Full Text Available When making engineering decisions at the stage of designing auto-roads and man-made structures it is necessary to take into account the statistical variability of physical and mechanical characteristics of the used materials as well as the different effects on the structures. Thus the rationale for the statistical characteristics of the parameters that determine the reliability of roads and man-made engineering facilities is of particular importance.There are many factors to be considered while designing roads, such as natural climatic factors, the accidental effects of the operating loads, the strength and deformation characteristics of the materials, the geometric parameters of the structure, etc. which affect the strength characteristics of roads and man-made structures. The rationale for statistical characteristics of the parameters can help an engineer assess the reliability of the decision and the economic risk, as well as avoid making mistakes in the design of roads and man-made structures.However, some statistical characteristics of the parameters that define the reliability of a road and man-made structures play a key role in the design. These are the visibility distance in daytime for the peak curve, variation coefficient of radial acceleration, the reliability of visibility distance and other parameters.
In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. Facing this, the Ombudsman suggests that the State develops a rigorous statistical system, strengthens the National Council of Road Safety and that the different sectors of the government develop the mentioned National Plan.
In-depth interviews with top level decision makers in the road sector in Norway were conducted over a four-year period: Three principal impediments to safety interventions were identified: (i) Mobility is considered of primary importance; the "freedom of the car" is difficult to restrict, (ii) as a consequence there is much more lobbying for mobility than for safety, and (iii) road safety commitment and policies are weak, even among some of those responsible. For these reasons, efficient road safety work is often side-tracked at the top level, and substituted by nonbinding demands for road users' "change of attitude". In addition, road safety is often used as a proxy argument for measures that mainly promote mobility.
A road safety audit (RSA) and a road safety inspection (RSI) are used to test the safety level of the road infrastructure. The RSA tests the design of new roads or the reconstruction of existing roads, whereas the RSI is used for testing existing roads. An RSA, therefore, aims to 'improve' the road
Full Text Available Development of the road network, increasing motorization of the population significantly increase the risk of accidents. Experts in the field of traffic are developing methods to reduce the probability of accidents. The ways of solving the problems of road safety audit at various stages of the «life» of roads are considered.
Mohd Razelan Intan Suhana
In most countries, crash statistics have becoming very crucial in evaluating road’s safety level. In Malaysia, these data are very important in deciding crash-prone areas known as black spot where specific road improvements plan will be proposed. However due to the unavailability of reliable crash data in many developing countries, appropriate road maintenance measures are facing great troubles. In light of that, several proactive methods in defining road’s safety level such as Road Assessmen...
On the 23 and 25 September come and test your driving skills and your reflexes on the two days of road safety in practice! To conclude the poster and article campaign on this topic which started last year, CERN now comes to the practical part with demonstrations, like a spectacular overturning test, information stands, where you can meet safety personnel from France, Switzerland and CERN, and discussions & debates. Come to ... ... the Meyrin site on 23 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site Cèdres, behind the Restaurant no. 1. - From 9:30 hrs, discussions and debates in the main auditorium. ... the Prévessin site on 25 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site of the building 866. - From 14:00 hrs, discussions and debates in the AB auditorium, building 864.
Road safety is a major concern for society and individuals. Although road safety has improved in recent years, the number of road fatalities is still unacceptably high. In 2000, road accidents killed over 40,000 people in the European Union and injured more than 1.7 million. In 2001 in Denmark...... there were 6861 injury trafficc accidents reported by the police, resulting in 4519 minor injuries, 3946 serious injuries, and 431 fatalities. The general purpose of the research was to improve the insight into aggregated road safety methodology in Denmark. The aim was to analyse advanced statistical methods...
Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Antoniuk, Marcin
Run-off-road accidents tend to be very severe because when a vehicle leaves the road, it will often crash into a solid obstacle (tree, pole, supports, front wall of a culvert, barrier). A statistical analysis of the data shows that Poland’s main roadside hazard is trees and the severity of vehicles striking a tree in a run-off-road crash. The risks are particularly high in north-west Poland with many of the roads lined up with trees. Because of the existing rural road cross-sections, i.e. having trees directly on road edge followed immediately by drainage ditches, vulnerable road users are prevented from using shoulders and made to use the roadway. With no legal definition of the road safety zone in Polish regulations, attempts to remove roadside trees lead to major conflicts with environmental stakeholders. This is why a compromise should be sought between the safety of road users and protection of the natural environment and the aesthetics of the road experience. Rather than just cut the trees, other road safety measures should be used where possible to treat the hazardous spots by securing trees and obstacles and through speed management. Accidents that are directly related to the road environment fall into the following categories: hitting a tree, hitting a barrier, hitting a utility pole or sign, vehicle rollover on the shoulder, vehicle rollover on slopes or in ditch. The main consequence of a roadside hazard is not the likelihood of an accident itself but of its severity. Poland’s roadside accident severity is primarily the result of poor design or operation of road infrastructure. This comes as a consequence of a lack of regulations or poorly defined regulations and failure to comply with road safety standards. The new analytical model was designed as a combination of the different factors and one that will serve as a comprehensive model. It was assumed that it will describe the effect of the roadside on the number of accidents and their consequences
Eenink, R.G. Dijkstra, A. Wijnen, W. & Janssen, S.T.M.C.
The Nouwen Committee (National Platform Paying Differently for Mobility) advised the Cabinet in 2005 about the introduction of a system of road pricing. Part of this advice consisted of a calculation of the expected road safety effects of such a system. In a letter to the Minister of Transport, SWOV
Mohd Razelan Intan Suhana
Full Text Available In most countries, crash statistics have becoming very crucial in evaluating road’s safety level. In Malaysia, these data are very important in deciding crash-prone areas known as black spot where specific road improvements plan will be proposed. However due to the unavailability of reliable crash data in many developing countries, appropriate road maintenance measures are facing great troubles. In light of that, several proactive methods in defining road’s safety level such as Road Assessment Program (RAP have emerged. This research aim to compare two proactive methods that have been tested in Malaysian roads ; road assessment program and road environment risk index which was developed based on composite index theory in defining road’s safety level. Composite road environment risk index was combining several crucial environment indicators, assigning weight and aggregating the individual index together to form a single value representing the road’s safety level. Based on the results, it can be concluded that both road assessment program and composite road environment risk index are contradicted in six different ways such as type of speed used, type of analysis used and their final outcomes. However, with an aim to promote safer roads, these two methods can be used concurrently as the outcomes in both methods seems to fulfil each other’s gap very well.
Unfortunately, road safety trends in Kenya are worsening. The mean annual fatality rate from all road traffic accidents in Kenya is estimated at 50 deaths per 10 000 registered vehicles (1,2). The numbers of reported accidents have been showing an increasing trend from 10,300 in 1990 to 16,800 in 2000 and. 17,400 in ...
Yannis, G. Weijermars, W.A.M. Gitelman, V. Vis, M. Chazirisa, A. Papadimitriou, E. & Lima Azevedo, C.
Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The
Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Kustra, Wojciech; Michalski, Lech; Gaca, Stanislaw
The objective of road safety infrastructure management is to ensure that when roads are planned, designed, built and used road risks can be identified, assessed and mitigated. Road transport safety is significantly less developed than that of rail, water and air transport. The average individual risk of being a fatality in relation to the distance covered is thirty times higher in road transport that in the other modes. This is mainly because the different modes have a different approach to safety management and to the use of risk management methods and tools. In recent years Poland has had one of the European Union’s highest road death numbers. In 2016 there were 3026 fatalities on Polish roads with 40,766 injuries. Protecting road users from the risk of injury and death should be given top priority. While Poland’s national and regional road safety programmes address this problem and are instrumental in systematically reducing the number of casualties, the effects are far from the expectations. Modern approaches to safety focus on three integrated elements: infrastructure measures, safety management and safety culture. Due to its complexity, the process of road safety management requires modern tools to help with identifying road user risks, assess and evaluate the safety of road infrastructure and select effective measures to improve road safety. One possible tool for tackling this problem is the risk-based method for road infrastructure safety management. European Union Directive 2008/96/EC regulates and proposes a list of tools for managing road infrastructure safety. Road safety tools look at two criteria: the life cycle of a road structure and the process of risk management. Risk can be minimized through the application of the proposed interventions during design process as reasonable. The proposed methods of risk management bring together two stages: risk assessment and risk response occurring within the analyzed road structure (road network, road
Dr. Hagenzieker's research and education activities focus on the road safety effects of the transport system, with particular interest in road user behaviour aspects. Her PhD-research was on the effects of rewards on road user behaviour.
Wismans, Jac; Skogsmo, Ingrid; Nilsson-Ehle, Anna; Lie, Anders; Thynell, Marie; Lindberg, Gunnar
The objective of this article is to assess the status of road safety in Asia and present accident and injury prevention strategies based on global road safety improvement experiences and discuss the way forward by indicating opportunities and countermeasures that could be implemented to achieve a new level of safety in Asia. This study provides a review and analyses of data in the literature, including from the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank, and a review of lessons learned from best practices in high-income countries. In addition, an estimation of costs due to road transport injuries in Asia and review of future trends in road transport is provided. Data on the global and Asian road safety problem and status of prevention strategies in Asia as well as recommendations for future actions are discussed. The total number of deaths due to road accidents in the 24 Asian countries, encompassing 56% of the total world population, is 750,000 per year (statistics 2010). The total number of injuries is more than 50 million, of which 12% are hospital admissions. The loss to the economy in the 24 Asian countries is estimated to around US$800 billion or 3.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP). This article clearly shows that road safety is causing large problems and high costs in Asia, with an enormous impact on the well-being of people, economy, and productivity. In many Asian low- and middle-income countries, the yearly number of fatalities and injuries is increasing. Vulnerable road users (pedestrians, cyclists, and motorcyclists combined) are particularly at risk. Road safety in Asia should be given rightful attention, including taking powerful, effective actions. This review stresses the need for reliable accident data, because there is considerable underreporting in the official statistics. Reliable accident data are imperative to determine evidence-based intervention strategies and monitor the success of these interventions and analyses. On the other
This book is aimed at broad readership, not especially at lighting experts. Lighting is presented as a system, as part of the public highway. Much attention is paid to subjects not greatly covered in the specialist literature, such as environmental aspects, traffic safety, crime prevention, and the
Traffic accidents and road surface skidding resistance : an investigation into the statistical relationship between the skidding resistance of the road surface and relative road risk. Summary of the research report of Sub-committee V of the Working Group on Tyres, Road Surfaces and Skidding Accidents of the Institute for Road Safety Research, SWOV
This study forms part of an extended research programme of the Working Group on Tyres, Road-surfaces and Skidding accidents. According to the terms of reference a statistical relationship had to be established between the skidding resistance of a road-surface and the number of accidents per million
Measuring the safety level of a road is difficult. First of all you have to know how many crashes have occurred on a road. Various units of measurement are used for this: the absolute number of crashes per road, the number of crashes per road length, and the number of crashes per distance travelled.
Weijermars, W. Gitelman, V. Papadimitriou, E. Lima De & Azevedo, C.
Within the 6th FP European project SafetyNet, a team has worked on the development of Safety Performance Indicators (SPIs) on seven road safety related areas. These SPIs reflect the operational conditions of the road traffic system that influence the system's safety performance. SPIs were developed
Antonella Del Rosso
Around 50 road accidents happen every year at CERN. Cyclists, drivers and pedestrians must pay attention to their behaviour at all times to ensure that this doesn’t become an even more serious problem. Even if the Laboratory’s sites are not exactly downtown Shanghai, all road users need to make a little effort. So let’s do it! Life at CERN: let’s stick to accumulating scientific data rather than road accidents! (Cartoon by Cian O'Luanaigh) Despite a dedicated Safety Code in force since 1990, “traffic-calming” measures put in place last year, several reminders in the Bulletin and frequent safety campaigns, the number of accidents, particularly those involving cyclists, has remained high since 2008. Luckily, no-one has been seriously injured but it is more and more frequent to experience near misses or actual accidents, whether in a car or on a bike. Incivilities, excessive speeding (also for bikes!) and answering ...
Data were collected on pedestrian, cyclist and moped-rider traffic fatalities from 1968 to 1972. Use is made only of statistics available. The variables that were considered were related to demographic factors (sex and age), locality characteristics, vicinity factors, other circumstances and the
Adesiyun, Adewole; Avenoso, Antonio; Dionelis, Kallistratos; Cela, Liljana; Nicodème, Christophe; Goger, Thierry; Polidori, Carlo
The objective of the ECOROADS project is to overcome the barrier established by the formal interpretation of the two Directives 2008/96/EC and 2004/54/EC, which in practice do not allow the same Road Safety Audits/Inspections to be performed inside tunnels. The projects aims at the establishment of a common enhanced approach to road infrastructure and tunnel safety management by using the concepts and criteria of the Directive 2008/96/CE on road infrastructure safety management and the results of related European Commission (EC) funded projects. ECOROADS has already implemented an analysis of national practices regarding Road Safety Inspections (RSI), two Workshops with the stakeholders, and an exchange of best practices between European tunnel experts and road safety professionals, which led to the definition of common agreed safety procedures. In the second phase of the project, different groups of experts and observers applied the above common procedures by inspecting five European road sections featuring both open roads and tunnels in Belgium, Albania, Germany, Serbia and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. This paper shows the feedback of the 5 joint safety operations and how they are being used for a set of - recommendations and guidelines for the application of the RSA and RSI concepts within the tunnel safety operations.
Julia Catalina Serrano Cordero
Full Text Available This paper addresses the importance of the results evaluation processes in the education and road safety campaigns, although they have achieved remarkable progress in praxis, evidenced a lack of information as to the relevance and suitability of the tools of communication in prevention. The objective was to validate an education and road safety campaign implemented by the Municipal Transit and Transport Company of the city of Cuenca (Ecuador in 2014, for which qualitative and quantitative techniques were used, choosing a stratified probabilistic sample of 304 university students, (age: 15-39. The data collection instruments were: focus group, questionnaire and statistical records, interpreted through content analysis and descriptive statistics. The findings indicate that the most frequent perception about the causes of accidents is: alcohol consumption, speeding, cell phone use. Likewise, the campaign "Best to Prevent" obtained a level of generalized recognition, but it was the younger ones who received more influence of their content of communication. Results that corroborate that the methods of motivation and persuasion do affect the attitude changes, which influences the transformation towards a culture of road prevention.
Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.
In 2010, the European Union renewed its commitment to improve road safety by setting a target of reducing road deaths by 50% by 2020, compared to 2010 levels. This target followed an earlier target set in 2001 to halve road deaths by 2010. 2015 was the second consecutive poor year for road safety;
Wei, Vicky Feng; Lovegrove, Gord
Both the UN (2007) and World Health Organizations (2004) have declared the enormous social and economic burden imposed on society by injuries due to road collisions as a major global problem. While the road safety problem is not new, this prominent global declaration sends an important signal of frustration regarding progress to date on reducing road collisions. It is clear that governments, communities, businesses and the public must discover ways of reducing this burden, especially as it relates to vulnerable road users (VRUs), typically meaning pedestrian and bicyclist road users. Recent comparisons of global VRU collisions statistics suggest that, in addition to mixed land use density, the layout of neighbourhood roads plays a vital role in the encouragement of walkable, safe and quiet, yet accessible and sustainable communities. The purpose of this paper was to: The Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) Program has produced a number of innovative land use and transportation initiatives for vehicular road users as well as non-vehicular VRUs. Following from the Dutch initiatives, these new 3-way offset, and fused grid neighbourhood patterns appear to not only have positive effects in encouraging mode split (i.e. increasing walking and bicycling, and transit), slowing traffic, and reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions; but also, to hold potential to improve road safety. To test the road safety hypothesis, UBCO researchers evaluated the level of road safety relative to five neighbourhood patterns - grid, culs-de-sac, and Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) (or limited access), 3-way offset, and fused grid networks. Analysis using standard transportation planning methodology revealed that they would maintain both mobility and accessibility. Analysis using standard road safety analysis methodology further revealed that these 3-way offset, and fused grid patterns would significantly improve road safety levels by as much as 60% compared to prevalent patterns (i
Jähi, H. Muhlrad, N. Buttler, I. Gitelman, V. Bax, C. Dupont, E. Giustiniani, G. Machata, K. Martensen, H. Papadimitriou, E. Persia, L. Talbot, R. Vallet, G. & Yannis, G.
The work package 1 of the EC FP7 project DaCoTA investigates road safety management processes in Europe. It has drafted a model to investigate the state of the art of road safety policy-making and management at the national level and to define “good practice”. The DaCoTA “good practice”
Full Text Available The results of road safety interventions in South Africa are disappointing and the cost of road safety related casualties and damage and drain on public resources are possibly to the upper side of the typical range of 2 to 3 per cent of Gross...
The Institute for Road Safety Research SWOV has the task of supplying expertise based on scientific research for the selection of measures to promote road safety. The institute includes the following departments: research coordination; research services; pre-crash research; crash and post-crash
Brown, Freddy Jackson; Gillard, Duncan
This case study demonstrates the effectiveness of a classroom based learning programme in the acquisition of road safety skills. The participant, a child with severe learning disabilities, was taught road safety behaviours in the classroom with the aid of photograph cards. When he had mastered these skills in the classroom, he returned to the…
Milligan, Craig; Kopp, Andreas; Dahdah, Said; Montufar, Jeannette
We model a value of statistical life (VSL) transfer function for application to road-safety engineering in developing countries through an income-disaggregated meta-analysis of scope-sensitive stated preference VSL data. The income-disaggregated meta-analysis treats developing country and high-income country data separately. Previous transfer functions are based on aggregated datasets that are composed largely of data from high-income countries. Recent evidence, particularly with respect to the income elasticity of VSL, suggests that the aggregate approach is deficient because it does not account for a possible change in income elasticity across income levels. Our dataset (a minor update of the OECD database published in 2012) includes 123 scope-sensitive VSL estimates from developing countries and 185 scope-sensitive estimates from high-income countries. The transfer function for developing countries gives VSL=1.3732E-4×(GDP per capita)(∧)2.478, with VSL and GDP per capita expressed in 2005 international dollars (an international dollar being a notional currency with the same purchasing power as the U.S. dollar). The function can be applied for low- and middle-income countries with GDPs per capita above $1268 (with a data gap for very low-income countries), whereas it is not useful above a GDP per capita of about $20,000. The corresponding function built using high-income country data is VSL=8.2474E+3×(GDP per capita)(∧).6932; it is valid for high-income countries but over-estimates VSL for low- and middle-income countries. The research finds two principal significant differences between the transfer functions modeled using developing-country and high-income-country data, supporting the disaggregated approach. The first of these differences relates to between-country VSL income elasticity, which is 2.478 for the developing country function and .693 for the high-income function; the difference is significant at proad-safety investments. Copyright © 2014
Andersson, Henrik; Lindberg, Gunnar
This study uses the contingent valuation method to elicit individuals' preferences for their own and others' safety in road-tra±c. Whereas one group is asked about a private safety device for themselves, other groups are asked about safety devices for their children, household, relatives and the public. Support is found for the hypothesis that individuals are not purely sel¯sh when it comes the safety of others. Key words Safety; Willingness to pay; Altruism; Road-tra±c JEL ...
Wegman, F.C.M. & Hagezieker, M.P.
The articles presented in this Special Issue on Road Safety Management represent an illustration of the growing interest in policy-related research in the area of road safety. The complex nature of this type of research combined with the observation that scientific journals pay limited attention to
Dupont, Emmanuelle; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Martensen, Heike; Yannis, George
Hierarchical structures in road safety data are receiving increasing attention in the literature and multilevel (ML) models are proposed for appropriately handling the resulting dependences among the observations. However, so far no empirical synthesis exists of the actual added value of ML modelling techniques as compared to other modelling approaches. This paper summarizes the statistical and conceptual background and motivations for multilevel analyses in road safety research. It then provides a review of several ML analyses applied to aggregate and disaggregate (accident) data. In each case, the relevance of ML modelling techniques is assessed by examining whether ML model formulations (i) allow improving the fit of the model to the data, (ii) allow identifying and explaining random variation at specific levels of the hierarchy considered, and (iii) yield different (more correct) conclusions than single-level model formulations with respect to the significance of the parameter estimates. The evidence reviewed offers different conclusions depending on whether the analysis concerns aggregate data or disaggregate data. In the first case, the application of ML analysis techniques appears straightforward and relevant. The studies based on disaggregate accident data, on the other hand, offer mixed findings: computational problems can be encountered, and ML applications are not systematically necessary. The general recommendation concerning disaggregate accident data is to proceed to a preliminary investigation of the necessity of ML analyses and of the additional information to be expected from their application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The article deals with safety of European road tunnels in accordance with actual European legislation. Standards and recommendations of European Commission, PIARC and other professional bodies of the European Union define minimal technological requirements for equipment and operation of the tunnels in scope of Trans-European Road Network.
Road safety research is a wonderful combination of counting fatal accidents and using a toolkit containing prior, posterior, overdispersed Poisson, negative binomial and Gamma distributions, together with positive and negative regression effects, shrinkage estimators and fiercy debates concerning
Full Text Available be accident or incident history; input into major maintenance or upgrading; changes in traffic or usage patterns; at regular time intervals or in response to complaints from the public (in this order). Checklists The current guidelines caution against... the shortening of the checklists that are provided, but does not restrict the road safety auditor to make extensive use of knowledge or prior experience to carry out the audit. Respondents are largely in agreement that road safety audits should...
Budzyński, Marcin; Kustra, Wojciech; Okraszewska, Romanika; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Pyrchla, Jerzy
There are many factors that influence accidents and their severity. They can be grouped within the system of man, vehicle and environment. The article focuses on how GIS tools can be used to manage road infrastructure safety. To ensure a better understanding and identification of road factors, GIS tools help with the acquisition of road parameter data. Their other role is helping with a clear and effective presentation of risk ranking. GIS is key to identifying high-risk sections and supports the effective communication of safety levels. This makes it a vital element of safety management. The article describes the use of GIS for the collection and visualisation of road parameter data which are not available in any of the existing databases, i.e. horizontal curve parameters. As we know from research and statistics, they are important factors that determine the safety of road infrastructure. Finally, new research is proposed as well as the possibilities for applying GIS tools for the purposes of road safety inspection.
Hyder, Adnan A; Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I
Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--are currently undergoing a deep epidemiological transition that is mainly driven by rapid economic growth and technological change. The changes being observed in the distribution of the burden of diseases and injuries--such as recent increases in the incidence of road traffic injuries--are matters of concern. BRICS may need stronger institutional capacity to address such changes in a timely way. In this paper, we present data on road traffic injuries in BRICS and illustrate the enormous challenge that these countries currently face in reducing the incidence of such injuries. There is an urgent need to improve road safety indicators in every country constituting BRICS. It is imperative for BRICS to invest in system-wide road safety interventions and reduce the mortality and morbidity from road traffic injuries.
Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.
In 2010, the European Union renewed its commitment to improve road safety by setting a target of reducing road deaths by 50% by 2020, compared to 2010 levels. This target followed an earlier target set in 2001 to halve road deaths by 2010. Since 2014, progress has virtually ground to a halt. 2016
Full Text Available Road safety can be improved by implementing principles of road safety infrastructure management (RIS on the network of European roads as adopted in the Directive. The document recommends that member states should use tried and tested tools for road safety management such as: road safety impact assessment (RIA, road safety audit (RSA, safety management on existing road networks including road safety ranking (RSM and road safety inspection (RSI. The objective of the methods is to help road authorities to take rational decisions in the area of road safety and road infrastructure safety and understand the consequences occurring in the particular phases of road life cycle. To help with assessing the impact of a road project on the safety of related roads, a method was developed for long-term forecasts of accidents and accident cost estimation as well as a risk classification to identify risks that are not acceptable risks. With regard to road safety audits and road safety inspection, a set of principles was developed to identify risks and the basic classification of mistakes and omissions.
Orfila, O; Coiret, A; Do, M T; Mammar, S
Usually, road safety is assessed by following adequate highway geometric design standards and can be controlled later by measurement and expertise. Nevertheless, interactions between vehicle dynamics and road characteristics cannot be simultaneously analyzed for these two means of safety evaluation. In this study, an analytical method based on road/vehicle physical interactions applied to road diagnosis is proposed. Vehicle "point" and "bicycle" models are used in this first approach. French highway geometric design standards and a statistical method are presented and evaluated on a real curve case. The proposed numerical criterion, for the "bicycle" model, is then compared to these two classical methods for the considered road section. Its advantages are that it takes into account several combined parameters, that road defects are precisely localized and that it provides hierarchically classified solutions to the road managers. After this comparison step, further improvements should be focused on the modeling of successive curves and on the improvement of the informations given to the road manager. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A road safety audit (RSA) is a formal safety performance examination by an independent, multidisciplinary team. RSAs are an effective tool for proactively improving the safety performance of a road project during the planning and design stages, and f...
Schlögl, Matthias; Stütz, Rainer
The analysis of potential influencing factors that affect the likelihood of road accident occurrence has been of major interest for safety researchers throughout the recent decades. Even though steady methodological progresses were made over the years, several impediments pertaining to the statistical analysis of crash data remain. While issues related to methodological approaches have been subject to constructive discussion, uncertainties inherent to the most fundamental part of any analysis have been widely neglected: data. This paper scrutinizes data from various sources that are commonly used in road safety studies with respect to their actual suitability for applications in this area. Issues related to spatial and temporal aspects of data uncertainty are pointed out and their implications for road safety analysis are discussed in detail. These general methodological considerations are exemplary illustrated with data from Austria, providing suggestions and methods how to overcome these obstacles. Considering these aspects is of major importance for expediting further advances in road safety data analysis and thus for increasing road safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In road traffic, the advice is to maintain a minimum distance of two seconds to the vehicle in front. This headway time is based on the reaction time of drivers under various circumstances. A headway time of two seconds is sufficient for the majority of drivers to prevent a rear-end collision with
Full Text Available A road safety audit is a formal analysis that seeks to guarantee that an existing or future road fulfills optimal safety criteria, conducted by a team of experts who se members are independent of the road project. It can be carried out in one, several or all of the stages of the project (planning, design, construction, before opening the road to traffic, and operation. The development and implementation of a road safety audit process is one of the strategies that have been applied in Mexico in recent years to reduce road accidents and their associated consequences. The objective of this work is to present the procedures that have been developed and applied in Mexico, as well as the benefits and problems that have been encountered. The application of those procedures to a specific case is also shown. Emphasis is made in the audit of high ways in the operation stage, which is the type that greater application and development has had in Mexico.
Rolf Heuer, the next Director-General of CERN, and Sigurd Lettow, the Director of Finance and Human Resources (photo below), completed all the tests of the CERN road safety campaign under the supervision of TCS instructors. The road safety campaign, which took place in the Main Building during the week of 10 November, attracted large numbers of participants. More than 300 CERN personnel and users took part in, and in some cases were literally bowled over by, the activities set up by instructors from the TCS (Touring Club Suisse). The campaign’s aim was to raise driver awareness of several aspects of road safety, including speed, use of mobile phones at the wheel, pedestrian priority, unlawful parking and driving with a valid licence. The campaign was an unqualified success! Even CERN’s directors joined in, testing their own reactions as drivers on the various pieces of apparatus in place.
To round off the series of articles and posters published as part of its road safety awareness campaign, CERN is organising two information and demonstration open days on 23 and 25 September. Can you brake in time ? Did you know that you are 21 times more at risk of being killed if you are not wearing a seat belt in the event of your car rolling over? All your questions on road safety will be answered at two special days that are being organized on 23 and 25 September. You will also be able to test your reflexes and your knowledge by taking part in demonstrations. The CERN Management attaches high priority to an improvement in safety standards on the Laboratory's roads. These two open days have been arranged to round off the road safety awareness and highway courtesy campaign which was launched last year. They are intended to provide us with an opportunity, through a more "hands-on" approach, of heightening our awareness of the risks associated with road traffic, of the legislation in force, and above all t...
With the design of an existing bike-lane in mind I discuss several general issues: accident causation and its linkage to the formulation of prevention strategies; the myopia afflicting major studies of causation and their misleading 'the-driver-did-it' message; the question of who is responsible for what in the management of road safety; and the difficult position in which the professionals find themselves when the 'State' does not embrace its responsibility to road safety. I think that were the public aware of this state of affairs in North America it might insist on change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina
Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding
Machsus; Prayogo, I.; Chomaedhi; Hayati, D. W.; Utanaka, A.
This research discusses road safety analysis on the operation of frontage road on the west side of Achmad Yani Road Surabaya. This research began by conducting survey on secondary data of traffic accidents. In addition, primary data survey was conducted to obtain traffic data, geometric road data, and other supporting data at the study site along the west side frontage of Ahmad Yani Road Surabaya. Devices used in this research include camera, handy cam, speed gun, counters of vehicles, rolling meter, computer and others. In outline, the stages to conduct this research are divided into 4 stages, namely 1.the preparation stage, 2.data collection and processing, 3. analysis and discussion, and 4. conclusion. The results of this study showed that the accident characteristics of the frontage road are (i) 3 accidents occured per month, (ii) motorcycles was accounted for the largest proportion of accidents which amounted to 74.6 percent, (iii) there were 3 accident victims per month, and (iv) material losses per month worths 1.2 million. The accident rate in 2016 was 0.04 crashes per one million vehicle travels per kilometer, while during 2 months in 2017 it was 0.15 accidents per one million vehicle travels per kilometer. Black spot area of accident is located on Sta 2 + 800 to 2 + 900 which is in front of Graha Pena building and DBL Arena. The high rate of accidents is influenced by the speed of the vehicle which 85 percentile exceeds the speed limit of 40km per hour.
In road traffic, the advice is to maintain a minimum distance of two seconds to the vehicle in front. This headway time is based on the reaction time of drivers under various circumstances. A headway time of two seconds is sufficient for the majority of drivers to prevent a rear-end collision with the vehicle in front. This is mainly the case on motorways, where the traffic situation is not very complex. It gives the driver sufficient time to commence emergency braking if necessary. However, ...
In May, the HSE Unit launched a cycling safety campaign at CERN over three days during which members of the Unit and representatives of the Swiss Office for Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse reminded people of the basic safety rules to which they should adhere when riding a bike. A competition was held to encourage people to be self-critical and to highlight best practice. On 14 June, a month and 273 participants later, 40 lucky contestants received winners' prizes in a low-key reception at Restaurant 2. Among the prizes were "safety packs" containing a fluorescent jacket, arm-bands and a water-bottle, cycle helmets and two brand new bikes. More proof, if any were needed, that safety and prevention form a winning combination!
Conducting rigorous before-and-after studies is essential for improving knowledge regarding the effects of road safety measures. However, state-of-the-art approaches like the empirical Bayes or fully Bayesian techniques cannot always be applied, as the data required by these approaches may...
The author considers the opportunities offered by marketing in the field of road safety. Marketing is defined as an approach which takes into account social, cultural, economic, political and legal developments and offers a solution. Examples are given in the transport field where the needs of the
This fact sheet discusses the safety of motorway tunnels in the Netherlands. Broadly speaking, it is not certain whether crashes in the Netherlands are relatively more frequent in tunnels than on open road stretches. However, there are certain factors that increase the risk in tunnels, such as the
The Global Road Safety Online Curriculum Development project involved the adaptation of in-person classroom materials and development of new materials to be used in an online setting. A short-course format was selected to pilot the course, and four t...
In the Netherlands, public information is often used as an instrument to improve road safety. The purpose of each public information campaign is a voluntary and lasting change in traffic behaviour. This requires road users to have sufficient knowledge about a problem and to adapt their behaviour.
H.L. OEI, M.Sc.
Full Text Available An ISA system consists of GPS to determine the car's position, a CD-ROM in the car containing information of a road network including the prevailing speed limit of each road section, and feedback to the driver. Experiments in Sweden are testing several options, from warning the driver to a resisting force exerted by the accelerator pedal that can be countered by the driver. In the Netherlands the system intervenes so the limit cannot be exceeded. Experiments in Sweden have recently been concluded and an evaluation is in progress. In the Netherlands the project was concluded early 2001. The field experiments so far mainly concern the measure of acceptance of the system(s by the public. Several simulation studies have also been conducted. Little is known as yet from practical research of the effects of ISA on road safety, though a large safety potential is assumed. For the Dutch situation, based on the assumption that all passenger cars are fitted with ISA and an assumed speed distribution as the result of ISA, a theoretical calculation is made of the effects of ISA on speed and safety. The result is an estimated reduction of road casualties of 25 to 30%. Further, the assumed speed distribution is validated with field measurements of the experiment in the city of Tilburg. The result is that the measured average speed of the speed distribution fits quite well with the calculated average speed.
Muhlrad, N. Vallet, G. Butler, I. Gitelman, V. Doveh, E. Dupont, E. Thomas, P. Talbot, R. Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Persia, L. Giustiniani, G. Machata, K. & Bax, C.A.
The objective of this paper is the analysis of road safety management in European countries and the identification of “good practice”. A road safety management investigation model was created, based on several “good practice” criteria. Road safety management systems have been thoroughly investigated
Wegman, F.; Berg, H.Y.; Cameron, I.; Thompson, C.; Siegrist, S.; Weijermans, W.
Over the past decades, road safety in highly-motorised countries has made significant progress. Although we have a fair understanding of the reasons for this progress, we don't have conclusive evidence for this. A new generation of road safety management approaches has entered road safety, starting
О. В. Степанчук
Full Text Available The growth of automobilization and the noncompliance of the city central parts with the modern vehicles requirements create the preconditions for the increase of the road traffic accidents. the intersections, of the main streets of the district value are the most accidental. It is noted that to develop a set of measures to improve road safety at the intersections it is necessary to know the degree of their security. it is found that that the intersections of highways significantly reduce the capacity, creating significant delay of traffic flows, as a result of which they become places of high concentration of automobile emissions, noise and other adverse effects on the environment
Butāns, Ž.; Gross, K. A.; Gridnevs, A.; Karzubova, E.
Constantly increasing intensity of road traffic and the allowed speed limits seem to impose stronger requirements on road infrastructure and use of road safety systems. One of the ways to improve road safety is the use of road restraint systems. Road safety barriers allow not only reducing the number of road traffic accidents, but also lowering the severity of accidents. The paper provides information on the technical requirements of road safety barriers. Various types of road safety barriers and their selection criteria for different types of road sections are discussed. The article views an example of a road traffic accident, which is also modelled by PC-Crash computer program. The given example reflects a road accident mechanism in case of a car-to-barrier collision, and provides information about the typical damage to the car and the barrier. The paper describes an impact of the road safety barrier type and its presence on the road traffic accident mechanism. Implementation and maintenance costs of different barrier types are viewed. The article presents a discussion on the necessity to use road safety barriers, as well as their optimal choice.
Vissers, L. Houwing, S. & Wegman, F.C.M. (prep.)
This study examines how improving insights regarding the real number of alcohol-related road casualties worldwide can help to save lives. Every year 1.25 million people die in road crashes according to the World Health Organization. It is widely recognised that drink driving is an important risk-increasing factor and contributes to many road deaths. With great certainty, the real number of alcohol-related road casualties is higher than reported in the official statistics. Better insights into...
Assailly, J P
The objectives of the paper are: METHOD: Seminal papers, collaborative reports from traffic safety research institutes and books from experts have been used as materials. Very diverse fields of application are presented such as: the importance of emotional experience in interaction with traffic experiences; the efficiency of e-learning; the efficiency of simulators to improve hazard perception skills and calibration of one's driving competencies; the efficiency of social norms marketing at changing behaviors by correcting normative misperceptions; the usefulness of parents-based interventions to improve parental supervision; and finally the importance of multi-components programs due to their synergies. Scientific evidence collected in this paper shows that RSE may have some positive effects if good practices are adopted, if it is part of a lifelong learning process and if transmits not only knowledge but also "life-skills" (or psycho-social competences). for practice From each example, we will see the implications of the results for the implementation of RSE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brandstaetter, C. Evgenikos, P. Yannis, G. Papantoniou, P. Argyropoulou E. Broughton, J. Knowles, J. Reurings, M. Vis, M. Pace, J F.F. López-de-Cozar, E. Pérez-Fuster P. Sanmartín J. & Haddak, M.
The CARE database brings together the disaggregate details of road accidents and casualties across Europe, by combining the national accident databases that are maintained by all EU member states. Access to the CARE database is restricted, however, so it is important that a comprehensive range of
Are you feeling brave? Then why not sign up for a road safety session. 10 to 14 November is road safety week at CERN and the Touring Club Suisse (TCS) will be in the Main Building, 500, with several hair-raising activities to try. If you walk into the foyer of building 500 between 10 and 14 November you might, at first glance, think that you have walked into a fairground. But the machines designed to spin you upside down and slide you also are actually part of CERN’s road safety week. Every day during the week there will six sessions each lasting about an hour where you can try out a series of exhilarating activities. If you are feeling brave enough you could try and get yourself out of the crash simulator. Not as easy as it sounds - after being spun over several times you can experience what it’s like to try and escape from an overturned car - dangling upside down attached only by your seatbelt! During the course instructors from the Touring Club Suisse (TC...
Gitelman, V. Vis, M. Weijermars, W. & Hakkert, S.
Safety performance indicators (SPIs) are measures reflecting the operational conditions of the road traffic system that influence the system’s safety performance. Within the EU funded SafetyNet project, SPIs were developed for seven road safety-related areas: alcohol and drugs; speed; protective
Ghous Mohd Tarmizi
Full Text Available Main causes of accident is due to driver itself that is influenced by their bad attitude while driving. Human attitude is closely related to the human psychology. Apart from that, spiritual aspect also influence human attitude. Hence, this study carried out to improve driver safety using a new approach through psychology and spiritual factors. Objectives of this study are to identify then analyze factors of psychological and spiritual that contribute towards safety driving. A self-administered questionnaire were distributed among 256 respondents from various type of background. An analysis descriptive statistics show demographic and experience of respondents. Chi-square analysis showed only education level and traffic summon are significant to safety driving. Furthermore, correlation analysis shows psychological factors has strong linear relationship on attitude of drivers towards safety driving while spiritual factor, the perception of the spiritual and practices, both have a strong relationship to safety driving. Regression analysis demonstrates boths psychological and spiritual factors have strong evidence and significant relationship with safety driving. Thus, it can be identified that spiritual psychological factors encourage drivers to drive more safely and reduce road accidents. Therefore, this study propose useful guidelines to related agencies in order to enhance safety among drivers to be able drive safely on the road.
places them on the road for several hours where they. EFFECT OF A ROAD SAFETY EDUCATION INTERVENTION ON ROAD SAFETY. KNOWLEDGE OF UNIVERSITY DRIVERS IN IBADAN, NIGERIA. A.O. Olumide and E.T. Owoaje. Department of Community Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, ...
Híjar, Martha; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Inclán-Valadez, Cristina; Silveira-Rodrigues, Eugênia Maria
Legislating five of the main risk factors for road traffic injuries (RTIs), as much as enforcing the law, is essential in forging an integral culture of road safety. Analysis of the level of progression in law enforcement allows for an evaluation of the state of world regions. A secondary analysis of the 2009 Global status report on road safety: time for action survey was undertaken to evaluate legislation on five risk factors (speed management, drinking and driving, motorcycle helmet use, seatbelt use, and use of child restraints) in the Americas. Laws were classified depending on their level of progression: the existence of legislation, whether the legislation is adequate, a level of law enforcement > 6 (on a scale of 0-10), and whether the law is considered comprehensive. A descriptive analysis was performed. The totality of the countries has national or subnational legislation for at least one of the five risk factors. However, 63% have laws on the five risk factors studied, and none of them has comprehensive laws for all five. Seatbelt use appears to be the most extended enforced legislation, while speeding laws appear to be the least enforced. There are positive efforts that should be recognized in the region. However, the region stands in different stages of progression. Law enforcement remains the main issue to be tackled. Laws should be based on evidence about what is already known to be effective.
