partial sums of Gamma random variables with the closedform results of core functions specialized for independent and identically distributed Nakagami-m fading channels based on a moment generating function-based unified analytical framework. These both exact closed-form results have never been published in the literature. In addition, as a feasible application example in which our new offered derived closed-form results can be applied is presented. In particular, we analyze the outage performance of the finger replacement schemes over Nakagami fading channels as an application of our method. Note that these analysis results are directly applicable to several applications, such as millimeter-wave communication systems in which an antenna diversity scheme operates using an finger replacement schemes-like combining scheme, and other fading scenarios. Note also that the statistical results can provide potential solutions for ordered statistics in any other research topics based on Gamma distributions or other advanced wireless communications research topics in the presence of Nakagami fading.
Self-assessed performance improves statistical fusion of image labels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bryan, Frederick W., E-mail: frederick.w.bryan@vanderbilt.edu; Xu, Zhoubing; Asman, Andrew J.; Allen, Wade M. [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Reich, Daniel S. [Translational Neuroradiology Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Landman, Bennett A. [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); and Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)
2014-03-15
. Statistical fusion resulted in statistically indistinguishable performance from self-assessed weighted voting. The authors developed a new theoretical basis for using self-assessed performance in the framework of statistical fusion and demonstrated that the combined sources of information (both statistical assessment and self-assessment) yielded statistically significant improvement over the methods considered separately. Conclusions: The authors present the first systematic characterization of self-assessed performance in manual labeling. The authors demonstrate that self-assessment and statistical fusion yield similar, but complementary, benefits for label fusion. Finally, the authors present a new theoretical basis for combining self-assessments with statistical label fusion.
Self-assessed performance improves statistical fusion of image labels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bryan, Frederick W.; Xu, Zhoubing; Asman, Andrew J.; Allen, Wade M.; Reich, Daniel S.; Landman, Bennett A.
2014-01-01
. Statistical fusion resulted in statistically indistinguishable performance from self-assessed weighted voting. The authors developed a new theoretical basis for using self-assessed performance in the framework of statistical fusion and demonstrated that the combined sources of information (both statistical assessment and self-assessment) yielded statistically significant improvement over the methods considered separately. Conclusions: The authors present the first systematic characterization of self-assessed performance in manual labeling. The authors demonstrate that self-assessment and statistical fusion yield similar, but complementary, benefits for label fusion. Finally, the authors present a new theoretical basis for combining self-assessments with statistical label fusion
Logue, Alexandra W.; Watanabe-Rose, Mari
2014-01-01
This study used a randomized controlled trial to determine whether students, assessed by their community colleges as needing an elementary algebra (remedial) mathematics course, could instead succeed at least as well in a college-level, credit-bearing introductory statistics course with extra support (a weekly workshop). Researchers randomly…
Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.
2012-12-01
Many spectral analysis techniques have been designed assuming sequences taken with a constant sampling interval. However, there are empirical time series in the geosciences (sediment cores, fossil abundance data, isotope analysis, …) that do not follow regular sampling because of missing data, gapped data, random sampling or incomplete sequences, among other reasons. In general, interpolating an uneven series in order to obtain a succession with a constant sampling interval alters the spectral content of the series. In such cases it is preferable to follow an approach that works with the uneven data directly, avoiding the need for an explicit interpolation step. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram is a popular choice in such circumstances, as there are programs available in the public domain for its computation. One new computer program for spectral analysis improves the standard Lomb-Scargle periodogram approach in two ways: (1) It explicitly adjusts the statistical significance to any bias introduced by variance reduction smoothing, and (2) it uses a permutation test to evaluate confidence levels, which is better suited than parametric methods when neighbouring frequencies are highly correlated. Another novel program for cross-spectral analysis offers the advantage of estimating the Lomb-Scargle cross-periodogram of two uneven time series defined on the same interval, and it evaluates the confidence levels of the estimated cross-spectra by a non-parametric computer intensive permutation test. Thus, the cross-spectrum, the squared coherence spectrum, the phase spectrum, and the Monte Carlo statistical significance of the cross-spectrum and the squared-coherence spectrum can be obtained. Both of the programs are written in ANSI Fortran 77, in view of its simplicity and compatibility. The program code is of public domain, provided on the website of the journal (http://www.iamg.org/index.php/publisher/articleview/frmArticleID/112/). Different examples (with simulated and
Statistical U-Th dating results of speleothem from south Europe and the orbital-scale implication
Hu, H. M.
2016-12-01
Reconstructing of hydroclimate in the Mediterranean on an orbital time scale helps improve our understanding of interaction between orbital forcing and north hemisphere climate. We collected 180 speleothem subsamples from Observatoire Cave (Monaco), Prince Cave (south France), Chateaueuf Cave (South France), Arago Cave (South France), and Basura Cave (North Italy) during 2013 to 2015 C.E. Uranium-thorium dating were conducted in the High-Precision Mass Spectrometry and Environment Change Laboratory (HISPEC), National Taiwan University. The results show that most of the speleothem formed during interglacial periods, particularly in marine isotope stage (MIS) 1, 5, and 11. However, only a few speleothem were dated between 180 to 250 thousand years ago (ka). The interval is approximately equivalent to MIS 7, which is a period with contrasting orbital parameters compared to MIS1, 5, and 11. Our statistical dating result implies that the orbital-scale humid/dry condition in southern Europe could be dominantly controlled by orbital forcing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, Gyeong Hui
2008-03-01
This book consists of 15 chapters, which are basic conception and meaning of statistical thermodynamics, Maxwell-Boltzmann's statistics, ensemble, thermodynamics function and fluctuation, statistical dynamics with independent particle system, ideal molecular system, chemical equilibrium and chemical reaction rate in ideal gas mixture, classical statistical thermodynamics, ideal lattice model, lattice statistics and nonideal lattice model, imperfect gas theory on liquid, theory on solution, statistical thermodynamics of interface, statistical thermodynamics of a high molecule system and quantum statistics
Statistical approach for selection of regression model during validation of bioanalytical method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natalija Nakov
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The selection of an adequate regression model is the basis for obtaining accurate and reproducible results during the bionalytical method validation. Given the wide concentration range, frequently present in bioanalytical assays, heteroscedasticity of the data may be expected. Several weighted linear and quadratic regression models were evaluated during the selection of the adequate curve fit using nonparametric statistical tests: One sample rank test and Wilcoxon signed rank test for two independent groups of samples. The results obtained with One sample rank test could not give statistical justification for the selection of linear vs. quadratic regression models because slight differences between the error (presented through the relative residuals were obtained. Estimation of the significance of the differences in the RR was achieved using Wilcoxon signed rank test, where linear and quadratic regression models were treated as two independent groups. The application of this simple non-parametric statistical test provides statistical confirmation of the choice of an adequate regression model.
Effect size, confidence intervals and statistical power in psychological research.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Téllez A.
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Quantitative psychological research is focused on detecting the occurrence of certain population phenomena by analyzing data from a sample, and statistics is a particularly helpful mathematical tool that is used by researchers to evaluate hypotheses and make decisions to accept or reject such hypotheses. In this paper, the various statistical tools in psychological research are reviewed. The limitations of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST and the advantages of using effect size and its respective confidence intervals are explained, as the latter two measurements can provide important information about the results of a study. These measurements also can facilitate data interpretation and easily detect trivial effects, enabling researchers to make decisions in a more clinically relevant fashion. Moreover, it is recommended to establish an appropriate sample size by calculating the optimum statistical power at the moment that the research is designed. Psychological journal editors are encouraged to follow APA recommendations strictly and ask authors of original research studies to report the effect size, its confidence intervals, statistical power and, when required, any measure of clinical significance. Additionally, we must account for the teaching of statistics at the graduate level. At that level, students do not receive sufficient information concerning the importance of using different types of effect sizes and their confidence intervals according to the different types of research designs; instead, most of the information is focused on the various tools of NHST.
THE IMPACT OF THE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE ON THE INSURANCE DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA. STATISTICAL APPROACHES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CRISTEA MIRELA
2016-12-01
Full Text Available A significant component of a developed economy, insurance holds a prominent role in European countries, its own contribution being noticed in the GDP of every country. The involvements of unemployment on the insurance market size have been reviewed in numerous specialized papers internationally. Based on these results, but also on the fact that in Romania there have not been measured such statistical correlations showing to what extent the unemployment rate influences the main indicators in the insurance field, in this research we analyze the statistical correlation between results which reveal the dimension of the insurance market - the penetration degree and the insurance density - and the unemployment rate. To perform the analysis, we apply statistical methods, for the period 1997-2015. The results are analysed in the context of the relevant international statistics, as well as reported to the Romanian general economic framework.
Statistical Validation of Normal Tissue Complication Probability Models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu Chengjian, E-mail: c.j.xu@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Schaaf, Arjen van der; Veld, Aart A. van' t; Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Schilstra, Cornelis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Radiotherapy Institute Friesland, Leeuwarden (Netherlands)
2012-09-01
Purpose: To investigate the applicability and value of double cross-validation and permutation tests as established statistical approaches in the validation of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models. Methods and Materials: A penalized regression method, LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator), was used to build NTCP models for xerostomia after radiation therapy treatment of head-and-neck cancer. Model assessment was based on the likelihood function and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: Repeated double cross-validation showed the uncertainty and instability of the NTCP models and indicated that the statistical significance of model performance can be obtained by permutation testing. Conclusion: Repeated double cross-validation and permutation tests are recommended to validate NTCP models before clinical use.
Alternative derivations of the statistical mechanical distribution laws.
Wall, F T
1971-08-01
A new approach is presented for the derivation of statistical mechanical distribution laws. The derivations are accomplished by minimizing the Helmholtz free energy under constant temperature and volume, instead of maximizing the entropy under constant energy and volume. An alternative method involves stipulating equality of chemical potential, or equality of activity, for particles in different energy levels. This approach leads to a general statement of distribution laws applicable to all systems for which thermodynamic probabilities can be written. The methods also avoid use of the calculus of variations, Lagrangian multipliers, and Stirling's approximation for the factorial. The results are applied specifically to Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein statistics. The special significance of chemical potential and activity is discussed for microscopic systems.
Statistical Tutorial | Center for Cancer Research
Recent advances in cancer biology have resulted in the need for increased statistical analysis of research data. ST is designed as a follow up to Statistical Analysis of Research Data (SARD) held in April 2018. The tutorial will apply the general principles of statistical analysis of research data including descriptive statistics, z- and t-tests of means and mean
[Statistics for statistics?--Thoughts about psychological tools].
Berger, Uwe; Stöbel-Richter, Yve
2007-12-01
Statistical methods take a prominent place among psychologists' educational programs. Being known as difficult to understand and heavy to learn, students fear of these contents. Those, who do not aspire after a research carrier at the university, will forget the drilled contents fast. Furthermore, because it does not apply for the work with patients and other target groups at a first glance, the methodological education as a whole was often questioned. For many psychological practitioners the statistical education makes only sense by enforcing respect against other professions, namely physicians. For the own business, statistics is rarely taken seriously as a professional tool. The reason seems to be clear: Statistics treats numbers, while psychotherapy treats subjects. So, does statistics ends in itself? With this article, we try to answer the question, if and how statistical methods were represented within the psychotherapeutical and psychological research. Therefore, we analyzed 46 Originals of a complete volume of the journal Psychotherapy, Psychosomatics, Psychological Medicine (PPmP). Within the volume, 28 different analyse methods were applied, from which 89 per cent were directly based upon statistics. To be able to write and critically read Originals as a backbone of research, presumes a high degree of statistical education. To ignore statistics means to ignore research and at least to reveal the own professional work to arbitrariness.
Gorobets, Yu I; Gorobets, O Yu
2015-01-01
The statistical model is proposed in this paper for description of orientation of trajectories of unicellular diamagnetic organisms in a magnetic field. The statistical parameter such as the effective energy is calculated on basis of this model. The resulting effective energy is the statistical characteristics of trajectories of diamagnetic microorganisms in a magnetic field connected with their metabolism. The statistical model is applicable for the case when the energy of the thermal motion of bacteria is negligible in comparison with their energy in a magnetic field and the bacteria manifest the significant "active random movement", i.e. there is the randomizing motion of the bacteria of non thermal nature, for example, movement of bacteria by means of flagellum. The energy of the randomizing active self-motion of bacteria is characterized by the new statistical parameter for biological objects. The parameter replaces the energy of the randomizing thermal motion in calculation of the statistical distribution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Significant Association of Streptococcus bovis with Malignant Gastrointestinal Diseases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salah Shanan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive bacterium causing serious human infections, including endocarditis and bacteremia, and is usually associated with underlying disease. The aims of the current study were to compare prevalence of the bacterium associated with malignant and nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases and to determine the susceptibility of the isolated strains to different antimicrobial agents. The result showed that the prevalence of S. bovis in stool specimens from patients with malignant or with nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases was statistically significant. This result may support the idea that there is correlation between S. bovis and the malignant gastrointestinal diseases.
THE EFFECTS OF BASIC MOTOR ABILITIES ON DRIBBLING RESULTS IN SOCCER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ismail Selimović
2011-03-01
Full Text Available This study was conducted on a sample of 100 boys aged 12-14 years, members of Sarajevo soccer school teams; FK "ŽELJEZNIČAR", FK "SARAJEVO", FK "NOVI GRAD" and FK "BOSNA". As a predictive variable system, the 17 variables of basic motor skills were applied, and criteria variable was the level of motor control knowledge of ball dribble in football. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of multiple and partial basic motor abilities on the ball dribbling results. Results of regression analysis showed that the significance of mutual influence and prediction criteria system was p <0.01. Variables for general endurance assessment and variable for agility assessment showed statistically significant positive partial correlation coefficients. The explosive strength assessment variable had a statistically significant partial correlation coefficient, but a statistically significant negative partial correlation coefficient was noticed with the flexibility assessment variable
Choosing the Best Training Programme: Is there a Case for Statistical Treatment Rules?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Staghøj, Jonas; Svarer, Michael; Rosholm, Michael
2010-01-01
When treatment effects of active labour market programmes (ALMPs) are heterogeneous in an observable way across the population, the allocation of the unemployed into different programmes becomes particularly important. In this article, we present a statistical model that can be used to allocate...... unemployed into different ALMPs. The model presented is a duration model that uses the timing-of-events framework to identify causal effects. We compare different assignment rules, and the results suggest that a significant reduction in the average duration of unemployment may result if a statistical...
On the statistical assessment of classifiers using DNA microarray data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carella M
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we present a method for the statistical assessment of cancer predictors which make use of gene expression profiles. The methodology is applied to a new data set of microarray gene expression data collected in Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital, Foggia – Italy. The data set is made up of normal (22 and tumor (25 specimens extracted from 25 patients affected by colon cancer. We propose to give answers to some questions which are relevant for the automatic diagnosis of cancer such as: Is the size of the available data set sufficient to build accurate classifiers? What is the statistical significance of the associated error rates? In what ways can accuracy be considered dependant on the adopted classification scheme? How many genes are correlated with the pathology and how many are sufficient for an accurate colon cancer classification? The method we propose answers these questions whilst avoiding the potential pitfalls hidden in the analysis and interpretation of microarray data. Results We estimate the generalization error, evaluated through the Leave-K-Out Cross Validation error, for three different classification schemes by varying the number of training examples and the number of the genes used. The statistical significance of the error rate is measured by using a permutation test. We provide a statistical analysis in terms of the frequencies of the genes involved in the classification. Using the whole set of genes, we found that the Weighted Voting Algorithm (WVA classifier learns the distinction between normal and tumor specimens with 25 training examples, providing e = 21% (p = 0.045 as an error rate. This remains constant even when the number of examples increases. Moreover, Regularized Least Squares (RLS and Support Vector Machines (SVM classifiers can learn with only 15 training examples, with an error rate of e = 19% (p = 0.035 and e = 18% (p = 0.037 respectively. Moreover, the error rate
Statistical analysis of the Ft. Calhoun reactor coolant pump system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patel, Bimal; Heising, C.D.
1997-01-01
In engineering science, statistical quality control techniques have traditionally been applied to control manufacturing processes. An application to commercial nuclear power plant maintenance and control is presented that can greatly improve plant safety. As a demonstration of such an approach, a specific system is analyzed: the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs) of the Ft. Calhoun nuclear power plant. This research uses capability analysis, Shewhart X-bar, R charts, canonical correlation methods, and design of experiments to analyze the process for the state of statistical control. The results obtained show that six out of ten parameters are under control specification limits and four parameters are not in the state of statistical control. The analysis shows that statistical process control methods can be applied as an early warning system capable of identifying significant equipment problems well in advance of traditional control room alarm indicators. Such a system would provide operators with ample time to respond to possible emergency situations and thus improve plant safety and reliability. (Author)
Whose statistical reasoning is facilitated by a causal structure intervention?
McNair, Simon; Feeney, Aidan
2015-02-01
People often struggle when making Bayesian probabilistic estimates on the basis of competing sources of statistical evidence. Recently, Krynski and Tenenbaum (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136, 430-450, 2007) proposed that a causal Bayesian framework accounts for peoples' errors in Bayesian reasoning and showed that, by clarifying the causal relations among the pieces of evidence, judgments on a classic statistical reasoning problem could be significantly improved. We aimed to understand whose statistical reasoning is facilitated by the causal structure intervention. In Experiment 1, although we observed causal facilitation effects overall, the effect was confined to participants high in numeracy. We did not find an overall facilitation effect in Experiment 2 but did replicate the earlier interaction between numerical ability and the presence or absence of causal content. This effect held when we controlled for general cognitive ability and thinking disposition. Our results suggest that clarifying causal structure facilitates Bayesian judgments, but only for participants with sufficient understanding of basic concepts in probability and statistics.
On a curvature-statistics theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calixto, M; Aldaya, V
2008-01-01
The spin-statistics theorem in quantum field theory relates the spin of a particle to the statistics obeyed by that particle. Here we investigate an interesting correspondence or connection between curvature (κ = ±1) and quantum statistics (Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein, respectively). The interrelation between both concepts is established through vacuum coherent configurations of zero modes in quantum field theory on the compact O(3) and noncompact O(2; 1) (spatial) isometry subgroups of de Sitter and Anti de Sitter spaces, respectively. The high frequency limit, is retrieved as a (zero curvature) group contraction to the Newton-Hooke (harmonic oscillator) group. We also make some comments on the physical significance of the vacuum energy density and the cosmological constant problem.
On a curvature-statistics theorem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calixto, M [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Estadistica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII 56, 30203 Cartagena (Spain); Aldaya, V [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Apartado Postal 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: Manuel.Calixto@upct.es
2008-08-15
The spin-statistics theorem in quantum field theory relates the spin of a particle to the statistics obeyed by that particle. Here we investigate an interesting correspondence or connection between curvature ({kappa} = {+-}1) and quantum statistics (Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein, respectively). The interrelation between both concepts is established through vacuum coherent configurations of zero modes in quantum field theory on the compact O(3) and noncompact O(2; 1) (spatial) isometry subgroups of de Sitter and Anti de Sitter spaces, respectively. The high frequency limit, is retrieved as a (zero curvature) group contraction to the Newton-Hooke (harmonic oscillator) group. We also make some comments on the physical significance of the vacuum energy density and the cosmological constant problem.
