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Sample records for statistical iterative reconstruction

  1. Right adrenal vein: comparison between adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and model-based iterative reconstruction.

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    Noda, Y; Goshima, S; Nagata, S; Miyoshi, T; Kawada, H; Kawai, N; Tanahashi, Y; Matsuo, M

    2018-06-01

    To compare right adrenal vein (RAV) visualisation and contrast enhancement degree on adrenal venous phase images reconstructed using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) techniques. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was waived. Fifty-seven consecutive patients who underwent adrenal venous phase imaging were enrolled. The same raw data were reconstructed using ASiR 40% and MBIR. The expert and beginner independently reviewed computed tomography (CT) images. RAV visualisation rates, background noise, and CT attenuation of the RAV, right adrenal gland, inferior vena cava (IVC), hepatic vein, and bilateral renal veins were compared between the two reconstruction techniques. RAV visualisation rates were higher with MBIR than with ASiR (95% versus 88%, p=0.13 in expert and 93% versus 75%, p=0.002 in beginner, respectively). RAV visualisation confidence ratings with MBIR were significantly greater than with ASiR (pASiR (pASiR (p=0.0013 and 0.02). Reconstruction of adrenal venous phase images using MBIR significantly reduces background noise, leading to an improvement in the RAV visualisation compared with ASiR. Copyright © 2018 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Computed Tomography Image Quality Evaluation of a New Iterative Reconstruction Algorithm in the Abdomen (Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction-V) a Comparison With Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction, Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction, and Filtered Back Projection Reconstructions.

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    Goodenberger, Martin H; Wagner-Bartak, Nicolaus A; Gupta, Shiva; Liu, Xinming; Yap, Ramon Q; Sun, Jia; Tamm, Eric P; Jensen, Corey T

    The purpose of this study was to compare abdominopelvic computed tomography images reconstructed with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-V (ASIR-V) with model-based iterative reconstruction (Veo 3.0), ASIR, and filtered back projection (FBP). Abdominopelvic computed tomography scans for 36 patients (26 males and 10 females) were reconstructed using FBP, ASIR (80%), Veo 3.0, and ASIR-V (30%, 60%, 90%). Mean ± SD patient age was 32 ± 10 years with mean ± SD body mass index of 26.9 ± 4.4 kg/m. Images were reviewed by 2 independent readers in a blinded, randomized fashion. Hounsfield unit, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) values were calculated for each reconstruction algorithm for further comparison. Phantom evaluation of low-contrast detectability (LCD) and high-contrast resolution was performed. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-V 30%, ASIR-V 60%, and ASIR 80% were generally superior qualitatively compared with ASIR-V 90%, Veo 3.0, and FBP (P ASIR-V 60% with respective CNR values of 5.54 ± 2.39, 8.78 ± 3.15, and 3.49 ± 1.77 (P ASIR 80% had the best and worst spatial resolution, respectively. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-V 30% and ASIR-V 60% provided the best combination of qualitative and quantitative performance. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction 80% was equivalent qualitatively, but demonstrated inferior spatial resolution and LCD.

  3. Model-based iterative reconstruction for reduction of radiation dose in abdominopelvic CT: comparison to adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction.

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    Yasaka, Koichiro; Katsura, Masaki; Akahane, Masaaki; Sato, Jiro; Matsuda, Izuru; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate dose reduction and image quality of abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) reconstructed with model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) compared to adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). In this prospective study, 85 patients underwent referential-, low-, and ultralow-dose unenhanced abdominopelvic CT. Images were reconstructed with ASIR for low-dose (L-ASIR) and ultralow-dose CT (UL-ASIR), and with MBIR for ultralow-dose CT (UL-MBIR). Image noise was measured in the abdominal aorta and iliopsoas muscle. Subjective image analyses and a lesion detection study (adrenal nodules) were conducted by two blinded radiologists. A reference standard was established by a consensus panel of two different radiologists using referential-dose CT reconstructed with filtered back projection. Compared to low-dose CT, there was a 63% decrease in dose-length product with ultralow-dose CT. UL-MBIR had significantly lower image noise than L-ASIR and UL-ASIR (all pASIR and UL-ASIR (all pASIR in diagnostic acceptability (p>0.65), or diagnostic performance for adrenal nodules (p>0.87). MBIR significantly improves image noise and streak artifacts compared to ASIR, and can achieve radiation dose reduction without severely compromising image quality.

  4. Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction-V Versus Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction: Impact on Dose Reduction and Image Quality in Body Computed Tomography.

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    Gatti, Marco; Marchisio, Filippo; Fronda, Marco; Rampado, Osvaldo; Faletti, Riccardo; Bergamasco, Laura; Ropolo, Roberto; Fonio, Paolo

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on dose reduction and image quality of the new iterative reconstruction technique: adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR-V). Fifty consecutive oncologic patients acted as case controls undergoing during their follow-up a computed tomography scan both with ASIR and ASIR-V. Each study was analyzed in a double-blinded fashion by 2 radiologists. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses of image quality were conducted. Computed tomography scanner radiation output was 38% (29%-45%) lower (P ASIR-V examinations than for the ASIR ones. The quantitative image noise was significantly lower (P ASIR-V. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-V had a higher performance for the subjective image noise (P = 0.01 for 5 mm and P = 0.009 for 1.25 mm), the other parameters (image sharpness, diagnostic acceptability, and overall image quality) being similar (P > 0.05). Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-V is a new iterative reconstruction technique that has the potential to provide image quality equal to or greater than ASIR, with a dose reduction around 40%.

  5. Model-based iterative reconstruction and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction: dose-reduced CT for detecting pancreatic calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasaka, Koichiro; Katsura, Masaki; Akahane, Masaaki; Sato, Jiro; Matsuda, Izuru; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2016-01-01

    Iterative reconstruction methods have attracted attention for reducing radiation doses in computed tomography (CT). To investigate the detectability of pancreatic calcification using dose-reduced CT reconstructed with model-based iterative construction (MBIR) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). This prospective study approved by Institutional Review Board included 85 patients (57 men, 28 women; mean age, 69.9 years; mean body weight, 61.2 kg). Unenhanced CT was performed three times with different radiation doses (reference-dose CT [RDCT], low-dose CT [LDCT], ultralow-dose CT [ULDCT]). From RDCT, LDCT, and ULDCT, images were reconstructed with filtered-back projection (R-FBP, used for establishing reference standard), ASIR (L-ASIR), and MBIR and ASIR (UL-MBIR and UL-ASIR), respectively. A lesion (pancreatic calcification) detection test was performed by two blinded radiologists with a five-point certainty level scale. Dose-length products of RDCT, LDCT, and ULDCT were 410, 97, and 36 mGy-cm, respectively. Nine patients had pancreatic calcification. The sensitivity for detecting pancreatic calcification with UL-MBIR was high (0.67–0.89) compared to L-ASIR or UL-ASIR (0.11–0.44), and a significant difference was seen between UL-MBIR and UL-ASIR for one reader (P = 0.014). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for UL-MBIR (0.818–0.860) was comparable to that for L-ASIR (0.696–0.844). The specificity was lower with UL-MBIR (0.79–0.92) than with L-ASIR or UL-ASIR (0.96–0.99), and a significant difference was seen for one reader (P < 0.01). In UL-MBIR, pancreatic calcification can be detected with high sensitivity, however, we should pay attention to the slightly lower specificity

  6. Model-based iterative reconstruction and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction: dose-reduced CT for detecting pancreatic calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasaka, Koichiro; Katsura, Masaki; Akahane, Masaaki; Sato, Jiro; Matsuda, Izuru; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2016-01-01

    Iterative reconstruction methods have attracted attention for reducing radiation doses in computed tomography (CT). To investigate the detectability of pancreatic calcification using dose-reduced CT reconstructed with model-based iterative construction (MBIR) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). This prospective study approved by Institutional Review Board included 85 patients (57 men, 28 women; mean age, 69.9 years; mean body weight, 61.2 kg). Unenhanced CT was performed three times with different radiation doses (reference-dose CT [RDCT], low-dose CT [LDCT], ultralow-dose CT [ULDCT]). From RDCT, LDCT, and ULDCT, images were reconstructed with filtered-back projection (R-FBP, used for establishing reference standard), ASIR (L-ASIR), and MBIR and ASIR (UL-MBIR and UL-ASIR), respectively. A lesion (pancreatic calcification) detection test was performed by two blinded radiologists with a five-point certainty level scale. Dose-length products of RDCT, LDCT, and ULDCT were 410, 97, and 36 mGy-cm, respectively. Nine patients had pancreatic calcification. The sensitivity for detecting pancreatic calcification with UL-MBIR was high (0.67-0.89) compared to L-ASIR or UL-ASIR (0.11-0.44), and a significant difference was seen between UL-MBIR and UL-ASIR for one reader (P = 0.014). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for UL-MBIR (0.818-0.860) was comparable to that for L-ASIR (0.696-0.844). The specificity was lower with UL-MBIR (0.79-0.92) than with L-ASIR or UL-ASIR (0.96-0.99), and a significant difference was seen for one reader (P < 0.01). In UL-MBIR, pancreatic calcification can be detected with high sensitivity, however, we should pay attention to the slightly lower specificity.

  7. A general class of preconditioners for statistical iterative reconstruction of emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinn, G.; Huang, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    A major drawback of statistical iterative image reconstruction for emission computed tomography is its high computational cost. The ill-posed nature of tomography leads to slow convergence for standard gradient-based iterative approaches such as the steepest descent or the conjugate gradient algorithm. In this paper new theory and methods for a class of preconditioners are developed for accelerating the convergence rate of iterative reconstruction. To demonstrate the potential of this class of preconditioners, a preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) iterative algorithm for weighted least squares reconstruction (WLS) was formulated for emission tomography. Using simulated positron emission tomography (PET) data of the Hoffman brain phantom, it was shown that the convergence rate of the PCG can reduce the number of iterations of the standard conjugate gradient algorithm by a factor of 2--8 times depending on the convergence criterion

  8. CT of the chest with model-based, fully iterative reconstruction: comparison with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction.

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    Ichikawa, Yasutaka; Kitagawa, Kakuya; Nagasawa, Naoki; Murashima, Shuichi; Sakuma, Hajime

    2013-08-09

    The recently developed model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) enables significant reduction of image noise and artifacts, compared with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and filtered back projection (FBP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate lesion detectability of low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) with MBIR in comparison with ASIR and FBP. Chest CT was acquired with 64-slice CT (Discovery CT750HD) with standard-dose (5.7 ± 2.3 mSv) and low-dose (1.6 ± 0.8 mSv) conditions in 55 patients (aged 72 ± 7 years) who were suspected of lung disease on chest radiograms. Low-dose CT images were reconstructed with MBIR, ASIR 50% and FBP, and standard-dose CT images were reconstructed with FBP, using a reconstructed slice thickness of 0.625 mm. Two observers evaluated the image quality of abnormal lung and mediastinal structures on a 5-point scale (Score 5 = excellent and score 1 = non-diagnostic). The objective image noise was also measured as the standard deviation of CT intensity in the descending aorta. The image quality score of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes on low-dose MBIR CT (4.7 ± 0.5) was significantly improved in comparison with low-dose FBP and ASIR CT (3.0 ± 0.5, p = 0.004; 4.0 ± 0.5, p = 0.02, respectively), and was nearly identical to the score of standard-dose FBP image (4.8 ± 0.4, p = 0.66). Concerning decreased lung attenuation (bulla, emphysema, or cyst), the image quality score on low-dose MBIR CT (4.9 ± 0.2) was slightly better compared to low-dose FBP and ASIR CT (4.5 ± 0.6, p = 0.01; 4.6 ± 0.5, p = 0.01, respectively). There were no significant differences in image quality scores of visualization of consolidation or mass, ground-glass attenuation, or reticular opacity among low- and standard-dose CT series. Image noise with low-dose MBIR CT (11.6 ± 1.0 Hounsfield units (HU)) were significantly lower than with low-dose ASIR (21.1 ± 2.6 HU, p standard-dose FBP CT (16.6 ± 2.3 HU, p 70%, MBIR can provide

  9. Quantitative analysis of emphysema and airway measurements according to iterative reconstruction algorithms: comparison of filtered back projection, adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and model-based iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Ji Yung; Goo, Jin Mo; Park, Chang Min; Park, Sang Joon; Lee, Chang Hyun; Shim, Mi-Suk

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate filtered back projection (FBP) and two iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms and their effects on the quantitative analysis of lung parenchyma and airway measurements on computed tomography (CT) images. Low-dose chest CT obtained in 281 adult patients were reconstructed using three algorithms: FBP, adaptive statistical IR (ASIR) and model-based IR (MBIR). Measurements of each dataset were compared: total lung volume, emphysema index (EI), airway measurements of the lumen and wall area as well as average wall thickness. Accuracy of airway measurements of each algorithm was also evaluated using an airway phantom. EI using a threshold of -950 HU was significantly different among the three algorithms in decreasing order of FBP (2.30 %), ASIR (1.49 %) and MBIR (1.20 %) (P < 0.01). Wall thickness was also significantly different among the three algorithms with FBP (2.09 mm) demonstrating thicker walls than ASIR (2.00 mm) and MBIR (1.88 mm) (P < 0.01). Airway phantom analysis revealed that MBIR showed the most accurate value for airway measurements. The three algorithms presented different EIs and wall thicknesses, decreasing in the order of FBP, ASIR and MBIR. Thus, care should be taken in selecting the appropriate IR algorithm on quantitative analysis of the lung. (orig.)

  10. Quantitative analysis of emphysema and airway measurements according to iterative reconstruction algorithms: comparison of filtered back projection, adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and model-based iterative reconstruction

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    Choo, Ji Yung [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan-si, Department of Radiology, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Jin Mo; Park, Chang Min; Park, Sang Joon [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Hyun; Shim, Mi-Suk [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To evaluate filtered back projection (FBP) and two iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms and their effects on the quantitative analysis of lung parenchyma and airway measurements on computed tomography (CT) images. Low-dose chest CT obtained in 281 adult patients were reconstructed using three algorithms: FBP, adaptive statistical IR (ASIR) and model-based IR (MBIR). Measurements of each dataset were compared: total lung volume, emphysema index (EI), airway measurements of the lumen and wall area as well as average wall thickness. Accuracy of airway measurements of each algorithm was also evaluated using an airway phantom. EI using a threshold of -950 HU was significantly different among the three algorithms in decreasing order of FBP (2.30 %), ASIR (1.49 %) and MBIR (1.20 %) (P < 0.01). Wall thickness was also significantly different among the three algorithms with FBP (2.09 mm) demonstrating thicker walls than ASIR (2.00 mm) and MBIR (1.88 mm) (P < 0.01). Airway phantom analysis revealed that MBIR showed the most accurate value for airway measurements. The three algorithms presented different EIs and wall thicknesses, decreasing in the order of FBP, ASIR and MBIR. Thus, care should be taken in selecting the appropriate IR algorithm on quantitative analysis of the lung. (orig.)

  11. Image quality of iterative reconstruction in cranial CT imaging: comparison of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notohamiprodjo, S; Deak, Z; Meurer, F; Maertz, F; Mueck, F G; Geyer, L L; Wirth, S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cranial CT (CCT) image quality (IQ) of the MBIR algorithm with standard iterative reconstruction (ASiR). In this institutional review board (IRB)-approved study, raw data sets of 100 unenhanced CCT examinations (120 kV, 50-260 mAs, 20 mm collimation, 0.984 pitch) were reconstructed with both ASiR and MBIR. Signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) were calculated from attenuation values measured in caudate nucleus, frontal white matter, anterior ventricle horn, fourth ventricle, and pons. Two radiologists, who were blinded to the reconstruction algorithms, evaluated anonymized multiplanar reformations of 2.5 mm with respect to depiction of different parenchymal structures and impact of artefacts on IQ with a five-point scale (0: unacceptable, 1: less than average, 2: average, 3: above average, 4: excellent). MBIR decreased artefacts more effectively than ASiR (p ASiR was 2 (p ASiR (p ASiR. As CCT is an examination that is frequently required, the use of MBIR may allow for substantial reduction of radiation exposure caused by medical diagnostics. • Model-Based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) effectively decreased artefacts in cranial CT. • MBIR reconstructed images were rated with significantly higher scores for image quality. • Model-Based iterative reconstruction may allow reduced-dose diagnostic examination protocols.

  12. A heuristic statistical stopping rule for iterative reconstruction in emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Bouallegue, F.; Mariano-Goulart, D.; Crouzet, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a statistical stopping criterion for iterative reconstruction in emission tomography based on a heuristic statistical description of the reconstruction process. The method was assessed for maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) reconstruction. Based on Monte-Carlo numerical simulations and using a perfectly modeled system matrix, our method was compared with classical iterative reconstruction followed by low-pass filtering in terms of Euclidian distance to the exact object, noise, and resolution. The stopping criterion was then evaluated with realistic PET data of a Hoffman brain phantom produced using the Geant4 application in emission tomography (GATE) platform for different count levels. The numerical experiments showed that compared with the classical method, our technique yielded significant improvement of the noise-resolution tradeoff for a wide range of counting statistics compatible with routine clinical settings. When working with realistic data, the stopping rule allowed a qualitatively and quantitatively efficient determination of the optimal image. Our method appears to give a reliable estimation of the optimal stopping point for iterative reconstruction. It should thus be of practical interest as it produces images with similar or better quality than classical post-filtered iterative reconstruction with a mastered computation time. (author)

  13. Image quality of multiplanar reconstruction of pulmonary CT scans using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction.

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    Honda, O; Yanagawa, M; Inoue, A; Kikuyama, A; Yoshida, S; Sumikawa, H; Tobino, K; Koyama, M; Tomiyama, N

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the image quality of multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). Inflated and fixed lungs were scanned with a garnet detector CT in high-resolution mode (HR mode) or non-high-resolution (HR) mode, and MPR images were then reconstructed. Observers compared 15 MPR images of ASIR (40%) and ASIR (80%) with those of ASIR (0%), and assessed image quality using a visual five-point scale (1, definitely inferior; 5, definitely superior), with particular emphasis on normal pulmonary structures, artefacts, noise and overall image quality. The mean overall image quality scores in HR mode were 3.67 with ASIR (40%) and 4.97 with ASIR (80%). Those in non-HR mode were 3.27 with ASIR (40%) and 3.90 with ASIR (80%). The mean artefact scores in HR mode were 3.13 with ASIR (40%) and 3.63 with ASIR (80%), but those in non-HR mode were 2.87 with ASIR (40%) and 2.53 with ASIR (80%). The mean scores of the other parameters were greater than 3, whereas those in HR mode were higher than those in non-HR mode. There were significant differences between ASIR (40%) and ASIR (80%) in overall image quality (pASIR did not suppress the severe artefacts of contrast medium. In general, MPR image quality with ASIR (80%) was superior to that with ASIR (40%). However, there was an increased incidence of artefacts by ASIR when CT images were obtained in non-HR mode.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of ASiR image quality: an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique

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    Van de Casteele, Elke; Parizel, Paul; Sijbers, Jan

    2012-03-01

    Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) is a new reconstruction algorithm used in the field of medical X-ray imaging. This new reconstruction method combines the idealized system representation, as we know it from the standard Filtered Back Projection (FBP) algorithm, and the strength of iterative reconstruction by including a noise model in the reconstruction scheme. It studies how noise propagates through the reconstruction steps, feeds this model back into the loop and iteratively reduces noise in the reconstructed image without affecting spatial resolution. In this paper the effect of ASiR on the contrast to noise ratio is studied using the low contrast module of the Catphan phantom. The experiments were done on a GE LightSpeed VCT system at different voltages and currents. The results show reduced noise and increased contrast for the ASiR reconstructions compared to the standard FBP method. For the same contrast to noise ratio the images from ASiR can be obtained using 60% less current, leading to a reduction in dose of the same amount.

  15. Performance comparison between total variation (TV)-based compressed sensing and statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jie; Nett, Brian E; Chen Guanghong

    2009-01-01

    Of all available reconstruction methods, statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms appear particularly promising since they enable accurate physical noise modeling. The newly developed compressive sampling/compressed sensing (CS) algorithm has shown the potential to accurately reconstruct images from highly undersampled data. The CS algorithm can be implemented in the statistical reconstruction framework as well. In this study, we compared the performance of two standard statistical reconstruction algorithms (penalized weighted least squares and q-GGMRF) to the CS algorithm. In assessing the image quality using these iterative reconstructions, it is critical to utilize realistic background anatomy as the reconstruction results are object dependent. A cadaver head was scanned on a Varian Trilogy system at different dose levels. Several figures of merit including the relative root mean square error and a quality factor which accounts for the noise performance and the spatial resolution were introduced to objectively evaluate reconstruction performance. A comparison is presented between the three algorithms for a constant undersampling factor comparing different algorithms at several dose levels. To facilitate this comparison, the original CS method was formulated in the framework of the statistical image reconstruction algorithms. Important conclusions of the measurements from our studies are that (1) for realistic neuro-anatomy, over 100 projections are required to avoid streak artifacts in the reconstructed images even with CS reconstruction, (2) regardless of the algorithm employed, it is beneficial to distribute the total dose to more views as long as each view remains quantum noise limited and (3) the total variation-based CS method is not appropriate for very low dose levels because while it can mitigate streaking artifacts, the images exhibit patchy behavior, which is potentially harmful for medical diagnosis.

  16. The adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-V technique for radiation dose reduction in abdominal CT: comparison with the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique.

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    Kwon, Heejin; Cho, Jinhan; Oh, Jongyeong; Kim, Dongwon; Cho, Junghyun; Kim, Sanghyun; Lee, Sangyun; Lee, Jihyun

    2015-10-01

    To investigate whether reduced radiation dose abdominal CT images reconstructed with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction V (ASIR-V) compromise the depiction of clinically competent features when compared with the currently used routine radiation dose CT images reconstructed with ASIR. 27 consecutive patients (mean body mass index: 23.55 kg m(-2) underwent CT of the abdomen at two time points. At the first time point, abdominal CT was scanned at 21.45 noise index levels of automatic current modulation at 120 kV. Images were reconstructed with 40% ASIR, the routine protocol of Dong-A University Hospital. At the second time point, follow-up scans were performed at 30 noise index levels. Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), 40% ASIR, 30% ASIR-V, 50% ASIR-V and 70% ASIR-V for the reduced radiation dose. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses of image quality were conducted. The CT dose index was also recorded. At the follow-up study, the mean dose reduction relative to the currently used common radiation dose was 35.37% (range: 19-49%). The overall subjective image quality and diagnostic acceptability of the 50% ASIR-V scores at the reduced radiation dose were nearly identical to those recorded when using the initial routine-dose CT with 40% ASIR. Subjective ratings of the qualitative analysis revealed that of all reduced radiation dose CT series reconstructed, 30% ASIR-V and 50% ASIR-V were associated with higher image quality with lower noise and artefacts as well as good sharpness when compared with 40% ASIR and FBP. However, the sharpness score at 70% ASIR-V was considered to be worse than that at 40% ASIR. Objective image noise for 50% ASIR-V was 34.24% and 46.34% which was lower than 40% ASIR and FBP. Abdominal CT images reconstructed with ASIR-V facilitate radiation dose reductions of to 35% when compared with the ASIR. This study represents the first clinical research experiment to use ASIR-V, the newest version of

  17. Bias in iterative reconstruction of low-statistics PET data: benefits of a resolution model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, M D; Asselin, M-C; Julyan, P J; Feldmann, M; Matthews, J C [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Talbot, P S [Mental Health and Neurodegeneration Research Group, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Jones, T, E-mail: matthew.walker@manchester.ac.uk [Academic Department of Radiation Oncology, Christie Hospital, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 4BX (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-21

    Iterative image reconstruction methods such as ordered-subset expectation maximization (OSEM) are widely used in PET. Reconstructions via OSEM are however reported to be biased for low-count data. We investigated this and considered the impact for dynamic PET. Patient listmode data were acquired in [{sup 11}C]DASB and [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O scans on the HRRT brain PET scanner. These data were subsampled to create many independent, low-count replicates. The data were reconstructed and the images from low-count data were compared to the high-count originals (from the same reconstruction method). This comparison enabled low-statistics bias to be calculated for the given reconstruction, as a function of the noise-equivalent counts (NEC). Two iterative reconstruction methods were tested, one with and one without an image-based resolution model (RM). Significant bias was observed when reconstructing data of low statistical quality, for both subsampled human and simulated data. For human data, this bias was substantially reduced by including a RM. For [{sup 11}C]DASB the low-statistics bias in the caudate head at 1.7 M NEC (approx. 30 s) was -5.5% and -13% with and without RM, respectively. We predicted biases in the binding potential of -4% and -10%. For quantification of cerebral blood flow for the whole-brain grey- or white-matter, using [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O and the PET autoradiographic method, a low-statistics bias of <2.5% and <4% was predicted for reconstruction with and without the RM. The use of a resolution model reduces low-statistics bias and can hence be beneficial for quantitative dynamic PET.

  18. Coronary artery plaques: Cardiac CT with model-based and adaptive-statistical iterative reconstruction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, Hans; Stolzmann, Paul; Schlett, Christopher L.; Engel, Leif-Christopher; Major, Gyöngi Petra; Károlyi, Mihály; Do, Synho; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Hoffmann, Udo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare image quality of coronary artery plaque visualization at CT angiography with images reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) techniques. Methods: The coronary arteries of three ex vivo human hearts were imaged by CT and reconstructed with FBP, ASIR and MBIR. Coronary cross-sectional images were co-registered between the different reconstruction techniques and assessed for qualitative and quantitative image quality parameters. Readers were blinded to the reconstruction algorithm. Results: A total of 375 triplets of coronary cross-sectional images were co-registered. Using MBIR, 26% of the images were rated as having excellent overall image quality, which was significantly better as compared to ASIR and FBP (4% and 13%, respectively, all p < 0.001). Qualitative assessment of image noise demonstrated a noise reduction by using ASIR as compared to FBP (p < 0.01) and further noise reduction by using MBIR (p < 0.001). The contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) using MBIR was better as compared to ASIR and FBP (44 ± 19, 29 ± 15, 26 ± 9, respectively; all p < 0.001). Conclusions: Using MBIR improved image quality, reduced image noise and increased CNR as compared to the other available reconstruction techniques. This may further improve the visualization of coronary artery plaque and allow radiation reduction.

  19. CT angiography after carotid artery stenting: assessment of the utility of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and model-based iterative reconstruction

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    Kuya, Keita; Shinohara, Yuki; Fujii, Shinya; Ogawa, Toshihide [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Sakamoto, Makoto; Watanabe, Takashi [Tottori University, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Brain and Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Iwata, Naoki; Kishimoto, Junichi [Tottori University, Division of Clinical Radiology Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Kaminou, Toshio [Osaka Minami Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    Follow-up CT angiography (CTA) is routinely performed for post-procedure management after carotid artery stenting (CAS). However, the stent lumen tends to be underestimated because of stent artifacts on CTA reconstructed with the filtered back projection (FBP) technique. We assessed the utility of new iterative reconstruction techniques, such as adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), for CTA after CAS in comparison with FBP. In a phantom study, we evaluated the differences among the three reconstruction techniques with regard to the relationship between the stent luminal diameter and the degree of underestimation of stent luminal diameter. In a clinical study, 34 patients who underwent follow-up CTA after CAS were included. We compared the stent luminal diameters among FBP, ASIR, and MBIR, and performed visual assessment of low attenuation area (LAA) in the stent lumen using a three-point scale. In the phantom study, stent luminal diameter was increasingly underestimated as luminal diameter became smaller in all CTA images. Stent luminal diameter was larger with MBIR than with the other reconstruction techniques. Similarly, in the clinical study, stent luminal diameter was larger with MBIR than with the other reconstruction techniques. LAA detectability scores of MBIR were greater than or equal to those of FBP and ASIR in all cases. MBIR improved the accuracy of assessment of stent luminal diameter and LAA detectability in the stent lumen when compared with FBP and ASIR. We conclude that MBIR is a useful reconstruction technique for CTA after CAS. (orig.)

  20. CT angiography after carotid artery stenting: assessment of the utility of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and model-based iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuya, Keita; Shinohara, Yuki; Fujii, Shinya; Ogawa, Toshihide; Sakamoto, Makoto; Watanabe, Takashi; Iwata, Naoki; Kishimoto, Junichi; Kaminou, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Follow-up CT angiography (CTA) is routinely performed for post-procedure management after carotid artery stenting (CAS). However, the stent lumen tends to be underestimated because of stent artifacts on CTA reconstructed with the filtered back projection (FBP) technique. We assessed the utility of new iterative reconstruction techniques, such as adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), for CTA after CAS in comparison with FBP. In a phantom study, we evaluated the differences among the three reconstruction techniques with regard to the relationship between the stent luminal diameter and the degree of underestimation of stent luminal diameter. In a clinical study, 34 patients who underwent follow-up CTA after CAS were included. We compared the stent luminal diameters among FBP, ASIR, and MBIR, and performed visual assessment of low attenuation area (LAA) in the stent lumen using a three-point scale. In the phantom study, stent luminal diameter was increasingly underestimated as luminal diameter became smaller in all CTA images. Stent luminal diameter was larger with MBIR than with the other reconstruction techniques. Similarly, in the clinical study, stent luminal diameter was larger with MBIR than with the other reconstruction techniques. LAA detectability scores of MBIR were greater than or equal to those of FBP and ASIR in all cases. MBIR improved the accuracy of assessment of stent luminal diameter and LAA detectability in the stent lumen when compared with FBP and ASIR. We conclude that MBIR is a useful reconstruction technique for CTA after CAS. (orig.)

  1. Image quality of iterative reconstruction in cranial CT imaging: comparison of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notohamiprodjo, S.; Deak, Z.; Meurer, F.; Maertz, F.; Mueck, F.G.; Geyer, L.L.; Wirth, S. [Ludwig-Maximilians University Hospital of Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare cranial CT (CCT) image quality (IQ) of the MBIR algorithm with standard iterative reconstruction (ASiR). In this institutional review board (IRB)-approved study, raw data sets of 100 unenhanced CCT examinations (120 kV, 50-260 mAs, 20 mm collimation, 0.984 pitch) were reconstructed with both ASiR and MBIR. Signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) were calculated from attenuation values measured in caudate nucleus, frontal white matter, anterior ventricle horn, fourth ventricle, and pons. Two radiologists, who were blinded to the reconstruction algorithms, evaluated anonymized multiplanar reformations of 2.5 mm with respect to depiction of different parenchymal structures and impact of artefacts on IQ with a five-point scale (0: unacceptable, 1: less than average, 2: average, 3: above average, 4: excellent). MBIR decreased artefacts more effectively than ASiR (p < 0.01). The median depiction score for MBIR was 3, whereas the median value for ASiR was 2 (p < 0.01). SNR and CNR were significantly higher in MBIR than ASiR (p < 0.01). MBIR showed significant improvement of IQ parameters compared to ASiR. As CCT is an examination that is frequently required, the use of MBIR may allow for substantial reduction of radiation exposure caused by medical diagnostics. (orig.)

  2. Image quality of iterative reconstruction in cranial CT imaging: comparison of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notohamiprodjo, S.; Deak, Z.; Meurer, F.; Maertz, F.; Mueck, F.G.; Geyer, L.L.; Wirth, S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cranial CT (CCT) image quality (IQ) of the MBIR algorithm with standard iterative reconstruction (ASiR). In this institutional review board (IRB)-approved study, raw data sets of 100 unenhanced CCT examinations (120 kV, 50-260 mAs, 20 mm collimation, 0.984 pitch) were reconstructed with both ASiR and MBIR. Signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) were calculated from attenuation values measured in caudate nucleus, frontal white matter, anterior ventricle horn, fourth ventricle, and pons. Two radiologists, who were blinded to the reconstruction algorithms, evaluated anonymized multiplanar reformations of 2.5 mm with respect to depiction of different parenchymal structures and impact of artefacts on IQ with a five-point scale (0: unacceptable, 1: less than average, 2: average, 3: above average, 4: excellent). MBIR decreased artefacts more effectively than ASiR (p < 0.01). The median depiction score for MBIR was 3, whereas the median value for ASiR was 2 (p < 0.01). SNR and CNR were significantly higher in MBIR than ASiR (p < 0.01). MBIR showed significant improvement of IQ parameters compared to ASiR. As CCT is an examination that is frequently required, the use of MBIR may allow for substantial reduction of radiation exposure caused by medical diagnostics. (orig.)

  3. Initial phantom study comparing image quality in computed tomography using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and new adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction v.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyungjae; Kwon, Heejin; Cho, Jinhan; Oh, Jongyoung; Yoon, Seongkuk; Kang, Myungjin; Ha, Dongho; Lee, Jinhwa; Kang, Eunju

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the image quality of a novel advanced iterative reconstruction (IR) method called as "adaptive statistical IR V" (ASIR-V) by comparing the image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and spatial resolution from those of filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical IR (ASIR) on computed tomography (CT) phantom image. We performed CT scans at 5 different tube currents (50, 70, 100, 150, and 200 mA) using 3 types of CT phantoms. Scanned images were subsequently reconstructed in 7 different scan settings, such as FBP, and 3 levels of ASIR and ASIR-V (30%, 50%, and 70%). The image noise was measured in the first study using body phantom. The CNR was measured in the second study using contrast phantom and the spatial resolutions were measured in the third study using a high-resolution phantom. We compared the image noise, CNR, and spatial resolution among the 7 reconstructed image scan settings to determine whether noise reduction, high CNR, and high spatial resolution could be achieved at ASIR-V. At quantitative analysis of the first and second studies, it showed that the images reconstructed using ASIR-V had reduced image noise and improved CNR compared with those of FBP and ASIR (P ASIR-V had significantly improved spatial resolution than those of FBP and ASIR (P ASIR-V provides a significant reduction in image noise and a significant improvement in CNR as well as spatial resolution. Therefore, this technique has the potential to reduce the radiation dose further without compromising image quality.

  4. Statistical iterative reconstruction to improve image quality for digital breast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shiyu; Chen, Ying; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a novel modality with the potential to improve early detection of breast cancer by providing three-dimensional (3D) imaging with a low radiation dose. 3D image reconstruction presents some challenges: cone-beam and flat-panel geometry, and highly incomplete sampling. A promising means to overcome these challenges is statistical iterative reconstruction (IR), since it provides the flexibility of accurate physics modeling and a general description of system geometry. The authors’ goal was to develop techniques for applying statistical IR to tomosynthesis imaging data. Methods: These techniques include the following: a physics model with a local voxel-pair based prior with flexible parameters to fine-tune image quality; a precomputed parameter λ in the prior, to remove data dependence and to achieve a uniform resolution property; an effective ray-driven technique to compute the forward and backprojection; and an oversampled, ray-driven method to perform high resolution reconstruction with a practical region-of-interest technique. To assess the performance of these techniques, the authors acquired phantom data on the stationary DBT prototype system. To solve the estimation problem, the authors proposed an optimization-transfer based algorithm framework that potentially allows fewer iterations to achieve an acceptably converged reconstruction. Results: IR improved the detectability of low-contrast and small microcalcifications, reduced cross-plane artifacts, improved spatial resolution, and lowered noise in reconstructed images. Conclusions: Although the computational load remains a significant challenge for practical development, the superior image quality provided by statistical IR, combined with advancing computational techniques, may bring benefits to screening, diagnostics, and intraoperative imaging in clinical applications

  5. Statistical iterative reconstruction to improve image quality for digital breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Shiyu, E-mail: shiyu.xu@gmail.com; Chen, Ying, E-mail: adachen@siu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois 62901 (United States); Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Curriculum in Applied Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a novel modality with the potential to improve early detection of breast cancer by providing three-dimensional (3D) imaging with a low radiation dose. 3D image reconstruction presents some challenges: cone-beam and flat-panel geometry, and highly incomplete sampling. A promising means to overcome these challenges is statistical iterative reconstruction (IR), since it provides the flexibility of accurate physics modeling and a general description of system geometry. The authors’ goal was to develop techniques for applying statistical IR to tomosynthesis imaging data. Methods: These techniques include the following: a physics model with a local voxel-pair based prior with flexible parameters to fine-tune image quality; a precomputed parameter λ in the prior, to remove data dependence and to achieve a uniform resolution property; an effective ray-driven technique to compute the forward and backprojection; and an oversampled, ray-driven method to perform high resolution reconstruction with a practical region-of-interest technique. To assess the performance of these techniques, the authors acquired phantom data on the stationary DBT prototype system. To solve the estimation problem, the authors proposed an optimization-transfer based algorithm framework that potentially allows fewer iterations to achieve an acceptably converged reconstruction. Results: IR improved the detectability of low-contrast and small microcalcifications, reduced cross-plane artifacts, improved spatial resolution, and lowered noise in reconstructed images. Conclusions: Although the computational load remains a significant challenge for practical development, the superior image quality provided by statistical IR, combined with advancing computational techniques, may bring benefits to screening, diagnostics, and intraoperative imaging in clinical applications.

  6. Radiation dose reduction in soft tissue neck CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachha, Behroze; Brodoefel, Harald; Wilcox, Carol; Hackney, David B; Moonis, Gul

    2013-12-01

    To compare objective and subjective image quality in neck CT images acquired at different tube current-time products (275 mAs and 340 mAs) and reconstructed with filtered-back-projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). HIPAA-compliant study with IRB approval and waiver of informed consent. 66 consecutive patients were randomly assigned to undergo contrast-enhanced neck CT at a standard tube-current-time-product (340 mAs; n = 33) or reduced tube-current-time-product (275 mAs, n = 33). Data sets were reconstructed with FBP and 2 levels (30%, 40%) of ASIR-FBP blending at 340 mAs and 275 mAs. Two neuroradiologists assessed subjective image quality in a blinded and randomized manner. Volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length-product (DLP), effective dose, and objective image noise were recorded. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was computed as mean attenuation in a region of interest in the sternocleidomastoid muscle divided by image noise. Compared with FBP, ASIR resulted in a reduction of image noise at both 340 mAs and 275 mAs. Reduction of tube current from 340 mAs to 275 mAs resulted in an increase in mean objective image noise (p=0.02) and a decrease in SNR (p = 0.03) when images were reconstructed with FBP. However, when the 275 mAs images were reconstructed using ASIR, the mean objective image noise and SNR were similar to those of the standard 340 mAs CT images reconstructed with FBP (p>0.05). Subjective image noise was ranked by both raters as either average or less-than-average irrespective of the tube current and iterative reconstruction technique. Adapting ASIR into neck CT protocols reduced effective dose by 17% without compromising image quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm on image quality in coronary computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precht, Helle; Thygesen, Jesper; Gerke, Oke; Egstrup, Kenneth; Waaler, Dag; Lambrechtsen, Jess

    2016-12-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) requires high spatial and temporal resolution, increased low contrast resolution for the assessment of coronary artery stenosis, plaque detection, and/or non-coronary pathology. Therefore, new reconstruction algorithms, particularly iterative reconstruction (IR) techniques, have been developed in an attempt to improve image quality with no cost in radiation exposure. To evaluate whether adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) enhances perceived image quality in CCTA compared to filtered back projection (FBP). Thirty patients underwent CCTA due to suspected coronary artery disease. Images were reconstructed using FBP, 30% ASIR, and 60% ASIR. Ninety image sets were evaluated by five observers using the subjective visual grading analysis (VGA) and assessed by proportional odds modeling. Objective quality assessment (contrast, noise, and the contrast-to-noise ratio [CNR]) was analyzed with linear mixed effects modeling on log-transformed data. The need for ethical approval was waived by the local ethics committee as the study only involved anonymously collected clinical data. VGA showed significant improvements in sharpness by comparing FBP with ASIR, resulting in odds ratios of 1.54 for 30% ASIR and 1.89 for 60% ASIR ( P  = 0.004). The objective measures showed significant differences between FBP and 60% ASIR ( P  < 0.0001) for noise, with an estimated ratio of 0.82, and for CNR, with an estimated ratio of 1.26. ASIR improved the subjective image quality of parameter sharpness and, objectively, reduced noise and increased CNR.

  8. Comparison of adaptive statistical iterative and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques in quantifying coronary calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masahiro; Kimura, Fumiko; Umezawa, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Yusuke; Ogawa, Harumi

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) has been used to reduce radiation dose in cardiac computed tomography. However, change of image parameters by ASIR as compared to filtered back projection (FBP) may influence quantification of coronary calcium. To investigate the influence of ASIR on calcium quantification in comparison to FBP. In 352 patients, CT images were reconstructed using FBP alone, FBP combined with ASIR 30%, 50%, 70%, and ASIR 100% based on the same raw data. Image noise, plaque density, Agatston scores and calcium volumes were compared among the techniques. Image noise, Agatston score, and calcium volume decreased significantly with ASIR compared to FBP (each P ASIR reduced Agatston score by 10.5% to 31.0%. In calcified plaques both of patients and a phantom, ASIR decreased maximum CT values and calcified plaque size. In comparison to FBP, adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) may significantly decrease Agatston scores and calcium volumes. Copyright © 2016 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultralow dose computed tomography attenuation correction for pediatric PET CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Samuel L.; Shulkin, Barry L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop ultralow dose computed tomography (CT) attenuation correction (CTAC) acquisition protocols for pediatric positron emission tomography CT (PET CT). Methods: A GE Discovery 690 PET CT hybrid scanner was used to investigate the change to quantitative PET and CT measurements when operated at ultralow doses (10–35 mA s). CT quantitation: noise, low-contrast resolution, and CT numbers for 11 tissue substitutes were analyzed in-phantom. CT quantitation was analyzed to a reduction of 90% volume computed tomography dose index (0.39/3.64; mGy) from baseline. To minimize noise infiltration, 100% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) was used for CT reconstruction. PET images were reconstructed with the lower-dose CTAC iterations and analyzed for: maximum body weight standardized uptake value (SUV bw ) of various diameter targets (range 8–37 mm), background uniformity, and spatial resolution. Radiation dose and CTAC noise magnitude were compared for 140 patient examinations (76 post-ASiR implementation) to determine relative dose reduction and noise control. Results: CT numbers were constant to within 10% from the nondose reduced CTAC image for 90% dose reduction. No change in SUV bw , background percent uniformity, or spatial resolution for PET images reconstructed with CTAC protocols was found down to 90% dose reduction. Patient population effective dose analysis demonstrated relative CTAC dose reductions between 62% and 86% (3.2/8.3–0.9/6.2). Noise magnitude in dose-reduced patient images increased but was not statistically different from predose-reduced patient images. Conclusions: Using ASiR allowed for aggressive reduction in CT dose with no change in PET reconstructed images while maintaining sufficient image quality for colocalization of hybrid CT anatomy and PET radioisotope uptake

  10. Ultralow dose computed tomography attenuation correction for pediatric PET CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Samuel L., E-mail: samuel.brady@stjude.org [Division of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 (United States); Shulkin, Barry L. [Nuclear Medicine and Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To develop ultralow dose computed tomography (CT) attenuation correction (CTAC) acquisition protocols for pediatric positron emission tomography CT (PET CT). Methods: A GE Discovery 690 PET CT hybrid scanner was used to investigate the change to quantitative PET and CT measurements when operated at ultralow doses (10–35 mA s). CT quantitation: noise, low-contrast resolution, and CT numbers for 11 tissue substitutes were analyzed in-phantom. CT quantitation was analyzed to a reduction of 90% volume computed tomography dose index (0.39/3.64; mGy) from baseline. To minimize noise infiltration, 100% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) was used for CT reconstruction. PET images were reconstructed with the lower-dose CTAC iterations and analyzed for: maximum body weight standardized uptake value (SUV{sub bw}) of various diameter targets (range 8–37 mm), background uniformity, and spatial resolution. Radiation dose and CTAC noise magnitude were compared for 140 patient examinations (76 post-ASiR implementation) to determine relative dose reduction and noise control. Results: CT numbers were constant to within 10% from the nondose reduced CTAC image for 90% dose reduction. No change in SUV{sub bw}, background percent uniformity, or spatial resolution for PET images reconstructed with CTAC protocols was found down to 90% dose reduction. Patient population effective dose analysis demonstrated relative CTAC dose reductions between 62% and 86% (3.2/8.3–0.9/6.2). Noise magnitude in dose-reduced patient images increased but was not statistically different from predose-reduced patient images. Conclusions: Using ASiR allowed for aggressive reduction in CT dose with no change in PET reconstructed images while maintaining sufficient image quality for colocalization of hybrid CT anatomy and PET radioisotope uptake.