This paper gives a broad overview on targeted road safety programmes, mainly based on the activities of a so-called OECD scientific expert group, whose report has been published in 1994 (see C 2845 S (IRRD 864087). Examples of targeted road safety programmes are given in some more detail of Finland,
Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Mackun, Tomasz
Every third road accident in Poland involves a pedestrian as a participant or, most of the time, a casualty. Pedestrian accidents are usually the result of complex situations and the outcome of a number of factors related to driver and pedestrian behaviour and road infrastructure. Safety depends largely on how well the traffic condition is perceived and on visibility in traffic. The paper presents the results of analyses of methodologies for systematic studies of pedestrian behaviour and pedestrian-driver relations. The effects of the location of the site, type of cross-section and other selected parameters on pedestrian and driver behaviour are demonstrated. The analyses showed that pedestrians are most often put at risk by too long pedestrian crossings, vehicles going too fast around pedestrian crossings, lack of proper sight distance and poorly lit or unlit pedestrian crossings. The reason for such defective infrastructure is that planners, designers, contractors and maintenance services are not receiving any support from design, marking and maintenance regulations for pedestrian traffic. In addition, the Road Traffic Law is not restrictive enough when it comes to drivers’ obligations towards pedestrian safety. Polish design regulations allow long pedestrian crossings up to four lanes in one direction or three lanes in two directions irrespective of traffic control and speed limits. Pedestrian crossings should be kept at a maximum of three lanes. There is nothing in the design regulations about the required driver-pedestrian sight distance. Neither does the Road Traffic Law help engineers with that. It is legal to park vehicles within 10 m of a pedestrian crossing which does not guarantee the necessary sight distance. Drivers must be able to see a pedestrian waiting or stepping onto the crossing from a distance that will help them come to a stop safely. It is safer to follow the principle of providing adequate pedestrian sight distance. Recommendations for
Riguelle, F. Eksler, V. Holló, P. Morsink, P. Gent, A. van Gitelman, V. Assum, T. & Rackliff, L.
The EC 6th Framework Integrated Project SafetyNet aims to accelerate the availability and use of harmonised road safety data in Europe. Having such data available throughout Europe would be tremendously beneficial for road safety, since it would enable the evaluation of road safety measures, the
Road infrastructures are usually developed and maintained by governments or public sectors. There is no competitor in the market of their jurisdiction. This monopolic feature discourages road authorities from improving the level of safety with proactive motivation. This study suggests how to apply a principle of competition for roads, in particular by means of performance evaluation. It first discusses why road infrastructure has been slow in safety oriented development and management in respect of its business model. Then it suggests some practical ways of how to promote road safety between road authorities, particularly by evaluating safety performance of road infrastructure. These are summarized as decision of safety performance indicators, classification of spatial boundaries, data collection, evaluation, and reporting. Some consideration points are also discussed to make safety performance evaluation on road infrastructure lead to better road safety management.
Road injury is an immediately relevant topic for 9-19 year olds. Current availability of Open Data makes it increasingly possible to find locally relevant data. Statistical lessons developed from these data can mutually reinforce life lessons about minimizing risk on the road. Devon County Council demonstrate how a wide array of statistical…
Al Haji, Ghazwan
Aim. This study suggests a set of methodologies to combine different indicators of road safety into a single index. The RSDI is a simple and quick composite index, which may become a significant measurement in comparing, ranking and determining road safety levels in different countries and regions worldwide. Design. One particular concern in designing a Road Safety Development Index (RSDI) is to come up with a comprehensive set of exposure and risk indicators which includes as far as possible...
Candappa, N.L. Schermers, G. Stefan, C. & Elvik, R.
Improving road safety is and has been a priority in most first world countries with the result that road crashes and resultant traffic injuries have thankfully been declining. However, improvements in road safety have also brought about new challenges for managing the remaining problems. One of
Dec 1, 2012 ... concern to researchers and road management agencies. ... critical analysis on road safety reveals many problems facing the control of road traffic. An .... tools, processes, and methodologies are key components to any decision support system and provide end users with rich reporting, monitoring, and.
Integration of needs of moped and motorcycle riders into safety measures : review and statistical analysis in the framework of the European research project PROMISING (Promotion of Measures for Vulnerable Road Users), Workpackage 3.
Noordzij, P.C. Forke, E. Brendicke, R. & Chinn, B.P.
The PROMISING project for DG VII of the European Union (EU) is aimed at the development and promotion of measures to improve the safety of vulnerable road users and inexperienced drivers and riders. This report is part of PROMISING and is concerned with riders of motorised two-wheelers. The report
Kolesov, V. I.; Danilov, O. F.; Petrov, A. I.
Road traffic safety (RTS) management is inherently a branch of cybernetics and therefore requires clear formalization of the task. The paper aims at identification of the specific features of goal setting in RTS management under the system approach. The paper presents the results of cybernetic modeling of the cause-to-effect mechanism of a road traffic accident (RTA); in here, the mechanism itself is viewed as a complex system. A designed management goal function is focused on minimizing the difficulty in achieving the target goal. Optimization of the target goal has been performed using the Lagrange principle. The created working algorithms have passed the soft testing. The key role of the obtained solution in the tactical and strategic RTS management is considered. The dynamics of the management effectiveness indicator has been analyzed based on the ten-year statistics for Russia.
Raffo, Veronica; Bliss, Tony; Shotten, Marc; Sleet, David; Blanchard, Claire
This case study of the Argentina Road Safety Project demonstrates how the application of World Bank road safety project guidelines focused on institution building can accelerate knowledge transfer, scale up investment and improve the focus on results. The case study highlights road safety as a development priority and outlines World Bank initiatives addressing the implementation of the World Report on Road Traffic Injury's recommendations and the subsequent launch of the Decade of Action for Road Safety, from 2011-2020. The case study emphasizes the vital role played by the lead agency in ensuring sustainable road safety improvements and promoting the shift to a 'Safe System' approach, which necessitated the strengthening of all elements of the road safety management system. It summarizes road safety performance and institutional initiatives in Argentina leading up to the preparation and implementation of the project. We describe the project's development objectives, financing arrangements, specific components and investment staging. Finally, we discuss its innovative features and lessons learned, and present a set of supplementary guidelines, both to assist multilateral development banks and their clients with future road safety initiatives, and to encourage better linkages between the health and transportation sectors supporting them.
Salim Keffane (s)
Communication among organizations could play an important role in increasing road safety. To get in-depth knowledge of its role, this study measured managers' and employees' perceptions of the communication's role on six safety management and performance criteria for road safety practices by conducting a survey using a questionnaire among 165 employees and 135 managers. Path analysis using AMOS-19 software shows that some of the safety management road safety practices have high correlation wi...
Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Kaplan, Sigal
the infrastructure characteristics and the traffic conditions of the road. The model can be used to point out high risk road segments and support road authorities in planning interventions for the improvement of road safety on Danish roads. The number of accidents on a road link was modeled using a count model after......Traffic accidents result in huge costs to society in terms of death, injury, lost productivity, and property damage. The main objective of the current study is the development of an accident frequency model that predicts the expected number of accidents on a given road segment, provided...... concerning police recorded accidents, link characteristics of the road network, traffic volumes from the national transport models are merged to estimate the model. Spatial correlation between road sections is taken into account for correcting for unobserved correlation between contiguous locations....
Wegman, F.C.M. & Slop, M.
This paper deals with the result of a study carried out for the European Commission by the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, in cooperation with a number of other European institutes, and which was reported in 1994. The title of the study is "Safety Effects of Road Design Standards." The aims
Objective: To assess the extent of compliance with road safety regulations by motorcycle riders following a five year road safety campaign in Naivasha town, Kenya. Design: A cross sectional study. Setting: Naivasha town, Nakuru county, Kenya. Results: A total of 9,280 MCs ferrying 13,733 people were observed. Less than ...
Jamroz, Kazimierz; Smolarek, Leszek
This paper presents an overview of factors causing driver fatigue as described in the literature. Next, a traffic crash database for 2003-2007 is used to identify the causes, circumstances and consequences of accidents caused by driver fatigue on Poland's national roads. The results of the study were used to build a model showing the relationship between the concentration of road accidents and casualties, and the time of day. Finally, the level of relative accident risk at night-time versus daytime is defined. A map shows the risk of death and severe injury on the network of Poland's national roads. The paper suggests to road authorities steps to reduce fatigue-related road accidents in Poland.
Full Text Available To make the policy aimed at mitigating the risk of road incidents more effective, Poland should see the introduction of the more efficient road and traffic management. In November 2008 the European Parliament and the European Council published the Directive on "infrastructure safety management" which provides guidance on the procedures for carrying impact assessments of traffic safety, traffic safety audits, safety management on the road network and monitoring traffic safety in Member States. In this article, the authors have proposed a systemic approach to road and traffic management, involving the implementation of consistent procedures that should include regular revisions of roads, eliminating hazardous sites, speed management, as well as the approval and implementation of traffic organization designs.
Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, the number of vehicles registered in Poland has grown rapidly. At the same time, a relatively small increase in the length of the road network has been observed. As a result of the limited capacity of available infrastructure, it leads to significant congestion and to increase of the probability of road accidents. The overall level of road safety depends on many factors - the behavior of road users, infrastructure solutions and the development of automotive technology. Thus the detailed assessment of the importance of individual elements determining road safety is difficult. The starting point is to organize the factors by grouping them into categories which are components of the DVE system (driver - vehicle - environment. In this work, to analyze the importance of individual factors affecting road safety, the use of analytic hierarchy process method (AHP was proposed. It is one of the multi-criteria methods which allows us to perform hierarchical analysis of the decision process, by means of experts’ opinions. Usage of AHP method enabled us to evaluate and rank the factors affecting road safety. This work attempts to link the statistical data and surveys in significance analysis of the elements determining road safety.
Goniewicz, Krzysztof; Goniewicz, Mariusz; Pawłowski, Witold; Fiedor, Piotr; Lasota, Dorota
Road accidents are a serious problem of the modern world. They are one of the main causes of injuries and are the third most frequent cause of death. Every year, about one million people, adults and children, die on the roads and several millions get injured. Mortality rate due to injuries from road accidents amounts to 2.2% of all deaths in the world. The research presents epidemiology of road accidents in the period 2004-2015 with particular emphasis on the key issues of road safety in Poland, related to the dangerous behaviour of road users (disregard toward traffic rules). Between years 2004 and 2015 on Polish roads took place more than 508000 accidents with 53155 fatalities and more then 572000 casualties. Despite the various measures which are taken to improve safety on Polish roads, the number of dead and wounded in the vehicle mishap is still large, and losses borne by society are high. To improve safety on Polish roads, it is necessary to continue multi- action plan to systematically progress in the level of road safety.
Full Text Available The paper is about the idea of establishment of road safety education center to improve road users behavior, which is in line with the National Road Safety Policy till 2020 of government of Poland. Through this center various educational activities, programs, European Union projects for road safety were launched since 2003. The authors have introduced those programs, showing their effectiveness as well have mentioned about future plan for expansion to achieve Vision Zero. The paper presents modern and effective approach to education today by setting up designed science centrums. The idea of implementing new technologies, innovative tools, laboratories, workshops in the long-lasting process of education to road safety hazards for main risk factors will improve road users behavior for reducing high number of road injuries and fatalities. It is important work from injury prevention point of view especially because the Poland government’ s interest in road safety. This center can be a model of innovative road traffic education for other countries.
B. K. BANIK
Full Text Available Roads, highways and streets are fundamental infrastructure facilities to provide the transportation for passenger travel and goods movement from one place to another in Sylhet, north–eastern division of Bangladesh with rapid growth of road vehicle, being comparatively developed economic tourist prone area faces severe road traffic accident. Such severe road accidents cause harsh safety hazards on the roads of Sylhet area. This research work presents an overview of the road traffic accident and degraded road safety situation in Sylhet zone which in particular, discusses the key road accident problem characteristics identifying the hazardous roads and spots, most responsible vehicles and related components, conditions of drivers and pedestrians, most victims of accident, effects of accident on society, safety priorities and options available in Sylhet. In this regard, a comprehensive questionnaire survey was conducted on the concerned groups of transportation and detailed accident data was collected from a popular local newspaper. Analysis of the study reveals that Dhaka- Sylhet highway is the most hazardous in road basis and Sylhet Sador thana is the most vulnerable in thana basis in Sylhet region.
This paper proposes a theoretical perspective on road safety communication campaigns, which may help in identifying the conditions under which such campaigns can be effective. The paper proposes that, from a theoretical point of view, it is reasonable to assume that road user behaviour is, by and large, subjectively rational. This means that road users are assumed to behave the way they think is best. If this assumption is accepted, the best theoretical prediction is that road safety campaigns consisting of persuasive messages only will have no effect on road user behaviour and accordingly no effect on accidents. This theoretical prediction is not supported by meta-analyses of studies that have evaluated the effects of road safety communication campaigns. These analyses conclude that, on the average, such campaigns are associated with an accident reduction. The paper discusses whether this finding can be explained theoretically. The discussion relies on the distinction made by many modern theorists between bounded and perfect rationality. Road user behaviour is characterised by bounded rationality. Hence, if road users can gain insight into the bounds of their rationality, so that they see advantages to themselves of changing behaviour, they are likely to do so. It is, however, largely unknown whether such a mechanism explains why some road safety communication campaigns have been found to be more effective than others. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The future of road safety is uncertain and definitely not the same for all regions of the world. Countries with a mature road safety approach and an ambition to make further progress are expected to move in the direction of a pro-active approach: a Safe System approach. It is reported that many LMIC, meanwhile, are on the brink of designing road safety strategies and implementing action plans. The international community is willing to support LMIC, but LMIC cannot simply copy successful HIC strategies because local circumstances differ. The principles of successful HIC strategies are applicable, but the priorities and action plans should take root in and align with local conditions.
Ali, Nur; Ramli, M. Isran; Hustim, Muralia
The porous asphalt properties are different from dense asphalt concrete. Regarding the open structure of its gradation, the porous asphalt can reduce noise level from road traffic, drains water from the road surface, and the thermal conductivity. These behaviors lead to the porous asphalt contribution on road traffic safety and environment. This paper provides a comparison study regarding a literature review based on some developed countries??? experiences in using the porous asphalt related ...
Elvik, R.; Greibe, Poul
This paper presents a systematic review of studies that have evaluated the effects on road safety of porous asphalt. Porous asphalt is widely used on motorways in Europe, mainly in order to reduce traffic noise and increase road capacity. A meta-analysis was made of six studies, containing a total...... of eighteen estimates of the effect of porous asphalt on accident rates. No clear effect on road safety of porous asphalt was found. All summary estimates of effect indicated very small changes in accident rates and very few were statistically significant at conventional levels. Studies that have evaluated...... of these changes in risk factors on accident occurrence cannot be predicted. On the whole, the research that has been reported so far regarding road safety effects of porous asphalt is inconclusive. The studies are not of high quality and the findings are inconsistent....
Candappa, N.L. Schermers, G. Stefan, C. & Elvik, R.
Improving road safety is and has been a priority in most first world countries with the result that road crashes and resultant traffic injuries have thankfully been declining. However, improvements in road safety have also brought about new challenges for managing the remaining problems. One of these challenges is that the declining number of serious injury crashes mean a sparser distribution on the network whereby traditional reactive approaches such as black-spot analysis and remedial treat...
Road traffic injuries pose a serious public health problem worldwide, especially in low-income countries. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a post-license road safety education intervention programme in terms of increased knowledge and self-reported behaviour among commercial minibus drivers ...
NCRS) in recent years to present the part of driving while drunk in the national data of road accidents. Then we retraced the evolution of the legislative framework for road safety particularly the laws governing driving while drunk. Finally, an ...
Lu, M.; Wevers, K.; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Lin, C.T.
Large-scale implementation of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) applications and extensive redesign of the physical road infrastructure are two of the main approaches to improve road traffic safety. These strategies may be to a large extent substitutes, but also partly complementary. The
The East African Community (EAC) comprising of five states: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda bear a disproportionate burden of the global public health burden for road traffic injuries (RTIs). In response to this, each state has devised its own road safety measures, but not at the EAC level. This paper aims to ...
Key words: AARSI road safety projects, capacity building, capacity building interventions, community capacity building, corporate social responsibility. Introduction. Many organizations used corporate social responsibility-CSR as a framework to consider the interest of all stakeholders (shareholders, employees, customers,.
This unique book explains how to fashion useful regression models from commonly available data to erect models essential for evidence-based road safety management and research. Composed from techniques and best practices presented over many years of lectures and workshops, The Art of Regression Modeling in Road Safety illustrates that fruitful modeling cannot be done without substantive knowledge about the modeled phenomenon. Class-tested in courses and workshops across North America, the book is ideal for professionals, researchers, university professors, and graduate students with an interest in, or responsibilities related to, road safety. This book also: · Presents for the first time a powerful analytical tool for road safety researchers and practitioners · Includes problems and solutions in each chapter as well as data and spreadsheets for running models and PowerPoint presentation slides · Features pedagogy well-suited for graduate courses and workshops including problems, solutions, and PowerPoint p...
This paper discusses some problems in determining the optimal use of road safety measures. The first of these problems is how best to define the baseline option, i.e. what will happen if no new safety measures are introduced. The second problem concerns choice of a method for selection of targets...... for intervention that ensures maximum safety benefits. The third problem is how to develop policy options to minimise the risk of indivisibilities and irreversible choices. The fourth problem is how to account for interaction effects between road safety measures when determining their optimal use. The fifth...... problem is how to obtain the best mix of short-term and long-term measures in a safety programme. The sixth problem is how fixed parameters for analysis, including the monetary valuation of road safety, influence the results of analyses. It is concluded that it is at present not possible to determine...
Auerbach-Hafen, K. Riguelle, F. Eksler, V. Haddak, M. Holló, P. Arsenio, E. Cardoso, J. Vieira Gomes, S. Rapadimitriou, E. Amelink, M. Goldenbeld, C. Mathijssen, R. Louwerse, R. Morsink, P. Schoon, C. Gent, A. van Houwing, S. Vis, M. Gitelman, V. Hakkert, S. Assum, T. page, M. & Rackliff, L.
This report compares the safety performance of 27 European countries – the25 EU member states, Norway and Switzerland. The comparison is done for seven road safety related areas: alcohol and drugs, speeds, protective systems, daytime running lights, vehicles (passive safety), roads, and trauma
Alonso Plá, Francisco Manuel; Esteban Martínez, Cristina; Useche, Sergio A.; Manso Pérez, Violeta
Road safety education is, widely, the best base and the greatest assurance of the future in terms of road safety prevention and promotion. Nowadays, RSE constitutes one of the main growing concerns in terms of complimentary education in many countries, taking into account, among other factors, the high rates of accidents that affect the health and welfare of childhood and adolescence. Furthermore, it is a necessity for the community health to create, train, encourage and lead positives attitu...
Oei, H.L. & Polak, P.H.
An ISA system consists of GPS to determine the car's position, a CD-ROM in the car containing information of a road network including the prevailing speed limit of each road section, and feedback to the driver, Experiments in Sweden are testing several options, from warning the driver, to resisting
Full Text Available A number of rumble installations have been constructed on rural roads in South Africa and although no local accident data are available the provincial roads engineers consider them of value in alerting drives to the need for caution...
Raynor, Nicolas J; Mirzoev, Tolib
Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are estimated to cause 1.3 million deaths and 20-50 million injuries worldwide. Road safety is a challenge in Kenya with causes being multi-factorial. Matatus (minibuses) are involved in a large proportion of accidents. A literature review was completed to identify key issues and refine the scope of the study. The fieldwork included 20 semi-structured interviews with matatu drivers. All participants were male, with driving experience of 1-20 years. Thematic framework was used for analysis. Some unstructured observations on different road users and their behaviours were also recorded. Literature showed that the causes of RTAs in Kenya are multi-factorial, but that human factors play a large part. There is also an evidence gap concerning matatu drivers, who are key stakeholders in road safety. Fieldwork showed that the matatu industry creates financial pressures on drivers and an excessive level of competition, leading to dangerous driving. Corruption of traffic police appears to be a major barrier to improving road safety, as road safety legislation is not enforced, and bribery has become the cultural norm. The general public, including passengers and private vehicles owners, also cause problems by failing to understand their role in road safety and placing the blame on others. The key policy implication for improving road safety in Kenya is seeking measures to ensure responsibility by all road users through awareness raising in the short-term and reforming the matatu industry and addressing the root causes of corruption in the longer term. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Tarko, Andrew; Boyle, Linda Ng; Montella, Alfonso
The study of road safety has seen great strides over the past few decades with advances in analytical methods and research tools that allow researchers to provide insights into the complex interactions of the driver, vehicle, and roadway. Data collection methods range from traditional traffic and roadway sensors to instrumented vehicles and driving simulators, capable of providing detailed data on both the normal driving conditions and the circumstances surrounding a safety critical event. In September 2011, the Third International Conference on Road Safety and Simulation was held in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, which was hosted by the Purdue University Center for Road Safety and sponsored by the Transportation Research Board and its three committees: ANB20 Safety Data, Analysis and Evaluation, AND30 Simulation and Measurement of Vehicle and Operator Performance, and ABJ95 Visualization in Transportation. The conference brought together two hundred researchers from all over the world demonstrating some of the latest research methods to quantify crash causality and associations, and model road safety. This special issue is a collection of 14 papers that were presented at the conference and then peer-reviewed through this journal. These papers showcase the types of analytical tools needed to examine various crash types, the use of naturalistic and on-road data to validate the use of surrogate measures of safety, and the value of driving simulators to examine high-risk situations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Young, William; Sobhani, Amir; Lenné, Michael G; Sarvi, Majid
Recent decades have seen considerable growth in computer capabilities, data collection technology and communication mediums. This growth has had considerable impact on our ability to replicate driver behaviour and understand the processes involved in failures in the traffic system. From time to time it is necessary to assess the level of development as a basis of determining how far we have come. This paper sets out to assess the state of the art in the use of computer models to simulate and assess the level of safety in existing and future traffic systems. It reviews developments in the area of road safety simulation models. In particular, it reviews computer models of driver and vehicle behaviour within a road context. It focuses on stochastic numerical models of traffic behaviour and how reliable these are in estimating levels of safety on the traffic network. Models of this type are commonly used in the assessment of traffic systems for capacity, delay and general performance. Adding safety to this assessment regime may allow more comprehensive assessment of future traffic systems. To date the models have focused primarily on vehicular traffic that is, cars and heavy vehicles. It has been shown that these models have potential in measuring the level of conflict on parts of the network and the measure of conflict correlated well with crash statistics. Interest in the prediction of crashes and crash severity is growing and new models are focusing on the continuum of general traffic conditions, conflict, severe conflict, crash and severe crashes. The paper also explores the general data types used to develop, calibrate and validate these models. Recent technological development in in-vehicle data collection, driver simulators and machine learning offers considerable potential for improving the behavioural base, rigour and application of road safety simulation models. The paper closes with some indication of areas of future development. Copyright © 2014. Published
Koglbauer, Ioana; Holzinger, Jürgen; Eichberger, Arno; Lex, Cornelia
considered less appropriate on snowy roads compared to dry roads. As expected, the adaptive AEB braking strategy was considered more appropriate for snowy roads than the nonadaptive strategy. In conditions of reduced friction, drivers' subjective safety and trust were significantly improved when driving with the adaptive AEB compared to the conventional AEB. Women felt less safe than men when AEB was braking. Differences between age groups were not of statistical significance. Drivers notice the adaptation of the autonomous braking strategy on snowy roads with reduced friction. On snowy roads, they feel safer and trust the adaptive system more than the nonadaptive automation.
Full Text Available Major companies in the minerals industry are increasingly recognizing that their operations have an impact in the wider community. Regarding transportation issues, this impact extends beyond purely the safety of company vehicle fleets to consideration of Community Road Safety (CRS concerns, which address the driving, walking, and riding practices of community members in a locale with increased heavy vehicle traffic. Our assessment here of national and international trends in approaches to road safety awareness and associated road safety strategies is meant to inform companies in the minerals industry of developments that can influence the design of their road safety initiatives. The review begins by considering the overall road safety context and the dominant “safe systems” framework employed internationally. Thereafter, it considers what is typically included in CRS initiatives for the minerals industry. Three case studies are then presented to highlight approaches that feature exemplary collaboration, design, implementation, or impact. Thereafter, we analyze lessons learnt by key researchers and practitioners in the CRS field. Finally, we conclude that best CRS practices for the minerals industry rely on eleven factors, including for example collaboration with local entities and stepwise implementation.
Wegman, F. Aarts, L. & Bax, C.
Although road safety has improved enormously over time, and The Netherlands is one of the safest countries in the world, the current annual number of road casualties is still considered as unacceptable. To support next steps the sustainable safety vision was launched in the early 1990s. The idea was
paper critically reviewed the roles of AARSI road safety projects in Lagos State in relation to CCB with the ..... radio as means to facilitate. CCB take off at the end of 1950s before colonial master gives way to independent, ... providing education & outreach awareness, involving in safety engineering, providing support for ...
Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Evgenikos, Petros; Dragomanovits, Anastasios
The paper presents the findings of a research project aiming to quantify and subsequently classify several infrastructure-related road safety measures, based on the international experience attained through extensive and selected literature review and additionally on a full consultation process including questionnaire surveys addressed to experts and relevant workshops. Initially, a review of selected research reports was carried out and an exhaustive list of road safety infrastructure investments covering all types of infrastructure was compiled. Individual investments were classified according to the infrastructure investment area and the type of investment and were thereafter analysed on the basis of key safety components. These investments were subsequently ranked in relation to their safety effects and implementation costs and on the basis of this ranking, a set of five most promising investments was selected for an in-depth analysis. The results suggest that the overall cost effectiveness of a road safety infrastructure investment is not always in direct correlation with the safety effect and is recommended that cost-benefit ratios and safety effects are always examined in conjunction with each other in order to identify the optimum solution for a specific road safety problem in specific conditions and with specific objectives.
The evaluation of the effectiveness of road safety policies and measures must be based on quantative information in road safety developments and the relevant variables that influence that development. However, the concept of road safety itself is not well defined theoretically and quantatively. This
Bax, C.A. Wesemann, P. Gitelman, V. Shen, Y. Goldenbeld, C. Hermans, E. Doveh, E. Hakkert, S. Wegman, F.C.M. & Aarts, L.T.
Road safety is a major social aim. The countries that perform best in road safety base their most effective policies on an evidence-based, scientific approach. Countries may learn to improve road safety from their own experiences but also from systematic comparison with other countries. This study
Wegman, F.C.M. & Elsenaar, P.M.W.
A new vision, called `sustainable road safety', has been introduced recently in The Netherlands, hopefully leading to roads and streets with risk rates which are considerably lower than today. The vision forms an essential part of the Dutch road safety policy today. The principles of this approach
This study was carried out in co-operation with a number of other European institutes. Its objectives are to gather information about existing knowledge on the design of road infrastructure elements, to analyse the role safety arguments have played when road design standards were compiled, and to
Full Text Available Characteristics of road infrastructure affect the level of road safety significantly. Therefore, the process of designing such infrastructure gains special importance. A general concept of improving road infrastructure designs has been formulated based on the analysis of causes of their low quality. The concept includes the following types of measures: educational, procedural, publishing, informative, and legal to be taken by central government authorities. Educational actions are to involve primarily the systematic training for all persons involved in the designing process. Moreover, the introduction of road safety procedures has been proposed for all road infrastructure designs as well as the preparation of study documentation, a new ‘Design Consultation Card’, consulting geometric solutions, and the procedures that should improve the quality of ToRs. Activities within publishing are to focus on preparing and publishing design-related studies. Informative actions include the establishment of a voivodeship road safety database including, among other, design norms and regulations, design standards, catalogues of good and bad practices, manuals, scripts, training materials, examples of ToR, and auxiliary designing materials. The last group of activities requires national regulations.
Algie, Jennifer; Rossiter, John R
This research studies fear patterns within fear appeal anti-speeding television commercials. A pattern of fear is the sequence of fear arousal and fear reduction, if any, that is felt by the viewing audience when exposed to a fear appeal advertisement. Many road safety advertisers use fear appeals, such as "shock" advertising, that result in fear arousal, leaving the viewer feeling extremely tense. The moment-to-moment reactions of young drivers to 12 road safety commercials are gauged using a dynamic, temporal measure of fear. The fear patterns generated from each ad are analyzed and a new perspective on creating fear appeal road safety advertisements, with an emphasis on fear-relief, fear-partial relief, and fear-only patterns, is discussed.
Penmetsa, Praveena; Pulugurtha, Srinivas S
The objective of this research is 2-fold: to (a) model and identify critical road features (or locations) based on crash injury severity and compare it with crash frequency and (b) model and identify drivers who are more likely to contribute to crashes by road feature. Crash data from 2011 to 2013 were obtained from the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS) for the state of North Carolina. Twenty-three different road features were considered, analyzed, and compared with each other as well as no road feature. A multinomial logit (MNL) model was developed and odds ratios were estimated to investigate the effect of road features on crash injury severity. Among the many road features, underpass, end or beginning of a divided highway, and on-ramp terminal on crossroad are the top 3 critical road features. Intersection crashes are frequent but are not highly likely to result in severe injuries compared to critical road features. Roundabouts are least likely to result in both severe and moderate injuries. Female drivers are more likely to be involved in crashes at intersections (4-way and T) compared to male drivers. Adult drivers are more likely to be involved in crashes at underpasses. Older drivers are 1.6 times more likely to be involved in a crash at the end or beginning of a divided highway. The findings from this research help to identify critical road features that need to be given priority. As an example, additional advanced warning signs and providing enlarged or highly retroreflective signs that grab the attention of older drivers may help in making locations such as end or beginning of a divided highway much safer. Educating drivers about the necessary skill sets required at critical road features in addition to engineering solutions may further help them adopt safe driving behaviors on the road.
Full Text Available Over the past decades, road safety in highly-motorised countries has made significant progress. Although we have a fair understanding of the reasons for this progress, we don't have conclusive evidence for this. A new generation of road safety management approaches has entered road safety, starting when countries decided to guide themselves by setting quantitative targets (e.g. 50% less casualties in ten years' time. Setting realistic targets, designing strategies and action plans to achieve these targets and monitoring progress have resulted in more scientific research to support decision-making on these topics. Three subjects are key in this new approach of evidence-based and data-driven road safety management: ex-post and ex-ante evaluation of both individual interventions and intervention packages in road safety strategies, and transferability (external validity of the research results. In this article, we explore these subjects based on recent experiences in four jurisdictions (Western Australia, the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland. All four apply similar approaches and tools; differences are considered marginal. It is concluded that policy-making and political decisions were influenced to a great extent by the results of analysis and research. Nevertheless, to compensate for a relatively weak theoretical basis and to improve the power of this new approach, a number of issues will need further research. This includes ex-post and ex-ante evaluation, a better understanding of extrapolation of historical trends and the transferability of research results. This new approach cannot be realized without high-quality road safety data. Good data and knowledge are indispensable for this new and very promising approach.
Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær
Under-reporting of traffic accidents is a well-discussed subject in traffic safety and it is well-known that the degree of under-reporting of traffic accidents is quite high in many countries. Nevertheless, very little literature has been made to investigate what causes the high degree of under...... management tool.Initially models were built by using existing traffic accident data collected by the police and emergency rooms in Denmark. The data registered by the police was collected on traffic accidents occurred on Danish roads in the period between 2002 and 2008. The emergency room data were collected...... the barriers for the intention to report a bicycle incident can help in designing policy measures for improving the reporting rate for bicycle incidents and in that connection also the traffic safety for bicyclist (Paper 3). 6) A new and innovative method is found to evaluate the service quality and is tested...
Full Text Available En este artículo se describe algunos problemas en seguridad vial que la Defensoría del Pueblo del Perú, en su trabajo como ente supervisor de la administración pública ha detectado, entre esos problemas se mencionan a: la escasa y mala elaboración de estadísticas de accidentes de tránsito; la inconsistencia del Consejo Nacional de Seguridad Vial y la irresponsabilidad de los gobiernos regionales y locales por su falta de aplicación del Plan Nacional de Seguridad Vial. Ante ello, la Defensoría del Pueblo sugiere que el Estado desarrolle un sistema estadístico riguroso, que fortalezca al Consejo Nacional de Seguridad Vial y que los diferentes sectores del Estado desarrollen el mencionado Plan Nacional.In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. Facing this, the Ombudsman suggests that the State develops a rigorous statistical system, strengthens the National Council of Road Safety and that the different sectors of the government develop the mentioned National Plan.
Beck, Ben; Cameron, Peter A; Fitzgerald, Mark C; Judson, Rodney T; Teague, Warwick; Lyons, Ronan A; Gabbe, Belinda J
To investigate temporal trends in the incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and costs of health loss caused by serious road traffic injury. A retrospective review of data from the population-based Victorian State Trauma Registry and the National Coronial Information System on road traffic-related deaths (pre- and in-hospital) and major trauma (Injury Severity Score > 12) during 2007-2015.Main outcomes and measures: Temporal trends in the incidence of road traffic-related major trauma, mortality, DALYs, and costs of health loss, by road user type. There were 8066 hospitalised road traffic major trauma cases and 2588 road traffic fatalities in Victoria over the 9-year study period. There was no change in the incidence of hospitalised major trauma for motor vehicle occupants (incidence rate ratio [IRR] per year, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99-1.01; P = 0.70), motorcyclists (IRR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.97-1.01; P = 0.45) or pedestrians (IRR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.97-1.02; P = 0.73), but the incidence for pedal cyclists increased 8% per year (IRR, 1.08; 95% CI; 1.05-1.10; P injuries exceeded $14 billion during 2007-2015, although the cost per patient declined for all road user groups. As serious injury rates have not declined, current road safety targets will be difficult to meet. Greater attention to preventing serious injury is needed, as is further investment in road safety, particularly for pedal cyclists.
Dong, Xiaomei; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Wang, Shengyong; Chen, Xiongfei; Chi, Guibo; Ramirez, Marizen
This study describes road traffic injuries among school-aged children in Guangzhou, China, and examines the effect of road safety knowledge and risk behaviours on road traffic injuries. A stratified cluster sample of 3747 children from six primary schools and six middle schools in Guangzhou, China, was surveyed. Data were collected on sociodemographic factors and road traffic injuries during the past year. Knowledge about road safety rules was assessed using a 14-item road safety knowledge index, and risky road safety behaviours were measured using a 25-item road safety behaviour index. A total of 403 (10.8%) students reported having at least one road traffic injury during the past 12 months. A high proportion of injuries was found among children who were boys, in primary school and from the suburbs. Bicycle-related injuries were the most common (46.0% of all injuries). Motor vehicle-related injuries had higher hospitalisation rates and worse psychological impact than bicycle or pedestrian injuries. Children with low and medium road safety knowledge had 1.5 to 3 times the odds of injury compared with students with high road safety knowledge. Students with high scores on the risky road behaviour index had twice the odds of injury (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.84) compared with students with low scores. Better road safety knowledge and the avoidance of walking or cycling-related risk behaviours are protective factors for road traffic injuries among Chinese school children. More injury prevention programmes are needed to improve road safety knowledge and reduce risk behaviours.
Full Text Available The increasing amount of traffic on the Italian road system and the number of road accidents has put the attention of the road safety problem at European, National and Regional levels. The Italian Govern with the National Plan of Road Safety (PNSS 1999 defined the strategies for road safety and to reduce road accidents. The Puglia Region with the Regional Law 18/2004 instituted the Centre for Monitoring Road Safety (CReMSS, whose issue is to collect data about road incidents and accidents, to define potential risks and to improve road infrastructure. The CReMSS has defined an integrated monitoring centre for road safety and accident prevention, and constitute a central resource and information management centre. The main Puglia Region strategy on road safety is roads safer for everyone and the key targets is to reduce the number of people killed or seriously injured in road accidents. The Cremss publishes reports on road safety issues and detailed statistics on Puglia Region road traffic. CReMSS is also involved in road safety publicity campaign and surveys that monitor attitudes to key road safety issues. The present situation in Puglia region demonstrates an allarming situation as from 2006 the number of accidents has not reduced, and from the 2000 the number of accidents almost duplicates (from 5.883 in 2000 to 11.776 in 2007; the number of people killed went from 374 to 366 and the number of people injured from 9.866 to 19.652. For this reason the role of CReMSS is central and really important. The general objective that Puglia Region took has been the implementation of a monitoring centre to analyse and prevent road accidents with a specific target of the RegionalTerritory. The overall strategy underlying the actions undertaken by the Puglia Region is, as a main goal, the building of a new road safety culture to solicit attendance from the local authority, the region, other bodies dealing with the road network, schools and citizen
Recommendations for the development and application of Evaluation Tools for road infrastructure safety management in the EU. Road Infrastructure Safety Management Evaluation Tools (RISMET), Deliverable No. 7.
Schermers, G. Cardoso, J. Elvik, R. Weller, G. Dietze, M. Reurings, M. Azeredo, S. & Charman, S.
“ERA-NET ROAD — Coordination and Implementation of Road Research in Europe” was a Coordination Action funded by the 6th Framework Programme of the EC. The partners in the 2009 ERA-NET ROAD (ENR) Safety at the heart of road design initiative were the United Kingdom, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden,
In the present communities transportation is a critical component of human life, and one of the main categories in the specification transportation system is the subject of safety. Considering the number of road accidents and deaths caused by it, unfortunately Iran is at the top of countries with the highest number of deaths in ...
Department of Health in Disaster and Emergency, School of Health Safety and. Environment ... University of Medical Sciences – International Campus, Tehran, Iran; East African Center for Disaster Health and Humanitarian ..... Table 3: Classification of victims according to their vulnerability to road traffic injuries in the.
Hagenzieker, M.P. Commandeur, J.J.F. & Bijleveld, F.D.
In this paper we provide a global description in quantitative terms, of the developments in road safety research from the early 1900’s until 2010. To this end, electronic databases have been searched and papers matching search criteria were selected for analysis. Word and co-word frequencies of
East African Orthopaedic Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editorial: Road safety in Kenya. F Otsyeno. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.
A cross-sectional community based study carried out in Calabar, capital city of Cross River State in November 2005 to study the attitude of commercial motorcyclists to road safety regulations and practices. Randomly selected commercial motorcyclists at various parks in the city, who agreed to participate in the study, were ...
Reurings, M.C.B. & Commandeur, J.J.F.
This report gives an overview of the models developed in countries other than the Netherlands to evaluate past developments in road traffic safety and to obtain estimates of these developments in the future. These models include classical linear regression and loglinear models as applied in Great
The Road Safety website of The World Bank needs to be redeveloped. The website should reflect the new developments in the work field and the IT policy of The World Bank and support its implementation. The report is meant as a brief business case, describing the target audience, purposes of the site,
Evans, Andrew W; Addison, John D
This paper discusses the results of an investigation into ways in which the safety risks of travel on road and rail interact with each other in Great Britain, other than through physical contact such as at level crossings. The two main foci of the paper are: (1) an analysis of the 'whole journey' risks of journeys for which the national rail system is the main mode, but which also include stages by other transport modes to provide access to the railway system; and (2) an analysis of the effect on safety risk of inter-modal transfers between rail and road. On (1), walking to and from stations was estimated to account on average for 65% of the overall door-to-door risk of being killed on rail journeys; the rail system itself accounts for 21% of the risk, and other access modes account for the remaining 14%. The average distance walked to and from stations is 0.9 km per rail journey, and this walking accounts for 5% of all walking nationally. On (2), it was found that increasing rail fares to fund railway safety measures may lead passengers to switch from rail to car, but for most sensible rail safety measures, the additional risks from such diversions are small compared with the intended rail safety benefits. However, for high-cost rail safety measures funded by passengers, the additional risks from diversions may be of the same order as the intended safety benefits. The last section of the paper explores the effects of variations in the casualty rates of rail users as pedestrians and car users, because their road risks may be different from those of all road users. Such variations could alter the detailed conclusions of the paper, but the scale of such effects appears to be modest.
Yu, Jie; Zou, Nan; Liu, Yue; Fu, Lianning; Liu, Liya; Yuan, Ann
This article examines traffic safety behaviors for different types of road users among children aged 0 to 17 years in Guangzhou, China. A stratified cluster sample of 7034 children from pediatric clinics (816 children aged 0-2 years who are receiving vaccines), kindergartens (1148 children aged 3-5 years), primary schools (2410 children aged 6-11 years), and secondary schools (2660 children aged 12-17 years) was collected by self-reported questionnaire surveys. The respondents were instructed to respond to each behavior question, using response choices scoring from 0 to 3. An 18-item-weighted Road Safety Behavior Index (RSBI), including 5 items for walking, 7 items for cycling, 2 items for public transport, and 4 items for private motor vehicles, was developed to quantify the child road safety behaviors and further investigate their interrelations with the sociodemographic factors among different age groups and travel categories. A higher RSBI indicates a lower risk of childhood road safety. Results from statistical analysis indicate that (1) the effects of children's sociodemographic characteristics on the RSBIs differ greatly concerning each particular travel category; and (2) RSBIs are associated more with child-related characteristics than with parent-related characteristics as the age of the children's group increases. The research findings from analyzing the self-report questionnaires were further validated with field observational records, medical records, and police records. The article concludes with some recommendations for preventing the increasing toll of road traffic injury among Chinese children, which include (1) continuing educational efforts to increase knowledge of road safety and reduce traffic risk behaviors for children and their parents; (2) creating a safe and convenient environment for walking, cycling, and public transport travelers; and (3) promoting legislation and enforcement such as the mandatory usage of bicycle helmets and child
SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research was founded in 1962. SWOV's main objective is to contribute to road safety by means of scientific research and dissemination of results and knowledge to professionals and policy makers. SWOV is the national institute for road safety research in the
Dupont, E. Muhlrad, N. Buttler, I. Gitelman, V. Giustiniani, G. Jähi, H. Machata, K. Martensen, H. Papadimitriou, E. Persia, L. Talbot, R. Vallet, G. Wijnen, W. & Yannis, G.