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE IN CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jadranka Zlomislić
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the influence of education and additional factors influencing students’ awareness of intercultural differences. For the purposes of this research assessment was carried out with regard to their role in promoting cultural awareness and facing cross-cultural challenges posed by unfamiliar cross-cultural contexts. Cultural education is presumed to be a key factor for achieving a significant increase of cultural sensitivity and cultural awareness in order to ensure successful cross-cultural communication and increase mobility of students/working professionals. For this study, it was assumed that the cultural awareness of students increases due to the courses they take and their overall study experience. A special questionnaire was developed for the purposes of this research, and the obtained results were statistically analyzed with the help of descriptive statistics, the non-parametric chi-square test, and the Mann-Whitney test. The research has shown that intercultural competence has a statistically significant positive effect on the readiness of students to participate in study and work programs abroad. Thus, it is mandatory that foreign language competence as well as intercultural competence be a priority of the curriculum if we are to increase the number of highly educated experts who will be capable to compete successfully as students or professionals in all fields and all cultural areas. If we recognize that globalization has made the world a global village, we all need the intercultural competence to successfully live in it.
PINGU and the neutrino mass hierarchy: Statistical and systematical aspects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capozzi, F.; Marrone, A.; Lisi, E.
2016-01-01
The proposed PINGU project (Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade) is supposed to determine neutrino mass hierarchy through matter effects of atmospheric neutrinos crossing the Earth core and mantle, which leads to variations in the events spectrum in energy and zenith angle. The presence of non-negligible (and partly unknown) systematics on the spectral shape can make the statistical analysis particularly challenging in the limit of high statistics. Assuming plausible spectral shape uncertainties at the percent level (due to effective volume, cross section, resolution functions, oscillation parameters, etc.), we obtain a significant reduction in the sensitivity to the hierarchy. The obtained results show the importance of a dedicated research program aimed at a better characterization and reduction of the uncertainties in future high-statistics experiments with atmospheric neutrinos.
Managing Macroeconomic Risks by Using Statistical Simulation
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Merkaš Zvonko
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the possibilities of using statistical simulation in the macroeconomic risks measurement. At the level of the whole world, macroeconomic risks are, due to the excessive imbalance, significantly increased. Using analytical statistical methods and Monte Carlo simulation, the authors interpret the collected data sets, compare and analyze them in order to mitigate potential risks. The empirical part of the study is a qualitative case study that uses statistical methods and Monte Carlo simulation for managing macroeconomic risks, which is the central theme of this work. Application of statistical simulation is necessary because the system, for which it is necessary to specify the model, is too complex for an analytical approach. The objective of the paper is to point out the previous need for consideration of significant macroeconomic risks, particularly in terms of the number of the unemployed in the society, the movement of gross domestic product and the country’s credit rating, and the use of data previously processed by statistical methods, through statistical simulation, to analyze the existing model of managing the macroeconomic risks and suggest elements for a management model development that will allow, with the lowest possible probability and consequences, the emergence of the recent macroeconomic risks. The stochastic characteristics of the system, defined by random variables as input values defined by probability distributions, require the performance of a large number of iterations on which to record the output of the model and calculate the mathematical expectations. The paper expounds the basic procedures and techniques of discrete statistical simulation applied to systems that can be characterized by a number of events which represent a set of circumstances that have caused a change in the system’s state and the possibility of its application in the field of assessment of macroeconomic risks. The method has no
Exact distributions of two-sample rank statistics and block rank statistics using computer algebra
Wiel, van de M.A.
1998-01-01
We derive generating functions for various rank statistics and we use computer algebra to compute the exact null distribution of these statistics. We present various techniques for reducing time and memory space used by the computations. We use the results to write Mathematica notebooks for
Quality of statistical reporting in developmental disability journals.
Namasivayam, Aravind K; Yan, Tina; Wong, Wing Yiu Stephanie; van Lieshout, Pascal
2015-12-01
Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) dominates quantitative data analysis, but its use is controversial and has been heavily criticized. The American Psychological Association has advocated the reporting of effect sizes (ES), confidence intervals (CIs), and statistical power analysis to complement NHST results to provide a more comprehensive understanding of research findings. The aim of this paper is to carry out a sample survey of statistical reporting practices in two journals with the highest h5-index scores in the areas of developmental disability and rehabilitation. Using a checklist that includes critical recommendations by American Psychological Association, we examined 100 randomly selected articles out of 456 articles reporting inferential statistics in the year 2013 in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (JADD) and Research in Developmental Disabilities (RDD). The results showed that for both journals, ES were reported only half the time (JADD 59.3%; RDD 55.87%). These findings are similar to psychology journals, but are in stark contrast to ES reporting in educational journals (73%). Furthermore, a priori power and sample size determination (JADD 10%; RDD 6%), along with reporting and interpreting precision measures (CI: JADD 13.33%; RDD 16.67%), were the least reported metrics in these journals, but not dissimilar to journals in other disciplines. To advance the science in developmental disability and rehabilitation and to bridge the research-to-practice divide, reforms in statistical reporting, such as providing supplemental measures to NHST, are clearly needed.
Testing statistical hypotheses of equivalence
Wellek, Stefan
2010-01-01
Equivalence testing has grown significantly in importance over the last two decades, especially as its relevance to a variety of applications has become understood. Yet published work on the general methodology remains scattered in specialists' journals, and for the most part, it focuses on the relatively narrow topic of bioequivalence assessment.With a far broader perspective, Testing Statistical Hypotheses of Equivalence provides the first comprehensive treatment of statistical equivalence testing. The author addresses a spectrum of specific, two-sided equivalence testing problems, from the
[Effect sizes, statistical power and sample sizes in "the Japanese Journal of Psychology"].
Suzukawa, Yumi; Toyoda, Hideki
2012-04-01
This study analyzed the statistical power of research studies published in the "Japanese Journal of Psychology" in 2008 and 2009. Sample effect sizes and sample statistical powers were calculated for each statistical test and analyzed with respect to the analytical methods and the fields of the studies. The results show that in the fields like perception, cognition or learning, the effect sizes were relatively large, although the sample sizes were small. At the same time, because of the small sample sizes, some meaningful effects could not be detected. In the other fields, because of the large sample sizes, meaningless effects could be detected. This implies that researchers who could not get large enough effect sizes would use larger samples to obtain significant results.
BrightStat.com: free statistics online.
Stricker, Daniel
2008-10-01
Powerful software for statistical analysis is expensive. Here I present BrightStat, a statistical software running on the Internet which is free of charge. BrightStat's goals, its main capabilities and functionalities are outlined. Three different sample runs, a Friedman test, a chi-square test, and a step-wise multiple regression are presented. The results obtained by BrightStat are compared with results computed by SPSS, one of the global leader in providing statistical software, and VassarStats, a collection of scripts for data analysis running on the Internet. Elementary statistics is an inherent part of academic education and BrightStat is an alternative to commercial products.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brekke, L.; Imbo, T.D.
1992-01-01
The authors study the inequivalent quantizations of (1 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear sigma models with space manifold S 1 and target manifold X. If x is multiply connected, these models possess topological solitons. After providing a definition of spin and statistics for these solitons and demonstrating a spin-statistics correlation, we give various examples where the solitons can have exotic statistics. In some of these models, the solitons may obey a generalized version of fractional statistics called ambistatistics. In this paper the relevance of these 2d models to the statistics of vortices in (2 + 1)-dimensional spontaneously broken gauge theories is discussed. The authors close with a discussion concerning the extension of our results to higher dimensions
Pointer, J S
1997-11-01
This report describes the results of a retrospective analysis of intraocular pressure (i.o.p.) values recorded from the right (R) and left (L) eyes of middle-aged and elderly at-risk but assumed non-glaucomatous subjects. The tensions had been measured using the Keeler PULSAIR non-contact tonometer (NCT) in the course of routine optometric practice when individuals attended for a sight test. These bilateral IOP data were collated on the basis of each subject's gender, (male/female), age (40-59 years/60+ years) and the time of the tonometry assessment (a.m./p.m.). Wherever possible material was equi-partitioned across these three bipartite variables producing balanced data groupings. Pair-wise testing of R versus L absolute values of pneumo-applanation pressures across any of the balanced data groupings failed to reveal a statistically-significant difference between the paired IOP distributions. There was a consistent but small relative IOP asymmetry (L > R) in these data. Further analysis indicated that this asymmetry only attained borderline statistical significance with respect to subject's age: neither gender nor the time of assessment were statistically significant features, and there were no statistically-significant interactions between any of the three variables. In conclusion, provided that the manufacturer's operating instructions are adhered to, IOP asymmetry is not a clinically-significant feature when using the PULSAIR NCT on a clinical population at risk of developing glaucoma.
A statistical procedure for the qualification of indoor dust
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scapin, Valdirene O.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Ribeiro, Andreza P.; Sato, Ivone M.
2009-01-01
The materials science advance has contributed to the humanity. Notwithstanding, serious environmental and human health problems are often observed. Thereby, many worldwide researchers have focused their work to diagnose, assess and monitor several environmental systems. In this work, a statistical procedure (on a 0.05 significance level) that allows verifying if indoor dust samples have characteristics of soil/sediment is presented. Dust samples were collected from 69 residences using a domestic vacuum cleaner in four neighborhoods of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, between 2006 and 2008. The samples were sieved in the fractions of 150-75 (C), 75-63 (M) and <63 μm (F). The elemental concentrations were determined by X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). Afterwards, the indoor samples results (group A) were compared to the group of 109 certificated reference materials, which included different kinds of geological matrices, such as clay, sediment, sand and sludge (group B) and to the continental crust values (group C). Initially, the Al/Si ratio was calculated for the groups (A, B, C). The variance analysis (ANOVA), followed by Tukey test, was used to find out if there was a significant difference between the concentration means of the considered groups. According to the statistical tests; the group B presented results that are considered different from others. The interquartile range (IQR) was used to detected outlier values. ANOVA was applied again and the results (p ≥ 0.05) showed equality between ratios means of the three groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that the indoor dust samples have characteristic of soil/sediment. The statistical procedure may be used as a tool to clear the information about contaminants in dust samples, since they have characteristic of soil and may be compared with values reported by environmental control organisms. (author)
Statistical and theoretical research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1983-01-01
Significant accomplishments include the creation of field designs to detect population impacts, new census procedures for small mammals, and methods for designing studies to determine where and how much of a contaminant is extent over certain landscapes. A book describing these statistical methods is currently being written and will apply to a variety of environmental contaminants, including radionuclides. PNL scientists also have devised an analytical method for predicting the success of field eexperiments on wild populations. Two highlights of current research are the discoveries that population of free-roaming horse herds can double in four years and that grizzly bear populations may be substantially smaller than once thought. As stray horses become a public nuisance at DOE and other large Federal sites, it is important to determine their number. Similar statistical theory can be readily applied to other situations where wild animals are a problem of concern to other government agencies. Another book, on statistical aspects of radionuclide studies, is written specifically for researchers in radioecology
Southard, Rodney E.
2013-01-01
The weather and precipitation patterns in Missouri vary considerably from year to year. In 2008, the statewide average rainfall was 57.34 inches and in 2012, the statewide average rainfall was 30.64 inches. This variability in precipitation and resulting streamflow in Missouri underlies the necessity for water managers and users to have reliable streamflow statistics and a means to compute select statistics at ungaged locations for a better understanding of water availability. Knowledge of surface-water availability is dependent on the streamflow data that have been collected and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey for more than 100 years at approximately 350 streamgages throughout Missouri. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, computed streamflow statistics at streamgages through the 2010 water year, defined periods of drought and defined methods to estimate streamflow statistics at ungaged locations, and developed regional regression equations to compute selected streamflow statistics at ungaged locations. Streamflow statistics and flow durations were computed for 532 streamgages in Missouri and in neighboring States of Missouri. For streamgages with more than 10 years of record, Kendall’s tau was computed to evaluate for trends in streamflow data. If trends were detected, the variable length method was used to define the period of no trend. Water years were removed from the dataset from the beginning of the record for a streamgage until no trend was detected. Low-flow frequency statistics were then computed for the entire period of record and for the period of no trend if 10 or more years of record were available for each analysis. Three methods are presented for computing selected streamflow statistics at ungaged locations. The first method uses power curve equations developed for 28 selected streams in Missouri and neighboring States that have multiple streamgages on the same streams. Statistical
Whither Statistics Education Research?
Watson, Jane
2016-01-01
This year marks the 25th anniversary of the publication of a "National Statement on Mathematics for Australian Schools", which was the first curriculum statement this country had including "Chance and Data" as a significant component. It is hence an opportune time to survey the history of the related statistics education…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Øvstebø Reidun
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated monocytes is mainly studied by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR using GAPDH (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase or ACTB (beta-actin as reference gene for normalization. Expression of traditional reference genes has been shown to vary substantially under certain conditions leading to invalid results. To investigate whether traditional reference genes are stably expressed in LPS-stimulated monocytes or if RT-qPCR results are dependent on the choice of reference genes, we have assessed and evaluated gene expression stability of twelve candidate reference genes in this model system. Results Twelve candidate reference genes were quantified by RT-qPCR in LPS-stimulated, human monocytes and evaluated using the programs geNorm, Normfinder and BestKeeper. geNorm ranked PPIB (cyclophilin B, B2M (beta-2-microglobulin and PPIA (cyclophilin A as the best combination for gene expression normalization in LPS-stimulated monocytes. Normfinder suggested TBP (TATA-box binding protein and B2M as the best combination. Compared to these combinations, normalization using GAPDH alone resulted in significantly higher changes of TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL10 (interleukin 10 expression. Moreover, a significant difference in TNF-α expression between monocytes stimulated with equimolar concentrations of LPS from N. meningitides and E. coli, respectively, was identified when using the suggested combinations of reference genes for normalization, but stayed unrecognized when employing a single reference gene, ACTB or GAPDH. Conclusions Gene expression levels in LPS-stimulated monocytes based on RT-qPCR results differ significantly when normalized to a single gene or a combination of stably expressed reference genes. Proper evaluation of reference gene stabiliy is therefore mandatory before reporting RT-qPCR results in LPS-stimulated monocytes.
Application of pedagogy reflective in statistical methods course and practicum statistical methods
Julie, Hongki
2017-08-01
Subject Elementary Statistics, Statistical Methods and Statistical Methods Practicum aimed to equip students of Mathematics Education about descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The students' understanding about descriptive and inferential statistics were important for students on Mathematics Education Department, especially for those who took the final task associated with quantitative research. In quantitative research, students were required to be able to present and describe the quantitative data in an appropriate manner, to make conclusions from their quantitative data, and to create relationships between independent and dependent variables were defined in their research. In fact, when students made their final project associated with quantitative research, it was not been rare still met the students making mistakes in the steps of making conclusions and error in choosing the hypothetical testing process. As a result, they got incorrect conclusions. This is a very fatal mistake for those who did the quantitative research. There were some things gained from the implementation of reflective pedagogy on teaching learning process in Statistical Methods and Statistical Methods Practicum courses, namely: 1. Twenty two students passed in this course and and one student did not pass in this course. 2. The value of the most accomplished student was A that was achieved by 18 students. 3. According all students, their critical stance could be developed by them, and they could build a caring for each other through a learning process in this course. 4. All students agreed that through a learning process that they undergo in the course, they can build a caring for each other.
Hayslett, H T
1991-01-01
Statistics covers the basic principles of Statistics. The book starts by tackling the importance and the two kinds of statistics; the presentation of sample data; the definition, illustration and explanation of several measures of location; and the measures of variation. The text then discusses elementary probability, the normal distribution and the normal approximation to the binomial. Testing of statistical hypotheses and tests of hypotheses about the theoretical proportion of successes in a binomial population and about the theoretical mean of a normal population are explained. The text the
High impact = high statistical standards? Not necessarily so.
Tressoldi, Patrizio E; Giofré, David; Sella, Francesco; Cumming, Geoff
2013-01-01
What are the statistical practices of articles published in journals with a high impact factor? Are there differences compared with articles published in journals with a somewhat lower impact factor that have adopted editorial policies to reduce the impact of limitations of Null Hypothesis Significance Testing? To investigate these questions, the current study analyzed all articles related to psychological, neuropsychological and medical issues, published in 2011 in four journals with high impact factors: Science, Nature, The New England Journal of Medicine and The Lancet, and three journals with relatively lower impact factors: Neuropsychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology-Applied and the American Journal of Public Health. Results show that Null Hypothesis Significance Testing without any use of confidence intervals, effect size, prospective power and model estimation, is the prevalent statistical practice used in articles published in Nature, 89%, followed by articles published in Science, 42%. By contrast, in all other journals, both with high and lower impact factors, most articles report confidence intervals and/or effect size measures. We interpreted these differences as consequences of the editorial policies adopted by the journal editors, which are probably the most effective means to improve the statistical practices in journals with high or low impact factors.
High Impact = High Statistical Standards? Not Necessarily So
Tressoldi, Patrizio E.; Giofré, David; Sella, Francesco; Cumming, Geoff
2013-01-01
What are the statistical practices of articles published in journals with a high impact factor? Are there differences compared with articles published in journals with a somewhat lower impact factor that have adopted editorial policies to reduce the impact of limitations of Null Hypothesis Significance Testing? To investigate these questions, the current study analyzed all articles related to psychological, neuropsychological and medical issues, published in 2011 in four journals with high impact factors: Science, Nature, The New England Journal of Medicine and The Lancet, and three journals with relatively lower impact factors: Neuropsychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology-Applied and the American Journal of Public Health. Results show that Null Hypothesis Significance Testing without any use of confidence intervals, effect size, prospective power and model estimation, is the prevalent statistical practice used in articles published in Nature, 89%, followed by articles published in Science, 42%. By contrast, in all other journals, both with high and lower impact factors, most articles report confidence intervals and/or effect size measures. We interpreted these differences as consequences of the editorial policies adopted by the journal editors, which are probably the most effective means to improve the statistical practices in journals with high or low impact factors. PMID:23418533
Tumur, Odgerel; Soon, Kean; Brown, Fraser; Mykytowycz, Marcus
2013-06-01
The aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of application of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm on the radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its effects on image quality of CCTA and to evaluate the effects of various patient and CT scanning factors on the radiation dose of CCTA. This was a retrospective study that included 347 consecutive patients who underwent CCTA at a tertiary university teaching hospital between 1 July 2009 and 20 September 2011. Analysis was performed comparing patient demographics, scan characteristics, radiation dose and image quality in two groups of patients in whom conventional Filtered Back Projection (FBP) or ASIR was used for image reconstruction. There were 238 patients in the FBP group and 109 patients in the ASIR group. There was no difference between the groups in the use of prospective gating, scan length or tube voltage. In ASIR group, significantly lower tube current was used compared with FBP group, 550 mA (450-600) vs. 650 mA (500-711.25) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P ASIR group compared with FBP group, 4.29 mSv (2.84-6.02) vs. 5.84 mSv (3.88-8.39) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P ASIR was associated with increased image noise compared with FBP (39.93 ± 10.22 vs. 37.63 ± 18.79 (mean ± standard deviation), respectively, P ASIR reduces the radiation dose of CCTA without affecting the image quality. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.