  11. Comparison of adaptive statistical iterative and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques in brain CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Qingguo; Dewan, Sheilesh Kumar; Li, Ming; Li, Jianying; Mao, Dingbiao; Wang, Zhenglei; Hua, Yanqing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare image quality and visualization of normal structures and lesions in brain computed tomography (CT) with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and filtered back projection (FBP) reconstruction techniques in different X-ray tube current–time products. Materials and methods: In this IRB-approved prospective study, forty patients (nineteen men, twenty-one women; mean age 69.5 ± 11.2 years) received brain scan at different tube current–time products (300 and 200 mAs) in 64-section multi-detector CT (GE, Discovery CT750 HD). Images were reconstructed with FBP and four levels of ASIR-FBP blending. Two radiologists (please note that our hospital is renowned for its geriatric medicine department, and these two radiologists are more experienced in chronic cerebral vascular disease than in neoplastic disease, so this research did not contain cerebral tumors but as a discussion) assessed all the reconstructed images for visibility of normal structures, lesion conspicuity, image contrast and diagnostic confidence in a blinded and randomized manner. Volume CT dose index (CTDI vol ) and dose-length product (DLP) were recorded. All the data were analyzed by using SPSS 13.0 statistical analysis software. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the image qualities at 200 mAs with 50% ASIR blending technique and 300 mAs with FBP technique (p > .05). While between the image qualities at 200 mAs with FBP and 300 mAs with FBP technique a statistically significant difference (p < .05) was found. Conclusion: ASIR provided same image quality and diagnostic ability in brain imaging with greater than 30% dose reduction compared with FBP reconstruction technique

  12. Comparison of adaptive statistical iterative and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques in brain CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Qingguo, E-mail: renqg83@163.com [Department of Radiology, Hua Dong Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Dewan, Sheilesh Kumar, E-mail: sheilesh_d1@hotmail.com [Department of Geriatrics, Hua Dong Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Li, Ming, E-mail: minli77@163.com [Department of Radiology, Hua Dong Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Li, Jianying, E-mail: Jianying.Li@med.ge.com [CT Imaging Research Center, GE Healthcare China, Beijing (China); Mao, Dingbiao, E-mail: maodingbiao74@163.com [Department of Radiology, Hua Dong Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Wang, Zhenglei, E-mail: Williswang_doc@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Electricity Hospital, Shanghai 200050 (China); Hua, Yanqing, E-mail: cjr.huayanqing@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Hua Dong Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To compare image quality and visualization of normal structures and lesions in brain computed tomography (CT) with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and filtered back projection (FBP) reconstruction techniques in different X-ray tube current–time products. Materials and methods: In this IRB-approved prospective study, forty patients (nineteen men, twenty-one women; mean age 69.5 ± 11.2 years) received brain scan at different tube current–time products (300 and 200 mAs) in 64-section multi-detector CT (GE, Discovery CT750 HD). Images were reconstructed with FBP and four levels of ASIR-FBP blending. Two radiologists (please note that our hospital is renowned for its geriatric medicine department, and these two radiologists are more experienced in chronic cerebral vascular disease than in neoplastic disease, so this research did not contain cerebral tumors but as a discussion) assessed all the reconstructed images for visibility of normal structures, lesion conspicuity, image contrast and diagnostic confidence in a blinded and randomized manner. Volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose-length product (DLP) were recorded. All the data were analyzed by using SPSS 13.0 statistical analysis software. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the image qualities at 200 mAs with 50% ASIR blending technique and 300 mAs with FBP technique (p > .05). While between the image qualities at 200 mAs with FBP and 300 mAs with FBP technique a statistically significant difference (p < .05) was found. Conclusion: ASIR provided same image quality and diagnostic ability in brain imaging with greater than 30% dose reduction compared with FBP reconstruction technique.

  13. Potential benefit of the CT adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction method for pediatric cardiac diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miéville, Frédéric A.; Ayestaran, Paul; Argaud, Christophe; Rizzo, Elena; Ou, Phalla; Brunelle, Francis; Gudinchet, François; Bochud, François; Verdun, Francis R.

    2010-04-01

    Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) is a new imaging reconstruction technique recently introduced by General Electric (GE). This technique, when combined with a conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) approach, is able to improve the image noise reduction. To quantify the benefits provided on the image quality and the dose reduction by the ASIR method with respect to the pure FBP one, the standard deviation (SD), the modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS), the image uniformity and the noise homogeneity were examined. Measurements were performed on a control quality phantom when varying the CT dose index (CTDIvol) and the reconstruction kernels. A 64-MDCT was employed and raw data were reconstructed with different percentages of ASIR on a CT console dedicated for ASIR reconstruction. Three radiologists also assessed a cardiac pediatric exam reconstructed with different ASIR percentages using the visual grading analysis (VGA) method. For the standard, soft and bone reconstruction kernels, the SD is reduced when the ASIR percentage increases up to 100% with a higher benefit for low CTDIvol. MTF medium frequencies were slightly enhanced and modifications of the NPS shape curve were observed. However for the pediatric cardiac CT exam, VGA scores indicate an upper limit of the ASIR benefit. 40% of ASIR was observed as the best trade-off between noise reduction and clinical realism of organ images. Using phantom results, 40% of ASIR corresponded to an estimated dose reduction of 30% under pediatric cardiac protocol conditions. In spite of this discrepancy between phantom and clinical results, the ASIR method is as an important option when considering the reduction of radiation dose, especially for pediatric patients.

  14. Influence of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm on image quality in coronary computed tomography angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Precht

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA requires high spatial and temporal resolution, increased low contrast resolution for the assessment of coronary artery stenosis, plaque detection, and/or non-coronary pathology. Therefore, new reconstruction algorithms, particularly iterative reconstruction (IR techniques, have been developed in an attempt to improve image quality with no cost in radiation exposure. Purpose To evaluate whether adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR enhances perceived image quality in CCTA compared to filtered back projection (FBP. Material and Methods Thirty patients underwent CCTA due to suspected coronary artery disease. Images were reconstructed using FBP, 30% ASIR, and 60% ASIR. Ninety image sets were evaluated by five observers using the subjective visual grading analysis (VGA and assessed by proportional odds modeling. Objective quality assessment (contrast, noise, and the contrast-to-noise ratio [CNR] was analyzed with linear mixed effects modeling on log-transformed data. The need for ethical approval was waived by the local ethics committee as the study only involved anonymously collected clinical data. Results VGA showed significant improvements in sharpness by comparing FBP with ASIR, resulting in odds ratios of 1.54 for 30% ASIR and 1.89 for 60% ASIR (P = 0.004. The objective measures showed significant differences between FBP and 60% ASIR (P < 0.0001 for noise, with an estimated ratio of 0.82, and for CNR, with an estimated ratio of 1.26. Conclusion ASIR improved the subjective image quality of parameter sharpness and, objectively, reduced noise and increased CNR.

  15. Comparison of the image qualities of filtered back-projection, adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction, and model-based iterative reconstruction for CT venography at 80 kVp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hyeok; Choo, Ki Seok; Moon, Tae Yong; Lee, Jun Woo; Jeon, Ung Bae; Kim, Tae Un; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Yun, Myeong-Ja; Jeong, Dong Wook; Lim, Soo Jin

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the subjective and objective qualities of computed tomography (CT) venography images at 80 kVp using model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) and to compare these with those of filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) using the same CT data sets. Forty-four patients (mean age: 56.1 ± 18.1) who underwent 80 kVp CT venography (CTV) for the evaluation of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) during 4 months were enrolled in this retrospective study. The same raw data were reconstructed using FBP, ASIR, and MBIR. Objective and subjective image analysis were performed at the inferior vena cava (IVC), femoral vein, and popliteal vein. The mean CNR of MBIR was significantly greater than those of FBP and ASIR and images reconstructed using MBIR had significantly lower objective image noise (p <.001). Subjective image quality and confidence of detecting DVT by MBIR group were significantly greater than those of FBP and ASIR (p <.005), and MBIR had the lowest score for subjective image noise (p <.001). CTV at 80 kVp with MBIR was superior to FBP and ASIR regarding subjective and objective image qualities. (orig.)

  16. Radiation dose reduction in soft tissue neck CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vachha, Behroze, E-mail: bvachha@partners.org [Neuroradiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Brodoefel, Harald; Wilcox, Carol; Hackney, David B.; Moonis, Gul [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To compare objective and subjective image quality in neck CT images acquired at different tube current–time products (275 mA s and 340 mA s) and reconstructed with filtered-back-projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). Materials and methods: HIPAA-compliant study with IRB approval and waiver of informed consent. 66 consecutive patients were randomly assigned to undergo contrast-enhanced neck CT at a standard tube-current–time-product (340 mA s; n = 33) or reduced tube-current–time-product (275 mA s, n = 33). Data sets were reconstructed with FBP and 2 levels (30%, 40%) of ASIR-FBP blending at 340 mA s and 275 mA s. Two neuroradiologists assessed subjective image quality in a blinded and randomized manner. Volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length-product (DLP), effective dose, and objective image noise were recorded. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was computed as mean attenuation in a region of interest in the sternocleidomastoid muscle divided by image noise. Results: Compared with FBP, ASIR resulted in a reduction of image noise at both 340 mA s and 275 mA s. Reduction of tube current from 340 mA s to 275 mA s resulted in an increase in mean objective image noise (p = 0.02) and a decrease in SNR (p = 0.03) when images were reconstructed with FBP. However, when the 275 mA s images were reconstructed using ASIR, the mean objective image noise and SNR were similar to those of the standard 340 mA s CT images reconstructed with FBP (p > 0.05). Subjective image noise was ranked by both raters as either average or less-than-average irrespective of the tube current and iterative reconstruction technique. Conclusion: Adapting ASIR into neck CT protocols reduced effective dose by 17% without compromising image quality.

  17. Radiation dose reduction in soft tissue neck CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachha, Behroze; Brodoefel, Harald; Wilcox, Carol; Hackney, David B.; Moonis, Gul

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare objective and subjective image quality in neck CT images acquired at different tube current–time products (275 mA s and 340 mA s) and reconstructed with filtered-back-projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). Materials and methods: HIPAA-compliant study with IRB approval and waiver of informed consent. 66 consecutive patients were randomly assigned to undergo contrast-enhanced neck CT at a standard tube-current–time-product (340 mA s; n = 33) or reduced tube-current–time-product (275 mA s, n = 33). Data sets were reconstructed with FBP and 2 levels (30%, 40%) of ASIR-FBP blending at 340 mA s and 275 mA s. Two neuroradiologists assessed subjective image quality in a blinded and randomized manner. Volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length-product (DLP), effective dose, and objective image noise were recorded. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was computed as mean attenuation in a region of interest in the sternocleidomastoid muscle divided by image noise. Results: Compared with FBP, ASIR resulted in a reduction of image noise at both 340 mA s and 275 mA s. Reduction of tube current from 340 mA s to 275 mA s resulted in an increase in mean objective image noise (p = 0.02) and a decrease in SNR (p = 0.03) when images were reconstructed with FBP. However, when the 275 mA s images were reconstructed using ASIR, the mean objective image noise and SNR were similar to those of the standard 340 mA s CT images reconstructed with FBP (p > 0.05). Subjective image noise was ranked by both raters as either average or less-than-average irrespective of the tube current and iterative reconstruction technique. Conclusion: Adapting ASIR into neck CT protocols reduced effective dose by 17% without compromising image quality

  18. Image quality in children with low-radiation chest CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and model-based iterative reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihang Sun

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate noise reduction and image quality improvement in low-radiation dose chest CT images in children using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR and a full model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR algorithm. METHODS: Forty-five children (age ranging from 28 days to 6 years, median of 1.8 years who received low-dose chest CT scans were included. Age-dependent noise index (NI was used for acquisition. Images were retrospectively reconstructed using three methods: MBIR, 60% of ASIR and 40% of conventional filtered back-projection (FBP, and FBP. The subjective quality of the images was independently evaluated by two radiologists. Objective noises in the left ventricle (LV, muscle, fat, descending aorta and lung field at the layer with the largest cross-section area of LV were measured, with the region of interest about one fourth to half of the area of descending aorta. Optimized signal-to-noise ratio (SNR was calculated. RESULT: In terms of subjective quality, MBIR images were significantly better than ASIR and FBP in image noise and visibility of tiny structures, but blurred edges were observed. In terms of objective noise, MBIR and ASIR reconstruction decreased the image noise by 55.2% and 31.8%, respectively, for LV compared with FBP. Similarly, MBIR and ASIR reconstruction increased the SNR by 124.0% and 46.2%, respectively, compared with FBP. CONCLUSION: Compared with FBP and ASIR, overall image quality and noise reduction were significantly improved by MBIR. MBIR image could reconstruct eligible chest CT images in children with lower radiation dose.

  19. The use of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction in pediatric head CT: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorona, G A; Zuccoli, G; Sutcavage, T; Clayton, B L; Ceschin, R C; Panigrahy, A

    2013-01-01

    Iterative reconstruction techniques facilitate CT dose reduction; though to our knowledge, no group has explored using iterative reconstruction with pediatric head CT. Our purpose was to perform a feasibility study to assess the use of ASIR in a small group of pediatric patients undergoing head CT. An Alderson-Rando head phantom was scanned at decreasing 10% mA intervals relative to our standard protocol, and each study was then reconstructed at 10% ASIR intervals. An intracranial region of interest was consistently placed to estimate noise. Our ventriculoperitoneal shunt CT protocol was subsequently modified, and patients were scanned at 20% ASIR with approximately 20% mA reductions. ASIR studies were anonymously compared with older non-ASIR studies from the same patients by 2 attending pediatric neuroradiologists for diagnostic utility, sharpness, noise, and artifacts. The phantom study demonstrated similar noise at 100% mA/0% ASIR (3.9) and 80% mA/20% ASIR (3.7). Twelve pediatric patients were scanned at reduced dose at 20% ASIR. The average CTDI(vol) and DLP values of the 20% ASIR studies were 22.4 mGy and 338.4 mGy-cm, and for the non-ASIR studies, they were 28.8 mGy and 444.5 mGy-cm, representing statistically significant decreases in the CTDI(vol) (22.1%, P = .00007) and DLP (23.9%, P = .0005) values. There were no significant differences between the ASIR studies and non-ASIR studies with respect to diagnostic acceptability, sharpness, noise, or artifacts. Our findings suggest that 20% ASIR can provide approximately 22% dose reduction in pediatric head CT without affecting image quality.

  20. Cranial CT with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction: improved image quality with concomitant radiation dose reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapalino, O; Kamalian, Shervin; Kamalian, Shahmir; Payabvash, S; Souza, L C S; Zhang, D; Mukta, J; Sahani, D V; Lev, M H; Pomerantz, S R

    2012-04-01

    To safeguard patient health, there is great interest in CT radiation-dose reduction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of an iterative-reconstruction algorithm, ASIR, on image-quality measures in reduced-dose head CT scans for adult patients. Using a 64-section scanner, we analyzed 100 reduced-dose adult head CT scans at 6 predefined levels of ASIR blended with FBP reconstruction. These scans were compared with 50 CT scans previously obtained at a higher routine dose without ASIR reconstruction. SNR and CNR were computed from Hounsfield unit measurements of normal GM and WM of brain parenchyma. A blinded qualitative analysis was performed in 10 lower-dose CT datasets compared with higher-dose ones without ASIR. Phantom data analysis was also performed. Lower-dose scans without ASIR had significantly lower mean GM and WM SNR (P = .003) and similar GM-WM CNR values compared with higher routine-dose scans. However, at ASIR levels of 20%-40%, there was no statistically significant difference in SNR, and at ASIR levels of ≥60%, the SNR values of the reduced-dose scans were significantly higher (P ASIR levels of ≥40% (P ASIR levels ≥60% (P ASIR in adult head CT scans reduces image noise and increases low-contrast resolution, while allowing lower radiation doses without affecting spatial resolution.

  1. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction for volume-rendered computed tomography portovenography. Improvement of image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Izuru; Hanaoka, Shohei; Akahane, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) is a reconstruction technique for computed tomography (CT) that reduces image noise. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether ASIR improves the quality of volume-rendered (VR) CT portovenography. Institutional review board approval, with waived consent, was obtained. A total of 19 patients (12 men, 7 women; mean age 69.0 years; range 25-82 years) suspected of having liver lesions underwent three-phase enhanced CT. VR image sets were prepared with both the conventional method and ASIR. The required time to make VR images was recorded. Two radiologists performed independent qualitative evaluations of the image sets. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for statistical analysis. Contrast-noise ratios (CNRs) of the portal and hepatic vein were also evaluated. Overall image quality was significantly improved by ASIR (P<0.0001 and P=0.0155 for each radiologist). ASIR enhanced CNRs of the portal and hepatic vein significantly (P<0.0001). The time required to create VR images was significantly shorter with ASIR (84.7 vs. 117.1 s; P=0.014). ASIR enhances CNRs and improves image quality in VR CT portovenography. It also shortens the time required to create liver VR CT portovenographs. (author)

  2. Upgrade to iterative image reconstruction (IR) in abdominal MDCT imaging. A clinical study for detailed parameter optimization beyond vendor recommendations using the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction environment (ASIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, F.G.; Koerner, M.; Scherr, M.K.; Geyer, L.L.; Deak, Z.; Linsenmaier, U.; Reiser, M.; Wirth, S.

    2012-01-01

    To compare the image quality of dose-reduced 64-row abdominal CT reconstructed at different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) to full-dose baseline examinations reconstructed with filtered back-projection (FBP) in a clinical setting and upgrade situation. Abdominal baseline examinations (noise index NI = 29; LightSpeed VCT XT, GE) were intra-individually compared to follow-up studies on a CT with an ASIR option (NI = 43; Discovery HD750, GE), n = 42. Standard-kernel images were calculated with ASIR blendings of 0 - 100 % in slice and volume mode, respectively. Three experienced radiologists compared the image quality of these 567 sets to their corresponding full-dose baseline examination (-2: diagnostically inferior, -1: inferior, 0: equal, +1: superior, +2: diagnostically superior). Furthermore, a phantom was scanned. Statistical analysis used the Wilcoxon - the Mann-Whitney U-test and the intra-class correlation (ICC). The mean CTDIvol decreased from 19.7 ± 5.5 to 12.2 ± 4.7 mGy (p 0.10). Volume mode performed 73 % slower than slice mode (p < 0.01). After the system upgrade, the vendor recommendation of ASIR 50 % in slice mode allowed for a dose reduction of 38 % in abdominal CT with comparable image quality and time expenditure. However, there is still further dose reduction potential for more complex reconstruction settings. (orig.)

  3. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technology in the application of PET/CT whole body scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Jun; Zhao Zhoushe; Li Hong; Lu Zhe; Wu Wenkai; Guo Qiyong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To improve image quality of low dose CT in whole body PET/CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) technology. Methods: Twice CT scans were performed with GE water model,scan parameters were: 120 kV, 120 and 300 mA respectively. In addition, 30 subjects treated with PET/CT were selected randomly, whole body PET/CT were performed after 18 F-FDG injection of 3.70 MBq/kg, Sharp IR+time of flight + VUE Point HD technology were used for 1.5 min/bed in PET; CT of spiral scan was performed under 120 kV using automatic exposure control technology (30-210 mA, noise index 25). Model and patients whole body CT images were reconstructed with conventional and 40% ASiR methods respectively, and the CT attenuation value and noise index were measured. Results: Research of model and clinical showed that standard deviation of ASiR method in model CT was 33.0% lower than the conventional CT reconstruction method (t =27.76, P<0.01), standard deviation of CT in normal tissues (brain, lung, mediastinum, liver and vertebral body) and lesions (brain, lung, mediastinum, liver and vertebral body) reduced by 21.08% (t =23.35, P<0.01) and 24.43% (t =16.15, P<0.01) respectively, especially for normal liver tissue and liver lesions, standard deviations of CT were reduced by 51.33% (t=34.21, P<0.0) and 49.54% (t=15.21, P<0.01) respectively. Conclusion: ASiR reconstruction method was significantly reduced the noise of low dose CT image and improved the quality of CT image in whole body PET/CT, which seems more suitable for quantitative analysis and clinical applications. (authors)

  4. Influence of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction on coronary plaque analysis in coronary computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precht, Helle; Kitslaar, Pieter H; Broersen, Alexander; Dijkstra, Jouke; Gerke, Oke; Thygesen, Jesper; Egstrup, Kenneth; Lambrechtsen, Jess

    The purpose of this study was to study the effect of iterative reconstruction (IR) software on quantitative plaque measurements in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Thirty patients with a three clinical risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) had one CCTA performed. Images were reconstructed using FBP, 30% and 60% adaptive statistical IR (ASIR). Coronary plaque analysis was performed as per patient and per vessel (LM, LAD, CX and RCA) measurements. Lumen and vessel volumes and plaque burden measurements were based on automatic detected contours in each reconstruction. Lumen and plaque intensity measurements and HU based plaque characterization were based on corrected contours copied to each reconstruction. No significant changes between FBP and 30% ASIR were found except for lumen- (-2.53 HU) and plaque intensities (-1.28 HU). Between FBP and 60% ASIR the change in total volume showed an increase of 0.94%, 4.36% and 2.01% for lumen, plaque and vessel, respectively. The change in total plaque burden between FBP and 60% ASIR was 0.76%. Lumen and plaque intensities decreased between FBP and 60% ASIR with -9.90 HU and -1.97 HU, respectively. The total plaque component volume changes were all small with a maximum change of -1.13% of necrotic core between FBP and 60% ASIR. Quantitative plaque measurements only showed modest differences between FBP and the 60% ASIR level. Differences were increased lumen-, vessel- and plaque volumes, decreased lumen- and plaque intensities and a small percentage change in the individual plaque component volumes. Copyright © 2016 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction reduces patient radiation dose in neuroradiology CT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komlosi, Peter; Zhang, Yanrong; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos; Ornan, David; Grady, Deborah [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Division of Neuroradiology, PO Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Patrie, James T.; Xin, Wenjun [University of Virginia, Department of Public Health Sciences, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Wintermark, Max [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Division of Neuroradiology, PO Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) can decrease image noise, thereby generating CT images of comparable diagnostic quality with less radiation. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of systematic use of ASIR versus filtered back projection (FBP) for neuroradiology CT protocols on patients' radiation dose and image quality. We evaluated the effect of ASIR on six types of neuroradiologic CT studies: adult and pediatric unenhanced head CT, adult cervical spine CT, adult cervical and intracranial CT angiography, adult soft tissue neck CT with contrast, and adult lumbar spine CT. For each type of CT study, two groups of 100 consecutive studies were retrospectively reviewed: 100 studies performed with FBP and 100 studies performed with ASIR/FBP blending factor of 40 %/60 % with appropriate noise indices. The weighted volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}), dose-length product (DLP) and noise were recorded. Each study was also reviewed for image quality by two reviewers. Continuous and categorical variables were compared by t test and free permutation test, respectively. For adult unenhanced brain CT, CT cervical myelography, cervical and intracranial CT angiography and lumbar spine CT both CTDI{sub vol} and DLP were lowered by up to 10.9 % (p < 0.001), 17.9 % (p = 0.005), 20.9 % (p < 0.001), and 21.7 % (p = 0.001), respectively, by using ASIR compared with FBP alone. Image quality and noise were similar for both FBP and ASIR. We recommend routine use of iterative reconstruction for neuroradiology CT examinations because this approach affords a significant dose reduction while preserving image quality. (orig.)

  6. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction reduces patient radiation dose in neuroradiology CT studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komlosi, Peter; Zhang, Yanrong; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos; Ornan, David; Grady, Deborah; Patrie, James T.; Xin, Wenjun; Wintermark, Max

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) can decrease image noise, thereby generating CT images of comparable diagnostic quality with less radiation. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of systematic use of ASIR versus filtered back projection (FBP) for neuroradiology CT protocols on patients' radiation dose and image quality. We evaluated the effect of ASIR on six types of neuroradiologic CT studies: adult and pediatric unenhanced head CT, adult cervical spine CT, adult cervical and intracranial CT angiography, adult soft tissue neck CT with contrast, and adult lumbar spine CT. For each type of CT study, two groups of 100 consecutive studies were retrospectively reviewed: 100 studies performed with FBP and 100 studies performed with ASIR/FBP blending factor of 40 %/60 % with appropriate noise indices. The weighted volume CT dose index (CTDI vol ), dose-length product (DLP) and noise were recorded. Each study was also reviewed for image quality by two reviewers. Continuous and categorical variables were compared by t test and free permutation test, respectively. For adult unenhanced brain CT, CT cervical myelography, cervical and intracranial CT angiography and lumbar spine CT both CTDI vol and DLP were lowered by up to 10.9 % (p < 0.001), 17.9 % (p = 0.005), 20.9 % (p < 0.001), and 21.7 % (p = 0.001), respectively, by using ASIR compared with FBP alone. Image quality and noise were similar for both FBP and ASIR. We recommend routine use of iterative reconstruction for neuroradiology CT examinations because this approach affords a significant dose reduction while preserving image quality. (orig.)

  7. Low dose dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging using a statistical iterative reconstruction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Yinghua [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Chen, Guang-Hong [Department of Medical Physics and Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Hacker, Timothy A.; Raval, Amish N. [Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Van Lysel, Michael S.; Speidel, Michael A., E-mail: speidel@wisc.edu [Department of Medical Physics and Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging has the potential to provide both functional and anatomical information regarding coronary artery stenosis. However, radiation dose can be potentially high due to repeated scanning of the same region. The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of statistical iterative reconstruction to improve parametric maps of myocardial perfusion derived from a low tube current dynamic CT acquisition. Methods: Four pigs underwent high (500 mA) and low (25 mA) dose dynamic CT myocardial perfusion scans with and without coronary occlusion. To delineate the affected myocardial territory, an N-13 ammonia PET perfusion scan was performed for each animal in each occlusion state. Filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction was first applied to all CT data sets. Then, a statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR) method was applied to data sets acquired at low dose. Image voxel noise was matched between the low dose SIR and high dose FBP reconstructions. CT perfusion maps were compared among the low dose FBP, low dose SIR and high dose FBP reconstructions. Numerical simulations of a dynamic CT scan at high and low dose (20:1 ratio) were performed to quantitatively evaluate SIR and FBP performance in terms of flow map accuracy, precision, dose efficiency, and spatial resolution. Results: Forin vivo studies, the 500 mA FBP maps gave −88.4%, −96.0%, −76.7%, and −65.8% flow change in the occluded anterior region compared to the open-coronary scans (four animals). The percent changes in the 25 mA SIR maps were in good agreement, measuring −94.7%, −81.6%, −84.0%, and −72.2%. The 25 mA FBP maps gave unreliable flow measurements due to streaks caused by photon starvation (percent changes of +137.4%, +71.0%, −11.8%, and −3.5%). Agreement between 25 mA SIR and 500 mA FBP global flow was −9.7%, 8.8%, −3.1%, and 26.4%. The average variability of flow measurements in a nonoccluded region was 16.3%, 24.1%, and 937

  8. Low dose dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging using a statistical iterative reconstruction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Yinghua; Chen, Guang-Hong; Hacker, Timothy A.; Raval, Amish N.; Van Lysel, Michael S.; Speidel, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging has the potential to provide both functional and anatomical information regarding coronary artery stenosis. However, radiation dose can be potentially high due to repeated scanning of the same region. The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of statistical iterative reconstruction to improve parametric maps of myocardial perfusion derived from a low tube current dynamic CT acquisition. Methods: Four pigs underwent high (500 mA) and low (25 mA) dose dynamic CT myocardial perfusion scans with and without coronary occlusion. To delineate the affected myocardial territory, an N-13 ammonia PET perfusion scan was performed for each animal in each occlusion state. Filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction was first applied to all CT data sets. Then, a statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR) method was applied to data sets acquired at low dose. Image voxel noise was matched between the low dose SIR and high dose FBP reconstructions. CT perfusion maps were compared among the low dose FBP, low dose SIR and high dose FBP reconstructions. Numerical simulations of a dynamic CT scan at high and low dose (20:1 ratio) were performed to quantitatively evaluate SIR and FBP performance in terms of flow map accuracy, precision, dose efficiency, and spatial resolution. Results: Forin vivo studies, the 500 mA FBP maps gave −88.4%, −96.0%, −76.7%, and −65.8% flow change in the occluded anterior region compared to the open-coronary scans (four animals). The percent changes in the 25 mA SIR maps were in good agreement, measuring −94.7%, −81.6%, −84.0%, and −72.2%. The 25 mA FBP maps gave unreliable flow measurements due to streaks caused by photon starvation (percent changes of +137.4%, +71.0%, −11.8%, and −3.5%). Agreement between 25 mA SIR and 500 mA FBP global flow was −9.7%, 8.8%, −3.1%, and 26.4%. The average variability of flow measurements in a nonoccluded region was 16.3%, 24.1%, and 937

  9. Effect of radiation dose and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction on image quality of pulmonary computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Jiro; Akahane, Masaaki; Inano, Sachiko; Terasaki, Mariko; Akai, Hiroyuki; Katsura, Masaki; Matsuda, Izuru; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of dose and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) on image quality of pulmonary computed tomography (CT). Inflated and fixed porcine lungs were scanned with a 64-slice CT system at 10, 20, 40 and 400 mAs. Using automatic exposure control, 40 mAs was chosen as standard dose. Scan data were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and ASIR. Image pairs were obtained by factorial combination of images at a selected level. Using a 21-point scale, three experienced radiologists independently rated differences in quality between adjacently displayed paired images for image noise, image sharpness and conspicuity of tiny nodules. A subjective quality score (SQS) for each image was computed based on Anderson's functional measurement theory. The standard deviation was recorded as a quantitative noise measurement. At all doses examined, SQSs improved with ASIR for all evaluation items. No significant differences were noted between the SQSs for 40%-ASIR images obtained at 20 mAs and those for FBP images at 40 mAs. Compared to the FBP algorithm, ASIR for lung CT can enable an approximately 50% dose reduction from the standard dose while preserving visualization of small structures. (author)

  10. Model-based iterative reconstruction technique for radiation dose reduction in chest CT: comparison with the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsura, Masaki; Matsuda, Izuru; Akahane, Masaaki; Sato, Jiro; Akai, Hiroyuki; Yasaka, Koichiro; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2012-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate dose reduction and image quality characteristics of chest CT reconstructed with model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) compared with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). One hundred patients underwent reference-dose and low-dose unenhanced chest CT with 64-row multidetector CT. Images were reconstructed with 50 % ASIR-filtered back projection blending (ASIR50) for reference-dose CT, and with ASIR50 and MBIR for low-dose CT. Two radiologists assessed the images in a blinded manner for subjective image noise, artefacts and diagnostic acceptability. Objective image noise was measured in the lung parenchyma. Data were analysed using the sign test and pair-wise Student's t-test. Compared with reference-dose CT, there was a 79.0 % decrease in dose-length product with low-dose CT. Low-dose MBIR images had significantly lower objective image noise (16.93 ± 3.00) than low-dose ASIR (49.24 ± 9.11, P < 0.01) and reference-dose ASIR images (24.93 ± 4.65, P < 0.01). Low-dose MBIR images were all diagnostically acceptable. Unique features of low-dose MBIR images included motion artefacts and pixellated blotchy appearances, which did not adversely affect diagnostic acceptability. Diagnostically acceptable chest CT images acquired with nearly 80 % less radiation can be obtained using MBIR. MBIR shows greater potential than ASIR for providing diagnostically acceptable low-dose CT images without severely compromising image quality. (orig.)

  11. Model-based iterative reconstruction technique for radiation dose reduction in chest CT: comparison with the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsura, Masaki; Matsuda, Izuru; Akahane, Masaaki; Sato, Jiro; Akai, Hiroyuki; Yasaka, Koichiro; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    To prospectively evaluate dose reduction and image quality characteristics of chest CT reconstructed with model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) compared with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). One hundred patients underwent reference-dose and low-dose unenhanced chest CT with 64-row multidetector CT. Images were reconstructed with 50 % ASIR-filtered back projection blending (ASIR50) for reference-dose CT, and with ASIR50 and MBIR for low-dose CT. Two radiologists assessed the images in a blinded manner for subjective image noise, artefacts and diagnostic acceptability. Objective image noise was measured in the lung parenchyma. Data were analysed using the sign test and pair-wise Student's t-test. Compared with reference-dose CT, there was a 79.0 % decrease in dose-length product with low-dose CT. Low-dose MBIR images had significantly lower objective image noise (16.93 {+-} 3.00) than low-dose ASIR (49.24 {+-} 9.11, P < 0.01) and reference-dose ASIR images (24.93 {+-} 4.65, P < 0.01). Low-dose MBIR images were all diagnostically acceptable. Unique features of low-dose MBIR images included motion artefacts and pixellated blotchy appearances, which did not adversely affect diagnostic acceptability. Diagnostically acceptable chest CT images acquired with nearly 80 % less radiation can be obtained using MBIR. MBIR shows greater potential than ASIR for providing diagnostically acceptable low-dose CT images without severely compromising image quality. (orig.)

  12. Characterization of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm for dose reduction in CT: A pediatric oncology perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, S. L.; Yee, B. S.; Kaufman, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study demonstrates a means of implementing an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR™) technique for dose reduction in computed tomography (CT) while maintaining similar noise levels in the reconstructed image. The effects of image quality and noise texture were assessed at all implementation levels of ASiR™. Empirically derived dose reduction limits were established for ASiR™ for imaging of the trunk for a pediatric oncology population ranging from 1 yr old through adolescence/adulthood. Methods: Image quality was assessed using metrics established by the American College of Radiology (ACR) CT accreditation program. Each image quality metric was tested using the ACR CT phantom with 0%–100% ASiR™ blended with filtered back projection (FBP) reconstructed images. Additionally, the noise power spectrum (NPS) was calculated for three common reconstruction filters of the trunk. The empirically derived limitations on ASiR™ implementation for dose reduction were assessed using (1, 5, 10) yr old and adolescent/adult anthropomorphic phantoms. To assess dose reduction limits, the phantoms were scanned in increments of increased noise index (decrementing mA using automatic tube current modulation) balanced with ASiR™ reconstruction to maintain noise equivalence of the 0% ASiR™ image. Results: The ASiR™ algorithm did not produce any unfavorable effects on image quality as assessed by ACR criteria. Conversely, low-contrast resolution was found to improve due to the reduction of noise in the reconstructed images. NPS calculations demonstrated that images with lower frequency noise had lower noise variance and coarser graininess at progressively higher percentages of ASiR™ reconstruction; and in spite of the similar magnitudes of noise, the image reconstructed with 50% or more ASiR™ presented a more smoothed appearance than the pre-ASiR™ 100% FBP image. Finally, relative to non-ASiR™ images with 100% of standard dose across the

  13. Characterization of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm for dose reduction in CT: A pediatric oncology perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, S. L.; Yee, B. S.; Kaufman, R. A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: This study demonstrates a means of implementing an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR Trade-Mark-Sign ) technique for dose reduction in computed tomography (CT) while maintaining similar noise levels in the reconstructed image. The effects of image quality and noise texture were assessed at all implementation levels of ASiR Trade-Mark-Sign . Empirically derived dose reduction limits were established for ASiR Trade-Mark-Sign for imaging of the trunk for a pediatric oncology population ranging from 1 yr old through adolescence/adulthood. Methods: Image quality was assessed using metrics established by the American College of Radiology (ACR) CT accreditation program. Each image quality metric was tested using the ACR CT phantom with 0%-100% ASiR Trade-Mark-Sign blended with filtered back projection (FBP) reconstructed images. Additionally, the noise power spectrum (NPS) was calculated for three common reconstruction filters of the trunk. The empirically derived limitations on ASiR Trade-Mark-Sign implementation for dose reduction were assessed using (1, 5, 10) yr old and adolescent/adult anthropomorphic phantoms. To assess dose reduction limits, the phantoms were scanned in increments of increased noise index (decrementing mA using automatic tube current modulation) balanced with ASiR Trade-Mark-Sign reconstruction to maintain noise equivalence of the 0% ASiR Trade-Mark-Sign image. Results: The ASiR Trade-Mark-Sign algorithm did not produce any unfavorable effects on image quality as assessed by ACR criteria. Conversely, low-contrast resolution was found to improve due to the reduction of noise in the reconstructed images. NPS calculations demonstrated that images with lower frequency noise had lower noise variance and coarser graininess at progressively higher percentages of ASiR Trade-Mark-Sign reconstruction; and in spite of the similar magnitudes of noise, the image reconstructed with 50% or more ASiR Trade-Mark-Sign presented a more

  14. Optimal Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction Percentage in Dual-energy Monochromatic CT Portal Venography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liqin; Winklhofer, Sebastian; Yang, Zhenghan; Wang, Keyang; He, Wen

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this article was to study the influence of different adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) percentages on the image quality of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) portal venography in portal hypertension patients. DECT scans of 40 patients with cirrhosis (mean age, 56 years) at the portal venous phase were retrospectively analyzed. Monochromatic images at 60 and 70 keV were reconstructed with four ASIR percentages: 0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%. Computed tomography (CT) numbers of the portal veins (PVs), liver parenchyma, and subcutaneous fat tissue in the abdomen were measured. The standard deviation from the region of interest of the liver parenchyma was interpreted as the objective image noise (IN). The contrast-noise ratio (CNR) between PV and liver parenchyma was calculated. The diagnostic acceptability (DA) and sharpness of PV margins were obtained using a 5-point score. The IN, CNR, DA, and sharpness of PV were compared among the eight groups with different keV + ASIR level combinations. The IN, CNR, DA, and sharpness of PV of different keV + ASIR groups were all statistically different (P ASIR and 70 keV + 0% ASIR (filtered back-projection [FBP]) combination, respectively, whereas the largest and smallest objective IN were obtained in the 60 keV + 0% ASIR (FBP) and 70 keV + 70% combination. The highest DA and sharpness values of PV were obtained at 50% ASIR for 60 keV. An optimal ASIR percentage (50%) combined with an appropriate monochromatic energy level (60 keV) provides the highest DA in portal venography imaging, whereas for the higher monochromatic energy (70 keV) images, 30% ASIR provides the highest image quality, with less IN than 60 keV with 50% ASIR. Copyright © 2015 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Upgrade to iterative image reconstruction (IR) in abdominal MDCT imaging: a clinical study for detailed parameter optimization beyond vendor recommendations using the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction environment (ASIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueck, F G; Körner, M; Scherr, M K; Geyer, L L; Deak, Z; Linsenmaier, U; Reiser, M; Wirth, S

    2012-03-01

    To compare the image quality of dose-reduced 64-row abdominal CT reconstructed at different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) to full-dose baseline examinations reconstructed with filtered back-projection (FBP) in a clinical setting and upgrade situation. Abdominal baseline examinations (noise index NI = 29; LightSpeed VCT XT, GE) were intra-individually compared to follow-up studies on a CT with an ASIR option (NI = 43; Discovery HD750, GE), n = 42. Standard-kernel images were calculated with ASIR blendings of 0 - 100 % in slice and volume mode, respectively. Three experienced radiologists compared the image quality of these 567 sets to their corresponding full-dose baseline examination (- 2: diagnostically inferior, - 1: inferior, 0: equal, + 1: superior, + 2: diagnostically superior). Furthermore, a phantom was scanned. Statistical analysis used the Wilcoxon - the Mann-Whitney U-test and the intra-class correlation (ICC). The mean CTDIvol decreased from 19.7 ± 5.5 to 12.2 ± 4.7 mGy (p ASIR studies was comparable to the baseline at ASIR 50 % in slice (p = 0.18) and ASIR 50 - 100 % in volume mode (p > 0.10). Volume mode performed 73 % slower than slice mode (p ASIR 50 % in slice mode allowed for a dose reduction of 38 % in abdominal CT with comparable image quality and time expenditure. However, there is still further dose reduction potential for more complex reconstruction settings. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Upgrade to iterative image reconstruction (IR) in abdominal MDCT imaging. A clinical study for detailed parameter optimization beyond vendor recommendations using the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction environment (ASIR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueck, F.G.; Koerner, M.; Scherr, M.K.; Geyer, L.L.; Deak, Z.; Linsenmaier, U.; Reiser, M.; Wirth, S. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2012-03-15

    To compare the image quality of dose-reduced 64-row abdominal CT reconstructed at different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) to full-dose baseline examinations reconstructed with filtered back-projection (FBP) in a clinical setting and upgrade situation. Abdominal baseline examinations (noise index NI = 29; LightSpeed VCT XT, GE) were intra-individually compared to follow-up studies on a CT with an ASIR option (NI = 43; Discovery HD750, GE), n = 42. Standard-kernel images were calculated with ASIR blendings of 0 - 100 % in slice and volume mode, respectively. Three experienced radiologists compared the image quality of these 567 sets to their corresponding full-dose baseline examination (-2: diagnostically inferior, -1: inferior, 0: equal, +1: superior, +2: diagnostically superior). Furthermore, a phantom was scanned. Statistical analysis used the Wilcoxon - the Mann-Whitney U-test and the intra-class correlation (ICC). The mean CTDIvol decreased from 19.7 {+-} 5.5 to 12.2 {+-} 4.7 mGy (p < 0.001). The ICC was 0.861. The total image quality of the dose-reduced ASIR studies was comparable to the baseline at ASIR 50 % in slice (p = 0.18) and ASIR 50 - 100 % in volume mode (p > 0.10). Volume mode performed 73 % slower than slice mode (p < 0.01). After the system upgrade, the vendor recommendation of ASIR 50 % in slice mode allowed for a dose reduction of 38 % in abdominal CT with comparable image quality and time expenditure. However, there is still further dose reduction potential for more complex reconstruction settings. (orig.)