The objective of this research is the assessment of current needs for evidence-based road safety decision making in Europe, through the consultation of a panel of road safety experts. The members of this Experts Panel have extensive knowledge of road safety management processes and needs in their
Argues that effective road safety education for young children needs to incorporate constructivist and socio-cultural perspectives on learning. Excerpts interviews with young children highlighting the variety of influences affecting children's road safety knowledge and examination of a road safety curriculum to illustrate the value of a dual…
Schepers, J. P.; Heinen, E.
Governments aim to promote a shift from car to bicycle, but concerns about road safety seem to represent an important argument against this encouragement. This study examines the road safety impact of a modal shift from short car trips to cycling in Dutch municipalities. The road safety effect is
Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Katz-Ben-Ami, Liat
This research adapted the workplace concept of safety climate to the domain of safe driving, defining a new construct of "family climate for road safety". Four studies were conducted in Israel with the aim of developing and validating a multidimensional instrument to assess this construct among young drivers. Study 1 (n=632) focused on developing the Family Climate for Road Safety Scale (FCRSS), a self-report scale assessing the family climate by means of seven aspects of the parent-child relationship: Modeling, Feedback, Communication, Monitoring, Noncommitment, Messages, and Limits. Significant differences were found between young men and women on all factors. In addition, significant associations were found between the FCRSS factors on the one hand, and the reported frequency of risky driving and personal commitment to safety on the other. Studies 2-4 confirmed the factorial structure of the FCRSS and the reliability of its factors, adding to its criterion and convergent validity. Study 2 (n=178) yielded significant associations between the scale and young drivers' perception of their parents as involved, encouraging autonomy, and providing warmth; Study 3 (n=117) revealed significant associations between the scale and youngsters' reported proneness to take risks while driving, as well as significant associations between the factors and various dimensions of family functioning; and Study 4 (n=156) found associations between the FCRSS factors and both driving styles (risky, angry, anxious, careful) and family cohesion and adaptability. The discussion deals with the validity and utility of the concept of family climate for road safety and its measurement, addressing the practical implications for road safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated gender-related effects on road safety attitudesin 2,681 young drivers (1,458 males, 54.4%; aged 18-22 who filled out several scales assessing attitudes towards road safety issues, driving behaviour in specific hypothetical situations, accident risk perception, and concerns about such a risk. We focused only on young drivers to better understand the role of gender in road safety attitudes in a period of life in which risky behaviours are widespread for males and females. Indeed, there is still no agreement as to the nature of these gender differences. According to some authors, the effects of gender on being involved in a crash due to driving skills are either non-existent or largely explained by differences in alcohol consumption. In our study, we found gender differences in road safety attitudes (i.e., negative attitude toward traffic rules and risky driving; negative attitude towards drugs and alcohol and tolerance toward speeding and in driver behaviour (i.e., errors in inattentive driving and driving violations. This result is consistent in all drivers coming from nine different European countries. Our analyses yielded an important finding concerning risk perception. The results indicate that the level of risk perception during driving is the same for males and females. However, these two groups differ in the level of concern about this risk, with males being less concerned about the risk of a road accident. This suggests that the main difference between these two groups is not strictly related to judgment of the perceived risk probability but rather to the level of concern experienced about the consequences of the risk. This difference between risk perception and worry could explain differences in the frequency of car accidents in the two groups. The present findings may provide new insights for the development of gender-based prevention programs.
Cordellieri, Pierluigi; Baralla, Francesca; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Sgalla, Roberto; Piccardi, Laura; Giannini, Anna Maria
In the present study, we investigated gender-related effects on road safety attitudes in 2681 young drivers (1458 males, 54.4%; aged 18–22) who filled out several scales assessing attitudes toward road safety issues, driving behavior in specific hypothetical situations, accident risk perception, and concerns about such a risk. We focused only on young drivers to better understand the role of gender in road safety attitudes in a period of life in which risky behaviors are widespread for males and females. Indeed, there is still no agreement as to the nature of these gender differences. According to some authors, the effects of gender on being involved in a crash due to driving skills are either non-existent or largely explained by differences in alcohol consumption. In our study, we found gender differences in road safety attitudes (i.e., “negative attitude toward traffic rules and risky driving”; “negative attitude toward drugs and alcohol” and “tolerance toward speeding”) and in driver behavior (i.e., “errors in inattentive driving” and “driving violations”). This result is consistent in all drivers coming from nine different European countries. Our analyses yielded an important finding concerning risk perception. The results indicate that the level of risk perception during driving is the same for males and females. However, these two groups differ in the level of concern about this risk, with males being less concerned about the risk of a road accident. This suggests that the main difference between these two groups is not strictly related to judgment of the perceived risk probability but rather to the level of concern experienced about the consequences of the risk. This difference between risk perception and worry could explain differences in the frequency of car accidents in the two groups. The present findings may provide new insights for the development of gender-based prevention programs. PMID:27729877
Jongenburger, I.; Besten, den H.M.W.; Zwietering, M.H.
In food safety management, sampling is an important tool for verifying control. Sampling by nature is a stochastic process. However, uncertainty regarding results is made even greater by the uneven distribution of microorganisms in a batch of food. This article reviews statistical aspects of
Full Text Available The article presents a new teaching method designed to improve road safety among young road users. Developed under “European Road Safety Tunes”, this international project was cofunded by EU DG MOVE. Its main aim is to improve road safety and minimize the number of road accidents, injuries and fatalities among road users who are 15-24 years old. The Safety Tunes method contains a series of workshops addressed to young vocational school students: cyclists, moped and motor riders and car drivers. The workshops incorporate peer and emotive education, and delivery of road safety related messages through different types of artistic forms. The topics tackled during class address awareness of possible risks and risk-behaviour, prevention of distraction and reduction in young fatalities and serious injuries on the road. All actions within the project are evaluated, both in terms of the impact of the workshops on students’ attitudes towards road safety problems and in terms of process assessment.
Aleksandar J. Bulajić
Full Text Available The Army of Serbia, as a relatively closed system, regulates the field of traffic safety; however, during peacetime, general rules apply to all participants in traffic circulation. The Republic of Serbia is in the group of countries with a high number of road fatalities. The level of traffic safety in the Serbian Army has been on constant increase since 2000, although the relevant transport authorities in the military are not yet satisfied with the achieved level (even one lost life is too much. The increase can be deceptive, since if we take into account the substantial reduction in vehicle use due to various factors in the last few years (poor financial situation in the country as well as in the military, under-investment in the purchase of new vehicles, purchase of transportation services, fewer drivers drafted and more vehicles driven by trained officers, etc., it is not surprising that there are fewer accidents and fewer road deaths and injuries among military personnel. This paper aims at approaching the problem of pedestrian safety as a segment of road safety and at making an educational impact on all members of the military, because they all participate in traffic daily, if not as drivers or passengers, then certainly in large numbers as pedestrians. The basis of this paper is aimed at shedding light on the causes of pedestrian road fatalities due to their mistakes, i. e. 'negligence' of the participants in car accidents with the participation of pedestrians, as well as at proposing measures to reduce and prevent traffic accidents with pedestrians.
Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Future managers are faced daily with a variety of ethical dilemmas in traffic that need to be balanced by the interests of all participants. The question is whether a new innovative model of ethical principles could be developed that would increase road safety.Purpose: The a im is to raise the level of social responsibility and relationship of participants in traffic as well as warn all participants on the importance of safety. In addition, the purpose is to share suggestions to other researchers for further research studies in the area of increasing traffic safety.Method: We carried out a quantitative study (survey among first year post-graduate students studying at a higher education school focused on quality management in south-eastern Slovenia. The article presents five different ethical scenarios.Results: The participants have very similar views on judging individual ethical dilemmas. The desire to increase road safety, have led to new useful suggestions for further study of innovative new ethical principles in the field of safety, such as: no death victims annually, adequate road infrastructure, improved vehicle technology, video surveillance systems, and so on.Organization: Relevant authorities should promote models of ethical thinking and the introduction of codes of conduct at an early age. As such, the state, police, rescuers, fire departments, hospitals, and so on, would have fewer deaths due to serious traffic accidents.Society: By taking these results and further research suggestions into account, society would gain a new model that would be based on zero accidents annually.Originality: Research in the field of ethics and innovative ethical principles of traffic safety is limited. The article presents practical examples of ethical and moral decision-making that we encounter in daily traffic. But nothing much is done to make it better ("every day the same story".Limitations/Future Research: The research study
The proceedings volume of the two days Meeting titled:''road.safety.forum - Integrated Safety Concepts and Reliability'' which has been held on the 5th and 6th April 2005 in Leipzig, includes the ten contributions presented. The subjects were as follows: safety and reliability in modern vehicles; e-safty activities of European Commission; advanced safety technology for enhanced road safety; safety systems - sometimes less may be more - analysis related to markets with limited purchasing power like in Czech Republic; modern design of the truck driver's workplace and supporting technologies for road safety; risk management and car safety; concepts of driver assistance - state of affairs and outlook; to err (while driving) is human - which technical systems can help?; Safety Net: developing the European Road Safety Observatory; consumer safety ratings and their effect on car safety. The manuscripts are available in the form of reproduced overhead foils. (AKF)
Riguelle, F. Eksler, V. Holló, P. Vis, M. Gitelman, V. Assum, T. & Rackliff, L.
This report presents an overview of recent figures of chosen safety performance indicators of 29 European countries – the 27 EU member states, complemented with Norway and Switzerland. The comparison is done for five road safety performance indicators in the following areas: alcohol and drugs,
Khoo, Hooi Ling; Ahmed, Muaid
This study had developed a passenger safety perception model specifically for buses taking into consideration the various factors, namely driver characteristics, environmental conditions, and bus characteristics using Bayesian Network. The behaviour of bus driver is observed through the bus motion profile, measured in longitudinal, lateral, and vertical accelerations. The road geometry is recorded using GPS and is computed with the aid of the Google map while the perceived bus safety is rated by the passengers in the bus in real time. A total of 13 variables were derived and used in the model development. The developed Bayesian Network model shows that the type of bus and the experience of the driver on the investigated route could have an influence on passenger's perception of their safety on buses. Road geometry is an indirect influencing factor through the driver's behavior. The findings of this model are useful for the authorities to structure an effective strategy to improve the level of perceived bus safety. A high level of bus safety will definitely boost passenger usage confidence which will subsequently increase ridership. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yannis, George; Kondyli, Alexandra; Georgopoulou, Xenia
This paper investigates the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures (LCTEMs) on the improvement of road safety in urban areas. A number of such measures were considered, such as speed humps, woonerfs, raised intersections and other traffic calming measures, which have been implemented on one-way, one-lane roads in the Municipality of Neo Psychiko in the Greater Athens Area. Data were analysed using the before-and-after safety analysis methodology with large control group. The selected control group comprised of two Municipalities in the Athens Greater Area, which present similar road network and land use characteristics with the area considered. The application of the methodology showed that the total number of crashes presented a statistically significant reduction, which can be possibly attributed to the introduction of LCTEMs. This reduction concerns passenger cars and single-vehicle crashes and is possibly due to the behavioural improvement of drivers of 25 years old or more. The results of this research are very useful for the identification of the appropriate low cost traffic engineering countermeasures for road safety problems in urban areas.
Mangiaracina, G; Palumbo, L
The study was focused on the risk assessment of distraction of smoking habits while driving vehicles. We have compared the results with the data about driving distraction using mobile phone without voice devices. We video-recorded 10 smokers, 4 male and 6 female, smoking while driving a car The average of measured driving distraction of smokers is about 12 seconds. It means to cover a distance of 160 metres with a speed of 50 Km/h. Comparing to the use of mobile phone, the data of driving distraction show a duration of 10.6 seconds, that means to cover a distance of 150 metres at the speed of 50 Km/h. This result suggest that cigarette smoking produces a remarkable risk for road safety, more than the mobile phone use. In addiction to the conditions that produce a considerable driving distraction of smokers, we underline a demonstrated shortage of oxygen, the presence of carbon monoxide and hight concentration offine particulate in the air breathed inside the vehicle. We also consider another aspect related to smoking habits while driving vehicles: the environmental damage. In fact throwing cigarette outside, while the vehicle is moving, is the prevalent reason of setting fire to the edge of the road. This study proposes to make changes in the laws and regulation on road safety in order to fine smokers behaviour during vehicle driving. Furthermore it seems necessary to promote public information about those risks among people.
Full Text Available Interest in Intelligent Transportation Systems comes from the problems caused by traffic congestion, road accidents and air pollution. Traffic congestion continues to grow worldwide as a result of increased motorization, population growth, changes in population density and urbanization. Interest in ITS can also be attributed to reducing road accidents and increasing traffic safety. The most common causes for road accidents are excessive speed, inattentive driving and ignorance of the right-of-way rules. To eliminate these causes, experience, knowledge of traffic regulations and a new car are not enough – vehicle safety systems have to take part as well. Therefore, the European Union issued a directive on the installation of intelligent systems, whose functions are active support during driving, warning the driver in dangerous situations and alerting passengers of the car in case of irregularities in motor function or actions carried out by the driver that may cause danger, such as swerving while falling asleep. These systems help drivers to avoid accidents, and in the event of a collision, an emergency call is automatically made. Furthermore, they can be used to regulate traffic patterns or to reduce engine performance, which would reduce pollution. With these benefits in mind, the EU has indicated to the automotive industry that installation of these new Intelligent Transportation Systems should be mandatory in their new vehicles.
Reducing crashes involving pedestrians and bicyclists continues to be a major concern in the design of Michigan roads. In seeking to improve the safety of pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorists on Michigan roads, it is important to balance the needs ...
Vissers, L. Houwing, S. & Wegman, F.C.M. (prep.)
This study examines how improving insights regarding the real number of alcohol-related road casualties worldwide can help to save lives. Every year 1.25 million people die in road crashes according to the World Health Organization. It is widely recognised that drink driving is an important
Broughton, J. Brandstaetter, C. Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Papantoniou, P. Candappa, N. Christoph, M.W.T. Duijvenvoorde, K. van Vis, M. Pace, J-F. Tormo, M. Sanmartín J. Haddak, M. Pascal, L. Amoros, E. Thomas, P. Kirk, A. Brown, L.
The CARE database brings together the disaggregate details of road accidents and casualties across Europe. It is based on the national accident databases maintained by all EU member states, taking account of the differences between national systems for recording accidents. It is thus a vital
More than 50% of road accident fatality victims in Malaysia are motorcyclists, numbering more than 4,000 fatalities per year. The aim of this thesis is to investigate motorcyclists’ road safety problems in general in Malaysia, and narrow down the focus to the most salient road infrastructure related risk factors. After identifying access points on primary roads as hazardous sites, observations of road user behavior at these sites have been carried out in order to establish behavio...
Jongenburger, I; den Besten, H M W; Zwietering, M H
In food safety management, sampling is an important tool for verifying control. Sampling by nature is a stochastic process. However, uncertainty regarding results is made even greater by the uneven distribution of microorganisms in a batch of food. This article reviews statistical aspects of sampling and describes the impact of distributions on the sampling results. Five different batch contamination scenarios are illustrated: a homogeneous batch, a heterogeneous batch with high- or low-level contamination, and a batch with localized high- or low-level contamination. These batch contamination scenarios showed that sampling results have to be interpreted carefully, especially when heterogeneous and localized contamination in food products is expected.
The Dutch Government has set the following quantitative targets for road safety: a 25 per cent reduction in the number of road deaths and injuries by the year 2000 (compared with 1985 levels) and a further reduction of 50% and 40% respectively by the year 2010 (compared with 1986 levels). Various
Recommendations for the development and application of Evaluation Tools for road infrastructure safety management in the EU. Road Infrastructure Safety Management Evaluation Tools (RISMET), Deliverable No. 7.
Schermers, G. Cardoso, J. Elvik, R. Weller, G. Dietze, M. Reurings, M. Azeredo, S. & Charman, S.
“ERA-NET ROAD — Coordination and Implementation of Road Research in Europe” was a Coordination Action funded by the 6th Framework Programme of the EC. The partners in the 2009 ERA-NET ROAD (ENR) Safety at the heart of road design initiative were the United Kingdom, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, Norway, Austria, Slovenia, Belgium, Hungary and Ireland (http://www.road-era.net). Within the framework of ENR this joint research project was initiated. The project aims at developing suitabl...
Nilsson, Daniel; Lindman, Magdalena; Victor, Trent; Dozza, Marco
Single-vehicle run-off-road crashes are a major traffic safety concern, as they are associated with a high proportion of fatal outcomes. In addressing run-off-road crashes, the development and evaluation of advanced driver assistance systems requires test scenarios that are representative of the variability found in real-world crashes. We apply hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis to define similarities in a set of crash data variables, these clusters can then be used as the basis in test scenario development. Out of 13 clusters, nine test scenarios are derived, corresponding to crashes characterised by: drivers drifting off the road in daytime and night-time, high speed departures, high-angle departures on narrow roads, highways, snowy roads, loss-of-control on wet roadways, sharp curves, and high speeds on roads with severe road surface conditions. In addition, each cluster was analysed with respect to crash variables related to the crash cause and reason for the unintended lane departure. The study shows that cluster analysis of representative data provides a statistically based method to identify relevant properties for run-off-road test scenarios. This was done to support development of vehicle-based run-off-road countermeasures and driver behaviour models used in virtual testing. Future studies should use driver behaviour from naturalistic driving data to further define how test-scenarios and behavioural causation mechanisms should be included. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lucia Maria LOTREAN
Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to assess the behaviors with risk for road traffic injuries among Romanian young people. Material and Method: Self-administered questionnaires were completed by the study sample consisting of 1598 junior high school students, senior high school students and university students aged 11-24 years from both urban and rural areas of two counties (Cluj and Hunedora of Romania. Results: The results show that around 80% of the junior high school students and more than 90% of the senior high school students and university students who go by bike do not wear helmets or use them rarely when they are cycling. Seatbelts are used more frequently than the helmets, but still more than one third of the junior high school students and senior high school students and a quarter of the university students do not use seatbelts or use them rarely. In the month previous the survey around one quarter of the students travelled in a car whose driver used alcohol before driving. Moreover, 15% of the university students who drove recognized that, at least once during their life, they did this after they used alcohol. Conclusions: The results indicate that comprehensive actions must be developed in order to prevent road traffic injuries among Romanian young people. They must include educational programs for youngsters and parents as well as adoption and enforcement of legislative measures and technical actions, which promote road safety.
Petrov, A. I.; Petrova, D. A.
The article considers one of the topical problems of road safety management at the federal level - the problem of the heterogeneity of road traffic accident rate in Russian cities. The article analyzes actual statistical data on road traffic accident rate in the administrative centers of Russia. The histograms of the distribution of the values of two most important road accidents characteristics - Social Risk HR and Severity Rate of Road Accidents - formed in 2016 in administrative centers of Russia are presented. On the basis of the regression model of the statistical connection between Severity Rate of Road Accidents and Social Risk HR, a classification of the Russian cities based on the level of actual road traffic accident rate was developed. On the basis of this classification a differentiated system of priority methods for organizing the safe functioning of transport systems in the cities of Russia is proposed.
Full Text Available Traffic incidents and accidents contribute to decreasing levels of transport system reliability and safety. Traffic management and emergency systems on the road, using, among others, automatic detection, video surveillance, communication technologies and institutional solutions improve the organization of the work of various departments involved in traffic and safety management. Automation of incident management helps to reduce the time of a rescue operation as well as of the normalization of the flow of traffic after completion of a rescue operation, which also affects the reduction of the risk of secondary accidents and contributes to reducing their severity. The paper presents the possibility of including city traffic departments in the process of incident management. The results of research on the automatic incident detection in cities are also presented.
Hu, Qizhou; Zhou, Zhuping; Sun, Xu
This paper examines a new evaluation of urban road traffic safety based on a matter element analysis, avoiding the difficulties found in other traffic safety evaluations. The issue of urban road traffic safety has been investigated through the matter element analysis theory. The chief aim of the present work is to investigate the features of urban road traffic safety. Emphasis was placed on the construction of a criterion function by which traffic safety achieved a hierarchical system of objectives to be evaluated. The matter element analysis theory was used to create the comprehensive appraisal model of urban road traffic safety. The technique was used to employ a newly developed and versatile matter element analysis algorithm. The matter element matrix solves the uncertainty and incompatibility of the evaluated factors used to assess urban road traffic safety. The application results showed the superiority of the evaluation model and a didactic example was included to illustrate the computational procedure.
Full Text Available This paper examines a new evaluation of urban road traffic safety based on a matter element analysis, avoiding the difficulties found in other traffic safety evaluations. The issue of urban road traffic safety has been investigated through the matter element analysis theory. The chief aim of the present work is to investigate the features of urban road traffic safety. Emphasis was placed on the construction of a criterion function by which traffic safety achieved a hierarchical system of objectives to be evaluated. The matter element analysis theory was used to create the comprehensive appraisal model of urban road traffic safety. The technique was used to employ a newly developed and versatile matter element analysis algorithm. The matter element matrix solves the uncertainty and incompatibility of the evaluated factors used to assess urban road traffic safety. The application results showed the superiority of the evaluation model and a didactic example was included to illustrate the computational procedure.
Fawcett, Lee; Thorpe, Neil; Matthews, Joseph; Kremer, Karsten
In this paper, we propose a Bayesian hierarchical model for predicting accident counts in future years at sites within a pool of potential road safety hotspots. The aim is to inform road safety practitioners of the location of likely future hotspots to enable a proactive, rather than reactive, approach to road safety scheme implementation. A feature of our model is the ability to rank sites according to their potential to exceed, in some future time period, a threshold accident count which may be used as a criterion for scheme implementation. Our model specification enables the classical empirical Bayes formulation - commonly used in before-and-after studies, wherein accident counts from a single before period are used to estimate counterfactual counts in the after period - to be extended to incorporate counts from multiple time periods. This allows site-specific variations in historical accident counts (e.g. locally-observed trends) to offset estimates of safety generated by a global accident prediction model (APM), which itself is used to help account for the effects of global trend and regression-to-mean (RTM). The Bayesian posterior predictive distribution is exploited to formulate predictions and to properly quantify our uncertainty in these predictions. The main contributions of our model include (i) the ability to allow accident counts from multiple time-points to inform predictions, with counts in more recent years lending more weight to predictions than counts from time-points further in the past; (ii) where appropriate, the ability to offset global estimates of trend by variations in accident counts observed locally, at a site-specific level; and (iii) the ability to account for unknown/unobserved site-specific factors which may affect accident counts. We illustrate our model with an application to accident counts at 734 potential hotspots in the German city of Halle; we also propose some simple diagnostics to validate the predictive capability of our
Schepers, Paul; Heinen, Eva; Methorst, Rob; Wegman, Fred
Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Alliance Road Bridge Demolition; Black... navigable waters during the demolition of the Alliance Road Bridge (Co. Rd. 61). Entry into, transiting or... their intentions to start the process to demolish the Alliance Road Bridge on September 24, 2012...
Al Turki, Yousef Abdullah
Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death in adolescents and young adults worldwide. Nearly three-quarters of road deaths occur in developing countries and men comprise a mean 80% of casualties. The rate of road traffic accidents caused by four-wheeled vehicles is the highest globally reported road traffic accidents statistic. In Saudi Arabia, the motor vehicle is the main means of transportation with one person killed and four injured every hour. Over 65% of accidents occur because of vehicles travelling at excess speed and/or drivers disobeying traffic signals. Road traffic injuries cause considerable economic losses to victims, their families, and to nations as a whole. Strategic prevention plans should be implemented soon by various sectors (health, police, transport, and education) to decrease the mortality and morbidity among adolescent and young age group. Strong and effective coordination between ministry of health and other ministries together with World Health Organization and other related organisations will be an important step towards implementing the international Decade of Action for Road Safety (2011-2020). The aim of this review article is to highlight some aspects of the health impacts of road traffic accidents.
Full Text Available Evaluation of the results of road safety management at the national level is carried out with a number of predefined indicators. These, predefined indicators should be measurable objectives of road safety management. They are set by national road safety strategies. This paper presents the control implementation of the Strategy to improve road safety in Montenegro for the period 2010-2019. The research showed that the five-year objectives of the National Strategy were achieved in the first years and significantly surmounted. This efficiency is achieved for two main reasons: the development of road safety management, and setting an unambitious, easily attainable goal. These findings are indicators that generally and globally set goals of reducing traffic fatalities cannot comprise at the same time national objectives in all countries. In this context, the methodological improvements of setting national strategic objectives established by the evidences on the national traffic safety issue are proposed.
OPPE, S INST ROAD SAFETY RES, SWOV
At the TRRL/SWOV Workshop on Accident Analysis Methodology, heldin Amsterdam in 1988, the need to establish a methodology for the analysis of road accidents was firmly stated by all participants. Data from different countries cannot be compared because there is no agreement on research methodology,
These include the airport network of China , the airport network of India , the world-wide airport network [3,4], the urban road networks  and the railway networks [6–10]. The topology studies of different spatial networks show different degree distributions. Power law degree distribution is seen for Indian airport network ...
Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George
In this paper, macroscopic road safety trends in Greece are analyzed using state-space models and data for 52 years (1960-2011). Seemingly unrelated time series equations (SUTSE) models are developed first, followed by richer latent risk time-series (LRT) models. As reliable estimates of vehicle-kilometers are not available for Greece, the number of vehicles in circulation is used as a proxy to the exposure. Alternative considered models are presented and discussed, including diagnostics for the assessment of their model quality and recommendations for further enrichment of this model. Important interventions were incorporated in the models developed (1986 financial crisis, 1991 old-car exchange scheme, 1996 new road fatality definition) and found statistically significant. Furthermore, the forecasting results using data up to 2008 were compared with final actual data (2009-2011) indicating that the models perform properly, even in unusual situations, like the current strong financial crisis in Greece. Forecasting results up to 2020 are also presented and compared with the forecasts of a model that explicitly considers the currently on-going recession. Modeling the recession, and assuming that it will end by 2013, results in more reasonable estimates of risk and vehicle-kilometers for the 2020 horizon. This research demonstrates the benefits of using advanced state-space modeling techniques for modeling macroscopic road safety trends, such as allowing the explicit modeling of interventions. The challenges associated with the application of such state-of-the-art models for macroscopic phenomena, such as traffic fatalities in a region or country, are also highlighted. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that it is possible to apply such complex models using the relatively short time-series that are available in macroscopic road safety analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sze, N N; Wong, S C; Lee, C Y
In past several decades, many countries have set quantified road safety targets to motivate transport authorities to develop systematic road safety strategies and measures and facilitate the achievement of continuous road safety improvement. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the association between the setting of quantified road safety targets and road fatality reduction, in both the short and long run, by comparing road fatalities before and after the implementation of a quantified road safety target. However, not much work has been done to evaluate whether the quantified road safety targets are actually achieved. In this study, we used a binary logistic regression model to examine the factors - including vehicle ownership, fatality rate, and national income, in addition to level of ambition and duration of target - that contribute to a target's success. We analyzed 55 quantified road safety targets set by 29 countries from 1981 to 2009, and the results indicate that targets that are in progress and with lower level of ambitions had a higher likelihood of eventually being achieved. Moreover, possible interaction effects on the association between level of ambition and the likelihood of success are also revealed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schagen, I.N.L.G. van
Express roads are a rather miscellaneous road category hierarchically situated between motorways and ordinary single carriageway interurban roads. In general, the safety record of express roads is bad, in particular when compared to motorways. Nevertheless, they exist, and they will continue to
te, Velde A F; Savelsbergh, G J P; Barela, J A; van der Kamp, J
Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are regularly confronted with physical constraints during locomotion. Because abnormalities in motor control are often related to perceptual deficits, the aim of this study was to find out whether children with CP were able to walk across a road as safely as their non-handicapped peers. Ten children with CP and 10 non-handicapped children aged 4-14 y were asked to cross a simulated road if they felt the situation was safe. With respect to safety and accuracy of crossings, the behaviour of children with CP was comparable with that of non-handicapped children. However, a closer examination of children's individual crossing behaviour showed considerable differences within the CP group. In contrast to children with damage to the left hemisphere, children with damage to the right hemisphere made unsafe decisions and did not compensate for them by increasing walking speed. The differences in unsafe behaviour and in the ability to compensate for it within the group of children with CP might be related to damage to specific regions of the brain that are involved in the processing of spatial or temporal information.
Veisten, K. Elvik, R. & Bax, C.
Statements about economic cost—benefit analysis were assessed in a sample of European road safety decision-makers. These statements related to both principles of cost—benefit analysis and implications for applying the method to road safety projects. A procedure of information reference testing was
S. I. Budnik
The paper contains an analysis of reasons and conditions that impact on road traffic safety in the Ukraine. The analysis describes certain problems and conflicts of the legislation on road traffic safety and problems in the process of its execution.
Malan, Lianne; van Dijk, Gerda; Fourie, David
Road safety education is a complex phenomenon which should be viewed holistically if taken into account the interconnectedness of education, infrastructure and enforcement. Effective road safety education is specifically important for learners in the Further Education and Training (FET) band, as they are active contributors to a community. The…
Schagen, I.N.L.G. van & Machata, K.
This handbook contains a large variety of road safety measures from throughout Europe. The goal of SUPREME was to collect, analyse, summarise and publish best practices in road safety in the Member States of the European Union, as well as in Switzerland and Norway. This document is a collection of
This course focuses mainly on traffic and transport in developing countries, and deals primarily with matters of infrastructure. Road safety and road safety problems are closely related to the construction and operation of the road network. (See also C 1341 - C1346).
Jovanov, D.; Vollpracht, H. J.; Beles, H.; Popa, V.; Tolea, B. A.
Most common road safety engineering deficiencies identified by the authors in South Eastern Europe, including Romania, have been collected together and presented in this paper as a part of road safety unbreakably connected to the safe system approach (driver-vehicle-road). In different South Eastern Europe countries Road Safety Audit (RSA), Road Safety Inspection (RSI), as well as Black Spot Management (BSM) was introduced and practical implementation experience enabled the authors to analyze the road safety problems. Typical road safety engineering deficiencies have been presented in 8 different subsections, based on PIARC (World Road Association) RSA approach. This paper presents collected common road safety problems with relevant illustrations (real pictures) with associated accident risks.
Davies, Gareth R; Roberts, Ian
Road traffic crashes are a major cause of death and injury worldwide and are set to increase as low- and middle-income countries motorize. United Nations (UN)and World Health Organization (WHO) road traffic injury prevention efforts depend on support from external organizations, many of which have commercial interests in increasing car use. Because of concerns about conflict of interest, this study objectively assessed the activities of a key WHO collaborator, the Global Road Safety Partnership (GRSP). We conducted a quantitative content analysis comparing GRSP publications and the 2004 WHO World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention. Dictionaries of terms were constructed for each of the evidence-based interventions detailed in the World REPORT. Text analysis software was used to generate word frequency counts of those terms to compare the World Report and GRSP documents. Education, information and publicity featured far more commonly in the GRSP publications than in the WHO World Report [word frequency ratios and 95% confidence intervals: GRSP Newsletter 3.09, 2.53 to 3.78; Around GRSPs World 4.69, 3.76 to 5.87;GRSP Project summaries 3.42, 2.59 to 4.51] On the other hand, compared with the World Report, reducing car use [GRSP Newsletter 0.36, 0.27 to 0.48], minimizing exposure to high-risk scenarios [GRSP Newsletter 0.04, 0.02 to 0.09] and encouraging the use of safer modes of travel [GRSP Newsletter 0.02, 0.01 to 0.08] rarely featured in GRSP publications. The GRSP focuses on educational interventions, for which there is no evidence of effectiveness. Furthermore, the GRSP does not appear to consider the full range of WHO interventions. As motorization growth has serious negative implications for health, including those associated from physical inactivity, climate change and air and noise pollution, it is imperative that the UN and WHO do not allow business interests to dominate public health interests.
Schepers, Paul; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Methorst, Rob; van Wee, Bert; Wegman, Fred
Scientific literature lacks a model which combines exposure to risk, risk, and the relationship between them. This paper presents a conceptual road safety framework comprising mutually interacting factors for exposure to risk resulting from travel behaviour (volumes, modal split, and distribution of traffic over time and space) and for risk (crash and injury risk). The framework's three determinants for travel behaviour are locations of activities; resistances (generalized transport costs); needs, opportunities, and abilities. Crash and injury risks are modelled by the three 'safety pillars': infrastructure, road users and the vehicles they use. Creating a link in the framework between risk and exposure is important because of the 'non-linear relationship' between them, i.e. risk tends to decrease as exposure increases. Furthermore, 'perceived' risk (a type of travel resistance) plays a role in mode choice, i.e. the perception that a certain type of vehicle is unsafe can be a deterrent to its use. This paper uses theories to explain how the elements in the model interact. Cycling is an area where governments typically have goals for both mobility and safety. To exemplify application of the model, the paper uses the framework to link research on cycling (safety) to land use and infrastructure. The model's value lies in its ability to identify potential consequences of measures and policies for both exposure and risk. This is important from a scientific perspective and for policy makers who often have objectives for both mobility and safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nazif, José Ignacio
Three theories offer different explanations to the understanding of male drink-driving. In order to test road safety education, deterrence, and social capital theories, logistic regression analysis was applied to predict respondents' statements of having or not having engaged in actual drink-driving (DD). Variable for road safety education theory was whether a driver had graduated from a professional driving school or not. Deterrence theory was operationalized with a variable of whether a driver had been issued a traffic ticket or not. Social capital theory was operationalized with two variables, having children or not and having religion identification or not. Since both variables 'years of formal education' and 'years of driving experience' have been reported to be correlated to alcohol consumption and DD respectively, these were introduced as controls. In order to assess the significance of each variable statistically, Wald tests were applied in seven models. Results indicate on the one hand that road safety education variable is not statistically significant; and on the other, deterrence theory variable and social capital theory variable 'having children' were both statistically significant at the level of .01. Findings are discussed in reference to Chile's context. Data were taken from the "Road Users Attitudes and Behaviors towards Traffic Safety" survey from the National Commission of Road Safety of the Government of Chile (2005). The sample size was reported to be 2,118 (N of male drivers was 396). This survey was representative of Chile's Metropolitan Region road users' population.
The current study examined the applicability of the Family Climate for Road Safety Scale (FCRSS; Taubman-Ben-Ari and Katz-Ben-Ami, 2013) to the parents of young drivers. The sample consisted of 549 parents and 234 of their children, all of whom completed the FCRSS. In addition, the parents completed the multidimensional driving style inventory (MDSI; Taubman-Ben-Ari et al., 2004) and provided background data (e.g., age, gender). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a slightly modified structure of the scale for parents. Examination of the correlations revealed significant weak to strong associations between parents' scores on the various FCRSS dimensions on the one hand, and their self-reported driving styles and offspring's perceptions of the family climate for safety on the other. The findings indicate that the FCRSS is suitable for use with the parents of young drivers, and that perceptions of the family climate are shared by the two generations. Furthermore, they show that family climate is related to parents' customary driving behavior, with the careful driving style positively related to the positive dimensions of the FCRSS. The discussion stresses the importance of the parents' influence on the manner in which their children drive, and the multifaceted nature of this influence. Moreover, it indicates the potential value of the FCRSS, both for research and for designing interventions and measuring their effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Faan; Wang, Jianjun; Wu, Jiaorong; Chen, Xiaohong; Zegras, P Christopher
Persistent monitoring of progress, evaluating the results of interventions and recalibrating to achieve continuous improvement over time is widely recognized as being crucial towards the successful development of road safety. In the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) region there is a lack of well-resourced teams that contain multidisciplinary safety professionals, and specialists in individual countries, who are able to carry out this work effectively. In this context, not only must the monitoring framework be effective, it must also be easy to use and adapt. This paper provides a case study that can be easily reproduced; based on an updated and refined Road Safety Development Index (RSDI), by means of the RSR (Rank-sum ratio)-based model, for monitoring/reporting road safety development at regional level. The case study was focused on the road safety achievements in eleven Southeast Asian countries; identifying the areas of poor performance, potential problems and delays. These countries are finally grouped into several classes based on an overview of their progress and achievements regarding to road safety. The results allow the policymakers to better understand their own road safety progress toward their desired impact; more importantly, these results enable necessary interventions to be made in a quick and timely manner. Keeping action plans on schedule if things are not progressing as desired. This would avoid 'reinventing the wheel' and trial and error approaches to road safety, making the implementation of action plans more effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available When the drivers cannot be aware of the existing of forthcoming curved roads and fail to regulate their safety speeds accordingly, sideslip or rollover may occur with high probability. The antisideslip and antirollover control of vehicle on curved road in automatic highway systems is studied. The safety speed warning system is set before entering the curved road firstly. The speed adhesion control is adopted to shorten the braking distance while decelerating and to guarantee the safety speed. The velocity controller when decelerating on the straight path and the posture controller when driving on curved road are designed, respectively, utilizing integral backstepping technology. Simulation results demonstrate that this control system is characterized by quick and precise tracking and global stability. Consequently, it is able to avoid the dangerous operating conditions, such as sideslip and rollover, and guarantee the safety and directional stability when driving on curved road.
Thomas, P. Hill, J. Morris, A.P. Welsh, R. Talbot, R. Muhlrad, N. Vallet, G. Yannis, G. Papadimitriou, E. Evgenikos, P. Dupont, E. Martensen, H. Hermitte, T. Bos, N. & Aarts, L.
The European Road Safety Observatory was established European Commission and first announced in the 2001 Transport White Paper1. It was further developed in the 2003 Road Safety Action Plan 2 where the Commission announced it was to establish a new European Road Safety Observatory (ERSO) to
Churchill, T. & Norden, Y. van
The purpose of this literature scan is to examine where literature on the effect of external factors and road safety measures on road safety exists and where it is lacking. This scan will help us to decide which factors to include in a comprehensive road safety model as SWOV is working on, and at
Christie, N.; Towner, E.; Cairns, S; Ward, H.; Bermond, F.; OECD GROUP
Children's Road Traffic Safety: An International Survey of Policy and Practice was commissioned by the UK's Department for Transport (DfT) to complement the report from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Child Traffic Safety Expert Group. The aim of the survey is to provide basic high-level data, on a consistent basis, from OECD member countries that identifies and accounts for current patterns of child road safety, and identifies current best practices and cou...
Jaarsma, C.F.; Vries, de J.R.
Road collisions are a problem world-wide. Related to the kilometers traveled on public roads agricultural vehicles (AVs) are over-represented in reported numbers of traffic victims. We aim to investigate how agricultural engineering can reduce accidents with AVs involved on public roads. We
Russo, Francesca; Biancardo, Salvatore Antonio; Dell'Acqua, Gianluca
The objective of this research is to develop safety performance functions (SPFs) on 2-lane rural roads to predict the number of injury crashes per year per 10(8) vehicles/km on the road segment using a study on the influence of the human factors (gender, age, number of drivers) and road scenario (combination of infrastructure and environmental conditions found at the site at the time of the crash) on the effects of a crash by varying the dynamic. Countermeasures are suggested to reduce the injury crash rate and include different awareness campaigns and structural measures on the segments of road. An 8-year period was analyzed for which 5 years of crash information were used to calibrate and specify SPFs and the remaining 3 years were used to check the reliability of the equations. Before moving to the calibration phase, a technique to filter anomalous injury crash rates was adopted by using a method widely used in geotechnical engineering that is based on estimates of ranges of values that can be considered fluctuations of the "regular" measures compared to values estimated as "abnormal" for each homogeneous scenario. Due to overdispersion of crash data, generalized estimating equations and additional log linkage equation were adopted to calibrate SPFs. The Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion were used to check the reliability of the models. Six SPFs were calibrated: for head-on/side collisions, one equation was built for circular curves and one for tangent segments; for rear-end collisions, one equation was built for daylight and one for the hours of darkness; for single-vehicle run-off-road crashes, one equation was built for wet road surface conditions and one for dry road surface conditions. An original numerical variable, SLEH, was designed to calibrate safety models reflecting the identified road surface (dry/wet), light conditions (day/night), geometric element (tangent segment/circular curve), and human factors (gender
The Transit Safety & Security Statistics & Analysis 2002 Annual Report (formerly SAMIS) is a compilation and analysis of mass transit accident, casualty, and crime statistics reported under the Federal Transit Administrations (FTAs) National Tr...