Riley, Richard D.
2017-01-01
An important question for clinicians appraising a meta‐analysis is: are the findings likely to be valid in their own practice—does the reported effect accurately represent the effect that would occur in their own clinical population? To this end we advance the concept of statistical validity—where the parameter being estimated equals the corresponding parameter for a new independent study. Using a simple (‘leave‐one‐out’) cross‐validation technique, we demonstrate how we may test meta‐analysis estimates for statistical validity using a new validation statistic, Vn, and derive its distribution. We compare this with the usual approach of investigating heterogeneity in meta‐analyses and demonstrate the link between statistical validity and homogeneity. Using a simulation study, the properties of Vn and the Q statistic are compared for univariate random effects meta‐analysis and a tailored meta‐regression model, where information from the setting (included as model covariates) is used to calibrate the summary estimate to the setting of application. Their properties are found to be similar when there are 50 studies or more, but for fewer studies Vn has greater power but a higher type 1 error rate than Q. The power and type 1 error rate of Vn are also shown to depend on the within‐study variance, between‐study variance, study sample size, and the number of studies in the meta‐analysis. Finally, we apply Vn to two published meta‐analyses and conclude that it usefully augments standard methods when deciding upon the likely validity of summary meta‐analysis estimates in clinical practice. © 2017 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28620945
A study of statistics anxiety levels of graduate dental hygiene students.
Welch, Paul S; Jacks, Mary E; Smiley, Lynn A; Walden, Carolyn E; Clark, William D; Nguyen, Carol A
2015-02-01
In light of increased emphasis on evidence-based practice in the profession of dental hygiene, it is important that today's dental hygienist comprehend statistical measures to fully understand research articles, and thereby apply scientific evidence to practice. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate statistics anxiety among graduate dental hygiene students in the U.S. A web-based self-report, anonymous survey was emailed to directors of 17 MSDH programs in the U.S. with a request to distribute to graduate students. The survey collected data on statistics anxiety, sociodemographic characteristics and evidence-based practice. Statistic anxiety was assessed using the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale. Study significance level was α=0.05. Only 8 of the 17 invited programs participated in the study. Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale data revealed graduate dental hygiene students experience low to moderate levels of statistics anxiety. Specifically, the level of anxiety on the Interpretation Anxiety factor indicated this population could struggle with making sense of scientific research. A decisive majority (92%) of students indicated statistics is essential for evidence-based practice and should be a required course for all dental hygienists. This study served to identify statistics anxiety in a previously unexplored population. The findings should be useful in both theory building and in practical applications. Furthermore, the results can be used to direct future research. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Accurate coding in sepsis: clinical significance and financial implications.
Chin, Y T; Scattergood, N; Thornber, M; Thomas, S
2016-09-01
Sepsis is a major healthcare problem and leading cause of death worldwide. UK hospital mortality statistics and payments for patient episodes of care are calculated on clinical coding data. The accuracy of these data depends on the quality of coding. This study aimed to investigate whether patients with significant bacteraemia are coded for sepsis and to estimate the financial costs of miscoding. Of 54 patients over a one-month period with a significant bacteraemia, only 19% had been coded for sepsis. This is likely to lead to falsely high calculated hospital mortality. Furthermore, this resulted in an underpayment of £21,000 for one month alone. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. All rights reserved.
Parallel auto-correlative statistics with VTK.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pebay, Philippe Pierre; Bennett, Janine Camille
2013-08-01
This report summarizes existing statistical engines in VTK and presents both the serial and parallel auto-correlative statistics engines. It is a sequel to [PT08, BPRT09b, PT09, BPT09, PT10] which studied the parallel descriptive, correlative, multi-correlative, principal component analysis, contingency, k-means, and order statistics engines. The ease of use of the new parallel auto-correlative statistics engine is illustrated by the means of C++ code snippets and algorithm verification is provided. This report justifies the design of the statistics engines with parallel scalability in mind, and provides scalability and speed-up analysis results for the autocorrelative statistics engine.
Statistical-Dynamical Seasonal Forecasts of Central-Southwest Asian Winter Precipitation.
Tippett, Michael K.; Goddard, Lisa; Barnston, Anthony G.
2005-06-01
Interannual precipitation variability in central-southwest (CSW) Asia has been associated with East Asian jet stream variability and western Pacific tropical convection. However, atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) forced by observed sea surface temperature (SST) poorly simulate the region's interannual precipitation variability. The statistical-dynamical approach uses statistical methods to correct systematic deficiencies in the response of AGCMs to SST forcing. Statistical correction methods linking model-simulated Indo-west Pacific precipitation and observed CSW Asia precipitation result in modest, but statistically significant, cross-validated simulation skill in the northeast part of the domain for the period from 1951 to 1998. The statistical-dynamical method is also applied to recent (winter 1998/99 to 2002/03) multimodel, two-tier December-March precipitation forecasts initiated in October. This period includes 4 yr (winter of 1998/99 to 2001/02) of severe drought. Tercile probability forecasts are produced using ensemble-mean forecasts and forecast error estimates. The statistical-dynamical forecasts show enhanced probability of below-normal precipitation for the four drought years and capture the return to normal conditions in part of the region during the winter of 2002/03.May Kabul be without gold, but not without snow.—Traditional Afghan proverb
Statistical Reform in School Psychology Research: A Synthesis
Swaminathan, Hariharan; Rogers, H. Jane
2007-01-01
Statistical reform in school psychology research is discussed in terms of research designs, measurement issues, statistical modeling and analysis procedures, interpretation and reporting of statistical results, and finally statistics education.
Statistical analysis of brake squeal noise
Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.
2011-06-01
Despite substantial research efforts applied to the prediction of brake squeal noise since the early 20th century, the mechanisms behind its generation are still not fully understood. Squealing brakes are of significant concern to the automobile industry, mainly because of the costs associated with warranty claims. In order to remedy the problems inherent in designing quieter brakes and, therefore, to understand the mechanisms, a design of experiments study, using a noise dynamometer, was performed by a brake system manufacturer to determine the influence of geometrical parameters (namely, the number and location of slots) of brake pads on brake squeal noise. The experimental results were evaluated with a noise index and ranked for warm and cold brake stops. These data are analysed here using statistical descriptors based on population distributions, and a correlation analysis, to gain greater insight into the functional dependency between the time-averaged friction coefficient as the input and the peak sound pressure level data as the output quantity. The correlation analysis between the time-averaged friction coefficient and peak sound pressure data is performed by applying a semblance analysis and a joint recurrence quantification analysis. Linear measures are compared with complexity measures (nonlinear) based on statistics from the underlying joint recurrence plots. Results show that linear measures cannot be used to rank the noise performance of the four test pad configurations. On the other hand, the ranking of the noise performance of the test pad configurations based on the noise index agrees with that based on nonlinear measures: the higher the nonlinearity between the time-averaged friction coefficient and peak sound pressure, the worse the squeal. These results highlight the nonlinear character of brake squeal and indicate the potential of using nonlinear statistical analysis tools to analyse disc brake squeal.
The earth is flat (p > 0.05: significance thresholds and the crisis of unreplicable research
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valentin Amrhein
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The widespread use of ‘statistical significance’ as a license for making a claim of a scientific finding leads to considerable distortion of the scientific process (according to the American Statistical Association. We review why degrading p-values into ‘significant’ and ‘nonsignificant’ contributes to making studies irreproducible, or to making them seem irreproducible. A major problem is that we tend to take small p-values at face value, but mistrust results with larger p-values. In either case, p-values tell little about reliability of research, because they are hardly replicable even if an alternative hypothesis is true. Also significance (p ≤ 0.05 is hardly replicable: at a good statistical power of 80%, two studies will be ‘conflicting’, meaning that one is significant and the other is not, in one third of the cases if there is a true effect. A replication can therefore not be interpreted as having failed only because it is nonsignificant. Many apparent replication failures may thus reflect faulty judgment based on significance thresholds rather than a crisis of unreplicable research. Reliable conclusions on replicability and practical importance of a finding can only be drawn using cumulative evidence from multiple independent studies. However, applying significance thresholds makes cumulative knowledge unreliable. One reason is that with anything but ideal statistical power, significant effect sizes will be biased upwards. Interpreting inflated significant results while ignoring nonsignificant results will thus lead to wrong conclusions. But current incentives to hunt for significance lead to selective reporting and to publication bias against nonsignificant findings. Data dredging, p-hacking, and publication bias should be addressed by removing fixed significance thresholds. Consistent with the recommendations of the late Ronald Fisher, p-values should be interpreted as graded measures of the strength of evidence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H
1999-08-01
This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiment. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. (Author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)
1999-08-01
This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiments. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. 11 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H.
1999-08-01
This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiment. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. (Author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs
Holtzman, Jessica N; Miller, Shefali; Hooshmand, Farnaz; Wang, Po W; Chang, Kiki D; Hill, Shelley J; Rasgon, Natalie L; Ketter, Terence A
2015-07-01
The strengths and limitations of considering childhood-and adolescent-onset bipolar disorder (BD) separately versus together remain to be established. We assessed this issue. BD patients referred to the Stanford Bipolar Disorder Clinic during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD Affective Disorders Evaluation. Patients with childhood- and adolescent-onset were compared to those with adult-onset for 7 unfavorable bipolar illness characteristics with replicated associations with early-onset patients. Among 502 BD outpatients, those with childhood- (adolescent- (13-18 years, N=218) onset had significantly higher rates for 4/7 unfavorable illness characteristics, including lifetime comorbid anxiety disorder, at least ten lifetime mood episodes, lifetime alcohol use disorder, and prior suicide attempt, than those with adult-onset (>18 years, N=174). Childhood- but not adolescent-onset BD patients also had significantly higher rates of first-degree relative with mood disorder, lifetime substance use disorder, and rapid cycling in the prior year. Patients with pooled childhood/adolescent - compared to adult-onset had significantly higher rates for 5/7 of these unfavorable illness characteristics, while patients with childhood- compared to adolescent-onset had significantly higher rates for 4/7 of these unfavorable illness characteristics. Caucasian, insured, suburban, low substance abuse, American specialty clinic-referred sample limits generalizability. Onset age is based on retrospective recall. Childhood- compared to adolescent-onset BD was more robustly related to unfavorable bipolar illness characteristics, so pooling these groups attenuated such relationships. Further study is warranted to determine the extent to which adolescent-onset BD represents an intermediate phenotype between childhood- and adult-onset BD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Introductory statistics for engineering experimentation
Nelson, Peter R; Coffin, Marie
2003-01-01
The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) introduced a criterion starting with their 1992-1993 site visits that "Students must demonstrate a knowledge of the application of statistics to engineering problems." Since most engineering curricula are filled with requirements in their own discipline, they generally do not have time for a traditional two semesters of probability and statistics. Attempts to condense that material into a single semester often results in so much time being spent on probability that the statistics useful for designing and analyzing engineering/scientific experiments is never covered. In developing a one-semester course whose purpose was to introduce engineering/scientific students to the most useful statistical methods, this book was created to satisfy those needs. - Provides the statistical design and analysis of engineering experiments & problems - Presents a student-friendly approach through providing statistical models for advanced learning techniques - Cove...
Rakesh, V.; Kantharao, B.
2017-03-01
Data assimilation is considered as one of the effective tools for improving forecast skill of mesoscale models. However, for optimum utilization and effective assimilation of observations, many factors need to be taken into account while designing data assimilation methodology. One of the critical components that determines the amount and propagation observation information into the analysis, is model background error statistics (BES). The objective of this study is to quantify how BES in data assimilation impacts on simulation of heavy rainfall events over a southern state in India, Karnataka. Simulations of 40 heavy rainfall events were carried out using Weather Research and Forecasting Model with and without data assimilation. The assimilation experiments were conducted using global and regional BES while the experiment with no assimilation was used as the baseline for assessing the impact of data assimilation. The simulated rainfall is verified against high-resolution rain-gage observations over Karnataka. Statistical evaluation using several accuracy and skill measures shows that data assimilation has improved the heavy rainfall simulation. Our results showed that the experiment using regional BES outperformed the one which used global BES. Critical thermo-dynamic variables conducive for heavy rainfall like convective available potential energy simulated using regional BES is more realistic compared to global BES. It is pointed out that these results have important practical implications in design of forecast platforms while decision-making during extreme weather events
Cross wavelet analysis: significance testing and pitfalls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Maraun
2004-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a detailed evaluation of cross wavelet analysis of bivariate time series. We develop a statistical test for zero wavelet coherency based on Monte Carlo simulations. If at least one of the two processes considered is Gaussian white noise, an approximative formula for the critical value can be utilized. In a second part, typical pitfalls of wavelet cross spectra and wavelet coherency are discussed. The wavelet cross spectrum appears to be not suitable for significance testing the interrelation between two processes. Instead, one should rather apply wavelet coherency. Furthermore we investigate problems due to multiple testing. Based on these results, we show that coherency between ENSO and NAO is an artefact for most of the time from 1900 to 1995. However, during a distinct period from around 1920 to 1940, significant coherency between the two phenomena occurs.
Statistical microeconomics and commodity prices: theory and empirical results.
Baaquie, Belal E
2016-01-13
A review is made of the statistical generalization of microeconomics by Baaquie (Baaquie 2013 Phys. A 392, 4400-4416. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2013.05.008)), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is given by the unequal time correlation function and is modelled by the Feynman path integral based on an action functional. The correlation functions of the model are defined using the path integral. The existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (Baaquie 2013 Phys. A 392, 4400-4416. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2013.05.008)) has been empirically ascertained in Baaquie et al. (Baaquie et al. 2015 Phys. A 428, 19-37. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2015.02.030)). The model's action functionals for different commodities has been empirically determined and calibrated using the unequal time correlation functions of the market commodity prices using a perturbation expansion (Baaquie et al. 2015 Phys. A 428, 19-37. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2015.02.030)). Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are empirically studied and their auto-correlation for up to 300 days is described by the model to an accuracy of R(2)>0.90-using only six parameters. © 2015 The Author(s).
Cornillon, Pierre-Andre; Husson, Francois; Jegou, Nicolas; Josse, Julie; Kloareg, Maela; Matzner-Lober, Eric; Rouviere, Laurent
2012-01-01
An Overview of RMain ConceptsInstalling RWork SessionHelpR ObjectsFunctionsPackagesExercisesPreparing DataReading Data from FileExporting ResultsManipulating VariablesManipulating IndividualsConcatenating Data TablesCross-TabulationExercisesR GraphicsConventional Graphical FunctionsGraphical Functions with latticeExercisesMaking Programs with RControl FlowsPredefined FunctionsCreating a FunctionExercisesStatistical MethodsIntroduction to the Statistical MethodsA Quick Start with RInstalling ROpening and Closing RThe Command PromptAttribution, Objects, and FunctionSelectionOther Rcmdr PackageImporting (or Inputting) DataGraphsStatistical AnalysisHypothesis TestConfidence Intervals for a MeanChi-Square Test of IndependenceComparison of Two MeansTesting Conformity of a ProportionComparing Several ProportionsThe Power of a TestRegressionSimple Linear RegressionMultiple Linear RegressionPartial Least Squares (PLS) RegressionAnalysis of Variance and CovarianceOne-Way Analysis of VarianceMulti-Way Analysis of Varian...
Statistical Learning Is Not Affected by a Prior Bout of Physical Exercise.
Stevens, David J; Arciuli, Joanne; Anderson, David I
2016-05-01
This study examined the effect of a prior bout of exercise on implicit cognition. Specifically, we examined whether a prior bout of moderate intensity exercise affected performance on a statistical learning task in healthy adults. A total of 42 participants were allocated to one of three conditions-a control group, a group that exercised for 15 min prior to the statistical learning task, and a group that exercised for 30 min prior to the statistical learning task. The participants in the exercise groups cycled at 60% of their respective V˙O2 max. Each group demonstrated significant statistical learning, with similar levels of learning among the three groups. Contrary to previous research that has shown that a prior bout of exercise can affect performance on explicit cognitive tasks, the results of the current study suggest that the physiological stress induced by moderate-intensity exercise does not affect implicit cognition as measured by statistical learning. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Lesser, Lawrence M.; Pearl, Dennis K.; Weber, John J., III
2016-01-01
There has been a recent emergence of scholarship on the use of fun in the college statistics classroom, with at least 20 modalities identified. While there have been randomized experiments that suggest that fun can enhance student achievement or attitudes in statistics, these studies have generally been limited to one particular fun modality or…
Quantifying scenarios to check statistical procedures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beetle, T.M.
1976-01-01
Ways of diverting nuclear material are presented in a form that reflects the effects of the diversions on a select set of statistical accounting procedures. Twelve statistics are examined for changes in mean values under sixty diversion scenarios. Several questions about the statistics are answered using a table of quantification results. Findings include a smallest, proper subset of the set of statistics which has one or more changed mean values under each of the diversion scenarios
Experimental statistics for biological sciences.
Bang, Heejung; Davidian, Marie
2010-01-01
In this chapter, we cover basic and fundamental principles and methods in statistics - from "What are Data and Statistics?" to "ANOVA and linear regression," which are the basis of any statistical thinking and undertaking. Readers can easily find the selected topics in most introductory statistics textbooks, but we have tried to assemble and structure them in a succinct and reader-friendly manner in a stand-alone chapter. This text has long been used in real classroom settings for both undergraduate and graduate students who do or do not major in statistical sciences. We hope that from this chapter, readers would understand the key statistical concepts and terminologies, how to design a study (experimental or observational), how to analyze the data (e.g., describe the data and/or estimate the parameter(s) and make inference), and how to interpret the results. This text would be most useful if it is used as a supplemental material, while the readers take their own statistical courses or it would serve as a great reference text associated with a manual for any statistical software as a self-teaching guide.
The Euclid Statistical Matrix Tool
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Curtis Tilves
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Stataphobia, a term used to describe the fear of statistics and research methods, can result from a lack of improper training in statistical methods. Poor statistical methods training can have an effect on health policy decision making and may play a role in the low research productivity seen in developing countries. One way to reduce Stataphobia is to intervene in the teaching of statistics in the classroom; however, such an intervention must tackle several obstacles, including student interest in the material, multiple ways of learning materials, and language barriers. We present here the Euclid Statistical Matrix, a tool for combatting Stataphobia on a global scale. This free tool is comprised of popular statistical YouTube channels and web sources that teach and demonstrate statistical concepts in a variety of presentation methods. Working with international teams in Iran, Japan, Egypt, Russia, and the United States, we have also developed the Statistical Matrix in multiple languages to address language barriers to learning statistics. By utilizing already-established large networks, we are able to disseminate our tool to thousands of Farsi-speaking university faculty and students in Iran and the United States. Future dissemination of the Euclid Statistical Matrix throughout the Central Asia and support from local universities may help to combat low research productivity in this region.