  17. Dose reduction with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction for paediatric CT: phantom study and clinical experience on chest and abdomen CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, F; Pavia, Y; Pierrat, N; Lasalle, S; Neuenschwander, S; Brisse, H J

    2014-01-01

    To assess the benefit and limits of iterative reconstruction of paediatric chest and abdominal computed tomography (CT). The study compared adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) with filtered back projection (FBP) on 64-channel MDCT. A phantom study was first performed using variable tube potential, tube current and ASIR settings. The assessed image quality indices were the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the noise power spectrum, low contrast detectability (LCD) and spatial resolution. A clinical retrospective study of 26 children (M:F = 14/12, mean age: 4 years, range: 1-9 years) was secondarily performed allowing comparison of 18 chest and 14 abdominal CT pairs, one with a routine CT dose and FBP reconstruction, and the other with 30 % lower dose and 40 % ASIR reconstruction. Two radiologists independently compared the images for overall image quality, noise, sharpness and artefacts, and measured image noise. The phantom study demonstrated a significant increase in SNR without impairment of the LCD or spatial resolution, except for tube current values below 30-50 mA. On clinical images, no significant difference was observed between FBP and reduced dose ASIR images. Iterative reconstruction allows at least 30 % dose reduction in paediatric chest and abdominal CT, without impairment of image quality. • Iterative reconstruction helps lower radiation exposure levels in children undergoing CT. • Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) significantly increases SNR without impairing spatial resolution. • For abdomen and chest CT, ASIR allows at least a 30 % dose reduction.

  18. Impact of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction on radiation dose in evaluation of trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxfield, Mark W; Schuster, Kevin M; McGillicuddy, Edward A; Young, Calvin J; Ghita, Monica; Bokhari, S A Jamal; Oliva, Isabel B; Brink, James A; Davis, Kimberly A

    2012-12-01

    A recent study showed that computed tomographic (CT) scans contributed 93% of radiation exposure of 177 patients admitted to our Level I trauma center. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) is an algorithm that reduces the noise level in reconstructed images and therefore allows the use of less ionizing radiation during CT scans without significantly affecting image quality. ASIR was instituted on all CT scans performed on trauma patients in June 2009. Our objective was to determine if implementation of ASIR reduced radiation dose without compromising patient outcomes. We identified 300 patients activating the trauma system before and after the implementation of ASIR imaging. After applying inclusion criteria, 245 charts were reviewed. Baseline demographics, presenting characteristics, number of delayed diagnoses, and missed injuries were recorded. The postexamination volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP) reported by the scanner for CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis and CT scans of the brain and cervical spine were recorded. Subjective image quality was compared between the two groups. For CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis, the mean CTDIvol (17.1 mGy vs. 14.2 mGy; p ASIR. For CT scans of the brain and cervical spine, the mean CTDIvol (61.7 mGy vs. 49.6 mGy; p ASIR. There was no subjective difference in image quality between ASIR and non-ASIR scans. All CT scans were deemed of good or excellent image quality. There were no delayed diagnoses or missed injuries related to CT scanning identified in either group. Implementation of ASIR imaging for CT scans performed on trauma patients led to a nearly 20% reduction in ionizing radiation without compromising outcomes or image quality. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  19. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction improves image quality without affecting perfusion CT quantitation in primary colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Prezzi

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the effect of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR on perfusion CT (pCT parameter quantitation and image quality in primary colorectal cancer. Methods: Prospective observational study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent, 32 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma underwent pCT (100 kV, 150 mA, 120 s acquisition, axial mode. Tumour regional blood flow (BF, blood volume (BV, mean transit time (MTT and permeability surface area product (PS were determined using identical regions-of-interests for ASIR percentages of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. Image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR and pCT parameters were assessed across ASIR percentages. Coefficients of variation (CV, repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA and Spearman’ rank order correlation were performed with statistical significance at 5%. Results: With increasing ASIR percentages, image noise decreased by 33% while CNR increased by 61%; peak tumour CNR was greater than 1.5 with 60% ASIR and above. Mean BF, BV, MTT and PS differed by less than 1.8%, 2.9%, 2.5% and 2.6% across ASIR percentages. CV were 4.9%, 4.2%, 3.3% and 7.9%; rANOVA P values: 0.85, 0.62, 0.02 and 0.81 respectively. Conclusions: ASIR improves image noise and CNR without altering pCT parameters substantially. Keywords: Perfusion imaging, Multidetector computed tomography, Colorectal neoplasms, Computer-assisted image processing, Radiation dosage

  20. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction: reducing dose while preserving image quality in the pediatric head CT examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, Colin D.; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Ibrahim, Mohannad; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Baer, Aaron H.; Parmar, Hemant A. [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Over the last decade there has been escalating concern regarding the increasing radiation exposure stemming from CT exams, particularly in children. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) is a relatively new and promising tool to reduce radiation dose while preserving image quality. While encouraging results have been found in adult head and chest and body imaging, validation of this technique in pediatric population is limited. The objective of our study was to retrospectively compare the image quality and radiation dose of pediatric head CT examinations obtained with ASIR compared to pediatric head CT examinations without ASIR in a large patient population. Retrospective analysis was performed on 82 pediatric head CT examinations. This group included 33 pediatric head CT examinations obtained with ASIR and 49 pediatric head CT examinations without ASIR. Computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) was recorded on all examinations. Quantitative analysis consisted of standardized measurement of attenuation and the standard deviation at the bilateral centrum semiovale and cerebellar white matter to evaluate objective noise. Qualitative analysis consisted of independent assessment by two radiologists in a blinded manner of gray-white differentiation, sharpness and overall diagnostic quality. The average CTDI{sub vol} value of the ASIR group was 21.8 mGy (SD = 4.0) while the average CTDI{sub vol} for the non-ASIR group was 29.7 mGy (SD = 13.8), reflecting a statistically significant reduction in CTDI{sub vol} in the ASIR group (P < 0.01). There were statistically significant reductions in CTDI for the 3- to 12-year-old ASIR group as compared to the 3- to 12-year-old non-ASIR group (21.5 mGy vs. 30.0 mGy; P = 0.004) as well as statistically significant reductions in CTDI for the >12-year-old ASIR group as compared to the >12-year-old non-ASIR group (29.7 mGy vs. 49.9 mGy; P = 0.0002). Quantitative analysis revealed no significant difference in the

  1. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction: reducing dose while preserving image quality in the pediatric head CT examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Colin D; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Ibrahim, Mohannad; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Baer, Aaron H; Parmar, Hemant A

    2014-08-01

    Over the last decade there has been escalating concern regarding the increasing radiation exposure stemming from CT exams, particularly in children. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) is a relatively new and promising tool to reduce radiation dose while preserving image quality. While encouraging results have been found in adult head and chest and body imaging, validation of this technique in pediatric population is limited. The objective of our study was to retrospectively compare the image quality and radiation dose of pediatric head CT examinations obtained with ASIR compared to pediatric head CT examinations without ASIR in a large patient population. Retrospective analysis was performed on 82 pediatric head CT examinations. This group included 33 pediatric head CT examinations obtained with ASIR and 49 pediatric head CT examinations without ASIR. Computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) was recorded on all examinations. Quantitative analysis consisted of standardized measurement of attenuation and the standard deviation at the bilateral centrum semiovale and cerebellar white matter to evaluate objective noise. Qualitative analysis consisted of independent assessment by two radiologists in a blinded manner of gray-white differentiation, sharpness and overall diagnostic quality. The average CTDIvol value of the ASIR group was 21.8 mGy (SD = 4.0) while the average CTDIvol for the non-ASIR group was 29.7 mGy (SD = 13.8), reflecting a statistically significant reduction in CTDIvol in the ASIR group (P ASIR group as compared to the 3- to 12-year-old non-ASIR group (21.5 mGy vs. 30.0 mGy; P = 0.004) as well as statistically significant reductions in CTDI for the >12-year-old ASIR group as compared to the >12-year-old non-ASIR group (29.7 mGy vs. 49.9 mGy; P = 0.0002). Quantitative analysis revealed no significant difference in the homogeneity of variance in the ASIR group compared to the non-ASIR group. Radiologist assessment of

  2. Radiation dose reduction on multidetector abdominal CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qifeng; Peng Yun; Duan Xiaomin; Sun Jihang; Yu Tong; Han Zhonglong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility to reduce radiation doses on pediatric multidetector abdominal CT using the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique (ASIR) associated with automated tube current modulation technique (ATCM). Methods: Thirty patients underwent abdominal CT with ATCM and the follow-up scan with ATCM cooperated with 40% ASIR. ATCM was used with age dependent noise index (NI) settings: NI = 9 for 0-5 year old and NI = 11 for > 5 years old for simple ATCM group, NI = 11 for 0-5 year old and NI = 15 for > 5 years old for ATCM cooperated with 40% ASIR group (AISR group). Two radiologists independently evaluated images for diagnostic quality and image noise with subjectively image quality score and image noise score using a 5-point scale. Interobserver agreement was assessed by Kappa test. The volume CT dose indexes (CTDIvol) for the two groups were recorded. Statistical significance for the CTDIvol value was analyzed by pair-sample t test. Results: The average CTDIvol for the ASIR group was (1.38 ± 0.64) mGy, about 60% lower than (3.56 ± 1.23) mGy for the simple ATCM group, and the CTDIvol of two groups had statistically significant differences. (t = 33.483, P < 0.05). The subjective image quality scores for the simple ATCM group were 4.43 ± 0.57 and 4.37 ±0.61, Kappa = 0.878, P < 0.01 (ASIR group: 4.70 ± 0.47 and 4.60 ± 0.50, Kappa = 0.783, P < 0.01), by two observers. The image noise score for the simple ATCM group were 4.03 ±0.56 and 3.83 ±0.53, Kappa = 0.572, P < 0.01 (ASIR group: 4.20 ± 0.48 and 4.10 ± 0.48, Kappa = 0.748, P < 0.01), by two observers. All images had acceptable diagnostic image quality. Conclusion: Lower radiation dose can be achieved by elevating NI with ASIR in pediatric CT abdominal studies, while maintaining diagnostically acceptable images. (authors)

  3. Statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in clinical CT systems: Experimental assessment of noise performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ke; Tang, Jie [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Chen, Guang-Hong, E-mail: gchen7@wisc.edu [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To reduce radiation dose in CT imaging, the statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) method has been introduced for clinical use. Based on the principle of MBIR and its nonlinear nature, the noise performance of MBIR is expected to be different from that of the well-understood filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction method. The purpose of this work is to experimentally assess the unique noise characteristics of MBIR using a state-of-the-art clinical CT system. Methods: Three physical phantoms, including a water cylinder and two pediatric head phantoms, were scanned in axial scanning mode using a 64-slice CT scanner (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) at seven different mAs levels (5, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300). At each mAs level, each phantom was repeatedly scanned 50 times to generate an image ensemble for noise analysis. Both the FBP method with a standard kernel and the MBIR method (Veo{sup ®}, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) were used for CT image reconstruction. Three-dimensional (3D) noise power spectrum (NPS), two-dimensional (2D) NPS, and zero-dimensional NPS (noise variance) were assessed both globally and locally. Noise magnitude, noise spatial correlation, noise spatial uniformity and their dose dependence were examined for the two reconstruction methods. Results: (1) At each dose level and at each frequency, the magnitude of the NPS of MBIR was smaller than that of FBP. (2) While the shape of the NPS of FBP was dose-independent, the shape of the NPS of MBIR was strongly dose-dependent; lower dose lead to a “redder” NPS with a lower mean frequency value. (3) The noise standard deviation (σ) of MBIR and dose were found to be related through a power law of σ ∝ (dose){sup −β} with the component β ≈ 0.25, which violated the classical σ ∝ (dose){sup −0.5} power law in FBP. (4) With MBIR, noise reduction was most prominent for thin image slices. (5) MBIR lead to better noise spatial

  4. Dose reduction with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction for paediatric CT: phantom study and clinical experience on chest and abdomen CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, F.; Lasalle, S.; Neuenschwander, S.; Brisse, H.J. [Institut Curie, Imaging Department, Paris (France); Pavia, Y.; Pierrat, N. [Institut Curie, Medical Physics Department, Paris (France)

    2014-01-15

    To assess the benefit and limits of iterative reconstruction of paediatric chest and abdominal computed tomography (CT). The study compared adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) with filtered back projection (FBP) on 64-channel MDCT. A phantom study was first performed using variable tube potential, tube current and ASIR settings. The assessed image quality indices were the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the noise power spectrum, low contrast detectability (LCD) and spatial resolution. A clinical retrospective study of 26 children (M:F = 14/12, mean age: 4 years, range: 1-9 years) was secondarily performed allowing comparison of 18 chest and 14 abdominal CT pairs, one with a routine CT dose and FBP reconstruction, and the other with 30 % lower dose and 40 % ASIR reconstruction. Two radiologists independently compared the images for overall image quality, noise, sharpness and artefacts, and measured image noise. The phantom study demonstrated a significant increase in SNR without impairment of the LCD or spatial resolution, except for tube current values below 30-50 mA. On clinical images, no significant difference was observed between FBP and reduced dose ASIR images. Iterative reconstruction allows at least 30 % dose reduction in paediatric chest and abdominal CT, without impairment of image quality. (orig.)

  5. Dose reduction with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction for paediatric CT: phantom study and clinical experience on chest and abdomen CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, F.; Lasalle, S.; Neuenschwander, S.; Brisse, H.J.; Pavia, Y.; Pierrat, N.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the benefit and limits of iterative reconstruction of paediatric chest and abdominal computed tomography (CT). The study compared adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) with filtered back projection (FBP) on 64-channel MDCT. A phantom study was first performed using variable tube potential, tube current and ASIR settings. The assessed image quality indices were the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the noise power spectrum, low contrast detectability (LCD) and spatial resolution. A clinical retrospective study of 26 children (M:F = 14/12, mean age: 4 years, range: 1-9 years) was secondarily performed allowing comparison of 18 chest and 14 abdominal CT pairs, one with a routine CT dose and FBP reconstruction, and the other with 30 % lower dose and 40 % ASIR reconstruction. Two radiologists independently compared the images for overall image quality, noise, sharpness and artefacts, and measured image noise. The phantom study demonstrated a significant increase in SNR without impairment of the LCD or spatial resolution, except for tube current values below 30-50 mA. On clinical images, no significant difference was observed between FBP and reduced dose ASIR images. Iterative reconstruction allows at least 30 % dose reduction in paediatric chest and abdominal CT, without impairment of image quality. (orig.)

  6. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction: reducing dose while preserving image quality in the pediatric head CT examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKnight, Colin D.; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Ibrahim, Mohannad; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Baer, Aaron H.; Parmar, Hemant A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been escalating concern regarding the increasing radiation exposure stemming from CT exams, particularly in children. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) is a relatively new and promising tool to reduce radiation dose while preserving image quality. While encouraging results have been found in adult head and chest and body imaging, validation of this technique in pediatric population is limited. The objective of our study was to retrospectively compare the image quality and radiation dose of pediatric head CT examinations obtained with ASIR compared to pediatric head CT examinations without ASIR in a large patient population. Retrospective analysis was performed on 82 pediatric head CT examinations. This group included 33 pediatric head CT examinations obtained with ASIR and 49 pediatric head CT examinations without ASIR. Computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol ) was recorded on all examinations. Quantitative analysis consisted of standardized measurement of attenuation and the standard deviation at the bilateral centrum semiovale and cerebellar white matter to evaluate objective noise. Qualitative analysis consisted of independent assessment by two radiologists in a blinded manner of gray-white differentiation, sharpness and overall diagnostic quality. The average CTDI vol value of the ASIR group was 21.8 mGy (SD = 4.0) while the average CTDI vol for the non-ASIR group was 29.7 mGy (SD = 13.8), reflecting a statistically significant reduction in CTDI vol in the ASIR group (P 12-year-old ASIR group as compared to the >12-year-old non-ASIR group (29.7 mGy vs. 49.9 mGy; P = 0.0002). Quantitative analysis revealed no significant difference in the homogeneity of variance in the ASIR group compared to the non-ASIR group. Radiologist assessment of gray-white differentiation, sharpness and overall diagnostic quality in ASIR examinations was not substantially different compared to non-ASIR examinations. The use of ASIR in

  7. Full dose reduction potential of statistical iterative reconstruction for head CT protocols in a predominantly pediatric population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirro, Amy E.; Brady, Samuel L.; Kaufman, Robert. A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To implement the maximum level of statistical iterative reconstruction that can be used to establish dose-reduced head CT protocols in a primarily pediatric population. Methods Select head examinations (brain, orbits, sinus, maxilla and temporal bones) were investigated. Dose-reduced head protocols using an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) were compared for image quality with the original filtered back projection (FBP) reconstructed protocols in phantom using the following metrics: image noise frequency (change in perceived appearance of noise texture), image noise magnitude, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and spatial resolution. Dose reduction estimates were based on computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) values. Patient CTDIvol and image noise magnitude were assessed in 737 pre and post dose reduced examinations. Results Image noise texture was acceptable up to 60% ASiR for Soft reconstruction kernel (at both 100 and 120 kVp), and up to 40% ASiR for Standard reconstruction kernel. Implementation of 40% and 60% ASiR led to an average reduction in CTDIvol of 43% for brain, 41% for orbits, 30% maxilla, 43% for sinus, and 42% for temporal bone protocols for patients between 1 month and 26 years, while maintaining an average noise magnitude difference of 0.1% (range: −3% to 5%), improving CNR of low contrast soft tissue targets, and improving spatial resolution of high contrast bony anatomy, as compared to FBP. Conclusion The methodology in this study demonstrates a methodology for maximizing patient dose reduction and maintaining image quality using statistical iterative reconstruction for a primarily pediatric population undergoing head CT examination. PMID:27056425

  8. [Impact to Z-score Mapping of Hyperacute Stroke Images by Computed Tomography in Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shota; Sakaguchi, Kenta; Hosono, Makoto; Ishii, Kazunari; Murakami, Takamichi; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a hybrid-type iterative reconstruction method on Z-score mapping of hyperacute stroke in unenhanced computed tomography (CT) images. We used a hybrid-type iterative reconstruction [adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR)] implemented in a CT system (Optima CT660 Pro advance, GE Healthcare). With 15 normal brain cases, we reconstructed CT images with a filtered back projection (FBP) and ASiR with a blending factor of 100% (ASiR100%). Two standardized normal brain data were created from normal databases of FBP images (FBP-NDB) and ASiR100% images (ASiR-NDB), and standard deviation (SD) values in basal ganglia were measured. The Z-score mapping was performed for 12 hyperacute stroke cases by using FBP-NDB and ASiR-NDB, and compared Z-score value on hyperacute stroke area and normal area between FBP-NDB and ASiR-NDB. By using ASiR-NDB, the SD value of standardized brain was decreased by 16%. The Z-score value of ASiR-NDB on hyperacute stroke area was significantly higher than FBP-NDB (pASiR100% for Z-score mapping had potential to improve the accuracy of Z-score mapping.

  9. Influence of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction on coronary plaque analysis in coronary computed tomography angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Helle; Kitslaar, Pieter H; Broersen, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    performed. Images were reconstructed using FBP, 30% and 60% adaptive statistical IR (ASIR). Coronary plaque analysis was performed as per patient and per vessel (LM, LAD, CX and RCA) measurements. Lumen and vessel volumes and plaque burden measurements were based on automatic detected contours in each...... reconstruction. Lumen and plaque intensity measurements and HU based plaque characterization were based on corrected contours copied to each reconstruction. RESULTS: No significant changes between FBP and 30% ASIR were found except for lumen- (-2.53 HU) and plaque intensities (-1.28 HU). Between FBP and 60% ASIR...... the change in total volume showed an increase of 0.94%, 4.36% and 2.01% for lumen, plaque and vessel, respectively. The change in total plaque burden between FBP and 60% ASIR was 0.76%. Lumen and plaque intensities decreased between FBP and 60% ASIR with -9.90 HU and -1.97 HU, respectively. The total plaque...

  10. Computed tomography imaging with the Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm: dependence of image quality on the blending level of reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Patrizio; Giannelli, Marco; Fantacci, Maria Evelina; Caramella, Davide

    2018-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a useful and widely employed imaging technique, which represents the largest source of population exposure to ionizing radiation in industrialized countries. Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) is an iterative reconstruction algorithm with the potential to allow reduction of radiation exposure while preserving diagnostic information. The aim of this phantom study was to assess the performance of ASIR, in terms of a number of image quality indices, when different reconstruction blending levels are employed. CT images of the Catphan-504 phantom were reconstructed using conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) and ASIR with reconstruction blending levels of 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%. Noise, noise power spectrum (NPS), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and modulation transfer function (MTF) were estimated for different scanning parameters and contrast objects. Noise decreased and CNR increased non-linearly up to 50 and 100%, respectively, with increasing blending level of reconstruction. Also, ASIR has proven to modify the NPS curve shape. The MTF of ASIR reconstructed images depended on tube load/contrast and decreased with increasing blending level of reconstruction. In particular, for low radiation exposure and low contrast acquisitions, ASIR showed lower performance than FBP, in terms of spatial resolution for all blending levels of reconstruction. CT image quality varies substantially with the blending level of reconstruction. ASIR has the potential to reduce noise whilst maintaining diagnostic information in low radiation exposure CT imaging. Given the opposite variation of CNR and spatial resolution with the blending level of reconstruction, it is recommended to use an optimal value of this parameter for each specific clinical application.

  11. Statistical iterative reconstruction for streak artefact reduction when using multidetector CT to image the dento-alveolar structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J; Hayakawa, Y; Kober, C

    2014-01-01

    When metallic prosthetic appliances and dental fillings exist in the oral cavity, the appearance of metal-induced streak artefacts is not avoidable in CT images. The aim of this study was to develop a method for artefact reduction using the statistical reconstruction on multidetector row CT images. Adjacent CT images often depict similar anatomical structures. Therefore, reconstructed images with weak artefacts were attempted using projection data of an artefact-free image in a neighbouring thin slice. Images with moderate and strong artefacts were continuously processed in sequence by successive iterative restoration where the projection data was generated from the adjacent reconstructed slice. First, the basic maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm was applied. Next, the ordered subset-expectation maximization algorithm was examined. Alternatively, a small region of interest setting was designated. Finally, the general purpose graphic processing unit machine was applied in both situations. The algorithms reduced the metal-induced streak artefacts on multidetector row CT images when the sequential processing method was applied. The ordered subset-expectation maximization and small region of interest reduced the processing duration without apparent detriments. A general-purpose graphic processing unit realized the high performance. A statistical reconstruction method was applied for the streak artefact reduction. The alternative algorithms applied were effective. Both software and hardware tools, such as ordered subset-expectation maximization, small region of interest and general-purpose graphic processing unit achieved fast artefact correction.

  12. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction use for radiation dose reduction in pediatric lower-extremity CT: impact on diagnostic image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amisha; Rees, Mitchell; Kar, Erica; Bolton, Kimberly; Lee, Vincent; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2018-06-01

    For the past several years, increased levels of imaging radiation and cumulative radiation to children has been a significant concern. Although several measures have been taken to reduce radiation dose during computed tomography (CT) scan, the newer dose reduction software adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) has been an effective technique in reducing radiation dose. To our knowledge, no studies are published that assess the effect of ASIR on extremity CT scans in children. To compare radiation dose, image noise, and subjective image quality in pediatric lower extremity CT scans acquired with and without ASIR. The study group consisted of 53 patients imaged on a CT scanner equipped with ASIR software. The control group consisted of 37 patients whose CT images were acquired without ASIR. Image noise, Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) and dose length product (DLP) were measured. Two pediatric radiologists rated the studies in subjective categories: image sharpness, noise, diagnostic acceptability, and artifacts. The CTDI (p value = 0.0184) and DLP (p value ASIR compared with non-ASIR studies. However, the subjective ratings for sharpness (p ASIR images (p ASIR CT studies. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction reduces radiation dose for lower extremity CTs in children, but at the expense of diagnostic imaging quality. Further studies are warranted to determine the specific utility of ASIR for pediatric musculoskeletal CT imaging.

  13. Impact of the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique on image quality in ultra-low-dose CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yan; He, Wen; Chen, Hui; Hu, Zhihai; Li, Juan; Zhang, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the relationship between different noise indices (NIs) and radiation dose and to compare the effect of different reconstruction algorithm applications for ultra-low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) on image quality improvement and the accuracy of volumetric measurement of ground-glass opacity (GGO) nodules using a phantom study. Materials and methods: A 11 cm thick transverse phantom section with a chest wall, mediastinum, and 14 artificial GGO nodules with known volumes (919.93 ± 64.05 mm 3 ) was constructed. The phantom was scanned on a Discovery CT 750HD scanner with five different NIs (NIs = 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60). All data were reconstructed with a 0.625 mm section thickness using the filtered back-projection (FBP), 50% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR), and Veo model-base iterative reconstruction algorithms. Image noise was measured in six regions of interest (ROIs). Nodule volumes were measured using a commercial volumetric software package. The image quality and the volume measurement errors were analysed. Results: Image noise increased dramatically from 30.7 HU at NI 20 to 122.4 HU at NI 60, with FBP reconstruction. Conversely, Veo reconstruction effectively controlled the noise increase, with an increase from 9.97 HU at NI 20 to only 15.1 HU at NI 60. Image noise at NI 60 with Veo was even lower (50.8%) than that at NI 20 with FBP. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of Veo at NI 40 was similar to that of FBP at NI 20. All artificial GGO nodules were successfully identified and measured with an average relative volume measurement error with Veo at NI 60 of 4.24%, comparable to a value of 10.41% with FBP at NI 20. At NI 60, the radiation dose was only one-tenth that at NI 20. Conclusion: The Veo reconstruction algorithms very effectively reduced image noise compared with the conventional FBP reconstructions. Using ultra-low-dose CT scanning and Veo reconstruction, GGOs can be detected and quantified with an acceptable

  14. Image quality improvements using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction for evaluating chronic myocardial infarction using iodine density images with spectral CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Junichi; Ohta, Yasutoshi; Kitao, Shinichiro; Watanabe, Tomomi; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2018-04-01

    Single-source dual-energy CT (ssDECT) allows the reconstruction of iodine density images (IDIs) from projection based computing. We hypothesized that adding adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) could improve image quality. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect and determine the optimal blend percentages of ASiR for IDI of myocardial late iodine enhancement (LIE) in the evaluation of chronic myocardial infarction using ssDECT. A total of 28 patients underwent cardiac LIE using a ssDECT scanner. IDIs between 0 and 100% of ASiR contributions in 10% increments were reconstructed. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of remote myocardia and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of infarcted myocardia were measured. Transmural extent of infarction was graded using a 5-point scale. The SNR, CNR, and transmural extent were assessed for each ASiR contribution ratio. The transmural extents were compared with MRI as a reference standard. Compared to 0% ASiR, the use of 20-100% ASiR resulted in a reduction of image noise (p ASiR images, reconstruction with 100% ASiR image showed the highest improvement in SNR (229%; p ASiR above 80% showed the highest ratio (73.7%) of accurate transmural extent classification. In conclusion, ASiR intensity of 80-100% in IDIs can improve image quality without changes in signal and maximizes the accuracy of transmural extent in infarcted myocardium.

  15. CT coronary angiography: impact of adapted statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) on coronary stenosis and plaque composition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Tobias A; Fiechter, Michael; Gebhard, Cathérine; Stehli, Julia; Ghadri, Jelena R; Kazakauskaite, Egle; Herzog, Bernhard A; Husmann, Lars; Gaemperli, Oliver; Kaufmann, Philipp A

    2013-03-01

    To assess the impact of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) on coronary plaque volume and composition analysis as well as on stenosis quantification in high definition coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We included 50 plaques in 29 consecutive patients who were referred for the assessment of known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) with contrast-enhanced CCTA on a 64-slice high definition CT scanner (Discovery HD 750, GE Healthcare). CCTA scans were reconstructed with standard filtered back projection (FBP) with no ASIR (0 %) or with increasing contributions of ASIR, i.e. 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 % (no FBP). Plaque analysis (volume, components and stenosis degree) was performed using a previously validated automated software. Mean values for minimal diameter and minimal area as well as degree of stenosis did not change significantly using different ASIR reconstructions. There was virtually no impact of reconstruction algorithms on mean plaque volume or plaque composition (e.g. soft, intermediate and calcified component). However, with increasing ASIR contribution, the percentage of plaque volume component between 401 and 500 HU decreased significantly (p ASIR, which has been developed for noise reduction in latest high resolution CCTA scans, can be used reliably without interfering with the plaque analysis and stenosis severity assessment.

  16. Polychromatic Iterative Statistical Material Image Reconstruction for Photon-Counting Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Weidinger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a dedicated statistical algorithm to perform a direct reconstruction of material-decomposed images from data acquired with photon-counting detectors (PCDs in computed tomography. It is based on local approximations (surrogates of the negative logarithmic Poisson probability function. Exploiting the convexity of this function allows for parallel updates of all image pixels. Parallel updates can compensate for the rather slow convergence that is intrinsic to statistical algorithms. We investigate the accuracy of the algorithm for ideal photon-counting detectors. Complementarily, we apply the algorithm to simulation data of a realistic PCD with its spectral resolution limited by K-escape, charge sharing, and pulse-pileup. For data from both an ideal and realistic PCD, the proposed algorithm is able to correct beam-hardening artifacts and quantitatively determine the material fractions of the chosen basis materials. Via regularization we were able to achieve a reduction of image noise for the realistic PCD that is up to 90% lower compared to material images form a linear, image-based material decomposition using FBP images. Additionally, we find a dependence of the algorithms convergence speed on the threshold selection within the PCD.

  17. Radiation dose reduction in CT with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) for patients with bronchial carcinoma and intrapulmonary metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schäfer, M.-L.; Lüdemann, L.; Böning, G.; Kahn, J.; Fuchs, S.; Hamm, B.; Streitparth, F.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the radiation dose and image quality of 64-row chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with bronchial carcinoma or intrapulmonary metastases using full-dose CT reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) at baseline and reduced dose with 40% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) at follow-up. Materials and methods: The chest CT images of patients who underwent FBP and ASIR studies were reviewed. Dose–length products (DLP), effective dose, and size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) were obtained. Image quality was analysed quantitatively by signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurement. In addition, image quality was assessed by two blinded radiologists evaluating images for noise, contrast, artefacts, visibility of small structures, and diagnostic acceptability using a five-point scale. Results: The ASIR studies showed 36% reduction in effective dose compared with the FBP studies. The qualitative and quantitative image quality was good to excellent in both protocols, without significant differences. There were also no significant differences for SNR except for the SNR of lung surrounding the tumour (FBP: 35±17, ASIR: 39±22). Discussion: A protocol with 40% ASIR can provide approximately 36% dose reduction in chest CT of patients with bronchial carcinoma or intrapulmonary metastases while maintaining excellent image quality. - Highlights: • adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction in chest computed tomography scans. • patients with bronchial carcinoma or intrapulmonary metastases. • ASIR studies showed 36% reduction in effective dose compared with the FBP studies. • the qualitative and quantitative image quality was good to excellent in both protocols.

  18. Dynamic re-weighted total variation technique and statistic Iterative reconstruction method for x-ray CT metal artifact reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chengtao; Qiu, Bensheng; Zhang, Cheng; Ma, Changyu; Yuan, Gang; Li, Ming

    2017-07-01

    Over the years, the X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been successfully used in clinical diagnosis. However, when the body of the patient to be examined contains metal objects, the image reconstructed would be polluted by severe metal artifacts, which affect the doctor's diagnosis of disease. In this work, we proposed a dynamic re-weighted total variation (DRWTV) technique combined with the statistic iterative reconstruction (SIR) method to reduce the artifacts. The DRWTV method is based on the total variation (TV) and re-weighted total variation (RWTV) techniques, but it provides a sparser representation than TV and protects the tissue details better than RWTV. Besides, the DRWTV can suppress the artifacts and noise, and the SIR convergence speed is also accelerated. The performance of the algorithm is tested on both simulated phantom dataset and clinical dataset, which are the teeth phantom with two metal implants and the skull with three metal implants, respectively. The proposed algorithm (SIR-DRWTV) is compared with two traditional iterative algorithms, which are SIR and SIR constrained by RWTV regulation (SIR-RWTV). The results show that the proposed algorithm has the best performance in reducing metal artifacts and protecting tissue details.

  19. A study of the image quality of computed tomography adaptive statistical iterative reconstructed brain images using subjective and objective methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangat, J.; Morgan, J.; Benson, E.; Baath, M.; Lewis, M.; Reilly, A.

    2016-01-01

    The recent reintroduction of iterative reconstruction in computed tomography has facilitated the realisation of major dose saving. The aim of this article was to investigate the possibility of achieving further savings at a site with well-established Adaptive Statistical iterative Reconstruction (ASiR TM ) (GE Healthcare) brain protocols. An adult patient study was conducted with observers making visual grading assessments using image quality criteria, which were compared with the frequency domain metrics, noise power spectrum and modulation transfer function. Subjective image quality equivalency was found in the 40-70% ASiR TM range, leading to the proposal of ranges for the objective metrics defining acceptable image quality. Based on the findings of both the patient-based and objective studies of the ASiR TM /tube-current combinations tested, 60%/305 mA was found to fall within all, but one, of these ranges. Therefore, it is recommended that an ASiR TM level of 60%, with a noise index of 12.20, is a viable alternative to the currently used protocol featuring a 40% ASiR TM level and a noise index of 11.20, potentially representing a 16% dose saving. (authors)

  20. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and Veo: assessment of image quality and diagnostic performance in CT colonography at various radiation doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Min A; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Jeong Min; Woo, Hyoun Sik; Lee, Eun Sun; Ahn, Se Jin; Han, Joon Koo

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of computed tomography (CT) colonography (CTC) reconstructed with different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR, GE Healthcare) and Veo (model-based iterative reconstruction, GE Healthcare) at various tube currents in detection of polyps in porcine colon phantoms. Five porcine colon phantoms with 46 simulated polyps were scanned at different radiation doses (10, 30, and 50 mA s) and were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP), ASiR (20%, 40%, and 60%) and Veo. Eleven data sets for each phantom (10-mA s FBP, 10-mA s 20% ASiR, 10-mA s 40% ASiR, 10-mA s 60% ASiR, 10-mA s Veo, 30-mA s FBP, 30-mA s 20% ASiR, 30-mA s 40% ASiR, 30-mA s 60% ASiR, 30-mA s Veo, and 50-mA s FBP) yielded a total of 55 data sets. Polyp detection sensitivity and confidence level of 2 independent observers were evaluated with the McNemar test, the Fisher exact test, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Comparative analyses of overall image quality score, measured image noise, and interpretation time were also performed. Per-polyp detection sensitivities and specificities were highest in 10-mA s Veo, 30-mA s FBP, 30-mA s 60% ASiR, and 50-mA s FBP (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 100%). The area-under-the-curve values for the overall performance of each data set was also highest (1.000) at 50-mA s FBP, 30-mA s FBP, 30-mA s 60% ASiR, and 10-mA s Veo. Images reconstructed with ASiR showed statistically significant improvement in per-polyp detection sensitivity as the percent level of per-polyp sensitivity increased (10-mA s FBP vs 10-mA s 20% ASiR, P = 0.011; 10-mA s FBP vs 10-mA s 40% ASiR, P = 0.000; 10-mA s FBP vs 10-mA s 60% ASiR, P = 0.000; 10-mA s 20% ASiR vs 40% ASiR, P = 0.034). Overall image quality score was highest at 30-mA s Veo and 50-mA s FBP. The quantitative measurement of the image noise was lowest at 30-mA s Veo and second lowest at 10-mA s Veo. There was a trend of decrease in time

  1. Dual Energy CT (DECT) Monochromatic Imaging: Added Value of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstructions (ASIR) in Portal Venography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liqin; Winklhofer, Sebastian; Jiang, Rong; Wang, Xinlian; He, Wen

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the adaptive statistical iterative reconstructions (ASIR) on image quality in portal venography by dual energy CT (DECT) imaging. DECT scans of 45 cirrhotic patients obtained in the portal venous phase were analyzed. Monochromatic images at 70keV were reconstructed with the following 4 ASIR percentages: 0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%. The image noise (IN) (standard deviation, SD) of portal vein (PV), the contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR), and the subjective score for the sharpness of PV boundaries, and the diagnostic acceptability (DA) were obtained. The IN, CNR, and the subjective scores were compared among the four ASIR groups. The IN (in HU) of PV (10.05±3.14, 9.23±3.05, 8.44±2.95 and 7.83±2.90) decreased and CNR values of PV (8.04±3.32, 8.95±3.63, 9.80±4.12 and 10.74±4.73) increased with the increase in ASIR percentage (0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%, respectively), and were statistically different for the 4 ASIR groups (pASIR percentages (pASIR (pASIR addition in DECT portal venography could improve the 70 keV monochromatic image quality.

  2. The optimal monochromatic spectral computed tomographic imaging plus adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm can improve the superior mesenteric vessel image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Xiao-Ping; Zuo, Zi-Wei; Xu, Ying-Jin; Wang, Jia-Ning [CT/MRI room, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei, 071000 (China); Liu, Huai-Jun, E-mail: hebeiliu@outlook.com [Department of Medical Imaging, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050000 (China); Liang, Guang-Lu [CT/MRI room, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei, 071000 (China); Gao, Bu-Lang, E-mail: browngao@163.com [Department of Medical Research, Shijiazhuang First Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050011 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Objective: To investigate the effect of the optimal monochromatic spectral computed tomography (CT) plus adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction on the improvement of the image quality of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. Materials and methods: The gemstone spectral CT angiographic data of 25 patients were reconstructed in the following three groups: 70 KeV, the optimal monochromatic imaging, and the optimal monochromatic plus 40%iterative reconstruction mode. The CT value, image noises (IN), background CT value and noises, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and image scores of the vessels and surrounding tissues were analyzed. Results: In the 70 KeV, the optimal monochromatic and the optimal monochromatic images plus 40% iterative reconstruction group, the mean scores of image quality were 3.86, 4.24 and 4.25 for the superior mesenteric artery and 3.46, 3.78 and 3.81 for the superior mesenteric vein, respectively. The image quality scores for the optimal monochromatic and the optimal monochromatic plus 40% iterative reconstruction groups were significantly greater than for the 70 KeV group (P < 0.05). The vascular CT value, image noise, background noise, CNR and SNR were significantly (P < 0.001) greater in the optimal monochromatic and the optimal monochromatic images plus 40% iterative reconstruction group than in the 70 KeV group. The optimal monochromatic plus 40% iterative reconstruction group had significantly (P < 0.05) lower image and background noise but higher CNR and SNR than the other two groups. Conclusion: The optimal monochromatic imaging combined with 40% iterative reconstruction using low-contrast agent dosage and low injection rate can significantly improve the image quality of the superior mesenteric artery and vein.

  3. Comparison of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiRTM) and model-based iterative reconstruction (VeoTM) for paediatric abdominal CT examinations: an observer performance study of diagnostic image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultenmo, Maria; Caisander, Haakan; Mack, Karsten; Thilander-Klang, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic image quality of 75 paediatric abdominal computed tomography (CT) examinations reconstructed with two different iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms-adaptive statistical IR (ASiR TM ) and model-based IR (Veo TM )-was compared. Axial and coronal images were reconstructed with 70 % ASiR with the Soft TM convolution kernel and with the Veo algorithm. The thickness of the reconstructed images was 2.5 or 5 mm depending on the scanning protocol used. Four radiologists graded the delineation of six abdominal structures and the diagnostic usefulness of the image quality. The Veo reconstruction significantly improved the visibility of most of the structures compared with ASiR in all subgroups of images. For coronal images, the Veo reconstruction resulted in significantly improved ratings of the diagnostic use of the image quality compared with the ASiR reconstruction. This was not seen for the axial images. The greatest improvement using Veo reconstruction was observed for the 2.5 mm coronal slices. (authors)

  4. Radiation dose reduction in CT with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) for patients with bronchial carcinoma and intrapulmonary metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M-L; Lüdemann, L; Böning, G; Kahn, J; Fuchs, S; Hamm, B; Streitparth, F

    2016-05-01

    To compare the radiation dose and image quality of 64-row chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with bronchial carcinoma or intrapulmonary metastases using full-dose CT reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) at baseline and reduced dose with 40% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) at follow-up. The chest CT images of patients who underwent FBP and ASIR studies were reviewed. Dose-length products (DLP), effective dose, and size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) were obtained. Image quality was analysed quantitatively by signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurement. In addition, image quality was assessed by two blinded radiologists evaluating images for noise, contrast, artefacts, visibility of small structures, and diagnostic acceptability using a five-point scale. The ASIR studies showed 36% reduction in effective dose compared with the FBP studies. The qualitative and quantitative image quality was good to excellent in both protocols, without significant differences. There were also no significant differences for SNR except for the SNR of lung surrounding the tumour (FBP: 35±17, ASIR: 39±22). A protocol with 40% ASIR can provide approximately 36% dose reduction in chest CT of patients with bronchial carcinoma or intrapulmonary metastases while maintaining excellent image quality. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction on radiation dose reduction and diagnostic accuracy of pediatric abdominal CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sohi; Kim, Myung-Joon; Lee, Mi-Jung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Choon-Sik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Wook; Hong, Jung Hwa [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Since children are more radio-sensitive than adults, there is a need to minimize radiation exposure during CT exams. To evaluate the effects of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) on radiation dose reduction, image quality and diagnostic accuracy in pediatric abdominal CT. We retrospectively reviewed the abdominal CT examinations of 41 children (24 boys and 17 girls; mean age: 10 years) with a low-dose radiation protocol and reconstructed with ASIR (the ASIR group). We also reviewed routine-dose abdominal CT examinations of 41 age- and sex-matched controls reconstructed with filtered-back projection (control group). Image quality was assessed objectively as noise measured in the liver, spleen and aorta, as well as subjectively by three pediatric radiologists for diagnostic acceptability using a four-point scale. Radiation dose and objective image qualities of each group were compared with the paired t-test. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by reviewing follow-up imaging studies and medical records in 2012 and 2013. There was 46.3% dose reduction of size-specific dose estimates in ASIR group (from 13.4 to 7.2 mGy) compared with the control group. Objective noise was higher in the liver, spleen and aorta of the ASIR group (P < 0.001). However, the subjective image quality was average or superior in 84-100% of studies. Only one image was subjectively rated as unacceptable by one reviewer. There was only one case with interpretational error in the control group and none in the ASIR group. Use of the ASIR technique resulted in greater than a 45% reduction in radiation dose without impairing subjective image quality or diagnostic accuracy in pediatric abdominal CT, despite increased objective image noise. (orig.)