The Transit Safety & Security Statistics & Analysis 2003 Annual Report (formerly SAMIS) is a compilation and analysis of mass transit accident, casualty, and crime statistics reported under the Federal Transit Administrations (FTAs) National Tr...
Luis Gabriel Márquez Díaz
Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de la investigación ''Valoración estadística de la vida para el análisis del impacto de la accidentalidad'', fundamentada en un experimento de elección, mediante encuestas de preferencias declaradas, para estimar la disposición a pagar por reducir el riesgo de muerte en el contexto del servicio de transporte público colectivo en Bogotá. El experimento estudia la elección entre el servicio de transporte convencional y un nuevo sistema más seguro, a partir de la comparación de los atributos: tarifa, tiempo de viaje y probabilidad de muerte. Los datos recopilados se ajustan a un modelo Probit Binario que incluye el ingreso y nivel educativo de los individuos. Se encontró que el valor estadístico de la vida en este contexto es de 128 millones de pesos, el cual resulta significativamente inferior a valores internacionales trasladados a la renta colombiana, así que se abre el debate sobre el tema en el ámbito nacional.Results of a research entitled ''Statistical Assessment of Life for Analyzing Impact of Accident Rates'' are shown in this article; the research is based on an experiment of choice conducted through stated preference surveys with the purpose of estimating the will to pay for having risk of death decreased in a scenario of public transportation in Bogotá. The experiment assessed the choice between conventional transportation service and a new safer system by comparing several characteristics: rate, trip time, and death probability. Data collected are consistent to a Binary Probit model which includes income and educational level of the individuals. It was found that the statistical value of life in this context is 128 million Colombian pesos, which is a significantly lower price when compared to international values. The debate about this topic at a domestic level is then opened.
Road design, human behaviour, and road accidents : towards a `learning design community'. Paper presented at the international conference `Road safety in Europe', Birmingham, England, September 9-11, 1996.
This paper discusses a number of unsolved problems in the field of road design (i.e. geometric design), human behaviour and road safety, particularly concerning the operationalisation of the existing design principles for a safe road network in terms of concrete road design in existing
Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Bao, Qiong; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert
To evaluate the road safety development of a country over time, the percentage change in the number of road fatalities is traditionally the main indicator. However, simply considering the reduction in the road fatalities may not correctly reflect the real improvement in road safety because the transport circumstances of a country underlying the road fatalities also change every year. In this study, we present a new way for measuring the road safety performance change over time, which is to use the technique of data envelopment analysis (DEA) and the Malmquist productivity index. In doing so, we can not only focus on the evolution of road safety final outcomes within a given period, but also take the changes of different measures of exposure in the same period into account. In the application, the DEA-based Malmquist productivity index (DEA-MI) is used to measure the extent to which the EU countries have improved their road safety performance over the period 2001-2010. More objective and insightful results are obtained compared to the ones based on the traditional indicator. The results show considerable road safety progress in most of the Member States during these ten years, and the fatality risk rather than the fatality number on Europe's roads has actually been reduced by approximately half. However, the situation differed considerably from country to country. The decomposition of the DEA-MI into 'efficiency change' and 'technical change' further reveals that the bulk of the improvement during the last decade was attained through the adoption of productivity-enhancing new technologies throughout the road transport sector in Europe, rather than through the relatively underperforming countries catching up with those best-performing ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Communication campaigns are employed as an important tool to promote road safety practices. Researchers maintain road safety communication campaigns are more effective when their persuasive appeals, which are central to their communicative strategy, are based on explicit theoretical frameworks. This study's main objectives were to develop a detailed categorization of persuasive appeals used in road safety communication campaigns that differentiate between appeals that appear to be similar but differ conceptually, and to indicate the advantages, limitations and ethical issues associated with each type, drawing on behavior change theories. Materials from over 300 campaigns were obtained from 41 countries, mainly using road safety organizations' websites. Drawing on the literature, five types of main approaches were identified, and the analysis yielded a more detailed categorizations of appeals within these general categories. The analysis points to advantages, limitations, ethical issues and challenges in using different types of appeals. The discussion summarizes challenges in designing persuasive-appeals for road safety communication campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Communication campaigns are employed as an important tool to promote road safety practices. Researchers maintain road safety communication campaigns are more effective when their persuasive appeals, which are central to their communicative strategy, are based on explicit theoretical frameworks. This study's main objectives were to develop a detailed categorization of persuasive appeals used in road safety communication campaigns that differentiate between appeals that appear to be similar but differ conceptually, and to indicate the advantages, limitations and ethical issues associated with each type, drawing on behavior change theories. Materials from over 300 campaigns were obtained from 41 countries, mainly using road safety organizations' websites. Drawing on the literature, five types of main approaches were identified, and the analysis yielded a more detailed categorizations of appeals within these general categories. The analysis points to advantages, limitations, ethical issues and challenges in using different types of appeals. The discussion summarizes challenges in designing persuasive-appeals for road safety communication campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nordengen, Paul A
Full Text Available with inadequate vehicle maintenance, driver fatigue and poor driver health, contributes significantly to South Africa’s poor road safety record. The Heavy Vehicle Accreditation Scheme (LAP) is an initiative to introduce self-regulation, as opposed to legal...
Full Text Available Driving with too short of a safety distance is a common problem in road traffic, often with traffic accidents as a consequence. Research has identified a lack of vehicle-mountable devices for alerting the drivers of trailing vehicles about keeping a sufficient safe distance. The principal requirements for such a device were defined. A conceptual study was performed in order to select the components for the integration of the device. Based on the results of this study, a working prototype of a flexible, self-contained device was designed, built and tested. The device is intended to be mounted on the rear of a vehicle. It uses radar as the primary distance sensor, assisted with a GPS receiver for velocity measurement. A Raspberry Pi single-board computer is used for data acquisition and processing. The alerts are shown on an LED-matrix display mounted on the rear of the host vehicle. The device software is written in Python and provides automatic operation without requiring any user intervention. The tests have shown that the device is usable on almost any motor vehicle and performs reliably in simulated and real traffic. The open issues and possibilities for future improvements are presented in the Discussion.
Time asymmetric phenomena are successfully predicted by statistical mechanics. Yet the foundations of this theory are surprisingly shaky. Its explanation for the ease of mixing milk with coffee is incomplete, and even implies that un-mixing them should be just as easy. In this book the authors develop a new conceptual foundation for statistical mechanics that addresses this difficulty. Explaining the notions of macrostates, probability, measurement, memory, and the arrow of time in statistical mechanics, they reach the startling conclusion that Maxwell's Demon, the famous perpetuum mobile, is consistent with the fundamental physical laws. Mathematical treatments are avoided where possible, and instead the authors use novel diagrams to illustrate the text. This is a fascinating book for graduate students and researchers interested in the foundations and philosophy of physics.
The Norwegian Public Roads Administration has developed a comprehensive system of road safety management by objectives. A broad set of objectives regarding road user behaviour, vehicle safety standards and the safety of roads has been formulated as part of the National Transport Plan for the term 2010--2019. These objectives have been derived from an overall objective of reducing the number of killed or seriously injured road users by 50% before the year 2020. This paper describes the system and provides a critical analysis of it. Factors that influence the effectiveness of management by objectives are identified. It is concluded that while the system of management by objectives developed in Norway has a number of attractive characteristics it also has a number of weak points that may limit its effectiveness. It is therefore by no means certain that the objective of reducing fatalities and serious injuries by 50% will be realised.
Waters, A; Trace, F; Nicholson, A J
Motor vehicle crashes account for 1 in 5 of all childhood deaths across The EU. In the year 2000, the World Health Organization ranked road traffic accidents as the ninth leading cause of mortality, accounting for 2.3% of deaths worldwide. In 1997, the European Commission published the European Union RoadSafety Programme. This had been prepared against a background of 45,000 road- related fatalities and 1.6 million injuries occurring within the European Union each year. At that stage, Ireland had not yet developed a formal national road safety strategy. By 1998 however, the "Road to Safety" government strategy was put in place with the aim of reducing deaths and serious injuries from road traffic accidents by at least 20% over the five year period beginning 1998 and ending 2002. Age-standardised mortality rates for road accidents in children (0-14 years old) in Ireland are 3.61 per 100,000 as compared to 2.31 per 100,000 in Sweden and thus much needs to be done to reduce this unacceptably high road toll in Ireland. To date there has been insufficient evidence available for childhood road-related accidents occurring within Ireland.
Chen, Faan; Wu, Jiaorong; Chen, Xiaohong; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Di
For road safety improvement, comparing and benchmarking performance are widely advocated as the emerging and preferred approaches. However, there is currently no universally agreed upon approach for the process of road safety benchmarking, and performing the practice successfully is by no means easy. This is especially true for the two core activities of which: (1) developing a set of road safety performance indicators (SPIs) and combining them into a composite index; and (2) identifying a meaningful reference (best-in-class), one which has already obtained outstanding road safety practices. To this end, a scientific technique that can combine the multi-dimensional safety performance indicators (SPIs) into an overall index, and subsequently can identify the 'best-in-class' is urgently required. In this paper, the Entropy-embedded RSR (Rank-sum ratio), an innovative, scientific and systematic methodology is investigated with the aim of conducting the above two core tasks in an integrative and concise procedure, more specifically in a 'one-stop' way. Using a combination of results from other methods (e.g. the SUNflower approach) and other measures (e.g. Human Development Index) as a relevant reference, a given set of European countries are robustly ranked and grouped into several classes based on the composite Road Safety Index. Within each class the 'best-in-class' is then identified. By benchmarking road safety performance, the results serve to promote best practice, encourage the adoption of successful road safety strategies and measures and, more importantly, inspire the kind of political leadership needed to create a road transport system that maximizes safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The current road safety situation in the City of Johannesburg is a major concern to the city authority. More than 120 000 road accidents (on average about 330 accidents per day) occur every year leading to about 600 fatal and 16 000 injury accidents...
Mathijssen, M P.M. (ed.) Heeger, H.P. Janssen, S.T.M.C. et. al.
Since 1960 dutch towns have been increasingly confronted with a lack of space, air pollution and road safety problems. The cause of these was the car with its expanding domination of the road traffic scene. During the latter half of the 1970's the realisation grew that car traffic in towns and
Dragutinovic, N. & Twisk, D.A.M.
The use of mobile phones while driving has become a road safety concern and has been the focus of various behavioural studies. This literature review analyses studies published in the period 1999-2005, and include simulator studies, closed-track studies and studies on the real road. Although studies
Wegman, F.C.M. Schermers, G. & Schagen, I.N.L.G. van
According to a recent WHO study (2013), South Africa has a mortality rate of 31.9 per 100 000 population ranking it 177th of the 182 countries participating in the study. The Road Traffic Management Corporation (RTMC) is the lead agency for road safety matters in South Africa. Its overall goal is to
Elvik, Rune; Ulstein, Heidi; Wifstad, Kristina; Syrstad, Ragnhild S; Seeberg, Aase R; Gulbrandsen, Magnus U; Welde, Morten
This paper presents an Empirical Bayes before-after evaluation of the road safety effects of a new motorway (freeway) in Østfold county, Norway. The before-period was 1996-2002. The after-period was 2009-2015. The road was rebuilt from an undivided two-lane road into a divided four-lane road. The number of killed or seriously injured road users was reduced by 75 percent, controlling for (downward) long-term trends and regression-to-the-mean (statistically significant at the 5 percent level; recorded numbers 71 before, 11 after). There were small changes in the number of injury accidents (185 before, 123 after; net effect -3%) and the number of slightly injured road users (403 before 279 after; net effect +5%). Motorways appear to mainly reduce injury severity, not the number of accidents. The paper discusses challenges in implementing the Empirical Bayes design when less than ideal data are available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The safest roads in a road network are motorways and local streets with traffic calming. Most of the accidents occur on the other roads, which form the larger part of the network. So for safety reasons motorized traffic should be encouraged to use motorways and should be discouraged to use local
Road safety concerns are a legitimate concern when promoting increased bicycle use. Currently, bicyclist traffic fatalities and injuries present both a public health concern and a disincentive to people taking up or continuing to bicycle for transpor...
Full Text Available The Governor of Puerto Rico signed in 2011 a Proclamation supporting the Decade of Action for Road Safety: 2011-2020 in conjunction with a worldwide initiative approved by the United Nations General Assembly aimed to establish action plans to reduce the alarming 1.3 million fatalities and the 50 million major injuries and disability related crashes. This timely proclamation calls attention to the existing alarming traffic collisions in the Puerto Rico's 26,866 centerline-km highway network. In this paper, innovative programs that have been demonstrated to be successful in Puerto Rico during the first two years of the Decade of Action for Road Safety are presented along with their impacts on raising awareness regarding crash prevention and reducing fatalities in the existing highway network. Testimonies from road user victims, victimizer, leaders and administrators of profit and nonprofit organizations are noted for assessing the program. A future five-year action plan for raising road user awareness is also prepared to address the governor's proclamation for improving traffic safety.
Gidlewska, Grazyna; Gidlewski, Mirosław; Jemioł, Leszek
Road safety conditions in Poland and five European Union countries bigger than Poland were described with the use of evaluation indexes usually applied in such studies. Values of these indexes were calculated for the period of 2002-2008, i.e. for a seven-year period. Thanks to this, they show quite stable direction of changes. Thus, they may be used to make predictions and to indicate actions aimed to improve road safety in next years.
Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Bao, Qiong; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert
Almost all of the current road safety benchmarking studies focus entirely on fatalities, which, however, represent only one measure of the magnitude of the road safety problem. The main objective of this article was to investigate the possibility of including the number of serious injuries in addition to the number of fatalities for road safety benchmarking and to further illuminate its impact on the countries' rankings. We introduced the technique of data envelopment analysis (DEA) to the road safety domain and developed a DEA-based road safety model (DEA-RS) in this study. Moreover, we outlined different types of possible weight restrictions and adopted 2 of them to indicate the relationship between road fatalities and serious injuries for the sake of rational benchmarking. One was a relative weight restriction based on the information of their shadow price, and the other was a virtual weight restriction using a priori knowledge about the importance level of these 2 aspects. By computing the most optimal road safety risk scores of 10 European countries based on the different models, we found that United Kingdom was the only best-performing country no matter which model was utilized. However, countries such as The Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland were no longer best-performing when the serious injuries were integrated. On the contrary, Spain, which ranked almost at the bottom among all of the countries when only the number of road fatalities was considered, became a relatively well-performing country when integrating its number of serious injuries in the evaluation. In general, no matter whether the country's road safety ranking was improved or deteriorated, most of the countries achieved a higher risk score when the number of serious injuries was included, which implied that compared to the road fatalities, more policy attention has to be paid to improve the situation of serious injuries in most countries. Given the importance of considering the serious
Gitelman, Victoria; Auerbach, Kerstin; Doveh, Etti
Trauma management (TM) covers two types of medical treatment: the initial one provided by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and a further one provided by permanent medical facilities. There is a consensus in the professional literature that to reduce the severity and the number of road crash victims, the TM system should provide rapid and adequate initial care of injury, combined with sufficient further treatment at a hospital or trauma centre. Recognizing the important role of TM for reducing road crash injury outcome, it was decided, within the EU funded SafetyNet project, to develop road safety performance indicators (SPIs) which would characterize the level of TM systems' performance in European countries and enable country comparisons. The concept of TM SPIs was developed based on a literature study of performance indicators in TM, a survey of available practices in Europe and data availability examinations. A set of TM SPIs was introduced including 14 indicators which characterize five issues such as: availability of EMS stations; availability and composition of EMS medical staff; availability and composition of EMS transportation units; characteristics of the EMS response time, and availability of trauma beds in permanent medical facilities. Basic information on the TM systems was collected in close cooperation with the national expert group. A dataset with TM SPIs for 21 countries was created. It was demonstrated that the countries can be compared using selected TM SPIs. Moreover, a more general comparison of the TM systems' performance in the countries is possible, using multiple ranking and statistical weighting techniques. By both methods, final estimates were received enabling the recognition of groups of countries with similar levels of the TM system's performance. The results of various trials were consistent as to the recognition of countries with high or low level of the TM systems' performance, where in grouping countries with intermediate levels of
Requirements to be made on the traffic facilities in order to reduce the number of night-time accidents are covered. Traffic facilities include apart from public lighting and road lighting by means of headlamps of vehicles, also road markings and signs, marker lights, catadioptric devices and
Rosić, Miroslav; Pešić, Dalibor; Kukić, Dragoslav; Antić, Boris; Božović, Milan
Concept of composite road safety index is a popular and relatively new concept among road safety experts around the world. As there is a constant need for comparison among different units (countries, municipalities, roads, etc.) there is need to choose an adequate method which will make comparison fair to all compared units. Usually comparisons using one specific indicator (parameter which describes safety or unsafety) can end up with totally different ranking of compared units which is quite complicated for decision maker to determine "real best performers". Need for composite road safety index is becoming dominant since road safety presents a complex system where more and more indicators are constantly being developed to describe it. Among wide variety of models and developed composite indexes, a decision maker can come to even bigger dilemma than choosing one adequate risk measure. As DEA and TOPSIS are well-known mathematical models and have recently been increasingly used for risk evaluation in road safety, we used efficiencies (composite indexes) obtained by different models, based on DEA and TOPSIS, to present PROMETHEE-RS model for selection of optimal method for composite index. Method for selection of optimal composite index is based on three parameters (average correlation, average rank variation and average cluster variation) inserted into a PROMETHEE MCDM method in order to choose the optimal one. The model is tested by comparing 27 police departments in Serbia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Klunder, G.; Abdoelbasier, A.; Immers, B.
This paper describes an ongoing research project at TNO in the Netherlands for assessing the safety of road networks using micro-simulation techniques. A benefit of micro-simulation comes from the ability to evaluate the safety of new ITS systems, new infrastructure design, management strategies and
G. M. Kuharenok
Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on planning, organizational characteristics and regulation modes at the regulated pedestrian crossings, located out of crossroads in the street and road network of Minsk. Some regularities pertaining to the influence of the investigated characteristics on road traffic safety of pedestrians are revealed in the paper. Practical offers on increase of road traffic safety of pedestrians in the Republic of Belarus have been developed on the basis of the executed investigations and cited in the paper.
Vieira Gomes, Sandra; Cardoso, João Lourenço
Single carriageway multilane roads are not, in general, a very safe type of road, mainly because of the high number of seriously injured victims in head-on collisions, when compared with dual carriageway multilane roads, with a median barrier. In this paper the results of a study on the effect of the application of several low cost engineering measures, aimed at road infrastructure correction and road safety improvement on a multilane road (EN6), are presented. The study was developed by the National Laboratory of Civil Engineering (LNEC) for the Portuguese Road Administration and involved a comparison of selected aspects of motorized traffic behaviour (traffic volumes and speeds) measured in several sections of EN6, as well as monitoring of road safety developments in the same road. The applied low cost engineering measures allowed a reduction of 10% in the expected annual number of personal injury accidents and a 70% decrease in the expected annual number of head-on collisions; the expected annual frequency of accidents involving killed and seriously injured persons was reduced by 26%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Hopes have been pinned on the development of intelligent systems for road traffic as a way of solving road traffic safety and other such issues. To be sure, work is moving ahead with the incorporation of intelligent systems into automobiles but, with automobiles alone, there are limits in areas such as environment recognition. Compensation for the limits imposed by automobiles can be provided by the support given to environment recognition and related areas of road infrastructure. This paper examines the special features of vehicles and road infrastructure, and describes what role is played by roads and what role is played by vehicles. On the basis of the observations made, road-vehicle cooperative support systems called “smart cruise systems”, which are currently being developed, will be introduced and the expected effects of these systems will be outlined.
Muhlrad, N. Papadimitriou, E. & Yannis, G.
The ‘Policy’ Work Package of DaCoTA was designed to fill in the gap in knowledge on road safety policy making processes, their institutional framework and the data, methods and technical tools needed to base policy formulation and adoption on scientifically-established evidence. More specifically,
The objective of the SAFESTAR project is the formulation of design standards or recommendations exclusively based on safety arguments. Workpackage 3 (WP3) of SAFESTAR, of which this report is the concluding report, should result in design recommendations for single and dual-carriageway express roads
It is a proven fact that road safety problems are not unsolvable: what is man-made can also be unmade by man. This leads to questions such as which priorities to set, which measures to take, which effects to expect, what costs are involved, and how these can be financed. In order to be able to
Broughton, J. Amoros, E. Bos, N.M. Evgenikos, P. Hoeglinger, S. Holló, P. Pérez, C. & Tecl, J.
The objective of Task 1.5 of the SafetyNet IP has been to estimate the actual numbers of road accident casualties in Europe from the CARE database by addressing two issues: • the under-reporting in national accident databases and • the differences between countries of the definitions used to
Tran, Nhan T; Hyder, Adnan A; Kulanthayan, Subramaniam; Singh, Suret; Umar, R S Radin
Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a growing public health problem that must be addressed through evidence-based interventions including policy-level changes such as the enactment of legislation to mandate specific behaviors and practices. Policy makers need to be engaged in road safety research to ensure that road safety policies are grounded in scientific evidence. This paper examines the strategies used to engage policy makers and other stakeholder groups and discusses the challenges that result from a multi-disciplinary, inter-sectoral collaboration. A framework for engaging policy makers in research was developed and applied to describe an example of collective road safety research in Malaysia. Key components of this framework include readiness, assessment, planning, implementation/evaluation, and policy development/sustainability. The case study of a collaborative intervention trial for the prevention of motorcycle crashes and deaths in Malaysia serves as a model for policy engagement by road safety and injury researchers. The analytic description of this research process in Malaysia demonstrates that the framework, through its five stages, can be used as a tool to guide the integration of needed research evidence into policy for road safety and injury prevention.
Khan, Saif ur Rehman; Khalifah, Zainab Binti; Munir, Yasin; Islam, Talat; Nazir, Tahira; Khan, Hashim
The present study aims to investigate differences in road safety attitude, driver behaviour and traffic risk perception between Malaysia and Singapore. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among a sample of Singaporean (n = 187) and Malaysian (n = 313) road users. The data was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling applied to measure comparative fit indices of Malaysian and Singaporean respondents. The results show that the perceived traffic risk of Malaysian respondents is higher than Singaporean counterparts. Moreover, the structural equation modelling has confirmed perceived traffic risk performing the role of full mediation between perceived driving skills and perceived road safety for both the countries, while perceived traffic skills was found to perform the role of partial mediation between aggression and anxiety, on one hand, and road safety, on the other hand, in Malaysia and Singapore. In addition, in both countries, a weak correlation between perceived driving skills, aggression and anxiety with perceived road safety was found, while a strong correlation exists with traffic risk perception. The findings of this study have been discussed in terms of theoretical, practical and conceptual implications for both scholars and policy-makers to better understand the young drivers' attitude and behaviour relationship towards road safety measures with a view to future research.
Li, H; Graham, DJ
This paper analyses how the effects of fixed speed cameras on road casualties vary across sites with different characteristics and evaluates the criteria for selecting camera sites. A total of 771 camera sites and 4787 potential control sites are observed for a period of 9 years across England. Site characteristics such as road class, crash history and site length are combined into a single index, referred to as a propensity score. We first estimate the average effect at each camera site usin...
Purcell, C; Romijn, A R
In 2016, 29% of pedestrians killed or seriously injured on the roads in Great Britain were under 15 years of age. Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), a chronic disorder affecting the acquisition and execution of motor skills, may be more vulnerable at the roadside than typically developing (TD) children. Current methods used to teach road safety are typically knowledge-based and do not necessarily improve behaviour in real traffic situations. Virtual reality road crossing tasks may be a viable alternative. The present study aimed to test the road crossing accuracy of children with and without DCD in virtual reality tasks that varied the viewpoint to simulate the teaching methods currently used in road safety educational programmes. Twenty-one children with DCD and twenty-one age and gender matched TD peers were required to locate the safest road crossing sites in two conditions: allocentric (aerial viewpoint) and egocentric (first-person viewpoint). All children completed both conditions and were required to navigate either themselves or an avatar across the road using the safest crossing route. The primary outcome was accuracy defined as the number of trials, out of 10, on which the child successfully identified and used the safest crossing route. Children with DCD performed equally poorly in both conditions, while TD children were significantly more accurate in the egocentric condition. This difference cannot be explained by self-reported prior road crossing education, practice or confidence. While TD children may benefit from the development of an egocentric virtual reality road crossing task, multimodal methods may be needed to effectively teach road safety to children with DCD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Suddle, S.I.; Ale, B.J.M.; Waarts, P.H.; Weerheijm, J.
Buildings above roads and railways are examples of multiple use of space. Safety is one of the critical issues for such projects. This paper will propose effects of safety measures for multiple use of space projects for critical scenarios i.e. fires, explosions, release of toxic substances and
Suddle, S.I.; Ale, B.J.M.; Weerheijm, J.; Waarts, P.H.
Buildings above roads and railways are examples of multiple use of space. Safety is one of the critical issues for such projects. This paer will propose effects of safety measures for multiple use of space projects for critical scenarios i.e. fires, explosions, release of toxic substances and
Lan, Si; Fang, Ni; Zhao, Huanming; Ye, Shiqi
Starting from the different behaviours of the driver’s lane change, the car-following model based on the distance and speed and the safety distance model are established in this paper, so as to analyse the impact on traffic flow and safety, helping solve the phenomenon of road anger.
Accident prediction models and road safety impact assessment : recommendations for using thse tools. Deliverable D2 of the RiPCORD-iSEREST project (Road Infrastructure Safety Protection - Core-Research and Development for Road Safety in Europe; Increasing safety and reliability of secondary roads for a sustainable Surface Transport).
Eenink, R. Reurings, M. Elvik, R. Cardoso, J. Wichert, S. & Stefan, C.
In workpackage 2 (WP 2) of RipCord-Iserest two instruments have been researched, both intended to provide this insight: Accident Prediction Models (APM) and Road safety Impact Assessments (RIA). An Accident Prediction Model is a mathematical formula describing the relation between the safety level
Smith, Katherine Clegg; Debinski, Beata; Pollack, Keshia; Vernick, Jon; Bowman, Stephen; Samuels, Alicia; Gielen, Andrea
Public opinion is influential in the policymaking process, making it important to understand the factors that influence popular support or opposition to public health policies. Researchers and policymakers tend to agree that scientific evidence can inform decision-making, but this influence has not been explored sufficiently, especially in the area of injury prevention. This paper considers the potential for the communication of evidence-based research and public health data to influence opinion about legislation that could reduce road-related injury. We conducted a nationally-representative online survey to assess public attitudes toward four road-safety laws; ignition interlock, school zone red-light cameras, restrictions on infotainment systems, and children's bicycle helmets. For each law, we assessed initial support and then provided a research-informed statistic on either the injury risk posed or the law's efficacy reducing risk and re-examined the law's support or opposition. The survey was completed by 2397 U.S. adults. Each law was initially supported by a majority of respondents, with greatest support for ignition interlock (74.4%) and children's bicycle helmets (74.8%). Exposure to research-informed statements increased legislative support for 20-30% of respondents. Paired analyses demonstrate significant increases toward supportive opinions when comparing responses to the initial and research-informed statements. The study demonstrates considerable public support for evidence-based road-related laws. Overall support was augmented by exposure to research data. Injury prevention practitioners can capitalize on this support in efforts to build support for legislation that would prevent injury. Researchers should be encouraged to expand their efforts to share research results with both the public and policymakers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Taylor, Faith E.; Malamud, Bruce D.; Santangelo, Michele; Marchesini, Ivan; Guzzetti, Fausto
In the minutes to weeks after a landslide trigger such as an earthquake or heavy rainfall, as part of a triggered landslide event, one individual to tens of thousands of landslides may occur across a region. If in the region, one or more roads become blocked by landslides, this can cause extensive detours and delay rescue and recovery operations. In this paper, we show the development, application and confrontation with real data of a model to simulate triggered landslide events and their impacts upon road networks. This is done by creating a 'synthetic' triggered landslide event inventory by randomly sampling landslide areas and shapes from already established statistical distributions. These landslides are then semi-randomly dropped across a given study region, conditioned by that region's landslide susceptibility. The resulting synthetic triggered landslide event inventory is overlaid with the region's road network map and the number, size, location and network impact of road blockages and landslides near roads calculated. This process is repeated hundreds of times in a Monte Carlo type simulation. The statistical distributions and approaches used in the model are thought to be generally applicable for low-mobility triggered landslides in many medium to high-topography regions throughout the world. The only local data required to run the model are a road network map, a landslide susceptibility map, a map of the study area boundary and a digital elevation model. Coupled with an Open Source modelling approach (in GRASS-GIS), this model may be applied to many regions where triggered landslide events are an issue. We present model results and confrontation with observed data for two study regions where the model has been applied: Collazzone (Central Italy) where rapid snowmelt triggered 413 landslides in January 1997 and Oat Mountain (Northridge, USA), where the Northridge Earthquake triggered 1,356 landslides in January 1994. We find that when the landslide
Full Text Available The European Union (EU promotes a gradual lifting of restrictions on foreign hauliers involved in domestic road transport of goods (cabotage, and liberalization of the current road cabotage rules may further increase the proportion of foreign heavy goods vehicles (HGVs on Norwegian roads. The aims of the present study are to: (1 Examine the safety outcomes of increasing internationalisation in (Norwegian road transport of goods; and (2 Discuss the importance of potential risk factors related to increasing proportions of foreign HGVs on Norwegian roads. We use four data sources to shed light on the aims. Results show that foreign HGVs account for 6% of the average domestic transport in Norway, and 11% of the HGVs involved in personal injury accidents. Additionally, foreign HGVs have a three times higher risk of single vehicle accidents, and twice the risk of head-on collisions. Foreign HGV drivers also seem more likely to trigger fatal accidents. We conclude that two risk factors seem to be important: (1 experience with/competence on Norwegian roads and (2 winter driving. Thus, the safety challenge is not that the drivers are foreign, but that they to some extent lack experience with, and competence on, the Norwegian road networks and the challenges that these roads may pose (e.g., narrow roads with high gradients, many curves, snow and ice. Previous research from other countries has also found that lacking experience with national road networks is an important risk factor. Given our results on risk factors, we may hypothesize that if foreign HGV drivers get more experience and education on Norwegian driving conditions, then increased internationalization could perhaps be of less concern in road safety. When discussing the higher accident risk and lower experience of foreign HGV drivers in Norway, it is important to note that the reason for foreign HGV drivers, working for foreign hauliers, to drive in Norway is that there are customers of the
Financing road safety is not restricted to funding measures or interventions, but is also required to support the management activities that ensure that effective road safety policies can be defined, accepted, implemented, and monitored. Measures and activities have different life spans and generate different implementation processes, requiring also different forms of funding. The present paper proposes a classification of road safety measures and activities according to their goals, function...
Wesemann, P. & Brouwer, M.
The subject of this lecture is the use of knowledge in the preparation and evaluation of road safety policy. The following subjects will be dealt with: the organisation of Dutch road safety policy; the type of knowledge that can enhance the effectiveness of this policy; the set-up of the developed Road safety Information System, to which will be referred by its acronym `RIS'; the advantages of the RIS for the users; further application potential of the RIS.
Sangowawa, Adesola O; Adebiyi, Akindele O; Faseru, Babalola; Popoola, Olusola J
Child pedestrians have been identified as vulnerable road users. Although walking as a means of transport has health and other benefits, it exposes children to the risk of road traffic injuries. This study was conducted to assess the availability of road safety features around government-owned primary schools in Ibadan municipality. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 46 of the 74 schools in the study area. Some (11) of the selected schools were sited within the same premises and shared a common entrance; thus a total of 35 school premises were eventually observed. Trained research assistants observed the school environment around the selected schools for road safety features such as location of schools, presence of "school", "child crossing" and "speed limit" road signs, and presence of traffic calming devices (road bumps or zebra crossing). Five (14%) of the schools were located on major roads and eight (23%) had road signs indicating that a school was nearby. Seven (20%) had road bumps close to the school, 15 (43%) had a warden who assisted children to cross, and none had a zebra crossing. Five (14%) schools had pedestrian sidewalks. The study revealed that the environment around a number of the observed schools in the municipality compromised the pupils' road safety. The local government, school authorities, parents, and road safety professionals need to institute definite measures to enhance the road safety environment around schools in the municipality.
Böhme, M.; Derron, M.-H.; Jaboyedoff, M.
Quantitative spatial analyses and statistical susceptibility assessments based on road inventories are often complicated due to the registration of impacts instead of source areas. A rockfall inventory from the Norwegian Directorate of Public Roads is analysed spatially in order to investigate potential controlling parameters in the Norwegian county Sogn and Fjordane. Quantitative spatial relationships are then used to model rockfall susceptibility with the help of the Weights-of-Evidence method. The controlling parameters tectono-stratigraphic position, quaternary geology, geological lineament density, relative relief and slope aspect resulted in the best performing model and thus yielded the basis for the statistical susceptibility map for the entire county of Sogn and Fjordane. Due to registered impacts instead of sources, the important parameter slope angle could not be included in the statistical models. Combining the statistical susceptibility model with a physically based model, restricts the susceptibility map to areas that are steep enough to represent a potential rockfall source. This combination makes it possible to use road inventories, with registered impacts instead of sources, for susceptibility modelling.
Aksan, Nazan; Hacker, Sarah D.; Sager, Lauren; Dawson, Jeffrey; Anderson, Steven; Rizzo, Matthew
Forty-two younger (Mean age = 35) and 37 older drivers (Mean age = 77) completed four similar simulated drives. In addition, 32 younger and 30 older drivers completed a standard on-road drive in an instrumented vehicle. Performance in the simulated drives was evaluated using both electronic drive data and video-review of errors. Safety errors during the on-road drive were evaluated by a certified driving instructor blind to simulator performance, using state Department of Transportation crite...
Tanzania is hardest hit by daily accident deaths and casualties on the roads. Although various measures have been taken by the government, enforcement agencies and NGOs, accidents and fatalities keep growing at a rate above that of killer diseases like malaria, tuberculosis and HIV. The main causes observed were ...
Waters, A; Trace, F.; Nicholson, A J
Motor vehicle crashes account for 1 in 5 of all childhood deaths across The EU. In the year 2000, the World Health Organization ranked road traffic accidents as the ninth leading cause of mortality, accounting for 2.3% of deaths worldwide. In 1997, the European Commission published the European Union RoadSafety Programme. This had been prepared against a background of 45,000 road- related fatalities and 1.6 million injuries occurring within the European Union each year. At that stage, Ireland...
Cardamone, Angelo Stephen; Eboli, Laura; Forciniti, Carmen; Mazzulla, Gabriella
In the last few years mobile devices have reached a large amount of consumers in both developed and high-growth world economies. In 2013, 97% of the Italian population owns a mobile phone, and 62% owns a smartphone. Application software for mobile devices is largely proposed to consumers, and several mobile applications were oriented toward the improvement of road safety and road accident risk reduction. In this paper, we describe the results of a survey oriented to preventively investigate on the willingness to receive and/or to give information about road condition by means of mobile devices. Road users were informed about the characteristics of a mobile application, and then they were invited to complete a questionnaire. Experimental data were used for capturing road user attitudes toward the use of the smartphone to improve road safety, and to establish the preferences for the different features of the proposed mobile application. To this end, we choose to use the ordered probit model methodology. We demonstrate that the adopted methodology accounts for the differential impacts of the willingness to receive and/or to give information about road conditions on the overall willingness to receive and/or to give information through an application software for mobile devices.
Full Text Available In South African, as is the case in most other developing countries, a significant proportion of the population walk or cycle on a daily basis to their places of work and to other destinations. Road accident casualties (fatalities and injuries...
Bassani, M.; Grasso, N.; Piras, M.
The available sight distance (ASD) in front of the driver to detect possible conflicts with unexpected obstacles is fundamental for traffic safety. In the last 20 years, road design software (RDS) has been continuously updated with dedicated modules to estimate ASD, thus assessing the quality of project from a safety point of view. Unfortunately, the evaluation of ASD still represents an issue in the case of existing road, and the object of discussion in the research community. To avoid problems related to the limitation associated with the use of digital terrain models typically employed in RDS, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software can use digital surface models (DSM) which are more flexible in the modelling of sight obstruction due to vegetation, street furniture, and vertical surfaces largely diffused in urbanized areas. The paper deals with the evaluation of GIS in the estimation of ASD in a typical urban road where the density of sight obstruction along the roadside is relatively high. The work explores the case study of a collector road in the city of Turin (Italy). Results confirm the potentiality of GIS software in capturing the complex morphology of the urban environment, thus confirming that GIS could become an important analysis tool for road engineers in the field of road safety. The investigation here described is part of the Pro-VISION Project (funded in 2014 by the Regione Piemonte, Italy).
Full Text Available The available sight distance (ASD in front of the driver to detect possible conflicts with unexpected obstacles is fundamental for traffic safety. In the last 20 years, road design software (RDS has been continuously updated with dedicated modules to estimate ASD, thus assessing the quality of project from a safety point of view. Unfortunately, the evaluation of ASD still represents an issue in the case of existing road, and the object of discussion in the research community. To avoid problems related to the limitation associated with the use of digital terrain models typically employed in RDS, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS software can use digital surface models (DSM which are more flexible in the modelling of sight obstruction due to vegetation, street furniture, and vertical surfaces largely diffused in urbanized areas. The paper deals with the evaluation of GIS in the estimation of ASD in a typical urban road where the density of sight obstruction along the roadside is relatively high. The work explores the case study of a collector road in the city of Turin (Italy. Results confirm the potentiality of GIS software in capturing the complex morphology of the urban environment, thus confirming that GIS could become an important analysis tool for road engineers in the field of road safety. The investigation here described is part of the Pro-VISION Project (funded in 2014 by the Regione Piemonte, Italy.
Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steve W; Dawson, Jeffrey; Uc, Ergun; Rizzo, Matthew
The extent to which deficits in specific cognitive domains contribute to older drivers' safety risk in complex real-world driving tasks is not well understood. We selected 148 drivers older than 70 years of age both with and without neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer disease-AD and Parkinson disease-PD) from an existing driving database of older adults. Participant assessments included on-road driving safety and cognitive functioning in visuospatial construction, speed of processing, memory, and executive functioning. The standardized on-road drive test was designed to examine multiple facets of older driver safety including navigation performance (e.g., following a route, identifying landmarks), safety errors while concurrently performing secondary navigation tasks ("on-task" safety errors), and safety errors in the absence of any secondary navigation tasks ("baseline" safety errors). The inter-correlations of these outcome measures were fair to moderate supporting their distinctiveness. Participants with diseases performed worse than the healthy aging group on all driving measures and differences between those with AD and PD were minimal. In multivariate analyses, different domains of cognitive functioning predicted distinct facets of driver safety on road. Memory and set-shifting predicted performance in navigation-related secondary tasks, speed of processing predicted on-task safety errors, and visuospatial construction predicted baseline safety errors. These findings support broad assessments of cognitive functioning to inform decisions regarding older driver safety on the road and suggest navigation performance may be useful in evaluating older driver fitness and restrictions in licensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Large amounts of energy drinks and caffeine, which is the main ingredient of energy drinks, produce a negative effect on the drivers, and therefore affect traffic safety.In order to determine the attitudes of drivers toward the impact of energy drinks and caffeine, a research was conducted using a questionnaire form and the targeted group of the survey were drivers. The research was conducted in the City of Belgrade in December 2012. There were 420 survey papers distributed to drivers of different age groups of which 412 were returned. The survey was completely anonymous and consisted of two parts. The first part was related to basic demographic information about the respondents and it had 8 closed type questions. These questions were responded by circling one of the offered answers. The second part of the survey referred to determining the driver’s attitudes about energy drinks and caffeine. The second part consisted of 26 questions and respondents were to use a five-level scale in order to show to what extent they agree or disagree with any of the listed statements.The results show that energy drinks are consumed mostly by young people, less than 25 years old. The effect of caffeine on gender is statistically significant. Headache is the reason why caffeine (25% is consumed more than energy drinks (8%.Major impact of energy drinks and caffeine on road safety indicates a required activity in this area such as education.
Full Text Available Analyses of road safety at national level have been run for many years and large number of publications concerning them appeared so far. How interdisciplinary the issue is, has been shown by literature studies done by the author of the paper. It appears that economists, mathematicians, doctors as well as engineers have studied the issue. It is not an easy one, as results of many analyses lead to conflicting conclusions and often fail to provide straightforward answers to questions asked. The administrative actions taken to improve road safety, uniform for the whole country, frequently fail to give expected results, including Poland’s case. Therefore there is a need to analyse what makes some provinces, and not the others, report improvement in road safety. This paper presents part of the work on author’s doctoral thesis, which analyses how regional characteristics may impact road safety in respective regions. However, during collection of data for the purpose of the doctoral thesis it turned out that many variables mentioned in literature as significant had not been collected on regional level in Europe, including Poland. There are, though, available data on respective American states, so the search for the best describing independent variables started from the analyses of US data. The analyses showed the impact of factors such as annual income per capita, transport activity, density of population, seatbelt rates, road and vehicle density, rate of doctors.