Suicidal Attempt in Bipolar Disorder:Low Significance of Comorbidity with Opioid Dependence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morteza Naserbakht
2009-04-01
Full Text Available "nObjectives: The relationship between suicidal attempt and opioid use disorder in patients with bipolar disorder (BD is unknown. This study aimed at shedding some light on this issue. "nMethod:178 inpatients aged 18-65 with BD type I with or without opioid use disorders were face-to-face interviewed through the Persian Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders (SCID-I, the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scale, and a questionnaire including demographic and some clinical factors. "nResults:Gender was the only demographic factor with a statistical significant difference between suicidal and non-suicidal bipolar patients. Also, comorbidity with anxiety disorders and the type of index and current mood episodes were significantly different between the two groups (p<0.05. But after using a logistic regression analysis, the only statistical significant different factors (p<0.05 between the two groups were gender, comorbidity with anxiety disorders, and GAF. "nConclusion:Opioid dependence comorbidity can not be considered as a risk factor for suicidal attempt in patients with BD.
Birth tourism: socio-demographic and statistical aspects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anatoly V. Korotkov
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to research birth tourism issue. The article gives the socio-demographic and statistical aspects of research problems of birth inbound tourism in the Russian Federation. Following the literature analysis, the degree of study for birth tourism lags behind its actual size. Currently, the media has accumulated a significant amount of information on birth tourism in Russia, that requires processing, systematization and understanding that can and should become an independent area of study of sociologists and demographers to develop recommendations for the management of socio-demographic processes in birth tourism in our country. It is necessary to identify the problems that will inevitably arise. At present, this process is almost not regulated.These problems are complex, it requires the joint efforts of sociologists and demographers. However, it is impossible to obtain reliable results and to develop management decisions without attention to the statistical aspect of this problem. It is necessary to create methodological support for collecting and information processing and model development of the birth tourism. At the initial stage it is necessary to identify the direction and objectives of the analysis to determine the factors in the development of this process, to develop a hierarchical system of statistical indicators, to receive the information, needed for calculating of specific indicators.The complex research of the birth tourism issues should be based on the methodology of sociology, demography and statistics, including statistical observation, interviews with residents, structure analysis and birth tourism concentration in the country, the analysis of the dynamics, classification of factors and reasons, the grouping of regions for the development of the studied processes and, of course, the development of economic-statistical indicators.The article reveals the problem of the significant influence of the
Statistical Model of Extreme Shear
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose
2004-01-01
In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continously increase the knowledge on wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describe the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of high-sampled full-scale time series measurements...... are consistent, given the inevitabel uncertainties associated with model as well as with the extreme value data analysis. Keywords: Statistical model, extreme wind conditions, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, wind shear, wind turbines....
Multimodal integration in statistical learning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mitchell, Aaron; Christiansen, Morten Hyllekvist; Weiss, Dan
2014-01-01
, we investigated the ability of adults to integrate audio and visual input during statistical learning. We presented learners with a speech stream synchronized with a video of a speaker’s face. In the critical condition, the visual (e.g., /gi/) and auditory (e.g., /mi/) signals were occasionally...... facilitated participants’ ability to segment the speech stream. Our results therefore demonstrate that participants can integrate audio and visual input to perceive the McGurk illusion during statistical learning. We interpret our findings as support for modality-interactive accounts of statistical learning.......Recent advances in the field of statistical learning have established that learners are able to track regularities of multimodal stimuli, yet it is unknown whether the statistical computations are performed on integrated representations or on separate, unimodal representations. In the present study...
[Comment on] Statistical discrimination
Chinn, Douglas
In the December 8, 1981, issue of Eos, a news item reported the conclusion of a National Research Council study that sexual discrimination against women with Ph.D.'s exists in the field of geophysics. Basically, the item reported that even when allowances are made for motherhood the percentage of female Ph.D.'s holding high university and corporate positions is significantly lower than the percentage of male Ph.D.'s holding the same types of positions. The sexual discrimination conclusion, based only on these statistics, assumes that there are no basic psychological differences between men and women that might cause different populations in the employment group studied. Therefore, the reasoning goes, after taking into account possible effects from differences related to anatomy, such as women stopping their careers in order to bear and raise children, the statistical distributions of positions held by male and female Ph.D.'s ought to be very similar to one another. Any significant differences between the distributions must be caused primarily by sexual discrimination.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez I, J. F.; Rios M, C.; Mireles G, F.; Saucedo A, S.; Davila R, I.; Pinedo, J.L.
2017-09-01
The environmental radioactivity evaluation is a key point in the assessment of the environmental quality. Through this, it can be found possible radioactive contamination, locate possible Uranium and Thorium deposits and evaluate the primordial isotopes concentration due to human activities. A radioactive map of the Zacatecas State, Mexico is under construction based on in situ gamma-ray spectrometry. The present work reports the results of the multivariate statistical approximation of the measured activity data. Based on Pearson correlation, the 228 Ac and 208 Tl activities are statistically significant, while the 214 Bi and 214 Pb activities are not statistically significant. These can be due to the existence or not of secular equilibrium in the Thorium and Uranium series. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2017-01-01
The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il
2017-05-15
The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.
A Statistical Programme Assignment Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosholm, Michael; Staghøj, Jonas; Svarer, Michael
When treatment effects of active labour market programmes are heterogeneous in an observable way across the population, the allocation of the unemployed into different programmes becomes a particularly important issue. In this paper, we present a statistical model designed to improve the present...... duration of unemployment spells may result if a statistical programme assignment model is introduced. We discuss several issues regarding the plementation of such a system, especially the interplay between the statistical model and case workers....
Statistical mechanics for a class of quantum statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isakov, S.B.
1994-01-01
Generalized statistical distributions for identical particles are introduced for the case where filling a single-particle quantum state by particles depends on filling states of different momenta. The system of one-dimensional bosons with a two-body potential that can be solved by means of the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz is shown to be equivalent thermodynamically to a system of free particles obeying statistical distributions of the above class. The quantum statistics arising in this way are completely determined by the two-particle scattering phases of the corresponding interacting systems. An equation determining the statistical distributions for these statistics is derived
Yokoyama, Shozo; Takenaka, Naomi
2005-04-01
Red-green color vision is strongly suspected to enhance the survival of its possessors. Despite being red-green color blind, however, many species have successfully competed in nature, which brings into question the evolutionary advantage of achieving red-green color vision. Here, we propose a new method of identifying positive selection at individual amino acid sites with the premise that if positive Darwinian selection has driven the evolution of the protein under consideration, then it should be found mostly at the branches in the phylogenetic tree where its function had changed. The statistical and molecular methods have been applied to 29 visual pigments with the wavelengths of maximal absorption at approximately 510-540 nm (green- or middle wavelength-sensitive [MWS] pigments) and at approximately 560 nm (red- or long wavelength-sensitive [LWS] pigments), which are sampled from a diverse range of vertebrate species. The results show that the MWS pigments are positively selected through amino acid replacements S180A, Y277F, and T285A and that the LWS pigments have been subjected to strong evolutionary conservation. The fact that these positively selected M/LWS pigments are found not only in animals with red-green color vision but also in those with red-green color blindness strongly suggests that both red-green color vision and color blindness have undergone adaptive evolution independently in different species.
Statistical analysis of the Ft. Calhoun reactor coolant pump system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heising, Carolyn D.
1998-01-01
In engineering science, statistical quality control techniques have traditionally been applied to control manufacturing processes. An application to commercial nuclear power plant maintenance and control is presented that can greatly improve plant safety. As a demonstration of such an approach to plant maintenance and control, a specific system is analyzed: the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs) of the Ft. Calhoun nuclear power plant. This research uses capability analysis, Shewhart X-bar, R-charts, canonical correlation methods, and design of experiments to analyze the process for the state of statistical control. The results obtained show that six out of ten parameters are under control specifications limits and four parameters are not in the state of statistical control. The analysis shows that statistical process control methods can be applied as an early warning system capable of identifying significant equipment problems well in advance of traditional control room alarm indicators Such a system would provide operators with ample time to respond to possible emergency situations and thus improve plant safety and reliability. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smart, V.; Curwen, G.B.; Whitehouse, C.A.; Edwards, A.; Tawn, E.J.
2003-01-01
The G 2 chromosomal radiosensitivity assay is a technically demanding assay. To ensure that it is reproducible in our laboratory, we have examined the effects of storage and culture conditions by applying the assay to a group of healthy controls and determined the extent of intra- and inter-individual variations. Nineteen different individuals provided one or more blood samples resulting in a total of 57 successful tests. Multiple cultures from a single blood sample showed no statistically significant difference in the number of chromatid type aberrations between cultures. A 24 h delay prior to culturing the lymphocytes did not significantly affect the induced G 2 score. Intra-individual variation was not statistically significant in seven out of nine individuals. Inter-individual variation was highly statistically significant (P<0.001), indicating that there is a real difference between individuals in the response to radiation using this assay
Reducing bias in the analysis of counting statistics data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hammersley, A.P.; Antoniadis, A.
1997-01-01
In the analysis of counting statistics data it is common practice to estimate the variance of the measured data points as the data points themselves. This practice introduces a bias into the results of further analysis which may be significant, and under certain circumstances lead to false conclusions. In the case of normal weighted least squares fitting this bias is quantified and methods to avoid it are proposed. (orig.)
Vilaplana, Cristina; Marzo, Elena; Tapia, Gustavo; Diaz, Jorge; Garcia, Vanesa; Cardona, Pere-Joan
2013-07-15
C3HeB/FeJ mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used in an experimental animal model mimicking active tuberculosis in humans to evaluate the effect of antiinflammatory agents. No other treatment but ibuprofen was given, and it was administered when the animals' health started to deteriorate. Animals treated with ibuprofen had statistically significant decreases in the size and number of lung lesions, decreases in the bacillary load, and improvements in survival, compared with findings for untreated animals. Because antiinflammatory agents are already on the market, further clinical trials should be done to evaluate this effect in humans as soon as possible, to determine their suitability as coadjuvant tuberculosis treatment.
Testing for significance of phase synchronisation dynamics in the EEG.
Daly, Ian; Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Nasuto, Slawomir J
2013-06-01
A number of tests exist to check for statistical significance of phase synchronisation within the Electroencephalogram (EEG); however, the majority suffer from a lack of generality and applicability. They may also fail to account for temporal dynamics in the phase synchronisation, regarding synchronisation as a constant state instead of a dynamical process. Therefore, a novel test is developed for identifying the statistical significance of phase synchronisation based upon a combination of work characterising temporal dynamics of multivariate time-series and Markov modelling. We show how this method is better able to assess the significance of phase synchronisation than a range of commonly used significance tests. We also show how the method may be applied to identify and classify significantly different phase synchronisation dynamics in both univariate and multivariate datasets.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tumur, Odgerel; Soon, Kean; Brown, Fraser; Mykytowycz, Marcus
2013-01-01
The aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of application of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm on the radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its effects on image quality of CCTA and to evaluate the effects of various patient and CT scanning factors on the radiation dose of CCTA. This was a retrospective study that included 347 consecutive patients who underwent CCTA at a tertiary university teaching hospital between 1 July 2009 and 20 September 2011. Analysis was performed comparing patient demographics, scan characteristics, radiation dose and image quality in two groups of patients in whom conventional Filtered Back Projection (FBP) or ASIR was used for image reconstruction. There were 238 patients in the FBP group and 109 patients in the ASIR group. There was no difference between the groups in the use of prospective gating, scan length or tube voltage. In ASIR group, significantly lower tube current was used compared with FBP group, 550mA (450–600) vs. 650mA (500–711.25) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P<0.001. There was 27% effective radiation dose reduction in the ASIR group compared with FBP group, 4.29mSv (2.84–6.02) vs. 5.84mSv (3.88–8.39) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P<0.001. Although ASIR was associated with increased image noise compared with FBP (39.93±10.22 vs. 37.63±18.79 (mean ±standard deviation), respectively, P<001), it did not affect the signal intensity, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio or the diagnostic quality of CCTA. Application of ASIR reduces the radiation dose of CCTA without affecting the image quality.
Effect size and statistical power in the rodent fear conditioning literature - A systematic review.
Carneiro, Clarissa F D; Moulin, Thiago C; Macleod, Malcolm R; Amaral, Olavo B
2018-01-01
Proposals to increase research reproducibility frequently call for focusing on effect sizes instead of p values, as well as for increasing the statistical power of experiments. However, it is unclear to what extent these two concepts are indeed taken into account in basic biomedical science. To study this in a real-case scenario, we performed a systematic review of effect sizes and statistical power in studies on learning of rodent fear conditioning, a widely used behavioral task to evaluate memory. Our search criteria yielded 410 experiments comparing control and treated groups in 122 articles. Interventions had a mean effect size of 29.5%, and amnesia caused by memory-impairing interventions was nearly always partial. Mean statistical power to detect the average effect size observed in well-powered experiments with significant differences (37.2%) was 65%, and was lower among studies with non-significant results. Only one article reported a sample size calculation, and our estimated sample size to achieve 80% power considering typical effect sizes and variances (15 animals per group) was reached in only 12.2% of experiments. Actual effect sizes correlated with effect size inferences made by readers on the basis of textual descriptions of results only when findings were non-significant, and neither effect size nor power correlated with study quality indicators, number of citations or impact factor of the publishing journal. In summary, effect sizes and statistical power have a wide distribution in the rodent fear conditioning literature, but do not seem to have a large influence on how results are described or cited. Failure to take these concepts into consideration might limit attempts to improve reproducibility in this field of science.
READING STATISTICS AND RESEARCH
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Reviewed by Yavuz Akbulut
2008-10-01
Full Text Available The book demonstrates the best and most conservative ways to decipher and critique research reports particularly for social science researchers. In addition, new editions of the book are always better organized, effectively structured and meticulously updated in line with the developments in the field of research statistics. Even the most trivial issues are revisited and updated in new editions. For instance, purchaser of the previous editions might check the interpretation of skewness and kurtosis indices in the third edition (p. 34 and in the fifth edition (p.29 to see how the author revisits every single detail. Theory and practice always go hand in hand in all editions of the book. Re-reading previous editions (e.g. third edition before reading the fifth edition gives the impression that the author never stops ameliorating his instructional text writing methods. In brief, “Reading Statistics and Research” is among the best sources showing research consumers how to understand and critically assess the statistical information and research results contained in technical research reports. In this respect, the review written by Mirko Savić in Panoeconomicus (2008, 2, pp. 249-252 will help the readers to get a more detailed overview of each chapters. I cordially urge the beginning researchers to pick a highlighter to conduct a detailed reading with the book. A thorough reading of the source will make the researchers quite selective in appreciating the harmony between the data analysis, results and discussion sections of typical journal articles. If interested, beginning researchers might begin with this book to grasp the basics of research statistics, and prop up their critical research reading skills with some statistics package applications through the help of Dr. Andy Field’s book, Discovering Statistics using SPSS (second edition published by Sage in 2005.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dejana Stanisavljevic
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Medical statistics has become important and relevant for future doctors, enabling them to practice evidence based medicine. Recent studies report that students' attitudes towards statistics play an important role in their statistics achievements. The aim of the study was to test the psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the Survey of Attitudes Towards Statistics (SATS in order to acquire a valid instrument to measure attitudes inside the Serbian educational context. METHODS: The validation study was performed on a cohort of 417 medical students who were enrolled in an obligatory introductory statistics course. The SATS adaptation was based on an internationally accepted methodology for translation and cultural adaptation. Psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the SATS were analyzed through the examination of factorial structure and internal consistency. RESULTS: Most medical students held positive attitudes towards statistics. The average total SATS score was above neutral (4.3±0.8, and varied from 1.9 to 6.2. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the six-factor structure of the questionnaire (Affect, Cognitive Competence, Value, Difficulty, Interest and Effort. Values for fit indices TLI (0.940 and CFI (0.961 were above the cut-off of ≥0.90. The RMSEA value of 0.064 (0.051-0.078 was below the suggested value of ≤0.08. Cronbach's alpha of the entire scale was 0.90, indicating scale reliability. In a multivariate regression model, self-rating of ability in mathematics and current grade point average were significantly associated with the total SATS score after adjusting for age and gender. CONCLUSION: Present study provided the evidence for the appropriate metric properties of the Serbian version of SATS. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the six-factor structure of the scale. The SATS might be reliable and a valid instrument for identifying medical students' attitudes towards statistics in the
Statistical tests to compare motif count exceptionalities
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Vandewalle Vincent
2007-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Finding over- or under-represented motifs in biological sequences is now a common task in genomics. Thanks to p-value calculation for motif counts, exceptional motifs are identified and represent candidate functional motifs. The present work addresses the related question of comparing the exceptionality of one motif in two different sequences. Just comparing the motif count p-values in each sequence is indeed not sufficient to decide if this motif is significantly more exceptional in one sequence compared to the other one. A statistical test is required. Results We develop and analyze two statistical tests, an exact binomial one and an asymptotic likelihood ratio test, to decide whether the exceptionality of a given motif is equivalent or significantly different in two sequences of interest. For that purpose, motif occurrences are modeled by Poisson processes, with a special care for overlapping motifs. Both tests can take the sequence compositions into account. As an illustration, we compare the octamer exceptionalities in the Escherichia coli K-12 backbone versus variable strain-specific loops. Conclusion The exact binomial test is particularly adapted for small counts. For large counts, we advise to use the likelihood ratio test which is asymptotic but strongly correlated with the exact binomial test and very simple to use.
The choice of statistical methods for comparisons of dosimetric data in radiotherapy.
Chaikh, Abdulhamid; Giraud, Jean-Yves; Perrin, Emmanuel; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre; Balosso, Jacques
2014-09-18
. This paper illustrates and justifies the use of statistical tests and graphical representations for dosimetric comparisons in radiotherapy. The statistical analysis shows the significance of dose differences resulting from two or more techniques in radiotherapy.
Statistics with JMP graphs, descriptive statistics and probability
Goos, Peter
2015-01-01
Peter Goos, Department of Statistics, University ofLeuven, Faculty of Bio-Science Engineering and University ofAntwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics, BelgiumDavid Meintrup, Department of Mathematics and Statistics,University of Applied Sciences Ingolstadt, Faculty of MechanicalEngineering, GermanyThorough presentation of introductory statistics and probabilitytheory, with numerous examples and applications using JMPDescriptive Statistics and Probability provides anaccessible and thorough overview of the most important descriptivestatistics for nominal, ordinal and quantitative data withpartic
Peculiarities of Teaching Medical Informatics and Statistics
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Sergey Glushkov
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The article reviews features of teaching Medical Informatics and Statistics. The course is referred to the disciplines of Mathematical and Natural sciences. The course is provided in all the faculties of I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University. For students of Preventive Medicine Department the time frame allotted for studying the course is significantly larger than for similar course provided at other faculties. To improve the teaching methodology of the discipline an analysis of the curriculum has been carried out, attendance and students’ performance statistics have been summarized. As a result, the main goals and objectives have been identified. Besides, general educational functions and the contribution to the solution of problems of education, students’ upbringing and development have been revealed; two stages of teaching have been presented. Recommendations referred to the newest methodological development aimed at improving the quality of teaching the discipline are provided. The ways of improving the methods and organizational forms of education are outlined.