  6. Effects of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction on radiation dose reduction and diagnostic accuracy of pediatric abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sohi; Kim, Myung-Joon; Lee, Mi-Jung; Yoon, Choon-Sik; Kim, Dong Wook; Hong, Jung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Since children are more radio-sensitive than adults, there is a need to minimize radiation exposure during CT exams. To evaluate the effects of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) on radiation dose reduction, image quality and diagnostic accuracy in pediatric abdominal CT. We retrospectively reviewed the abdominal CT examinations of 41 children (24 boys and 17 girls; mean age: 10 years) with a low-dose radiation protocol and reconstructed with ASIR (the ASIR group). We also reviewed routine-dose abdominal CT examinations of 41 age- and sex-matched controls reconstructed with filtered-back projection (control group). Image quality was assessed objectively as noise measured in the liver, spleen and aorta, as well as subjectively by three pediatric radiologists for diagnostic acceptability using a four-point scale. Radiation dose and objective image qualities of each group were compared with the paired t-test. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by reviewing follow-up imaging studies and medical records in 2012 and 2013. There was 46.3% dose reduction of size-specific dose estimates in ASIR group (from 13.4 to 7.2 mGy) compared with the control group. Objective noise was higher in the liver, spleen and aorta of the ASIR group (P < 0.001). However, the subjective image quality was average or superior in 84-100% of studies. Only one image was subjectively rated as unacceptable by one reviewer. There was only one case with interpretational error in the control group and none in the ASIR group. Use of the ASIR technique resulted in greater than a 45% reduction in radiation dose without impairing subjective image quality or diagnostic accuracy in pediatric abdominal CT, despite increased objective image noise. (orig.)

  7. Dual Energy CT (DECT Monochromatic Imaging: Added Value of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstructions (ASIR in Portal Venography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Zhao

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of the adaptive statistical iterative reconstructions (ASIR on image quality in portal venography by dual energy CT (DECT imaging.DECT scans of 45 cirrhotic patients obtained in the portal venous phase were analyzed. Monochromatic images at 70keV were reconstructed with the following 4 ASIR percentages: 0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%. The image noise (IN (standard deviation, SD of portal vein (PV, the contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR, and the subjective score for the sharpness of PV boundaries, and the diagnostic acceptability (DA were obtained. The IN, CNR, and the subjective scores were compared among the four ASIR groups.The IN (in HU of PV (10.05±3.14, 9.23±3.05, 8.44±2.95 and 7.83±2.90 decreased and CNR values of PV (8.04±3.32, 8.95±3.63, 9.80±4.12 and 10.74±4.73 increased with the increase in ASIR percentage (0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%, respectively, and were statistically different for the 4 ASIR groups (p<0.05. The subjective scores showed that the sharpness of portal vein boundaries (3.13±0.59, 2.82±0.44, 2.73±0.54 and 2.07±0.54 decreased with higher ASIR percentages (p<0.05. The subjective diagnostic acceptability was highest at 30% ASIR (p<0.05.30% ASIR addition in DECT portal venography could improve the 70 keV monochromatic image quality.

  8. Fisher's method of scoring in statistical image reconstruction: comparison of Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel iterative schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, H M; Ma, J; Green, P

    1994-01-01

    Many algorithms for medical image reconstruction adopt versions of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. In this approach, parameter estimates are obtained which maximize a complete data likelihood or penalized likelihood, in each iteration. Implicitly (and sometimes explicitly) penalized algorithms require smoothing of the current reconstruction in the image domain as part of their iteration scheme. In this paper, we discuss alternatives to EM which adapt Fisher's method of scoring (FS) and other methods for direct maximization of the incomplete data likelihood. Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel methods for non-linear optimization provide efficient algorithms applying FS in tomography. One approach uses smoothed projection data in its iterations. We investigate the convergence of Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel algorithms with clinical tomographic projection data.

  9. Intra-patient comparison of reduced-dose model-based iterative reconstruction with standard-dose adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction in the CT diagnosis and follow-up of urolithiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenant, Sean; Pang, Chun Lap; Dissanayake, Prageeth [Peninsula Radiology Academy, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Vardhanabhuti, Varut [Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, Plymouth (United Kingdom); University of Hong Kong, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Pokfulam (China); Stuckey, Colin; Gutteridge, Catherine [Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Hyde, Christopher [University of Exeter Medical School, St Luke' s Campus, Exeter (United Kingdom); Roobottom, Carl [Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of reduced-dose CT scans reconstructed using a new generation of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in the imaging of urinary tract stone disease, compared with a standard-dose CT using 30% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction. This single-institution prospective study recruited 125 patients presenting either with acute renal colic or for follow-up of known urinary tract stones. They underwent two immediately consecutive scans, one at standard dose settings and one at the lowest dose (highest noise index) the scanner would allow. The reduced-dose scans were reconstructed using both ASIR 30% and MBIR algorithms and reviewed independently by two radiologists. Objective and subjective image quality measures as well as diagnostic data were obtained. The reduced-dose MBIR scan was 100% concordant with the reference standard for the assessment of ureteric stones. It was extremely accurate at identifying calculi of 3 mm and above. The algorithm allowed a dose reduction of 58% without any loss of scan quality. A reduced-dose CT scan using MBIR is accurate in acute imaging for renal colic symptoms and for urolithiasis follow-up and allows a significant reduction in dose. (orig.)

  10. Influence of ASIR (Adaptative Statistical Iterative Reconstruction) variation in the image noise of computerized tomography for high voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, L.M.M.; Pereira, W.B.R.; Vieira, J.G.; Lamounier, C.S.; Gonçalves, D.A.; Carvalho, G.N.P.; Santana, P.C.; Oliveira, P.M.C.; Reis, L.P.

    2017-01-01

    Computed tomography had great advances in the equipment used in the diagnostic practice, directly influencing the levels of radiation for the patient. It is essential to optimize techniques that must be employed to comply with the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle of radioprotection. The relationship of ASIR (Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction) with image noise was studied. Central images of a homogeneous water simulator were obtained in a 20 mm scan using a 64-channel Lightspeed VCT tomograph of General Electric in helical acquisitions with a rotation time of 0.5 seconds, Pitch 0.984: 1, and thickness of cut 0.625 mm. All these constant parameters varying the voltage in two distinct values: 120 and 140 kV with use of the automatic current by the CAE (Automatic Exposure Control), ranging from 50 to 675 mA (120 kV) and from 50 to 610 mA (140kV), minimum and maximum values, respectively allowed for each voltage. Image noise was determined through ImageJ free software. The analysis of the obtained data compared the percentage variation of the noise in the image based on the ASIR value of 10%, concluding that there is a variation of approximately 50% when compared to the values of ASIR (100%) in both tensions. Dose evaluation is required in future studies to better utilize the relationship between dose and image quality

  11. Combining automatic tube current modulation with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction for low-dose chest CT screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Hong Chen

    Full Text Available To reduce radiation dose while maintaining image quality in low-dose chest computed tomography (CT by combining adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR and automatic tube current modulation (ATCM.Patients undergoing cancer screening (n = 200 were subjected to 64-slice multidetector chest CT scanning with ASIR and ATCM. Patients were divided into groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 (n = 50 each, with a noise index (NI of 15, 20, 30, and 40, respectively. Each image set was reconstructed with 4 ASIR levels (0% ASIR, 30% ASIR, 50% ASIR, and 80% ASIR in each group. Two radiologists assessed subjective image noise, image artifacts, and visibility of the anatomical structures. Objective image noise and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR were measured, and effective dose (ED was recorded.Increased NI was associated with increased subjective and objective image noise results (P<0.001, and SNR decreased with increasing NI (P<0.001. These values improved with increased ASIR levels (P<0.001. Images from all 4 groups were clinically diagnosable. Images with NI = 30 and 50% ASIR had average subjective image noise scores and nearly average anatomical structure visibility scores, with a mean objective image noise of 23.42 HU. The EDs for groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 2.79 ± 1.17, 1.69 ± 0.59, 0.74 ± 0.29, and 0.37 ± 0.22 mSv, respectively. Compared to group 1 (NI = 15, the ED reductions were 39.43%, 73.48%, and 86.74% for groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively.Using NI = 30 with 50% ASIR in the chest CT protocol, we obtained average or above-average image quality but a reduced ED.

  12. New scanning technique using Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) significantly reduced the radiation dose of cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumur, Odgerel; Soon, Kean; Brown, Fraser; Mykytowycz, Marcus

    2013-06-01

    The aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of application of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm on the radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its effects on image quality of CCTA and to evaluate the effects of various patient and CT scanning factors on the radiation dose of CCTA. This was a retrospective study that included 347 consecutive patients who underwent CCTA at a tertiary university teaching hospital between 1 July 2009 and 20 September 2011. Analysis was performed comparing patient demographics, scan characteristics, radiation dose and image quality in two groups of patients in whom conventional Filtered Back Projection (FBP) or ASIR was used for image reconstruction. There were 238 patients in the FBP group and 109 patients in the ASIR group. There was no difference between the groups in the use of prospective gating, scan length or tube voltage. In ASIR group, significantly lower tube current was used compared with FBP group, 550 mA (450-600) vs. 650 mA (500-711.25) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P ASIR group compared with FBP group, 4.29 mSv (2.84-6.02) vs. 5.84 mSv (3.88-8.39) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P ASIR was associated with increased image noise compared with FBP (39.93 ± 10.22 vs. 37.63 ± 18.79 (mean ± standard deviation), respectively, P ASIR reduces the radiation dose of CCTA without affecting the image quality. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  13. Head-to-head comparison of adaptive statistical and model-based iterative reconstruction algorithms for submillisievert coronary CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Dominik C; Fuchs, Tobias A; Gräni, Christoph; Studer Bruengger, Annina A; Clerc, Olivier F; Mikulicic, Fran; Messerli, Michael; Stehli, Julia; Possner, Mathias; Pazhenkottil, Aju P; Gaemperli, Oliver; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Buechel, Ronny R

    2018-02-01

    Iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms allow for a significant reduction in radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We performed a head-to-head comparison of adaptive statistical IR (ASiR) and model-based IR (MBIR) algorithms to assess their impact on quantitative image parameters and diagnostic accuracy for submillisievert CCTA. CCTA datasets of 91 patients were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP), increasing contributions of ASiR (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%), and MBIR. Signal and noise were measured in the aortic root to calculate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In a subgroup of 36 patients, diagnostic accuracy of ASiR 40%, ASiR 100%, and MBIR for diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) was compared with invasive coronary angiography. Median radiation dose was 0.21 mSv for CCTA. While increasing levels of ASiR gradually reduced image noise compared with FBP (up to - 48%, P ASiR (-59% compared with ASiR 100%; P ASiR 40% and ASiR 100% resulted in substantially lower diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD as diagnosed by invasive coronary angiography compared with MBIR: sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 37%, 100 and 57%, and 100 and 74% for ASiR 40%, ASiR 100%, and MBIR, respectively. MBIR offers substantial noise reduction with increased SNR, paving the way for implementation of submillisievert CCTA protocols in clinical routine. In contrast, inferior noise reduction by ASiR negatively affects diagnostic accuracy of submillisievert CCTA for CAD detection. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Combining automatic tube current modulation with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction for low-dose chest CT screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang-Hong; Jin, Er-Hu; He, Wen; Zhao, Li-Qin

    2014-01-01

    To reduce radiation dose while maintaining image quality in low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) by combining adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and automatic tube current modulation (ATCM). Patients undergoing cancer screening (n = 200) were subjected to 64-slice multidetector chest CT scanning with ASIR and ATCM. Patients were divided into groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 (n = 50 each), with a noise index (NI) of 15, 20, 30, and 40, respectively. Each image set was reconstructed with 4 ASIR levels (0% ASIR, 30% ASIR, 50% ASIR, and 80% ASIR) in each group. Two radiologists assessed subjective image noise, image artifacts, and visibility of the anatomical structures. Objective image noise and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured, and effective dose (ED) was recorded. Increased NI was associated with increased subjective and objective image noise results (PASIR levels (PASIR had average subjective image noise scores and nearly average anatomical structure visibility scores, with a mean objective image noise of 23.42 HU. The EDs for groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 2.79 ± 1.17, 1.69 ± 0.59, 0.74 ± 0.29, and 0.37 ± 0.22 mSv, respectively. Compared to group 1 (NI = 15), the ED reductions were 39.43%, 73.48%, and 86.74% for groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Using NI = 30 with 50% ASIR in the chest CT protocol, we obtained average or above-average image quality but a reduced ED.

  15. Impact of a New Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR)-V Algorithm on Image Quality in Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontone, Gianluca; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Andreini, Daniele; Guaricci, Andrea I; Guglielmo, Marco; Baggiano, Andrea; Fazzari, Fabio; Mushtaq, Saima; Conte, Edoardo; Annoni, Andrea; Formenti, Alberto; Mancini, Elisabetta; Verdecchia, Massimo; Campari, Alessandro; Martini, Chiara; Gatti, Marco; Fusini, Laura; Bonfanti, Lorenzo; Consiglio, Elisa; Rabbat, Mark G; Bartorelli, Antonio L; Pepi, Mauro

    2018-03-27

    A new postprocessing algorithm named adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR)-V has been recently introduced. The aim of this article was to analyze the impact of ASIR-V algorithm on signal, noise, and image quality of coronary computed tomography angiography. Fifty consecutive patients underwent clinically indicated coronary computed tomography angiography (Revolution CT; GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI). Images were reconstructed using filtered back projection and ASIR-V 0%, and a combination of filtered back projection and ASIR-V 20%-80% and ASIR-V 100%. Image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated for left main coronary artery (LM), left anterior descending artery (LAD), left circumflex artery (LCX), and right coronary artery (RCA) and were compared between the different postprocessing algorithms used. Similarly a four-point Likert image quality score of coronary segments was graded for each dataset and compared. A cutoff value of P ASIR-V 0%, ASIR-V 100% demonstrated a significant reduction of image noise in all coronaries (P ASIR-V 0%, SNR was significantly higher with ASIR-V 60% in LM (P ASIR-V 0%, CNR for ASIR-V ≥60% was significantly improved in LM (P ASIR-V ≥80%. ASIR-V 60% had significantly better Likert image quality scores compared to ASIR-V 0% in segment-, vessel-, and patient-based analyses (P ASIR-V 60% provides the optimal balance between image noise, SNR, CNR, and image quality. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of image quality and radiation dose by adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique level for chest CT examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sun Suk; Lee, Jong-Woong; Seo, Jeong Beom; Jung, Jae-Eun; Choi, Jiwon; Kweon, Dae Cheol

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) level that enables optimal image quality and dose reduction in the chest computed tomography (CT) protocol with ASIR. A chest phantom with 0-50 % ASIR levels was scanned and then noise power spectrum (NPS), signal and noise and the degree of distortion of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) were measured. In addition, the objectivity of the experiment was measured using the American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom. Moreover, on a qualitative basis, five lesions' resolution, latitude and distortion degree of chest phantom and their compiled statistics were evaluated. The NPS value decreased as the frequency increased. The lowest noise and deviation were at the 20 % ASIR level, mean 126.15 ± 22.21. As a result of the degree of distortion, signal-to-noise ratio and PSNR at 20 % ASIR level were at the highest value as 31.0 and 41.52. However, maximum absolute error and RMSE showed the lowest deviation value as 11.2 and 16. In the ACR phantom study, all ASIR levels were within acceptable allowance of guidelines. The 20 % ASIR level performed best in qualitative evaluation at five lesions of chest phantom as resolution score 4.3, latitude 3.47 and the degree of distortion 4.25. The 20 % ASIR level was proved to be the best in all experiments, noise, distortion evaluation using ImageJ and qualitative evaluation of five lesions of a chest phantom. Therefore, optimal images as well as reduce radiation dose would be acquired when 20 % ASIR level in thoracic CT is applied.

  17. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of radiation dose and image quality of computed tomography images using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Fahad Ahmed; Mail, Noor; Shamy, Abdulrahman M; Suliman, Alghamdi; Saoudi, Abdelhamid

    2016-05-08

    Image quality is a key issue in radiology, particularly in a clinical setting where it is important to achieve accurate diagnoses while minimizing radiation dose. Some computed tomography (CT) manufacturers have introduced algorithms that claim significant dose reduction. In this study, we assessed CT image quality produced by two reconstruction algorithms provided with GE Healthcare's Discovery 690 Elite positron emission tomography (PET) CT scanner. Image quality was measured for images obtained at various doses with both conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithms. A stan-dard CT dose index (CTDI) phantom and a pencil ionization chamber were used to measure the CT dose at 120 kVp and an exposure of 260 mAs. Image quality was assessed using two phantoms. CT images of both phantoms were acquired at tube voltage (kV) of 120 with exposures ranging from 25 mAs to 400 mAs. Images were reconstructed using FBP and ASIR ranging from 10% to 100%, then analyzed for noise, low-contrast detectability, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and modulation transfer function (MTF). Noise was 4.6 HU in water phantom images acquired at 260 mAs/FBP 120 kV and 130 mAs/50% ASIR 120 kV. The large objects (fre-quency ASIR, compared to 260 mAs/FBP. The application of ASIR for small objects (frequency >7 lp/cm) showed poor visibility compared to FBP at 260 mAs and even worse for images acquired at less than 130 mAs. ASIR blending more than 50% at low dose tends to reduce contrast of small objects (frequency >7 lp/cm). We concluded that dose reduction and ASIR should be applied with close attention if the objects to be detected or diagnosed are small (frequency > 7 lp/cm). Further investigations are required to correlate the small objects (frequency > 7 lp/cm) to patient anatomy and clinical diagnosis.

  18. New adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction ASiR-V: Assessment of noise performance in comparison to ASiR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Paolo; Origgi, Daniela

    2018-03-01

    To assess the noise characteristics of the new adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR-V) in comparison to ASiR. A water phantom was acquired with common clinical scanning parameters, at five different levels of CTDI vol . Images were reconstructed with different kernels (STD, SOFT, and BONE), different IR levels (40%, 60%, and 100%) and different slice thickness (ST) (0.625 and 2.5 mm), both for ASiR-V and ASiR. Noise properties were investigated and noise power spectrum (NPS) was evaluated. ASiR-V significantly reduced noise relative to FBP: noise reduction was in the range 23%-60% for a 0.625 mm ST and 12%-64% for the 2.5 mm ST. Above 2 mGy, noise reduction for ASiR-V had no dependence on dose. Noise reduction for ASIR-V has dependence on ST, being greater for STD and SOFT kernels at 2.5 mm. For the STD kernel ASiR-V has greater noise reduction for both ST, if compared to ASiR. For the SOFT kernel, results varies according to dose and ST, while for BONE kernel ASIR-V shows less noise reduction. NPS for CT Revolution has dose dependent behavior at lower doses. NPS for ASIR-V and ASiR is similar, showing a shift toward lower frequencies as the IR level increases for STD and SOFT kernels. The NPS is different between ASiR-V and ASIR with BONE kernel. NPS for ASiR-V appears to be ST dependent, having a shift toward lower frequencies for 2.5 mm ST. ASiR-V showed greater noise reduction than ASiR for STD and SOFT kernels, while keeping the same NPS. For the BONE kernel, ASiR-V presents a completely different behavior, with less noise reduction and modified NPS. Noise properties of the ASiR-V are dependent on reconstruction slice thickness. The noise properties of ASiR-V suggest the need for further measurements and efforts to establish new CT protocols to optimize clinical imaging. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  19. Reducing abdominal CT radiation dose with the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique in children: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorona, Gregory A. [The Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Allegheny General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Ceschin, Rafael C.; Clayton, Barbara L.; Sutcavage, Tom; Tadros, Sameh S.; Panigrahy, Ashok [The Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The use of the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm has been shown to reduce radiation doses in adults undergoing abdominal CT studies while preserving image quality. To our knowledge, no studies have been done to validate the use of ASIR in children. To retrospectively evaluate differences in radiation dose and image quality in pediatric CT abdominal studies utilizing 40% ASIR compared with filtered-back projection (FBP). Eleven patients (mean age 8.5 years, range 2-17 years) had separate 40% ASIR and FBP enhanced abdominal CT studies on different days between July 2009 and October 2010. The ASIR studies utilized a 38% mA reduction in addition to our pediatric protocol mAs. Study volume CT dose indexes (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose-length products (DLP) were recorded. A consistent representative image was obtained from each study. The images were independently evaluated by two radiologists in a blinded manner for diagnostic utility, image sharpness and image noise. The average CTDI{sub vol} and DLP for the 40% ASIR studies were 4.25 mGy and 185.04 mGy-cm, compared with 6.75 mGy and 275.79 mGy-cm for the FBP studies, representing 37% and 33% reductions in both, respectively. The radiologists' assessments of subjective image quality did not demonstrate any significant differences between the ASIR and FBP images. In our experience, the use of 40% ASIR with a 38% decrease in mA lowers the radiation dose for children undergoing enhanced abdominal examinations by an average of 33%, while maintaining diagnostically acceptable images. (orig.)

  20. Reducing abdominal CT radiation dose with the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique in children: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorona, Gregory A.; Ceschin, Rafael C.; Clayton, Barbara L.; Sutcavage, Tom; Tadros, Sameh S.; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    The use of the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm has been shown to reduce radiation doses in adults undergoing abdominal CT studies while preserving image quality. To our knowledge, no studies have been done to validate the use of ASIR in children. To retrospectively evaluate differences in radiation dose and image quality in pediatric CT abdominal studies utilizing 40% ASIR compared with filtered-back projection (FBP). Eleven patients (mean age 8.5 years, range 2-17 years) had separate 40% ASIR and FBP enhanced abdominal CT studies on different days between July 2009 and October 2010. The ASIR studies utilized a 38% mA reduction in addition to our pediatric protocol mAs. Study volume CT dose indexes (CTDI vol ) and dose-length products (DLP) were recorded. A consistent representative image was obtained from each study. The images were independently evaluated by two radiologists in a blinded manner for diagnostic utility, image sharpness and image noise. The average CTDI vol and DLP for the 40% ASIR studies were 4.25 mGy and 185.04 mGy-cm, compared with 6.75 mGy and 275.79 mGy-cm for the FBP studies, representing 37% and 33% reductions in both, respectively. The radiologists' assessments of subjective image quality did not demonstrate any significant differences between the ASIR and FBP images. In our experience, the use of 40% ASIR with a 38% decrease in mA lowers the radiation dose for children undergoing enhanced abdominal examinations by an average of 33%, while maintaining diagnostically acceptable images. (orig.)

  1. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction versus filtered back projection in the same patient: 64 channel liver CT image quality and patient radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsumori, Lee M.; Shuman, William P.; Busey, Janet M.; Kolokythas, Orpheus; Koprowicz, Kent M.

    2012-01-01

    To compare routine dose liver CT reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) versus low dose images reconstructed with FBP and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). In this retrospective study, patients had a routine dose protocol reconstructed with FBP, and again within 17 months (median 6.1 months), had a low dose protocol reconstructed twice, with FBP and ASIR. These reconstructions were compared for noise, image quality, and radiation dose. Nineteen patients were included. (12 male, mean age 58). Noise was significantly lower in low dose images reconstructed with ASIR compared to routine dose images reconstructed with FBP (liver: p <.05, aorta: p < 0.001). Low dose FBP images were scored significantly lower for subjective image quality than low dose ASIR (2.1 ± 0.5, 3.2 ± 0.8, p < 0.001). There was no difference in subjective image quality scores between routine dose FBP images and low dose ASIR images (3.6 ± 0.5, 3.2 ± 0.8, NS).Radiation dose was 41% less for the low dose protocol (4.4 ± 2.4 mSv versus 7.5 ± 5.5 mSv, p < 0.05). Our initial results suggest low dose CT images reconstructed with ASIR may have lower measured noise, similar image quality, yet significantly less radiation dose compared with higher dose images reconstructed with FBP. (orig.)

  2. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction versus filtered back projection in the same patient: 64 channel liver CT image quality and patient radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsumori, Lee M.; Shuman, William P.; Busey, Janet M.; Kolokythas, Orpheus; Koprowicz, Kent M. [University of Washington School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    To compare routine dose liver CT reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) versus low dose images reconstructed with FBP and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). In this retrospective study, patients had a routine dose protocol reconstructed with FBP, and again within 17 months (median 6.1 months), had a low dose protocol reconstructed twice, with FBP and ASIR. These reconstructions were compared for noise, image quality, and radiation dose. Nineteen patients were included. (12 male, mean age 58). Noise was significantly lower in low dose images reconstructed with ASIR compared to routine dose images reconstructed with FBP (liver: p <.05, aorta: p < 0.001). Low dose FBP images were scored significantly lower for subjective image quality than low dose ASIR (2.1 {+-} 0.5, 3.2 {+-} 0.8, p < 0.001). There was no difference in subjective image quality scores between routine dose FBP images and low dose ASIR images (3.6 {+-} 0.5, 3.2 {+-} 0.8, NS).Radiation dose was 41% less for the low dose protocol (4.4 {+-} 2.4 mSv versus 7.5 {+-} 5.5 mSv, p < 0.05). Our initial results suggest low dose CT images reconstructed with ASIR may have lower measured noise, similar image quality, yet significantly less radiation dose compared with higher dose images reconstructed with FBP. (orig.)

  3. Ultralow-dose CT of the craniofacial bone for navigated surgery using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and model-based iterative reconstruction: 2D and 3D image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmann, Gerlig; Schullian, Peter; Gassner, Eva-Maria; Hoermann, Romed; Bale, Reto; Puelacher, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to evaluate 2D and 3D image quality of high-resolution ultralow-dose CT images of the craniofacial bone for navigated surgery using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in comparison with standard filtered backprojection (FBP). MATERIALS AND METHODS. A formalin-fixed human cadaver head was scanned using a clinical reference protocol at a CT dose index volume of 30.48 mGy and a series of five ultralow-dose protocols at 3.48, 2.19, 0.82, 0.44, and 0.22 mGy using FBP and ASIR at 50% (ASIR-50), ASIR at 100% (ASIR-100), and MBIR. Blinded 2D axial and 3D volume-rendered images were compared with each other by three readers using top-down scoring. Scores were analyzed per protocol or dose and reconstruction. All images were compared with the FBP reference at 30.48 mGy. A nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used. Statistical significance was set at p ASIR-100 at 3.48 mGy, ASIR-100 at 2.19 mGy, and MBIR at 0.82 mGy. MBIR at 2.19 and 3.48 mGy scored statistically significantly better than the FBP reference (p = 0.032 and 0.001, respectively). For 3D images, the FBP reference at 30.48 mGy did not statistically significantly differ from all reconstructions at 3.48 mGy; FBP and ASIR-100 at 2.19 mGy; FBP, ASIR-100, and MBIR at 0.82 mGy; MBIR at 0.44 mGy; and MBIR at 0.22 mGy. CONCLUSION. MBIR (2D and 3D) and ASIR-100 (2D) may significantly improve subjective image quality of ultralow-dose images and may allow more than 90% dose reductions.

  4. Statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in clinical CT systems. Part II. Experimental assessment of spatial resolution performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong, E-mail: gchen7@wisc.edu [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Garrett, John; Ge, Yongshuai [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) methods have been introduced to clinical CT systems and are being used in some clinical diagnostic applications. The purpose of this paper is to experimentally assess the unique spatial resolution characteristics of this nonlinear reconstruction method and identify its potential impact on the detectabilities and the associated radiation dose levels for specific imaging tasks. Methods: The thoracic section of a pediatric phantom was repeatedly scanned 50 or 100 times using a 64-slice clinical CT scanner at four different dose levels [CTDI{sub vol} =4, 8, 12, 16 (mGy)]. Both filtered backprojection (FBP) and MBIR (Veo{sup ®}, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) were used for image reconstruction and results were compared with one another. Eight test objects in the phantom with contrast levels ranging from 13 to 1710 HU were used to assess spatial resolution. The axial spatial resolution was quantified with the point spread function (PSF), while the z resolution was quantified with the slice sensitivity profile. Both were measured locally on the test objects and in the image domain. The dependence of spatial resolution on contrast and dose levels was studied. The study also features a systematic investigation of the potential trade-off between spatial resolution and locally defined noise and their joint impact on the overall image quality, which was quantified by the image domain-based channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) detectability index d′. Results: (1) The axial spatial resolution of MBIR depends on both radiation dose level and image contrast level, whereas it is supposedly independent of these two factors in FBP. The axial spatial resolution of MBIR always improved with an increasing radiation dose level and/or contrast level. (2) The axial spatial resolution of MBIR became equivalent to that of FBP at some transitional contrast level, above which MBIR demonstrated superior spatial resolution than

  5. Clinical evaluation of image quality and radiation dose reduction in upper abdominal computed tomography using model-based iterative reconstruction; comparison with filtered back projection and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamoto, Atsushi; Kim, Tonsok; Hori, Masatoshi; Onishi, Hiromitsu; Tsuboyama, Takahiro; Sakane, Makoto; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MBIR significantly improves objective image quality. • MBIR reduces the radiation dose by 87.5% without increasing objective image noise. • A half dose will be needed to maintain the subjective image quality. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the image quality of upper abdominal CT images reconstructed with model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in comparison with filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) on scans acquired with various radiation exposure dose protocols. Materials and methods: This prospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all 90 patients who underwent both control-dose (CD) and reduced-dose (RD) CT of the upper abdomen (unenhanced: n = 45, contrast-enhanced: n = 45). The RD scan protocol was randomly selected from three protocols; Protocol A: 12.5% dose, Protocol B: 25% dose, Protocol C: 50% dose. Objective image noise, signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio for the liver parenchyma, visual image score and lesion conspicuity were compared among CD images of FBP and RD images of FBP, ASIR and MBIR. Results: RD images of MBIR yielded significantly lower objective image noise and higher SNR compared with RD images of FBP and ASIR for all protocols (P < .01) and CD images of FBP for Protocol C (P < .05). Although the subjective image quality of RD images of MBIR was almost acceptable for Protocol C, it was inferior to that of CD images of FBP for Protocols A and B (P < .0083). The conspicuity of the small lesions in RD images of MBIR tended to be superior to that in RD images of FBP and ASIR and inferior to that in CD images for Protocols A and B, although the differences were not significant (P > .0083). Conclusion: Although 12.5%-dose MBIR images (mean size-specific dose estimates [SSDE] of 1.13 mGy) yielded objective image noise and SNR comparable to CD-FBP images, at least a 50% dose (mean SSDE of 4.63 mGy) would be needed to

  6. Clinical evaluation of image quality and radiation dose reduction in upper abdominal computed tomography using model-based iterative reconstruction; comparison with filtered back projection and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, Atsushi, E-mail: a-nakamoto@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kim, Tonsok, E-mail: kim@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Hori, Masatoshi, E-mail: mhori@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Onishi, Hiromitsu, E-mail: h-onishi@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Tsuboyama, Takahiro, E-mail: t-tsuboyama@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Sakane, Makoto, E-mail: m-sakane@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki, E-mail: m-tatsumi@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Tomiyama, Noriyuki, E-mail: tomiyama@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • MBIR significantly improves objective image quality. • MBIR reduces the radiation dose by 87.5% without increasing objective image noise. • A half dose will be needed to maintain the subjective image quality. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the image quality of upper abdominal CT images reconstructed with model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in comparison with filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) on scans acquired with various radiation exposure dose protocols. Materials and methods: This prospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all 90 patients who underwent both control-dose (CD) and reduced-dose (RD) CT of the upper abdomen (unenhanced: n = 45, contrast-enhanced: n = 45). The RD scan protocol was randomly selected from three protocols; Protocol A: 12.5% dose, Protocol B: 25% dose, Protocol C: 50% dose. Objective image noise, signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio for the liver parenchyma, visual image score and lesion conspicuity were compared among CD images of FBP and RD images of FBP, ASIR and MBIR. Results: RD images of MBIR yielded significantly lower objective image noise and higher SNR compared with RD images of FBP and ASIR for all protocols (P < .01) and CD images of FBP for Protocol C (P < .05). Although the subjective image quality of RD images of MBIR was almost acceptable for Protocol C, it was inferior to that of CD images of FBP for Protocols A and B (P < .0083). The conspicuity of the small lesions in RD images of MBIR tended to be superior to that in RD images of FBP and ASIR and inferior to that in CD images for Protocols A and B, although the differences were not significant (P > .0083). Conclusion: Although 12.5%-dose MBIR images (mean size-specific dose estimates [SSDE] of 1.13 mGy) yielded objective image noise and SNR comparable to CD-FBP images, at least a 50% dose (mean SSDE of 4.63 mGy) would be needed to

  7. Upgrade to iterative image reconstruction (IR) in MDCT imaging: a clinical study for detailed parameter optimization beyond vendor recommendations using the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction environment (ASIR) Part2: The chest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueck, F G; Michael, L; Deak, Z; Scherr, M K; Maxien, D; Geyer, L L; Reiser, M; Wirth, S

    2013-07-01

    To compare the image quality in dose-reduced 64-row CT of the chest at different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) to full-dose baseline examinations reconstructed solely with filtered back projection (FBP) in a realistic upgrade scenario. A waiver of consent was granted by the institutional review board (IRB). The noise index (NI) relates to the standard deviation of Hounsfield units in a water phantom. Baseline exams of the chest (NI = 29; LightSpeed VCT XT, GE Healthcare) were intra-individually compared to follow-up studies on a CT with ASIR after system upgrade (NI = 45; Discovery HD750, GE Healthcare), n = 46. Images were calculated in slice and volume mode with ASIR levels of 0 - 100 % in the standard and lung kernel. Three radiologists independently compared the image quality to the corresponding full-dose baseline examinations (-2: diagnostically inferior, -1: inferior, 0: equal, + 1: superior, + 2: diagnostically superior). Statistical analysis used Wilcoxon's test, Mann-Whitney U test and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The mean CTDIvol decreased by 53 % from the FBP baseline to 8.0 ± 2.3 mGy for ASIR follow-ups; p ASIR 70 % in volume mode (-0.07 ± 0.29, p = 0.29). Concerning the lung kernel, every ASIR level outperformed the baseline image quality (p ASIR 30 % rated best (slice: 0.70 ± 0.6, volume: 0.74 ± 0.61). Vendors' recommendation of 50 % ASIR is fair. In detail, the ASIR 70 % in volume mode for the standard kernel and ASIR 30 % for the lung kernel performed best, allowing for a dose reduction of approximately 50 %. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Iterative reconstruction reduces abdominal CT dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinsen, Anne Catrine Trægde; Sæther, Hilde Kjernlie; Hol, Per Kristian; Olsen, Dag Rune; Skaane, Per

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In medical imaging, lowering radiation dose from computed tomography scanning, without reducing diagnostic performance is a desired achievement. Iterative image reconstruction may be one tool to achieve dose reduction. This study reports the diagnostic performance using a blending of 50% statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and filtered back projection reconstruction (FBP) compared to standard FBP image reconstruction at different dose levels for liver phantom examinations. Methods: An anthropomorphic liver phantom was scanned at 250, 185, 155, 140, 120 and 100 mA s, on a 64-slice GE Lightspeed VCT scanner. All scans were reconstructed with ASIR and FBP. Four readers evaluated independently on a 5-point scale 21 images, each containing 32 test sectors. In total 672 areas were assessed. ROC analysis was used to evaluate the differences. Results: There was a difference in AUC between the 250 mA s FBP images and the 120 and 100 mA s FBP images. ASIR reconstruction gave a significantly higher diagnostic performance compared to standard reconstruction at 100 mA s. Conclusion: A blending of 50–90% ASIR and FBP may improve image quality of low dose CT examinations of the liver, and thus give a potential for reducing radiation dose.

  9. WE-G-18A-04: 3D Dictionary Learning Based Statistical Iterative Reconstruction for Low-Dose Cone Beam CT Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, T; Yan, H; Shi, F; Jia, X; Jiang, Steve B.; Lou, Y; Xu, Q; Mou, X

    2014-01-01

    clinical application. A high zresolution is preferred to stabilize statistical iterative reconstruction. This work was supported in part by NIH(1R01CA154747-01), NSFC((No. 61172163), Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20110201110011), China Scholarship Council

  10. WE-G-18A-04: 3D Dictionary Learning Based Statistical Iterative Reconstruction for Low-Dose Cone Beam CT Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, T [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Yan, H; Shi, F; Jia, X; Jiang, Steve B. [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Lou, Y [University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States); Xu, Q; Mou, X [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2014-06-15

    clinical application. A high zresolution is preferred to stabilize statistical iterative reconstruction. This work was supported in part by NIH(1R01CA154747-01), NSFC((No. 61172163), Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20110201110011), China Scholarship Council.

  11. The effect of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction on the assessment of diagnostic image quality and visualisation of anatomical structures in paediatric cerebral CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Joel; Baath, Magnus; Thilander-Klang, Anne; Ledenius, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) on the visualisation of anatomical structures and diagnostic image quality in paediatric cerebral computed tomography (CT) examinations. Forty paediatric patients undergoing routine cerebral CT were included in the study. The raw data from CT scans were reconstructed into stacks of 5 mm thick axial images at various levels of ASiR. Three paediatric radiologists rated six questions related to the visualisation of anatomical structures and one question on diagnostic image quality, in a blinded randomised visual grading study. The evaluated anatomical structures demonstrated enhanced visibility with increasing level of ASiR, apart from the cerebrospinal fluid space around the brain. In this study, 60 % ASiR was found to be the optimal level of ASiR for paediatric cerebral CT examinations. This shows that the commonly used 30 % ASiR may not always be the optimal level. (authors)

  12. Can use of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction reduce radiation dose in unenhanced head CT? An analysis of qualitative and quantitative image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Østerås, Bjørn Helge; Heggen, Kristin Livelten; Pedersen, Hans Kristian; Andersen, Hilde Kjernlie; Martinsen, Anne Catrine T

    2016-01-01

    Iterative reconstruction can reduce image noise and thereby facilitate dose reduction. To evaluate qualitative and quantitative image quality for full dose and dose reduced head computed tomography (CT) protocols reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). Fourteen patients undergoing follow-up head CT were included. All patients underwent full dose (FD) exam and subsequent 15% dose reduced (DR) exam, reconstructed using FBP and 30% ASIR. Qualitative image quality was assessed using visual grading characteristics. Quantitative image quality was assessed using ROI measurements in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), white matter, peripheral and central gray matter. Additionally, quantitative image quality was measured in Catphan and vendor’s water phantom. There was no significant difference in qualitative image quality between FD FBP and DR ASIR. Comparing same scan FBP versus ASIR, a noise reduction of 28.6% in CSF and between −3.7 and 3.5% in brain parenchyma was observed. Comparing FD FBP versus DR ASIR, a noise reduction of 25.7% in CSF, and −7.5 and 6.3% in brain parenchyma was observed. Image contrast increased in ASIR reconstructions. Contrast-to-noise ratio was improved in DR ASIR compared to FD FBP. In phantoms, noise reduction was in the range of 3 to 28% with image content. There was no significant difference in qualitative image quality between full dose FBP and dose reduced ASIR. CNR improved in DR ASIR compared to FD FBP mostly due to increased contrast, not reduced noise. Therefore, we recommend using caution if reducing dose and applying ASIR to maintain image quality

  13. Update on the non-prewhitening model observer in computed tomography for the assessment of the adaptive statistical and model-based iterative reconstruction algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Julien G.; Becce, Fabio; Monnin, Pascal; Schmidt, Sabine; Bochud, François O.; Verdun, Francis R.

    2014-08-01

    The state of the art to describe image quality in medical imaging is to assess the performance of an observer conducting a task of clinical interest. This can be done by using a model observer leading to a figure of merit such as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Using the non-prewhitening (NPW) model observer, we objectively characterised the evolution of its figure of merit in various acquisition conditions. The NPW model observer usually requires the use of the modulation transfer function (MTF) as well as noise power spectra. However, although the computation of the MTF poses no problem when dealing with the traditional filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithm, this is not the case when using iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms, such as adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) or model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). Given that the target transfer function (TTF) had already shown it could accurately express the system resolution even with non-linear algorithms, we decided to tune the NPW model observer, replacing the standard MTF by the TTF. It was estimated using a custom-made phantom containing cylindrical inserts surrounded by water. The contrast differences between the inserts and water were plotted for each acquisition condition. Then, mathematical transformations were performed leading to the TTF. As expected, the first results showed a dependency of the image contrast and noise levels on the TTF for both ASIR and MBIR. Moreover, FBP also proved to be dependent of the contrast and noise when using the lung kernel. Those results were then introduced in the NPW model observer. We observed an enhancement of SNR every time we switched from FBP to ASIR to MBIR. IR algorithms greatly improve image quality, especially in low-dose conditions. Based on our results, the use of MBIR could lead to further dose reduction in several clinical applications.