... rule extends the existing temporary safety zone on the Big Sioux River from the Military Road Bridge in... Military Road Bridge in North Sioux City to the confluence of the Missouri River and extending the entire... Sioux River from the Military Road Bridge in North Sioux City, South Dakota at 42.52 degrees North, 096...
Twisk, D.A.M. Commandeur, J.J.F. Vlakveld, W.P. Shope, J.T. & Kok, G.
Road safety education (RSE) assumes that psychological determinants predict risk behaviour, and subsequently that risky road behaviour predicts crash involvement. This study examined the validity of this assumption, by analysing these relationships in two age groups of teen cyclists and pedestrians:
Twisk, D.A.M; Commandeur, J.J.F.; Vlakveld, W.P.; Shope, J.T.; Kok, G.
Road safety education (RSE) assumes that psychological determinants predict risk behaviour, and subsequently that risky road behaviour predicts crash involvement. This study examined the validity of this assumption, by analysing these relationships in two age groups of teen cyclists and pedestrians:
Full Text Available In terms of continual increase of number of traffic accidents and alarming trend of increasing number of traffic accidents with catastrophic consequences for human life and health, it is necessary to actively research and develop methods to combat these trends. One of the measures is the implementation of advanced information systems in existing traffic environment. Accidents clusters, as databases of traffic accidents, introduce a new dimension in traffic systems in the form of experience, providing information on current accidents and the ones that have previously occurred in a given period. This paper proposes a new approach to predictive management of traffic processes, based on the collection of data in real time and is based on accidents clusters. The modern traffic information services collects road traffic status data from a wide variety of traffic sensing systems using modern ICT technologies, creating the most accurate road traffic situation awareness achieved so far. Road traffic situation awareness enhanced by accident clusters' data can be visualized and distributed in various ways (including the forms of dynamic heat maps and on various information platforms, suiting the requirements of the end-users. Accent is placed on their significant features that are based on additional knowledge about existing traffic processes and distribution of important traffic information in order to prevent and reduce traffic accidents.
Santamaria, Amilcare Francesco; Sottile, Cesare; De Rango, Floriano; Voznak, Miroslav
New applications in wireless environments are increasing and keeping even more interests from the developer companies and researchers. In particular, in these last few years the government and institutional organization for road safety spent a lot of resources and money to promote Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) technology, also car manufactures are giving a lot of contributions on this field as well. In our paper, we propose an innovative system to increase road safety, matching the requests of the market allowing a cooperation between on-board devices. The vehicles are equipped with On Board Unit (OBU) and On Board Radar Unit (OBRU), which can spread alerting messages around the network regarding warning and dangerous situations exploiting IEEE802.llp standard. Vehicles move along roads observing the environment, traffic and road conditions, and vehicles parameters as well. These information can be elaborated and shared between neighbors, Road Side Unit (RSU)s and, of course, with Internet, allowing inter-system communications exploiting an Road Traffic Manager (RTM). Radar systems task it the detection of the environment in order to increase the knowledge of current conditions of the roads, for example it is important to identify obstacles, road accidents, dangerous situations and so on. Once detected exploiting onboard devices, such as Global Position System (GPS) receiver it is possible to know the exact location of the caught event and after a data elaboration the information is spread along the network. Once the drivers are advised, they can make some precautionary actions such as reduction of traveling speed or modification of current road path. In this work the routing algorithms, which have the main goal to rapidly disseminate information, are also been investigated.
Yanmaz-Tuzel, Ozlem; Ozbay, Kaan
This paper develops a step-by-step methodology for the application of Full Bayes (FB) approach for before-and-after analysis of road safety countermeasures. As part of this methodology, it studies the posterior prediction capability of Bayesian approaches and their use in crash reduction factor (CRF) estimation. A collection of candidate models are developed to investigate the impacts of different countermeasures on road safety when limited data are available. The candidate models include traditional, random effects, non-hierarchical and hierarchical Poisson-Gamma and Poisson-Lognormal (P-LN) distributions. The use of random effects and hierarchical model structures allows treatment of the data in a time-series cross-section panel, and deal with the spatial and temporal effects in the data. Next, the proposed FB estimation methodology is applied to urban roads in New Jersey to investigate the impacts of different treatment measures on the safety of "urban collectors and arterial roads" with speed limits less than 45 mph. The treatment types include (1) increase in lane width, (2) installation of median barriers, (3) vertical and horizontal improvements in the road alignment; and (4) installation of guide rails. The safety performance functions developed via different model structures show that random effects hierarchical P-LN models with informative hyper-priors perform better compared with other model structures for each treatment type. The individual CRF values are also found to be consistent across the road sections, with all showing a decrease in crash rates after the specific treatment except guide rail installation treatment. The highest decrease in the crash rate is observed after the improvement in vertical and horizontal alignment followed by increase in lane width and installation of median barriers. Overall statistical analyses of the results obtained from different candidate models show that when limited data are available, P-LN model structure combined
Mahura, Alexander; Petersen, Claus; Sass, Bent; Gilet, Nicolas
The method for statistical correction of air /road surface temperatures forecasts was developed based on analysis of long-term time-series of meteorological observations and forecasts (from HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model & Road Conditions Model; 3 km horizontal resolution). It has been tested for May-Aug 2012 & Oct 2012 - Mar 2013, respectively. The developed method is based mostly on forecasted meteorological parameters with a minimal inclusion of observations (covering only a pre-history period). Although the st iteration correction is based taking into account relevant temperature observations, but the further adjustment of air and road temperature forecasts is based purely on forecasted meteorological parameters. The method is model independent, e.g. it can be applied for temperature correction with other types of models having different horizontal resolutions. It is relatively fast due to application of the singular value decomposition method for matrix solution to find coefficients. Moreover, there is always a possibility for additional improvement due to extra tuning of the temperature forecasts for some locations (stations), and in particular, where for example, the MAEs are generally higher compared with others (see Gilet et al., 2014). For the city weather applications, new operationalized procedure for statistical correction of the air temperature forecasts has been elaborated and implemented for the HIRLAM-SKA model runs at 00, 06, 12, and 18 UTCs covering forecast lengths up to 48 hours. The procedure includes segments for extraction of observations and forecast data, assigning these to forecast lengths, statistical correction of temperature, one-&multi-days statistical evaluation of model performance, decision-making on using corrections by stations, interpolation, visualisation and storage/backup. Pre-operational air temperature correction runs were performed for the mainland Denmark since mid-April 2013 and shown good results. Tests also showed
Janackovic, Goran Lj; Savic, Suzana M; Stankovic, Miomir S
.... The key safety performance indicators for the road construction industry are identified and ranked according to the results of a survey that included experts who assessed occupational safety risks in these companies...
Janackovic, Goran Lj.
Full Text Available This paper presents the factors, performance, and indicators of occupational safety, as well as a method to select and rank occupational safety indicators based on the expert evaluation method and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (fuzzy AHP. A case study is done on road construction companies in Serbia. The key safety performance indicators for the road construction industry are identified and ranked according to the results of a survey that included experts who assessed occupational safety risks in these companies. The case study confirmed that organisational factors have a dominant effect on the quality of the occupational health and safety management system in Serbian road construction companies.
Christoph, M. Vis, M.A. Rackliff, L. & Stipdonk, H.
This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the ‘relative severity’ of individual collisions between different vehicle
Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 4, Decision Support: Deliverable 4.2: Forecasting road traffic fatalities in European countries : model definition and first results.
Broughton, J. Knowles, J. Bijleveld, F.D. Commandeur, J. Antoniou, C. Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Lassarre, S. Dupont, E. Martensen, H. Hermans, E. Bartolome, J. Giustianni, G. Shingo, D. & Perez, C. & Martensen, H. & Dupont, E. (Eds.)
The aim of WP4 is to bridge the gap between research and policy to enable knowledge-based road safety management. To support road safety decision makers, this Work Package will: (1) exploit the data available for analysis by providing forecasts of the road safety situation in the different member
Jacoby, Sara F; Winston, Flaura K; Richmond, Therese S
In rapidly developing economies, like urban India, where road traffic injury rates are among the world's highest, the corporate workplace offers a non-traditional venue for road safety interventions. In partnership with a major multinational corporation (MNC) with a large Indian workforce, this study aimed to elicit local employee perspectives on road safety to inform a global corporate health platform. The safety attitudes and behaviours of 75 employees were collected through self-report survey and focus groups in the MNC offices in Bangalore and Pune. Analysis of these data uncovered incongruity between employee knowledge of safety strategies and their enacted safety behaviours and identified local preference for interventions and policy-level actions. The methods modelled by this study offer a straightforward approach for eliciting employee perspective for local road safety interventions that fit within a global strategy to improve employee health. Study findings suggest that MNCs can employ a range of strategies to improve the road traffic safety of their employees in settings like urban India including: implementing corporate traffic safety policy, making local infrastructure changes to improve road and traffic conditions, advocating for road safety with government partners and providing employees with education and access to safety equipment and safe transportation options.
Full Text Available In industrialized countries people over 50 years of age represent a rapidly growing part of population. Their lifestyle is also becoming more active, which means that the percentage of older drivers in the population of all drivers is also increasing. Many different studies have shown that elderly drivers are more frequently involved in specific types of accidents, especially at intersections. In the past 15 years there was a trend of increasing popularity of roundabouts in Slovenia. Their introduction was generally supported by the arguments of increased traffic-flow capacity and traffic safety as well. The studies on which these arguments are based were performed with an “ideal” type of driver in mind; the one that fully understands new rules and reacts correctly in all situations that may occur at such intersections, where there are no light signals to guide them. An elderly person does not necessarily conform to that ideal and if the percentage of elderly drivers became significant, the premises of the above mentioned studies may not be correct anymore which in turn implies that their results could also be questioned. The present study concentrated on the evaluation of traffic safety of elderly drivers, at various types of intersection, from their own perspective. Various statistical analyses of obtained data were performed. The most important finding was that we may claim, with high degree of probability, that the average person of the age of over 60 feels more unsafe at double-lane roundabouts than they would feel had the same intersection been equipped with traffic lights. Elderly traffic participants will always cause more accidents or participate in them due to hazardous factors. Challenge, arising from many different studies and researches, is in studying what measures and solutions can reduce the risk for elderly participants. KEYWORDS: traffic safety, road intersections, roundabouts, elderly people, older drivers
Weijermars, W.A.M. Meunier, J.-C. Bos, N. Perez, C. Hours, M. Johannsen, H. Barnes, J. Brown, L. Quigley, C. Filtness, A. Perez, C. Olabarria, M. Duran, X. Hours, M. Martin, J. Bauer, R. & Johannsen, H.
SafetyCube aims to develop an innovative road safety Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable policy-makers and stakeholders to select the most appropriate strategies, measures and cost-effective approaches to reduce casualties of all road user types and all severities. Work Package 7 of
Wesemann, P. & Brouwer, M.
The subject of this lecture is the use of knowledge in the preparation and evaluation of road safety policy. The following subjects will be dealt with: the organisation of Dutch road safety policy; the type of knowledge that can enhance the effectiveness of this policy; the set-up of the developed
Sunstrum, M. [Canadian Petroleum Safety Council, Calgary, AB (Canada)
The Canadian Petroleum Safety Council works closely with industry and governments to develop safe, efficient and environmentally suitable operating practices. It is responsible for developing industry recommended practices (IRPs), guides to safe work (GTSW), safety alerts, and safety initiatives. The Council reviews outdated IRPs, particularly where new technology requires new operating procedures. The Upstream Petroleum Industry Task Force on Safety (UPITFOS) has published a document listing 41 recommendations. It includes a set of best practices and guidelines and is based on compiled data and experience from the industry. It is intended to provide operators with advice regarding specific topics such as heavy oil and oil sands operations; well testing and fluid handling; minimum wellhead requirements; pumping of flammable fluids; snubbing operations; surface casing vent flow; gas migration testing and repair; drilling critical sour wells; underbalanced drilling; drilling completions; workover fluids; casing designs; piping systems; and, coiled tubing. 2 figs.
V. N. Kuzmenko
Full Text Available The paper presents results pertaining to investigations of traffic conditions and intensity of traffic and pedestrian flows, calculations on loading level of objects located in the Makayonka Street, Minsk. The objects constitute transport regional development which presupposes reconstruction of regional arterial street with due account of infrastructure improvement, residential construction and construction of multi-purpose complex with shopping, entertainment, wellness and business centers. In addition to this it is planned to construct a two-level underground parking, a two-level interchange at intersection of the Filimonova Street and Nezavisimosty Avenue due to an increase of traffic load at adjacent neighboring street and road network. An analysis on the current traffic management and calculation for distribution of the existing and prospective traffic load levels after implementation of appropriate measures to improve quality as a whole and road safety as well has been carried out in the paper. Determination of loading levels for a street and road network has been carried out while taking into account an intensity of traffic flows in order to evaluate various options for road traffic organization. Variants for planning of road junctions, road traffic organization and traffic signalization (including coordinated passing of transport facilities have been developed in the paper. All this will contribute to improvement of quality and road safety in the investigated street with due consideration of further development of the region and overbuilding of the existing housing system in the Makayonka Streets and increase of its transport importance in the Minsk street and road network.
In the light of the serious road accident that occurred on 3 February 2008, you are reminded that: the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events; failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him to abandon his vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade...
O'Hern, Steve; Oxley, Jennie; Stevenson, Mark
The study's aim was to assess the behavioural validity of participants using of a newly developed bicycle simulator with respect to a range of cycling performance measures collected both using the cycling simulator and on-road. The validation study consisted of a within-subjects study design comparing participants riding on-road with riding in the simulator. The study recruited 26 participants ranging in age from 18 to 35 years (M=25.0, SD=4.8). Absolute validity was established for measures of spatial positioning including average lane position, deviation in lane position and average passing distance from kerbside parked cars. Relative validity was established for the average speed of cyclists and their speed reduction on approach to intersections and a degree of validity was established for aspects of the participants head movements on approach to intersections. The study found evidence to suggest that aspects of cyclist behaviour can be investigated using the bicycle simulator, however further validation research may be required in order to more comprehensively validate looking behaviours, more complex performance measures and for a wider age range of cyclists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Naveh, Eitan; Katz-Navon, Tal
This study presents and tests an intervention to enhance organizational climate and expands existing conceptualization of organizational climate to include its influence on employee behaviors outside the organization's physical boundaries. In addition, by integrating the literatures of climate and work-family interface, the study explored climate spillover and crossover from work to the home domain. Focusing on an applied practical problem within organizations, we investigated the example of road safety climate and employees' and their families' driving, using a longitudinal study design of road safety intervention versus control groups. Results demonstrated that the intervention increased road safety climate and decreased the number of traffic violation tickets and that road safety climate mediated the relationship between the intervention and the number of traffic violation tickets. Road safety climate spilled over to the family domain but did not cross over to influence family members' driving. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Road safety audit tools, procedures, and experiences : a literature review and recommendations : research in the framework of the European research project Safety Standards for Road Design and Redesign SAFESTAR, Workpackage 8.
Kooi, R.M. van der
This report describes tools and procedures established in different countries which apply Road Safety Audits (RSA). These RSAs are utilized to identify potential safety problems and they concentrate on safety measures to overcome these problems. This technique is used to detect possible safety
Oppe, S. & Koornstra, M. J.
This article presents and discusses an adoptive evolution model for forecasting long term developments in road safety. It takes into account both traffic growth and human adaptation. Earlier parsimonious models such as those used here are also discussed, and shown to predict trends in accident rates
This study assessed the visual profile of motor vehicle drivers in Owerri, Nigeria and to analyse the relationship between the various aspects of visual function in relation to road safety. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 150 commercial vehicles drivers and 130 private vehicles drivers was conducted between November ...
Horst, A.R.A. van der
TNO Human Factors conducted long-term video observations to collect data on the pre-crash phase of real accidents (what exactly happened just before the collision?). The video recordings of collisions were used to evaluate and validate the safety value of indepth accident analyses, road scene
Horst, A.R.A. van der
TNO conducted long-term video observations to collect data on the pre-crash phase of real accidents (what exactly happened just before the collision?). The video recordings of collisions were used to evaluate and validate the safety value of in-depth accident analyses, road scene analyses, and
Some years ago, the introduction of an obligatory eye test for drivers 45 years old and older was (once more) brought to discussion. We expect that the introduction of such a measure will only have a very slight positive effect on road safety. This measure, in which only visual acuity is tested,
Summary: This study assessed the visual profile of motor vehicle drivers in Owerri, Nigeria and to analyse the relationship between the various aspects of visual function in relation to road safety. A cross-sectional descriptive study of. 150 commercial vehicles drivers and 130 private vehicles drivers was conducted between ...
Malone, K.; Silla, A.; Johanssen, C.; Bell, D.
Introduction: This paper describes the modification and development of methodologies to assess the impacts of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) applications for Vulnerable Road users (VRUs) in the domains of safety, mobility and comfort. This effort was carried out in the context of the VRUITS
Tomislav Mlinarić; Rašid Zuko; Milivoj Gregurić
The paper analyses the main factors of traffic safety andreliabilityat level crossings. The number and causes of accidentsare stated, that result from ignorance, insufficient training ofthe traffic participants, their ilnsponsibility and insufficient orincomplete legislation, as well as from insufficiently professionaland scientifically not serious enough approach to solvingthis cardinal problem in road and railway traffic. Based on theanalysis the causes are determined and solutions proposed...
Ben-Bassat, Tamar; Avnieli, Shani
Road safety education for children is one of the most important means for raising awareness of road safety and for educating children to behave safely as pedestrians, bicycle riders, and vehicle passengers. The current research presents a novel attempt to examine the effect of a unique road safety educational program for kindergarten children on a secondary target group-the parents. The program, named the "Zahav Bagan" program (ZBP), is presented at kindergartens once a week during the entire academic year. It is conducted by senior citizen volunteers and is part of the formal education of the children. The main purpose of the current study was to compare the behavior, awareness, and knowledge about child road safety, of two groups of parents-those whose children participated in the ZBP group, and those whose children did not; this latter group was the control group. A telephone-based survey was conducted using a sample of 76 ZBP parents and 59 control group parents. Results of the survey showed no effect of ZBP on parents' knowledge of child road safety law and recommendations, but more importantly, the results did show a significant effect in terms of parents' observance of safe behavior and in their awareness of road safety in everyday life. These results confirm the importance of educational programs on road safety, especially as triggers and reminders to children and to their parents, to act as cautious road users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Braimaister, L. Hakkert, A.-S. & Schagen, I.N.L.G. van
This paper explores the theoretical possibilities of the definition of exposure and risk, discusses the problems associated with the use of exposure and risk and brings a variety of examples of safety studies in which use is made of exposure and risk indicators. The paper sets out with a definition
Hakkert, A.S. & Braimaister, L.
This report explores the theoretical possibilities of defining exposure and risk, discusses the problems associated with the use of exposure and risk, and gives examples of various safety studies in which use is made of exposure and risk indicators. The report sets out with a definition of the three
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to gather information about the national flexible pavement roads ruts depth, to determine its statistical dispersijon index and to determine their validity for needed requirements. Analysis of scientific works of ruts apearance in the asphalt and their influence for driving is presented in this work. Dynamical models of ruts in asphalt are presented in the work as well. Experimental outcome data of rut depth dispersijon in the national highway of Lithuania Vilnius – Kaunas is prepared. Conclusions are formulated and presented. Article in Lithuanian
Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk
This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available For some time road engineers have been concerned that the variability inherent in road construction materials and their sampling and testing has not been logically and consistently catered for in the road construction process or in construction...
Saccomanno, Frank; Haastrup, Palle
Quantitative risk assessment (QRA) models are used to estimate the risks of transporting dangerous goods and to assess the merits of introducing alternative risk reduction measures for different transportation scenarios and assumptions. A comprehensive QRA model recently was developed in Europe for application to road tunnels. This model can assess the merits of a limited number of "native safety measures." In this article, we introduce a procedure for extending its scope to include the treatment of a number of important "nonnative safety measures" of interest to tunnel operators and decisionmakers. Nonnative safety measures were not included in the original model specification. The suggested procedure makes use of expert judgment and Monte Carlo simulation methods to model uncertainty in the revised risk estimates. The results of a case study application are presented that involve the risks of transporting a given volume of flammable liquid through a 10-km road tunnel.
Suelves, Josep M; Barbería, Eneko
Abstract Objective To determine whether the road safety policies introduced between 2000 and 2010 in Catalonia, Spain, which aimed primarily to reduce deaths from road traffic collisions by 50% by 2010, were associated with economic benefits to society. Methods A cost analysis was performed from a societal perspective with a 10-year time horizon. It considered the costs of: hospital admissions; ambulance transport; autopsies; specialized health care; police, firefighter and roadside assistance; adapting to disability; and productivity lost due to institutionalization, death or sick leave of the injured or their caregivers; as well as material and administrative costs. Data were obtained from a Catalan hospital registry, the Catalan Traffic Service information system, insurance companies and other sources. All costs were calculated in euros (€) at 2011 values. Findings A substantial reduction in deaths from road traffic collisions was observed between 2000 and 2010. Between 2001 and 2010, with the implementation of new road safety policies, there were 26 063 fewer road traffic collisions with victims than expected, 2909 fewer deaths (57%) and 25 444 fewer hospitalizations. The estimated total cost savings were around €18 000 million. Of these, around 97% resulted from reductions in lost productivity. Of the remaining cost savings, 63% were associated with specialized health care, 15% with adapting to disability and 8.1% with hospital care. Conclusion The road safety policies implemented in Catalonia in recent years were associated with a reduction in the number of deaths and injuries from traffic collisions and with substantial economic benefits to society. PMID:23397348
Azeredo Lopes, S. de & Lourenço Cardoso, J.
The "Road Infrastructure Safety Management Evaluation Tools (RISMET)" project targets objective A (Development of evaluation tools) of the Joint Call for Proposals for Safety at the Heart of Road Design ("The Call"). This project aims at developing suitable road safety engineering evaluation tools
Mulder, J.A.G. & Wegman, F.C.M.
In all countries of the world, people are trying to improve road safety. In road safety literature, however, there are many indications that road safety improvements are moving slowly. Several causes are given for this: (1) the political priority is relatively low; and (2) it is not well-known how,
Janackovic, Goran Lj.; Suzana M. Savic; Stankovic, Miomir S.
This paper presents the factors, performance, and indicators of occupational safety, as well as a method to select and rank occupational safety indicators based on the expert evaluation method and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (fuzzy AHP). A case study is done on road construction companies in Serbia. The key safety performance indicators for the road construction industry are identified and ranked according to the results of a survey that included experts who assessed occupational saf...
Egilmez, Gokhan; McAvoy, Deborah
In this study, a DEA based Malmquist index model was developed to assess the relative efficiency and productivity of U.S. states in decreasing the number of road fatalities. Even though the national trend in fatal crashes has reached to the lowest level since 1949 (Traffic Safety Annual Assessment Highlights, 2010), a state-by-state analysis and comparison has not been studied considering other characteristics of the holistic national road safety assessment problem in any work in the literature or organizational reports. In this study, a DEA based Malmquist index model was developed to assess the relative efficiency and productivity of 50 U.S. states in reducing the number of fatal crashes. The single output, fatal crashes, and five inputs were aggregated into single road safety score and utilized in the DEA-based Malmquist index mathematical model. The period of 2002-2008 was considered due to data availability for the inputs and the output considered. According to the results, there is a slight negative productivity (an average of -0.2 percent productivity) observed in the U.S. on minimizing the number of fatal crashes along with an average of 2.1 percent efficiency decline and 1.8 percent technological improvement. The productivity in reducing the fatal crashes can only be attributed to the technological growth since there is a negative efficiency growth is occurred. It can be concluded that even though there is a declining trend observed in the fatality rates, the efficiency of states in utilizing societal and economical resources towards the goal of zero fatality is not still efficient. More effective policy making towards increasing safety belt usage and better utilization of safety expenditures to improve road condition are derived as the key areas to focus on for state highway safety agencies from the scope of current research. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
National road design standards : an overview of geometric road design standards of the Member States of the European Union. Annex V to SWOV-report `Safety effects of road design standards', R-94-7 (see C 2838 (IRRD 866221).
This volume is one of the annexes to a main report on safety effects of road design standards which was compiled by SWOV in collaboration with other European partners, in 1993-1994. For the covering abstract of the report or the report itself, see C 2838. In this annex, the correct names of the road
You are reminded that: - the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; - the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events (Operational Circular No. 8); - failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him/her to abandon the vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he/she submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade. They will also stop and question any obviously intoxicate...
Drivers in road tunnels generally reduce their speed and increase their lateral position from the right tunnel wall while driving. In shorter tunnels, with reduced driving speed, driver vigilance may be more robust without being hindered by dull driving, which is more common in longer tunnels. Still, in spite of driver alertness, crash rates in tunnels occur due to the tunnel's unusual driving environment. Crash rates are lower in the tunnel inner zone due to driver alertness, especially after passing the transition zone and acclimating to the tunnel environment. The number of crashes, however, is higher along zone 4 (tunnel inner zone, which is the principal zone, as it covers longer driving distance. According to most studies, short tunnels were found to exhibit higher crash rates than long tunnels because the entrance zones incorporate higher crash rates, compared with the midzones; nonetheless, longer unidirectional (freeway and multilane tunnels with higher design speed, entail lower driver alertness and diminished concentration due to relatively monotonous driving in spite of a tunnel's closed environment.
Kayani, A; King, M J; Fleiter, J J
Given the increasing vehicle numbers and expanding road construction in developing countries, the importance of safe road user behaviour is critical. Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are a significant problem in Pakistan; however, the factors that contribute to RTCs in Pakistan are not well researched. Fatalistic beliefs are a potential barrier to the enhancement of road safety, especially participation in health-promoting and injury prevention behaviours, and also contribute to risk taking. Fatalistic beliefs relating to road safety have been found in some developing countries, although research is scarce and indicates that the nature and extent of fatalism differs in each country. Qualitative research was undertaken with a range of drivers, religious orators, police and policy makers to explore associations between fatalism, risky road use and associated issues. Findings indicate that fatalistic beliefs are pervasive in Pakistan, are strongly linked with religion, present a likely barrier to road safety messages and contribute to risky road use. Fatalism appears to be a default attribution of RTC and the intensity of belief in fate surpasses the kinds of fatalism noted in the limited existing literature. These findings have importance to developing road safety countermeasures in countries where fatalistic beliefs are strong.
Li, Zhaojian; Kolmanovsky, Ilya; Atkins, Ella; Lu, Jianbo; Filev, Dimitar P; Michelini, John
This paper presents a safety-based route planner that exploits vehicle-to-cloud-to-vehicle (V2C2V) connectivity. Time and road risk index (RRI) are considered as metrics to be balanced based on user preference. To evaluate road segment risk, a road and accident database from the highway safety information system is mined with a hybrid neural network model to predict RRI. Real-time factors such as time of day, day of the week, and weather are included as correction factors to the static RRI prediction. With real-time RRI and expected travel time, route planning is formulated as a multiobjective network flow problem and further reduced to a mixed-integer programming problem. A V2C2V implementation of our safety-based route planning approach is proposed to facilitate access to real-time information and computing resources. A real-world case study, route planning through the city of Columbus, Ohio, is presented. Several scenarios illustrate how the "best" route can be adjusted to favor time versus safety metrics.
Full Text Available Older drivers are frequently viewed as overly represented in crashes, particularly when crash involvement per distance travelled is considered. This perception has led to a call for tighter licensing conditions for older drivers, a policy which inevitably results in mobility restrictions for at least some drivers. However there is a growing body of research evidence which shows that as a group, older drivers represent no greater road risk than drivers from other age groups once different levels of driving activity are taken into account. This paper has examined aspects of older drivers' fitness to drive based on survey data and off-road and on-road driving performance from a sample of 905 New Zealand older drivers. The results show that policies which target all older drivers and lead to licensing and mobility restrictions cannot be justified from a safety basis.
GAMBIT : Integrated Programme of Road Safety Improvement in Poland : some observations about the road safety situation in Poland, about the structure of the GAMBIT programme and about programme components.
The GAMBIT team produced a draft version of the final GAMBIT report. This report discusses this draft. It is explained in the report why there has been an increase in the number of road accident casualties in Poland in recent years. A politically sanctioned National Road Safety Plan can make a
Koekemoer, Karin; Van Gesselleen, Megan; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Govender, Rajen; Van As, Arjan Bastiaan
Pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of death among South African children, and young children residing in low-income communities are more at risk, due to various factors such as inadequate road infrastructure, exposure to traffic due to reliance on walking as a means of transport, and lack of supervision. This study used a cross-sectional, non-randomized self-report survey to assess pedestrian safety knowledge, road-crossing behaviour and pedestrian injuries of primary school children in selected low-income settings in Cape Town. The survey focused on three primary schools that had joined the Safe Kids Worldwide Model School Zone Project and was administered to 536 children aged 6-15 years, in their home language of isiXhosa. Descriptive and bivariate analyses as well as multivariate regression analyses were conducted to investigate potential predictor variables for pedestrian collision severity and unsafe road-crossing behaviour. Walking was the sole form of travel for 81% of the children, with a large proportion regularly walking unsupervised. Children who walk to or from school alone were younger and reported riskier road-crossing behaviour, although children who walk accompanied tended to have higher pedestrian collision severity. "Negligent Behaviour" related to road-crossing was significantly associated with higher pedestrian collision severity, with predictors of "Negligent Behaviour" including the lack of pedestrian safety knowledge and greater exposure to traffic in terms of time spent walking. More than half of the reported pedestrian collisions involved a bicycle, and older boys (10-15 years) were most at risk of experiencing a severe pedestrian injury. The findings substantiate emerging evidence that children in low-income settings are at greater risk for child pedestrian injury, and emphasise the need for evidence-based safety promotion and injury prevention interventions in these settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Today, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs are an essential determinant of urban change. They make it possible to build new Socio-Technical Systems (STS where the knowledge flow initiated by the interactions of ICT-enabled nodes has a crucial role. This contribution illustrates examples of these systems. Reference is made to the Piedmont Region, where a socio-technical system had to be established in order to support the monitoring of the regional road safety policy. The contribution is divided into two main parts. First, insights for developing the STS are given and an overview of the road safety planning issues in Piedmont is presented; there then follows a description of the STS and an account of its regional application and installation.
This book highlights the current challenges for engineers involved in product development and the associated changes in procedure they make necessary. Methods for systematically analyzing the requirements for safety and security mechanisms are described using examples of how they are implemented in software and hardware, and how their effectiveness can be demonstrated in terms of functional and design safety are discussed. Given today’s new E-mobility and automated driving approaches, new challenges are arising and further issues concerning “Road Vehicle Safety” and “Road Traffic Safety” have to be resolved. To address the growing complexity of vehicle functions, as well as the increasing need to accommodate interdisciplinary project teams, previous development approaches now have to be reconsidered, and system engineering approaches and proven management systems need to be supplemented or wholly redefined. The book presents a continuous system development process, starting with the basic requiremen...
Fleury, D.; Brenac, T.
The concept of prototypical accident scenario has been used since the late 1980s in French road safety research. A prototypical scenario can be defined as a prototype of the accident process corresponding to a series of accidents which are similar in terms of the chain of facts and causal relationships found throughout the various accident stages. This concept provides a means of combining and generalising the knowledge obtained from accident case studies, based on in-depth investigation meth...
Thompson, Kirrilly; Matthews, Chelsea
Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1) identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2) harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3) mandating personal protective equipment, (4) improving road signage, (5) comprehensive data collection, (6) developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7) safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8) increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives.
Full Text Available Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52% reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1 identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2 harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3 mandating personal protective equipment, (4 improving road signage, (5 comprehensive data collection, (6 developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7 safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8 increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives.
Full Text Available This paper provides background on and summarises the main findings of an investigation into the need for a National Road Traffic Safety Databank (NRTSD) in South Africa. The research findings confirmed the study’s hypotheses that (1) road traffic...
Dhondt, Stijn; Pirdavani, Ali; Macharis, Cathy; Bellemans, Tom; Putman, Koen
The majority of traffic safety policies are limited to preventing mortality. However, non-fatal injuries also impose a significant risk of adverse health. Therefore, both mortality and morbidity outcomes should be included in the evaluation of traffic safety policies. The authors propose a method to evaluate different policy options taking into account both fatalities and serious injuries. A health impact model was developed and aligned with a transport and road safety model, calculating the health impact of fatalities and seriously injured traffic victims for two transport scenarios in Flanders and Brussels (Belgium): a base scenario and a fuel price increase of 20% as an alternative. Victim counts were expressed as disability adjusted life years, using a combination of police and medical data. Seriously injured victims were assigned an injury, using injury distributions derived from hospital data, to estimate the resulting health impact from each crash. Health impact of fatalities was taken as the remaining life expectancy at the moment of the fatal crash. The fuel price scenario resulted in a decrease of health impact due to fatalities of 5.53%--5.85% and 3.37%--3.88% for severe injuries. This decrease was however not equal among all road users. With this method, the impact of traffic polices can be evaluated on both mortality and morbidity, while taking into account the variability of different injuries following a road crash. This model however still underestimates the impact due to non-fatal injuries.
Salihović Sabira S.
Full Text Available Development and application of new electrical/electronic systems carries with it certain risks of software and hardware failures that need to be identified and reduced to minimum level. In order to solve these problems, as adapted sectoral standard of comprehensive functional safety standard IEC61508, has been published the series of standard ISO26262:2011, Road vehicles - Functional safety. ISO 26262 series of standards containing 10 parts, 43 chapters, 180 engineering methods, 600 applications, and 450 pages with around 750 sentences, and in this work is presented the scope and structure of all parts of a series of standards.
Full Text Available The paper analyses the main factors of traffic safety andreliabilityat level crossings. The number and causes of accidentsare stated, that result from ignorance, insufficient training ofthe traffic participants, their ilnsponsibility and insufficient orincomplete legislation, as well as from insufficiently professionaland scientifically not serious enough approach to solvingthis cardinal problem in road and railway traffic. Based on theanalysis the causes are determined and solutions proposed, aswell as more efficient methods to improve safety and reduce thenumber of traffic accidents at level crossings.
The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) is dedicated to engineering safer roadways, but safety requires engineers and planners to go beyond their usual scope to understand behavior of road users of all ages. Driving, for example, is a complex...
Full Text Available Road accidents during wet weather have been a topic of major concern of road engineers in regions of wet-tropical climate and in other parts of the world during the wet season of the year. Road safety studies indicate that approximately 20% of all road accidents occurred during wet weather, and that the skid resistance of wet pavements have a major influence on the occurrences of wet-weather accidents. Monitoring of wet pavement skid resistance has been an integral part of a typical pavement management system. However, because of the lack of prediction capability of pavement skid resistance under various rainfall intensities, the minimum skid resistance threshold for safe wet-weather driving has been specified by highway agencies based on either engineering judgement or past experience. It is shown in this paper that the single-point minimum skid resistance threshold is inadequate to offer a complete description of the skid resistance performance of the pavement sections in question for effective management of a road network. It is unable to assess the risk involved in an actual wet-weather condition where the pavement surface water-film thickness and vehicle speed are different from standard test conditions. This limitation of the current system of specifying a minimum skid resistance threshold can be overcome by adopting a theoretically sound approach to represent pavement skid resistance under different conditions of water-film thickness and vehicle speed. This paper describes the theoretical basis of the approach and the development of a mechanistically derived three-dimensional finite-element skid resistance simulation model to predict skid resistance. The application of the proposed approach and the skid resistance prediction procedure in pavement management system and wet-weather driving safety assessment is presented.
Thomas, P. Morris, A. Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Lejeune, P. Duchamp, G. Vis, M. Vallet, G. Jahi, H. Dupont, E. & Martensen, H.
In 2004 there were over 43,000 people who were killed on the roads of the 25 member states of the European Union (EU), additionally around 3.3 million people were injured. The costs to society exceeded EUR 180 billion which is around twice the annual budget of the European Commission and 2 per cent
Kalantari, Zahra; Cavalli, Marco; Cantone, Carolina; Crema, Stefano; Destouni, Georgia
Climate-driven increase in the frequency of extreme hydrological events is expected to impose greater strain on the built environment and major transport infrastructure, such as roads and railways. This study develops a data-driven spatial-statistical approach to quantifying and mapping the probability of flooding at critical road-stream intersection locations, where water flow and sediment transport may accumulate and cause serious road damage. The approach is based on novel integration of key watershed and road characteristics, including also measures of sediment connectivity. The approach is concretely applied to and quantified for two specific study case examples in southwest Sweden, with documented road flooding effects of recorded extreme rainfall. The novel contributions of this study in combining a sediment connectivity account with that of soil type, land use, spatial precipitation-runoff variability and road drainage in catchments, and in extending the connectivity measure use for different types of catchments, improve the accuracy of model results for road flood probability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gupta, S; Paichadze, N; Gritsenko, E; Klyavin, V; Yurasova, E; Hyder, A A
Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. In Russia, a road safety program was implemented in Lipetskaya and Ivanovskaya oblasts (regions) as part of a 10-country effort funded by Bloomberg Philanthropies. The program was focused on increasing seat belt and child restraint use and reducing speeding. The primary goals of this monitoring and evaluation study are to assess trends in seat belt use, child restraint use, and speed compliance in the two oblasts over the 5 years and to explore the overall impact of the program on road traffic injury and death rates. Primary data via roadside observations and interviews, and secondary data from official government sources were collected and analyzed for this study. Our results indicate significant improvements in seat belt wearing and child seat use rates and in prevalence of speeding in both intervention oblasts. The observations were consistent with the results from the roadside interviews. In Lipetskaya, restraint use by all occupants increased from 52.4% (baseline, October 2010) to 77.4% (final round, October 2014) and child restraint use increased from 20.9% to 54.1% during the same period. In Ivanovskaya, restraint use by all occupants increased from 48% (baseline, April 2012) to 88.7% (final round, October 2014) and child restraint use increased from 20.6% to 89.4% during the same period. In Lipetskaya, the overall prevalence of speeding (vehicles driving above speed limit) declined from 47.0% (baseline, July 2011) to 30.4% (final round, October 2014) and a similar pattern was observed in Ivanovskaya where the prevalence of speeding decreased from 54.6% (baseline, March 2012) to 46.6% (final round, October 2014). Through 2010-2014, the road traffic crash and injury rates per 100,000 population decreased in Lipetskaya oblast (191.5 and 246.9 in 2010 and 170.4 and 208.6 in 2014, respectively) and slightly increased in Ivanovskaya oblast (184.4 and 236.0 in 2010 and 186.7 and 243
Kleisen, Lucienne M B
Many studies in the field of road safety are occupied with studying road unsafety since it generally concentrates on traffic crashes, crash, risk, and aberrant driving behaviour, especially in relation to young drivers. However, this study shows there is scope for thinking about driving and driver training from a different vantage point, that is in terms of safe or normal driving. The findings are reported from four group interviews with young drivers (18-25 years of age); the young drivers discussed their ideas of safe driving and their reasons for using (or not using) safe driving styles. The data show a type of optimistic thinking among young drivers which they call 'car karma'. This finding offers an opportunity to reconceptualise driving in a way that is focused on normal, safe driving styles, a topic that has received less attention in the past. The paper argues that greater focus on safe driving styles could be more conducive to young drivers actually driving safely than focusing on, for instance, crashes, which on an individual level are relatively rare (Elander et al., 1993, p. 277). Based on empirical research, the first positively stated definition of road safety is proposed based on the notion of 'car karma'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Batool, Zahara; Carsten, Oliver
Deviant driving behaviors are considered as the main cause of Road Traffic Accidents in Pakistan. This research is founded on the premise that driving behaviors are mediated by attitudinal and motivational factors. It advocates that rather than simply aggregating drivers' responses or a-priori classification of them based on their personal characteristics, adoption of segmentation technique is more useful to look at multiple factors provoking aberrant driving behavior in combination and not just in isolation. For this, the study generated an Attitudinal Questionnaire, inspired by the Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB: Ajzen, 1991), and extended violation-scale of modified Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ: Lawton et al., 1997). Attitudinal and behavioral items are first factor analyzed. Then, cluster analysis is performed on extracted attitudinal factors which classified sample driving population into four relatively homogenous and distinct groups of drivers. The results demonstrated the explanatory utility of the market segmentation approach to systematically relate the interaction between attitudes, behaviors and socio-demographic characteristics of drivers. It is concluded that the approach is successful in distinguishing safe drivers from unsafe driver and therefore, can legitimately form the basis of road safety interventions. Finally, the findings are used to recommend targeted information-based road safety solutions with a focus on the diverse characteristics of each of the identified segments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Antoniou, Constantinos; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George
Modeling road safety development is a complex task and needs to consider both the quantifiable impact of specific parameters as well as the underlying trends that cannot always be measured or observed. The objective of this research is to apply structural time series models for obtaining reliable medium- to long-term forecasts of road traffic fatality risk using data from 5 countries with different characteristics from all over Europe (Cyprus, Greece, Hungary, Norway, and Switzerland). Two structural time series models are considered: (1) the local linear trend model and the (2) latent risk time series model. Furthermore, a structured decision tree for the selection of the applicable model for each situation (developed within the Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis [DaCoTA] research project, cofunded by the European Commission) is outlined. First, the fatality and exposure data that are used for the development of the models are presented and explored. Then, the modeling process is presented, including the model selection process, introduction of intervention variables, and development of mobility scenarios. The forecasts using the developed models appear to be realistic and within acceptable confidence intervals. The proposed methodology is proved to be very efficient for handling different cases of data availability and quality, providing an appropriate alternative from the family of structural time series models in each country. A concluding section providing perspectives and directions for future research is presented.