Fundamentals of modern statistical methods substantially improving power and accuracy
Wilcox, Rand R
2001-01-01
Conventional statistical methods have a very serious flaw They routinely miss differences among groups or associations among variables that are detected by more modern techniques - even under very small departures from normality Hundreds of journal articles have described the reasons standard techniques can be unsatisfactory, but simple, intuitive explanations are generally unavailable Improved methods have been derived, but they are far from obvious or intuitive based on the training most researchers receive Situations arise where even highly nonsignificant results become significant when analyzed with more modern methods Without assuming any prior training in statistics, Part I of this book describes basic statistical principles from a point of view that makes their shortcomings intuitive and easy to understand The emphasis is on verbal and graphical descriptions of concepts Part II describes modern methods that address the problems covered in Part I Using data from actual studies, many examples are include...
Statistical methods in nuclear theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shubin, Yu.N.
1974-01-01
The paper outlines statistical methods which are widely used for describing properties of excited states of nuclei and nuclear reactions. It discusses physical assumptions lying at the basis of known distributions between levels (Wigner, Poisson distributions) and of widths of highly excited states (Porter-Thomas distribution, as well as assumptions used in the statistical theory of nuclear reactions and in the fluctuation analysis. The author considers the random matrix method, which consists in replacing the matrix elements of a residual interaction by random variables with a simple statistical distribution. Experimental data are compared with results of calculations using the statistical model. The superfluid nucleus model is considered with regard to superconducting-type pair correlations
Spatio-temporal statistical models with applications to atmospheric processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wikle, C.K.
1996-01-01
This doctoral dissertation is presented as three self-contained papers. An introductory chapter considers traditional spatio-temporal statistical methods used in the atmospheric sciences from a statistical perspective. Although this section is primarily a review, many of the statistical issues considered have not been considered in the context of these methods and several open questions are posed. The first paper attempts to determine a means of characterizing the semiannual oscillation (SAO) spatial variation in the northern hemisphere extratropical height field. It was discovered that the midlatitude SAO in 500hPa geopotential height could be explained almost entirely as a result of spatial and temporal asymmetries in the annual variation of stationary eddies. It was concluded that the mechanism for the SAO in the northern hemisphere is a result of land-sea contrasts. The second paper examines the seasonal variability of mixed Rossby-gravity waves (MRGW) in lower stratospheric over the equatorial Pacific. Advanced cyclostationary time series techniques were used for analysis. It was found that there are significant twice-yearly peaks in MRGW activity. Analyses also suggested a convergence of horizontal momentum flux associated with these waves. In the third paper, a new spatio-temporal statistical model is proposed that attempts to consider the influence of both temporal and spatial variability. This method is mainly concerned with prediction in space and time, and provides a spatially descriptive and temporally dynamic model
On perturbation theory for distance dependent statistics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mashkevich, S V
1994-12-31
It is known that perturbation theory for anyons has to be modified near Bose statistics in order to get correct finite results. For ``distance dependent statistics`` or anyons with smeared flux tubes, perturbation theory is in principle applicable directly but gives results which hold for too small values of the statistical parameter and, in particular, are not valid as the flux tube radius tends to zero. In this paper we discuss the way to modify perturbation theory for this situation, which allows to obtain the appropriate results. (author). 6 refs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schneider, Jesper Wiborg
2012-01-01
In this paper we discuss and question the use of statistical significance tests in relation to university rankings as recently suggested. We outline the assumptions behind and interpretations of statistical significance tests and relate this to examples from the recent SCImago Institutions Rankin...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brion Philippe
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Using as much administrative data as possible is a general trend among most national statistical institutes. Different kinds of administrative sources, from tax authorities or other administrative bodies, are very helpful material in the production of business statistics. However, these sources often have to be completed by information collected through statistical surveys. This article describes the way Insee has implemented such a strategy in order to produce French structural business statistics. The originality of the French procedure is that administrative and survey variables are used jointly for the same enterprises, unlike the majority of multisource systems, in which the two kinds of sources generally complement each other for different categories of units. The idea is to use, as much as possible, the richness of the administrative sources combined with the timeliness of a survey, even if the latter is conducted only on a sample of enterprises. One main issue is the classification of enterprises within the NACE nomenclature, which is a cornerstone variable in producing the breakdown of the results by industry. At a given date, two values of the corresponding code may coexist: the value of the register, not necessarily up to date, and the value resulting from the data collected via the survey, but only from a sample of enterprises. Using all this information together requires the implementation of specific statistical estimators combining some properties of the difference estimators with calibration techniques. This article presents these estimators, as well as their statistical properties, and compares them with those of other methods.
Uncertainty the soul of modeling, probability & statistics
Briggs, William
2016-01-01
This book presents a philosophical approach to probability and probabilistic thinking, considering the underpinnings of probabilistic reasoning and modeling, which effectively underlie everything in data science. The ultimate goal is to call into question many standard tenets and lay the philosophical and probabilistic groundwork and infrastructure for statistical modeling. It is the first book devoted to the philosophy of data aimed at working scientists and calls for a new consideration in the practice of probability and statistics to eliminate what has been referred to as the "Cult of Statistical Significance". The book explains the philosophy of these ideas and not the mathematics, though there are a handful of mathematical examples. The topics are logically laid out, starting with basic philosophy as related to probability, statistics, and science, and stepping through the key probabilistic ideas and concepts, and ending with statistical models. Its jargon-free approach asserts that standard methods, suc...
Bayesian statistics in radionuclide metrology: measurement of a decaying source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bochud, F. O.; Bailat, C.J.; Laedermann, J.P.
2007-01-01
The most intuitive way of defining a probability is perhaps through the frequency at which it appears when a large number of trials are realized in identical conditions. The probability derived from the obtained histogram characterizes the so-called frequentist or conventional statistical approach. In this sense, probability is defined as a physical property of the observed system. By contrast, in Bayesian statistics, a probability is not a physical property or a directly observable quantity, but a degree of belief or an element of inference. The goal of this paper is to show how Bayesian statistics can be used in radionuclide metrology and what its advantages and disadvantages are compared with conventional statistics. This is performed through the example of an yttrium-90 source typically encountered in environmental surveillance measurement. Because of the very low activity of this kind of source and the small half-life of the radionuclide, this measurement takes several days, during which the source decays significantly. Several methods are proposed to compute simultaneously the number of unstable nuclei at a given reference time, the decay constant and the background. Asymptotically, all approaches give the same result. However, Bayesian statistics produces coherent estimates and confidence intervals in a much smaller number of measurements. Apart from the conceptual understanding of statistics, the main difficulty that could deter radionuclide metrologists from using Bayesian statistics is the complexity of the computation. (authors)
Weinstein, Joseph; Putney, Emily; Egol, Kenneth
2014-01-01
Controversy exists among the orthopedic community regarding the treatment of gunshot injuries. No consistent treatment algorithm exists for treatment of low energy gunshot wound (GSW) trauma. The purpose of this study was to critically examine the wound contamination following low velocity GSW based upon bullet caliber and clothing fiber type found within the injury track. Four types of handguns were fired at ballistic gel from a 10-foot distance. Various clothing materials were applied (denim, cotton, polyester, and wool) circumferentially around the tissue agar in a loose manor. A total of 32 specimens were examined. Each caliber handgun was fired a minimum of 5 times into a gel. Regardless of bullet caliber there was gross contamination of the entire bullet track in 100% of specimens in all scenarios and for all fiber types. Furthermore, as would be expected, the degree of contamination appeared to increase as the size of the bullet increased. Low velocity GSWs result in significant contamination regardless of bullet caliber and jacket type. Based upon our results further investigation of low velocity GSW tracks is warranted. Further clinical investigation should focus on the degree to which debridement should be undertaken.
Dunn, Karee
2014-01-01
Online graduate education programs are expanding rapidly. Many of these programs require a statistics course, resulting in an increasing need for online statistics courses. The study reported here grew from experiences teaching online, graduate statistics courses. In seeking answers on how to improve this class, I discovered that research has yet…
Identifying significant temporal variation in time course microarray data without replicates
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Porter Weston
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background An important component of time course microarray studies is the identification of genes that demonstrate significant time-dependent variation in their expression levels. Until recently, available methods for performing such significance tests required replicates of individual time points. This paper describes a replicate-free method that was developed as part of a study of the estrous cycle in the rat mammary gland in which no replicate data was collected. Results A temporal test statistic is proposed that is based on the degree to which data are smoothed when fit by a spline function. An algorithm is presented that uses this test statistic together with a false discovery rate method to identify genes whose expression profiles exhibit significant temporal variation. The algorithm is tested on simulated data, and is compared with another recently published replicate-free method. The simulated data consists both of genes with known temporal dependencies, and genes from a null distribution. The proposed algorithm identifies a larger percentage of the time-dependent genes for a given false discovery rate. Use of the algorithm in a study of the estrous cycle in the rat mammary gland resulted in the identification of genes exhibiting distinct circadian variation. These results were confirmed in follow-up laboratory experiments. Conclusion The proposed algorithm provides a new approach for identifying expression profiles with significant temporal variation without relying on replicates. When compared with a recently published algorithm on simulated data, the proposed algorithm appears to identify a larger percentage of time-dependent genes for a given false discovery rate. The development of the algorithm was instrumental in revealing the presence of circadian variation in the virgin rat mammary gland during the estrous cycle.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corti, D.S.; Debenedetti, P.G.
1998-01-01
The rigorous statistical mechanics of metastability requires the imposition of internal constraints that prevent access to regions of phase space corresponding to inhomogeneous states. We derive exactly the Helmholtz energy and equation of state of the one-dimensional hard rod fluid under the influence of an internal constraint that places an upper bound on the distance between nearest-neighbor rods. This type of constraint is relevant to the suppression of boiling in a superheated liquid. We determine the effects of this constraint upon the thermophysical properties and internal structure of the hard rod fluid. By adding an infinitely weak and infinitely long-ranged attractive potential to the hard core, the fluid exhibits a first-order vapor-liquid transition. We determine exactly the equation of state of the one-dimensional superheated liquid and show that it exhibits metastable phase equilibrium. We also derive statistical mechanical relations for the equation of state of a fluid under the action of arbitrary constraints, and show the connection between the statistical mechanics of constrained and unconstrained ensembles. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Experimental investigation of statistical models describing distribution of counts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salma, I.; Zemplen-Papp, E.
1992-01-01
The binomial, Poisson and modified Poisson models which are used for describing the statistical nature of the distribution of counts are compared theoretically, and conclusions for application are considered. The validity of the Poisson and the modified Poisson statistical distribution for observing k events in a short time interval is investigated experimentally for various measuring times. The experiments to measure the influence of the significant radioactive decay were performed with 89 Y m (T 1/2 =16.06 s), using a multichannel analyser (4096 channels) in the multiscaling mode. According to the results, Poisson statistics describe the counting experiment for short measuring times (up to T=0.5T 1/2 ) and its application is recommended. However, analysis of the data demonstrated, with confidence, that for long measurements (T≥T 1/2 ) Poisson distribution is not valid and the modified Poisson function is preferable. The practical implications in calculating uncertainties and in optimizing the measuring time are discussed. Differences between the standard deviations evaluated on the basis of the Poisson and binomial models are especially significant for experiments with long measuring time (T/T 1/2 ≥2) and/or large detection efficiency (ε>0.30). Optimization of the measuring time for paired observations yields the same solution for either the binomial or the Poisson distribution. (orig.)
Agronomic and Environmental research experiments result in data that are analyzed using statistical methods. These data are unavoidably accompanied by uncertainty. Decisions about hypotheses, based on statistical analyses of these data are therefore subject to error. This error is of three types,...
Huffman and linear scanning methods with statistical language models.
Roark, Brian; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Gibbons, Chris
2015-03-01
Current scanning access methods for text generation in AAC devices are limited to relatively few options, most notably row/column variations within a matrix. We present Huffman scanning, a new method for applying statistical language models to binary-switch, static-grid typing AAC interfaces, and compare it to other scanning options under a variety of conditions. We present results for 16 adults without disabilities and one 36-year-old man with locked-in syndrome who presents with complex communication needs and uses AAC scanning devices for writing. Huffman scanning with a statistical language model yielded significant typing speedups for the 16 participants without disabilities versus any of the other methods tested, including two row/column scanning methods. A similar pattern of results was found with the individual with locked-in syndrome. Interestingly, faster typing speeds were obtained with Huffman scanning using a more leisurely scan rate than relatively fast individually calibrated scan rates. Overall, the results reported here demonstrate great promise for the usability of Huffman scanning as a faster alternative to row/column scanning.
Statistical decay of giant resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, H.; Teruya, N.; Wolynec, E.
1986-01-01
Statistical calculations to predict the neutron spectrum resulting from the decay of Giant Resonances are discussed. The dependence of the resutls on the optical potential parametrization and on the level density of the residual nucleus is assessed. A Hauser-Feshbach calculation is performed for the decay of the monople giant resonance in 208 Pb using the experimental levels of 207 Pb from a recent compilation. The calculated statistical decay is in excelent agreement with recent experimental data, showing that the decay of this resonance is dominantly statistical, as predicted by continuum RPA calculations. (Author) [pt
Statistics Anxiety and Business Statistics: The International Student
Bell, James A.
2008-01-01
Does the international student suffer from statistics anxiety? To investigate this, the Statistics Anxiety Rating Scale (STARS) was administered to sixty-six beginning statistics students, including twelve international students and fifty-four domestic students. Due to the small number of international students, nonparametric methods were used to…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez I, J. F.; Rios M, C.; Mireles G, F.; Saucedo A, S.; Davila R, I.; Pinedo, J.L., E-mail: fernandolf498@gmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)
2017-09-15
The environmental radioactivity evaluation is a key point in the assessment of the environmental quality. Through this, it can be found possible radioactive contamination, locate possible Uranium and Thorium deposits and evaluate the primordial isotopes concentration due to human activities. A radioactive map of the Zacatecas State, Mexico is under construction based on in situ gamma-ray spectrometry. The present work reports the results of the multivariate statistical approximation of the measured activity data. Based on Pearson correlation, the {sup 228}Ac and {sup 208}Tl activities are statistically significant, while the {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb activities are not statistically significant. These can be due to the existence or not of secular equilibrium in the Thorium and Uranium series. (Author)
Changing world extreme temperature statistics
Finkel, J. M.; Katz, J. I.
2018-04-01
We use the Global Historical Climatology Network--daily database to calculate a nonparametric statistic that describes the rate at which all-time daily high and low temperature records have been set in nine geographic regions (continents or major portions of continents) during periods mostly from the mid-20th Century to the present. This statistic was defined in our earlier work on temperature records in the 48 contiguous United States. In contrast to this earlier work, we find that in every region except North America all-time high records were set at a rate significantly (at least $3\\sigma$) higher than in the null hypothesis of a stationary climate. Except in Antarctica, all-time low records were set at a rate significantly lower than in the null hypothesis. In Europe, North Africa and North Asia the rate of setting new all-time highs increased suddenly in the 1990's, suggesting a change in regional climate regime; in most other regions there was a steadier increase.
Polar cap ion beams during periods of northward IMF: Cluster statistical results
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R. Maggiolo
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Above the polar caps and during prolonged periods of northward IMF, the Cluster satellites detect upward accelerated ion beams with energies up to a few keV. They are associated with converging electric field structures indicating that the acceleration is caused by a quasi-static field-aligned electric field that can extend to altitudes higher than 7 RE (Maggiolo et al., 2006; Teste et al., 2007. Using the AMDA science analysis service provided by the Centre de Données de la Physique des Plasmas, we have been able to extract about 200 events of accelerated upgoing ion beams above the polar caps from the Cluster database. Most of these observations are taken at altitudes lower than 7 RE and in the Northern Hemisphere. We investigate the statistical properties of these ion beams. We analyze their geometry, the properties of the plasma populations and of the electric field inside and around the beams, as well as their dependence on solar wind and IMF conditions. We show that ~40 % of the ion beams are collocated with a relatively hot and isotropic plasma population. The density and temperature of the isotropic population are highly variable but suggest that this plasma originates from the plasma sheet. The ion beam properties do not change significantly when the isotropic, hot background population is present. Furthermore, during one single polar cap crossing by Cluster it is possible to detect upgoing ion beams both with and without an accompanying isotropic component. The analysis of the variation of the IMF BZ component prior to the detection of the beams indicates that the delay between a northward/southward turning of IMF and the appearance/disappearance of the beams is respectively ~2 h and 20 min. The observed electrodynamic characteristics of high altitude polar cap ion beams suggest that they are closely connected to polar cap auroral arcs. We discuss the implications of these Cluster observations above the polar cap on the magnetospheric
Finkelstein, Michael O
2015-01-01
This classic text, first published in 1990, is designed to introduce law students, law teachers, practitioners, and judges to the basic ideas of mathematical probability and statistics as they have been applied in the law. The third edition includes over twenty new sections, including the addition of timely topics, like New York City police stops, exonerations in death-sentence cases, projecting airline costs, and new material on various statistical techniques such as the randomized response survey technique, rare-events meta-analysis, competing risks, and negative binomial regression. The book consists of sections of exposition followed by real-world cases and case studies in which statistical data have played a role. The reader is asked to apply the theory to the facts, to calculate results (a hand calculator is sufficient), and to explore legal issues raised by quantitative findings. The authors' calculations and comments are given in the back of the book. As with previous editions, the cases and case stu...
Applying Statistical Mechanics to pixel detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pindo, Massimiliano
2002-01-01
Pixel detectors, being made of a large number of active cells of the same kind, can be considered as significant sets to which Statistical Mechanics variables and methods can be applied. By properly redefining well known statistical parameters in order to let them match the ones that actually characterize pixel detectors, an analysis of the way they work can be performed in a totally new perspective. A deeper understanding of pixel detectors is attained, helping in the evaluation and comparison of their intrinsic characteristics and performance
Quantum mechanics from classical statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wetterich, C.
2010-01-01
Quantum mechanics can emerge from classical statistics. A typical quantum system describes an isolated subsystem of a classical statistical ensemble with infinitely many classical states. The state of this subsystem can be characterized by only a few probabilistic observables. Their expectation values define a density matrix if they obey a 'purity constraint'. Then all the usual laws of quantum mechanics follow, including Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, entanglement and a violation of Bell's inequalities. No concepts beyond classical statistics are needed for quantum physics - the differences are only apparent and result from the particularities of those classical statistical systems which admit a quantum mechanical description. Born's rule for quantum mechanical probabilities follows from the probability concept for a classical statistical ensemble. In particular, we show how the non-commuting properties of quantum operators are associated to the use of conditional probabilities within the classical system, and how a unitary time evolution reflects the isolation of the subsystem. As an illustration, we discuss a classical statistical implementation of a quantum computer.
Isotopic safeguards statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Timmerman, C.L.; Stewart, K.B.
1978-06-01
The methods and results of our statistical analysis of isotopic data using isotopic safeguards techniques are illustrated using example data from the Yankee Rowe reactor. The statistical methods used in this analysis are the paired comparison and the regression analyses. A paired comparison results when a sample from a batch is analyzed by two different laboratories. Paired comparison techniques can be used with regression analysis to detect and identify outlier batches. The second analysis tool, linear regression, involves comparing various regression approaches. These approaches use two basic types of models: the intercept model (y = α + βx) and the initial point model [y - y 0 = β(x - x 0 )]. The intercept model fits strictly the exposure or burnup values of isotopic functions, while the initial point model utilizes the exposure values plus the initial or fabricator's data values in the regression analysis. Two fitting methods are applied to each of these models. These methods are: (1) the usual least squares fitting approach where x is measured without error, and (2) Deming's approach which uses the variance estimates obtained from the paired comparison results and considers x and y are both measured with error. The Yankee Rowe data were first measured by Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) and remeasured by Nuclear Audit and Testing Company (NATCO). The ratio of Pu/U versus 235 D (in which 235 D is the amount of depleted 235 U expressed in weight percent) using actual numbers is the isotopic function illustrated. Statistical results using the Yankee Rowe data indicates the attractiveness of Deming's regression model over the usual approach by simple comparison of the given regression variances with the random variance from the paired comparison results
Prognostic significance of MCM 2 and Ki-67 in neuroblastic tumors in children.