  14. Clinical applications of iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberl, S.

    1998-01-01

    Expectation maximisation (EM) reconstruction largely eliminates the hot and cold streaking artifacts characteristic of filtered-back projection (FBP) reconstruction around localised hot areas, such as the bladder. It also substantially reduces the problem of decreased inferior wall counts in MIBI myocardial perfusion studies due to ''streaking'' from high liver uptake. Non-uniform attenuation and scatter correction, resolution recovery, anatomical information, e.g. from MRI or CT tracer kinetic modelling, can all be built into the EM reconstruction imaging model. The properties of ordered subset EM (OSEM) have also been used to correct for known patient motion as part of the reconstruction process. These uses of EM are elaborated more fully in some of the other abstracts of this meeting. Currently we use OSEM routinely for: (i) studies where streaking is a problem, including all MIBI myocardial perfusion studies, to avoid hot liver inferior wall artifact, (ii) all whole body FDG PET, all lung V/Q SPECT (which have a short acquisition time) and all gated 201 TI myocardial perfusion studies due to improved noise characteristics of OSEM in these studies; (iii) studies with measured, non-uniform attenuation correction. With the accelerated OSEM algorithm, iterative reconstruction is practical for routine clinical applications and we have found OSEM to provide clearly superior reconstructions for the areas listed above and are investigating its application to other studies. In clinical use, we have not found OSEM to introduce artifacts which would not also occur with FBP, e.g. uncorrected patient motion will cause artifacts with both OSEM and FBP

  15. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-applied ultra-low-dose CT with radiography- comparable radiation dose: Usefulness for lung nodule detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Chung, Myung Jin; Hwang, Hye Sun; Lee, Kyung Soo; Moon, Jung Won

    2015-01-01

    To assess the performance of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR)-applied ultra-low-dose CT (ULDCT) in detecting small lung nodules. Thirty patients underwent both ULDCT and standard dose CT (SCT). After determining the reference standard nodules, five observers, blinded to the reference standard reading results, independently evaluated SCT and both subsets of ASIR- and filtered back projection (FBP)-driven ULDCT images. Data assessed by observers were compared statistically. Converted effective doses in SCT and ULDCT were 2.81 ± 0.92 and 0.17 ± 0.02 mSv, respectively. A total of 114 lung nodules were detected on SCT as a standard reference. There was no statistically significant difference in sensitivity between ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT for three out of the five observers (p = 0.678, 0.735, < 0.01, 0.038, and < 0.868 for observers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively). The sensitivity of FBP-driven ULDCT was significantly lower than that of ASIR-driven ULDCT in three out of the five observers (p < 0.01 for three observers, and p = 0.064 and 0.146 for two observers). In jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis, the mean values of figure-of-merit (FOM) for FBP, ASIR-driven ULDCT, and SCT were 0.682, 0.772, and 0.821, respectively, and there were no significant differences in FOM values between ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT (p = 0.11), but the FOM value of FBP-driven ULDCT was significantly lower than that of ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT (p = 0.01 and 0.00). Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-driven ULDCT delivering a radiation dose of only 0.17 mSv offers acceptable sensitivity in nodule detection compared with SCT and has better performance than FBP-driven ULDCT

  16. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-applied ultra-low-dose CT with radiography- comparable radiation dose: Usefulness for lung nodule detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Chung, Myung Jin; Hwang, Hye Sun; Lee, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jung Won [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To assess the performance of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR)-applied ultra-low-dose CT (ULDCT) in detecting small lung nodules. Thirty patients underwent both ULDCT and standard dose CT (SCT). After determining the reference standard nodules, five observers, blinded to the reference standard reading results, independently evaluated SCT and both subsets of ASIR- and filtered back projection (FBP)-driven ULDCT images. Data assessed by observers were compared statistically. Converted effective doses in SCT and ULDCT were 2.81 ± 0.92 and 0.17 ± 0.02 mSv, respectively. A total of 114 lung nodules were detected on SCT as a standard reference. There was no statistically significant difference in sensitivity between ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT for three out of the five observers (p = 0.678, 0.735, < 0.01, 0.038, and < 0.868 for observers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively). The sensitivity of FBP-driven ULDCT was significantly lower than that of ASIR-driven ULDCT in three out of the five observers (p < 0.01 for three observers, and p = 0.064 and 0.146 for two observers). In jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis, the mean values of figure-of-merit (FOM) for FBP, ASIR-driven ULDCT, and SCT were 0.682, 0.772, and 0.821, respectively, and there were no significant differences in FOM values between ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT (p = 0.11), but the FOM value of FBP-driven ULDCT was significantly lower than that of ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT (p = 0.01 and 0.00). Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-driven ULDCT delivering a radiation dose of only 0.17 mSv offers acceptable sensitivity in nodule detection compared with SCT and has better performance than FBP-driven ULDCT.

  17. Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction-Applied Ultra-Low-Dose CT with Radiography-Comparable Radiation Dose: Usefulness for Lung Nodule Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Chung, Myung Jin; Hwang, Hye Sun; Moon, Jung Won; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the performance of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR)-applied ultra-low-dose CT (ULDCT) in detecting small lung nodules. Thirty patients underwent both ULDCT and standard dose CT (SCT). After determining the reference standard nodules, five observers, blinded to the reference standard reading results, independently evaluated SCT and both subsets of ASIR- and filtered back projection (FBP)-driven ULDCT images. Data assessed by observers were compared statistically. Converted effective doses in SCT and ULDCT were 2.81 ± 0.92 and 0.17 ± 0.02 mSv, respectively. A total of 114 lung nodules were detected on SCT as a standard reference. There was no statistically significant difference in sensitivity between ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT for three out of the five observers (p = 0.678, 0.735, ASIR-driven ULDCT in three out of the five observers (p ASIR-driven ULDCT, and SCT were 0.682, 0.772, and 0.821, respectively, and there were no significant differences in FOM values between ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT (p = 0.11), but the FOM value of FBP-driven ULDCT was significantly lower than that of ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT (p = 0.01 and 0.00). Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-driven ULDCT delivering a radiation dose of only 0.17 mSv offers acceptable sensitivity in nodule detection compared with SCT and has better performance than FBP-driven ULDCT.

  18. SU-E-I-86: Ultra-Low Dose Computed Tomography Attenuation Correction for Pediatric PET CT Using Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASiR™)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, S; Shulkin, B [St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop ultra-low dose computed tomography (CT) attenuation correction (CTAC) acquisition protocols for pediatric positron emission tomography CT (PET CT). Methods: A GE Discovery 690 PET CT hybrid scanner was used to investigate the change to quantitative PET and CT measurements when operated at ultra-low doses (10–35 mAs). CT quantitation: noise, low-contrast resolution, and CT numbers for eleven tissue substitutes were analyzed in-phantom. CT quantitation was analyzed to a reduction of 90% CTDIvol (0.39/3.64; mGy) radiation dose from baseline. To minimize noise infiltration, 100% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) was used for CT reconstruction. PET images were reconstructed with the lower-dose CTAC iterations and analyzed for: maximum body weight standardized uptake value (SUVbw) of various diameter targets (range 8–37 mm), background uniformity, and spatial resolution. Radiation organ dose, as derived from patient exam size specific dose estimate (SSDE), was converted to effective dose using the standard ICRP report 103 method. Effective dose and CTAC noise magnitude were compared for 140 patient examinations (76 post-ASiR implementation) to determine relative patient population dose reduction and noise control. Results: CT numbers were constant to within 10% from the non-dose reduced CTAC image down to 90% dose reduction. No change in SUVbw, background percent uniformity, or spatial resolution for PET images reconstructed with CTAC protocols reconstructed with ASiR and down to 90% dose reduction. Patient population effective dose analysis demonstrated relative CTAC dose reductions between 62%–86% (3.2/8.3−0.9/6.2; mSv). Noise magnitude in dose-reduced patient images increased but was not statistically different from pre dose-reduced patient images. Conclusion: Using ASiR allowed for aggressive reduction in CTAC dose with no change in PET reconstructed images while maintaining sufficient image quality for co

  19. Feasibility Study of Radiation Dose Reduction in Adult Female Pelvic CT Scan with Low Tube-Voltage and Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinlian; Chen, Jianghong; Hu, Zhihai; Zhao, Liqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate image quality of female pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans reconstructed with the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) technique combined with low tube-voltage and to explore the feasibility of its clinical application. Materials and Methods Ninety-four patients were divided into two groups. The study group used 100 kVp, and images were reconstructed with 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90% ASIR. The control group used 120 kVp, and images were reconstructed with 30% ASIR. The noise index was 15 for the study group and 11 for the control group. The CT values and noise levels of different tissues were measured. The contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was calculated. A subjective evaluation was carried out by two experienced radiologists. The CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) was recorded. Results A 44.7% reduction in CTDIvol was observed in the study group (8.18 ± 3.58 mGy) compared with that in the control group (14.78 ± 6.15 mGy). No significant differences were observed in the tissue noise levels and CNR values between the 70% ASIR group and the control group (p = 0.068-1.000). The subjective scores indicated that visibility of small structures, diagnostic confidence, and the overall image quality score in the 70% ASIR group was the best, and were similar to those in the control group (1.87 vs. 1.79, 1.26 vs. 1.28, and 4.53 vs. 4.57; p = 0.122-0.585). No significant difference in diagnostic accuracy was detected between the study group and the control group (42/47 vs. 43/47, p = 1.000). Conclusion Low tube-voltage combined with automatic tube current modulation and 70% ASIR allowed the low CT radiation dose to be reduced by 44.7% without losing image quality on female pelvic scan. PMID:26357499

  20. Adrenal and nephrogenic hypertension: an image quality study of low tube voltage, low-concentration contrast media combined with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Li, Qiong; Shen, Yaqi; Li, Anqin; Li, Haojie; Liang, Lili; Hu, Yao; Hu, Xuemei; Hu, Daoyu

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of using low tube voltage, low-concentration contrast media and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) for reducing the radiation and iodine contrast doses in adrenal and nephrogenic hypertension patients. A total of 148 hypertension patients who were suspected for adrenal lesions or renal artery stenoses were assigned to two groups and. Group A (n=74) underwent a low tube voltage, low molecular weight dextran enhanced multi-detector row spiral CT (MDCT) (80 kVp, 270 mg I/mL contrast agent), and the raw data were reconstructed with standard filtered back projection (FBP) and ASIR at four different levels of blending (20%, 40%, 60% and 80%, respectively). The control group (Group B, n=74) underwent conventional MDCT (120 kVp, 370 mg I/mL contrast agent), and the data were reconstructed with FBP. The CT values, standard deviation (SD), signal-noise-ratio (SNR) and contrast-noise-ratio (CNR) were measured in the renal vessels, normal adrenal tissue, adrenal neoplasms and subcutaneous fat. The volume CT dose index (CTDIvol ) and dose length product (DLP) were recorded, and an effective dose (ED) was obtained. Two-tailed independent t-tests, paired Chi-square tests and Kappa consistency tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. The CTDIvol , DLP and total iodine dose in group A were decreased by 47.8%, 49.0% and 26.07%, respectively, compared to group B (Pcontrast media and 60% ASIR provides similar enhancement and image quality with a reduced radiation dose and contrast iodine dose. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Assessment of clinical image quality in paediatric abdominal CT examinations: dependency on the level of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) and the type of convolution kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Joel; Baath, Magnus; Thilander-Klang, Anne; Ledenius, Kerstin; Caisander, Haakan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different combinations of convolution kernel and the level of Adaptive Statistical iterative Reconstruction (ASiR TM ) on diagnostic image quality as well as visualisation of anatomical structures in paediatric abdominal computed tomography (CT) examinations. Thirty-five paediatric patients with abdominal pain with non-specified pathology undergoing abdominal CT were included in the study. Transaxial stacks of 5-mm-thick images were retrospectively reconstructed at various ASiR levels, in combination with three convolution kernels. Four paediatric radiologists rated the diagnostic image quality and the delineation of six anatomical structures in a blinded randomised visual grading study. Image quality at a given ASiR level was found to be dependent on the kernel, and a more edge-enhancing kernel benefited from a higher ASiR level. An ASiR level of 70 % together with the Soft TM or Standard TM kernel was suggested to be the optimal combination for paediatric abdominal CT examinations. (authors)

  2. Image quality of low-dose CCTA in obese patients: impact of high-definition computed tomography and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhard, Cathérine; Fuchs, Tobias A; Fiechter, Michael; Stehli, Julia; Stähli, Barbara E; Gaemperli, Oliver; Kaufmann, Philipp A

    2013-10-01

    The accuracy of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in obese persons is compromised by increased image noise. We investigated CCTA image quality acquired on a high-definition 64-slice CT scanner using modern adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). Seventy overweight and obese patients (24 males; mean age 57 years, mean body mass index 33 kg/m(2)) were studied with clinically-indicated contrast enhanced CCTA. Thirty-five patients underwent a standard definition protocol with filtered backprojection reconstruction (SD-FBP) while 35 patients matched for gender, age, body mass index and coronary artery calcifications underwent a novel high definition protocol with ASIR (HD-ASIR). Segment by segment image quality was assessed using a four-point scale (1 = excellent, 2 = good, 3 = moderate, 4 = non-diagnostic) and revealed better scores for HD-ASIR compared to SD-FBP (1.5 ± 0.43 vs. 1.8 ± 0.48; p ASIR as compared to 1.4 ± 0.4 mm for SD-FBP (p ASIR (388.3 ± 109.6 versus 350.6 ± 90.3 Hounsfield Units, HU; p ASIR vs. SD-ASIR respectively). Compared to a standard definition backprojection protocol (SD-FBP), a newer high definition scan protocol in combination with ASIR (HD-ASIR) incrementally improved image quality and visualization of distal coronary artery segments in overweight and obese individuals, without increasing image noise and radiation dose.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF CLINICAL IMAGE QUALITY IN PAEDIATRIC ABDOMINAL CT EXAMINATIONS: DEPENDENCY ON THE LEVEL OF ADAPTIVE STATISTICAL ITERATIVE RECONSTRUCTION (ASiR) AND THE TYPE OF CONVOLUTION KERNEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Joel; Båth, Magnus; Ledenius, Kerstin; Caisander, Håkan; Thilander-Klang, Anne

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different combinations of convolution kernel and the level of Adaptive Statistical iterative Reconstruction (ASiR™) on diagnostic image quality as well as visualisation of anatomical structures in paediatric abdominal computed tomography (CT) examinations. Thirty-five paediatric patients with abdominal pain with non-specified pathology undergoing abdominal CT were included in the study. Transaxial stacks of 5-mm-thick images were retrospectively reconstructed at various ASiR levels, in combination with three convolution kernels. Four paediatric radiologists rated the diagnostic image quality and the delineation of six anatomical structures in a blinded randomised visual grading study. Image quality at a given ASiR level was found to be dependent on the kernel, and a more edge-enhancing kernel benefitted from a higher ASiR level. An ASiR level of 70 % together with the Soft™ or Standard™ kernel was suggested to be the optimal combination for paediatric abdominal CT examinations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Assessment of noise reduction potential and image quality improvement of a new generation adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR-V) in chest CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Yu, Nan; Jia, Yongjun; Yu, Yong; Duan, Haifeng; Han, Dong; Ma, Guangming; Ren, Chenglong; He, Taiping

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the image quality improvement and noise reduction in routine dose, non-enhanced chest CT imaging by using a new generation adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR-V) in comparison with ASIR algorithm. 30 patients who underwent routine dose, non-enhanced chest CT using GE Discovery CT750HU (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) were included. The scan parameters included tube voltage of 120 kVp, automatic tube current modulation to obtain a noise index of 14HU, rotation speed of 0.6 s, pitch of 1.375:1 and slice thickness of 5 mm. After scanning, all scans were reconstructed with the recommended level of 40%ASIR for comparison purpose and different percentages of ASIR-V from 10% to 100% in a 10% increment. The CT attenuation values and SD of the subcutaneous fat, back muscle and descending aorta were measured at the level of tracheal carina of all reconstructed images. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated with SD representing image noise. The subjective image quality was independently evaluated by two experienced radiologists. For all ASIR-V images, the objective image noise (SD) of fat, muscle and aorta decreased and SNR increased along with increasing ASIR-V percentage. The SD of 30% ASIR-V to 100% ASIR-V was significantly lower than that of 40% ASIR (p ASIR-V reconstructions had good diagnostic acceptability. However, the 50% ASIR-V to 70% ASIR-V series showed significantly superior visibility of small structures when compared with the 40% ASIR and ASIR-V of other percentages (p ASIR-V was the best series of all ASIR-V images, with a highest subjective image quality. The image sharpness was significantly decreased in images reconstructed by 80% ASIR-V and higher. In routine dose, non-enhanced chest CT, ASIR-V shows greater potential in reducing image noise and artefacts and maintaining image sharpness when compared to the recommended level of 40%ASIR algorithm. Combining both the objective and subjective evaluation of images, non

  5. Characterization of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) in low contrast helical abdominal imaging via a transfer function based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da; Li, Xinhua; Liu, Bob

    2012-03-01

    Since the introduction of ASiR, its potential in noise reduction has been reported in various clinical applications. However, the influence of different scan and reconstruction parameters on the trade off between ASiR's blurring effect and noise reduction in low contrast imaging has not been fully studied. Simple measurements on low contrast images, such as CNR or phantom scores could not explore the nuance nature of this problem. We tackled this topic using a method which compares the performance of ASiR in low contrast helical imaging based on an assumed filter layer on top of the FBP reconstruction. Transfer functions of this filter layer were obtained from the noise power spectra (NPS) of corresponding FBP and ASiR images that share the same scan and reconstruction parameters. 2D transfer functions were calculated as sqrt[NPSASiR(u, v)/NPSFBP(u, v)]. Synthesized ACR phantom images were generated by filtering the FBP images with the transfer functions of specific (FBP, ASiR) pairs, and were compared with the ASiR images. It is shown that the transfer functions could predict the deterministic blurring effect of ASiR on low contrast objects, as well as the degree of noise reductions. Using this method, the influence of dose, scan field of view (SFOV), display field of view (DFOV), ASiR level, and Recon Mode on the behavior of ASiR in low contrast imaging was studied. It was found that ASiR level, dose level, and DFOV play more important roles in determining the behavior of ASiR than the other two parameters.

  6. Radiation dose reduction with the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) technique for chest CT in children: an intra-individual comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Myung-Joon; Yoon, Choon-Sik; Lee, Mi-Jung

    2012-09-01

    To retrospectively compare radiation dose and image quality of pediatric chest CT using a routine dose protocol reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) (the Routine study) and a low-dose protocol with 50% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) (the ASIR study). We retrospectively reviewed chest CT performed in pediatric patients who underwent both the Routine study and the ASIR study on different days between January 2010 and August 2011. Volume CT dose indices (CTDIvol), dose length products (DLP), and effective doses were obtained to estimate radiation dose. The image quality was evaluated objectively as noise measured in the descending aorta and paraspinal muscle, and subjectively by three radiologists for noise, sharpness, artifacts, and diagnostic acceptability using a four-point scale. The paired Student's t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used for statistical analysis. Twenty-six patients (M:F=13:13, mean age 11.7) were enrolled. The ASIR studies showed 60.3%, 56.2%, and 55.2% reductions in CTDIvol (from 18.73 to 7.43 mGy, PASIR studies (20.81 vs. 16.67, P=0.004), but was not different in the aorta (18.23 vs. 18.72, P=0.726). The subjective image quality demonstrated no difference between the two studies. A low-dose protocol with 50% ASIR allows radiation dose reduction in pediatric chest CT by more than 55% while maintaining image quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation dose reduction with the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) technique for chest CT in children: An intra-individual comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hyun, E-mail: circle1128@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung-Joon, E-mail: mjkim@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Choon-Sik, E-mail: yooncs58@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi-Jung, E-mail: mjl1213@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: To retrospectively compare radiation dose and image quality of pediatric chest CT using a routine dose protocol reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) (the Routine study) and a low-dose protocol with 50% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) (the ASIR study). Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed chest CT performed in pediatric patients who underwent both the Routine study and the ASIR study on different days between January 2010 and August 2011. Volume CT dose indices (CTDIvol), dose length products (DLP), and effective doses were obtained to estimate radiation dose. The image quality was evaluated objectively as noise measured in the descending aorta and paraspinal muscle, and subjectively by three radiologists for noise, sharpness, artifacts, and diagnostic acceptability using a four-point scale. The paired Student's t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Twenty-six patients (M:F = 13:13, mean age 11.7) were enrolled. The ASIR studies showed 60.3%, 56.2%, and 55.2% reductions in CTDIvol (from 18.73 to 7.43 mGy, P < 0.001), DLP (from 307.42 to 134.51 mGy × cm, P < 0.001), and effective dose (from 4.12 to 1.84 mSv, P < 0.001), respectively, compared with the Routine studies. The objective noise was higher in the paraspinal muscle of the ASIR studies (20.81 vs. 16.67, P = 0.004), but was not different in the aorta (18.23 vs. 18.72, P = 0.726). The subjective image quality demonstrated no difference between the two studies. Conclusion: A low-dose protocol with 50% ASIR allows radiation dose reduction in pediatric chest CT by more than 55% while maintaining image quality.

  8. Radiation dose reduction with the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) technique for chest CT in children: An intra-individual comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Myung-Joon; Yoon, Choon-Sik; Lee, Mi-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To retrospectively compare radiation dose and image quality of pediatric chest CT using a routine dose protocol reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) (the Routine study) and a low-dose protocol with 50% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) (the ASIR study). Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed chest CT performed in pediatric patients who underwent both the Routine study and the ASIR study on different days between January 2010 and August 2011. Volume CT dose indices (CTDIvol), dose length products (DLP), and effective doses were obtained to estimate radiation dose. The image quality was evaluated objectively as noise measured in the descending aorta and paraspinal muscle, and subjectively by three radiologists for noise, sharpness, artifacts, and diagnostic acceptability using a four-point scale. The paired Student's t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Twenty-six patients (M:F = 13:13, mean age 11.7) were enrolled. The ASIR studies showed 60.3%, 56.2%, and 55.2% reductions in CTDIvol (from 18.73 to 7.43 mGy, P < 0.001), DLP (from 307.42 to 134.51 mGy × cm, P < 0.001), and effective dose (from 4.12 to 1.84 mSv, P < 0.001), respectively, compared with the Routine studies. The objective noise was higher in the paraspinal muscle of the ASIR studies (20.81 vs. 16.67, P = 0.004), but was not different in the aorta (18.23 vs. 18.72, P = 0.726). The subjective image quality demonstrated no difference between the two studies. Conclusion: A low-dose protocol with 50% ASIR allows radiation dose reduction in pediatric chest CT by more than 55% while maintaining image quality

  9. A Third-Generation Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction Technique: Phantom Study of Image Noise, Spatial Resolution, Lesion Detectability, and Dose Reduction Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, André; Solomon, Justin; Marin, Daniele; Nelson, Rendon C; Samei, Ehsan

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess image noise, spatial resolution, lesion detectability, and the dose reduction potential of a proprietary third-generation adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR-V) technique. A phantom representing five different body sizes (12-37 cm) and a contrast-detail phantom containing lesions of five low-contrast levels (5-20 HU) and three sizes (2-6 mm) were deployed. Both phantoms were scanned on a 256-MDCT scanner at six different radiation doses (1.25-10 mGy). Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), ASIR-V with 50% blending with FBP (ASIR-V 50%), and ASIR-V without blending (ASIR-V 100%). In the first phantom, noise properties were assessed by noise power spectrum analysis. Spatial resolution properties were measured by use of task transfer functions for objects of different contrasts. Noise magnitude, noise texture, and resolution were compared between the three groups. In the second phantom, low-contrast detectability was assessed by nine human readers independently for each condition. The dose reduction potential of ASIR-V was estimated on the basis of a generalized linear statistical regression model. On average, image noise was reduced 37.3% with ASIR-V 50% and 71.5% with ASIR-V 100% compared with FBP. ASIR-V shifted the noise power spectrum toward lower frequencies compared with FBP. The spatial resolution of ASIR-V was equivalent or slightly superior to that of FBP, except for the low-contrast object, which had lower resolution. Lesion detection significantly increased with both ASIR-V levels (p = 0.001), with an estimated radiation dose reduction potential of 15% ± 5% (SD) for ASIR-V 50% and 31% ± 9% for ASIR-V 100%. ASIR-V reduced image noise and improved lesion detection compared with FBP and had potential for radiation dose reduction while preserving low-contrast detectability.

  10. [Combined use of wide-detector and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-V technique in abdominal CT with low radiation dose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H X; Lü, P J; Yue, S W; Chang, L Y; Li, Y; Zhao, H P; Li, W R; Gao, J B

    2017-12-05

    Objective: To investigate the image quality and radiation dose with wide-detector(80 mm) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-V (ASIR-V) technique at abdominal contrast enhanced CT scan. Methods: In the first phantom experiment part, the percentage of ASIR-V for half dose of combined wide detector with ASIR-V technique as compared with standard-detector (40 mm) technique was determined. The human experiment was performed based on the phantom study, 160 patients underwent contrast-enhanced abdominal CT scan were prospectively collected and divided into the control group ( n =40) with image reconstruction using 40% ASIR (group A) and the study group ( n =120) with random number table. According to pre-ASIR-V percentage, the study group was assigned into three groups[40 cases in each group, group B: 0 pre-ASIR-V scan with image reconstruction of 0-100% post-ASIR-V (interval 10%, subgroups B0-B10); group C: 20% pre-ASIR-V with 20%, 40% and 60% post-ASIR-V (subgroups C1-C3); group D: 40%pre-ASIR-V with 40% and 60% post-ASIR-V (subgroups D1-D2)]. Image noise, CT attenuation values and CNR of the liver, pancreas, aorta and portal vein were compared by using two sample t test and One-way ANOVA. Qualitative visual parameters (overall image quality as graded on a 5-point scale) was compared by Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis H test. Results: The phantom experiment showed that the percentage of pre-ASIR-V for half dose was 40%. With the 40% pre-ASIR-V, radiation dose in the study group was reduced by 35.5% as compared with the control group. Image noise in the subgroups of B2-B10, C2-C3 and D1-D2 were lower ( t =-14.681--3.046, all P 0.05). The subjective image quality scores increased gradually in the range of 0-60% post-ASIR-V and decreased with post-ASIR-V larger than 70%. The overall image quality of subgroup B3-B8, C2-C3 and D1-D2 were higher than that in group A ( Z =-2.229--6.533, all P ASIR technique, wide-detector combined with 40% pre

  11. Reducing radiation dose in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and lower tube potential in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, David; Grupp, Ulrich; Kahn, Johannes; Wiener, Edzard; Hamm, Bernd; Streitparth, Florian; Ghadjar, Pirus

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of ASIR (adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction) and lower tube potential on dose reduction and image quality in chest computed tomography angiographies (CTAs) of patients with pulmonary embolism. CT data from 44 patients with pulmonary embolism were acquired using different protocols - Group A: 120 kV, filtered back projection, n = 12; Group B: 120 kV, 40 % ASIR, n = 12; Group C: 100 kV, 40 % ASIR, n = 12 and Group D: 80 kV, 40 % ASIR, n = 8. Normalised effective dose was calculated; image quality was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Normalised effective dose in Group B was 33.8 % lower than in Group A (p = 0.014) and 54.4 % lower in Group C than in Group A (p < 0.001). Group A, B and C did not show significant differences in qualitative or quantitative analysis of image quality. Group D showed significantly higher noise levels in qualitative and quantitative analysis, significantly more artefacts and decreased overall diagnosability. Best results, considering dose reduction and image quality, were achieved in Group C. The combination of ASIR and lower tube potential is an option to reduce radiation without significant worsening of image quality in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. (orig.)

  12. Reducing radiation dose in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and lower tube potential in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, David [Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiation Oncology, Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Grupp, Ulrich; Kahn, Johannes; Wiener, Edzard; Hamm, Bernd; Streitparth, Florian [Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Ghadjar, Pirus [Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiation Oncology, Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    To assess the impact of ASIR (adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction) and lower tube potential on dose reduction and image quality in chest computed tomography angiographies (CTAs) of patients with pulmonary embolism. CT data from 44 patients with pulmonary embolism were acquired using different protocols - Group A: 120 kV, filtered back projection, n = 12; Group B: 120 kV, 40 % ASIR, n = 12; Group C: 100 kV, 40 % ASIR, n = 12 and Group D: 80 kV, 40 % ASIR, n = 8. Normalised effective dose was calculated; image quality was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Normalised effective dose in Group B was 33.8 % lower than in Group A (p = 0.014) and 54.4 % lower in Group C than in Group A (p < 0.001). Group A, B and C did not show significant differences in qualitative or quantitative analysis of image quality. Group D showed significantly higher noise levels in qualitative and quantitative analysis, significantly more artefacts and decreased overall diagnosability. Best results, considering dose reduction and image quality, were achieved in Group C. The combination of ASIR and lower tube potential is an option to reduce radiation without significant worsening of image quality in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. (orig.)

  13. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and bismuth shielding for evaluation of dose reduction to the eye and image quality during head CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong Seong; Choi, Jiwon; Kim, Sun Young; Kweon, Dae Cheol

    2014-03-01

    There is a concern regarding the adverse effects of increasing radiation doses due to repeated computed tomography (CT) scans, especially in radiosensitive organs and portions thereof, such as the lenses of the eyes. Bismuth shielding with an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm was recently introduced in our clinic as a method to reduce the absorbed radiation dose. This technique was applied to the lens of the eye during CT scans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reduction in the absorbed radiation dose and to determine the noise level when using bismuth shielding and the ASIR algorithm with the GE DC 750 HD 64-channel CT scanner for CT of the head of a humanoid phantom. With the use of bismuth shielding, the noise level was higher in the beam-hardening artifact areas than in the revealed artifact areas. However, with the use of ASIR, the noise level was lower than that with the use of bismuth alone; it was also lower in the artifact areas. The reduction in the radiation dose with the use of bismuth was greatest at the surface of the phantom to a limited depth. In conclusion, it is possible to reduce the radiation level and slightly decrease the bismuth-induced noise level by using a combination of ASIR as an algorithm process and bismuth as an in-plane hardware-type shielding method.

  14. Impact of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) on radiation dose and image quality in aortic dissection studies: a qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornfeld, Daniel; Israel, Gary; Detroy, Ezra; Bokhari, Jamal; Mojibian, Hamid

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to quantify the radiation dose reduction achieved when imaging the aorta using Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) and to determine if this has an effect on image quality. We retrospectively reviewed 31 CT angiography examinations of the thoracic and abdominal aorta performed with ASIR and 32 consecutive similar examinations performed without ASIR. Volume CT dose index (CTDI(vol)), dose-length product (DLP), aortic enhancement at multiple levels, aorta-to-muscle contrast-to-noise ratio at multiple levels, and subjective image quality were compared between the two groups. The mean CTDI(vol) and DLP were significantly lower for the studies performed with ASIR versus studies without ASIR (15.6 vs 21.5 mGy, with an average difference of 5.8 mGy [95% CI 2.3-9.4 mGy] and 818 vs 1075 mGy × cm with an average difference of -257 mGy × cm [54-460 mGy × cm], respectively). Aortic enhancement, aortic signal-to-noise ratio, and aortic to muscle contrast-to-noise ratio were not different between the two groups. Subjectively, one reviewer preferred the non-ASIR images and one found the images equivalent. Both reviewers believed the images were of diagnostic quality. A 29% decrease in CTDI(vol) and a 20% decrease in DLP were obtained in scans with ASIR compared with scans without ASIR, without a quantitative loss of image quality.

  15. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and bismuth shielding for evaluation of dose reduction to the eye and image quality during head CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myeong Seong [The Korean National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ji Won [Jeonju University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Young [Hallym University of Graduate Studies, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Korean National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kweon, Dae Cheol [Shinhan University, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    There is a concern regarding the adverse effects of increasing radiation doses due to repeated computed tomography (CT) scans, especially in radiosensitive organs and portions thereof, such as the lenses of the eyes. Bismuth shielding with an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm was recently introduced in our clinic as a method to reduce the absorbed radiation dose. This technique was applied to the lens of the eye during CT scans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reduction in the absorbed radiation dose and to determine the noise level when using bismuth shielding and the ASIR algorithm with the GE DC 750 HD 64-channel CT scanner for CT of the head of a humanoid phantom. With the use of bismuth shielding, the noise level was higher in the beam-hardening artifact areas than in the revealed artifact areas. However, with the use of ASIR, the noise level was lower than that with the use of bismuth alone; it was also lower in the artifact areas. The reduction in the radiation dose with the use of bismuth was greatest at the surface of the phantom to a limited depth. In conclusion, it is possible to reduce the radiation level and slightly decrease the bismuth-induced noise level by using a combination of ASIR as an algorithm process and bismuth as an in-plane hardware-type shielding method.

  16. Comparison of applied dose and image quality in staging CT of neuroendocrine tumor patients using standard filtered back projection and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böning, G.; Schäfer, M.; Grupp, U.; Kaul, D.; Kahn, J.; Pavel, M.; Maurer, M.; Denecke, T.; Hamm, B.; Streitparth, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Iterative reconstruction (IR) in staging CT provides equal objective image quality compared to filtered back projection (FBP). • IR delivers excellent subjective quality and reduces effective dose compared to FBP. • In patients with neuroendocrine tumor (NET) or may other hypervascular abdominal tumors IR can be used without scarifying diagnostic confidence. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate whether dose reduction via adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) affects image quality and diagnostic accuracy in neuroendocrine tumor (NET) staging. Methods: A total of 28 NET patients were enrolled in the study. Inclusion criteria were histologically proven NET and visible tumor in abdominal computed tomography (CT). In an intraindividual study design, the patients underwent a baseline CT (filtered back projection, FBP) and follow-up CT (ASIR 40%) using matched scan parameters. Image quality was assessed subjectively using a 5-grade scoring system and objectively by determining signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs). Applied volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol ) of each scan was taken from the dose report. Results: ASIR 40% significantly reduced CTDI vol (10.17 ± 3.06 mGy [FBP], 6.34 ± 2.25 mGy [ASIR] (p < 0.001) by 37.6% and significantly increased CNRs (complete tumor-to-liver, 2.76 ± 1.87 [FBP], 3.2 ± 2.32 [ASIR]) (p < 0.05) (complete tumor-to-muscle, 2.74 ± 2.67 [FBP], 4.31 ± 4.61 [ASIR]) (p < 0.05) compared to FBP. Subjective scoring revealed no significant changes for diagnostic confidence (5.0 ± 0 [FBP], 5.0 ± 0 [ASIR]), visibility of suspicious lesion (4.8 ± 0.5 [FBP], 4.8 ± 0.5 [ASIR]) and artifacts (5.0 ± 0 [FBP], 5.0 ± 0 [ASIR]). ASIR 40% significantly decreased scores for noise (4.3 ± 0.6 [FBP], 4.0 ± 0.8 [ASIR]) (p < 0.05), contrast (4.4 ± 0.6 [FBP], 4.1 ± 0.8 [ASIR]) (p < 0.001) and visibility of small structures (4.5 ± 0.7 [FBP], 4.3 ± 0.8 [ASIR]) (p < 0

  17. Comparison of applied dose and image quality in staging CT of neuroendocrine tumor patients using standard filtered back projection and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böning, G., E-mail: georg.boening@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité, Humboldt-University Medical School, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Schäfer, M.; Grupp, U. [Department of Radiology, Charité, Humboldt-University Medical School, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Kaul, D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Charité, Humboldt-University Medical School, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Kahn, J. [Department of Radiology, Charité, Humboldt-University Medical School, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Pavel, M. [Department of Gastroenterology, Charité, Humboldt-University Medical School, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Maurer, M.; Denecke, T.; Hamm, B.; Streitparth, F. [Department of Radiology, Charité, Humboldt-University Medical School, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Iterative reconstruction (IR) in staging CT provides equal objective image quality compared to filtered back projection (FBP). • IR delivers excellent subjective quality and reduces effective dose compared to FBP. • In patients with neuroendocrine tumor (NET) or may other hypervascular abdominal tumors IR can be used without scarifying diagnostic confidence. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate whether dose reduction via adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) affects image quality and diagnostic accuracy in neuroendocrine tumor (NET) staging. Methods: A total of 28 NET patients were enrolled in the study. Inclusion criteria were histologically proven NET and visible tumor in abdominal computed tomography (CT). In an intraindividual study design, the patients underwent a baseline CT (filtered back projection, FBP) and follow-up CT (ASIR 40%) using matched scan parameters. Image quality was assessed subjectively using a 5-grade scoring system and objectively by determining signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs). Applied volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) of each scan was taken from the dose report. Results: ASIR 40% significantly reduced CTDI{sub vol} (10.17 ± 3.06 mGy [FBP], 6.34 ± 2.25 mGy [ASIR] (p < 0.001) by 37.6% and significantly increased CNRs (complete tumor-to-liver, 2.76 ± 1.87 [FBP], 3.2 ± 2.32 [ASIR]) (p < 0.05) (complete tumor-to-muscle, 2.74 ± 2.67 [FBP], 4.31 ± 4.61 [ASIR]) (p < 0.05) compared to FBP. Subjective scoring revealed no significant changes for diagnostic confidence (5.0 ± 0 [FBP], 5.0 ± 0 [ASIR]), visibility of suspicious lesion (4.8 ± 0.5 [FBP], 4.8 ± 0.5 [ASIR]) and artifacts (5.0 ± 0 [FBP], 5.0 ± 0 [ASIR]). ASIR 40% significantly decreased scores for noise (4.3 ± 0.6 [FBP], 4.0 ± 0.8 [ASIR]) (p < 0.05), contrast (4.4 ± 0.6 [FBP], 4.1 ± 0.8 [ASIR]) (p < 0.001) and visibility of small structures (4.5 ± 0.7 [FBP], 4.3 ± 0.8 [ASIR]) (p < 0

  18. Iterative image reconstruction in ECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintu Chen; Ordonez, C.E.; Wernick, M.N.; Aarsvold, J.N.; Gunter, D.L.; Wong, W.H.; Kapp, O.H.; Xiaolong Ouyang; Levenson, M.; Metz, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    A series of preliminary studies has been performed in the authors laboratories to explore the use of a priori information in Bayesian image restoration and reconstruction. One piece of a priori information is the fact that intensities of neighboring pixels tend to be similar if they belong to the same region within which similar tissue characteristics are exhibited. this property of local continuity can be modeled by the use of Gibbs priors, as first suggested by German and Geman. In their investigation, they also included line sites between each pair of neighboring pixels in the Gibbs prior and used discrete binary numbers to indicate the absence or presence of boundaries between regions. These two features of the a priori model permit averaging within boundaries of homogeneous regions to alleviate the degradation caused by Poisson noise. with the use of this Gibbs prior in combination with the technique of stochastic relaxation, German and Geman demonstrated that noise levels can be reduced significantly in 2-D image restoration. They have developed a Bayesian method that utilizes a Gibbs prior to describe the spatial correlation of neighboring regions and takes into account the effect of limited spatial resolution as well. The statistical framework of the proposed approach is based on the data augmentation scheme suggested by Tanner and Wong. Briefly outlined here, this Bayesian method is based on Geman and Geman's approach

  19. Renal Cyst Pseudoenhancement: Intraindividual Comparison Between Virtual Monochromatic Spectral Images and Conventional Polychromatic 120-kVp Images Obtained During the Same CT Examination and Comparisons Among Images Reconstructed Using Filtered Back Projection, Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction, and Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoshitake; Yamada, Minoru; Sugisawa, Koichi; Akita, Hirotaka; Shiomi, Eisuke; Abe, Takayuki; Okuda, Shigeo; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare renal cyst pseudoenhancement between virtual monochromatic spectral (VMS) and conventional polychromatic 120-kVp images obtained during the same abdominal computed tomography (CT) examination and among images reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). Our institutional review board approved this prospective study; each participant provided written informed consent. Thirty-one patients (19 men, 12 women; age range, 59–85 years; mean age, 73.2 ± 5.5 years) with renal cysts underwent unenhanced 120-kVp CT followed by sequential fast kVp-switching dual-energy (80/140 kVp) and 120-kVp abdominal enhanced CT in the nephrographic phase over a 10-cm scan length with a random acquisition order and 4.5-second intervals. Fifty-one renal cysts (maximal diameter, 18.0 ± 14.7 mm [range, 4–61 mm]) were identified. The CT attenuation values of the cysts as well as of the kidneys were measured on the unenhanced images, enhanced VMS images (at 70 keV) reconstructed using FBP and ASIR from dual-energy data, and enhanced 120-kVp images reconstructed using FBP, ASIR, and MBIR. The results were analyzed using the mixed-effects model and paired t test with Bonferroni correction. The attenuation increases (pseudoenhancement) of the renal cysts on the VMS images reconstructed using FBP/ASIR (least square mean, 5.0/6.0 Hounsfield units [HU]; 95% confidence interval, 2.6–7.4/3.6–8.4 HU) were significantly lower than those on the conventional 120-kVp images reconstructed using FBP/ASIR/MBIR (least square mean, 12.1/12.8/11.8 HU; 95% confidence interval, 9.8–14.5/10.4–15.1/9.4–14.2 HU) (all P < .001); on the other hand, the CT attenuation values of the kidneys on the VMS images were comparable to those on the 120-kVp images. Regardless of the reconstruction algorithm, 70-keV VMS images showed

  20. Dose reduction in pediatric abdominal CT: use of iterative reconstruction techniques across different CT platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Singh, Sarabjeet; Otrakji, Alexi; Padole, Atul; Lim, Ruth; Nimkin, Katherine; Westra, Sjirk; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Gee, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Dose reduction in children undergoing CT scanning is an important priority for the radiology community and public at large. Drawbacks of radiation reduction are increased image noise and artifacts, which can affect image interpretation. Iterative reconstruction techniques have been developed to reduce noise and artifacts from reduced-dose CT examinations, although reconstruction algorithm, magnitude of dose reduction and effects on image quality vary. We review the reconstruction principles, radiation dose potential and effects on image quality of several iterative reconstruction techniques commonly used in clinical settings, including 3-D adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR-3D), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), iDose, sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). We also discuss clinical applications of iterative reconstruction techniques in pediatric abdominal CT. (orig.)

  1. Dose reduction in pediatric abdominal CT: use of iterative reconstruction techniques across different CT platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Singh, Sarabjeet; Otrakji, Alexi; Padole, Atul; Lim, Ruth; Nimkin, Katherine; Westra, Sjirk; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Gee, Michael S. [MGH Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Dose reduction in children undergoing CT scanning is an important priority for the radiology community and public at large. Drawbacks of radiation reduction are increased image noise and artifacts, which can affect image interpretation. Iterative reconstruction techniques have been developed to reduce noise and artifacts from reduced-dose CT examinations, although reconstruction algorithm, magnitude of dose reduction and effects on image quality vary. We review the reconstruction principles, radiation dose potential and effects on image quality of several iterative reconstruction techniques commonly used in clinical settings, including 3-D adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR-3D), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), iDose, sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). We also discuss clinical applications of iterative reconstruction techniques in pediatric abdominal CT. (orig.)

  2. The use of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) technique in evaluation of patients with cervical spine trauma: impact on radiation dose reduction and image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Satya N; Chakraborty, Santanu; Sheikh, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) technique on the image quality and radiation dose reduction. The comparison was made with the traditional filtered back projection (FBP) technique. We retrospectively reviewed 78 patients, who underwent cervical spine CT for blunt cervical trauma between 1 June 2010 and 30 November 2010. 48 patients were imaged using traditional FBP technique and the remaining 30 patients were imaged using the ASiR technique. The patient demographics, radiation dose, objective image signal and noise were recorded; while subjective noise, sharpness, diagnostic acceptability and artefacts were graded by two radiologists blinded to the techniques. We found that the ASiR technique was able to reduce the volume CT dose index, dose-length product and effective dose by 36%, 36.5% and 36.5%, respectively, compared with the FBP technique. There was no significant difference in the image noise (p = 0.39), signal (p = 0.82) and signal-to-noise ratio (p = 0.56) between the groups. The subjective image quality was minimally better in the ASiR group but not statistically significant. There was excellent interobserver agreement on the subjective image quality and diagnostic acceptability for both groups. The use of ASiR technique allowed approximately 36% radiation dose reduction in the evaluation of cervical spine without degrading the image quality. The present study highlights that the ASiR technique is extremely helpful in reducing the patient radiation exposure while maintaining the image quality. It is highly recommended to utilize this novel technique in CT imaging of different body regions.