Treviño-Siller, S; Pacheco-Magaña, L E; Bonilla-Fernández, P; Rueda-Neria, C; Arenas-Monreal, L
The purpose of this article is to describe a public school-based educational intervention (EI) designed to increase knowledge, improve attitudes, and change practices related to road safety. We used a mixed-methods evaluation of a road traffic safety baseline diagnosis conducted in 4 public schools, 2 primary and 2 secondary. Research was organized into 4 phases: (1) diagnosis, (2) EI design, (3) implementation, and (4) evaluation. We used convenience sampling (n = 219 students) across schools and applied a pre-/posttest design based on quantitative and qualitative data. The former related to surveys on road safety experiences, knowledge, attitudes, and practice and the latter to observation checklists, community mapping, ethnography, and focus groups. To compare pre-post scores, we used multilevel mixed-effect ordinal logistic regressions. We developed data matrices, field notes, and systematized community mapping. We also transcribed focus group discussions, generated categories, and carried out thematic analysis. Ethnography indicated poor sidewalk conditions, no helmet or seat belt use, overcrowded public transportation, and no traffic lights or proper signals. Pedestrians did not use sidewalks and crossed streets unsafely. Subsequent to the intervention, however, the study population showed significant changes in their knowledge, practices, and attitudes. They identified road traffic incidents (RTIs) as the first cause of death among children and youth, and most understood that the solution to the problem was incumbent upon each and every individual. They also displayed increased perceptions of danger in practices such as traveling on overcrowded public transportation, failing to wear seat belts in cars and helmets on motorcycles, crossing the street while using mobile phones or playing with friends, and riding with drunk drivers. Changes varied according to gender, and students reported being able to carry out safe practices only when they were in control of
Full Text Available Life on the road with all its aftermath and consequences works as a big triangle: driver-road-car. The main cause of road accidents is driver who can´t cope with increase of traffic density and with more and more powerful cars. Increasing number of new vehicles on our roads shows certain economic power of Slovakia and improving standard of living. The annual growth of more than seventy thousand new cars has as a result overcrowded Slovakian road network. Because of this, there is a special attention given to road traffic safety and its various factor at the present not only in our country, but also in the European Union. By joining the European Union we are committed to achieve standards in all areas that are comparable with European developed countries. In our paper we would analyze accident rate of traffic in recent years in Slovakia and design telematic measures to reduce it.
Nordfjærn, Trond; Şimşekoğlu, Özlem; Rundmo, Torbjorn
The majority of previous cross-country studies of human factors relevant to traffic safety have not operationalized and measured culture. Also studies in this vein have mostly been carried out in Europe and the United States. The aim of the study was to examine country cluster differences, based on the Culture's Consequences framework, in road traffic risk perception, attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour in samples from Norway, Russia, India, Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda, Turkey and Iran. An additional aim was to examine cluster differences in road traffic culture as symbol use and to investigate whether this theoretical cultural framework predicts risk perception, attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour in the country clusters. The sample consisted of a total of 2418 individuals who were obtained by convenience sampling in the different countries. The countries segmented into four Culture's Consequences clusters; Norway, Russia and India, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Near East countries. The findings showed that Norwegians reported overall safer attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour than the remaining country clusters. Individuals in Africa reported the highest risk perception. The countries also differed substantially in road traffic culture as symbol use. Contrary to established cultural theory, prediction models revealed that cultural factors were stronger predictors of driver behaviour than of risk perception. Also, the social cognitive risk constructs (i.e. risk perception and attitudes) solely explained variance in driver behaviour in the Norwegian and Russia/India clusters. Previous empirical efforts, which aimed to demonstrate that culture is important for the risk perception criterion, may have focused on a criterion variable that is not strongly related to driver behaviour. Furthermore, countermeasures aimed to influence social cognition may have stronger applicability in countries with a more individualistic western
Puvanachandra, Prasanthi; Kulanthayan, Subramaniam; Hyder, Adnan A
In 2006, the Malaysian government began implementing road safety education (RSE) programs in primary schools, involving numerous stakeholders. We interviewed 19 stakeholders. Thematic analysis led to the identification of four themes: road traffic injuries (RTIs) among children in Malaysia, the role of RSE, factors affecting successful implementation, and intersectoral involvement. The latter was identified as a significant strength of the overall approach to implementation, and is one of the first examples in Malaysia and in the region of such an approach. Lack of official documentation surrounding ownership, funding responsibilities, and roles among the various sectors led to resistance from some groups. Although we know from scientific studies what works in terms of reducing RTIs, the more important question is how such interventions can be successfully and sustainably implemented, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The results of this study permit stronger understanding of issues surrounding the implementation of RTI interventions in LMIC.
S C Saxena
Full Text Available In 1948, the First World Health Assembly called for the creation of a "World Health Day". Since 1950, World Health Day has been celebrated on the 7th of April of each year. The objective of World Health Day is to raise global awareness of a specific health theme to highlight a priority area of concern for the World Health Organization (WHO. The Day serves as a launch for a long-term advocacy program for which activities will be undertaken and resources provided well beyond 7th April.To Celebrate the theme of this year "Road Safety is No accident", on 7th April 2004 around the globle, hundreds of organizations hosted events to help raise awareness about road traffic injuries, their grave consequences and enormous casts to society. They alsocontributed to spreading the message that such injuries can be prevented.In 1948, the First World Health Assembly called for the creation of a "World Health Day". Since 1950, World Health Day has been celebrated on the 7th of April of each year. The objective of World Health Day is to raise global awareness of a specific health theme to highlight a priority area of concern for the World Health Organization (WHO. The Day serves as a launch for a long-term advocacy program for which activities will be undertaken and resources provided well beyond 7th April.To Celebrate the theme of this year "Road Safety is No accident", on 7th April 2004 around the globle, hundreds of organizations hosted events to help raise awareness about road traffic injuries, their grave consequences and enormous casts to society. They alsocontributed to spreading the message that such injuries can be prevented.t ' ■The accident is defined as unexpected, unplanned event envolving injury, disability or death. The accidents occur in almost all countries. The most alarming fact is that accidents kill more young trained adults between 15-24 years of age group of males, mainly among two wheelers. All sorts of accidents
Full Text Available The problem of gravel road dustiness is quite acute. In order to minimize harmful environmental components and to conduct dust reduction tests, molasses materials were chosen. Using the molasses materials of a new generation (solution Safecote in the Lithuanian market, the obtained results of dustiness have reflected a reduction in particulate matter in the air. During the experiment, gravel road pavement was treated with different degrees of concentration (10%, 20%, 30% in solution “Safecote” at a driving speed of 30 km/h. Dustiness was measured at different distances from the road (0 m, 1 m, 2 m, 3 m. The undertaken study showed that the concentrations of particulate matter varied under changing weather conditions (air temperature, humidity, wind speed, atmospheric pressure. The statistical analysis of the received data has revealed that dustiness weakly correlates with temperature (correlation coefficient ranged from 0.12 to 0.67 moving from the road, the correlation coefficient of moisture is negative, a larger distance from the road increases inverse correlation (the correlation coefficient ranges from –0.02 to –0.85, negative correlation decreases moving from the road at a speed of the wind (from –0.72 to –0.06 and pressure correlation remains volatile (from –0.44 to 0.44. Article in Lithuanian
Filtness, A. & Papadimitriou, E. (Eds.) Leskovšek, B. Focant, N. Martensen, H. Sgarra, V. Usami, D.S. Soteropoulos, A. Stadlbauer, S. Theofilatos, A. Yannis, G. Ziakopoulos, A. Diamandouros, K. Durso, C. Goldenbeld, C. Loenis, B. Schermers, G. Petegem, J.-H. van Elvik, R. Hesjevoll, I.S. Quigley, C. & Papazikou, E.
The present Deliverable (D5.1) describes the identification and evaluation of infrastructure related risk factors. It outlines the results of Task 5.1 of WP5 of SafetyCube, which aimed to identify and evaluate infrastructure related risk factors and related road safety problems by (i) presenting a
Full Text Available The article presents the role, need and idea of implementing an IT system to manage road safety, which is a proposal of the practical implementation of the Gambit programme elements prepared for the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodeship. The usefulness of constructing the system has been presented, together with its users, the proposed content and possibility of its funding. The whole article has been summarised by outlining the opportunities and threats that may occur in the course of system implementation.
Conclusions: This study allowed the characterization of crashes and drivers involved in head-on crashes on two-way interurban roads. The lower probability observed on roads with median strips point to these measures as an effective way to reduce these collisions
Objectives: Injuries and mortality resulting from pedestrian road traffic crashes are a major public health problem in Ghana. This study investigated risk factors for road transport-related injury among pedestrians in rural Ghana. Design: Case study design using qualitative data. Method: In-depth interviews were conducted with pedestrians.…
Safety; interactions of the various factors of the vehicles, infrastructure, driver, environment system. Contribution to XVII World Road Congress, Sydney, Australia, 8-15 October 1983, question III: Inter-urban roads and motorways, p. 352-354, Permanent International Association of Road Congresses, Paris, 1983.
In the Netherlands there are plans to set up a data bank which will contain data for pursuing a national road safety policy. This will enable the nation- wide developments in the sphere of road safety and dangers to road users to be monitored (monitoring function) and to pinpoint specific subjects
Casares Blanco, J.; Sanchez Galiano, J.C.; Fernandez Aracil, P.; Ortuño Padilla, A.
This research analyses how urban form, land use and urban density, may influence the incidence of traffic-related crashes injuries and deaths. It begins with a theoretical overview of studies which deal with the study of the relationship between urban patterns and road safety. Next, it details the development of a database of crash incidence and urban form at the district level for the city of Benidorm (Alicante, Spain) in 2010. Subsequently, it is developed a negative binomial approach for intra-city motor vehicle crash analysis. One-year crash data for Benidorm (the fourth largest tourism destination of Spain, after Barcelona, Madrid and San Bartolomé de Tirajana, and exclusively tourist-oriented city) are analyzed using a geographic information system (GIS) to generate relevant inputs for the analysis. In general, the study finds that a strong land use mix results on fewer road accidents, whereas accidents are more common but less severe in areas of high urban density. Finally, pedestrian accidents research showed that rural and low density environment is related to an important road accident numbers unlike tourism-oriented zones, much more safe for them. Based on these findings, the paper discusses the implications for urban design practice. (Author)
Clancy, Tamera A; Rucklidge, Julia J; Owen, Dean
This study investigated the potential accident-proneness of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a hazardous road-crossing environment. An immersive virtual reality traffic gap-choice task was used to determine whether ADHD adolescents show more unsafe road-crossing behavior than controls. Participants (ages 13 to 17) were identified with (n = 24) or without (n = 24) ADHD according to a standardized protocol (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version and Conners' Scales), with equal number of boys (n = 12) and girls (n = 12) in each group. ADHD adolescents did not take stimulant medication on the day of testing. Participants with ADHD had a lower margin of safety, walked slower, underutilized the available gap in incoming traffic, showed greater variability in road-crossing behavior, and evidenced twice as many collisions as compared to controls. No sex differences were found. Virtual reality may help identify and educate those at higher risk of being involved in dangerous traffic situations.
Evaluation of Policy Implementation at Norm Strategy Criteria Procedure Safety Management System that Influence the Safety Culture in Building Construction, Housing, Waterworks, Road and Bridge Project in Indonesia
Yusuf Latief; Rossy Armyn Machfudiyanto; Brain Harryanto; Cahyadi Santoso
Unideal Safety culture in Indonesia requires an evaluation of policy implementation refers to the construction safety regulation, Ministry Regulation 05/PRT/2014. Out of Norms, Standards, Procedures and Criteria (NSPK), we only have Norms and Procedure. As for Standard and Criteria are still being planned. This research on building, housing, water resource, roads and bridges construction at the Ministry of General Works and Housing resulted in having significant relation between safety policy...
Schlögl, Matthias; Laaha, Gregor
The assessment of road infrastructure exposure to extreme weather events is of major importance for scientists and practitioners alike. In this study, we compare the different extreme value approaches and fitting methods with respect to their value for assessing the exposure of transport networks to extreme precipitation and temperature impacts. Based on an Austrian data set from 25 meteorological stations representing diverse meteorological conditions, we assess the added value of partial duration series (PDS) over the standardly used annual maxima series (AMS) in order to give recommendations for performing extreme value statistics of meteorological hazards. Results show the merits of the robust L-moment estimation, which yielded better results than maximum likelihood estimation in 62 % of all cases. At the same time, results question the general assumption of the threshold excess approach (employing PDS) being superior to the block maxima approach (employing AMS) due to information gain. For low return periods (non-extreme events) the PDS approach tends to overestimate return levels as compared to the AMS approach, whereas an opposite behavior was found for high return levels (extreme events). In extreme cases, an inappropriate threshold was shown to lead to considerable biases that may outperform the possible gain of information from including additional extreme events by far. This effect was visible from neither the square-root criterion nor standardly used graphical diagnosis (mean residual life plot) but rather from a direct comparison of AMS and PDS in combined quantile plots. We therefore recommend performing AMS and PDS approaches simultaneously in order to select the best-suited approach. This will make the analyses more robust, not only in cases where threshold selection and dependency introduces biases to the PDS approach but also in cases where the AMS contains non-extreme events that may introduce similar biases. For assessing the performance of
Gupta, S; Hoe, C; Özkan, T; Lajunen, T J; Vursavas, F; Sener, S; Hyder, A A
Turkey was included in the Bloomberg Philanthropies funded Global Road Safety Program (2010-14) with Ankara and Afyonkarahisar (Afyon) selected for interventions to manage speed and encourage seat-belt use. The objectives of this study are to present the monitoring and evaluation findings of seat-belt use and speed in Afyon and Ankara over the five years and to assess overall impact of the program on road traffic injury, and death rates in Turkey. Quasi-experimental before after without comparison. In collaboration with the Middle East Technical University, roadside observations and interviews were coupled with secondary data to monitor changes in risk factors and outcomes at the two intervention sites. The percentage of seat-belt use among drivers and front-seat passengers in Afyon and Ankara increased significantly between 2010 and 2014 with increased self-reported use and preceded by an increase in tickets (fines) for not using seat belts. There were uneven improvements in speed reduction. In Afyon, the average speed increased significantly from 46.3 km/h in 2012 to about 52.7 km/h in 2014 on roads where the speed limits were 50 km/h. In Ankara, the average speed remained less than 55 km/h during the program period (range: 50-54 km/h; P Turkey to substantially reduce road traffic injuries will lead to increased program implementation matched with a robust evaluation program, with suitable controls. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available While planning a double-hole road tunnel with a length higher than one km, it is important to pay attention to the safety factor if an accident occurs. If there is a power outage, in order to avoid critical situations that could jeopardize the safety of the people present (facilitating the stream coming out from the tunnel and the arrival of the emergency personnel, it is really important to guarantee uninterrupted lighting of roadways, mandatory emergency lay-bys, and ways of escape. Uninterrupted service of the lighting systems supply must be guaranteed, in accordance with the current regulations, through the exertion of UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply and power units. During tunnel construction, such devices represent a cost that must be amortized. In this case study, which takes into consideration a section of a road tunnel characterized by emergency lay-bys and ways of escape, emergency and security lighting were planned and installation and management costs were evaluated. The goal of this research was the creation of a cash flow thanks to the energy generated by photovoltaic panels, in a way that the service life of the system (25 years coincided with the amortization of the costs of the backup electrical equipment installation (complying with the regulations. The possibility of over-dimensioning the UPS and providing it with a proper photovoltaic panel surface (235 kWp to generate and exchange electric energy with the grid was taken into consideration.
Aksan, Nazan; Hacker, Sarah D; Sager, Lauren; Dawson, Jeffrey; Anderson, Steven; Rizzo, Matthew
Forty-two younger (Mean age = 35) and 37 older drivers (Mean age = 77) completed four similar simulated drives. In addition, 32 younger and 30 older drivers completed a standard on-road drive in an instrumented vehicle. Performance in the simulated drives was evaluated using both electronic drive data and video-review of errors. Safety errors during the on-road drive were evaluated by a certified driving instructor blind to simulator performance, using state Department of Transportation criteria. We examined the degree of convergence in performance across the two platforms on various driving tasks including lane change, lane keeping, speed control, stopping, turns, and overall performance. Differences based on age group indicated a pattern of strong relative validity for simulator measures. However, relative rank-order in specific metrics of performance suggested a pattern of moderate relative validity. The findings have implications for the use of simulators in assessments of driving safety as well as its use in training and/or rehabilitation settings.
Harmer, Luke; Schemitsch, Emil H
The decade of action for road traffic safety provides orthopaedic surgeons with an opportunity to contribute to policy that will improve the ability to deliver trauma care. In the previous 2 decades outcomes for orthopaedic trauma patients have improved significantly. The decade of action for road traffic safety will bring attention and funding to trauma related endeavors. The challenge before orthopaedic surgeons and orthopaedic trauma societies is to provide delivery mechanisms so that clinical care can reach populations around the globe. Organizing orthopaedic trauma care into care delivery value chains provides a tool for understanding how efficiency can be gained over the entire cycle of care from emergent management through rehabilitation and revision surgery when needed. Integrated practice units allow orthopaedic surgeons to collaborate with other trauma specialists to provide integrated care and exploit the areas of natural overlap to create trauma care systems that optimize communication for surgeons and simplify follow up for patients. By using these tools orthopaedic surgeons can deliver excellent trauma care to populations around the world.
Aksan, Nazan; Hacker, Sarah D.; Sager, Lauren; Dawson, Jeffrey; Anderson, Steven; Rizzo, Matthew
Forty-two younger (Mean age = 35) and 37 older drivers (Mean age = 77) completed four similar simulated drives. In addition, 32 younger and 30 older drivers completed a standard on-road drive in an instrumented vehicle. Performance in the simulated drives was evaluated using both electronic drive data and video-review of errors. Safety errors during the on-road drive were evaluated by a certified driving instructor blind to simulator performance, using state Department of Transportation criteria. We examined the degree of convergence in performance across the two platforms on various driving tasks including lane change, lane keeping, speed control, stopping, turns, and overall performance. Differences based on age group indicated a pattern of strong relative validity for simulator measures. However, relative rank-order in specific metrics of performance suggested a pattern of moderate relative validity. The findings have implications for the use of simulators in assessments of driving safety as well as its use in training and/or rehabilitation settings. PMID:28649572
Persaud, Bhagwant; Lan, Bo; Lyon, Craig; Bhim, Ravi
The empirical Bayes (EB) approach has now gained wide acceptance among researchers as the much preferred one for the before-after evaluation of road safety treatments. In this approach, the before period crash experience at treated sites is used in conjunction with a crash prediction model for untreated reference sites to estimate the expected number of crashes that would have occurred without treatment. This estimate is compared to the count of crashes observed after treatment to evaluate the effect of the treatment. This procedure accounts for regression-to-the-mean effects that result from the natural tendency to select for treatment those sites with high observed crash frequencies. Of late, a fully Bayesian (FB) approach has been suggested as a useful, though complex alternative to the empirical Bayes approach in that it is believed to require less data for untreated reference sites, it better accounts for uncertainty in data used, and it provides more detailed causal inferences and more flexibility in selecting crash count distributions. This paper adds to the literature on comparing the two Bayesian approaches through empirical applications. The main application is an evaluation of the conversion of road segments from a four-lane to a three-lane cross-section with two-way left-turn lanes (also known as road diets). For completeness, the paper also summarizes the results of an earlier application pertaining to the evaluation of conversion of rural intersections from unsignalized to signalized control. For both applications, the estimated safety effects from the two approaches are comparable.
Híjar, Martha; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Santoyo-Castillo, Dzoara; Lunnen, Jeffrey C; Chandran, Aruna; Celis, Alfredo; Carmona-Lozano, Socorro
To assess the reach of three different types of road safety interventions (social marketing, education and law enforcement) implemented as part of the Iniciativa Mexicana de Seguridad Vial y Prevención de Lesiones en el Tránsito (Mexican Initiative for Road Safety and the Prevention of Road Traffic Injuries) among youth in two Mexican cities (Guadalajara-Zapopan, Jalisco and León, Guanajuato), and to examine students' self-reported attitude change after being exposed to these interventions. A cross-sectional design was utilized to evaluate the reach of the city-wide interventions among a random sample of public and private high school and college students from October to December 2011. A total of 5,114 students completed a self-administered questionnaire. In both cities, students reported a greater exposure to social marketing (73% in Guadalajara-Zapopan and 64% in León) as compared to educational interventions (29.3% in León and 21.6% in Guadalajara-Zapopan) and law enforcement activities (~12% in both). Among respondents, self-reported attitude change was higher after being exposed to educational interventions than law enforcement. Social marketing yielded the lowest prevalence of self-reported attitude change. Our results show a potential moderate impact, measured as self-reported attitude change, resulting from the three intervention approaches under study. Future studies should address the intensity of exposure as well as the translation of attitude change into safer behaviors. Information generated by this study could be useful for local authorities in the intervention areas to inform their activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Langeland, Trond Åge
The vision for the road safety work in Norway is to strive for zero fatalities and zero serious injuries. The policy is referred to as “the zero vision.” The Swedish National Roads Administration first introduced this in 1997. It was adapted to Norway by the Public Roads Administration (the PRA)1 in 1999 and passed by Parliament as part of the National Transport Plan in February 2001. Even if the zero vision was not passed before 2001, I count 1999 as the year when it began to make its mark o...
Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Argyropoulou, E. Papantoniou, P. Kirk, A. Broughton, J. Knowles, J. Brandstaetter, C. Candappa, N. Christoph, M. Vis, M. Pace, J.-F. López de Cozar, E. Pérez-Fuster, P. Sanmartín, J. Haddak, M. & Moutengou, E.
In this Basic Fact Sheet, "single vehicle accident" or single vehicle collision is a type of road traffic accident in which only one vehicle and no other road user is involved. Run-off-road collisions, collisions with fallen rocks or debris in the road, rollover crashes within the roadway and
Chuah, Kee Man; Chen, Chwen Jen; Teh, Chee Siong
Virtual reality (VR) has been prevalently used as a tool to help students learn and to simulate situations that are too hazardous to practice in real life. The present study aims to explore the capability of VR to achieve these two purposes and demonstrate a novel application of the result, using VR to help school students learn about road safety skills, which are impractical to be carried out in real-life situations. This paper describes the system design of the VR-based learning environment known as Virtual Simulated Traffics for Road Safety Education (ViSTREET) and its various features. An overview of the technical procedures for its development is also included. Ultimately, this paper highlights the potential use of VR in addressing the learning problem concerning road safety education programme in Malaysia.
Full Text Available Considering motorcyclists, pedestrians and bicyclists as vulnerable road users (VRUs, more than 75 percent of the victims of fatal crashes involving large trucks in Taiwan are VRUs. Most crashes occurred at or were due to the blind spots of large trucks because of the size and traveling locations of the VRUs. This study applies typology and statistical methods to estimate the potential safety benefit of blind spot detection (BSD systems for large trucks on VRUs. The pre-crash scenarios associated with the blind spots of large trucks were derived by counting the maneuvers of large trucks and VRUs, prior to crashes, the truck drivers’ improper behaviors (cause of crashes, and the crash types. The number of crashes and fatalities were counted for the pre-crash scenario relevant to the BSD systems. A value of 0.8 of human machine interface factor (HMIF based on a previous study was applied to estimate the potential safety benefits of the BSD system. The results show that the implementation of BSD systems on all large trucks could help avoid about 24, 10, and 11 percent of large truck-involved crashes with pedestrians, bicycles, and motorcycles, respectively. The BSD systems could also save 5 pedestrians, 3 bicyclists, and 15 motorcyclists per year from crashes involving large trucks.
Chen, Yongsheng; Persaud, Bhagwant
Crash modification factors (CMFs) for road safety treatments are developed as multiplicative factors that are used to reflect the expected changes in safety performance associated with changes in highway design and/or the traffic control features. However, current CMFs have methodological drawbacks. For example, variability with application circumstance is not well understood, and, as important, correlation is not addressed when several CMFs are applied multiplicatively. These issues can be addressed by developing safety performance functions (SPFs) with components of crash modification functions (CM-Functions), an approach that includes all CMF related variables, along with others, while capturing quantitative and other effects of factors and accounting for cross-factor correlations. CM-Functions can capture the safety impact of factors through a continuous and quantitative approach, avoiding the problematic categorical analysis that is often used to capture CMF variability. There are two formulations to develop such SPFs with CM-Function components - fully specified models and hierarchical models. Based on sample datasets from two Canadian cities, both approaches are investigated in this paper. While both model formulations yielded promising results and reasonable CM-Functions, the hierarchical model was found to be more suitable in retaining homogeneity of first-level SPFs, while addressing CM-Functions in sub-level modeling. In addition, hierarchical models better capture the correlations between different impact factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Methods for investigating the relationship between accidents, road user behaviour and road design standards. Annex III to SWOV-report `Safety effects of road design standards', R-94-7 (see C 2838 (IRRD 866221).
Maycock, G. & Summersgill, I.
This volume is one of the annexes to a main report on safety effects of road design standards which was compiled by SWOV in collaboration with other European partners, in 1993-1994. For the covering abstract of the report or the report itself, see C 2838. This annex summarises the alternative
This paper reports on Birmingham City Council's Streets Ahead on Safety project which aims to improve road safety and quality of life in an area of multiple deprivation where 87 000 people from largely Asian, immigrant backgrounds live. A third of residents are under 16 years old and 58% self-define their religion as Muslim. The area has a poor traffic accident record leading to high levels of killed or seriously injured children. Child accidental injury in Europe is reaching 'epidemic' proportions, requiring innovative, ameliorative approaches to redress. Existing UK school-based road safety initiatives rarely extend beyond the 'tokenistic', but this project endeavoured to encourage a highway authority, engineers and road safety officers to provide local young people with opportunities to participate in decision-making in the belief that the active engagement of young service users would lead to more effective and sustainable solutions to accident prevention. Embracing the city's ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), this project promoted young people's participation in decision-making around engineering plans for their local community. The project included 405 young people aged 9-11 years who conducted environmental audits, interactive road safety awareness and citizenship training, and engaged as decision-makers. Successful outcomes include increased knowledge of road and community safety issues, and the establishment of young people as stakeholders in the development of their own safety and active engagement with service providers in the development of engineering proposals. This paper highlights the potential dynamics of participation and the dilemmas it poses for relationships between service users and providers, and outlines some of the barriers confronted by young people in learning to be active participants.
In several papers, Hauer (1988, 1989, 2000a, 2000b, 2016) has argued that the level of safety built into roads is unpremeditated, i.e. not the result of decisions based on knowledge of the safety impacts of design standards. Hauer has pointed out that the development of knowledge about the level of safety built into roads has been slow and remains incomplete even today. Based on these observations, this paper asks whether evolutionary theory can contribute to explaining the slow development of knowledge. A key proposition of evolutionary theory is that knowledge is discovered through a process of learning-by-doing; it is not necessarily produced intentionally by means of research or development. An unintentional discovery of knowledge is treacherous as far as road safety is concerned, since an apparently effective safety treatment may simply be the result of regression-to-the-mean. The importance of regression-to-the-mean was not fully understood until about 1980, and a substantial part of what was regarded as known at that time may have been based on studies not controlling for regression-to-the-mean. An attempt to provide an axiomatic foundation for designing a safe road system was made by Gunnarsson and Lindström (1970). This had the ambition of providing universal guidelines that would facilitate a preventive approach, rather than the reactive approach based on accident history (i.e. designing a system known to be safe, rather than reacting to events in a system of unknown safety). Three facts are notable about these principles. First, they are stated in very general terms and do not address many of the details of road design or traffic control. Second, they are not based on experience showing their effectiveness. Third, they are partial and do not address the interaction between elements of the road traffic system, in particular road user adaptation to system design. Another notable fact consistent with evolutionary theory, is that the safety margins built
Li, Q; Ma, S; Bishai, D; Hyder, A A
Road traffic injuries (RTI) cause a significant number of injuries and deaths in China every year; the World Health Organization estimated 261,367 deaths due to RTI in 2013. As a result of the ongoing growth of China's economy, road construction and motorisation, RTI are expected to impose a heavy health burden in the future. However, the public and policy makers have not widely perceived RTI as a public health issue commensurate with its consequences, in part, due to a lack of intuitive indicator measuring the health impact. Employs the cause-eliminating life table technique to provide a measure of the burden of RTI based on data from a nationally representative surveillance system in China. Previous studies have used indicators such as event counts, rates and disability-adjusted life years to measure the health impact of RTI; but this study uses potential gains in life expectancy to measure this impact. Eliminating RTI could lead to a gain of 0.52 years in life expectancy in 2012, meaning that on average Chinese people could live a half year more than they would in the presence of RTI. Males have a substantially higher RTI death rate and consequently could have a gain in life expectancy more than twice as large as females (male 0.72 years vs female 0.28 years). The gain in rural areas (0.65 years) is twice that in urban areas (0.32 years). The significant gain in life expectancy signals the urgency for public actions to improve road safety; the disparity in the burden across regions and sexes indicate a great opportunity for targeted interventions to protect health and save lives. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
The effects of `non-infrastructural' measures to improve the safety of vulnerable road users : a review of international findings, prepared for the OECD Scientific Expert Group "Safety of vulnerable road users".
This report reviews the evaluated effects of what can be called `non-infrastructural measures' to improve the safety of vulnerable road users. Three selected areas are discussed: education and training, measures to enhance visibility and conspecuity, and protective devices for bicyclists. Other
Guo, Qiang; Xu, Pengpeng; Pei, Xin; Wong, S C; Yao, Danya
Pedestrian safety is increasingly recognized as a major public health concern. Extensive safety studies have been conducted to examine the influence of multiple variables on the occurrence of pedestrian-vehicle crashes. However, the explicit relationship between pedestrian safety and road network characteristics remains unknown. This study particularly focused on the role of different road network patterns on the occurrence of crashes involving pedestrians. A global integration index via space syntax was introduced to quantify the topological structures of road networks. The Bayesian Poisson-lognormal (PLN) models with conditional autoregressive (CAR) prior were then developed via three different proximity structures: contiguity, geometry-centroid distance, and road network connectivity. The models were also compared with the PLN counterpart without spatial correlation effects. The analysis was based on a comprehensive crash dataset from 131 selected traffic analysis zones in Hong Kong. The results indicated that higher global integration was associated with more pedestrian-vehicle crashes; the irregular pattern network was proved to be safest in terms of pedestrian crash occurrences, whereas the grid pattern was the least safe; the CAR model with a neighborhood structure based on road network connectivity was found to outperform in model goodness-of-fit, implying the importance of accurately accounting for spatial correlation when modeling spatially aggregated crash data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wegman, F.C.M. Roszbach, R. Mulder, J.A.G. Schoon, C.C. & Poppe, F.
This study develops a Road Safety Impact Assessment (RIA) tool. RIAs could be made on a more strategic level, and on an individual project or scheme level. On a strategic level, the study suggests to assess safety consequences of changes of traffic over a road network due to infrastructural projects
This study examines the administrative processes that led to the implementation of road safety measures in Dutch Regional Traffic and Transport Plans. The design of the study is a multiple case study in six regions in the Netherlands. The road safety policy is evaluated by looking at the
Draskóczy, M. Mocsári, T. Risser, R. Lehner, U. Várhelyi, A. Mäkinen, T. Oei, H.-l. & Comte, S.
At the conference "Road Safety Europe" held in Bergisch Gladbach, Germany, September 21-23, 1998, one of the themes was "Speed management and road safety - EU-project MASTER". Five of the papers presented within this framework were: Present speeds and speed management methods in Europe (Draskóczy,
Kwon, Oh Hoon; Rhee, Wonjong; Yoon, Yoonjin
Transportation continues to be an integral part of modern life, and the importance of road traffic safety cannot be overstated. Consequently, recent road traffic safety studies have focused on analysis of risk factors that impact fatality and injury level (severity) of traffic accidents. While some of the risk factors, such as drug use and drinking, are widely known to affect severity, an accurate modeling of their influences is still an open research topic. Furthermore, there are innumerable risk factors that are waiting to be discovered or analyzed. A promising approach is to investigate historical traffic accident data that have been collected in the past decades. This study inspects traffic accident reports that have been accumulated by the California Highway Patrol (CHP) since 1973 for which each accident report contains around 100 data fields. Among them, we investigate 25 fields between 2004 and 2010 that are most relevant to car accidents. Using two classification methods, the Naive Bayes classifier and the decision tree classifier, the relative importance of the data fields, i.e., risk factors, is revealed with respect to the resulting severity level. Performances of the classifiers are compared to each other and a binary logistic regression model is used as the basis for the comparisons. Some of the high-ranking risk factors are found to be strongly dependent on each other, and their incremental gains on estimating or modeling severity level are evaluated quantitatively. The analysis shows that only a handful of the risk factors in the data dominate the severity level and that dependency among the top risk factors is an imperative trait to consider for an accurate analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Snowdon, Anne W; Hussein, Abdul; Purc-Stevenson, Rebecca; Bruce, Beth; Kolga, Carol; Boase, Paul; Howard, Andrew
This study examines safety seat use among Canadian children and evaluates child safety seat use relative to the national policy for child occupant safety, Road Safety Vision 2010. Using a probability sample, roadside observations of car safety seat use were collected from May to October of 2006 for 13,500 children aged from birth to 9 years in 10,084 vehicles at 182 sites in nine Canadian provinces and one territory. Observations revealed that 89.9% of Canadian children were restrained in some type of restraint. However, only 60.5% of these children were restrained in the correct safety seat. When comparing rates of correct use across provinces, results were not significantly different in provinces with booster seat legislation and those without this legislation. This data may be useful for healthcare practitioners and policy makers to develop interventions aimed at increasing appropriate car safety seat use for children in Canada.
Twisk, D.A.M. Vlakveld, W.P. Commandeur, J.J.F. Shope, J.T. & Kok, G.
A practical approach was developed to assess and compare the effects of five short road safety education (RSE) programmes for young adolescents that does not rely on injury or crash data but uses self reported behaviour. Questionnaires were administered just before and about one month after
Twisk, Divera A.M.; Vlakveld, Willem P.; Commandeur, Jacques J.F.; Shope, Jean T.; Kok, Gerjo
A practical approach was developed to assess and compare the effects of five short road safety education (RSE) programmes for young adolescents that does not rely on injury or crash data but uses self reported behaviour. Questionnaires were administered just before and about one month after
Bijleveld, F.D. & Churchill, T.
The influence of changes in extreme weather conditions is often identified as a cause of fluctuations in road safety and the resulting numbers of crashes and casualties. This report focuses on an analysis of the aggregate, accumulated effect of weather conditions (precipitation and temperature) on
All, Anissa; Van Looy, Jan; Castellar, Elena Patricia Nuñez
This study explores the added value of co-design in addition to other innovation research methods in the process of developing a serious game design document for a road safety game. The sessions aimed at exploring 4 aspects of a location-based game experience: themes, game mechanics, mobile phone applications and locations for mini-games. In…
Full Text Available Road accidents have the highest externality costs to society and to the economy, even when compared to the externality damages associated with air emissions and oil dependency. Road safety is one of the most complicated topics, which involves many interdependencies, and so, a sufficiently thorough analysis of roadway safety will require a novel system-based approach in which the associated feedback relationships and causal effects are given appropriate consideration. The factors affecting accident frequency and severity are highly dependent on economic parameters, environmental factors and weather conditions. In this study, we try to use a system dynamics modeling approach to model the climate change-road safety-economy nexus, thereby investigating the complex interactions among these important areas by tracking how they affect each other over time. For this purpose, five sub-models are developed to model each aspect of the overall nexus and to interact with each other to simulate the overall system. As a result, this comprehensive model can provide a platform for policy makers to test the effectiveness of different policy scenarios to reduce the negative consequences of traffic accidents and improve road safety.
Hinchcliff, Reece; Senserrick, Teresa; Travaglia, Joanne; Greenfield, David; Ivers, Rebecca
Knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) can enable evidence-informed road safety policy and practice by reducing the gap between what is known to be effective and what actually occurs. A quality improvement project, undertaken within a government policy frame, was implemented in 2015 to produce an enhanced KTE framework for road safety (the framework). Information was collected from 35 road safety stakeholders in the UK, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. Thirteen KTE facilitators were identified that covered research funding and production, the expertise of knowledge users and dissemination practices. The framework was subsequently developed, which separated facilitators seen as essential for a KTE system, from others perceived as aspirational due to their lesser influence and the considerable time and resources required for their implementation. The framework provides a heuristic device to enable policy agencies to holistically assess and improve current KTE systems for road safety, to encourage evidence-informed policy and practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
This special section arose from a symposium held at the 5th International Conference on Traffic and Transport Psychology (ICTTP), which took place in Groningen, the Netherlands, 29–31 August 2012. The authors organized this symposium on “The history of road safety research”. (Author/publisher)
Bhalla, Kavi; Li, Qingfeng; Duan, Leilen; Wang, Yuan; Bishai, David; Hyder, Adnan A
Road traffic crashes in China kill in excess of 250,000 people annually, more than any other country in the world. They are the fourth leading cause of premature death in the country and are responsible for 2.4% of the burden of non-fatal health loss in the country. Interventions to curb speeding and drunk driving are being implemented in the cities of Suzhou and Dalian since late 2010. We evaluated the ongoing effect of these activities through five roadside surveys, seven rounds of observational studies, and analysis of crash statistics in the two cities. We find that thus far, the prevalence of speeding has not reduced in either city with the notable exception of one site in Dalian, where the percentage of speeding vehicles declined from nearly 70% to below 10% after an interval-based speed enforcement system was installed. The broader deployment of such speed control technologies across China and other countries should be explored. Roadside alcohol testing suggests that prevalence of drunk driving (i.e. BAC >20 mg%) declined from 6.4% to 0.5% in Suzhou and from 1.7% to 0.7% in Dalian during the monitored time period. However, the measured prevalence rates are very low and should be validated against estimates based on hospital studies. Roadside interviews suggest that the population of both cities is already highly sensitized to the risks associated with drunk driving and speeding. Crash statistics from the two cities do not show appreciable declines in injuries and fatalities as yet. However, the possibility of substantial underreporting in crash statistics sourced from traffic police poses a severe threat to monitoring progress towards road safety in Suzhou, Dalian and across China. There is an urgent need for China to invest in a reliable road traffic injury surveillance system that can provide information for describing key risk factors, evaluating the impact of safety policies, and benchmarking achievements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Monitoring vehicle traffic flow plays a central role in enhancing traffic management, transportation safety and cost savings. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for detection of traffic congestion. Specifically, we combine the flexibility and simplicity of a piecewise switched linear (PWSL) macroscopic traffic model and the greater capacity of the exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) monitoring chart. Macroscopic models, which have few, easily calibrated parameters, are employed to describe a free traffic flow at the macroscopic level. Then, we apply the EWMA monitoring chart to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the constructed PWSL model to detect congested situations. In this strategy, wavelet-based multiscale filtering of data has been used before the application of the EWMA scheme to improve further the robustness of this method to measurement noise and reduce the false alarms due to modeling errors. The performance of the PWSL-EWMA approach is successfully tested on traffic data from the three lane highway portion of the Interstate 210 (I-210) highway of the west of California and the four lane highway portion of the State Route 60 (SR60) highway from the east of California, provided by the Caltrans Performance Measurement System (PeMS). Results show the ability of the PWSL-EWMA approach to monitor vehicle traffic, confirming the promising application of this statistical tool to the supervision of traffic flow congestion.