Lewandowska, Magdalena; Taran, Katarzyna; Sitkiewicz, Anna; Andrzejewska, Ewa
2015-12-02
Neuroblastic tumors can be characterized by three features: spontaneous regression, maturation and aggressive proliferation. The most common and routinely used method of assessing tumor cell proliferation is to determine the Ki-67 index in the tumor tissue. Despite numerous studies, neuroblastoma biology is not fully understood, which makes treatment results unsatisfactory. MCM 2 is a potential prognostic factor in the neuroblastoma group. The study is based on retrospective analysis of 35 patients treated for neuroblastic tumors in the Department of Pediatric Surgery and Oncology of the Medical University of Lodz, during the period 2001-2011. The material comprised tissues of 16 tumors excised during the operation and 19 biopsy specimens. Immunohistochemical examinations were performed with immunoperoxidase using mouse monoclonal anti-MCM 2 and anti-Ki-67 antibodies. We observed that MCM 2 expression ranged from 2% to 98% and the Ki-67 index ranged from 0 to 95%. There was a statistically significant correlation between expression of MCM 2 and the value of the Ki-67 index and a correlation close to statistical significance between expression of MCM 2 and unfavorable histopathology. There was no statistical relationship between expression of MCM 2 and age over 1 year and N-myc amplification. The presented research shows that MCM 2 may have prognostic significance in neuroblastic pediatric tumors and as a potential prognostic factor could be the starting point of new individualized therapy.
Spreadsheets as tools for statistical computing and statistics education
Neuwirth, Erich
2000-01-01
Spreadsheets are an ubiquitous program category, and we will discuss their use in statistics and statistics education on various levels, ranging from very basic examples to extremely powerful methods. Since the spreadsheet paradigm is very familiar to many potential users, using it as the interface to statistical methods can make statistics more easily accessible.
Clinical significance of intramammary arterial calcifications in diabetic women
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milošević Zorica
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Background. It is well known that intramammary arterial calcifications diagnosed by mammography as a part of generalized diabetic macroangiopathy may be an indirect sign of diabetes mellitus. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of intramammary arterial calcifications, the patient’s age when the calcifications occur, as well as to observe the influence of diabetic polineuropathy, type, and the duration of diabetes on the onset of calcifications, in comparison with nondiabetic women. Methods. Mammographic findings of 113 diabetic female patients (21 with type 1 diabetes and 92 with type 2, as well as of 208 nondiabetic women (the control group were analyzed in the prospective study. The data about the type of diabetes, its duration, and polineuropathy were obtained using the questionnaire. Statistical differences were determined by Mann-Whitney test. Results. Intramammary arterial calcifications were identified in 33.3% of the women with type 1 diabetes, in 40.2% with type 2, and in 8.2% of the women from the control group, respectively. The differences comparing the women with type 1, as well as type 2 diabetes and the controls were statistically significant (p=0.0001. Women with intramammary arterial calcifications and type 1 diabetes were younger comparing to the control group (median age 52 years, comparing to 67 years of age, p=0.001, while there was no statistically significant difference in age between the women with calcifications and type 2 diabetes (61 years of age in relation to the control group (p=0.176. The incidence of polineuropathy in diabetic women was higher in the group with intramammary arterial calcifications (52.3% in comparison to the group without calcifications (26.1%, (p=0.005. The association between intramammary arterial calcifications and the duration of diabetes was not found. Conclusion. The obtained results supported the theory that intramammary arterial calcifications, detected by
Significance of specificity of Tinetti B-POMA test and fall risk factor in third age of life.
Avdić, Dijana; Pecar, Dzemal
2006-02-01
As for the third age, psychophysical abilities of humans gradually decrease, while the ability of adaptation to endogenous and exogenous burdens is going down. In 1987, "Harada" et al. (1) have found out that 9.5 million persons in USA have difficulties running daily activities, while 59% of them (which is 5.6 million) are older than 65 years in age. The study has encompassed 77 questioned persons of both sexes with their average age 71.73 +/- 5.63 (scope of 65-90 years in age), chosen by random sampling. Each patient has been questioned in his/her own home and familiar to great extent with the methodology and aims of the questionnaire. Percentage of questioned women was 64.94% (50 patients) while the percentage for men was 35.06% (27 patients). As for the value of risk factor score achieved conducting the questionnaire and B-POMA test, there are statistically significant differences between men and women, as well as between patients who fell and those who never did. As for the way of life (alone or in the community), there are no significant statistical differences. Average results gained through B-POMA test in this study are statistically significantly higher in men and patients who did not provide data about falling, while there was no statistically significant difference in the way of life. In relation to the percentage of maximum number of positive answers to particular questions, regarding gender, way of life and the data about falling, there were no statistically significant differences between the value of B-POMA test and the risk factor score (the questionnaire).
On the Impact of Tsallis Statistics on Cosmic Ray Showers
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M. Abrahão
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the impact of the Tsallis nonextensive statistics introduced by intrinsic temperature fluctuations in p-Air ultrahigh energy interactions on observables of cosmic ray showers, such as the slant depth of the maximum Xmax and the muon number on the ground Nμ. The results show that these observables are significantly affected by temperature fluctuations and agree qualitatively with the predictions of Heitler model.
Can We Use Polya’s Method to Improve Students’ Performance in the Statistics Classes?
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Indika Wickramasinghe
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, Polya’s problem-solving method is introduced in a statistics class in an effort to enhance students’ performance. Teaching the method was applied to one of the two introductory-level statistics classes taught by the same instructor, and a comparison was made between the performances in the two classes. The results indicate there was a significant improvement of the students’ performance in the class in which Polya’s method was introduced.
The Statistic Test on Influence of Surface Treatment to Fatigue Lifetime with Limited Data
Suhartono, Agus
2009-01-01
Justifications on the influences of two or more parameters on fatigue strength are some times problematic due to the scatter nature of the fatigue data. Statistic test can facilitate the evaluation, whether the changes in material characteristics as a result of specific parameters of interest is significant. The statistic tests were applied to fatigue data of AISI 1045 steel specimens. The specimens are consisted of as received specimen, shot peened specimen with 15 and 16 Almen intensity as ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rossi Hassad
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Students� attitude, including perceived usefulness, is generally associated with academic success. The related research in statistics education has focused almost exclusively on the role of attitude in explaining and predicting academic learning outcomes, hence there is a paucity of research evidence on how attitude (particularly perceived usefulness impacts students� intentions to use and stay engaged in statistics beyond the introductory course. This study explored the relationship between college students� perception of the usefulness of an introductory statistics course, their beliefs about where statistics will be most useful, and their intentions to take another statistics course. A cross-sectional study of 106 students was conducted. The mean rating for usefulness was 4.7 (out of 7, with no statistically significant differences based on gender and age. Sixty-four percent reported that they would consider taking another statistics course, and this subgroup rated the course as more useful (p = .01. The majority (67% reported that statistics would be most useful for either graduate school or research, whereas 14% indicated their job, and 19% were undecided. The �undecided� students had the lowest mean rating for usefulness of the course (p = .001. Addressing data, in the context of real-world problem-solving and decision-making, could facilitate students to better appreciate the usefulness and practicality of statistics. Qualitative research methods could help to elucidate these findings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oelkers, E.; Heller, A.S.; Farnsworth, D.A.; Kearfott, K.J.
1978-01-01
The report describes the statistical analysis of DNBR thermal-hydraulic margin of a 3800 MWt, 205-FA core under design overpower conditions. The analysis used LYNX-generated data at predetermined values of the input variables whose uncertainties were to be statistically combined. LYNX data were used to construct an efficient response surface model in the region of interest; the statistical analysis was accomplished through the evaluation of core reliability; utilizing propagation of the uncertainty distributions of the inputs. The response surface model was implemented in both the analytical error propagation and Monte Carlo Techniques. The basic structural units relating to the acceptance criteria are fuel pins. Therefore, the statistical population of pins with minimum DNBR values smaller than specified values is determined. The specified values are designated relative to the most probable and maximum design DNBR values on the power limiting pin used in present design analysis, so that gains over the present design criteria could be assessed for specified probabilistic acceptance criteria. The results are equivalent to gains ranging from 1.2 to 4.8 percent of rated power dependent on the acceptance criterion. The corresponding acceptance criteria range from 95 percent confidence that no pin will be in DNB to 99.9 percent of the pins, which are expected to avoid DNB
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masoud Ghodrati
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Humans are fast and accurate in categorizing complex natural images. It is, however, unclear what features of visual information are exploited by brain to perceive the images with such speed and accuracy. It has been shown that low-level contrast statistics of natural scenes can explain the variance of amplitude of event-related potentials (ERP in response to rapidly presented images. In this study, we investigated the effect of these statistics on frequency content of ERPs. We recorded ERPs from human subjects, while they viewed natural images each presented for 70 ms. Our results showed that Weibull contrast statistics, as a biologically plausible model, explained the variance of ERPs the best, compared to other image statistics that we assessed. Our time-frequency analysis revealed a significant correlation between these statistics and ERPs’ power within theta frequency band (~3-7 Hz. This is interesting, as theta band is believed to be involved in context updating and semantic encoding. This correlation became significant at ~110 ms after stimulus onset, and peaked at 138 ms. Our results show that not only the amplitude but also the frequency of neural responses can be modulated with low-level contrast statistics of natural images and highlights their potential role in scene perception.
Register-based statistics statistical methods for administrative data
Wallgren, Anders
2014-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive and up to date treatment of theory and practical implementation in Register-based statistics. It begins by defining the area, before explaining how to structure such systems, as well as detailing alternative approaches. It explains how to create statistical registers, how to implement quality assurance, and the use of IT systems for register-based statistics. Further to this, clear details are given about the practicalities of implementing such statistical methods, such as protection of privacy and the coordination and coherence of such an undertaking. Thi
... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...
Ebbs, Phillip; Middleton, Paul M; Bonner, Ann; Loudfoot, Allan; Elliott, Peter
2012-07-01
Is the Clinical Safety Chart clinical improvement programme (CIP) effective at improving paramedic key performance indicator (KPI) results within the Ambulance Service of New South Wales? The CIP intervention area was compared with the non-intervention area in order to determine whether there was a statistically significant improvement in KPI results. The CIP was associated with a statistically significant improvement in paramedic KPI results within the intervention area. The strategies used within this CIP are recommended for further consideration.
Statistical significance of trends in monthly heavy precipitation over the US
Mahajan, Salil; North, Gerald R.; Saravanan, R.; Genton, Marc G.
2011-01-01
-parametric and parametric bootstrapping techniques. The results from the two Monte Carlo approaches are found to be similar to each other, and also to the traditional non-parametric Kendall's τ test, implying the robustness of the approach. Two different observational data
Parametric statistical inference for discretely observed diffusion processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Asger Roer
Part 1: Theoretical results Part 2: Statistical applications of Gaussian diffusion processes in freshwater ecology......Part 1: Theoretical results Part 2: Statistical applications of Gaussian diffusion processes in freshwater ecology...
Cosmology constraints from shear peak statistics in Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kacprzak, T.; Kirk, D.; Friedrich, O.; Amara, A.; Refregier, A.
2016-01-01
Shear peak statistics has gained a lot of attention recently as a practical alternative to the two-point statistics for constraining cosmological parameters. We perform a shear peak statistics analysis of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data, using weak gravitational lensing measurements from a 139 deg"2 field. We measure the abundance of peaks identified in aperture mass maps, as a function of their signal-to-noise ratio, in the signal-to-noise range 0 4 would require significant corrections, which is why we do not include them in our analysis. We compare our results to the cosmological constraints from the two-point analysis on the SV field and find them to be in good agreement in both the central value and its uncertainty. Lastly, we discuss prospects for future peak statistics analysis with upcoming DES data.
Software Used to Generate Cancer Statistics - SEER Cancer Statistics
Videos that highlight topics and trends in cancer statistics and definitions of statistical terms. Also software tools for analyzing and reporting cancer statistics, which are used to compile SEER's annual reports.
The Statistical Properties of Host Load
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Peter A. Dinda
1999-01-01
Full Text Available Understanding how host load changes over time is instrumental in predicting the execution time of tasks or jobs, such as in dynamic load balancing and distributed soft real‐time systems. To improve this understanding, we collected week‐long, 1 Hz resolution traces of the Digital Unix 5 second exponential load average on over 35 different machines including production and research cluster machines, compute servers, and desktop workstations. Separate sets of traces were collected at two different times of the year. The traces capture all of the dynamic load information available to user‐level programs on these machines. We present a detailed statistical analysis of these traces here, including summary statistics, distributions, and time series analysis results. Two significant new results are that load is self‐similar and that it displays epochal behavior. All of the traces exhibit a high degree of self‐similarity with Hurst parameters ranging from 0.73 to 0.99, strongly biased toward the top of that range. The traces also display epochal behavior in that the local frequency content of the load signal remains quite stable for long periods of time (150–450 s mean and changes abruptly at epoch boundaries. Despite these complex behaviors, we have found that relatively simple linear models are sufficient for short‐range host load prediction.
MIDAS: Regionally linear multivariate discriminative statistical mapping.
Varol, Erdem; Sotiras, Aristeidis; Davatzikos, Christos
2018-07-01
statistical significance of the derived statistic by analytically approximating its null distribution without the need for computationally expensive permutation tests. The proposed framework was extensively validated using simulated atrophy in structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and further tested using data from a task-based functional MRI study as well as a structural MRI study of cognitive performance. The performance of the proposed framework was evaluated against standard voxel-wise general linear models and other information mapping methods. The experimental results showed that MIDAS achieves relatively higher sensitivity and specificity in detecting group differences. Together, our results demonstrate the potential of the proposed approach to efficiently map effects of interest in both structural and functional data. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Stefanski, Philip L.
2015-01-01
Commercially available software packages today allow users to quickly perform the routine evaluations of (1) descriptive statistics to numerically and graphically summarize both sample and population data, (2) inferential statistics that draws conclusions about a given population from samples taken of it, (3) probability determinations that can be used to generate estimates of reliability allowables, and finally (4) the setup of designed experiments and analysis of their data to identify significant material and process characteristics for application in both product manufacturing and performance enhancement. This paper presents examples of analysis and experimental design work that has been conducted using Statgraphics®(Registered Trademark) statistical software to obtain useful information with regard to solid rocket motor propellants and internal insulation material. Data were obtained from a number of programs (Shuttle, Constellation, and Space Launch System) and sources that include solid propellant burn rate strands, tensile specimens, sub-scale test motors, full-scale operational motors, rubber insulation specimens, and sub-scale rubber insulation analog samples. Besides facilitating the experimental design process to yield meaningful results, statistical software has demonstrated its ability to quickly perform complex data analyses and yield significant findings that might otherwise have gone unnoticed. One caveat to these successes is that useful results not only derive from the inherent power of the software package, but also from the skill and understanding of the data analyst.
Understanding Statistics and Statistics Education: A Chinese Perspective
Shi, Ning-Zhong; He, Xuming; Tao, Jian
2009-01-01
In recent years, statistics education in China has made great strides. However, there still exists a fairly large gap with the advanced levels of statistics education in more developed countries. In this paper, we identify some existing problems in statistics education in Chinese schools and make some proposals as to how they may be overcome. We…
Significance of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murai, Nobuko; Ogami, Koji; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Koga, Kenji; Waki, Norio; Higashi, Hidefumi; Hayashi, Asami; Shibata, Koichiro; Watanabe, Katsuji
1986-01-01
From 1978 through 1983, 27 patients were treated with surgery followed by irradiation (irradiated group) and 29 with surery alone (non-irradiated group). In the irradiated group, 10 had stage II and 17 stage III; in the non-irradiated group, 25 had stage II and 4 stage III. The most common histology was medullary tubular carcinoma (MTC). There was no significant difference in survivals at 3 years and 5 years between the groups. Similarly, no significant difference was seen among stage II patients. Patients with MTC tended to have worse survivals in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group, with no statistically significant difference. Among stage II patients, no major differences in local recurrence were seen between the groups; the incidence of distant metastases tended to be high in the irradiated group. The incidence of both local recurrence and distant metastases for stage III patients showed a tendency to be higher in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group. The results indicated no apparent benifit of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer. A randomized clinical trial is needed for the evaluation of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer. (Namekawa, K.)
Effect size and statistical power in the rodent fear conditioning literature – A systematic review
Macleod, Malcolm R.
2018-01-01
Proposals to increase research reproducibility frequently call for focusing on effect sizes instead of p values, as well as for increasing the statistical power of experiments. However, it is unclear to what extent these two concepts are indeed taken into account in basic biomedical science. To study this in a real-case scenario, we performed a systematic review of effect sizes and statistical power in studies on learning of rodent fear conditioning, a widely used behavioral task to evaluate memory. Our search criteria yielded 410 experiments comparing control and treated groups in 122 articles. Interventions had a mean effect size of 29.5%, and amnesia caused by memory-impairing interventions was nearly always partial. Mean statistical power to detect the average effect size observed in well-powered experiments with significant differences (37.2%) was 65%, and was lower among studies with non-significant results. Only one article reported a sample size calculation, and our estimated sample size to achieve 80% power considering typical effect sizes and variances (15 animals per group) was reached in only 12.2% of experiments. Actual effect sizes correlated with effect size inferences made by readers on the basis of textual descriptions of results only when findings were non-significant, and neither effect size nor power correlated with study quality indicators, number of citations or impact factor of the publishing journal. In summary, effect sizes and statistical power have a wide distribution in the rodent fear conditioning literature, but do not seem to have a large influence on how results are described or cited. Failure to take these concepts into consideration might limit attempts to improve reproducibility in this field of science. PMID:29698451
Pestman, Wiebe R
2009-01-01
This textbook provides a broad and solid introduction to mathematical statistics, including the classical subjects hypothesis testing, normal regression analysis, and normal analysis of variance. In addition, non-parametric statistics and vectorial statistics are considered, as well as applications of stochastic analysis in modern statistics, e.g., Kolmogorov-Smirnov testing, smoothing techniques, robustness and density estimation. For students with some elementary mathematical background. With many exercises. Prerequisites from measure theory and linear algebra are presented.
Maric, M.; de Haan, M.; Hogendoorn, S.M.; Wolters, L.H.; Huizenga, H.M.
2015-01-01
Single-case experimental designs are useful methods in clinical research practice to investigate individual client progress. Their proliferation might have been hampered by methodological challenges such as the difficulty applying existing statistical procedures. In this article, we describe a
Maric, Marija; de Haan, Else; Hogendoorn, Sanne M.; Wolters, Lidewij H.; Huizenga, Hilde M.