  3. A pilot study using low-dose Spectral CT and ASIR (Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction) algorithm to diagnose solitary pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Huijuan; Liu, Yihe; Tan, Hongna; Liang, Pan; Wang, Bo; Su, Lei; Wang, Suya; Gao, Jianbo

    2015-11-17

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer which has the highest mortality rate. With the development of computed tomography (CT) techniques, the case detection rates of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) has constantly increased and the diagnosis accuracy of SPN has remained a hot topic in clinical and imaging diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combination of low-dose spectral CT and ASIR (Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction) algorithm in the diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN). 62 patients with SPN (42 cases of benign SPN and 20 cases of malignant SPN, pathology confirmed) were scanned by spectral CT with a dual-phase contrast-enhanced method. The iodine and water concentration (IC and WC) of the lesion and the artery in the image that had the same density were measured by the GSI (Gemstone Spectral Imaging) software. The normalized iodine and water concentration (NIC and NWC) of the lesion and the normalized iodine and water concentration difference (ICD and WCD) between the arterial and venous phases (AP and VP) were also calculated. The spectral HU (Hounsfield Unit ) curve was divided into 3 sections based on the energy (40-70, 70-100 and 100-140 keV) and the slopes (λHU) in both phases were calculated. The ICAP, ICVP, WCAP and WCVP, NIC and NWC, and the λHU in benign and malignant SPN were compared by independent sample t-test. The iodine related parameters (ICAP, ICVP, NICAP, NICVP, and the ICD) of malignant SPN were significantly higher than that of benign SPN (t = 3.310, 1.330, 2.388, 1.669 and 3.251, respectively, P 0.05). The iodine related parameters and the slope of spectral curve are useful markers to distinguish the benign from the malignant lung diseases, and its application is extremely feasible in clinical applications.

  4. Comparison of applied dose and image quality in staging CT of neuroendocrine tumor patients using standard filtered back projection and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, G; Schäfer, M; Grupp, U; Kaul, D; Kahn, J; Pavel, M; Maurer, M; Denecke, T; Hamm, B; Streitparth, F

    2015-08-01

    To investigate whether dose reduction via adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) affects image quality and diagnostic accuracy in neuroendocrine tumor (NET) staging. A total of 28 NET patients were enrolled in the study. Inclusion criteria were histologically proven NET and visible tumor in abdominal computed tomography (CT). In an intraindividual study design, the patients underwent a baseline CT (filtered back projection, FBP) and follow-up CT (ASIR 40%) using matched scan parameters. Image quality was assessed subjectively using a 5-grade scoring system and objectively by determining signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs). Applied volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) of each scan was taken from the dose report. ASIR 40% significantly reduced CTDIvol (10.17±3.06mGy [FBP], 6.34±2.25mGy [ASIR] (pASIR]) (pASIR]) (pASIR]), visibility of suspicious lesion (4.8±0.5 [FBP], 4.8±0.5 [ASIR]) and artifacts (5.0±0 [FBP], 5.0±0 [ASIR]). ASIR 40% significantly decreased scores for noise (4.3±0.6 [FBP], 4.0±0.8 [ASIR]) (pASIR]) (pASIR]) (pASIR can be used to reduce radiation dose without sacrificing image quality and diagnostic confidence in staging CT of NET patients. This may be beneficial for patients with frequent follow-up and significant cumulative radiation exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Image evaluation and exposure dose with the application of tube voltage and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction of low dose computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Tae Joon [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye Nam [Dept. of Radiology, Gimsangyeong Internal Medicine Clinic, Nonsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The study has attempted to evaluate and compare the image evaluation and exposure dose by respectively applying filter back projection (FBP), the existing test method, and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) with different values of tube voltage during the low dose computed tomography (LDCT). With the image reconstruction method as basis, chest phantom was utilized with the FBP and ASIR set at 10%, 20% respectively, and the change of tube voltage (100 kVp, 120 kVp). For image evaluation, back ground noise, signal-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-noise ratio (CNR) were measured, and, for dose assessment, CTDIvol and DLP were measured respectively. In terms of image evaluation, there was significant difference in ascending aorta (AA) SNR and inpraspinatus muscle (IM) SNR with the different amount of tube voltage (p < 0.05). In terms of CTDIvol, the measured values with the same tube voltage of 120 kVp were 2.6 mGy with no-ASIR and 2.17 mGy with 20%-ASIR respectively, decreased by 0.43 mGy, and the values with 100 kVp were 1.61 mGy with no-ASIR and 1.34 mGy with 20%-ASIR, decreased by 0.27 mGy. In terms of DLP, the measured values with 120 kVp were 103.21 mGy‧cm with no-ASIR and 85.94 mGy‧cm with 20%-ASIR, decreased by 17.27mGy‧cm (about 16.7%), and the values with 100 kVp were 63.84 mGy‧cm with no-ASIR and 53.25 mGy‧cm with 20%-ASIR, a decrease by 10.62 mGy‧cm ( about 16.7%). At lower tube voltage, the rate of dose significantly decreased, but the negative effects on image evaluation was shown due to the increase of noise.

  6. Image evaluation and exposure dose with the application of tube voltage and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction of low dose computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Tae Joon; Kim, Ki Jeong; Lee, Hye Nam

    2017-01-01

    The study has attempted to evaluate and compare the image evaluation and exposure dose by respectively applying filter back projection (FBP), the existing test method, and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) with different values of tube voltage during the low dose computed tomography (LDCT). With the image reconstruction method as basis, chest phantom was utilized with the FBP and ASIR set at 10%, 20% respectively, and the change of tube voltage (100 kVp, 120 kVp). For image evaluation, back ground noise, signal-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-noise ratio (CNR) were measured, and, for dose assessment, CTDIvol and DLP were measured respectively. In terms of image evaluation, there was significant difference in ascending aorta (AA) SNR and inpraspinatus muscle (IM) SNR with the different amount of tube voltage (p < 0.05). In terms of CTDIvol, the measured values with the same tube voltage of 120 kVp were 2.6 mGy with no-ASIR and 2.17 mGy with 20%-ASIR respectively, decreased by 0.43 mGy, and the values with 100 kVp were 1.61 mGy with no-ASIR and 1.34 mGy with 20%-ASIR, decreased by 0.27 mGy. In terms of DLP, the measured values with 120 kVp were 103.21 mGy‧cm with no-ASIR and 85.94 mGy‧cm with 20%-ASIR, decreased by 17.27mGy‧cm (about 16.7%), and the values with 100 kVp were 63.84 mGy‧cm with no-ASIR and 53.25 mGy‧cm with 20%-ASIR, a decrease by 10.62 mGy‧cm ( about 16.7%). At lower tube voltage, the rate of dose significantly decreased, but the negative effects on image evaluation was shown due to the increase of noise

  7. Optimization of low-dose protocol in thoracic aorta CTA: weighting of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm and scanning parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxia; Chang Jin; Zuo Ziwei; Zhang Changda; Zhang Tianle

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the best weighting of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm and optimized low-dose scanning parameters in thoracic aorta CT angiography(CTA). Methods: Totally 120 patients with the body mass index (BMI) of 19-24 were randomly divided into 6 groups. All patients underwent thoracic aorta CTA with a GE Discovery CT 750 HD scanner (ranging from 290-330 mm). The default parameters (100 kV, 240 mAs) were applied in Group 1. Reconstructions were performed with different weightings of ASIR(10%-100% with 10%), and the signal to noise ratio (S/N) and contrast to noise ratio(C/N) of images were calculated. The images of series were evaluated by 2 independent radiologists with 5-point-scale and lastly the best weighting were revealed. Then the mAs in Group 2-6 were defined as 210, 180, 150, 120 and 90 with the kilovoltage 100. The CTDI_v_o_l and DLP in every scan series were recorded and the effective dose (E) was calculated. The S/N and C/N were calculated and the image quality was assessed by two radiologists. Results: The best weighing of ASIR was 60% at the 100 kV, 240 mAs. Under 60% of ASIR and 100 kV, the scores of image quality from 240 mAs to 90 mAs were (4.78±0.30)-(3.15±0.23). The CTDI_v_o_l and DLP were 12.64-4.41 mGy and 331.81-128.27 mGy, and the E was 4.98-1.92 mSv. The image qualities among Group 1-5 were nor significantly different (F = 5.365, P > 0.05), but the CTDI_v_o_l and DLP of Group 5 were reduced by 37.0% and 36.9%, respectively compared with Group 1. Conclusions: In thoracic aorta CT Angiography, the best weighting of ASIR is 60%, and 120 mAs is the best mAs with 100 kV in patients with BMI 19-24. (authors)

  8. MO-DE-207A-01: Impact of Statistical Weights On Detection of Low-Contrast Details in Model-Based Iterative CT Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noo, F; Guo, Z

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Penalized-weighted least-square reconstruction has become an important research topic in CT, to reduce dose without affecting image quality. Two components impact image quality in this reconstruction: the statistical weights and the use of an edge-preserving penalty term. We are interested in assessing the influence of statistical weights on their own, without the edge-preserving feature. Methods: The influence of statistical weights on image quality was assessed in terms of low-contrast detail detection using LROC analysis. The task amounted to detect and localize a 6-mm lesion with random contrast inside the FORBILD head phantom. A two-alternative forced-choice experiment was used with two human observers performing the task. Reconstructions without and with statistical weights were compared, both using the same quadratic penalty term. The beam energy was set to 30keV to amplify spatial differences in attenuation and thereby the role of statistical weights. A fan-beam data acquisition geometry was used. Results: Visual inspection of images clearly showed a difference in noise between the two reconstructions methods. As expected, the reconstruction without statistical weights exhibited noise streaks. The other reconstruction appeared better in this aspect, but presented other disturbing noise patterns and artifacts induced by the weights. The LROC analysis yield the following 95-percent confidence interval for the difference in reader-averaged AUC (reconstruction without weights minus reconstruction with weights): [0.0026,0.0599]. The mean AUC value was 0.9094. Conclusion: We have investigated the impact of statistical weights without the use of edge-preserving penalty in penalized weighted least-square reconstruction. A decrease rather than increase in image quality was observed when using statistical weights. Thus, the observers were better able to cope with the noise streaks than the noise patterns and artifacts induced by the statistical weights. It

  9. MO-DE-207A-01: Impact of Statistical Weights On Detection of Low-Contrast Details in Model-Based Iterative CT Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noo, F; Guo, Z [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Penalized-weighted least-square reconstruction has become an important research topic in CT, to reduce dose without affecting image quality. Two components impact image quality in this reconstruction: the statistical weights and the use of an edge-preserving penalty term. We are interested in assessing the influence of statistical weights on their own, without the edge-preserving feature. Methods: The influence of statistical weights on image quality was assessed in terms of low-contrast detail detection using LROC analysis. The task amounted to detect and localize a 6-mm lesion with random contrast inside the FORBILD head phantom. A two-alternative forced-choice experiment was used with two human observers performing the task. Reconstructions without and with statistical weights were compared, both using the same quadratic penalty term. The beam energy was set to 30keV to amplify spatial differences in attenuation and thereby the role of statistical weights. A fan-beam data acquisition geometry was used. Results: Visual inspection of images clearly showed a difference in noise between the two reconstructions methods. As expected, the reconstruction without statistical weights exhibited noise streaks. The other reconstruction appeared better in this aspect, but presented other disturbing noise patterns and artifacts induced by the weights. The LROC analysis yield the following 95-percent confidence interval for the difference in reader-averaged AUC (reconstruction without weights minus reconstruction with weights): [0.0026,0.0599]. The mean AUC value was 0.9094. Conclusion: We have investigated the impact of statistical weights without the use of edge-preserving penalty in penalized weighted least-square reconstruction. A decrease rather than increase in image quality was observed when using statistical weights. Thus, the observers were better able to cope with the noise streaks than the noise patterns and artifacts induced by the statistical weights. It

  10. An iterative reconstruction from truncated projection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Various methods have been proposed for tomographic reconstruction from truncated projection data. In this paper, a reconstructive method is discussed which consists of iterations of filtered back-projection, reprojection and some nonlinear processings. First, the method is so constructed that it converges to a fixed point. Then, to examine its effectiveness, comparisons are made by computer experiments with two existing reconstructive methods for truncated projection data, that is, the method of extrapolation based on the smooth assumption followed by filtered back-projection, and modified additive ART

  11. Reducing iodine load in hepatic CT for patients with chronic liver disease with a combination of low-tube-voltage and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Yoshifumi [Department of Radiology and Services, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki, E-mail: masa_gif@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology and Services, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Department of Radiology Services, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Goshima, Satoshi; Kondo, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Haruo; Kawada, Hiroshi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Tanahashi, Yukichi [Department of Radiology and Services, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Miyoshi, Toshiharu R.T. [Department of Radiology Services, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Bae, Kyongtae T. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • 80 kVp CT scanning was successfully applied to the hepatic imaging. • Iodine contrast material load was reduced to 400 mg iodine/kg. • Image quality and the detectability of HCCs were maintained. - Abstract: Purpose: To prospectively assess the effect of reduced iodine load to contrast enhancement, image quality, and detectability of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) in hepatic CT with a combination of 80 kVp tube voltage setting and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) technique in patients with chronic liver disease. Materials and methods: This HIPAA-compliant study was approved by our institutional review board and written informed consent was obtained in all patients. During a recent 9-month period, 170 consecutive patients (114 men and 56 women; age range, 40–85 years; mean, 67.7 years) with suspected chronic liver diseases were randomized into three CT groups according to the following iodine-load and tube-voltage protocols: 600 milligram per kilogram body weight (mg/kg) iodine load and 120 peak kilovolt (kVp) tube voltage setting (600-120 group), 500 mg/kg and 80 kVp (500-80 group), and 400 mg/kg and 80 kVp (400-80 group). Analysis of variance was conducted to evaluate differences in CT number, background noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), effective dose, HCC-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and figure of merit (FOM). Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC) were compared to assess the detectability of HCCs. Results: Vascular and hepatic enhancement in the 400-80 and 500-80 groups was comparable to or greater than that in the 600-120 group (P < .05). Subjective image quality was comparable among the three groups. Sensitivity, specificity, and AUC for detecting HCCs were comparable among the groups. The effective dose was kept low (3.3–4.1 mSv) in all three groups. Conclusion: Iodine load can be reduced by 33% in CT of the liver with a combination of 80 kVp tube

  12. Influence of ASIR (Adaptative Statistical Iterative Reconstruction) variation in the image noise of computerized tomography for high voltage; Influência da variação do ASIR (Adaptative Statistical Iterative Reconstruction) no ruído da imagem de tomografia computadorizada para altas tensões

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, L.M.M.; Pereira, W.B.R.; Vieira, J.G.; Lamounier, C.S.; Gonçalves, D.A.; Carvalho, G.N.P.; Santana, P.C., E-mail: lucasmoacir2010@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, P.M.C.; Reis, L.P., E-mail: paulomarcio2000@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Computed tomography had great advances in the equipment used in the diagnostic practice, directly influencing the levels of radiation for the patient. It is essential to optimize techniques that must be employed to comply with the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle of radioprotection. The relationship of ASIR (Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction) with image noise was studied. Central images of a homogeneous water simulator were obtained in a 20 mm scan using a 64-channel Lightspeed VCT tomograph of General Electric in helical acquisitions with a rotation time of 0.5 seconds, Pitch 0.984: 1, and thickness of cut 0.625 mm. All these constant parameters varying the voltage in two distinct values: 120 and 140 kV with use of the automatic current by the CAE (Automatic Exposure Control), ranging from 50 to 675 mA (120 kV) and from 50 to 610 mA (140kV), minimum and maximum values, respectively allowed for each voltage. Image noise was determined through ImageJ free software. The analysis of the obtained data compared the percentage variation of the noise in the image based on the ASIR value of 10%, concluding that there is a variation of approximately 50% when compared to the values of ASIR (100%) in both tensions. Dose evaluation is required in future studies to better utilize the relationship between dose and image quality.

  13. Iterative reconstruction: how it works, how to apply it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, James Anthony [University of California Davis Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Computed tomography acquires X-ray projection data from multiple angles though an object to generate a tomographic rendition of its attenuation characteristics. Filtered back projection is a fast, closed analytical solution to the reconstruction process, whereby all projections are equally weighted, but is prone to deliver inadequate image quality when the dose levels are reduced. Iterative reconstruction is an algorithmic method that uses statistical and geometric models to variably weight the image data in a process that can be solved iteratively to independently reduce noise and preserve resolution and image quality. Applications of this technology in a clinical setting can result in lower dose on the order of 20-40% compared to a standard filtered back projection reconstruction for most exams. A carefully planned implementation strategy and methodological approach is necessary to achieve the goals of lower dose with uncompromised image quality. (orig.)

  14. Exact iterative reconstruction for the interior problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Gengsheng L; Gullberg, Grant T

    2009-01-01

    There is a trend in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) that small and dedicated imaging systems are becoming popular. For example, many companies are developing small dedicated cardiac SPECT systems with different designs. These dedicated systems have a smaller field of view (FOV) than a full-size clinical system. Thus data truncation has become the norm rather than the exception in these systems. Therefore, it is important to develop region of interest (ROI) reconstruction algorithms using truncated data. This paper is a stepping stone toward this direction. This paper shows that the common generic iterative image reconstruction algorithms are able to exactly reconstruct the ROI under the conditions that the convex ROI is fully sampled and the image value in a sub-region within the ROI is known. If the ROI includes a sub-region that is outside the patient body, then the conditions can be easily satisfied.

  15. Synchronized multiartifact reduction with tomographic reconstruction (SMART-RECON): A statistical model based iterative image reconstruction method to eliminate limited-view artifacts and to mitigate the temporal-average artifacts in time-resolved CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Hong; Li, Yinsheng

    2015-08-01

    In x-ray computed tomography (CT), a violation of the Tuy data sufficiency condition leads to limited-view artifacts. In some applications, it is desirable to use data corresponding to a narrow temporal window to reconstruct images with reduced temporal-average artifacts. However, the need to reduce temporal-average artifacts in practice may result in a violation of the Tuy condition and thus undesirable limited-view artifacts. In this paper, the authors present a new iterative reconstruction method, synchronized multiartifact reduction with tomographic reconstruction (SMART-RECON), to eliminate limited-view artifacts using data acquired within an ultranarrow temporal window that severely violates the Tuy condition. In time-resolved contrast enhanced CT acquisitions, image contrast dynamically changes during data acquisition. Each image reconstructed from data acquired in a given temporal window represents one time frame and can be denoted as an image vector. Conventionally, each individual time frame is reconstructed independently. In this paper, all image frames are grouped into a spatial-temporal image matrix and are reconstructed together. Rather than the spatial and/or temporal smoothing regularizers commonly used in iterative image reconstruction, the nuclear norm of the spatial-temporal image matrix is used in SMART-RECON to regularize the reconstruction of all image time frames. This regularizer exploits the low-dimensional structure of the spatial-temporal image matrix to mitigate limited-view artifacts when an ultranarrow temporal window is desired in some applications to reduce temporal-average artifacts. Both numerical simulations in two dimensional image slices with known ground truth and in vivo human subject data acquired in a contrast enhanced cone beam CT exam have been used to validate the proposed SMART-RECON algorithm and to demonstrate the initial performance of the algorithm. Reconstruction errors and temporal fidelity of the reconstructed

  16. Application of iterative reconstruction in dynamic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meikle, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The conventional approach to analysing dynamic tomographic data (SPECT or PET) is to reconstruct projections corresponding to each time interval separately and then fit a suitable tracer kinetic model to the dynamic sequence (method 1 ) . This approach assumes that the tracer distribution remains static during any given time interval and, for practical reasons, filtered back-projection (FBP) is the preferred reconstruction algorithm. However, alternative approaches exist which lend themselves to iterative algorithms, such as EM. One approach is to fit the model directly to the projection data, followed by EM reconstruction of the parameter estimates (method 2). This requires that the tracer model can be expressed as a linear function of the unknown model parameters. A third alternative is to incorporate the tracer model into the reconstruction algorithm (method 3). Such an extension was described during the early development of the EM algorithm, referred to as the EM parametric image reconstruction algorithm (EM-PIRA). We have investigated these various strategies for analysing dynamic data and their relative pros and cons. Tracer modelling was performed using a general model, referred to as spectral analysis, which makes no restriction on the number of physiological compartments and satisfies the linearity requirement of method 2. A kinetic software phantom was created and used to test the convergence and noise properties of the different approaches. In summary, method 2 is the most practical as it reduces the number of reconstructions by at least an order of magnitude and provides improved signal-to-noise ratios compared with method 1. EM-PIRA allows greater flexibility in the choice of parametric images and appears to have a regularising effect on convergence. Methods 2 and 3 are also better suited to dynamic scanning with a rotating camera, as they can potentially account for changes in tracer distribution between projections

  17. Impact of the algorithm of iterative reconstruction ASIR in the CTDI of studies in TCHMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambroa Rey, E. M.; Vazquez Vazquez, R.; Gimenez Insua, M.; Sanchez Garcia, M.; Otero Martinez, C.; Luna Vega, V.; Mosquera Sueiro, J.; Lobato Busto, R.; Pombar Camean, M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to make a comparison of the doses in the 10 protocols most commonly used in our Center, before and after the commissioning of the software ASIR (Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction). (Author)

  18. AIR Tools - A MATLAB Package of Algebraic Iterative Reconstruction Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Saxild-Hansen, Maria

    This collection of MATLAB software contains implementations of several Algebraic Iterative Reconstruction methods for discretizations of inverse problems. These so-called row action methods rely on semi-convergence for achieving the necessary regularization of the problem. Two classes of methods...... are implemented: Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques (ART) and Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Techniques (SIRT). In addition we provide a few simplified test problems from medical and seismic tomography. For each iterative method, a number of strategies are available for choosing the relaxation parameter...

  19. Multicore Performance of Block Algebraic Iterative Reconstruction Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Henrik B.; Hansen, Per Christian

    2014-01-01

    Algebraic iterative methods are routinely used for solving the ill-posed sparse linear systems arising in tomographic image reconstruction. Here we consider the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and the simultaneous iterative reconstruction techniques (SIRT), both of which rely on semiconv......Algebraic iterative methods are routinely used for solving the ill-posed sparse linear systems arising in tomographic image reconstruction. Here we consider the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and the simultaneous iterative reconstruction techniques (SIRT), both of which rely...... on semiconvergence. Block versions of these methods, based on a partitioning of the linear system, are able to combine the fast semiconvergence of ART with the better multicore properties of SIRT. These block methods separate into two classes: those that, in each iteration, access the blocks in a sequential manner...... a fixed relaxation parameter in each method, namely, the one that leads to the fastest semiconvergence. Computational results show that for multicore computers, the sequential approach is preferable....

  20. First experiences with model based iterative reconstructions influence on quantitative plaque volume and intensity measurements in coronary computed tomography angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Helle; Kitslaar, Pieter H.; Broersen, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Investigate the influence of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and the model- based IR (Veo) reconstruction algorithm in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) im- ages on quantitative measurements in coronary arteries for plaque volumes and intensities. Methods...

  1. Impact of iterative reconstruction on CT coronary calcium quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurata, Akira; Dharampal, Anoeshka; Dedic, Admir

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) on the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score by computed tomography (CT).......We evaluated the influence of sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) on the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score by computed tomography (CT)....

  2. Denoising multicriterion iterative reconstruction in emission spectral tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiong; Yin, Aihan

    2007-03-01

    In the study of optical testing, the computed tomogaphy technique has been widely adopted to reconstruct three-dimensional distributions of physical parameters of various kinds of fluid fields, such as flame, plasma, etc. In most cases, projection data are often stained by noise due to environmental disturbance, instrumental inaccuracy, and other random interruptions. To improve the reconstruction performance in noisy cases, an algorithm that combines a self-adaptive prefiltering denoising approach (SPDA) with a multicriterion iterative reconstruction (MCIR) is proposed and studied. First, the level of noise is approximately estimated with a frequency domain statistical method. Then the cutoff frequency of a Butterworth low-pass filter was established based on the evaluated noise energy. After the SPDA processing, the MCIR algorithm was adopted for limited-view optical computed tomography reconstruction. Simulated reconstruction of two test phantoms and a flame emission spectral tomography experiment were employed to evaluate the performance of SPDA-MCIR in noisy cases. Comparison with some traditional methods and experiment results showed that the SPDA-MCIR combination had obvious improvement in the case of noisy data reconstructions.

  3. AIR-MRF: Accelerated iterative reconstruction for magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Christopher C; Chen, Xiao; Mailhe, Boris; Wang, Qiu; Pfeuffer, Josef; Nittka, Mathias; Griswold, Mark A; Speier, Peter; Nadar, Mariappan S

    2017-09-01

    Existing approaches for reconstruction of multiparametric maps with magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) are currently limited by their estimation accuracy and reconstruction time. We aimed to address these issues with a novel combination of iterative reconstruction, fingerprint compression, additional regularization, and accelerated dictionary search methods. The pipeline described here, accelerated iterative reconstruction for magnetic resonance fingerprinting (AIR-MRF), was evaluated with simulations as well as phantom and in vivo scans. We found that the AIR-MRF pipeline provided reduced parameter estimation errors compared to non-iterative and other iterative methods, particularly at shorter sequence lengths. Accelerated dictionary search methods incorporated into the iterative pipeline reduced the reconstruction time at little cost of quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Feasibility Study of Using Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) and Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) for Reducing Radiation and Iodine Contrast Dose in Abdominal CT Patients with High BMI Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheng; Zhao, Xin-ming; Zhao, Yan-feng; Wang, Xiao-yi; Zhou, Chun-wu

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively investigate the effect of using Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) for reducing radiation and iodine contrast dose in abdominal CT patients with high BMI values. 26 patients (weight > 65kg and BMI ≥ 22) underwent abdominal CT using GSI mode with 300mgI/kg contrast material as study group (group A). Another 21 patients (weight ≤ 65kg and BMI ≥ 22) were scanned with a conventional 120 kVp tube voltage for noise index (NI) of 11 with 450mgI/kg contrast material as control group (group B). GSI images were reconstructed at 60keV with 50%ASIR and the conventional 120kVp images were reconstructed with FBP reconstruction. The CT values, standard deviation (SD), signal-noise-ratio (SNR), contrast-noise-ratio (CNR) of 26 landmarks were quantitatively measured and image quality qualitatively assessed using statistical analysis. As for the quantitative analysis, the difference of CNR between groups A and B was all significant except for the mesenteric vein. The SNR in group A was higher than B except the mesenteric artery and splenic artery. As for the qualitative analysis, all images had diagnostic quality and the agreement for image quality assessment between the reviewers was substantial (kappa = 0.684). CT dose index (CTDI) values for non-enhanced, arterial phase and portal phase in group A were decreased by 49.04%, 40.51% and 40.54% compared with group B (P = 0.000), respectively. The total dose and the injection rate for the contrast material were reduced by 14.40% and 14.95% in A compared with B. The use of GSI and ASIR provides similar enhancement in vessels and image quality with reduced radiation dose and contrast dose, compared with the use of conventional scan protocol.

  5. Feasibility Study of Using Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI and Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR for Reducing Radiation and Iodine Contrast Dose in Abdominal CT Patients with High BMI Values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhu

    Full Text Available To prospectively investigate the effect of using Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR for reducing radiation and iodine contrast dose in abdominal CT patients with high BMI values.26 patients (weight > 65kg and BMI ≥ 22 underwent abdominal CT using GSI mode with 300mgI/kg contrast material as study group (group A. Another 21 patients (weight ≤ 65kg and BMI ≥ 22 were scanned with a conventional 120 kVp tube voltage for noise index (NI of 11 with 450mgI/kg contrast material as control group (group B. GSI images were reconstructed at 60keV with 50%ASIR and the conventional 120kVp images were reconstructed with FBP reconstruction. The CT values, standard deviation (SD, signal-noise-ratio (SNR, contrast-noise-ratio (CNR of 26 landmarks were quantitatively measured and image quality qualitatively assessed using statistical analysis.As for the quantitative analysis, the difference of CNR between groups A and B was all significant except for the mesenteric vein. The SNR in group A was higher than B except the mesenteric artery and splenic artery. As for the qualitative analysis, all images had diagnostic quality and the agreement for image quality assessment between the reviewers was substantial (kappa = 0.684. CT dose index (CTDI values for non-enhanced, arterial phase and portal phase in group A were decreased by 49.04%, 40.51% and 40.54% compared with group B (P = 0.000, respectively. The total dose and the injection rate for the contrast material were reduced by 14.40% and 14.95% in A compared with B.The use of GSI and ASIR provides similar enhancement in vessels and image quality with reduced radiation dose and contrast dose, compared with the use of conventional scan protocol.

  6. Volumetric quantification of lung nodules in CT with iterative reconstruction (ASiR and MBIR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baiyu [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Barnhart, Huiman [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Richard, Samuel [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Robins, Marthony [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Colsher, James [Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Samei, Ehsan [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Physics, Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Volume quantifications of lung nodules with multidetector computed tomography (CT) images provide useful information for monitoring nodule developments. The accuracy and precision of the volume quantification, however, can be impacted by imaging and reconstruction parameters. This study aimed to investigate the impact of iterative reconstruction algorithms on the accuracy and precision of volume quantification with dose and slice thickness as additional variables.Methods: Repeated CT images were acquired from an anthropomorphic chest phantom with synthetic nodules (9.5 and 4.8 mm) at six dose levels, and reconstructed with three reconstruction algorithms [filtered backprojection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR), and model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR)] into three slice thicknesses. The nodule volumes were measured with two clinical software (A: Lung VCAR, B: iNtuition), and analyzed for accuracy and precision.Results: Precision was found to be generally comparable between FBP and iterative reconstruction with no statistically significant difference noted for different dose levels, slice thickness, and segmentation software. Accuracy was found to be more variable. For large nodules, the accuracy was significantly different between ASiR and FBP for all slice thicknesses with both software, and significantly different between MBIR and FBP for 0.625 mm slice thickness with Software A and for all slice thicknesses with Software B. For small nodules, the accuracy was more similar between FBP and iterative reconstruction, with the exception of ASIR vs FBP at 1.25 mm with Software A and MBIR vs FBP at 0.625 mm with Software A.Conclusions: The systematic difference between the accuracy of FBP and iterative reconstructions highlights the importance of extending current segmentation software to accommodate the image characteristics of iterative reconstructions. In addition, a calibration process may help reduce the dependency of

  7. Volumetric quantification of lung nodules in CT with iterative reconstruction (ASiR and MBIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baiyu; Barnhart, Huiman; Richard, Samuel; Robins, Marthony; Colsher, James; Samei, Ehsan

    2013-11-01

    Volume quantifications of lung nodules with multidetector computed tomography (CT) images provide useful information for monitoring nodule developments. The accuracy and precision of the volume quantification, however, can be impacted by imaging and reconstruction parameters. This study aimed to investigate the impact of iterative reconstruction algorithms on the accuracy and precision of volume quantification with dose and slice thickness as additional variables. Repeated CT images were acquired from an anthropomorphic chest phantom with synthetic nodules (9.5 and 4.8 mm) at six dose levels, and reconstructed with three reconstruction algorithms [filtered backprojection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR), and model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR)] into three slice thicknesses. The nodule volumes were measured with two clinical software (A: Lung VCAR, B: iNtuition), and analyzed for accuracy and precision. Precision was found to be generally comparable between FBP and iterative reconstruction with no statistically significant difference noted for different dose levels, slice thickness, and segmentation software. Accuracy was found to be more variable. For large nodules, the accuracy was significantly different between ASiR and FBP for all slice thicknesses with both software, and significantly different between MBIR and FBP for 0.625 mm slice thickness with Software A and for all slice thicknesses with Software B. For small nodules, the accuracy was more similar between FBP and iterative reconstruction, with the exception of ASIR vs FBP at 1.25 mm with Software A and MBIR vs FBP at 0.625 mm with Software A. The systematic difference between the accuracy of FBP and iterative reconstructions highlights the importance of extending current segmentation software to accommodate the image characteristics of iterative reconstructions. In addition, a calibration process may help reduce the dependency of accuracy on reconstruction algorithms

  8. Volumetric quantification of lung nodules in CT with iterative reconstruction (ASiR and MBIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Baiyu; Barnhart, Huiman; Richard, Samuel; Robins, Marthony; Colsher, James; Samei, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Volume quantifications of lung nodules with multidetector computed tomography (CT) images provide useful information for monitoring nodule developments. The accuracy and precision of the volume quantification, however, can be impacted by imaging and reconstruction parameters. This study aimed to investigate the impact of iterative reconstruction algorithms on the accuracy and precision of volume quantification with dose and slice thickness as additional variables.Methods: Repeated CT images were acquired from an anthropomorphic chest phantom with synthetic nodules (9.5 and 4.8 mm) at six dose levels, and reconstructed with three reconstruction algorithms [filtered backprojection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR), and model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR)] into three slice thicknesses. The nodule volumes were measured with two clinical software (A: Lung VCAR, B: iNtuition), and analyzed for accuracy and precision.Results: Precision was found to be generally comparable between FBP and iterative reconstruction with no statistically significant difference noted for different dose levels, slice thickness, and segmentation software. Accuracy was found to be more variable. For large nodules, the accuracy was significantly different between ASiR and FBP for all slice thicknesses with both software, and significantly different between MBIR and FBP for 0.625 mm slice thickness with Software A and for all slice thicknesses with Software B. For small nodules, the accuracy was more similar between FBP and iterative reconstruction, with the exception of ASIR vs FBP at 1.25 mm with Software A and MBIR vs FBP at 0.625 mm with Software A.Conclusions: The systematic difference between the accuracy of FBP and iterative reconstructions highlights the importance of extending current segmentation software to accommodate the image characteristics of iterative reconstructions. In addition, a calibration process may help reduce the dependency of

  9. A very fast implementation of 2D iterative reconstruction algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Peter Aundal; Jensen, Peter James

    1996-01-01

    that iterative reconstruction algorithms can be implemented and run almost as fast as direct reconstruction algorithms. The method has been implemented in a software package that is available for free, providing reconstruction algorithms using ART, EM, and the Least Squares Conjugate Gradient Method...

  10. iterClust: a statistical framework for iterative clustering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hongxu; Wang, Wanxin; Califano, Andrea

    2018-03-22

    In a scenario where populations A, B1 and B2 (subpopulations of B) exist, pronounced differences between A and B may mask subtle differences between B1 and B2. Here we present iterClust, an iterative clustering framework, which can separate more pronounced differences (e.g. A and B) in starting iterations, followed by relatively subtle differences (e.g. B1 and B2), providing a comprehensive clustering trajectory. iterClust is implemented as a Bioconductor R package. andrea.califano@columbia.edu, hd2326@columbia.edu. Supplementary information is available at Bioinformatics online.

  11. Sparse BLIP: BLind Iterative Parallel imaging reconstruction using compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Huajun; Chen, Rong-Rong; Liang, Dong; DiBella, Edward V R; Ying, Leslie

    2014-02-01

    To develop a sensitivity-based parallel imaging reconstruction method to reconstruct iteratively both the coil sensitivities and MR image simultaneously based on their prior information. Parallel magnetic resonance imaging reconstruction problem can be formulated as a multichannel sampling problem where solutions are sought analytically. However, the channel functions given by the coil sensitivities in parallel imaging are not known exactly and the estimation error usually leads to artifacts. In this study, we propose a new reconstruction algorithm, termed Sparse BLind Iterative Parallel, for blind iterative parallel imaging reconstruction using compressed sensing. The proposed algorithm reconstructs both the sensitivity functions and the image simultaneously from undersampled data. It enforces the sparseness constraint in the image as done in compressed sensing, but is different from compressed sensing in that the sensing matrix is unknown and additional constraint is enforced on the sensitivities as well. Both phantom and in vivo imaging experiments were carried out with retrospective undersampling to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Experiments show improvement in Sparse BLind Iterative Parallel reconstruction when compared with Sparse SENSE, JSENSE, IRGN-TV, and L1-SPIRiT reconstructions with the same number of measurements. The proposed Sparse BLind Iterative Parallel algorithm reduces the reconstruction errors when compared to the state-of-the-art parallel imaging methods. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. AIR Tools - A MATLAB package of algebraic iterative reconstruction methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Saxild-Hansen, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We present a MATLAB package with implementations of several algebraic iterative reconstruction methods for discretizations of inverse problems. These so-called row action methods rely on semi-convergence for achieving the necessary regularization of the problem. Two classes of methods are impleme......We present a MATLAB package with implementations of several algebraic iterative reconstruction methods for discretizations of inverse problems. These so-called row action methods rely on semi-convergence for achieving the necessary regularization of the problem. Two classes of methods...... are implemented: Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques (ART) and Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Techniques (SIRT). In addition we provide a few simplified test problems from medical and seismic tomography. For each iterative method, a number of strategies are available for choosing the relaxation parameter...

  13. Iterative Reconstruction Methods for Hybrid Inverse Problems in Impedance Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kristoffer; Knudsen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    For a general formulation of hybrid inverse problems in impedance tomography the Picard and Newton iterative schemes are adapted and four iterative reconstruction algorithms are developed. The general problem formulation includes several existing hybrid imaging modalities such as current density...... impedance imaging, magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography, and ultrasound modulated electrical impedance tomography, and the unified approach to the reconstruction problem encompasses several algorithms suggested in the literature. The four proposed algorithms are implemented numerically in two...

  14. Assessment of low contrast detection in CT using model observers. Developing a clinically-relevant tool for characterising adaptive statistical and model-based iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Julien G.; Ba, Alexandre; Racine, Damien; Viry, Anais; Bochud, Francois O.; Verdun, Francis R. [Univ. Hospital Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. of Radiation Physics

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to assess CT image quality in a way that would meet specific requirements of clinical practice. Physics metrics like Fourier transform derived metrics were traditionally employed for that. However, assessment methods through a detection task have also developed quite extensively lately, and we chose here to rely on this modality for image quality assessment. Our goal was to develop a tool adapted for a fast and reliable CT image quality assessment in order to pave the way for new CT benchmarking techniques in a clinical context. Additionally, we also used this method to estimate the benefits brought by some IR algorithms. A modified QRM chest phantom containing spheres of 5 and 8 mm at contrast levels of 10 and 20 HU at 120 kVp was used. Images of the phantom were acquired at CTDI{sub vol} of 0.8, 3.6, 8.2 and 14.5 mGy, before being reconstructed using FBP, ASIR 40 and MBIR on a GE HD 750 CT scanner. They were then assessed by eight human observers undergoing a 4-AFC test. After that, these data were compared with the results obtained from two different model observers (NPWE and CHO with DDoG channels). The study investigated the effects of the acquisition conditions as well as reconstruction methods. NPWE and CHO models both gave coherent results and approximated human observer results well. Moreover, the reconstruction technique used to retrieve the images had a clear impact on the PC values. Both models suggest that switching from FBP to ASIR 40 and particularly to MBIR produces an increase of the low contrast detection, provided a minimum level of exposure is reached. Our work shows that both CHO with DDoG channels and NPWE models both approximate the trend of humans performing a detection task. Both models also suggest that the use of MBIR goes along with an increase of the PCs, indicating that further dose reduction is still possible when using those techniques. Eventually, the CHO model associated to the protocol we described in this study

  15. Noise propagation in iterative reconstruction algorithms with line searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Jinyi

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the propagation of noise in iterative image reconstruction algorithms. We derive theoretical expressions for the general form of preconditioned gradient algorithms with line searches. The results are applicable to a wide range of iterative reconstruction problems, such as emission tomography, transmission tomography, and image restoration. A unique contribution of this paper comparing to our previous work [1] is that the line search is explicitly modeled and we do not use the approximation that the gradient of the objective function is zero. As a result, the error in the estimate of noise at early iterations is significantly reduced

  16. Iterative CT reconstruction via minimizing adaptively reweighted total variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Niu, Tianye; Petrongolo, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Iterative reconstruction via total variation (TV) minimization has demonstrated great successes in accurate CT imaging from under-sampled projections. When projections are further reduced, over-smoothing artifacts appear in the current reconstruction especially around the structure boundaries. We propose a practical algorithm to improve TV-minimization based CT reconstruction on very few projection data. Based on the theory of compressed sensing, the L-0 norm approach is more desirable to further reduce the projection views. To overcome the computational difficulty of the non-convex optimization of the L-0 norm, we implement an adaptive weighting scheme to approximate the solution via a series of TV minimizations for practical use in CT reconstruction. The weight on TV is initialized as uniform ones, and is automatically changed based on the gradient of the reconstructed image from the previous iteration. The iteration stops when a small difference between the weighted TV values is observed on two consecutive reconstructed images. We evaluate the proposed algorithm on both a digital phantom and a physical phantom. Using 20 equiangular projections, our method reduces reconstruction errors in the conventional TV minimization by a factor of more than 5, with improved spatial resolution. By adaptively reweighting TV in iterative CT reconstruction, we successfully further reduce the projection number for the same or better image quality.

  17. Iterative concurrent reconstruction algorithms for emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.K.; Hasegawa, B.H.; Lang, T.F.

    1994-01-01

    Direct reconstruction techniques, such as those based on filtered backprojection, are typically used for emission computed tomography (ECT), even though it has been argued that iterative reconstruction methods may produce better clinical images. The major disadvantage of iterative reconstruction algorithms, and a significant reason for their lack of clinical acceptance, is their computational burden. We outline a new class of ''concurrent'' iterative reconstruction techniques for ECT in which the reconstruction process is reorganized such that a significant fraction of the computational processing occurs concurrently with the acquisition of ECT projection data. These new algorithms use the 10-30 min required for acquisition of a typical SPECT scan to iteratively process the available projection data, significantly reducing the requirements for post-acquisition processing. These algorithms are tested on SPECT projection data from a Hoffman brain phantom acquired with a 2 x 10 5 counts in 64 views each having 64 projections. The SPECT images are reconstructed as 64 x 64 tomograms, starting with six angular views. Other angular views are added to the reconstruction process sequentially, in a manner that reflects their availability for a typical acquisition protocol. The results suggest that if T s of concurrent processing are used, the reconstruction processing time required after completion of the data acquisition can be reduced by at least 1/3 T s. (Author)

  18. Effectiveness of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction for 64-Slice Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography in Patients With a Reduced Iodine Load: Comparison With Standard Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Won; Lee, Geewon; Lee, Nam Kyung; Moon, Jin Il; Ju, Yun Hye; Suh, Young Ju; Jeong, Yeon Joo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) for dual-energy computed tomography pulmonary angiography (DE-CTPA) with a reduced iodine load. One hundred forty patients referred for chest CT were randomly divided into a DE-CTPA group with a reduced iodine load or a standard CTPA group. Quantitative and qualitative image qualities of virtual monochromatic spectral (VMS) images with filtered back projection (VMS-FBP) and those with 50% ASIR (VMS-ASIR) in the DE-CTPA group were compared. Image qualities of VMS-ASIR images in the DE-CTPA group and ASIR images in the standard CTPA group were also compared. All quantitative and qualitative indices, except attenuation value of pulmonary artery in the VMS-ASIR subgroup, were superior to those in the VMS-FBP subgroup (all P ASIR images were superior to those of ASIR images in the standard CTPA group (P ASIR images of the DE-CTPA group than in ASIR images of the standard CTPA group (P = 0.001). The ASIR technique tends to improve the image quality of VMS imaging. Dual-energy computed tomography pulmonary angiography with ASIR can reduce contrast medium volume and produce images of comparable quality with those of standard CTPA.