Road design and environment : best practice on self-explaining and forgiving roads. Deliverable D3 of the RiPCORD-iSEREST project (Road Infrastructure Safety Protection - Core-Research and Development for Road Safety in Europe; Increasing safety and reliability of secondary roads for a sustainable Surface Transport).
Matena, S. Louwerse, W. Schermers, G. Vaneerdewegh, P. Pokorny, P. Gaitanidou, L. Elvik, R. & Cardoso, J.
Main objective of work-package 3 of Ripcord-lserest was to collect information on best practices concerning the design of self-explaining and forgiving roads. In order to gain an overview on existing practises on road categorisation and the layout of typical rural roads a questionnaire survey had
Loo, Becky P. Y.; Anderson, Tessa Kate
Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions centers on the geographical nature of road crashes, and uses spatial methods to provide a greater understanding of the patterns and processes that cause them. Written by internationally known experts in the field of transport geography, the book...... outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link...
Arsénio, E. Cardoso, J. Lima Azevedo, C. Chaziris, A. Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Gitelman, V. Duivenvoorden, K. Schermers, G. & Weijermars, W.
This report discusses the results of pilot projects in which the road network SPI was applied. The road network SPI assesses whether the 'right road' is in the 'right place', i.e. it investigates whether the actual road category meets the road category that should be present given the sizes of the
... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Institutional fire safety policies and fire statistics... fire statistics. (a) Additional definitions that apply to this section. Cause of fire: The factor or...; however, it does not include indirect loss, such as business interruption. (b) Annual fire safety report...
Linking road accident data to other files : an integrated road accident recordkeeping system. Contribution in Proceedings of Seminar P 'Road Safety' held at the 14th PTHC Summer Annual Meeting, University of Sussex, England, from 14-17 July 1986. Volume P 284, p. 55-86.
The road accident data which the police collect is of great value to road safety research and is used extensively. This data increases greatly in value if it can be linked to other files which contain more detailed information on exposure. Linking road accident data to other files results in what we
Full Text Available Modern road accident investigation and database structures are focused on accident analysis and classification from the point of view of the accident itself. The presented article offers a new approach, which will describe the accident from the point of view of integrated safety vehicle systems. Seven main categories have been defined to specify the level of importance of automated system intervention. One of the proposed categories is a new approach to defining the collision probability of an ego-vehicle with another object. This approach focuses on determining a 2-D reaction space, which describes all possible positions of the vehicle or other moving object in the specified amount of time in the future. This is to be used for defining the probability of the vehicles interacting - when the intersection of two reaction spaces exists, an action has to be taken on the side of ego-vehicle. The currently used 1-D quantity of TTC (time-to-collision can be superseded by the new reaction space variable. Such new quantity, whose basic idea is described in the article, enables the option of counting not only with necessary braking time, but mitigation by changing direction is then easily feasible. Finally, transparent classification measures of a probable accident are proposed. Their application is highly effective not only during basic accident comparison, but also for an on-board safety system.
Ryan, Rebekah; Hosking, Jamie; Wilkinson-Meyers, Laura; Ameratunga, Shanthi
Safe neighbourhood environments can provide important spaces for child activity and well-being. Self-explaining roads (SERs), which reduce vehicle speeds by changing neighbourhood street design, are an intervention with known safety benefits. However, little is known about children's experiences of SERs. We engaged schoolchildren in developing a project to articulate children's perspectives of SERs. Students actively researched the experiences of other children at their school, and then participated in a researcher-led focus group. Children emphasised safer spaces for play as an important benefit of SERs. As well as using new designated play spaces adjoining footpaths, children also felt the roadway became safer, and more fun for cycling. In contrast, children reported that parents held mainly negative views of SERs, considering them annoying and inconvenient. From children's perspective, SERs can provide safe spaces for neighbourhood play, despite limited parental support. Potential benefits for children as well as established safety benefits should inform future implementation of SERs. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Conducting rigorous before-and-after studies is essential for improving knowledge regarding the effects of road safety measures. However, state-of-the-art approaches like the empirical Bayes or fully Bayesian techniques cannot always be applied, as the data required by these approaches may be missing or unreliable. The choice facing researchers in such a situation is to either apply "second-best" approaches or abstain from doing an evaluation study. An objection to applying second-best approaches is that these approaches do not control as well for confounding factors as state-of-the-art approaches. This paper explores the implications of choice of study design by examining how the findings of several evaluation studies made in Norway depend on choices made with respect to: 1. Using the empirical Bayes approach versus using simpler approaches; 2. Use or non-use of a comparison group; 3. The choice of comparison group when there is more than one candidate. It is found that the choices made with respect to these points can greatly influence the estimates of safety effects in before-and-after studies. Two second-best techniques (i.e. techniques other than the empirical Bayes approach) for controlling for confounding factors were tested. The techniques were found not to produce unbiased estimates of effect and their use is therefore discouraged. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This volume is one of the annexes to a main report on safety effects of road design standards which was compiled by SWOV in collaboration with other European partners, in 1993-1994. For the covering abstract of the report or the report itself, see C 2838. This annex compares the road design
Martinussen, Laila Marianne
The aim of the Ph.D. study presented in this thesis was to facilitate improved road safety through increased understanding of methods used to measure driving behaviour, and through increased knowledge about driving behaviour in sub-groups of drivers. More specifically, the usefulness of the Driver......, indicating that the problem lies in the drivers’ attitudes towards safety (Article 3). 6. It is indicated that rather than viewing safety and risk as two ends of a continuum, safety and risk should be understood as two separate constructs, with different underlying motives. Therefore it is suggested...... that interventions should focus both on increasing safety and on decreasing risk, as measures to increase attitudes towards safety might not decrease attitudes towards risk (Article 4). 7. It is shown an attitude-behaviour inconsistency within males who report high frequency of violations...
Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 6, Driver Behaviour Monitoring through Naturalistic Driving: Deliverable 6.4: Naturalistic Driving for monitoring safety performance indicators and exposure: considerations for implementation.
Schagen, I.N.L.G. van & Reed, S.
DaCoTA was a Collaborative Project under the European Seventh Framework Programme that aimed to develop tools and methodologies to support road safety policy and further extend and enhance the European Road Safety Observatory (ERSO). One of the Work Packages in DaCoTA, WP6, focused on the usefulness
Safety effects of road design standards in Europe. Contribution to the International Symposium on Highway Geometric Design Practices, Session on Safety and Human Factors Considerations, Boston, Massachusetts, August 30 - September 1, 1995.
Wegman, F.C.M. & Slop, M.
This paper deals with the result of a study carried out for the European Commission by the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, in co-operation with a number of other European institutes, and which was reported in 1994. The title of the study is "Safety Effects of Road Design Standards." The
L. de Haro-Ariet
Full Text Available The uplink capacity and the interference statistics of the sectorsof a long groove-shaped road W-CDMA microcell are studied. A model of 9microcells in a groove-shaped road is used to analyze the uplink. Ahybrid model for the propagation is used in the analysis. The capacityand the interference statistics of the cell are studied for differentsector ranges, different specific attenuation factors, differentantenna side lobe levels and different bend losses.
The study consisted of a statistical analysis of accidents (resulting in death, injury or material damage only) registered on the main carriageways of motorways, distinguished according to driving direction and number of lanes. Only those sections of road which did not contain acceleration lanes,
Chekijian, Sharon Anoush; Truzyan, Nune
: To determine knowledge and attitudes regarding traffic safety devices, measures, and legislation in the general population in Yerevan, Republic of Armenia. : We conducted a baseline random digit dial fixed line telephone verbal survey of Yerevan households in April 2009 with a follow-up survey in May 2010. Survey domains included restraint use, motor vehicle crash experiences, and attitudes regarding traffic safety. : In the initial survey, of 2137 numbers dialed, 436 persons were reached and 390 (90%) agreed to participate. Of survey respondents, 90% percent of household cars had seatbelts, while 47% had airbags. Twenty-four percent always or usually wore a seatbelt when driving, 21% wore a belt as a passenger. 39% were unaware of child restraints. Of the 61% who were aware of child restraints, only 32% had ever used one. A follow-up survey was conducted one year later after enforcement efforts were increased. In the follow-up survey, 81% percent always or usually wore a seatbelt when driving, and 69% wore a belt as a passenger. There was no significant increase of awareness or use of child restraints in the follow-up survey. : Although cars in Yerevan have seat belts, the majority of drivers and passengers prior to the intervention did not use them. Knowledge and use of child restraints was poor. The follow-up survey conducted after an enforcement campaign was underway in Yerevan showed that improved enforcement greatly increased awareness and compliance with current legislation. This study provides vital baseline information for the formulation of future policy. It also highlights the need for a multi-dimensional road traffic safety initiative through public educational campaigns, enforcement of current laws, and development of novel prevention policies and regulations.
Teyhan, Alison; Cornish, Rosie; Macleod, John; Boyd, Andy; Doerner, Rita; Sissons Joshi, Mary
To evaluate if attendance at Lifeskills, a safety education centre for children in Year 6 (10-11 years), is associated with engagement in safer behaviours, and with fewer accidents and injuries, in adolescence. The sample are participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who attended school in the Lifeskills catchment area in Year 6; 60% attended Lifeskills. At 14-15 years, participants (n approximately 3000, varies by outcome) self-reported road safety behaviours and accidents, and perceived health effects and use of alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco. Additional outcomes from linkage to Hospital Episodes Statistics were available for a sub-sample (n=1768): hospital admittance (for accident-related reason, from 11-16 years) and A&E attendance (for any reason, from approximately 14-16 years). Children who attended Lifeskills were more likely to report using pedestrian crossings on their way to school than children who did not attend (59% versus 52%). Lifeskills attendance was unrelated to the ownership of cycle helmets, or the use of cycle helmets, seat belts, or reflective/fluorescent clothing, or to A&E attendance. Use of cycle helmets (37%) and reflective/fluorescent clothing (<4%) on last cycle was low irrespective of Lifeskills attendance. Lifeskills attendance was associated with less reported smoking and cannabis use, but was generally unrelated to perceptions of the health impact of substance use. Lifeskills attendance was associated with some safer behaviours in adolescence. The overall low use of cycle helmets and reflective/fluorescent clothing evidences the need for powerful promotion of some safer behaviours at Lifeskills and at follow-up in schools. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
He, Yuning; Davies, Misty Dawn
The analysis of a safety-critical system often requires detailed knowledge of safe regions and their highdimensional non-linear boundaries. We present a statistical approach to iteratively detect and characterize the boundaries, which are provided as parameterized shape candidates. Using methods from uncertainty quantification and active learning, we incrementally construct a statistical model from only few simulation runs and obtain statistically sound estimates of the shape parameters for safety boundaries.
Stefan, C. Dietze, M. Marchesini, P. Louise, W. & Candappa, N.L.
“ERA-NET ROAD — Coordination and Implementation of Road Research in Europe” was a Coordination Action funded by the 6th Framework Programme of the EC. The partners in ERA-NET ROAD (ENR) were United Kingdom, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, Norway, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Slovenia and
Linking road accident data to other files : an integrated road accident recordkeeping system. Contribution in Proceedings of Seminar P 'Road Safety' held at the 14th PTHC Summer Annual Meeting, University of Sussex, England, from 14-17 July 1986. Volume P 284, p. 55-86.
The road accident data which the police collect is of great value to road safety research and is used extensively. This data increases greatly in value if it can be linked to other files which contain more detailed information on exposure. Linking road accident data to other files results in what we call an Integrated Road Accident Recordkeeping System in -which the combined value of the linked files is greater than that of the sum of their individual values.
Siebold, Michael A; Dillon, Neal P; Fichera, Loris; Labadie, Robert F; Webster, Robert J; Fitzpatrick, J Michael
When robots mill bone near critical structures, safety margins are used to reduce the risk of accidental damage due to inaccurate registration. These margins are typically set heuristically with uniform thickness, which does not reflect the anisotropy and spatial variance of registration error. A method is described to generate spatially varying safety margins around vital anatomy using statistical models of registration uncertainty. Numerical simulations are used to determine the margin geometry that matches a safety threshold specified by the surgeon. The algorithm was applied to CT scans of five temporal bones in the context of mastoidectomy, a common bone milling procedure in ear surgery that must approach vital nerves. Safety margins were generated that satisfied the specified safety levels in every case. Patient safety in image-guided surgery can be increased by incorporating statistical models of registration uncertainty in the generation of safety margins around vital anatomy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Christie, Nicola; Sleney, Judith; Ahmed, Fatima; Knight, Elisabeth
In the UK the most disadvantaged in society are more likely than those more affluent to be injured or killed in a road traffic collision and therefore it is a major cause of health inequality. There is a strong link between ethnicity, deprivation and injury. Whilst national road traffic injury data does not collect ethnic origin the London accident and analysis group does in terms of broad categories such as 'white', 'black' and 'Asian'. Analysis of this data revealed the over-representation of child pedestrian casualties from a 'black' ethnic origin. This information led road safety practitioners in one London borough to map child pedestrian casualties against census data which identified the Somali community as being particularly at risk of being involved in a road traffic collision. Working with the community they sought to discuss and address road safety issues and introduced practical evidence based approaches such as child pedestrian training. The process evaluation of the project used a qualitative approach and showed that engaging with community partners and working across organisational boundaries was a useful strategy to gain an understanding of the Somali community. A bottom approach provided the community with a sense of control and involvement which appears to add value in terms of reducing the sense of powerlessness that marginalised communities often feel. In terms of evaluation, small projects like these, lend themselves to a qualitative process evaluation though it has to be accepted that the strength of this evidence may be regarded as weak. Where possible routine injury data needs to take into account ethnicity which is a known risk factor for road casualty involvement which needs to be continually monitored.
Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni
This study examined whether reward and punishment sensitivities, as conceptualized by Gray and McNaughton's revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST), influenced young female drivers' attention toward a series of positive and negative antispeeding advertisement images. Young females' increasing crash risk is associated with their engagement in risky behaviors, which, in turn, has been associated with a stronger behavioral approach system (BAS; sensitive to rewards). It was predicted that individuals with a stronger BAS would elicit larger N100 and N200 mean amplitudes (reflecting greater attention) toward the positive images. Similar associations were predicted in relation to the fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS; sensitive to punishments) for negative images. Twenty-four female drivers (17-25 years; final N = 16) completed Corr-Cooper's RST-Personality Questionnaire, prior to undergoing an event-related potential computerized visual task (i.e., oddball paradigm) that included positive, negative, and neutral images as targets against checkerboard image distractors. Contrary to expectations, individuals with a stronger BAS (Reward Reactivity and Impulsivity) demonstrated significantly larger N200 mean amplitudes at the Cz electrode site on presentation of the negative images than those with a weaker BAS. No other significant RST effects were found. These findings provide some preliminary objective support for the use of negative emotion-based road safety advertisements for young females. Further, this study provides support for using psychophysiological measures to enhance understanding of traffic injury persuasion.
Full Text Available Poor quality, safety and environmental (QSE performance within Ghana's road sector has been cited as a major challenge in the procurement of infrastructure. This study evaluates the applicability and level of integrated consideration of QSE in the delivery of roads through procurement by public sector agencies in Ghana. Integrated delivery is explored on the basis of theoretical and empirical evidence of an existing synergistic relationship among QSE in the management and delivery of projects. A mixed methodological design was adopted to investigate two public road agencies through a questionnaire survey and interviews of technical staff with procurement responsibilities. This was done concurrently with soliciting professional perspectives on the subject. Procurement is widely regarded as paramount to the delivery of better QSE in the Ghana road sector. However, the level of synergistic consideration is low, which is attributable to an over-reliance on traditional procurement arrangements as a result of non-supportive local procurement regulatory frameworks. It is further established that a general lack of know-how and experience in the use of modern and integrated procurement arrangements prevent effective management and realisation of QSE beyond the current focus on time and cost through procurement processes within public road sector agencies.
Cuenen, Ariane; Brijs, Kris; Brijs, Tom; Van Vlierden, Karin; Daniels, Stijn; Wets, Geert
For several decades policy makers worldwide have experimented with testimonials as a strategy to promote road safety supportive views in a wide variety of target populations such as recidivists and students. In its basic format, a (relative of) a victim or an offender brings a personal testimonial of what it is to experience a traffic accident. The underlying idea is that such a testimonial will emotionally affect participants, thereby stimulating them to cognitively reflect upon their own be...
Eye-tests for road users, more particularly for applicants for a driver licence are considered primarily as a way to improve road safety, but the prohibition to drive, based on an eye-test can not be justified on grounds of accident reduction. In the Netherlands an eye-test is obligatory as a
The publication is intended to review the state of the art of influencng behaviour regarding traffic safety. Different forms of influencing behaviour with their possibilities and limitations are outlined and a model framework for publicity campaigns is presented. A number of studies, carried out in
Oh, Juhwan; Eun, Sang Jun; Kim, Hee-Sook
Road traffic deaths (RTDs) remain the 9th most common cause of mortality in South Korea despite their decreasing trends in high-income countries. In 2010 and 2011, the Korean government deregulated the process for obtaining a driving licence, and there has been significant concern that such deregulation of the driving licence policy could reduce road safety. This study aimed to explore the effects of the deregulation of driving licence policy on road safety by examining the incidence of road traffic collisions (RTCs), road traffic injuries (RTIs) and RTDs. The monthly incidence of RTCs, RTIs and RTDs was generated by using numbers of RTCs, RTIs and RTDs as numerators and numbers of registered vehicles as denominators. Changes in incidence since the deregulation implementation in February 2010 (phase I) and June 2011 (phase II) were evaluated via interrupted time-series analysis. The second deregulation phase demonstrated significant changes in numbers of RTCs and RTIs: numbers of RTCs and RTIs decreased until they began to increase in November 2011. Since then, the monthly incidence of RTCs and RTIs have increased by 133.5 and 123.8 per 100 000 vehicles per month, respectively (p<0.05). RTD secular trends began to increase consecutively at rates of 0.024 (June 2010), 0.018 (between July 2010 and June 2011) and 0.273 (July 2011 onward) per 100 000 vehicles per month. Over the entire study period, the RTD incidence rate increased by 0.018 deaths per month on average subsequent to the first deregulation phase (p<0.05). The deregulation policies that simplified the driving licence process were associated with increased incidence of RTCs, RTIs and RTDs in Korea. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Worldwide, over 1.2 million people are killed in traffic every year and another 20 to 50 million are seriously injured. Road traffic injuries are estimated to be the eighth leading cause of death globally. If no action is taken, road traffic injuries will be the fifth leading cause of death in 2030.
Marchesini, P. & Weijermars, W.A.M.
Mobility has been increasing significantly in the last few decades and will continue to increase. On road stretches which have insufficient capacity, traffic becomes congested. Traffic congestion has a negative impact on the economy and on the quality of people’s lives. Road users experience delay
In 1991, a representative survey of drivers was conducted in 15 European countries. This project was named `SARTRE' which stands for 'Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe'. The survey focused on drivers' road behaviour, attitudes and opinions concerning drinking and driving, speeding and
The question is posed whether the application of a colour difference for the central line on the road is the best solution available for the coding of the categories of road. It has been proposed to apply yellow centre lines on roads with two-way traffic and white centre lines on roads with
Carver, Alison; Timperio, Anna; Hesketh, Kylie; Crawford, David
This study examined how objective measures of the local road environment related to safety were associated with change in physical activity (including active transport) among youth. Few longitudinal studies have examined the impact of the road environment on physical activity among children/adolescents in their neighborhoods. Participants were children aged 8-9 years (n = 170) and adolescents aged 13-15 years (n = 276) in 2004. Data were collected in 2004 and 2006 during follow-up of participants recruited initially in 2001 from 19 primary schools in Melbourne, Australia. Walking/cycling to local destinations was parent-reported for children and self-reported by adolescents. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during nonschool hours was recorded using accelerometers. Road environment features in each participant's neighborhood (area within 800 m radius of their home) were measured objectively using a Geographical Information System. Linear regression analyses examined associations between road features and changes in active transport (AT) and MVPA over 2 years. Children's AT increased but MVPA levels decreased in both age groups; on average, younger girls recorded the greatest declines. The number of traffic/pedestrian lights was associated with DeltaAT among younger girls (B=0.45, p=0.004). The total length of walking tracks (in meters) was associated with AT among younger girls (B = 0.0016, p = 0.015) and adolescent girls (B = 0.0016, p = 0.002). For adolescent boys, intersection density was associated with AT (B = 0.03, p = 0.030). Slow points were associated with MVPA among younger boys before school (B = 1.55, p = 0.021), while speed humps were associated with MVPA among adolescent boys after school (B = 0.23, p = 0.015). There were many associations for adolescent girls: for example, the total length of local roads (B = 0.49, p = 0.005), intersection density (B = 0.05, p = 0.036), and number of speed humps (B = 0.33, p = 0.020) were associated with
D. M. Priyantha Wedagama
Full Text Available This study aims to develop time headway distribution models to analyse traffic safety performance and road link capacities for motorcycle-dominated traffic in Denpasar, Bali. Three road links selected as the case study are Jl. Hayam Wuruk, Jl.Hang Tuah, and Jl. Padma. Data analysis showed that between 55%-80% of motorists in Denpasar during morning and evening peak hours paid less attention to the safe distance with the vehicles in front. The study found that Lognormal distribution models are best to fit time headway data during morning peak hours while either Weibull (3P or Pearson III distributions is for evening peak hours. Road link capacities for mixed traffic predominantly motorcycles are apparently affected by the behaviour of motorists in keeping safe distance with the vehicles in front. Theoretical road link capacities for Jl. Hayam Wuruk, Jl. Hang Tuah and Jl. Padma are 3,186 vehicles/hour, 3,077 vehicles/hour and 1935 vehicles/hour respectively.
Full Text Available This contribution aims at tracing the development of statistical methods in medical science. Statistical methodology in medical research was first implemented in England in the age of the Enlightenment during the 18th century. As this approach stood in a clear opposition to the conventional medical practice directed in a rather authoritarian manner, this research field had to overcome a lot of difficulties. Nowadays, there is a widespread consensus that medical research is hardly possible without profound knowledge and application of statistical methods. Nevertheless, it took an extremely long time until the end of the 20th century, before this methodology was taken notice of and became appreciated. In order to better understand this long process, a brief summary of the development of statistics beginning from the Ancient Times is presented. It is shown how medical progress evolved parallel to the advancing mathematical understanding. A focus is put on the influence of the latter on medical sciences. Moreover, the special case of Germany in this aspect is analysed.
Mannocci, Alice; Gabrijelcic, Simona; Di Thiene, Domitilla; Saulle, Rosella; Boccia, A; La Torre, G
The road freight and passenger transport sector exposes the workers of this sector to a considerable health risk. Application of the relative legislation to safeguard worker's safety is an obligation for the employer. The aim of the study was to assess the application of current legislation in the trucking sector and ascertain whether there are differences between large and small enterprises. The study was conducted through direct interview with managers of road freight and passenger transport companies in the Lazio Region in 2009. Information was collected using a questionnaire composed of 77 items concerning risk assessment and organization aspects in the enterprises. The enterprisers were stratified by number of workers and drivers. To detect possible associations the Chi-squared and Fisher's Exact tests were used. A total of 42 enterprisers participated in the study. Significant differences were found between larger enterprisers (10 workers) and smaller enterprises (safety compared to the smaller enterprises (respectively 88.9% versus 50.0%) and a road accidents Register (77.8% versus 16.7%), with p < 0.001 significance levels. The risks most frequently assessed, in decreasing order, were: vibrations, manual handling of loads, stress, noise, awkward postures, night work, alcohol consumption, drug addiction and microclimatic conditions. Vibrations, night work and microclimatic conditions risks were assessed to a lower degree in the smaller enterprisers compared to the larger enterprises.
Rao, Chalapati; Osterberger, Brigitta; Anh, Tran Dam; MacDonald, Malcolm; Chúc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Hill, Peter S
Accurate mortality statistics, needed for population health assessment, health policy and research, are best derived from data in vital registration systems. However, mortality statistics from vital registration systems are not available for several countries including Viet Nam. We used a mixed methods case study approach to assess vital registration operations in 2006 in three provinces in Viet Nam (Hòa Bình, Thùa Thiên-Hué and Bình Duong), and provide recommendations to strengthen vital registration systems in the country. For each province we developed life tables from population and mortality data compiled by sex and age group. Demographic methods were used to estimate completeness of death registration as an indicator of vital registration performance. Qualitative methods (document review, key informant interviews and focus group discussions) were used to assess administrative, technical and societal aspects of vital registration systems. Completeness of death registration was low in all three provinces. Problems were identified with the legal framework for registration of early neonatal deaths and deaths of temporary residents or migrants. The system does not conform to international standards for reporting cause of death or for recording detailed statistics by age, sex and cause of death. Capacity-building along with an intersectoral coordination committee involving the Ministries of Justice and Health and the General Statistics Office would improve the vital registration system, especially with regard to procedures for death registration. There appears to be strong political support for sentinel surveillance systems to generate reliable mortality statistics in Viet Nam.
Cox, Jolene A; Beanland, Vanessa; Filtness, Ashleigh J
The ability to detect changing visual information is a vital component of safe driving. In addition to detecting changing visual information, drivers must also interpret its relevance to safety. Environmental changes considered to have high safety relevance will likely demand greater attention and more timely responses than those considered to have lower safety relevance. The aim of this study was to explore factors that are likely to influence perceptions of risk and safety regarding changing visual information in the driving environment. Factors explored were the environment in which the change occurs (i.e., urban vs. rural), the type of object that changes, and the driver's age, experience, and risk sensitivity. Sixty-three licensed drivers aged 18-70 years completed a hazard rating task, which required them to rate the perceived hazardousness of changing specific elements within urban and rural driving environments. Three attributes of potential hazards were systematically manipulated: the environment (urban, rural); the type of object changed (road sign, car, motorcycle, pedestrian, traffic light, animal, tree); and its inherent safety risk (low risk, high risk). Inherent safety risk was manipulated by either varying the object's placement, on/near or away from the road, or altering an infrastructure element that would require a change to driver behavior. Participants also completed two driving-related risk perception tasks, rating their relative crash risk and perceived risk of aberrant driving behaviors. Driver age was not significantly associated with hazard ratings, but individual differences in perceived risk of aberrant driving behaviors predicted hazard ratings, suggesting that general driving-related risk sensitivity plays a strong role in safety perception. In both urban and rural scenes, there were significant associations between hazard ratings and inherent safety risk, with low-risk changes perceived as consistently less hazardous than high
The central theme of this contribution is the new direction which the government of The Netherlands has recently taken concerning its approach to road safety. This comes down to achieving a sustainable safe road traffic system in rural as well as urban districts. The most essential, but not the
Task 1 of this report drivers' knowledge of various bicycle warning signs and pavement markings were assessed. In general knowledge was high. Share the Road and Three Foot Minimum signs were generally more quickly understood and recognized in version...
Age-related declines in vision, cognition, and physical ability affect how older road users drive and use other transportation modes. The Federal Highway Administration, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and National...
Cyclists are vulnerable road users and the most severe injury outcomes for on-road cyclists are from collisions involving a motor vehicle. Research undertaken in this thesis aimed to identify contributing factors in unsafe cyclist-driver events to inform efforts to reduce the incidence of cyclist-driver crashes and cyclist injury severity outcomes. The research was conducted in three stages, primarily in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia and is presented as a thesis by publication. The Safe ...
Full Text Available Cracks are one of the hidden dangers in concrete dams. The study on safety monitoring models of concrete dam cracks has always been difficult. Using the parametric statistical model of safety monitoring of cracks in concrete dams, with the help of the semi-parametric statistical theory, and considering the abnormal behaviors of these cracks, the semi-parametric statistical model of safety monitoring of concrete dam cracks is established to overcome the limitation of the parametric model in expressing the objective model. Previous projects show that the semi-parametric statistical model has a stronger fitting effect and has a better explanation for cracks in concrete dams than the parametric statistical model. However, when used for forecast, the forecast capability of the semi-parametric statistical model is equivalent to that of the parametric statistical model. The modeling of the semi-parametric statistical model is simple, has a reasonable principle, and has a strong practicality, with a good application prospect in the actual project.
Broughton, J. Knowles, J. Kirk, A. Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Argyropoulou, E. Papantoniou, P. Brandstaetter, C. Candappa, N. Christoph, M. Vis, M. Pace, J.-F. López de Cozar, E. Pérez-Fuster, P. Sanmartín, J. Haddak, M. & Moutengou, E.
This Basic Fact Sheet examines the extent to which the number of people killed in road accidents varies by month across the EU. Most other Basic Fact Sheets focus on particular groups of accidents or casualties; this one examines general patterns in the CARE data so its approach is slightly
Lourenço Cardoso, J.
The traffic system and cultural dissimilarities are believed to contribute significantly to regional and country differences in road safety performance. Therefore, caution is required when transferring safety management and intervention tools from one region to another. This report deals with the
Wegman, F.C.M. Mulder, J.A.G. & Gundy, C.M.
Recently the 4-year plan for traffic safety 1987-1991 "more kilometres less accidents" (ministry of transport and public works 1986) was adopted by the dutch parliament. In the plan new ways are indicated to call the attention of civilians and authorities to improve road safety. This appears from
Full Text Available Safety analysis of the roads through the accident rates which is one of the widely used tools has been resulted from the direct exposure method which is based on the ratio of the vehicle-kilometers traveled and vehicle-travel time. However, due to some fundamental flaws in its theories and difficulties in gaining access to the data required such as traffic volume, distance and duration of the trip, and various problems in determining the exposure in a specific time, place, and individual categories, there is a need for an algorithm for prioritizing the road safety so that with a new exposure method, the problems of the previous approaches would be resolved. In this way, an efficient application may lead to have more realistic comparisons and the new method would be applicable to a wider range of time, place, and individual categories. Therefore, an algorithm was introduced to prioritize the safety of roads using the quasi-induced exposure method and utilizing the analytical hierarchy process. For this research, 11 provinces of Iran were chosen as case study locations. A rural accidents database was created for these provinces, the validity of quasi-induced exposure method for Iran’s accidents database was explored, and the involvement ratio for different characteristics of the drivers and the vehicles was measured. Results showed that the quasi-induced exposure method was valid in determining the real exposure in the provinces under study. Results also showed a significant difference in the prioritization based on the new and traditional approaches. This difference mostly would stem from the perspective of the quasi-induced exposure method in determining the exposure, opinion of experts, and the quantity of accidents data. Overall, the results for this research showed that prioritization based on the new approach is more comprehensive and reliable compared to the prioritization in the traditional approach which is dependent on various
Armando, Bazzani; Sandro, Rambaldi [INFN, Bologna (Italy); University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Monica, Marchioni [University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)
New communication technologies allow to record dynamical microscopic data on large social systems. In Italy single vehicle trajectories are monitored by a GPS system for insurance reason. The data concern 2% of the whole vehicle population and the trajectories are sampled at a spatial scale of 2 Km. Recent studies of Florence urban area[A.Bazzani et al ''Statistical Laws in Urban Mobility from microscopic GPS data in the area of Florence'' submitted for publication 2009] have pointed out that in the average the GPS data represent an urban mobility that can be described by an ergodic principle based on the existence of a ''mobility energy'' for the daily mobility paths and by a Benford's law for the activity downtime distribution. To enrol the system complexity is then necessary to study transient states out of equilibrium, like, for instance, the rise of congestion phenomena. In this work we analyze the GPS data recorded on the whole Emilia-Romagna region during November 2007 to look for congestion effects and their evolution. We propose to describe the congestion dynamics by using the instant velocity and the trajectories of the monitored vehicles. We consider also the behavior of some selected drivers that are used to move in the considered area.
Goldenbeld, C. & Noordzij, P.C.
This paper discusses engineering, education and enforcement in relation to hazardous road situations. If a high risk road or road site has been identified, the question is which selection of technical and non-technical measures should be taken to prevent or reduce the danger. The main argument is
Recommended safety measures for application on urban roads in the short term : report of the Working Party 4 `infrastructure' to the High Level Group of Representatives of the Member States on Road Safety and to the Directorate-General for Transport of the European Commission.
Slop, M. & Catshoek, J.W.D.
This report recommends ten road safety countermeasures for application on non-motorway interurban roads in Europe in the short term. The selection was mainly based on the answers to a questionnaire that were given by the Member States of the European Union. A distinction is made between
Jones Ross, Rachel W; Scialfa, Charles T; Cordazzo, Sheila T D
To evaluate the ability to predict on-road driving in cognitively impaired older drivers. Cross-sectional observational study. Laboratory tests and on-road assessment. Drivers with cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination score driving assessment. The best prediction of passing or failing the on-road test was a combination of the HPT, leg strength, visual acuity, visual search and working memory, and number of medications taken (Nagelkerke coefficient of determination = 0.40). The sensitivity of the model was 71%, and the specificity was 75%. Further research is required to determine how these tests may be used or combined with other data (e.g., medical history) to assess fitness to drive of cognitively impaired older drivers. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.
Cap, J.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (US). Mechanical and Thermal Environments Dept.
Defining the maximum expected shock and vibration responses for an on-road truck transportation environment is strongly dependent on the amount of response data that can be obtained. One common test scheme consists of measuring response data over a relatively short prescribed road course and then reviewing that data to obtain the maximum response levels. The more mathematically rigorous alternative is to collect an unbiased ensemble of response data during a long road trip. This paper compares data gathered both ways during a recent on-road certification test for a tractor trailer van being designed by Sandia.
Full Text Available of it is irrelevant in the current context and one would argue that researchers in this field will have to return to the drawing board “to start all over again”. The objective of this paper is to assess the role that the psychological trait “perception” plays in road...
Nghiem, S.; Commandeur, J.J.F.; Connelly, L.B.
This paper examines the determinants of road traffic crash fatalities in Queensland for the period 1958-2007 using a state-space time-series model. In particular, we investigate the effects of policies that aimed to reduce drink-driving on traffic fatalities, as well as indicators of the economic
Nghiem, S. Commandeur, J.J.F. & Connelly, L.B.
This paper examines the determinants of road traffic crash fatalities in Queensland for the period 1958–2007 using a state-space time-series model. In particular, we investigate the effects of policies that aimed to reduce drink-driving on traffic fatalities, as well as indicators of the economic
Full Text Available Traffic law enforcement has been defined as the area of activity aimed at controlling road user behaviour by preventive, persuasive and punitive measures in order to effect the safe and efficient movement of traffic. The Department of Transport...
Following a general paucity of small area research on road traffic injuries (RTIs), this study examined small area variations in RTIs for the eThekwini Metropolitan Area (comprising predominantly the City of Durban) in South Africa. Population density was used as an organising framework to examine variations in RTI ...
On this basis of recent decades' research this paper presents the problems a road designer meets when he, among other goals, tries to optimise safety. The author argues that road design is only one of the factors affecting accident risk and that road users' possibilities and limitations must play a
The emergence, post approval, of serious medical events, which may be associated with the use of a particular drug or class of drugs, is an important public health and regulatory issue. The best method to address this issue is through a large, rigorously designed safety study. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the statistical issues involved in these large safety studies. Two such studies are PRECISION and EAGLES. PRECISION is the primary focus of this article. PRECISION is a non-inferiority design with a clinically relevant non-inferiority margin. Statistical issues in the design, conduct and analysis of PRECISION are discussed. Quantitative and clinical aspects of the selection of the composite primary endpoint, the determination and role of the non-inferiority margin in a large safety study and the intent-to-treat and modified intent-to-treat analyses in a non-inferiority safety study are shown. Protocol changes that were necessary during the conduct of PRECISION are discussed from a statistical perspective. Issues regarding the complex analysis and interpretation of the results of PRECISION are outlined. EAGLES is presented as a large, rigorously designed safety study when a non-inferiority margin was not able to be determined by a strong clinical/scientific method. In general, when a non-inferiority margin is not able to be determined, the width of the 95% confidence interval is a way to size the study and to assess the cost-benefit of relative trial size. A non-inferiority margin, when able to be determined by a strong scientific method, should be included in a large safety study. Although these studies could not be called "pragmatic," they are examples of best real-world designs to address safety and regulatory concerns. © The Author(s) 2016.
Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Andersen, Camilla Sloth; Agerholm, Niels
Identification of hazardous road locations is of key importance to traffic safety and has traditionally relied on accident statistics. Due to a declining quality of statistics on accidents in many countries, a need exist for new methods to identify hazardous road locations. This article presents...
Factors that may contribute to accidents on wet road surfaces (reduced general visibility, glare, invisibility of markings and reduction of tyre/road surface forces) are discussed in particular the latter. Measures for counteracting water nuisance (cutting grooves, small transverse discharge
Herman, Josephine; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; McCaig, Eddie; Jackson, Rod
To estimate the incidence and demographic characteristics associated with road traffic injuries (RTIs) resulting in deaths or hospital admission for 12 hours or more in Viti Levu, Fiji. Analysis of the prospective population-based Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals database (October 2005 - September 2006). Of the 374 RTI cases identified (17% of all injuries), 72% were males and one third were aged 15-29 years. RTI fatalities (10.3 per 100,000 per year) were higher among Indians compared to Fijians. Two-thirds of deaths (largely ascribed to head, chest and abdominal trauma) occurred before hospital admission. While the RTI fatality rate was comparable to the global average for high-income countries, the level of motorisation in Fiji is considerably lower. To avert rising RTI rates with increasing motorisation, Fiji requires a robust road safety strategy alongside effective trauma-care services and a reliable population-based RTI surveillance system. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.
Pilgerstorfer, M. Runda, K. Brandstätter, C. Christoph, M. Hakkert, S. Ishaq, R. Toledo, T. & Gatscha, M.
WP6 of DaCoTA, Driver Behaviour Monitoring through Naturalistic Driving, aims to develop an implementation plan for a large scale activity that uses Naturalistic Driving (ND) Observations to continuously monitor relevant road safety data within the framework of the European Road Safety Observatory.
Mechanical defects of a vehicle driving system can be dangerous on the road. Diagnostic systems, which monitor operations of electric and electronic elements and devices of vehicles, are continuously developed and improved, while defects of mechanical systems are still not managed properly. This article proposes supplementing existing on-board diagnostics with a system of diagnosing selected defects to minimize their impact. It presents a method of diagnosing mechanical defects of the engine, gearbox and other elements of the driving system on the basis of a model of the vibration signal obtained adaptively. This method is suitable for engine valves, engine head gasket, main gearbox, joints, etc.
Lan, Bo; Persaud, Bhagwant; Lyon, Craig; Bhim, Ravi
The objective of the study on which the paper is based was to explore the application of fully Bayesian methods for before-after road safety studies. Several variations of the methodology were evaluated with a simulated dataset in which hypothetical treatments with no safety effect were randomly assigned to high accident locations to mimic the common site selection process in road jurisdictions. It was confirmed that the fully Bayesian method by estimating no safety effect can account for the regression-to-the-mean that results from this biased site selection process. The fully Bayesian method was then applied to California rural intersection data to evaluate the safety effect of conversion from stop to signalized control. The results were then compared with those from the empirical Bayesian method, currently the accepted approach for conducting unbiased before-after evaluations. This comparison was generally favorable in that FB can provide similar results as EB.
Hooker, Bruce; Gearhart, Kentin
Discusses safety issues for child care centers that provide transportation for children. Notes the importance of vehicle usage and control, driver qualifications, vehicle maintenance, child securement, accident procedures, and driver education and training. (JPB)
This research project created a decision support system for managers who must decide if a roadway warrants the addition of the Safety Service Patrol (SSP). Meetings with Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) service patrol program manager...
Fishman, Elliot; Schepers, Paul
Bike share has emerged as a rapidly growing mode of transport in over 800 cities globally, up from just a handful in the 1990s. Some analysts had forecast a rise in the number of bicycle crashes after the introduction of bike share, but empirical research on bike share safety is rare. The goal of this study is to examine the impact of bike share programs on cycling safety. The paper has two substudies. Study 1 was a secondary analysis of longitudinal hospital injury data from the Graves et al. (2014) study. It compared cycling safety in cities that introduced bike share programs with cities that did not. Study 2 combined ridership data with crash data of selected North American and European cities to compare bike share users to other cyclists. Study 1 indicated that the introduction of a bike share system was associated with a reduction in cycling injury risk. Study 2 found that bike share users were less likely than other cyclists to sustain fatal or severe injuries. On a per kilometer basis, bike share is associated with decreased risk of both fatal and non-fatal bicycle crashes when compared to private bike riding. The results of this study suggest that concerns of decreased levels of cycling safety are unjustified and should not prevent decision makers from introducing public bike share schemes, especially if combined with other safety measures like traffic calming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.