2015-01-01
Single-case experimental designs are useful methods in clinical research practice to investigate individual client progress. Their proliferation might have been hampered by methodological challenges such as the difficulty applying existing statistical procedures. In this article, we describe a
Statistical inference and visualization in scale-space for spatially dependent images
Vaughan, Amy
2012-03-01
SiZer (SIgnificant ZERo crossing of the derivatives) is a graphical scale-space visualization tool that allows for statistical inferences. In this paper we develop a spatial SiZer for finding significant features and conducting goodness-of-fit tests for spatially dependent images. The spatial SiZer utilizes a family of kernel estimates of the image and provides not only exploratory data analysis but also statistical inference with spatial correlation taken into account. It is also capable of comparing the observed image with a specific null model being tested by adjusting the statistical inference using an assumed covariance structure. Pixel locations having statistically significant differences between the image and a given null model are highlighted by arrows. The spatial SiZer is compared with the existing independent SiZer via the analysis of simulated data with and without signal on both planar and spherical domains. We apply the spatial SiZer method to the decadal temperature change over some regions of the Earth. © 2011 The Korean Statistical Society.
Statistical analysis and digital processing of the Mössbauer spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prochazka, Roman; Tucek, Jiri; Mashlan, Miroslav; Pechousek, Jiri; Tucek, Pavel; Marek, Jaroslav
2010-01-01
This work is focused on using the statistical methods and development of the filtration procedures for signal processing in Mössbauer spectroscopy. Statistical tools for noise filtering in the measured spectra are used in many scientific areas. The use of a pure statistical approach in accumulated Mössbauer spectra filtration is described. In Mössbauer spectroscopy, the noise can be considered as a Poisson statistical process with a Gaussian distribution for high numbers of observations. This noise is a superposition of the non-resonant photons counting with electronic noise (from γ-ray detection and discrimination units), and the velocity system quality that can be characterized by the velocity nonlinearities. The possibility of a noise-reducing process using a new design of statistical filter procedure is described. This mathematical procedure improves the signal-to-noise ratio and thus makes it easier to determine the hyperfine parameters of the given Mössbauer spectra. The filter procedure is based on a periodogram method that makes it possible to assign the statistically important components in the spectral domain. The significance level for these components is then feedback-controlled using the correlation coefficient test results. The estimation of the theoretical correlation coefficient level which corresponds to the spectrum resolution is performed. Correlation coefficient test is based on comparison of the theoretical and the experimental correlation coefficients given by the Spearman method. The correctness of this solution was analyzed by a series of statistical tests and confirmed by many spectra measured with increasing statistical quality for a given sample (absorber). The effect of this filter procedure depends on the signal-to-noise ratio and the applicability of this method has binding conditions
Statistical analysis and digital processing of the Mössbauer spectra
Prochazka, Roman; Tucek, Pavel; Tucek, Jiri; Marek, Jaroslav; Mashlan, Miroslav; Pechousek, Jiri
2010-02-01
This work is focused on using the statistical methods and development of the filtration procedures for signal processing in Mössbauer spectroscopy. Statistical tools for noise filtering in the measured spectra are used in many scientific areas. The use of a pure statistical approach in accumulated Mössbauer spectra filtration is described. In Mössbauer spectroscopy, the noise can be considered as a Poisson statistical process with a Gaussian distribution for high numbers of observations. This noise is a superposition of the non-resonant photons counting with electronic noise (from γ-ray detection and discrimination units), and the velocity system quality that can be characterized by the velocity nonlinearities. The possibility of a noise-reducing process using a new design of statistical filter procedure is described. This mathematical procedure improves the signal-to-noise ratio and thus makes it easier to determine the hyperfine parameters of the given Mössbauer spectra. The filter procedure is based on a periodogram method that makes it possible to assign the statistically important components in the spectral domain. The significance level for these components is then feedback-controlled using the correlation coefficient test results. The estimation of the theoretical correlation coefficient level which corresponds to the spectrum resolution is performed. Correlation coefficient test is based on comparison of the theoretical and the experimental correlation coefficients given by the Spearman method. The correctness of this solution was analyzed by a series of statistical tests and confirmed by many spectra measured with increasing statistical quality for a given sample (absorber). The effect of this filter procedure depends on the signal-to-noise ratio and the applicability of this method has binding conditions.
The Role of Statistics in Business and Industry
Hahn, Gerald J
2011-01-01
An insightful guide to the use of statistics for solving key problems in modern-day business and industry This book has been awarded the Technometrics Ziegel Prize for the best book reviewed by the journal in 2010. Technometrics is a journal of statistics for the physical, chemical and engineering sciences, published jointly by the American Society for Quality and the American Statistical Association. Criteria for the award include that the book brings together in one volume a body of material previously only available in scattered research articles and having the potential to significantly im
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. E. Arhipova
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. Oncological diseases is a serious medico-social problem of modern society. The article presents the analysis of prostate cancer morbidity with consideration of regional health level differences.Objective. To conduct spatial-temporal analysis of prostate cancer incidence in Rostov region; to identify areas with a statistically significant increase in the incidence of prostate cancer; to identify regional differences (environmental determinism in the development of cancer in the southern Federal district.Materials and methods. We’ve analysed incidence of prostate cancer in the Rostov region for the period of 2001-2016. The analysis has been performed using tools spatio-temporal statistics on software ArcGis 10 *.Results. Areas and cities of Rostov region with a statistically significant increase in prostate cancer incidence were identified. It has been shown that in the regions and cities of the Rostov region with a low level of medical-ecological safety had a statistically significant increase in prostate cancer incidenceConclusions. The results can serve as a basis for the directional analysis of factors causing increased risk of cancer and development on this basis strategies for monitoring and prevention of cancer diseases in the Rostov region.
Sampling, Probability Models and Statistical Reasoning Statistical
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 5. Sampling, Probability Models and Statistical Reasoning Statistical Inference. Mohan Delampady V R Padmawar. General Article Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 49-58 ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rakesh Kumar Manne
2011-01-01
Conclusion: Our results suggested high prevalence rate of periapical pathology. This study also elaborated all the clinical signs of periapical pathology and their statistical significance in diagnosing each variant of periapical pathology.
Statistical shape analysis with applications in R
Dryden, Ian L
2016-01-01
A thoroughly revised and updated edition of this introduction to modern statistical methods for shape analysis Shape analysis is an important tool in the many disciplines where objects are compared using geometrical features. Examples include comparing brain shape in schizophrenia; investigating protein molecules in bioinformatics; and describing growth of organisms in biology. This book is a significant update of the highly-regarded `Statistical Shape Analysis’ by the same authors. The new edition lays the foundations of landmark shape analysis, including geometrical concepts and statistical techniques, and extends to include analysis of curves, surfaces, images and other types of object data. Key definitions and concepts are discussed throughout, and the relative merits of different approaches are presented. The authors have included substantial new material on recent statistical developments and offer numerous examples throughout the text. Concepts are introduced in an accessible manner, while reta...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2005-01-01
For the years 2004 and 2005 the figures shown in the tables of Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics published in Energy Review are presented in more detail in a publication called Energy Statistics that comes out yearly. Energy Statistics also includes historical time-series over a longer period of time (see e.g. Energy Statistics, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2004.) The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supplies and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2003, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2003, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes, precautionary stock fees and oil pollution fees
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yun-Jie Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the value of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Materials and Methods: We first performed a hospital-based, case-control study involving 123 ovarian cancer patients and 101 benign ovarian tumor patients, and then conducted a meta-analysis with 19 case-control studies to assess the correlation between ovarian cancer and plasma LPA levels. Results: The case-control study results demonstrated that ovarian cancer patients have increased LPA and cancer antigen (CA-125 levels compared to patients with benign ovarian tumor (LPA: Ovarian cancer vs benign ovarian tumor: 5.28 ± 1.52 vs 1.82 ± 0.77 μmol/L; CA-125: Ovarian cancer vs benign ovarian tumor: 87.17 ± 45.81 vs. 14.03 ± 10.14 U/mL, which showed statistically significant differences (both P < 0.05. LPA with advanced sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy rate of diagnosis excelled CA-125 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (both P < 0.05. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (LPA: 0.983; CA-125: 0.910 were statistically significant compared with the reference (both P < 0.001 and the difference of the areas of ROC curve between LPA and CA-125 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.05. The meta-analysis results suggested that plasma LPA levels were higher in ovarian cancer tissues than in benign tissues (standardized mean difference (SMD =2.36, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.61-3.11, P < 0.001 and normal tissues (SMD = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.77-2.87, P < 0.001. Conclusion: LPA shows greater value in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer compared to CA-125 and may be employed as a biological index to diagnose ovarian cancer.
Significant ELCAP analysis results: Summary report. [End-use Load and Consumer Assessment Program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pratt, R.G.; Conner, C.C.; Drost, M.K.; Miller, N.E.; Cooke, B.A.; Halverson, M.A.; Lebaron, B.A.; Lucas, R.G.; Jo, J.; Richman, E.E.; Sandusky, W.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Ritland, K.G. (Ritland Associates, Seattle, WA (USA)); Taylor, M.E. (USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (USA)); Hauser, S.G. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))
1991-02-01
The evolution of the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) since 1983 at Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has been eventful and somewhat tortuous. The birth pangs of a data set so large and encompassing as this have been overwhelming at times. The early adolescent stage of data set development and use has now been reached and preliminary results of early analyses of the data are becoming well known. However, the full maturity of the data set and the corresponding wealth of analytic insights are not fully realized. This document is in some sense a milestone in the brief history of the program. It is a summary of the results of the first five years of the program, principally containing excerpts from a number of previous reports. It is meant to highlight significant accomplishments and analytical results, with a focus on the principal results. Many of the results have a broad application in the utility load research community in general, although the real breadth of the data set remains largely unexplored. The first section of the document introduces the data set: how the buildings were selected, how the metering equipment was installed, and how the data set has been prepared for analysis. Each of the sections that follow the introduction summarize a particular analytic result. A large majority of the analyses to date involve the residential samples, as these were installed first and had highest priority on the analytic agenda. Two exploratory analyses using commercial data are included as an introduction to the commercial analyses that are currently underway. Most of the sections reference more complete technical reports which the reader should refer to for details of the methodology and for more complete discussion of the results. Sections have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.
Whole Frog Project and Virtual Frog Dissection Statistics wwwstats output for January 1 through duplicate or extraneous accesses. For example, in these statistics, while a POST requesting an image is as well. Note that this under-represents the bytes requested. Starting date for following statistics
Colon-Berlingeri, Migdalisel; Burrowes, Patricia A
2011-01-01
Incorporation of mathematics into biology curricula is critical to underscore for undergraduate students the relevance of mathematics to most fields of biology and the usefulness of developing quantitative process skills demanded in modern biology. At our institution, we have made significant changes to better integrate mathematics into the undergraduate biology curriculum. The curricular revision included changes in the suggested course sequence, addition of statistics and precalculus as prerequisites to core science courses, and incorporating interdisciplinary (math-biology) learning activities in genetics and zoology courses. In this article, we describe the activities developed for these two courses and the assessment tools used to measure the learning that took place with respect to biology and statistics. We distinguished the effectiveness of these learning opportunities in helping students improve their understanding of the math and statistical concepts addressed and, more importantly, their ability to apply them to solve a biological problem. We also identified areas that need emphasis in both biology and mathematics courses. In light of our observations, we recommend best practices that biology and mathematics academic departments can implement to train undergraduates for the demands of modern biology.
Effects of quantum coherence on work statistics
Xu, Bao-Ming; Zou, Jian; Guo, Li-Sha; Kong, Xiang-Mu
2018-05-01
In the conventional two-point measurement scheme of quantum thermodynamics, quantum coherence is destroyed by the first measurement. But as we know the coherence really plays an important role in the quantum thermodynamics process, and how to describe the work statistics for a quantum coherent process is still an open question. In this paper, we use the full counting statistics method to investigate the effects of quantum coherence on work statistics. First, we give a general discussion and show that for a quantum coherent process, work statistics is very different from that of the two-point measurement scheme, specifically the average work is increased or decreased and the work fluctuation can be decreased by quantum coherence, which strongly depends on the relative phase, the energy level structure, and the external protocol. Then, we concretely consider a quenched one-dimensional transverse Ising model and show that quantum coherence has a more significant influence on work statistics in the ferromagnetism regime compared with that in the paramagnetism regime, so that due to the presence of quantum coherence the work statistics can exhibit the critical phenomenon even at high temperature.
Xu, Liangfei; Reimer, Uwe; Li, Jianqiu; Huang, Haiyan; Hu, Zunyan; Jiang, Hongliang; Janßen, Holger; Ouyang, Minggao; Lehnert, Werner
2018-02-01
City buses using polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are considered to be the most likely fuel cell vehicles to be commercialized in China. The technical specifications of the fuel cell systems (FCSs) these buses are equipped with will differ based on the powertrain configurations and vehicle control strategies, but can generally be classified into the power-follow and soft-run modes. Each mode imposes different levels of electrochemical stress on the fuel cells. Evaluating the aging behavior of fuel cell stacks under the conditions encountered in fuel cell buses requires new durability test protocols based on statistical results obtained during actual driving tests. In this study, we propose a systematic design method for fuel cell durability test protocols that correspond to the power-follow mode based on three parameters for different fuel cell load ranges. The powertrain configurations and control strategy are described herein, followed by a presentation of the statistical data for the duty cycles of FCSs in one city bus in the demonstration project. Assessment protocols are presented based on the statistical results using mathematical optimization methods, and are compared to existing protocols with respect to common factors, such as time at open circuit voltage and root-mean-square power.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sibel Özdaş
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Objective: It is aimed to determine presence of HPV and HPV 16 by Real-Time PCR in cervical smears obtained from patients during colposcopic examination who had referred to outpatient clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics Department due to various complaints and to examine interrelation between positive test results and clinical data. Method: Sixty patients were included in the study who were referred to outpatient clinic due to vary complaints and who had been decided to undergo to colposcopic examination. DNA was obtained from each smear sample by phenol-chloroform-isoamylalcohol method. L1 region was replicated in amplification process using MY09/MY11 primers. Products for Nested Real time PCR were studied in Ligth Cycler equipment by GP5+/GP6+ primers and Cyanine-5 labeled HPV 16 DNA specific probe. Real time PCR products were undergone melting curve analysis by LigthCycler software version 3.5.3. HPV DNA positivity and HPV 16 positivity were determined at 78-82°C and 68°C, respectively. Results: No statistically significant difference could be detected between HPV positivity, HPV 16 in and types other than HPV 16 control group and patients with positive test result as a consequence of colposcopic examination. Again, no statistically significant difference could be detected between HPV positivity and status of parity, result of PAP test, marital status and age of patient. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference could be detected between HPV positivity, HPV 16 in and types other than HPV 16 control group and patients with positive test result as a consequence of colposcopic examination. Again, no statistically difference could be detected between HPV positivity and result of PAP smear test, marital status, age of patient and smoking but statistically significant difference could be detected between types other than HPV 16 and status of parity (respectively; χ2=0.821, p=0.365; χ2=0.752, p=0.564; χ2=0.364, p=0.834; χ2= 6.835, p
Statistical learning and selective inference.
Taylor, Jonathan; Tibshirani, Robert J
2015-06-23
We describe the problem of "selective inference." This addresses the following challenge: Having mined a set of data to find potential associations, how do we properly assess the strength of these associations? The fact that we have "cherry-picked"--searched for the strongest associations--means that we must set a higher bar for declaring significant the associations that we see. This challenge becomes more important in the era of big data and complex statistical modeling. The cherry tree (dataset) can be very large and the tools for cherry picking (statistical learning methods) are now very sophisticated. We describe some recent new developments in selective inference and illustrate their use in forward stepwise regression, the lasso, and principal components analysis.
Genton, Marc G.
2015-04-14
This paper explores the use of visualization through animations, coined visuanimation, in the field of statistics. In particular, it illustrates the embedding of animations in the paper itself and the storage of larger movies in the online supplemental material. We present results from statistics research projects using a variety of visuanimations, ranging from exploratory data analysis of image data sets to spatio-temporal extreme event modelling; these include a multiscale analysis of classification methods, the study of the effects of a simulated explosive volcanic eruption and an emulation of climate model output. This paper serves as an illustration of visuanimation for future publications in Stat. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Saadati, Farzaneh; Ahmad Tarmizi, Rohani; Mohd Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi; Abu Bakar, Kamariah
2015-01-01
Because students' ability to use statistics, which is mathematical in nature, is one of the concerns of educators, embedding within an e-learning system the pedagogical characteristics of learning is 'value added' because it facilitates the conventional method of learning mathematics. Many researchers emphasize the effectiveness of cognitive apprenticeship in learning and problem solving in the workplace. In a cognitive apprenticeship learning model, skills are learned within a community of practitioners through observation of modelling and then practice plus coaching. This study utilized an internet-based Cognitive Apprenticeship Model (i-CAM) in three phases and evaluated its effectiveness for improving statistics problem-solving performance among postgraduate students. The results showed that, when compared to the conventional mathematics learning model, the i-CAM could significantly promote students' problem-solving performance at the end of each phase. In addition, the combination of the differences in students' test scores were considered to be statistically significant after controlling for the pre-test scores. The findings conveyed in this paper confirmed the considerable value of i-CAM in the improvement of statistics learning for non-specialized postgraduate students.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abhishek Singh Nayyar
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations (levels ofserum total proteins and advanced oxidation protein products as markers of oxidantmediated protein damage in the sera of patients with oral cancers.Methods: The study consisted of the sera analyses of serum total protein andadvanced oxidation protein products’ levels in 30 age and sex matched controls, 60patients with reported pre-cancerous lesions and/or conditions and 60 patients withhistologically proven oral squamous cell carcinoma. One way analyses of variance wereused to test the difference between groups. To determine which of the two groups’ meanswere significantly different, the post-hoc test of Bonferroni was used. The results wereaveraged as mean ± standard deviation. In the above test, P values less than 0.05 weretaken to be statistically significant. The normality of data was checked before thestatistical analysis was performed.Results: The study revealed statistically significant variations in serum levels ofadvanced oxidation protein products (P<0.001. Serum levels of total protein showedextensive variations; therefore the results were largely inconclusive and statisticallyinsignificant.Conclusion: The results emphasize the need for more studies with larger samplesizes to be conducted before a conclusive role can be determined for sera levels of totalprotein and advanced oxidation protein products as markers both for diagnosticsignificance and the transition from the various oral pre-cancerous lesions and conditionsinto frank oral cancers.
Prognostic significance of obstructive uropathy in advanced prostate cancer.