  19. Direct iterative reconstruction of computed tomography trajectories (DIRECTT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, A.; Hentschel, M.P.; Schors, J.

    2004-01-01

    The direct reconstruction approach employs an iterative procedure by selection of and angular averaging over projected trajectory data of volume elements. This avoids the blur effects of the classical Fourier method due to the sampling theorem. But longer computing time is required. The reconstructed tomographic images reveal at least the spatial resolution of the radiation detector. Any set of projection angles may be selected for the measurements. Limited rotation of the object yields still good reconstruction of details. Projections of a partial region of the object can be reconstructed without additional artifacts thus reducing the overall radiation dose. Noisy signal data from low dose irradiation have low impact on spatial resolution. The image quality is monitored during all iteration steps and is pre-selected according to the specific requirements. DIRECTT can be applied independently from the measurement equipment in addition to conventional reconstruction or as a refinement filter. (author)

  20. The combination of a reduction in contrast agent dose with low tube voltage and an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm in CT enterography: Effects on image quality and radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Cui; Zhu, Di; Zou, Xianlun; Li, Anqin; Hu, Xuemei; Li, Zhen; Hu, Daoyu

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the subjective and quantitative image quality and radiation exposure of CT enterography (CTE) examination performed at low tube voltage and low concentration of contrast agent with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm, compared with conventional CTE.One hundred thirty-seven patients with suspected or proved gastrointestinal diseases underwent contrast enhanced CTE in a multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanner. All cases were assigned to 2 groups. Group A (n = 79) underwent CT with low tube voltage based on patient body mass index (BMI) (BMI contrast agent (270 mg I/mL), the images were reconstructed with standard filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm and 50% ASIR algorithm. Group B (n = 58) underwent conventional CTE with 120 kVp and 350 mg I/mL contrast agent, the images were reconstructed with FBP algorithm. The computed tomography dose index volume (CTDIvol), dose length product (DLP), effective dose (ED), and total iodine dosage were calculated and compared. The CT values, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the normal bowel wall, gastrointestinal lesions, and mesenteric vessels were assessed and compared. The subjective image quality was assessed independently and blindly by 2 radiologists using a 5-point Likert scale.The differences of values for CTDIvol (8.64 ± 2.72 vs 11.55 ± 3.95, P  .05) and all image quality scores were greater than or equal to 3 (moderate). Fifty percent ASIR-A group images provided lower image noise, but similar or higher quantitative image quality in comparison with FBP-B group images.Compared with the conventional protocol, CTE performed at low tube voltage, low concentration of contrast agent with 50% ASIR algorithm produce a diagnostically acceptable image quality with a mean ED of 6.34 mSv and a total iodine dose reduction of 26.1%.

  1. Compressively sampled MR image reconstruction using generalized thresholding iterative algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Sana; kaleem, Muhammad; Omer, Hammad

    2018-01-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) is an emerging area of interest in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CS is used for the reconstruction of the images from a very limited number of samples in k-space. This significantly reduces the MRI data acquisition time. One important requirement for signal recovery in CS is the use of an appropriate non-linear reconstruction algorithm. It is a challenging task to choose a reconstruction algorithm that would accurately reconstruct the MR images from the under-sampled k-space data. Various algorithms have been used to solve the system of non-linear equations for better image quality and reconstruction speed in CS. In the recent past, iterative soft thresholding algorithm (ISTA) has been introduced in CS-MRI. This algorithm directly cancels the incoherent artifacts produced because of the undersampling in k -space. This paper introduces an improved iterative algorithm based on p -thresholding technique for CS-MRI image reconstruction. The use of p -thresholding function promotes sparsity in the image which is a key factor for CS based image reconstruction. The p -thresholding based iterative algorithm is a modification of ISTA, and minimizes non-convex functions. It has been shown that the proposed p -thresholding iterative algorithm can be used effectively to recover fully sampled image from the under-sampled data in MRI. The performance of the proposed method is verified using simulated and actual MRI data taken at St. Mary's Hospital, London. The quality of the reconstructed images is measured in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), artifact power (AP), and structural similarity index measure (SSIM). The proposed approach shows improved performance when compared to other iterative algorithms based on log thresholding, soft thresholding and hard thresholding techniques at different reduction factors.

  2. Recent advances in iterative reconstruction for clinical SPECT/PET and CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Brian F

    2011-08-01

    Statistical iterative reconstruction is now widely used in clinical practice and has contributed to significant improvement in image quality in recent years. Although primarily used for reconstruction in emission tomography (both single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)) there is increasing interest in also applying similar algorithms to x-ray computed tomography (CT). There is increasing complexity in the factors that are included in the reconstruction, a demonstration of the versatility of the approach. Research continues with exploration of methods for further improving reconstruction quality with effective correction for various sources of artefact.

  3. Distributed 3-D iterative reconstruction for quantitative SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Z.W.; Frey, E.C.; Tsui, B.M.W.

    1995-01-01

    The authors describe a distributed three dimensional (3-D) iterative reconstruction library for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This library includes 3-D projector-backprojector pairs (PBPs) and distributed 3-D iterative reconstruction algorithms. The 3-D PBPs accurately and efficiently model various combinations of the image degrading factors including attenuation, detector response and scatter response. These PBPs were validated by comparing projection data computed using the projectors with that from direct Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The distributed 3-D iterative algorithms spread the projection-backprojection operations for all the projection angles over a heterogeneous network of single or multi-processor computers to reduce the reconstruction time. Based on a master/slave paradigm, these distributed algorithms provide dynamic load balancing and fault tolerance. The distributed algorithms were verified by comparing images reconstructed using both the distributed and non-distributed algorithms. Computation times for distributed 3-D reconstructions running on up to 4 identical processors were reduced by a factor approximately 80--90% times the number of the processors participating, compared to those for non-distributed 3-D reconstructions running on a single processor. When combined with faster affordable computers, this library provides an efficient means for implementing accurate reconstruction and compensation methods to improve quality and quantitative accuracy in SPECT images

  4. Convergence of iterative image reconstruction algorithms for Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidky, Emil; Jørgensen, Jakob Heide; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2012-01-01

    Most iterative image reconstruction algorithms are based on some form of optimization, such as minimization of a data-fidelity term plus an image regularizing penalty term. While achieving the solution of these optimization problems may not directly be clinically relevant, accurate optimization s...

  5. COMPARISON OF HOLOGRAPHIC AND ITERATIVE METHODS FOR AMPLITUDE OBJECT RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Shevkunov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental comparison of four methods for the wavefront reconstruction is presented. We considered two iterative and two holographic methods with different mathematical models and algorithms for recovery. The first two of these methods do not use a reference wave recording scheme that reduces requirements for stability of the installation. A major role in phase information reconstruction by such methods is played by a set of spatial intensity distributions, which are recorded as the recording matrix is being moved along the optical axis. The obtained data are used consistently for wavefront reconstruction using an iterative procedure. In the course of this procedure numerical distribution of the wavefront between the planes is performed. Thus, phase information of the wavefront is stored in every plane and calculated amplitude distributions are replaced for the measured ones in these planes. In the first of the compared methods, a two-dimensional Fresnel transform and iterative calculation in the object plane are used as a mathematical model. In the second approach, an angular spectrum method is used for numerical wavefront propagation, and the iterative calculation is carried out only between closely located planes of data registration. Two digital holography methods, based on the usage of the reference wave in the recording scheme and differing from each other by numerical reconstruction algorithm of digital holograms, are compared with the first two methods. The comparison proved that the iterative method based on 2D Fresnel transform gives results comparable with the result of common holographic method with the Fourier-filtering. It is shown that holographic method for reconstructing of the object complex amplitude in the process of the object amplitude reduction is the best among considered ones.

  6. A comparison of linear interpolation models for iterative CT reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Katharina; Schöndube, Harald; Stierstorfer, Karl; Hornegger, Joachim; Noo, Frédéric

    2016-12-01

    Recent reports indicate that model-based iterative reconstruction methods may improve image quality in computed tomography (CT). One difficulty with these methods is the number of options available to implement them, including the selection of the forward projection model and the penalty term. Currently, the literature is fairly scarce in terms of guidance regarding this selection step, whereas these options impact image quality. Here, the authors investigate the merits of three forward projection models that rely on linear interpolation: the distance-driven method, Joseph's method, and the bilinear method. The authors' selection is motivated by three factors: (1) in CT, linear interpolation is often seen as a suitable trade-off between discretization errors and computational cost, (2) the first two methods are popular with manufacturers, and (3) the third method enables assessing the importance of a key assumption in the other methods. One approach to evaluate forward projection models is to inspect their effect on discretized images, as well as the effect of their transpose on data sets, but significance of such studies is unclear since the matrix and its transpose are always jointly used in iterative reconstruction. Another approach is to investigate the models in the context they are used, i.e., together with statistical weights and a penalty term. Unfortunately, this approach requires the selection of a preferred objective function and does not provide clear information on features that are intrinsic to the model. The authors adopted the following two-stage methodology. First, the authors analyze images that progressively include components of the singular value decomposition of the model in a reconstructed image without statistical weights and penalty term. Next, the authors examine the impact of weights and penalty on observed differences. Image quality metrics were investigated for 16 different fan-beam imaging scenarios that enabled probing various aspects

  7. Computed tomography depiction of small pediatric vessels with model-based iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koc, Gonca; Courtier, Jesse L.; Phelps, Andrew; Marcovici, Peter A.; MacKenzie, John D. [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is extremely important in characterizing blood vessel anatomy and vascular lesions in children. Recent advances in CT reconstruction technology hold promise for improved image quality and also reductions in radiation dose. This report evaluates potential improvements in image quality for the depiction of small pediatric vessels with model-based iterative reconstruction (Veo trademark), a technique developed to improve image quality and reduce noise. To evaluate Veo trademark as an improved method when compared to adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR trademark) for the depiction of small vessels on pediatric CT. Seventeen patients (mean age: 3.4 years, range: 2 days to 10.0 years; 6 girls, 11 boys) underwent contrast-enhanced CT examinations of the chest and abdomen in this HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved study. Raw data were reconstructed into separate image datasets using Veo trademark and ASIR trademark algorithms (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI). Four blinded radiologists subjectively evaluated image quality. The pulmonary, hepatic, splenic and renal arteries were evaluated for the length and number of branches depicted. Datasets were compared with parametric and non-parametric statistical tests. Readers stated a preference for Veo trademark over ASIR trademark images when subjectively evaluating image quality criteria for vessel definition, image noise and resolution of small anatomical structures. The mean image noise in the aorta and fat was significantly less for Veo trademark vs. ASIR trademark reconstructed images. Quantitative measurements of mean vessel lengths and number of branches vessels delineated were significantly different for Veo trademark and ASIR trademark images. Veo trademark consistently showed more of the vessel anatomy: longer vessel length and more branching vessels. When compared to the more established adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm, model

  8. Computed tomography depiction of small pediatric vessels with model-based iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koc, Gonca; Courtier, Jesse L.; Phelps, Andrew; Marcovici, Peter A.; MacKenzie, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is extremely important in characterizing blood vessel anatomy and vascular lesions in children. Recent advances in CT reconstruction technology hold promise for improved image quality and also reductions in radiation dose. This report evaluates potential improvements in image quality for the depiction of small pediatric vessels with model-based iterative reconstruction (Veo trademark), a technique developed to improve image quality and reduce noise. To evaluate Veo trademark as an improved method when compared to adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR trademark) for the depiction of small vessels on pediatric CT. Seventeen patients (mean age: 3.4 years, range: 2 days to 10.0 years; 6 girls, 11 boys) underwent contrast-enhanced CT examinations of the chest and abdomen in this HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved study. Raw data were reconstructed into separate image datasets using Veo trademark and ASIR trademark algorithms (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI). Four blinded radiologists subjectively evaluated image quality. The pulmonary, hepatic, splenic and renal arteries were evaluated for the length and number of branches depicted. Datasets were compared with parametric and non-parametric statistical tests. Readers stated a preference for Veo trademark over ASIR trademark images when subjectively evaluating image quality criteria for vessel definition, image noise and resolution of small anatomical structures. The mean image noise in the aorta and fat was significantly less for Veo trademark vs. ASIR trademark reconstructed images. Quantitative measurements of mean vessel lengths and number of branches vessels delineated were significantly different for Veo trademark and ASIR trademark images. Veo trademark consistently showed more of the vessel anatomy: longer vessel length and more branching vessels. When compared to the more established adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm, model

  9. A new approach of equilibrium reconstruction for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imazawa, R.; Kawano, Y.; Kusama, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We have proposed a new approach for equilibrium reconstruction that can be applied to ITER-like burning plasmas. In this study, we have focused on carrying out equilibrium reconstruction using polarimetry, which is feasible for ITER-like burning plasmas. Polarimetry in burning plasmas is different from that in the existing tokamaks in two regards: (1) increased importance of the relativistic effects and (2) significant coupling with the Faraday and Cotton–Mouton effects. We found that when polarimetric data (orientation angle, θ, and ellipticity angle, ε, of a polarization state) are used as the constraints in the equilibrium reconstruction, the optimum weighting factors for θ and ε depend on the magnetic surfaces through which the viewing chord of polarimetry passes. We applied our approach to the operation scenarios II (S2) and IV (S4) in ITER. In the case where the viewing chords are via both the equatorial and upper ports, the measurement requirements for the accuracy of the q-profile in ITER (±10%) were satisfied in S2 and S4 when the measuring errors of θ and ε were less than 0.5° and 3°, respectively.

  10. Limited-angle three-dimensional reconstructions using Fourier transform iterations and Radon transform iterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, K.C.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of limited-angle reconstruction of space-limited objects using the concepts of allowed cone and missing cone in Fourier space are discussed. The distortion of a point source resulting from setting the Fourier components in the missing cone to zero has been calculated mathematically, and its bearing on the convergence of an iteration scheme involving Fourier transforms has been analyzed in detail. it was found that the convergence rate is fairly insensitive to the position of the point source within the boundary of the object, apart from an edge effect which tends to enhance some parts of the boundary in reconstructing the object. Another iteration scheme involving Radon transforms was introduced and compared to the Fourier transform method in such areas as root mean square error, stability with respect to noise, and computer reconstruction time

  11. Limited-angle 3-D reconstructions using Fourier transform iterations and Radon transform iterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, K.C.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1979-12-01

    The principles of limited-angle reconstruction of space-limited objects using the concepts of allowed cone and missing cone in Fourier space are discussed. The distortion of a point source resulting from setting the Fourier components in the missing cone to zero was calculated mathematically, and its bearing on the convergence of an iteration scheme involving Fourier transforms was analyzed in detail. It was found that the convergence rate is fairly insensitive to the position of the point source within the boundary of the object, apart from an edge effect that tends to enhance some parts of the boundary in reconstructing the object. Another iteration scheme involving Radon transforms was introduced and compared to the Fourier transform method in such areas as root mean square error, stability with respect to noise, and computer reconstruction time. 8 figures, 2 tables

  12. A new simple iterative reconstruction algorithm for SPECT transmission measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D.S.; Zeng, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new iterative reconstruction algorithm for transmission tomography and compares this algorithm with several other methods. The new algorithm is simple and resembles the emission ML-EM algorithm in form. Due to its simplicity, it is easy to implement and fast to compute a new update at each iteration. The algorithm also always guarantees non-negative solutions. Evaluations are performed using simulation studies and real phantom data. Comparisons with other algorithms such as convex, gradient, and logMLEM show that the proposed algorithm is as good as others and performs better in some cases

  13. An iterative hyperelastic parameters reconstruction for breast cancer assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabian, Hatef; Samani, Abbas

    2008-03-01

    In breast elastography, breast tissues usually undergo large compressions resulting in significant geometric and structural changes, and consequently nonlinear mechanical behavior. In this study, an elastography technique is presented where parameters characterizing tissue nonlinear behavior is reconstructed. Such parameters can be used for tumor tissue classification. To model the nonlinear behavior, tissues are treated as hyperelastic materials. The proposed technique uses a constrained iterative inversion method to reconstruct the tissue hyperelastic parameters. The reconstruction technique uses a nonlinear finite element (FE) model for solving the forward problem. In this research, we applied Yeoh and Polynomial models to model the tissue hyperelasticity. To mimic the breast geometry, we used a computational phantom, which comprises of a hemisphere connected to a cylinder. This phantom consists of two types of soft tissue to mimic adipose and fibroglandular tissues and a tumor. Simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed method in reconstructing the hyperelastic parameters of the tumor tissue.

  14. A new iterative algorithm to reconstruct the refractive index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y J; Zhu, P P; Chen, B; Wang, J Y; Yuan, Q X; Huang, W X; Shu, H; Li, E R; Liu, X S; Zhang, K; Ming, H; Wu, Z Y

    2007-06-21

    The latest developments in x-ray imaging are associated with techniques based on the phase contrast. However, the image reconstruction procedures demand significant improvements of the traditional methods, and/or new algorithms have to be introduced to take advantage of the high contrast and sensitivity of the new experimental techniques. In this letter, an improved iterative reconstruction algorithm based on the maximum likelihood expectation maximization technique is presented and discussed in order to reconstruct the distribution of the refractive index from data collected by an analyzer-based imaging setup. The technique considered probes the partial derivative of the refractive index with respect to an axis lying in the meridional plane and perpendicular to the propagation direction. Computer simulations confirm the reliability of the proposed algorithm. In addition, the comparison between an analytical reconstruction algorithm and the iterative method has been also discussed together with the convergent characteristic of this latter algorithm. Finally, we will show how the proposed algorithm may be applied to reconstruct the distribution of the refractive index of an epoxy cylinder containing small air bubbles of about 300 micro of diameter.

  15. CT imaging of congenital lung lesions: effect of iterative reconstruction on diagnostic performance and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggerty, Jay E.; Smith, Ethan A.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Kunisaki, Shaun M.

    2015-01-01

    Different iterative reconstruction techniques are available for use in pediatric computed tomography (CT), but these techniques have not been systematically evaluated in infants. To determine the effect of iterative reconstruction on diagnostic performance, image quality and radiation dose in infants undergoing CT evaluation for congenital lung lesions. A retrospective review of contrast-enhanced chest CT in infants (<1 year) with congenital lung lesions was performed. CT examinations were reviewed to document the type of lung lesion, vascular anatomy, image noise measurements and image reconstruction method. CTDI vol was used to calculate size-specific dose estimates (SSDE). CT findings were correlated with intraoperative and histopathological findings. Analysis of variance and the Student's t-test were used to compare image noise measurements and radiation dose estimates between groups. Fifteen CT examinations used filtered back projection (FBP; mean age: 84 days), 15 used adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR; mean age: 93 days), and 11 used model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR; mean age: 98 days). Compared to operative findings, 13/15 (87%), 14/15 (93%) and 11/11 (100%) lesions were correctly characterized using FBP, ASiR and MBIR, respectively. Arterial anatomy was correctly identified in 12/15 (80%) using FBP, 13/15 (87%) using ASiR and 11/11 (100%) using MBIR. Image noise was less for MBIR vs. ASiR (P < 0.0001). Mean SSDE was different among groups (P = 0.003; FBP = 7.35 mGy, ASiR = 1.89 mGy, MBIR = 1.49 mGy). Congenital lung lesions can be adequately characterized in infants using iterative CT reconstruction techniques while maintaining image quality and lowering radiation dose. (orig.)

  16. CT imaging of congenital lung lesions: effect of iterative reconstruction on diagnostic performance and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggerty, Jay E.; Smith, Ethan A.; Dillman, Jonathan R. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kunisaki, Shaun M. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Different iterative reconstruction techniques are available for use in pediatric computed tomography (CT), but these techniques have not been systematically evaluated in infants. To determine the effect of iterative reconstruction on diagnostic performance, image quality and radiation dose in infants undergoing CT evaluation for congenital lung lesions. A retrospective review of contrast-enhanced chest CT in infants (<1 year) with congenital lung lesions was performed. CT examinations were reviewed to document the type of lung lesion, vascular anatomy, image noise measurements and image reconstruction method. CTDI{sub vol} was used to calculate size-specific dose estimates (SSDE). CT findings were correlated with intraoperative and histopathological findings. Analysis of variance and the Student's t-test were used to compare image noise measurements and radiation dose estimates between groups. Fifteen CT examinations used filtered back projection (FBP; mean age: 84 days), 15 used adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR; mean age: 93 days), and 11 used model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR; mean age: 98 days). Compared to operative findings, 13/15 (87%), 14/15 (93%) and 11/11 (100%) lesions were correctly characterized using FBP, ASiR and MBIR, respectively. Arterial anatomy was correctly identified in 12/15 (80%) using FBP, 13/15 (87%) using ASiR and 11/11 (100%) using MBIR. Image noise was less for MBIR vs. ASiR (P < 0.0001). Mean SSDE was different among groups (P = 0.003; FBP = 7.35 mGy, ASiR = 1.89 mGy, MBIR = 1.49 mGy). Congenital lung lesions can be adequately characterized in infants using iterative CT reconstruction techniques while maintaining image quality and lowering radiation dose. (orig.)

  17. FIRST: Fast Iterative Reconstruction Software for (PET) tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herraiz, J L; Espana, S; Vaquero, J J; Desco, M; UdIas, J M

    2006-01-01

    Small animal PET scanners require high spatial resolution and good sensitivity. To reconstruct high-resolution images in 3D-PET, iterative methods, such as OSEM, are superior to analytical reconstruction algorithms, although their high computational cost is still a serious drawback. The higher performance of modern computers could make iterative image reconstruction fast enough to be viable, provided we are able to deal with the large number of probability coefficients for the system response matrix in high-resolution PET scanners, which is a difficult task that prevents the algorithms from reaching peak computing performance. Considering all possible axial and in-plane symmetries, as well as certain quasi-symmetries, we have been able to reduce the memory requirements to store the system response matrix (SRM) well below 1 GB, which allows us to keep the whole response matrix of the system inside RAM of ordinary industry-standard computers, so that the reconstruction algorithm can achieve near peak performance. The elements of the SRM are stored as cubic spline profiles and matched to voxel size during reconstruction. In this way, the advantages of 'on-the-fly' calculation and of fully stored SRM are combined. The on-the-fly part of the calculation (matching the profile functions to voxel size) of the SRM accounts for 10-30% of the reconstruction time, depending on the number of voxels chosen. We tested our approach with real data from a commercial small animal PET scanner. The results (image quality and reconstruction time) show that the proposed technique is a feasible solution

  18. FIRST: Fast Iterative Reconstruction Software for (PET) tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herraiz, J L [Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Espana, S [Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J J [Unidad de Medicina y CirugIa Experimental, Hospital GU Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Desco, M [Unidad de Medicina y CirugIa Experimental, Hospital GU Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); UdIas, J M [Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2006-09-21

    Small animal PET scanners require high spatial resolution and good sensitivity. To reconstruct high-resolution images in 3D-PET, iterative methods, such as OSEM, are superior to analytical reconstruction algorithms, although their high computational cost is still a serious drawback. The higher performance of modern computers could make iterative image reconstruction fast enough to be viable, provided we are able to deal with the large number of probability coefficients for the system response matrix in high-resolution PET scanners, which is a difficult task that prevents the algorithms from reaching peak computing performance. Considering all possible axial and in-plane symmetries, as well as certain quasi-symmetries, we have been able to reduce the memory requirements to store the system response matrix (SRM) well below 1 GB, which allows us to keep the whole response matrix of the system inside RAM of ordinary industry-standard computers, so that the reconstruction algorithm can achieve near peak performance. The elements of the SRM are stored as cubic spline profiles and matched to voxel size during reconstruction. In this way, the advantages of 'on-the-fly' calculation and of fully stored SRM are combined. The on-the-fly part of the calculation (matching the profile functions to voxel size) of the SRM accounts for 10-30% of the reconstruction time, depending on the number of voxels chosen. We tested our approach with real data from a commercial small animal PET scanner. The results (image quality and reconstruction time) show that the proposed technique is a feasible solution.

  19. Iterative CT reconstruction with correction for known rigid motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuyts, Johan [Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Kim, Jung-Ha; Fulton, Roger [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). School of Physics; Westmead Hospital, Sydney (Australia). Medical Physics

    2011-07-01

    In PET/CT brain imaging, correction for motion may be needed, in particular for children and psychiatric patients. Motion is more likely to occur in the lengthy PET measurement, but also during the short CT acquisition patient motion is possible. Rigid motion of the head can be measured independently from the PET/CT system with optical devices. In this paper, we propose a method and some preliminary simulation results for iterative CT reconstruction with correction for known rigid motion. We implemented an iterative algorithm for fully 3D reconstruction from helical CT scans. The motion of the head is incorporated in the system matrix as a view-dependent motion of the CT-system. The first simulation results indicate that some motion patterns may produce loss of essential data. This loss precludes exact reconstruction and results in artifacts in the reconstruction, even when motion is taken into account. However, by reducing the pitch during acquisition, the same motion pattern no longer caused artifacts in the motion corrected image. (orig.)

  20. X-ray dose reduction in abdominal computed tomography using advanced iterative reconstruction algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peigang Ning

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This work aims to explore the effects of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR algorithms in reducing computed tomography (CT radiation dosages in abdominal imaging. METHODS: CT scans on a standard male phantom were performed at different tube currents. Images at the different tube currents were reconstructed with the filtered back-projection (FBP, 50% ASiR and MBIR algorithms and compared. The CT value, image noise and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs of the reconstructed abdominal images were measured. Volumetric CT dose indexes (CTDIvol were recorded. RESULTS: At different tube currents, 50% ASiR and MBIR significantly reduced image noise and increased the CNR when compared with FBP. The minimal tube current values required by FBP, 50% ASiR, and MBIR to achieve acceptable image quality using this phantom were 200, 140, and 80 mA, respectively. At the identical image quality, 50% ASiR and MBIR reduced the radiation dose by 35.9% and 59.9% respectively when compared with FBP. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced iterative reconstruction techniques are able to reduce image noise and increase image CNRs. Compared with FBP, 50% ASiR and MBIR reduced radiation doses by 35.9% and 59.9%, respectively.

  1. 3D dictionary learning based iterative cone beam CT reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ti Bai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This work is to develop a 3D dictionary learning based cone beam CT (CBCT reconstruction algorithm on graphic processing units (GPU to improve the quality of sparse-view CBCT reconstruction with high efficiency. Methods: A 3D dictionary containing 256 small volumes (atoms of 3 × 3 × 3 was trained from a large number of blocks extracted from a high quality volume image. On the basis, we utilized cholesky decomposition based orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm to find the sparse representation of each block. To accelerate the time-consuming sparse coding in the 3D case, we implemented the sparse coding in a parallel fashion by taking advantage of the tremendous computational power of GPU. Conjugate gradient least square algorithm was adopted to minimize the data fidelity term. Evaluations are performed based on a head-neck patient case. FDK reconstruction with full dataset of 364 projections is used as the reference. We compared the proposed 3D dictionary learning based method with tight frame (TF by performing reconstructions on a subset data of 121 projections. Results: Compared to TF based CBCT reconstruction that shows good overall performance, our experiments indicated that 3D dictionary learning based CBCT reconstruction is able to recover finer structures, remove more streaking artifacts and also induce less blocky artifacts. Conclusion: 3D dictionary learning based CBCT reconstruction algorithm is able to sense the structural information while suppress the noise, and hence to achieve high quality reconstruction under the case of sparse view. The GPU realization of the whole algorithm offers a significant efficiency enhancement, making this algorithm more feasible for potential clinical application.-------------------------------Cite this article as: Bai T, Yan H, Shi F, Jia X, Lou Y, Xu Q, Jiang S, Mou X. 3D dictionary learning based iterative cone beam CT reconstruction. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(2:020240. DOI: 10

  2. Iterative reconstruction of magnetic induction using Lorentz transmission electron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phatak, C.; Gürsoy, D.

    2015-01-01

    Intense ongoing research on complex nanomagnetic structures requires a fundamental understanding of the 3D magnetization and the stray fields around the nano-objects. 3D visualization of such fields offers the best way to achieve this. Lorentz transmission electron microscopy provides a suitable combination of high resolution and ability to quantitatively visualize the magnetization vectors using phase retrieval methods. In this paper, we present a formalism to represent the magnetic phase shift of electrons as a Radon transform of the magnetic induction of the sample. Using this formalism, we then present the application of common tomographic methods particularly the iterative methods, to reconstruct the 3D components of the vector field. We present an analysis of the effect of missing wedge and the limited angular sampling as well as reconstruction of complex 3D magnetization in a nanowire using simulations. - Highlights: • We present a formalism to represent electron-optical magnetic phase shift as a Radon transform of the 3D magnetic induction of the nano-object. • We have analyzed four different tomographic reconstruction methods for vectorial data reconstruction. • Reconstruction methods were tested for varying experimental limitations such as limited tilt range and limited angular sampling. • The analysis showed that Gridrec and SIRT methods performed better with lower errors than other reconstruction methods

  3. Iterative reconstruction techniques for computed tomography Part 1: Technical principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemink, Martin J.; Jong, Pim A. de; Leiner, Tim; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Schilham, Arnold M.R.; Heer, Linda M. de; Budde, Ricardo P.J.

    2013-01-01

    To explain the technical principles of and differences between commercially available iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms for computed tomography (CT) in non-mathematical terms for radiologists and clinicians. Technical details of the different proprietary IR techniques were distilled from available scientific articles and manufacturers' white papers and were verified by the manufacturers. Clinical results were obtained from a literature search spanning January 2006 to January 2012, including only original research papers concerning IR for CT. IR for CT iteratively reduces noise and artefacts in either image space or raw data, or both. Reported dose reductions ranged from 23 % to 76 % compared to locally used default filtered back-projection (FBP) settings, with similar noise, artefacts, subjective, and objective image quality. IR has the potential to allow reducing the radiation dose while preserving image quality. Disadvantages of IR include blotchy image appearance and longer computational time. Future studies need to address differences between IR algorithms for clinical low-dose CT. circle Iterative reconstruction technology for CT is presented in non-mathematical terms. (orig.)

  4. Iterative wave-front reconstruction in the Fourier domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Charlotte Z; Correia, Carlos M; Sauvage, Jean-François; Neichel, Benoit; Fusco, Thierry

    2017-05-15

    The use of Fourier methods in wave-front reconstruction can significantly reduce the computation time for large telescopes with a high number of degrees of freedom. However, Fourier algorithms for discrete data require a rectangular data set which conform to specific boundary requirements, whereas wave-front sensor data is typically defined over a circular domain (the telescope pupil). Here we present an iterative Gerchberg routine modified for the purposes of discrete wave-front reconstruction which adapts the measurement data (wave-front sensor slopes) for Fourier analysis, fulfilling the requirements of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and providing accurate reconstruction. The routine is used in the adaptation step only and can be coupled to any other Wiener-like or least-squares method. We compare simulations using this method with previous Fourier methods and show an increase in performance in terms of Strehl ratio and a reduction in noise propagation for a 40×40 SPHERE-like adaptive optics system. For closed loop operation with minimal iterations the Gerchberg method provides an improvement in Strehl, from 95.4% to 96.9% in K-band. This corresponds to ~ 40 nm improvement in rms, and avoids the high spatial frequency errors present in other methods, providing an increase in contrast towards the edge of the correctable band.

  5. An iterative reconstruction of cosmological initial density fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Ryuichiro; Eisenstein, Daniel J.

    2018-05-01

    We present an iterative method to reconstruct the linear-theory initial conditions from the late-time cosmological matter density field, with the intent of improving the recovery of the cosmic distance scale from the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs). We present tests using the dark matter density field in both real and redshift space generated from an N-body simulation. In redshift space at z = 0.5, we find that the reconstructed displacement field using our iterative method are more than 80% correlated with the true displacement field of the dark matter particles on scales k < 0.10h Mpc-1. Furthermore, we show that the two-point correlation function of our reconstructed density field matches that of the initial density field substantially better, especially on small scales (<40h-1 Mpc). Our redshift-space results are improved if we use an anisotropic smoothing so as to account for the reduced small-scale information along the line of sight in redshift space.

  6. PARALLEL ITERATIVE RECONSTRUCTION OF PHANTOM CATPHAN ON EXPERIMENTAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mirzavand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of fast parallel iterative algorithms based on the use of graphics accelerators and OpenGL library are considered in the paper. The proposed approach provides simultaneous minimization of the residuals of the desired solution and total variation of the reconstructed three- dimensional image. The number of necessary input data, i. e. conical X-ray projections, can be reduced several times. It means in a corresponding number of times the possibility to reduce radiation exposure to the patient. At the same time maintain the necessary contrast and spatial resolution of threedimensional image of the patient. Heuristic iterative algorithm can be used as an alternative to the well-known three-dimensional Feldkamp algorithm.

  7. An attenuated projector-backprojector for iterative SPECT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, G.T.; Pelc, N.J.; Huesman, R.H.; Budinger, T.F.; Malko, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A new ray-driven projector-backprojector which can easily be adapted for hardware implementation is described and simulated in software. The projector-backprojector discretely models the attenuated Radon transform of a source distributed within an attenuating medium as line integrals of discrete pixels, obtained using the standard sampling technique of averaging the emission source or attenuation distribution over small square regions. Attenuation factors are calculated for each pixel during the projection and backprojection operations instead of using precalculated values. The calculation of the factors requires a specification of the attenuation distribution, estimated either from an assumed constant distribution and an approximate body outline or from transmission measurements. The distribution of attenuation coefficients is stored in memory for efficient access during the projection and backprojection operations. The reconstruction of the source distribution is obtained by using a conjugate gradient or SIRT type iterative algorithm which requires one projection and one backprojection operation for each iteration. (author)

  8. Effect of Low-Dose MDCT and Iterative Reconstruction on Trabecular Bone Microstructure Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Felix K; Holzapfel, Konstantin; Baum, Thomas; Nasirudin, Radin A; Mei, Kai; Garcia, Eduardo G; Burgkart, Rainer; Rummeny, Ernst J; Kirschke, Jan S; Noël, Peter B

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of low-dose multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) in combination with statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms on trabecular bone microstructure parameters. Twelve donated vertebrae were scanned with the routine radiation exposure used in our department (standard-dose) and a low-dose protocol. Reconstructions were performed with filtered backprojection (FBP) and maximum-likelihood based statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR). Trabecular bone microstructure parameters were assessed and statistically compared for each reconstruction. Moreover, fracture loads of the vertebrae were biomechanically determined and correlated to the assessed microstructure parameters. Trabecular bone microstructure parameters based on low-dose MDCT and SIR significantly correlated with vertebral bone strength. There was no significant difference between microstructure parameters calculated on low-dose SIR and standard-dose FBP images. However, the results revealed a strong dependency on the regularization strength applied during SIR. It was observed that stronger regularization might corrupt the microstructure analysis, because the trabecular structure is a very small detail that might get lost during the regularization process. As a consequence, the introduction of SIR for trabecular bone microstructure analysis requires a specific optimization of the regularization parameters. Moreover, in comparison to other approaches, superior noise-resolution trade-offs can be found with the proposed methods.

  9. Limiting CT radiation dose in children with craniosynostosis: phantom study using model-based iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaasalainen, Touko; Lampinen, Anniina [University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, HUS Medical Imaging Center, Radiology, POB 340, Helsinki (Finland); University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Palmu, Kirsi [University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, HUS Medical Imaging Center, Radiology, POB 340, Helsinki (Finland); School of Science, Aalto University, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Helsinki (Finland); Reijonen, Vappu; Kortesniemi, Mika [University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, HUS Medical Imaging Center, Radiology, POB 340, Helsinki (Finland); Leikola, Junnu [University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Department of Plastic Surgery, Helsinki (Finland); Kivisaari, Riku [University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-09-15

    Medical professionals need to exercise particular caution when developing CT scanning protocols for children who require multiple CT studies, such as those with craniosynostosis. To evaluate the utility of ultra-low-dose CT protocols with model-based iterative reconstruction techniques for craniosynostosis imaging. We scanned two pediatric anthropomorphic phantoms with a 64-slice CT scanner using different low-dose protocols for craniosynostosis. We measured organ doses in the head region with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters. Numerical simulations served to estimate organ and effective doses. We objectively and subjectively evaluated the quality of images produced by adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) 30%, ASiR 50% and Veo (all by GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI). Image noise and contrast were determined for different tissues. Mean organ dose with the newborn phantom was decreased up to 83% compared to the routine protocol when using ultra-low-dose scanning settings. Similarly, for the 5-year phantom the greatest radiation dose reduction was 88%. The numerical simulations supported the findings with MOSFET measurements. The image quality remained adequate with Veo reconstruction, even at the lowest dose level. Craniosynostosis CT with model-based iterative reconstruction could be performed with a 20-μSv effective dose, corresponding to the radiation exposure of plain skull radiography, without compromising required image quality. (orig.)

  10. Acceleration of iterative tomographic reconstruction using graphics processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belzunce, M.A.; Osorio, A.; Verrastro, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Using iterative algorithms for image reconstruction in 3 D Positron Emission Tomography has shown to produce images with better quality than analytical methods. How ever, these algorithms are computationally expensive. New Graphic Processor Units (GPU) provides high performance at low cost and also programming tools that make possible to execute parallel algorithms easily in scientific applications. In this work, we try to achieve an acceleration of image reconstruction algorithms in 3 D PET by using a GPU. A parallel implementation of the algorithm ML-EM 3 D was developed using Siddon algorithm as Projector and Back-projector. Results show that accelerations of more than one order of magnitude can be achieved, keeping similar image quality. (author)

  11. Born iterative reconstruction using perturbed-phase field estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Jeffrey P; Waag, Robert C

    2008-10-01

    A method of image reconstruction from scattering measurements for use in ultrasonic imaging is presented. The method employs distorted-wave Born iteration but does not require using a forward-problem solver or solving large systems of equations. These calculations are avoided by limiting intermediate estimates of medium variations to smooth functions in which the propagated fields can be approximated by phase perturbations derived from variations in a geometric path along rays. The reconstruction itself is formed by a modification of the filtered-backpropagation formula that includes correction terms to account for propagation through an estimated background. Numerical studies that validate the method for parameter ranges of interest in medical applications are presented. The efficiency of this method offers the possibility of real-time imaging from scattering measurements.

  12. Modelling the physics in iterative reconstruction for transmission computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyts, Johan; De Man, Bruno; Fessler, Jeffrey A.; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Beekman, Freek J.

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in iterative reconstruction (IR) as a key tool to improve quality and increase applicability of X-ray CT imaging. IR has the ability to significantly reduce patient dose, it provides the flexibility to reconstruct images from arbitrary X-ray system geometries and it allows to include detailed models of photon transport and detection physics, to accurately correct for a wide variety of image degrading effects. This paper reviews discretisation issues and modelling of finite spatial resolution, Compton scatter in the scanned object, data noise and the energy spectrum. Widespread implementation of IR with highly accurate model-based correction, however, still requires significant effort. In addition, new hardware will provide new opportunities and challenges to improve CT with new modelling. PMID:23739261

  13. Improving head and neck CTA with hybrid and model-based iterative reconstruction techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesten, J. M.; van der Schaaf, I. C.; Vos, P. C.; Willemink, MJ; Velthuis, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare image quality of head and neck computed tomography angiography (CTA) reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MIR) algorithms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The raw data of 34 studies were

  14. Iterative reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks: an algorithmic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L Barrett

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The number of complete, publicly available genome sequences is now greater than 200, and this number is expected to rapidly grow in the near future as metagenomic and environmental sequencing efforts escalate and the cost of sequencing drops. In order to make use of this data for understanding particular organisms and for discerning general principles about how organisms function, it will be necessary to reconstruct their various biochemical reaction networks. Principal among these will be transcriptional regulatory networks. Given the physical and logical complexity of these networks, the various sources of (often noisy data that can be utilized for their elucidation, the monetary costs involved, and the huge number of potential experiments approximately 10(12 that can be performed, experiment design algorithms will be necessary for synthesizing the various computational and experimental data to maximize the efficiency of regulatory network reconstruction. This paper presents an algorithm for experimental design to systematically and efficiently reconstruct transcriptional regulatory networks. It is meant to be applied iteratively in conjunction with an experimental laboratory component. The algorithm is presented here in the context of reconstructing transcriptional regulation for metabolism in Escherichia coli, and, through a retrospective analysis with previously performed experiments, we show that the produced experiment designs conform to how a human would design experiments. The algorithm is able to utilize probability estimates based on a wide range of computational and experimental sources to suggest experiments with the highest potential of discovering the greatest amount of new regulatory knowledge.

  15. Iterative feature refinement for accurate undersampled MR image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Liu, Jianbo; Liu, Qiegen; Ying, Leslie; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong; Liang, Dong

    2016-05-01

    Accelerating MR scan is of great significance for clinical, research and advanced applications, and one main effort to achieve this is the utilization of compressed sensing (CS) theory. Nevertheless, the existing CSMRI approaches still have limitations such as fine structure loss or high computational complexity. This paper proposes a novel iterative feature refinement (IFR) module for accurate MR image reconstruction from undersampled K-space data. Integrating IFR with CSMRI which is equipped with fixed transforms, we develop an IFR-CS method to restore meaningful structures and details that are originally discarded without introducing too much additional complexity. Specifically, the proposed IFR-CS is realized with three iterative steps, namely sparsity-promoting denoising, feature refinement and Tikhonov regularization. Experimental results on both simulated and in vivo MR datasets have shown that the proposed module has a strong capability to capture image details, and that IFR-CS is comparable and even superior to other state-of-the-art reconstruction approaches.