Free market economies have shown the dominating utility of motorized transport, both for passenger and goods transport. One negative side of motorization is the lack of road safety. Although it is shown that air, water and rail transport are much safer, the individual and company utility of
Goldenbeld, C. & Craen, S. de
In The Netherlands, a comparison of an online and a face-to-face sample of car drivers was made to study differences on a number of selected questions from the SARTRE-4 road safety survey. Contrary to expectations, there was no indication that online respondents were more likely to come from higher
Ruyters, H.G.J.C.M. Slop, M. & Wegman, F.C.M. (eds.)
This report describes the results of a study carried out for the European Union. The report uses the safety principle that: (i) proper road design is crucial to prevent human errors in traffic; and (ii) less human errors will result in less accidents. The study contains the following parts: (1)
Chiang, Alan Y; Smith, Wendell C; Main, Bradley W; Sarazan, R Dustan
We studied the statistical power of a replicated Latin square design where eight animals each receive a vehicle control and three dose levels of a drug on four separate dosing days. Cardiovascular parameters evaluated in the study were systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure, left ventricular heart rate, and dP/dt(max). Observations were simulated based on historical data and drug response profiles from cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies conducted at Lilly Research Laboratories. Statistical analysis for treatment effects was performed using a linear mixed model. Monotonicity of dose response was examined using sequential linear trend tests based on ordinal spacing of dose levels. The replicated Latin square design for cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies is shown to have at least an 80% power of detecting changes from control of at least a 10% increment in systolic and diastolic pressure and a 15% increment in heart rate and dP/dt(max). The power is not sensitive to the shape of dose response profile over time. Several unique features of our statistical power evaluation include the comparison of different covariance structures and drug response profiles. The procedure can also be applied to future power evaluations of other cardiovascular parameters, such as the QT interval, and the loss of statistical power due to missing observations.
Sonkin, Beth; Edwards, Phil; Roberts, Ian; Green, Judith
To examine trends in road death rates for child pedestrians, cyclists and car occupants. Analysis of road traffic injury death rates per 100 000 children and death rates per 10 million passenger miles travelled. England and Wales between 1985 and 2003. Children aged 0-14 years. None. Death rates per 100,000 children and per 10 million child passenger miles for pedestrians, cyclists and car occupants. Death rates per head of population have declined for child pedestrians, cyclists and car occupants but pedestrian death rates remain higher (0.55 deaths/100,000 children; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42 to 0.72 deaths) than those for car occupants (0.34 deaths; 95% CI 0.23 to 0.48 deaths) and cyclists (0.16 deaths; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.27 deaths). Since 1985, the average distance children travelled as a car occupant has increased by 70%; the average distance walked has declined by 19%; and the average distance cycled has declined by 58%. Taking into account distance travelled, there are about 50 times more child cyclist deaths (0.55 deaths/10 million passenger miles; 0.32 to 0.89) and nearly 30 times more child pedestrian deaths (0.27 deaths; 0.20 to 0.35) than there are deaths to child car occupants (0.01 deaths; 0.007 to 0.014). In 2003, children from families without access to a vehicle walked twice the distance walked by children in families with access to two or more vehicles. More needs to be done to reduce the traffic injury death rates for child pedestrians and cyclists. This might encourage more walking and cycling and also has the potential to reduce social class gradients in injury mortality.
.... This rule updates the language of a regulatory definition to be consistent with the statutory definition for the Highway Safety Program. DATES: This rule is effective April 8, 2011. ] FOR FURTHER... definition of ``State'' found at 23 CFR 460.2(e) was intended to mirror the definition of ``State'' for the...
Fishman, E.; Schepers, J.P.
Introduction Bike share has emerged as a rapidly growing mode of transport in over 800 cities globally, up from just a handful in the 1990s. Some analysts had forecast a rise in the number of bicycle crashes after the introduction of bike share, but empirical research on bike share safety is rare.
Martens, M.H.; Rook, A.M.
This paper illustrates simple techniques to approach traffic safety issues and traffic accidents. By means of birds-eye view video registration, a detailed and accurate overview can be gathered of the type, number and causation of conflicts and accidents that occur. This allows a good assessment of
Goldenbeld, C; de Craen, S
In the Netherlands, a comparison of an online and a face-to-face sample of car drivers was made to study differences on a number of selected questions from the SARTRE-4 road safety survey. Contrary to expectations, there was no indication that online respondents were more likely to come from higher educated or more privileged social groups. Confirming earlier research, the results indicated that online respondents were less inclined to give socially desirable answers and were less inclined to use more extreme ratings in their opinions about measures. Contrary to expectations, face-to-face respondents did not tend to give more positive answers in judgment of road safety measures. Weighting to make samples comparable on gender, age, and education had almost no effect on outcomes. The implications for a transition from face-to-face survey to online panel method are discussed. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thompson, Kirrilly; Matthews, Chelsea
Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users...
Samuel, Jonathan C.; Sankhulani, Edward; Qureshi, Javeria S.; Baloyi, Paul; Thupi, Charles; Lee, Clara N.; Miller, William C.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Charles, Anthony G.
Road traffic injuries are a major cause of preventable death in sub-Saharan Africa. Accurate epidemiologic data are scarce and under-reporting from primary data sources is common. Our objectives were to estimate the incidence of road traffic deaths in Malawi using capture-recapture statistical analysis and determine what future efforts will best improve upon this estimate. Our capture-recapture model combined primary data from both police and hospital-based registries over a one year period (July 2008 to June 2009). The mortality incidences from the primary data sources were 0.075 and 0.051 deaths/1000 person-years, respectively. Using capture-recapture analysis, the combined incidence of road traffic deaths ranged 0.192–0.209 deaths/1000 person-years. Additionally, police data were more likely to include victims who were male, drivers or pedestrians, and victims from incidents with greater than one vehicle involved. We concluded that capture-recapture analysis is a good tool to estimate the incidence of road traffic deaths, and that capture-recapture analysis overcomes limitations of incomplete data sources. The World Health Organization estimated incidence of road traffic deaths for Malawi utilizing a binomial regression model and survey data and found a similar estimate despite strikingly different methods, suggesting both approaches are valid. Further research should seek to improve capture-recapture data through utilization of more than two data sources and improving accuracy of matches by minimizing missing data, application of geographic information systems, and use of names and civil registration numbers if available. PMID:22355338
Dalibor Pešić; Boris Antić; Davor Brčić; Jelica Davidović
Large amounts of energy drinks and caffeine, which is the main ingredient of energy drinks, produce a negative effect on the drivers, and therefore affect traffic safety.In order to determine the attitudes of drivers toward the impact of energy drinks and caffeine, a research was conducted using a questionnaire form and the targeted group of the survey were drivers. The research was conducted in the City of Belgrade in December 2012. There were 420 survey papers distributed to drivers of diff...
Cuenen, Ariane; Brijs, Kris; Brijs, Tom; Van Vlierden, Karin; Daniels, Stijn; Wets, Geert
For several decades policy makers worldwide have experimented with testimonials as a strategy to promote road safety supportive views in a wide variety of target populations such as recidivists and students. In its basic format, a (relative of) a victim or an offender brings a personal testimonial of what it is to experience a traffic accident. The underlying idea is that such a testimonial will emotionally affect participants, thereby stimulating them to cognitively reflect upon their own behavior and responsibility as a road user. Unfortunately, empirical literature on the effectiveness of this strategy is rather scarce and inconsistent. This study investigated the effect of a large-scale program with victim testimonials for high schools in Belgium on five socio-cognitive and behavioral variables drawn from the Theory of Planned Behavior (i.e., attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intention and behavior). Moreover, this study investigated program effects on participants' cognitive and emotional estate and whether this influences the program's impact on socio-cognitive and behavioral variables. Our test sample included 1362 students, who were assigned to a baseline - follow-up group and a post-test - follow-up group. We questioned both groups, a first time (just before or after session attendance) on paper, and a second time (two months after session attendance) online. Results indicate the program had, both immediate and two months after attendance, small to medium positive effects on most socio-cognitive and behavioral variables. However, effects depended on participants' demographic profile, their baseline values on the socio-cognitive and behavioral variables, and the degree to which they were cognitively/emotionally affected by the program. We discuss the practical implications of these findings and formulate recommendations for the development of future interventions based on victim testimonials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
Full Text Available We present a moisture content and permittivity model to simultaneously detect and estimate defects in loess subgrade. Based on the ground-penetrating radar (GPR method, the dielectric properties of loess in the northwest of China and the imaging feature of the moisture content of different strata were studied. The relative permittivity of loess with different moisture contents was experimented in the laboratory. It was found that the relative permittivity of unsaturated loess was positively related to moisture content. The relationship between relative permittivity and moisture content in different antenna frequencies of GPR was analyzed. Electromagnetic wave reflection rules in the loess interface were studied using the numerical method with different moisture contents. With the increase in moisture content, the amplitude of GPR was increased. When the above conclusions were applied in the engineering practices, there are good effects to detect the defects of the road subgrade. It is a significant guidance for determining the qualitative research of defects in the roadbed.
Full Text Available Road traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability worldwide. Workers responsible for maintaining and repairing roadways are especially prone to suffer these events, given their exceptional exposure to traffic. Since these actuations usually coexist with regular traffic, an errant driver can easily intrude the work area and provoke a collision. Some authors have proposed mechanisms aimed at detecting breaches in the work zone perimeter and alerting workers, which are collectively called intrusion alarm systems. However, they have several limitations and have not yet fulfilled the necessities of these scenarios. In this paper, we propose a new intrusion alarm system based on a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. Our system is comprised of two main elements: vehicle detectors that form a virtual barrier and detect perimeter breaches by means of an ultrasonic beam and individual warning devices that transmit alerts to the workers. All these elements have a wireless communication interface and form a network that covers the whole work area. This network is in charge of transmitting and routing the alarms and coordinates the behavior of the system. We have tested our solution under real conditions with satisfactory results.
The current study examined children's ability to analyse pictures of a risky situation, both in relation to the characteristics of the pictures and in relation to the centering/decentering process of cognitive development. Sixty children aged 6, 9 or 11 years were given an objective or subjective version of a story about a risky situation involving road crossing and were asked to reconstruct it by putting six pictures in chronological order. The type of picture series, objective or subjective, had a different effect on the children's understanding and performance, according to the age. The older children were better at ordering the pictures, but on the subjective version only. The picture-version effect on planning time decreased with age; only the younger children took more time to start touching the pictures. On one hand, it is concluded that for the youngest children, objective representations are essential to analysing pictures showing a risk, whereas the oldest children will profit more from a subjective view. On the other hand, subjective representations, which give a more realistic view, provide an excellent tool for testing children's abilities. Subjective representations can be used to detect potentially risky behaviour in virtual situations (static pictures, or multimedia tools), since it permits one to predict at-risk behaviour in the street and to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures.
Samsuddin Norshakina; Mohd Masirin Mohd Idrus
Road Infrastructures contribute towards many severe accidents and it needs supervision as to improve road safety levels. The numbers of fatalities have increased annually and road authority should seriously consider conducting programs or activities to periodically monitor, restore of improve road infrastructure. Implementation of road safety audits may reduce fatalities among road users and maintain road safety at acceptable standards. This paper is aimed to discuss the aspects of road infra...
... navigation on the Big Sioux River from the Military Road Bridge in North Sioux City, South Dakota to the... Road Bridge in North Sioux City, SD at 42.52 degrees North, 096.48 West longitude to the confluence of... Sioux River from the Military Road Bridge in North Sioux City, SD at 42.52 degrees North, 096.48 West...
One of the Sustainable Safety principles is that a road should have a recognizable design and a predictable alignment. If this is the case, road users know how they are expected to behave and what they can expect from other road users, so that crashes may be prevented. For roads to be recognizable,
Hayslett, H T
Statistics covers the basic principles of Statistics. The book starts by tackling the importance and the two kinds of statistics; the presentation of sample data; the definition, illustration and explanation of several measures of location; and the measures of variation. The text then discusses elementary probability, the normal distribution and the normal approximation to the binomial. Testing of statistical hypotheses and tests of hypotheses about the theoretical proportion of successes in a binomial population and about the theoretical mean of a normal population are explained. The text the
barge bow‐rake stern barge midships stern barge stern towboat bow towboat midships towboat stern On‐deck activity location Weather hot dry calm warm ...Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Tentatively Selected Plan (TSP) submittal. This assessment considers commercial and recreational vessel operations...and activities , and how a range of control measures, now under consideration, might affect the safety of waterway activities or those activities that
Neeman, Naama; Sehgal, Niraj L
The fields of quality improvement and patient safety (QI/PS) continue to grow with greater attention and awareness, increased mandates and incentives, and more research. Academic medical centers and their academic departments have a long-standing tradition for innovation and scholarship within a multifaceted mission to provide patient care, educate the next generation, and conduct research. Academic departments are well positioned to lead the science, education, and application of QI/PS efforts nationally. However, meaningful engagement of faculty and trainees to lead this work is a major barrier. Understanding and developing programs that foster QI/PS work while also promoting a scholarly focus can generate the incentives and acknowledgment to help elevate QI/PS into the academic mission. Academic departments should define and articulate a QI/PS strategy, develop individual and departmental capacity to lead scholarly QI/PS programs, streamline and support access to data, share information and improve collaboration, and recognize and elevate academic success in QI/PS. A commitment to these goals can also serve to cultivate important collaborations between academic departments and their respective medical centers, divisions, and training programs. Ultimately, the elevation of QI/PS into the academic mission can improve the quality and safety of our health care delivery systems.
Noordzij, P.C. & Horst, A.R.A. van der
The analysis of accident statistics and the study of road user behaviour are the traditional methods of road safety research. Neither of these involve direct observation of accidents. A research programme has been designed to gain insight in the generation process of traffic accidents as well as to
Noordzij, P. & Horst, A.R.A. van der
The analysis of accident statistics and the study of road user behaviour are the traditional methods of road safety research. Neither of these involve direct observation of accidents. A research programme has been designed in order to: (1) gain insight into the generation process of traffic
THESEUS - achieving maximum possible road transport tanker safety by means of experimental accident simulation; THESEUS - Tankfahrzeuge mit hoechsterreichbarer Sicherheit durch experimentelle Unfallsimulation
Rompe, K.; Heuser, G.
In spring 1990, the Federal German Minister for Education, Science, Research and Technology (BMBF) commissioned the team from the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), DEKRA, Daimler-Benz, the Federal Road Research Institute (BASt) with the University of Cologne, Ellinghaus and TUeV Rheinland (project leader) to perform the research project `THESEUS` (the acronym THESEUS comes from the German `Tankfahrzeuge mit hoechst erreichbarer Sicherheit durch experimentelle Unfallsimulation`, which translates as `achieving maximum possible road transport tanker safety by means of experimental accident simulation`). Arting from an analysis of road transport tanker accidents, crash tests and overturn tests were performed and supplemented by investigations of road transport tanker components and accompanying complex calculations of the failure processes. Parallel to this, the static side-tilt stability of road transport tankers was determined on a tilting test platform. The causes of and constructive possibilities for avoiding overturning, which is the most common cause of accidents in which hazardous materials escape, wewre analysed in dynamic driving tests with supplementary computer simulation. Various measures for improving the safety of road transport tankers were determined and subjected to a cost-benefit analysis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie hat seit 1990 das Forschungsproject `THESEUS` (Tankfahrzeuge mit hoechst erreichbarer Sicherheit durch experimentelle Unfallsimulation) der Arbeitsgemeinschaft aus TUeV Rheinland (Federfuehrung), Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), DEKRA, Daimler Benz, Bundesanstalt fuer Strassenwesen (BASt), Universitaet Koeln und Ellinghaus gefoerdert. Ausgehend von der detaillierten Analyse von 231 Tankfahrzeugunfaellen wurden Tankfahrzeug-Crashversuche und Tankfahrzeug-Umsturzversuche durchgefuehrt. Diese Messungen an kompletten Fahrzeugen
Diya, Luwis; Van den Heede, Koen; Sermeus, Walter; Lesaffre, Emmanuel
Lives saved predictions are used to quantify the impact of certain remedial measures in nurse staffing and patient safety research, giving an indication of the potential gain in patient safety. Data collected in nurse staffing and patient safety are often multilevel in structure, requiring statistical techniques to account for clustering in the data. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of model specifications on lives saved estimates and inferences in a multilevel context. A simulation study was carried out to assess the impact of model assumptions on lives saved predictions. Scenarios considered were omitting an important covariate, taking different link functions, neglecting the correlations coming from the multilevel data structure, and neglecting a level in a multilevel model. Finally, using a cardiac surgery data set, predicted lives saved from the random intercept logistic model and the clustered discrete time logistic model were compared. Omitting an important covariate, neglecting the association between patients within the same hospital, and the complexity of the model affect the prediction of lives saved estimates and the inferences thereafter. On the other hand, a change in the link function led to the same predicted lives saved estimates and standard deviations. Finally, the lives saved estimates from the two-level random intercept model were similar to those of the clustered discrete time logistic model, but the standard deviations differed greatly. The results stress the importance of verifying model assumptions. It is recommended that researchers use sensitivity analyses to investigate the stability of lives saved results using different statistical models or different data sets.
Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.
Beinarovica, Anna; Gorobetz, Mikhail; Levchenkov, Anatoly
The proposed study describes applying of neural network and fuzzy logic in transport control for safety improvement by evaluation of accidents’ risk by intelligent infrastructure devices. Risk evaluation is made by following multiple-criteria: danger, changeability and influence of changes for risk increasing. Neuro-fuzzy algorithms are described and proposed for task solution. The novelty of the proposed system is proved by deep analysis of known studies in the field. The structure of neuro-fuzzy system for risk evaluation and mathematical model is described in the paper. The simulation model of the intelligent devices for transport infrastructure is proposed to simulate different situations, assess the risks and propose the possible actions for infrastructure or vehicles to minimize the risk of possible accidents.
Antoniou, C. Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Bijleveld, F.D. Commandeur, J.J.F. Broughton, J Knowles, J. Dupont, E. Martensen, H. Giustianni, G. Shingo, D. Hermans, E. Lassarre, S. Perez, C. & Santamariña, E.
Traffic crashes have a major impact to European society, in 2008 over 38,000 road users died and over 1.2 million were injured. The economic cost is immense and has been estimated at over 160 billion for the EU 15 alone. The European Commission and National Governments place a high priority on
Full Text Available Indonesia has one of the highest number of fatalities caused by traffic accident. It is become main concern since last decades. Approximately of 10% fatalities is caused by tank truck accident, it recorded by PT. Pertamina Persero, Indonesia in 2015 that 17% and 20% tank truck accident is caused by over speed and fatigue, respectively. Therefore, over speed has become main factor the occurrence of tank truck accident. Main objective of this research is to install speed limiter on the tank truck in order to improve safety engineering system, decrease accident and to maintain engine performance. This research is conducted in Indonesia especially in Java-Bali route travel. Speed limiter is installed to the tank truck engine which completed by fuel cut-off solenoid to reduce the speed automatically when it exceeding the maximum speed that has been determined. From the result shows that top speed which performed by driver up to 133 km/h when tank truck uninstalled by speed limiter. Meanwhile, when speed limiter is installed to the tank truck, top speed locked at 70 km/h even though the driver want to speed up. It means that fuel cut-off system is very effective to lock the speed at 70 km/h and it shown the improvement up to 65%. The monitoring activities observed that the decreasing number of fatalities caused by tank truck accident become 7% as compared to last year of 17%. It can be found that the speed limiter coupled by speed recorder was very efficient to improve safety engineering system of the tank truck.
McAndrews, Carolyn; Beyer, Kirsten; Guse, Clare E; Layde, Peter
The objectives of the study are to understand road safety within the context of regional development processes and to assess how urban-rural categories represent differences in motor vehicle occupant fatality risk. We analysed 2015 motor vehicle occupant deaths in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2014, using three definitions of urban-rural continua and negative binomial regression to adjust for population density, travel exposure and the proportion of teen residents. Rural-Urban Commuting Area codes, Beale codes and the Census definition of urban and rural places do not explain differences in urban and rural transportation fatality rates when controlling for population density. Although it is widely believed that rural places are uniquely dangerous for motorised travel, this understanding may be an artefact of inaccurate constructs. Instead, population density is a more helpful way to represent transportation hazards across different types of settlement patterns, including commuter suburbs and exurbs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Is my country safer than others ? : a comparison of road safety data between different countries. (= Mon pays est-il plus sur que les autres : une comparaison des donnees sur la securite routiere de differents pays.)
Harris, S. & Wegman, F.C.M.
Countries compare their road safety as they do their economies, namely to see if they are better than others. The OECD has recently started an "International Road Traffic and Accident Database (IRTAD)" as a permanent measuring instrument. It contains, per country, annual figures, since the
Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Deliverable 1.5. Vol.1 — Analysis of the stakeholder survey: perceived priority and availability of data and tools and relation to the stakeholders' characteristics. Vol.II: Analysis of Road Safety Management in the European countries.
Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Muhlrad, N. Vallet, G. Butler, I. Gitelman, V. Doveh, E. Dupont, E. Thomas, P. Talbot, R. Giustiniani, G. Machata, K. & Bax, C.
Volume I: This report is part of the ‘Policy’ Work Package of the DaCoTA project (www.dacotaproject.eu). The ‘Policy’ Work Package is designed to fill in the gap in knowledge on road safety policy making processes, their institutional framework and the data, methods and technical tools needed to
Full Text Available Nearly a third of residential units in Slovenia are located in multi-residential buildings. The majority of such buildings were built after WW2, when the need for suitable accommodation buildings was at its peak. They were built using the construction possibilities and requirements of the time. Every year there are over 200 fires in these buildings, resulting in fatalities and vast material damage. Due to the great efforts over the past centuries, which were all mainly aimed at replacing combustible construction materials with non-combustible ones, and with advancements in fire service equipment and techniques, the number of fires and their scope has decreased significantly but they were not entirely put out. New and greater advances in the field of fire safety of multi-residential buildings became obvious within the last few years, when stricter regulations regarding the construction of such objects came into force. Developments in science and within the industry itself brought about several new solutions in improving the situation in this field, which has been confirmed by experiences from abroad. Unfortunately in Slovenia, the establishment of safety principles still depends mainly on an occupants’ perception, financial means, and at the same time, certain implementation procedures that are much more complicated due to new property ownership. With the aid of the statistical results from the 2002 Census and contemporary fire safety requirements, this article attempts to show the present-day situation of the problem at both the state and municipality level and will propose solutions to improve this situation. The authors established that not even one single older, multi-residential building meets complies with modern requirements. Fortunately, the situation is improved by the fact that most buildings in Slovenia are built from non-combustible materials (concrete, brick, which limit the spread of fire.
Winter road maintenance activities are crucial for maintaining the accessibility and traffic safety of the road network at northerly latitudes during winter. Common winter road maintenance activities include snow ploughing and the use of anti-icing agents (e.g. road salt, NaCl). Since the local weather is decisive in creating an increased risk of slippery conditions, understanding the link between local weather and conditions at the road surface is critically important. Sensors are commonly i...
Schagen, I.N.L.G. Wegman, F.C.M. & Houtenbos, M.
Worldwide, over 1.2 million people are killed in traffic each year and another 20 to 50 million are seriously injured. Road traffic injuries are estimated to be the eighth leading cause of death globally. If no action is undertaken, in 2030 road traffic injuries will be the fifth leading cause of
Aarts, L.T. & Davidse, R.J.
In the Netherlands, the Sustainable Safety vision is an important guide in improving road safety. It is considered that the road environment shouldconform to the expectations of road users in order to prevent errors thatcould lead to road crashes. These expectations are based on the characteristics
Thompson, Jason; Savino, Giovanni; Stevenson, Mark
Increasing levels of active transport provide benefits in relation to chronic disease and emissions reduction but may be associated with an increased risk of road trauma. The safety in numbers (SiN) effect is often regarded as a solution to this issue; however, the mechanisms underlying its influence are largely unknown. We aimed to (1) replicate the SiN effect within a simple, simulated environment and (2) vary bicycle density within the environment to better understand the circumstances under which SiN applies. Using an agent-based modeling approach, we constructed a virtual transport system that increased the number of bicycles from 9% to 35% of total vehicles over a period of 1,000 time units while holding the number of cars in the system constant. We then repeated this experiment under conditions of progressively decreasing bicycle density. We demonstrated that the SiN effect can be reproduced in a virtual environment, closely approximating the exponential relationships between cycling numbers and the relative risk of collision as shown in observational studies. The association, however, was highly contingent upon bicycle density. The relative risk of collisions between cars and bicycles with increasing bicycle numbers showed an association that is progressively linear at decreasing levels of density. Agent-based modeling may provide a useful tool for understanding the mechanisms underpinning the relationships previously observed between volume and risk under the assumptions of SiN. The SiN effect may apply only under circumstances in which bicycle density also increases over time. Additional mechanisms underpinning the SiN effect, independent of behavioral adjustment by drivers, are explored.
It’s almost the end of August, and many of us are returning to CERN after a well-earned rest. For those with children, it’s time to prepare them for school – and those of us who drive often see signs to remind us that the schools are re-opening and that we should take care. Of course, we should all take care while driving at any time, and this is just as true at CERN as anywhere else. You may already have noticed that new “traffic-calming” measures have been set up near Restaurant 2, to encourage drivers to slow down to safe speeds. I wish we did not need to do this, but it has been necessary as there have been many reports of unpleasant and dangerous, even life-threatening, behaviour by drivers. I’d like to take this opportunity to remind us all to drive with consideration and respect for everyone who uses the CERN site and shares the same thoroughfares – pedestrians, cyclists and motorists alike. The CERN Co...
A classic Road Diet converts an existing four-lane undivided roadway segment to a three-lane segment consisting of two : through lanes and a center two-way left turn lane (TWLTL). A Road Diet improves safety by including a protected left-turn lane : ...
Crandall, Philip G; Mauromoustakos, Andy; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Thompson, Kevin C; Yiannas, Frank; Bridges, Kerry; Francois, Catherine
In 2000, the Consumer Goods Forum established the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) to increase the safety of the world's food supply and to harmonize food safety regulations worldwide. In 2013, a university research team in conjunction with Diversey Consulting (Sealed Air), the Consumer Goods Forum, and officers of GFSI solicited input from more than 15,000 GFSI-certified food producers worldwide to determine whether GFSI certification had lived up to these expectations. A total of 828 usable questionnaires were analyzed, representing about 2,300 food manufacturing facilities and food suppliers in 21 countries, mainly across Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and North America. Nearly 90% of these certified suppliers perceived GFSI as being beneficial for addressing their food safety concerns, and respondents were eight times more likely to repeat the certification process knowing what it entailed. Nearly three-quarters (74%) of these food manufacturers would choose to go through the certification process again even if certification were not required by one of their current retail customers. Important drivers for becoming GFSI certified included continuing to do business with an existing customer, starting to do business with new customer, reducing the number of third-party food safety audits, and continuing improvement of their food safety program. Although 50% or fewer respondents stated that they saw actual increases in sales, customers, suppliers, or employees, significantly more companies agreed than disagreed that there was an increase in these key performance indicators in the year following GFSI certification. A majority of respondents (81%) agreed that there was a substantial investment in staff time since certification, and 50% agreed there was a significant capital investment. This survey is the largest and most representative of global food manufacturers conducted to date.
C. Schaefer and N. Dupont
“Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...
Road traffic injury and deaths (RTID) are an important public health problem in Kenya, primarily affecting uneducated and disenfranchised people from lower socioeconomic groups. Studies conducted by Kenyan experts from police reports and surveys have shown that pedestrian and driver behaviors are the most important proximal causes of crashes, signifying that the occurrence of crashes results directly from human action. However, behaviors and risk factors do not fully explain the magnitude of RTID neither does it account for socioeconomic gradient in RTID. Instead, a social justice approach to RTID highlights the need for emphasizing distal causal factors. They allow us to understand how social inequities determine risk for RTID. Hence, designing policies that focus on behaviors will simply mask the underlying systemic causes of this growing phenomenon. To eradicate the RTID and address the gradient, a broader policy framework that includes the social dimension of injury, a strong political will to address the underlying causes of RTID and an effective partnership with stakeholders needs to be developed. PMID:20664752
Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Aarts, L. Kars, V. & Berg, T. van den
During the last two decades, the systematic efforts for gathering and harmonising road accident data at the European level have led to a significant upgrade and enhancement of the CARE database. Moreover, important data collection and harmonization efforts have provided very useful results as
is the task of improving road safety through alterations of the geometrical and environmental characteristics of the existing road network. The presently applied models and methods in hot spot safety work on the Danish road network were developed about two decades ago, when data was more limited and software...... and statistical methods less developed. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to improving "State of the art" in Denmark. Basis for the systematic hot spot safety work are the models describing the variation in accident counts on the road network. In the thesis hierarchical models disaggregated on time......Despite the fact that millions DKK each year are spent on improving roadsafety in Denmark, funds for traffic safety are limited. It is therefore vital to spend the resources as effectively as possible. This thesis is concerned with the area of traffic safety denoted "hot spot safety work", which...
Castillo-Manzano, José I; Castro-Nuño, Mercedes; Fageda, Xavier
We examine the impact on the traffic accident rate of the interaction between trucks and cars on Europe's roads using a panel data set that covers the period 1999-2010. We find that rising motorization rates for trucks lead to higher traffic fatalities, while rising motorization rates for cars do not. Empirically, the model we build predicts the positive impact of stricter speed limit legislation for trucks in the reduction of road fatalities. These findings lend support to European strategies and aimed at promoting alternative modes of freight transport, including rail and maritime transport. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shain, Martin; Arnold, Ian; GermAnn, Kathy
In Part 1 of this article, the legal and scientific origins of the concept of psychological safety are examined as background to, and support for, the new Canadian National Standard on Psychological Health and Safety in the Workplace (CSA Z1003/BNQ 9700). It is shown that five factors influencing psychological safety can be identified as being…
C. Vera Valero
Full Text Available Mining activities in cold regions are vulnerable to snow avalanches. Unlike operational facilities, which can be constructed in secure locations outside the reach of avalanches, access roads are often susceptible to being cut, leading to mine closures and significant financial losses. In this paper we discuss the application of avalanche runout modelling to predict the operational risk to mining roads, a long-standing problem for mines in high-altitude, snowy regions. We study the 35 km long road located in the "Cajón del rio Blanco" valley in the central Andes, which is operated by the Codelco Andina copper mine. In winter and early spring, this road is threatened by over 100 avalanche paths. If the release and snow cover conditions can be accurately specified, we find that avalanche dynamics modelling is able to represent runout, and safe traffic zones can be identified. We apply a detailed, physics-based snow cover model to calculate snow temperature, density and moisture content in three-dimensional terrain. This information is used to determine the initial and boundary conditions of the avalanche dynamics model. Of particular importance is the assessment of the current snow conditions along the avalanche tracks, which define the mass and thermal energy entrainment rates and therefore the possibility of avalanche growth and long runout distances.
Valero, Cesar Vera; Wever, Nander; Bühler, Yves; Stoffel, Lukas; Margreth, Stefan; Bartelt, Perry
Mining activities in cold regions are vulnerable to snow avalanches. Unlike operational facilities, which can be constructed in secure locations outside the reach of avalanches, access roads are often susceptible to being cut, leading to mine closures and significant financial losses. In this paper we discuss the application of avalanche runout modelling to predict the operational risk to mining roads, a long-standing problem for mines in high-altitude, snowy regions. We study the 35 km long road located in the "Cajón del rio Blanco" valley in the central Andes, which is operated by the Codelco Andina copper mine. In winter and early spring, this road is threatened by over 100 avalanche paths. If the release and snow cover conditions can be accurately specified, we find that avalanche dynamics modelling is able to represent runout, and safe traffic zones can be identified. We apply a detailed, physics-based snow cover model to calculate snow temperature, density and moisture content in three-dimensional terrain. This information is used to determine the initial and boundary conditions of the avalanche dynamics model. Of particular importance is the assessment of the current snow conditions along the avalanche tracks, which define the mass and thermal energy entrainment rates and therefore the possibility of avalanche growth and long runout distances.
Full Text Available In countries with severe winters a major part of the annual budget for road maintenance is allocated on performance of winter road maintenance tasks. Finding appropriate remuneration forms to compensate entrepreneurs for performed road measures during winter is not an easy task in order to minimise or eliminate disputes and satisfy both client organisations and contractors. On the other hand improper reimbursement models lead either to the client’s annual budget imbalance due to unnecessary cost overruns or affect contractor’s cash-flow. Such cases in turn affect just-in-time winter road maintenance and then traffic safety. To solve such problems, a number of countries in cold regions like Sweden have developed different remuneration models based more on weather data called Weather Index. Therefore the objective of this paper is to investigate and evaluate the payment models applied in Sweden. The study uses a number of approaches namely; domestic questionnaire survey, analysis of a number of contract documents, a series of meetings with the project managers and an international benchmarking. The study recognised four remuneration models for winter maintenance service of which one based on weather data statistics. The study reveals the payment model based on weather data statistics is only applied for the roads with higher traffic flow and the model generates most uncertainty.
Conclusion: A comparison between the results of the safe levels of lighting at the entrance of the tunnel and the De Boer scale showed that the phenomenon of black holes is created at the tunnel entrance. This may lead to a misadaptation of the drivers’ eyes to the change in luminance level at the entrance of the tunnel, thereby increasing the risk of road accidents in this zone.
Pugliese, F; Albini, E; Serio, O; Apostoli, P
The 81/2008 Act has defined a model of a health and safety management system that can contribute to prevent the occupational health and safety risks. We have developed the structure of a health and safety management system model and the necessary tools for its implementation in health care facilities. The realization of a model is structured in various phases: initial review, safety policy, planning, implementation, monitoring, management review and continuous improvement. Such a model, in continuous evolution, is based on the responsibilities of the different corporate characters and on an accurate analysis of risks and involved norms.
Full Text Available This publication contains transport and related statistics on roads, vehicles, infrastructure, passengers, freight, rail, air, maritime and road traffic, and international comparisons. The information compiled in this publication has been gathered...
Changing At-risk Behavior (CAB) is a safety process that is being conducted at Union Pacifics San Antonio Service Unit with the aim of improving locomotive cab safety related to constraining signals. CAB is an example of a risk reduction method th...
Background From 1999 to the end of 2006, older drivers aged 80 plus in New Zealand were subject to an older driver licence test as a condition of licensing. The impact of this test has not yet been studied in terms of the safety and mobility of older people. Methods Three main data sources were analysed to provide evidence of changes in older driver travel mode choice, licensing rates and injuries: New Zealand Travel Survey data, licensing data and police-reported crash data. Results General trends towards higher levels of motorised mobility were apparent for this group over the 20 years studied, but without an obvious change at the points in time when the test was either introduced or removed as a general requirement of licensure. There were also no apparent changes in the levels of pedestrian activity or road injury involving drivers in this age group. Conclusions Along with other relevant studies comparing older driver licensing policies across different jurisdictions, this study does not support the generalised use of on-road testing as an assessment mechanism for all older drivers. PMID:24524411
Zhao, Hui; Yin, Zhiyong; Xiang, Hongyi; Liao, Zhikang; Wang, Zhengguo
Road traffic can play an important role in strengthening regional economic activities, especially at high altitude, and it is necessary to know important traffic-related information. Although previous studies reported on road traffic in China, there has been little research on high-altitude road traffic to date. The annual official census of road traffic safety from 2006 to 2013 was used to obtain data on the general population, registered drivers, registered vehicles, newly built roads, road traffic accidents (RTAs), mortality rate per 100 000 populations and per 10 000 vehicles in high-altitude provinces, including Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Gansu, Yunnan, Sichuan, and Chongqing. These provincial data were reviewed retrospectively, with the national data as the reference. Statistical analysis (i.e., t test) was used to compare the estimated average annual change rate of population, number of registered drivers, registered vehicles, and newly built roads in high-altitude provinces with the national rates. Compared with the national data, there are significantly higher annual rates of population growth in Tibet and Xinjiang, registered drivers in Gansu, registered vehicles in Gansu, Sichuan, and Chongqing, and newly built roads in Tibet and Qinghai. Among the investigated provinces, Tibet, Qinghai, and Yunnan had a higher proportion of the roads with the high class. RTAs and RTA-induced casualties in the high-altitude provinces indicated a decreasing trend. The mortality rate per 10 000 vehicles and per 100 000 populations showed a decreasing trend, while the RTA-related mortality rate in Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang and Gansu remained high. Major changes for road traffic in high-altitude provinces have occurred over the past decade; however, the RTA-related mortality rate in high-altitude provinces has remained high. This study furthers understanding about road traffic safety in China; further studies on road traffic safety at high altitude should be performed.
Full Text Available Road traffic can play an important role in strengthening regional economic activities, especially at high altitude, and it is necessary to know important traffic-related information. Although previous studies reported on road traffic in China, there has been little research on high-altitude road traffic to date.The annual official census of road traffic safety from 2006 to 2013 was used to obtain data on the general population, registered drivers, registered vehicles, newly built roads, road traffic accidents (RTAs, mortality rate per 100 000 populations and per 10 000 vehicles in high-altitude provinces, including Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Gansu, Yunnan, Sichuan, and Chongqing. These provincial data were reviewed retrospectively, with the national data as the reference. Statistical analysis (i.e., t test was used to compare the estimated average annual change rate of population, number of registered drivers, registered vehicles, and newly built roads in high-altitude provinces with the national rates.Compared with the national data, there are significantly higher annual rates of population growth in Tibet and Xinjiang, registered drivers in Gansu, registered vehicles in Gansu, Sichuan, and Chongqing, and newly built roads in Tibet and Qinghai. Among the investigated provinces, Tibet, Qinghai, and Yunnan had a higher proportion of the roads with the high class. RTAs and RTA-induced casualties in the high-altitude provinces indicated a decreasing trend. The mortality rate per 10 000 vehicles and per 100 000 populations showed a decreasing trend, while the RTA-related mortality rate in Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang and Gansu remained high.Major changes for road traffic in high-altitude provinces have occurred over the past decade; however, the RTA-related mortality rate in high-altitude provinces has remained high. This study furthers understanding about road traffic safety in China; further studies on road traffic safety at high altitude should be
This report is the third by CONCAWE reviewing the safety performance of the downstream oil industry in Western Europe. It includes the results of 28 companies which together represent over 90% of the oil refining capacity in Europe. It is therefore a...
This report is the fifth by CONCAWE reviewing the safety performance of the downstream oil industry in Europe. The area of coverage is primarily the EU, EEA and Hungary, but for some companies the data for other European countries such as Poland, Cze...
Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 6, Driver Behaviour Monitoring through Naturalistic Driving: Deliverable 6.2: Part A: Study design of naturalistic driving observations within ERSO - development of innovative indicators for exposure and safety performance measures.
Bonnard, A. Brusque, C. Hugot, M. Commandeur, J.J.F. & Christoph, M.W.T.
The objective of the Task 6.2 of DaCoTA is to specify the study design of naturalistic driving study in the perspective of the European Road Safety Observatory. More precisely, the task deals with three main issues: 1) the experimental design, 2) the procedures to Risk Exposure Data (RED) and Safety
Basic system engineering principles of an estimation of ecological safety at designing, construction and reconstruction of highways are shown. A complex approach to the definition of settlement visibility on highways is offered.
Veiligheid op wegen buiten de bebouwde kom : samenvatting van het OECD-raport `Safety strategies for rural roads' en toepassingsmogelijkheden voor de Nederlandse situatie. In opdracht van het Directoraat-Generaal Rijkswaterstaat, Adviesdienst Verkeer en Vervoer AVV.
Schagen, I.N.L.G. van & Wegman, F.C.M.
During the period 1997/98, an OECD Scientific Expert Group produced a report about road safety on rural non-motorways and the possibilities of improvement. This report attempted to approach the problem as broadly as possible, in order to enable all the (very divergent) OECD member states to apply
Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 6, Driver Behaviour Monitoring through Naturalistic Driving: Deliverable 6.5: Naturalistic Driving for cross-national monitoring of SPIs and Exposure : an overview.
Wegman, R.W.N. & Bos, N.M.
WP6 of DaCoTA, Driver Behaviour Monitoring through Naturalistic Driving, focuses on the usefulness and feasibility of applying the Naturalistic Driving method for monitoring within the framework of ERSO. The aim is to continuously collect comparable information about the road safety level in EU
Car driver training and licensing systems in Europe : report prepared by members of Forum of European Road Safety Research Institutes FERSI and supported by European Commission Transport Directorate, DG VII.
Lynam, D. & Twisk, D.A.M.
This report describes a survey of car driver training and licensing systems in European countries, undertaken by the Forum of European Road Safety Research Institutes (FERSI) supported by the Transport Directorate of the European Union. A literature review and collation of general information on