Oefelein, Michael G
2004-06-01
To report the incidence and prognostic implications of obstructive uropathy (OU) in patients with advanced prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy and to define the impact initial local therapy has on the development of OU in patients with prostate cancer who develop recurrence and begin androgen deprivation therapy. From a population of 260 patients with advanced prostate cancer diagnosed between 1986 and 2003, OU was identified in 51 patients. The OU treatment options included ureteral stent, percutaneous nephrostomy, transurethral resection of the prostate, Foley catheter placement, and urinary diversion. Overall survival and the factors that influenced survival were calculated using standard statistical methods. OU was diagnosed in 15 (16%) of 80 patients who received local therapy with curative intent and in whom local therapy subsequently failed and in 36 (19%) of 180 patients who had never received local therapy (P = 0.7, chi-square test). Of these 51 patients, 39 had bladder neck obstruction and 16 had ureteral obstruction. Overall survival was significantly worse for the men with OU compared with those without OU (41 versus 54 months). OU was associated with tumor stage and androgen-insensitive prostate cancer. OU results in significantly reduced survival in men with prostate cancer. In a select group of patients with prostate cancer with progression after local therapy (primarily radiotherapy), no statistically significant reduction in the development of OU was observed relative to patients matched for stage, grade, and pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level treated with androgen deprivation therapy alone. Aggressive advanced stage and hormone-insensitive disease are variables associated with OU.
Statistical Analysis of Big Data on Pharmacogenomics
Fan, Jianqing; Liu, Han
2013-01-01
This paper discusses statistical methods for estimating complex correlation structure from large pharmacogenomic datasets. We selectively review several prominent statistical methods for estimating large covariance matrix for understanding correlation structure, inverse covariance matrix for network modeling, large-scale simultaneous tests for selecting significantly differently expressed genes and proteins and genetic markers for complex diseases, and high dimensional variable selection for identifying important molecules for understanding molecule mechanisms in pharmacogenomics. Their applications to gene network estimation and biomarker selection are used to illustrate the methodological power. Several new challenges of Big data analysis, including complex data distribution, missing data, measurement error, spurious correlation, endogeneity, and the need for robust statistical methods, are also discussed. PMID:23602905
The large break LOCA evaluation method with the simplified statistic approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamata, Shinya; Kubo, Kazuo
2004-01-01
USNRC published the Code Scaling, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) evaluation methodology to large break LOCA which supported the revised rule for Emergency Core Cooling System performance in 1989. In USNRC regulatory guide 1.157, it is required that the peak cladding temperature (PCT) cannot exceed 2200deg F with high probability 95th percentile. In recent years, overseas countries have developed statistical methodology and best estimate code with the model which can provide more realistic simulation for the phenomena based on the CSAU evaluation methodology. In order to calculate PCT probability distribution by Monte Carlo trials, there are approaches such as the response surface technique using polynomials, the order statistics method, etc. For the purpose of performing rational statistic analysis, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, LTD (MHI) tried to develop the statistic LOCA method using the best estimate LOCA code MCOBRA/TRAC and the simplified code HOTSPOT. HOTSPOT is a Monte Carlo heat conduction solver to evaluate the uncertainties of the significant fuel parameters at the PCT positions of the hot rod. The direct uncertainty sensitivity studies can be performed without the response surface because the Monte Carlo simulation for key parameters can be performed in short time using HOTSPOT. With regard to the parameter uncertainties, MHI established the treatment that the bounding conditions are given for LOCA boundary and plant initial conditions, the Monte Carlo simulation using HOTSPOT is applied to the significant fuel parameters. The paper describes the large break LOCA evaluation method with the simplified statistic approach and the results of the application of the method to the representative four-loop nuclear power plant. (author)
Statistical Inference at Work: Statistical Process Control as an Example
Bakker, Arthur; Kent, Phillip; Derry, Jan; Noss, Richard; Hoyles, Celia
2008-01-01
To characterise statistical inference in the workplace this paper compares a prototypical type of statistical inference at work, statistical process control (SPC), with a type of statistical inference that is better known in educational settings, hypothesis testing. Although there are some similarities between the reasoning structure involved in…
What can we learn from noise? - Mesoscopic nonequilibrium statistical physics.
Kobayashi, Kensuke
2016-01-01
Mesoscopic systems - small electric circuits working in quantum regime - offer us a unique experimental stage to explorer quantum transport in a tunable and precise way. The purpose of this Review is to show how they can contribute to statistical physics. We introduce the significance of fluctuation, or equivalently noise, as noise measurement enables us to address the fundamental aspects of a physical system. The significance of the fluctuation theorem (FT) in statistical physics is noted. We explain what information can be deduced from the current noise measurement in mesoscopic systems. As an important application of the noise measurement to statistical physics, we describe our experimental work on the current and current noise in an electron interferometer, which is the first experimental test of FT in quantum regime. Our attempt will shed new light in the research field of mesoscopic quantum statistical physics.
On the significance of δ13C correlations in ancient sediments
Derry, Louis A.
2010-08-01
A graphical analysis of the correlations between δc and ɛTOC was introduced by Rothman et al. (2003) to obtain estimates of the carbon isotopic composition of inputs to the oceans and the organic carbon burial fraction. Applied to Cenozoic data, the method agrees with independent estimates, but with Neoproterozoic data the method yields results that cannot be accommodated with standard models of sedimentary carbon isotope mass balance. We explore the sensitivity of the graphical correlation method and find that the variance ratio between δc and δo is an important control on the correlation of δc and ɛ. If the variance ratio σc/ σo ≥ 1 highly correlated arrays very similar to those obtained from the data are produced from independent random variables. The Neoproterozoic data shows such variance patterns, and the regression parameters for the Neoproterozoic data are statistically indistinguishable from the randomized model at the 95% confidence interval. The projection of the data into δc- ɛ space cannot distinguish between signal and noise, such as post-depositional alteration, under these circumstances. There appears to be no need to invoke unusual carbon cycle dynamics to explain the Neoproterozoic δc- ɛ array. The Cenozoic data have σc/ σo vs. ɛ correlation is probably geologically significant, but the analyzed sample size is too small to yield statistically significant results.
The choice of statistical methods for comparisons of dosimetric data in radiotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaikh, Abdulhamid; Giraud, Jean-Yves; Perrin, Emmanuel; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre; Balosso, Jacques
2014-01-01
-corrected methods as compared to the reference method. Spearman’s and Kendall’s rank tests indicated a positive correlation between the doses calculated with the different methods. This paper illustrates and justifies the use of statistical tests and graphical representations for dosimetric comparisons in radiotherapy. The statistical analysis shows the significance of dose differences resulting from two or more techniques in radiotherapy
Statistical analyses in the study of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, D.N.
1985-01-01
Statistical analyses provide a valuable method for establishing initially the existence (or lack of existence) of a relationship between diverse data sets. Statistical methods also allow one to make quantitative assessments of the strengths of observed relationships. This paper reviews the essential techniques and underlying statistical bases for the use of correlative methods in solar wind-magnetosphere coupling studies. Techniques of visual correlation and time-lagged linear cross-correlation analysis are emphasized, but methods of multiple regression, superposed epoch analysis, and linear prediction filtering are also described briefly. The long history of correlation analysis in the area of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling is reviewed with the assessments organized according to data averaging time scales (minutes to years). It is concluded that these statistical methods can be very useful first steps, but that case studies and various advanced analysis methods should be employed to understand fully the average response of the magnetosphere to solar wind input. It is clear that many workers have not always recognized underlying assumptions of statistical methods and thus the significance of correlation results can be in doubt. Long-term averages (greater than or equal to 1 hour) can reveal gross relationships, but only when dealing with high-resolution data (1 to 10 min) can one reach conclusions pertinent to magnetospheric response time scales and substorm onset mechanisms
A Statistical Primer: Understanding Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
Gillian Byrne
2007-01-01
As libraries and librarians move more towards evidence‐based decision making, the data being generated in libraries is growing. Understanding the basics of statistical analysis is crucial for evidence‐based practice (EBP), in order to correctly design and analyze researchas well as to evaluate the research of others. This article covers the fundamentals of descriptive and inferential statistics, from hypothesis construction to sampling to common statistical techniques including chi‐square, co...
Applied statistics in ecology: common pitfalls and simple solutions
E. Ashley Steel; Maureen C. Kennedy; Patrick G. Cunningham; John S. Stanovick
2013-01-01
The most common statistical pitfalls in ecological research are those associated with data exploration, the logic of sampling and design, and the interpretation of statistical results. Although one can find published errors in calculations, the majority of statistical pitfalls result from incorrect logic or interpretation despite correct numerical calculations. There...
Morphological representation of order-statistics filters.
Charif-Chefchaouni, M; Schonfeld, D
1995-01-01
We propose a comprehensive theory for the morphological bounds on order-statistics filters (and their repeated iterations). Conditions are derived for morphological openings and closings to serve as bounds (lower and upper, respectively) on order-statistics filters (and their repeated iterations). Under various assumptions, morphological open-closings and close-openings are also shown to serve as (tighter) bounds (lower and upper, respectively) on iterations of order-statistics filters. Simulations of the application of the results presented to image restoration are finally provided.
Analytical model of SiPM time resolution and order statistics with crosstalk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vinogradov, S.
2015-01-01
Time resolution is the most important parameter of photon detectors in a wide range of time-of-flight and time correlation applications within the areas of high energy physics, medical imaging, and others. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) have been initially recognized as perfect photon-number-resolving detectors; now they also provide outstanding results in the scintillator timing resolution. However, crosstalk and afterpulsing introduce false secondary non-Poissonian events, and SiPM time resolution models are experiencing significant difficulties with that. This study presents an attempt to develop an analytical model of the timing resolution of an SiPM taking into account statistics of secondary events resulting from a crosstalk. Two approaches have been utilized to derive an analytical expression for time resolution: the first one based on statistics of independent identically distributed detection event times and the second one based on order statistics of these times. The first approach is found to be more straightforward and “analytical-friendly” to model analog SiPMs. Comparisons of coincidence resolving times predicted by the model with the known experimental results from a LYSO:Ce scintillator and a Hamamatsu MPPC are presented
Analytical model of SiPM time resolution and order statistics with crosstalk
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vinogradov, S., E-mail: Sergey.Vinogradov@liverpool.ac.uk [University of Liverpool and Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Keckwick Lane, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Leninskiy Prospekt 53, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2015-07-01
Time resolution is the most important parameter of photon detectors in a wide range of time-of-flight and time correlation applications within the areas of high energy physics, medical imaging, and others. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) have been initially recognized as perfect photon-number-resolving detectors; now they also provide outstanding results in the scintillator timing resolution. However, crosstalk and afterpulsing introduce false secondary non-Poissonian events, and SiPM time resolution models are experiencing significant difficulties with that. This study presents an attempt to develop an analytical model of the timing resolution of an SiPM taking into account statistics of secondary events resulting from a crosstalk. Two approaches have been utilized to derive an analytical expression for time resolution: the first one based on statistics of independent identically distributed detection event times and the second one based on order statistics of these times. The first approach is found to be more straightforward and “analytical-friendly” to model analog SiPMs. Comparisons of coincidence resolving times predicted by the model with the known experimental results from a LYSO:Ce scintillator and a Hamamatsu MPPC are presented.
Wind energy statistics 2012; Vindkraftsstatistik 2012
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2013-04-15
The publication 'Wind Energy Statistics' is an annual publication. Since 2010, the reported statistics of installed power, number of plants and regional distribution, even semi-annually, and in tabular form on the Agency's website. The publication is produced in a new way this year, which will result in some data differ from previous publications. Due to the certificate system there is basically full statistics on wind energy in this publication which are presented in different styles. Here we present the regional distribution, ie. how the number of turbines and installed capacity is allocated to counties and municipalities. The electricity produced divided by county, where for reasons of confidentiality possible, are also reported. The wind power is becoming increasingly important in the Swedish energy system which provides an increased demand for statistics and other divisions than that presented in the official statistics. Therefore, this publication, which are not official statistics, has been developed.
Szulc, Stefan
1965-01-01
Statistical Methods provides a discussion of the principles of the organization and technique of research, with emphasis on its application to the problems in social statistics. This book discusses branch statistics, which aims to develop practical ways of collecting and processing numerical data and to adapt general statistical methods to the objectives in a given field.Organized into five parts encompassing 22 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how to organize the collection of such information on individual units, primarily as accomplished by government agencies. This text then
Goodman, Joseph W
2015-01-01
This book discusses statistical methods that are useful for treating problems in modern optics, and the application of these methods to solving a variety of such problems This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications. The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced i
Results from the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT)
Bader, James D.; Vollmer, William M.; Shugars, Daniel A.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Amaechi, Bennett T.; Brown, John P.; Laws, Reesa L.; Funkhouser, Kimberly A.; Makhija, Sonia K.; Ritter, André V.; Leo, Michael C.
2013-01-01
Background Although caries is prevalent in adults, few preventive therapies have been tested in adult populations. This randomized clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness of xylitol lozenges in preventing caries in elevated caries-risk adults. Methods X-ACT was a three-site placebo-controlled randomized trial. Participants (n=691) ages 21–80 consumed five 1.0 g xylitol or placebo lozenges daily for 33 months. Clinical examinations occurred at baseline, 12, 24 and 33 months. Results Xylitol lozenges reduced the caries increment 11%. This reduction, which represented less than one-third of a surface per year, was not statistically significant. There was no indication of a dose-response effect. Conclusions Daily use of xylitol lozenges did not result in a statistically or clinically significant reduction in 33-month caries increment among elevated caries-risk adults. Clinical Implications These results suggest that xylitol used as a supplement in adults does not significantly reduce their caries experience. PMID:23283923
Learning Object Names at Different Hierarchical Levels Using Cross-Situational Statistics.
Chen, Chi-Hsin; Zhang, Yayun; Yu, Chen
2018-05-01
Objects in the world usually have names at different hierarchical levels (e.g., beagle, dog, animal). This research investigates adults' ability to use cross-situational statistics to simultaneously learn object labels at individual and category levels. The results revealed that adults were able to use co-occurrence information to learn hierarchical labels in contexts where the labels for individual objects and labels for categories were presented in completely separated blocks, in interleaved blocks, or mixed in the same trial. Temporal presentation schedules significantly affected the learning of individual object labels, but not the learning of category labels. Learners' subsequent generalization of category labels indicated sensitivity to the structure of statistical input. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Quantum-statistical kinetic equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loss, D.; Schoeller, H.
1989-01-01
Considering a homogeneous normal quantum fluid consisting of identical interacting fermions or bosons, the authors derive an exact quantum-statistical generalized kinetic equation with a collision operator given as explicit cluster series where exchange effects are included through renormalized Liouville operators. This new result is obtained by applying a recently developed superoperator formalism (Liouville operators, cluster expansions, symmetrized projectors, P q -rule, etc.) to nonequilibrium systems described by a density operator ρ(t) which obeys the von Neumann equation. By means of this formalism a factorization theorem is proven (being essential for obtaining closed equations), and partial resummations (leading to renormalized quantities) are performed. As an illustrative application, the quantum-statistical versions (including exchange effects due to Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein statistics) of the homogeneous Boltzmann (binary collisions) and Choh-Uhlenbeck (triple collisions) equations are derived
All of statistics a concise course in statistical inference
Wasserman, Larry
2004-01-01
This book is for people who want to learn probability and statistics quickly It brings together many of the main ideas in modern statistics in one place The book is suitable for students and researchers in statistics, computer science, data mining and machine learning This book covers a much wider range of topics than a typical introductory text on mathematical statistics It includes modern topics like nonparametric curve estimation, bootstrapping and classification, topics that are usually relegated to follow-up courses The reader is assumed to know calculus and a little linear algebra No previous knowledge of probability and statistics is required The text can be used at the advanced undergraduate and graduate level Larry Wasserman is Professor of Statistics at Carnegie Mellon University He is also a member of the Center for Automated Learning and Discovery in the School of Computer Science His research areas include nonparametric inference, asymptotic theory, causality, and applications to astrophysics, bi...
Do doctors need statistics? Doctors' use of and attitudes to probability and statistics.
Swift, Louise; Miles, Susan; Price, Gill M; Shepstone, Lee; Leinster, Sam J
2009-07-10
There is little published evidence on what doctors do in their work that requires probability and statistics, yet the General Medical Council (GMC) requires new doctors to have these skills. This study investigated doctors' use of and attitudes to probability and statistics with a view to informing undergraduate teaching.An email questionnaire was sent to 473 clinicians with an affiliation to the University of East Anglia's Medical School.Of 130 respondents approximately 90 per cent of doctors who performed each of the following activities found probability and statistics useful for that activity: accessing clinical guidelines and evidence summaries, explaining levels of risk to patients, assessing medical marketing and advertising material, interpreting the results of a screening test, reading research publications for general professional interest, and using research publications to explore non-standard treatment and management options.Seventy-nine per cent (103/130, 95 per cent CI 71 per cent, 86 per cent) of participants considered probability and statistics important in their work. Sixty-three per cent (78/124, 95 per cent CI 54 per cent, 71 per cent) said that there were activities that they could do better or start doing if they had an improved understanding of these areas and 74 of these participants elaborated on this. Themes highlighted by participants included: being better able to critically evaluate other people's research; becoming more research-active, having a better understanding of risk; and being better able to explain things to, or teach, other people.Our results can be used to inform how probability and statistics should be taught to medical undergraduates and should encourage today's medical students of the subjects' relevance to their future careers. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Statistical analysis of the determinations of the Sun's Galactocentric distance
Malkin, Zinovy
2013-02-01
Based on several tens of R0 measurements made during the past two decades, several studies have been performed to derive the best estimate of R0. Some used just simple averaging to derive a result, whereas others provided comprehensive analyses of possible errors in published results. In either case, detailed statistical analyses of data used were not performed. However, a computation of the best estimates of the Galactic rotation constants is not only an astronomical but also a metrological task. Here we perform an analysis of 53 R0 measurements (published in the past 20 years) to assess the consistency of the data. Our analysis shows that they are internally consistent. It is also shown that any trend in the R0 estimates from the last 20 years is statistically negligible, which renders the presence of a bandwagon effect doubtful. On the other hand, the formal errors in the published R0 estimates improve significantly with time.
Statistical Method to Overcome Overfitting Issue in Rational Function Models
Alizadeh Moghaddam, S. H.; Mokhtarzade, M.; Alizadeh Naeini, A.; Alizadeh Moghaddam, S. A.
2017-09-01
Rational function models (RFMs) are known as one of the most appealing models which are extensively applied in geometric correction of satellite images and map production. Overfitting is a common issue, in the case of terrain dependent RFMs, that degrades the accuracy of RFMs-derived geospatial products. This issue, resulting from the high number of RFMs' parameters, leads to ill-posedness of the RFMs. To tackle this problem, in this study, a fast and robust statistical approach is proposed and compared to Tikhonov regularization (TR) method, as a frequently-used solution to RFMs' overfitting. In the proposed method, a statistical test, namely, significance test is applied to search for the RFMs' parameters that are resistant against overfitting issue. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated for two real data sets of Cartosat-1 satellite images. The obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method in term of the achievable level of accuracy. This technique, indeed, shows an improvement of 50-80% over the TR.
Statistical theory of breakup reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertulani, Carlos A.; Descouvemont, Pierre; Hussein, Mahir S.
2014-01-01
We propose an alternative for Coupled-Channels calculations with loosely bound exotic nuclei (CDCC), based on the the Random Matrix Model of the statistical theory of nuclear reactions. The coupled channels equations are divided into two sets. The first set, described by the CDCC, and the other set treated with RMT. The resulting theory is a Statistical CDCC (CDCC s ), able in principle to take into account many pseudo channels. (author)