  16. Iterative feature refinement for accurate undersampled MR image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shanshan; Liu, Jianbo; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong; Liang, Dong; Liu, Qiegen; Ying, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Accelerating MR scan is of great significance for clinical, research and advanced applications, and one main effort to achieve this is the utilization of compressed sensing (CS) theory. Nevertheless, the existing CSMRI approaches still have limitations such as fine structure loss or high computational complexity. This paper proposes a novel iterative feature refinement (IFR) module for accurate MR image reconstruction from undersampled K-space data. Integrating IFR with CSMRI which is equipped with fixed transforms, we develop an IFR-CS method to restore meaningful structures and details that are originally discarded without introducing too much additional complexity. Specifically, the proposed IFR-CS is realized with three iterative steps, namely sparsity-promoting denoising, feature refinement and Tikhonov regularization. Experimental results on both simulated and in vivo MR datasets have shown that the proposed module has a strong capability to capture image details, and that IFR-CS is comparable and even superior to other state-of-the-art reconstruction approaches. (paper)

  17. Statistical reconstruction for cosmic ray muon tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Larry J; Blanpied, Gary S; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Fraser, Andrew M; Hengartner, Nicolas W; Klimenko, Alexei V; Morris, Christopher L; Orum, Chris; Sossong, Michael J

    2007-08-01

    Highly penetrating cosmic ray muons constantly shower the earth at a rate of about 1 muon per cm2 per minute. We have developed a technique which exploits the multiple Coulomb scattering of these particles to perform nondestructive inspection without the use of artificial radiation. In prior work [1]-[3], we have described heuristic methods for processing muon data to create reconstructed images. In this paper, we present a maximum likelihood/expectation maximization tomographic reconstruction algorithm designed for the technique. This algorithm borrows much from techniques used in medical imaging, particularly emission tomography, but the statistics of muon scattering dictates differences. We describe the statistical model for multiple scattering, derive the reconstruction algorithm, and present simulated examples. We also propose methods to improve the robustness of the algorithm to experimental errors and events departing from the statistical model.

  18. Non-contrast CT at comparable dose to an abdominal radiograph in patients with acute renal colic; impact of iterative reconstruction on image quality and diagnostic performance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLaughlin, P D

    2014-04-01

    The aim was to assess the performance of low-dose non-contrast CT of the urinary tract (LD-CT) acquired at radiation exposures close to that of abdominal radiography using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR).

  19. Pediatric 320-row cardiac computed tomography using electrocardiogram-gated model-based full iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirota, Go; Maeda, Eriko; Namiki, Yoko; Bari, Razibul; Abe, Osamu [The University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ino, Kenji [The University of Tokyo Hospital, Imaging Center, Tokyo (Japan); Torigoe, Rumiko [Toshiba Medical Systems, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-10-15

    Full iterative reconstruction algorithm is available, but its diagnostic quality in pediatric cardiac CT is unknown. To compare the imaging quality of two algorithms, full and hybrid iterative reconstruction, in pediatric cardiac CT. We included 49 children with congenital cardiac anomalies who underwent cardiac CT. We compared quality of images reconstructed using the two algorithms (full and hybrid iterative reconstruction) based on a 3-point scale for the delineation of the following anatomical structures: atrial septum, ventricular septum, right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle, main pulmonary artery, ascending aorta, aortic arch including the patent ductus arteriosus, descending aorta, right coronary artery and left main trunk. We evaluated beam-hardening artifacts from contrast-enhancement material using a 3-point scale, and we evaluated the overall image quality using a 5-point scale. We also compared image noise, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio between the algorithms. The overall image quality was significantly higher with full iterative reconstruction than with hybrid iterative reconstruction (3.67±0.79 vs. 3.31±0.89, P=0.0072). The evaluation scores for most of the gross structures were higher with full iterative reconstruction than with hybrid iterative reconstruction. There was no significant difference between full and hybrid iterative reconstruction for the presence of beam-hardening artifacts. Image noise was significantly lower in full iterative reconstruction, while signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were significantly higher in full iterative reconstruction. The diagnostic quality was superior in images with cardiac CT reconstructed with electrocardiogram-gated full iterative reconstruction. (orig.)

  20. Pediatric 320-row cardiac computed tomography using electrocardiogram-gated model-based full iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirota, Go; Maeda, Eriko; Namiki, Yoko; Bari, Razibul; Abe, Osamu; Ino, Kenji; Torigoe, Rumiko

    2017-01-01

    Full iterative reconstruction algorithm is available, but its diagnostic quality in pediatric cardiac CT is unknown. To compare the imaging quality of two algorithms, full and hybrid iterative reconstruction, in pediatric cardiac CT. We included 49 children with congenital cardiac anomalies who underwent cardiac CT. We compared quality of images reconstructed using the two algorithms (full and hybrid iterative reconstruction) based on a 3-point scale for the delineation of the following anatomical structures: atrial septum, ventricular septum, right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle, main pulmonary artery, ascending aorta, aortic arch including the patent ductus arteriosus, descending aorta, right coronary artery and left main trunk. We evaluated beam-hardening artifacts from contrast-enhancement material using a 3-point scale, and we evaluated the overall image quality using a 5-point scale. We also compared image noise, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio between the algorithms. The overall image quality was significantly higher with full iterative reconstruction than with hybrid iterative reconstruction (3.67±0.79 vs. 3.31±0.89, P=0.0072). The evaluation scores for most of the gross structures were higher with full iterative reconstruction than with hybrid iterative reconstruction. There was no significant difference between full and hybrid iterative reconstruction for the presence of beam-hardening artifacts. Image noise was significantly lower in full iterative reconstruction, while signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were significantly higher in full iterative reconstruction. The diagnostic quality was superior in images with cardiac CT reconstructed with electrocardiogram-gated full iterative reconstruction. (orig.)

  1. CT colonography at low tube potential: using iterative reconstruction to decrease noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.J.; Heisler, M.A.; Mahesh, M.; Baird, G.L.; Mayo-Smith, W.W.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the level of iterative reconstruction required to reduce increased image noise associated with low tube potential computed tomography (CT). Materials and methods: Fifty patients underwent CT colonography with a supine scan at 120 kVp and a prone scan at 100 kVp with other scan parameters unchanged. Both scans were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and increasing levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) at 30%, 60%, and 90%. Mean noise, soft tissue and tagged fluid attenuation, contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were collected from reconstructions at both 120 and 100 kVp and compared using a generalised linear mixed model. Results: Decreasing tube potential from 120 to 100 kVp significantly increased image noise by 30–34% and tagged fluid attenuation by 120 HU at all ASiR levels (p<0.0001, all measures). Increasing ASiR from 0% (FBP) to 30%, 60%, and 90% resulted in significant decreases in noise and increases in CNR at both tube potentials (p<0.001, all comparisons). Compared to 120 kVp FBP, ASiR greater than 30% at 100 kVp yielded similar or lower image noise. Conclusions: Iterative reconstruction adequately compensates for increased image noise associated with low tube potential imaging while improving CNR. An ASiR level of approximately 50% at 100 kVp yields similar noise to 120 kVp without ASiR. -- Highlights: •Peak kilovoltage (kVp) can be reduced to decrease radiation dose and increase contrast attenuation at a cost of increased image noise. •Utilizing iterative reconstruction can decrease image noise and increase contrast to noise ratio (CNR) independent of kVp. •Iterative reconstruction adequately compensates for increased image noise associated with low dose low kVp imaging while improving CNR. •An ASiR level of approximately 50% at 100 kVp yields similar noise to 120 kVp without ASiR

  2. Iterative reconstruction with boundary detection for carbon ion computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Deepak; Qin, Nan; Zhang, You; Kalantari, Faraz; Niu, Shanzhou; Jia, Xun; Pompos, Arnold; Jiang, Steve; Wang, Jing

    2018-03-01

    In heavy ion radiation therapy, improving the accuracy in range prediction of the ions inside the patient’s body has become essential. Accurate localization of the Bragg peak provides greater conformity of the tumor while sparing healthy tissues. We investigated the use of carbon ions directly for computed tomography (carbon CT) to create the relative stopping power map of a patient’s body. The Geant4 toolkit was used to perform a Monte Carlo simulation of the carbon ion trajectories, to study their lateral and angular deflections and the most likely paths, using a water phantom. Geant4 was used to create carbonCT projections of a contrast and spatial resolution phantom, with a cone beam of 430 MeV/u carbon ions. The contrast phantom consisted of cranial bone, lung material, and PMMA inserts while the spatial resolution phantom contained bone and lung material inserts with line pair (lp) densities ranging from 1.67 lp cm-1 through 5 lp cm-1. First, the positions of each carbon ion on the rear and front trackers were used for an approximate reconstruction of the phantom. The phantom boundary was extracted from this approximate reconstruction, by using the position as well as angle information from the four tracking detectors, resulting in the entry and exit locations of the individual ions on the phantom surface. Subsequent reconstruction was performed by the iterative algebraic reconstruction technique coupled with total variation minimization (ART-TV) assuming straight line trajectories for the ions inside the phantom. The influence of number of projections was studied with reconstruction from five different sets of projections: 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90. Additionally, the effect of number of ions on the image quality was investigated by reducing the number of ions/projection while keeping the total number of projections at 60. An estimation of carbon ion range using the carbonCT image resulted in improved range prediction compared to the range calculated using a

  3. Objective task-based assessment of low-contrast detectability in iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racine, Damien; Ott, Julien G.; Ba, Alexandre; Ryckx, Nick; Bochud, Francois O.; Verdun, Francis R.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating image quality by using receiver operating characteristic studies is time consuming and difficult to implement. This work assesses a new iterative algorithm using a channelised Hotelling observer (CHO). For this purpose, an anthropomorphic abdomen phantom with spheres of various sizes and contrasts was scanned at 3 volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol ) levels on a GE Revolution CT. Images were reconstructed using the iterative reconstruction method adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-V (ASIR-V) at ASIR-V 0, 50 and 70 % and assessed by applying a CHO with dense difference of Gaussian and internal noise. Both CHO and human observers (HO) were compared based on a four-alternative forced-choice experiment, using the percentage correct as a figure of merit. The results showed accordance between CHO and HO. Moreover, an improvement in the low-contrast detection was observed when switching from ASIR-V 0 to 50 %. The results underpin the finding that ASIR-V allows dose reduction. (authors)

  4. Radiation dose reduction in medical x-ray CT via Fourier-based iterative reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimian, Benjamin P; Zhao, Yunzhe; Huang, Zhifeng; Fung, Russell; Mao, Yu; Zhu, Chun; Khatonabadi, Maryam; DeMarco, John J; Osher, Stanley J; McNitt-Gray, Michael F; Miao, Jianwei

    2013-03-01

    As produce comparable image quality, resolution, and contrast relative to FBP with the 140 mAs flux setting. Compared to the algebraic reconstruction technique and the expectation maximization statistical reconstruction algorithm, a significant reduction in computation time is achieved with EST. Finally, numerical experiments on helical cone-beam CT data suggest that the combination of EST and ASSR produces reconstructions with higher image quality and lower noise than the Feldkamp Davis and Kress (FDK) method and the conventional ASSR approach. A Fourier-based iterative method has been applied to the reconstruction of fan-bean CT data with reduced x-ray fluence. This method incorporates advantageous features in both real and Fourier space iterative schemes: using a fast and algebraically exact method to calculate forward projection, enforcing the measured data in Fourier space, and applying physical constraints and flexible regularization in real space. Our results suggest that EST can be utilized for radiation dose reduction in x-ray CT via the readily implementable technique of lowering mAs settings. Numerical experiments further indicate that EST requires less computation time than several other iterative algorithms and can, in principle, be extended to helical cone-beam geometry in combination with the ASSR method.

  5. Radiation dose reduction in medical x-ray CT via Fourier-based iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahimian, Benjamin P.; Zhao Yunzhe; Huang Zhifeng; Fung, Russell; Zhu Chun; Miao Jianwei; Mao Yu; Khatonabadi, Maryam; DeMarco, John J.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Osher, Stanley J.

    2013-01-01

    scanner flux setting of 39 mAs produce comparable image quality, resolution, and contrast relative to FBP with the 140 mAs flux setting. Compared to the algebraic reconstruction technique and the expectation maximization statistical reconstruction algorithm, a significant reduction in computation time is achieved with EST. Finally, numerical experiments on helical cone-beam CT data suggest that the combination of EST and ASSR produces reconstructions with higher image quality and lower noise than the Feldkamp Davis and Kress (FDK) method and the conventional ASSR approach. Conclusions: A Fourier-based iterative method has been applied to the reconstruction of fan-bean CT data with reduced x-ray fluence. This method incorporates advantageous features in both real and Fourier space iterative schemes: using a fast and algebraically exact method to calculate forward projection, enforcing the measured data in Fourier space, and applying physical constraints and flexible regularization in real space. Our results suggest that EST can be utilized for radiation dose reduction in x-ray CT via the readily implementable technique of lowering mAs settings. Numerical experiments further indicate that EST requires less computation time than several other iterative algorithms and can, in principle, be extended to helical cone-beam geometry in combination with the ASSR method.

  6. Robust statistical reconstruction for charged particle tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Larry Joe; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Morris, Christopher; Orum, John Christopher; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Sossong, Michael James; Hengartner, Nicolas W

    2013-10-08

    Systems and methods for charged particle detection including statistical reconstruction of object volume scattering density profiles from charged particle tomographic data to determine the probability distribution of charged particle scattering using a statistical multiple scattering model and determine a substantially maximum likelihood estimate of object volume scattering density using expectation maximization (ML/EM) algorithm to reconstruct the object volume scattering density. The presence of and/or type of object occupying the volume of interest can be identified from the reconstructed volume scattering density profile. The charged particle tomographic data can be cosmic ray muon tomographic data from a muon tracker for scanning packages, containers, vehicles or cargo. The method can be implemented using a computer program which is executable on a computer.

  7. Tomographic reconstruction by using FPSIRT (Fast Particle System Iterative Reconstruction Technique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Icaro Valgueiro M.; Melo, Silvio de Barros; Dantas, Carlos; Lima, Emerson Alexandre; Silva, Ricardo Martins; Cardoso, Halisson Alberdan C., E-mail: ivmm@cin.ufpe.br, E-mail: sbm@cin.ufpe.br, E-mail: rmas@cin.ufpe.br, E-mail: hacc@cin.ufpe.br, E-mail: ccd@ufpe.br, E-mail: eal@cin.ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The PSIRT (Particle System Iterative Reconstruction Technique) is a method of tomographic image reconstruction primarily designed to work with configurations suitable for industrial applications. A particle system is an optimization technique inspired in real physical systems that associates to the reconstructing material a set of particles with certain physical features, subject to a force eld, which can produce movement. The system constantly updates the set of particles by repositioning them in such a way as to approach the equilibrium. The elastic potential along a trajectory is a function of the difference between the attenuation coefficient in the current configuration and the corresponding input data. PSIRT has been successfully used to reconstruct simulated and real objects subject to sets of parallel and fanbeam lines in different angles, representing typical gamma-ray tomographic arrangements. One of PSIRT's limitation was its performance, too slow for real time scenarios. In this work, it is presented a reformulation in PSIRT's computational model, which is able to grant the new algorithm, the FPSIRT - Fast System Iterative Reconstruction Technique, a performance up to 200-time faster than PSIRT's. In this work a comparison of their application to real and simulated data from the HSGT, High Speed Gamma Tomograph, is presented. (author)

  8. Tomographic reconstruction by using FPSIRT (Fast Particle System Iterative Reconstruction Technique)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Icaro Valgueiro M.; Melo, Silvio de Barros; Dantas, Carlos; Lima, Emerson Alexandre; Silva, Ricardo Martins; Cardoso, Halisson Alberdan C.

    2015-01-01

    The PSIRT (Particle System Iterative Reconstruction Technique) is a method of tomographic image reconstruction primarily designed to work with configurations suitable for industrial applications. A particle system is an optimization technique inspired in real physical systems that associates to the reconstructing material a set of particles with certain physical features, subject to a force eld, which can produce movement. The system constantly updates the set of particles by repositioning them in such a way as to approach the equilibrium. The elastic potential along a trajectory is a function of the difference between the attenuation coefficient in the current configuration and the corresponding input data. PSIRT has been successfully used to reconstruct simulated and real objects subject to sets of parallel and fanbeam lines in different angles, representing typical gamma-ray tomographic arrangements. One of PSIRT's limitation was its performance, too slow for real time scenarios. In this work, it is presented a reformulation in PSIRT's computational model, which is able to grant the new algorithm, the FPSIRT - Fast System Iterative Reconstruction Technique, a performance up to 200-time faster than PSIRT's. In this work a comparison of their application to real and simulated data from the HSGT, High Speed Gamma Tomograph, is presented. (author)

  9. A clinical perspective of accelerated statistical reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, B.F.; Hudson, H.M.; Beekman, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    Although the potential benefits of maximum likelihood reconstruction have been recognised for many years, the technique has only recently found widespread popularity in clinical practice. Factors which have contributed to the wider acceptance include improved models for the emission process, better understanding of the properties of the algorithm and, not least, the practicality of application with the development of acceleration schemes and the improved speed of computers. The objective in this article is to present a framework for applying maximum likelihood reconstruction for a wide range of clinically based problems. The article draws particularly on the experience of the three authors in applying an acceleration scheme involving use of ordered subsets to a range of applications. The potential advantages of statistical reconstruction techniques include: (a) the ability to better model the emission and detection process, in order to make the reconstruction converge to a quantitative image, (b) the inclusion of a statistical noise model which results in better noise characteristics, and (c) the possibility to incorporate prior knowledge about the distribution being imaged. The great flexibility in adapting the reconstruction for a specific model results in these techniques having wide applicability to problems in clinical nuclear medicine. (orig.). With 8 figs., 1 tab

  10. Iterative reconstruction methods for Thermo-acoustic Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinesque, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    We define, study and implement various iterative reconstruction methods for Thermo-acoustic Tomography (TAT): the Back and Forth Nudging (BFN), easy to implement and to use, a variational technique (VT) and the Back and Forth SEEK (BF-SEEK), more sophisticated, and a coupling method between Kalman filter (KF) and Time Reversal (TR). A unified formulation is explained for the sequential techniques aforementioned that defines a new class of inverse problem methods: the Back and Forth Filters (BFF). In addition to existence and uniqueness (particularly for backward solutions), we study many frameworks that ensure and characterize the convergence of the algorithms. Thus we give a general theoretical framework for which the BFN is a well-posed problem. Then, in application to TAT, existence and uniqueness of its solutions and geometrical convergence of the algorithm are proved, and an explicit convergence rate and a description of its numerical behaviour are given. Next, theoretical and numerical studies of more general and realistic framework are led, namely different objects, speeds (with or without trapping), various sensor configurations and samplings, attenuated equations or external sources. Then optimal control and best estimate tools are used to characterize the BFN convergence and converging feedbacks for BFF, under observability assumptions. Finally, we compare the most flexible and efficient current techniques (TR and an iterative variant) with our various BFF and the VT in several experiments. Thus, robust, with different possible complexities and flexible, the methods that we propose are very interesting reconstruction techniques, particularly in TAT and when observations are degraded. (author) [fr

  11. Iterative CT reconstruction with small pixel size: distance-driven forward projector versus Joseph's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, K.; Rassner, U.; Davidson, H. C.; Schöndube, H.; Stierstorfer, K.; Hornegger, J.; Noo, F.

    2015-03-01

    Over the last few years, iterative reconstruction methods have become an important research topic in x-ray CT imaging. This effort is motivated by increasing evidence that such methods may enable significant savings in terms of dose imparted to the patient. Conceptually, iterative reconstruction methods involve two important ingredients: the statistical model, which includes the forward projector, and a priori information in the image domain, which is expressed using a regularizer. Most often, the image pixel size is chosen to be equal (or close) to the detector pixel size (at field-of-view center). However, there are applications for which a smaller pixel size is desired. In this investigation, we focus on reconstruction with a pixel size that is twice smaller than the detector pixel size. Using such a small pixel size implies a large increase in computational effort when using the distance-driven method for forward projection, which models the detector size. On the other hand, the more efficient method of Joseph will create imbalances in the reconstruction of each pixel, in the sense that there will be large differences in the way each projection contributes to the pixels. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the impact of these imbalances on image quality in comparison with utilization of the distance-driven method. The evaluation involves computational effort, bias and noise metrics, and LROC analysis using human observers. The results show that Joseph's method largely remains attractive.

  12. Information-theoretic discrepancy based iterative reconstructions (IDIR) for polychromatic x-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Kwang Eun; Lee, Jongha; Sung, Younghun; Lee, SeongDeok

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: X-ray photons generated from a typical x-ray source for clinical applications exhibit a broad range of wavelengths, and the interactions between individual particles and biological substances depend on particles' energy levels. Most existing reconstruction methods for transmission tomography, however, neglect this polychromatic nature of measurements and rely on the monochromatic approximation. In this study, we developed a new family of iterative methods that incorporates the exact polychromatic model into tomographic image recovery, which improves the accuracy and quality of reconstruction.Methods: The generalized information-theoretic discrepancy (GID) was employed as a new metric for quantifying the distance between the measured and synthetic data. By using special features of the GID, the objective function for polychromatic reconstruction which contains a double integral over the wavelength and the trajectory of incident x-rays was simplified to a paraboloidal form without using the monochromatic approximation. More specifically, the original GID was replaced with a surrogate function with two auxiliary, energy-dependent variables. Subsequently, the alternating minimization technique was applied to solve the double minimization problem. Based on the optimization transfer principle, the objective function was further simplified to the paraboloidal equation, which leads to a closed-form update formula. Numerical experiments on the beam-hardening correction and material-selective reconstruction were conducted to compare and assess the performance of conventional methods and the proposed algorithms.Results: The authors found that the GID determines the distance between its two arguments in a flexible manner. In this study, three groups of GIDs with distinct data representations were considered. The authors demonstrated that one type of GIDs that comprises “raw” data can be viewed as an extension of existing statistical reconstructions; under a

  13. Influence of iterative image reconstruction on CT-based calcium score measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, Jochen A. C.; Mouden, Mohamed; van Dalen, Jorn A.; Timmer, Jorik R.; Reiffers, Stoffer; Knollema, Siert; Greuter, Marcel J. W.; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Jager, Piet L.

    Iterative reconstruction techniques for coronary CT angiography have been introduced as an alternative for traditional filter back projection (FBP) to reduce image noise, allowing improved image quality and a potential for dose reduction. However, the impact of iterative reconstruction on the

  14. A fast iterative soft-thresholding algorithm for few-view CT reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Junfeng; Mou, Xuanqin; Zhang, Yanbo [Jiaotong Univ., Xi' an (China). Inst. of Image Processing and Pattern Recognition

    2011-07-01

    Iterative soft-thresholding algorithms with total variation regularization can produce high-quality reconstructions from few views and even in the presence of noise. However, these algorithms are known to converge quite slowly, with a proven theoretically global convergence rate O(1/k), where k is iteration number. In this paper, we present a fast iterative soft-thresholding algorithm for few-view fan beam CT reconstruction with a global convergence rate O(1/k{sup 2}), which is significantly faster than the iterative soft-thresholding algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of convergence speed and reconstruction quality. (orig.)

  15. The effects of iterative reconstruction in CT on low-contrast liver lesion volumetry: a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Berman, Benjamin P.; Schumacher, Justin; Liang, Yongguang; Gavrielides, Marios A.; Yang, Hao; Zhao, Binsheng; Petrick, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    Tumor volume measured from computed tomography images is considered a biomarker for disease progression or treatment response. The estimation of the tumor volume depends on the imaging system parameters selected, as well as lesion characteristics. In this study, we examined how different image reconstruction methods affect the measurement of lesions in an anthropomorphic liver phantom with a non-uniform background. Iterative statistics-based and model-based reconstructions, as well as filtered back-projection, were evaluated and compared in this study. Statistics-based and filtered back-projection yielded similar estimation performance, while model-based yielded higher precision but lower accuracy in the case of small lesions. Iterative reconstructions exhibited higher signal-to-noise ratio but slightly lower contrast of the lesion relative to the background. A better understanding of lesion volumetry performance as a function of acquisition parameters and lesion characteristics can lead to its incorporation as a routine sizing tool.

  16. A Statistical Approach to Motion Compensated Cone Beam Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyksborg, Mark; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    number of projections to be adequate. Since the patients are breathing freely during a scan, the number of projections with similar respiration may be to low. In the following we use an iterative reconstruction combined with the simultaneous estimation of the motion field, to improve reconstruction...... in these situations. Using a simulated dataset we demonstrate that this combination outperforms the FDK but due to ill possessedness of the motion estimation it is only on par with the sole iterative method....

  17. High-order noise analysis for low dose iterative image reconstruction methods: ASIR, IRIS, and MBAI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Synho; Singh, Sarabjeet; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Karl, W. Clem; Brady, Thomas J.; Pien, Homer

    2011-03-01

    Iterative reconstruction techniques (IRTs) has been shown to suppress noise significantly in low dose CT imaging. However, medical doctors hesitate to accept this new technology because visual impression of IRT images are different from full-dose filtered back-projection (FBP) images. Most common noise measurements such as the mean and standard deviation of homogeneous region in the image that do not provide sufficient characterization of noise statistics when probability density function becomes non-Gaussian. In this study, we measure L-moments of intensity values of images acquired at 10% of normal dose and reconstructed by IRT methods of two state-of-art clinical scanners (i.e., GE HDCT and Siemens DSCT flash) by keeping dosage level identical to each other. The high- and low-dose scans (i.e., 10% of high dose) were acquired from each scanner and L-moments of noise patches were calculated for the comparison.

  18. Parallelization of the model-based iterative reconstruction algorithm DIRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertenberg, A.; Sandborg, M.; Alm Carlsson, G.; Malusek, A.; Magnusson, M.

    2016-01-01

    New paradigms for parallel programming have been devised to simplify software development on multi-core processors and many-core graphical processing units (GPU). Despite their obvious benefits, the parallelization of existing computer programs is not an easy task. In this work, the use of the Open Multiprocessing (OpenMP) and Open Computing Language (OpenCL) frameworks is considered for the parallelization of the model-based iterative reconstruction algorithm DIRA with the aim to significantly shorten the code's execution time. Selected routines were parallelized using OpenMP and OpenCL libraries; some routines were converted from MATLAB to C and optimised. Parallelization of the code with the OpenMP was easy and resulted in an overall speedup of 15 on a 16-core computer. Parallelization with OpenCL was more difficult owing to differences between the central processing unit and GPU architectures. The resulting speedup was substantially lower than the theoretical peak performance of the GPU; the cause was explained. (authors)

  19. Optimization of hybrid iterative reconstruction level in pediatric body CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmazyn, Boaz; Liang, Yun; Ai, Huisi; Eckert, George J; Cohen, Mervyn D; Wanner, Matthew R; Jennings, S Gregory

    2014-02-01

    The objective of our study was to attempt to optimize the level of hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) in pediatric body CT. One hundred consecutive chest or abdominal CT examinations were selected. For each examination, six series were obtained: one filtered back projection (FBP) and five HIR series (iDose(4)) levels 2-6. Two pediatric radiologists, blinded to noise measurements, independently chose the optimal HIR level and then rated series quality. We measured CT number (mean in Hounsfield units) and noise (SD in Hounsfield units) changes by placing regions of interest in the liver, muscles, subcutaneous fat, and aorta. A mixed-model analysis-of-variance test was used to analyze correlation of noise reduction with the optimal HIR level compared with baseline FBP noise. One hundred CT examinations were performed of 88 patients (52 females and 36 males) with a mean age of 8.5 years (range, 19 days-18 years); 12 patients had both chest and abdominal CT studies. Radiologists agreed to within one level of HIR in 92 of 100 studies. The mean quality rating was significantly higher for HIR than FBP (3.6 vs 3.3, respectively; p optimal HIR level was used (p optimal for most studies. The optimal HIR level was less effective in reducing liver noise in children with lower baseline noise.

  20. Determination of the optimal dose reduction level via iterative reconstruction using 640-slice volume chest CT in a pig model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingli Liu

    Full Text Available To determine the optimal dose reduction level of iterative reconstruction technique for paediatric chest CT in pig models.27 infant pigs underwent 640-slice volume chest CT with 80kVp and different mAs. Automatic exposure control technique was used, and the index of noise was set to SD10 (Group A, routine dose, SD12.5, SD15, SD17.5, SD20 (Groups from B to E to reduce dose respectively. Group A was reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP, and Groups from B to E were reconstructed using iterative reconstruction (IR. Objective and subjective image quality (IQ among groups were compared to determine an optimal radiation reduction level.The noise and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR in Group D had no significant statistical difference from that in Group A (P = 1.0. The scores of subjective IQ in Group A were not significantly different from those in Group D (P>0.05. There were no obvious statistical differences in the objective and subjective index values among the subgroups (small, medium and large subgroups of Group D. The effective dose (ED of Group D was 58.9% lower than that of Group A (0.20±0.05mSv vs 0.48±0.10mSv, p <0.001.In infant pig chest CT, using iterative reconstruction can provide diagnostic image quality; furthermore, it can reduce the dosage by 58.9%.

  1. A multiresolution approach to iterative reconstruction algorithms in X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Yoni; Vlassenbroeck, Jelle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

    2010-09-01

    In computed tomography, the application of iterative reconstruction methods in practical situations is impeded by their high computational demands. Especially in high resolution X-ray computed tomography, where reconstruction volumes contain a high number of volume elements (several giga voxels), this computational burden prevents their actual breakthrough. Besides the large amount of calculations, iterative algorithms require the entire volume to be kept in memory during reconstruction, which quickly becomes cumbersome for large data sets. To overcome this obstacle, we present a novel multiresolution reconstruction, which greatly reduces the required amount of memory without significantly affecting the reconstructed image quality. It is shown that, combined with an efficient implementation on a graphical processing unit, the multiresolution approach enables the application of iterative algorithms in the reconstruction of large volumes at an acceptable speed using only limited resources.

  2. Iterative reconstruction using a Monte Carlo based system transfer matrix for dedicated breast positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Krishnendu [Ohio Medical Physics Consulting, Dublin, Ohio 43017 (United States); Straus, Kenneth J.; Glick, Stephen J. [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States); Chen, Yu. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032 (United States)

    2014-08-28

    To maximize sensitivity, it is desirable that ring Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems dedicated for imaging the breast have a small bore. Unfortunately, due to parallax error this causes substantial degradation in spatial resolution for objects near the periphery of the breast. In this work, a framework for computing and incorporating an accurate system matrix into iterative reconstruction is presented in an effort to reduce spatial resolution degradation towards the periphery of the breast. The GATE Monte Carlo Simulation software was utilized to accurately model the system matrix for a breast PET system. A strategy for increasing the count statistics in the system matrix computation and for reducing the system element storage space was used by calculating only a subset of matrix elements and then estimating the rest of the elements by using the geometric symmetry of the cylindrical scanner. To implement this strategy, polar voxel basis functions were used to represent the object, resulting in a block-circulant system matrix. Simulation studies using a breast PET scanner model with ring geometry demonstrated improved contrast at 45% reduced noise level and 1.5 to 3 times resolution performance improvement when compared to MLEM reconstruction using a simple line-integral model. The GATE based system matrix reconstruction technique promises to improve resolution and noise performance and reduce image distortion at FOV periphery compared to line-integral based system matrix reconstruction.

  3. Coronary stent on coronary CT angiography: Assessment with model-based iterative reconstruction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Chae; Kim, Yeo Koon; Chun, Eun Ju; Choi, Sang IL [Dept. of of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To assess the performance of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) technique for evaluation of coronary artery stents on coronary CT angiography (CCTA). Twenty-two patients with coronary stent implantation who underwent CCTA were retrospectively enrolled for comparison of image quality between filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and MBIR. In each data set, image noise was measured as the standard deviation of the measured attenuation units within circular regions of interest in the ascending aorta (AA) and left main coronary artery (LM). To objectively assess the noise and blooming artifacts in coronary stent, we additionally measured the standard deviation of the measured attenuation and intra-luminal stent diameters of total 35 stents with dedicated software. All image noise measured in the AA (all p < 0.001), LM (p < 0.001, p = 0.001) and coronary stent (all p < 0.001) were significantly lower with MBIR in comparison to those with FBP or ASIR. Intraluminal stent diameter was significantly higher with MBIR, as compared with ASIR or FBP (p < 0.001, p = 0.001). MBIR can reduce image noise and blooming artifact from the stent, leading to better in-stent assessment in patients with coronary artery stent.

  4. Performance evaluation of iterative reconstruction algorithms for achieving CT radiation dose reduction — a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Cristina T.; Tamm, Eric P.; Cody, Dianna D.; Liu, Xinming; Jensen, Corey T.; Wei, Wei; Kundra, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize image quality and dose performance with GE CT iterative reconstruction techniques, adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR), and model‐based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), over a range of typical to low‐dose intervals using the Catphan 600 and the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantoms. The scope of the project was to quantitatively describe the advantages and limitations of these approaches. The Catphan 600 phantom, supplemented with a fat‐equivalent oval ring, was scanned using a GE Discovery HD750 scanner at 120 kVp, 0.8 s rotation time, and pitch factors of 0.516, 0.984, and 1.375. The mA was selected for each pitch factor to achieve CTDIvol values of 24, 18, 12, 6, 3, 2, and 1 mGy. Images were reconstructed at 2.5 mm thickness with filtered back‐projection (FBP); 20%, 40%, and 70% ASiR; and MBIR. The potential for dose reduction and low‐contrast detectability were evaluated from noise and contrast‐to‐noise ratio (CNR) measurements in the CTP 404 module of the Catphan. Hounsfield units (HUs) of several materials were evaluated from the cylinder inserts in the CTP 404 module, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated from the air insert. The results were confirmed in the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantom at 6, 3, 2, and 1 mGy. MBIR reduced noise levels five‐fold and increased CNR by a factor of five compared to FBP below 6 mGy CTDIvol, resulting in a substantial improvement in image quality. Compared to ASiR and FBP, HU in images reconstructed with MBIR were consistently lower, and this discrepancy was reversed by higher pitch factors in some materials. MBIR improved the conspicuity of the high‐contrast spatial resolution bar pattern, and MTF quantification confirmed the superior spatial resolution performance of MBIR versus FBP and ASiR at higher dose levels. While ASiR and FBP were relatively insensitive to changes in dose and pitch, the spatial

  5. AIR Tools II: algebraic iterative reconstruction methods, improved implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer

    2017-01-01

    with algebraic iterative methods and their convergence properties. The present software is a much expanded and improved version of the package AIR Tools from 2012, based on a new modular design. In addition to improved performance and memory use, we provide more flexible iterative methods, a column-action method...

  6. Influence of iterative reconstruction on coronary calcium scores at multiple heart rates: a multivendor phantom study on state-of-the-art CT systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, N R; Willemink, M J; Willems, T P; Greuter, M J W; Leiner, T

    2017-12-28

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of iterative reconstruction on coronary calcium scores (CCS) at different heart rates for four state-of-the-art CT systems. Within an anthropomorphic chest phantom, artificial coronary arteries were translated in a water-filled compartment. The arteries contained three different calcifications with low (38 mg), medium (80 mg) and high (157 mg) mass. Linear velocities were applied, corresponding to heart rates of 0,  75 bpm. Data were acquired on four state-of-the-art CT systems (CT1-CT4) with routinely used CCS protocols. Filtered back projection (FBP) and three increasing levels of iterative reconstruction (L1-L3) were used for reconstruction. CCS were quantified as Agatston score and mass score. An iterative reconstruction susceptibility (IRS) index was used to assess susceptibility of Agatston score (IRS AS ) and mass score (IRS MS ) to iterative reconstruction. IRS values were compared between CT systems and between calcification masses. For each heart rate, differences in CCS of iterative reconstructed images were evaluated with CCS of FBP images as reference, and indicated as small ( 10%). Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures ANOVA tests. While subtle differences were found for Agatston scores of low mass calcification, medium and high mass calcifications showed increased CCS up to 77% with increasing heart rates. IRS AS of CT1-T4 were 17, 41, 130 and 22% higher than IRS MS . Not only were IRS significantly different between all CT systems, but also between calcification masses. Up to a fourfold increase in IRS was found for the low mass calcification in comparison with the high mass calcification. With increasing iterative reconstruction strength, maximum decreases of 21 and 13% for Agatston and mass score were found. In total, 21 large differences between Agatston scores from FBP and iterative reconstruction were found, while only five large differences were found between

  7. MO-DE-207A-07: Filtered Iterative Reconstruction (FIR) Via Proximal Forward-Backward Splitting: A Synergy of Analytical and Iterative Reconstruction Method for CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work is to develop a general framework, namely filtered iterative reconstruction (FIR) method, to incorporate analytical reconstruction (AR) method into iterative reconstruction (IR) method, for enhanced CT image quality. Methods: FIR is formulated as a combination of filtered data fidelity and sparsity regularization, and then solved by proximal forward-backward splitting (PFBS) algorithm. As a result, the image reconstruction decouples data fidelity and image regularization with a two-step iterative scheme, during which an AR-projection step updates the filtered data fidelity term, while a denoising solver updates the sparsity regularization term. During the AR-projection step, the image is projected to the data domain to form the data residual, and then reconstructed by certain AR to a residual image which is in turn weighted together with previous image iterate to form next image iterate. Since the eigenvalues of AR-projection operator are close to the unity, PFBS based FIR has a fast convergence. Results: The proposed FIR method is validated in the setting of circular cone-beam CT with AR being FDK and total-variation sparsity regularization, and has improved image quality from both AR and IR. For example, AIR has improved visual assessment and quantitative measurement in terms of both contrast and resolution, and reduced axial and half-fan artifacts. Conclusion: FIR is proposed to incorporate AR into IR, with an efficient image reconstruction algorithm based on PFBS. The CBCT results suggest that FIR synergizes AR and IR with improved image quality and reduced axial and half-fan artifacts. The authors was partially supported by the NSFC (#11405105), the 973 Program (#2015CB856000), and the Shanghai Pujiang Talent Program (#14PJ1404500).

  8. Pulmonary nodules: effect of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) technique on performance of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system-comparison of performance between different-dose CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Masahiro; Honda, Osamu; Kikuyama, Ayano; Gyobu, Tomoko; Sumikawa, Hiromitsu; Koyama, Mitsuhiro; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of ASIR on CAD system of pulmonary nodules using clinical routine-dose CT and lower-dose CT. Thirty-five patients (body mass index, 22.17 ± 4.37 kg/m(2)) were scanned by multidetector-row CT with tube currents (clinical routine-dose CT, automatically adjusted mA; lower-dose CT, 10 mA) and X-ray voltage (120 kVp). Each 0.625-mm-thick image was reconstructed at 0%-, 50%-, and 100%-ASIR: 0%-ASIR is reconstructed using only the filtered back-projection algorithm (FBP), while 100%-ASIR is reconstructed using the maximum ASIR and 50%-ASIR implies a blending of 50% FBP and ASIR. CAD output was compared retrospectively with the results of the reference standard which was established using a consensus panel of three radiologists. Data were analyzed using Bonferroni/Dunn's method. Radiation dose was calculated by multiplying dose-length product by conversion coefficient of 0.021. The consensus panel found 265 non-calcified nodules ≤ 30 mm (ground-glass opacity [GGO], 103; part-solid, 34; and solid, 128). CAD sensitivity was significantly higher at 100%-ASIR [clinical routine-dose CT, 71% (overall), 49% (GGO); lower-dose CT, 52% (overall), 67% (solid)] than at 0%-ASIR [clinical routine-dose CT, 54% (overall), 25% (GGO); lower-dose CT, 36% (overall), 50% (solid)] (pASIR (clinical routine-dose CT, 8.5; lower-dose CT, 6.2) than at 0%-ASIR (clinical routine-dose CT, 4.6; lower-dose CT, 3.5; pASIR on lower-dose CT is almost equal to that at 0%-ASIR on clinical routine-dose CT. ASIR can increase CAD sensitivity despite increased false-positive findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical correlative evaluation of an iterative method for reconstruction of brain SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobili, Flavio; Vitali, Paolo; Calvini, Piero; Bollati, Francesca; Girtler, Nicola; Delmonte, Marta; Mariani, Giuliano; Rodriguez, Guido

    2001-01-01

    Background: Brain SPECT and PET investigations have showed discrepancies in Alzheimer's disease (AD) when considering data deriving from deeply located structures, such as the mesial temporal lobe. These discrepancies could be due to a variety of factors, including substantial differences in gamma-cameras and underlying technology. Mesial temporal structures are deeply located within the brain and the commonly used Filtered Back-Projection (FBP) technique does not fully take into account either the physical parameters of gamma-cameras or geometry of collimators. In order to overcome these limitations, alternative reconstruction methods have been proposed, such as the iterative method of the Conjugate Gradients with modified matrix (CG). However, the clinical applications of these methods have so far been only anecdotal. The present study was planned to compare perfusional SPECT data as derived from the conventional FBP method and from the iterative CG method, which takes into account the geometrical and physical characteristics of the gamma-camera, by a correlative approach with neuropsychology. Methods: Correlations were compared between perfusion of the hippocampal region, as achieved by both the FBP and the CG reconstruction methods, and a short-memory test (Selective Reminding Test, SRT), specifically addressing one of its function. A brain-dedicated camera (CERASPECT) was used for SPECT studies with 99m Tc-hexamethylpropylene-amine-oxime in 23 consecutive patients (mean age: 74.2±6.5) with mild (Mini-Mental Status Examination score ≥15, mean 20.3±3), probable AD. Counts from a hippocampal region in each hemisphere were referred to the average thalamic counts. Results: Hippocampal perfusion significantly correlated with the MMSE score with similar statistical significance (p<0.01) between the two reconstruction methods. Correlation between hippocampal perfusion and the SRT score was better with the CG method (r=0.50 for both hemispheres, p<0.01) than with

  10. Clinical correlative evaluation of an iterative method for reconstruction of brain SPECT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobili, Flavio E-mail: fnobili@smartino.ge.it; Vitali, Paolo; Calvini, Piero; Bollati, Francesca; Girtler, Nicola; Delmonte, Marta; Mariani, Giuliano; Rodriguez, Guido

    2001-08-01

    Background: Brain SPECT and PET investigations have showed discrepancies in Alzheimer's disease (AD) when considering data deriving from deeply located structures, such as the mesial temporal lobe. These discrepancies could be due to a variety of factors, including substantial differences in gamma-cameras and underlying technology. Mesial temporal structures are deeply located within the brain and the commonly used Filtered Back-Projection (FBP) technique does not fully take into account either the physical parameters of gamma-cameras or geometry of collimators. In order to overcome these limitations, alternative reconstruction methods have been proposed, such as the iterative method of the Conjugate Gradients with modified matrix (CG). However, the clinical applications of these methods have so far been only anecdotal. The present study was planned to compare perfusional SPECT data as derived from the conventional FBP method and from the iterative CG method, which takes into account the geometrical and physical characteristics of the gamma-camera, by a correlative approach with neuropsychology. Methods: Correlations were compared between perfusion of the hippocampal region, as achieved by both the FBP and the CG reconstruction methods, and a short-memory test (Selective Reminding Test, SRT), specifically addressing one of its function. A brain-dedicated camera (CERASPECT) was used for SPECT studies with {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropylene-amine-oxime in 23 consecutive patients (mean age: 74.2{+-}6.5) with mild (Mini-Mental Status Examination score {>=}15, mean 20.3{+-}3), probable AD. Counts from a hippocampal region in each hemisphere were referred to the average thalamic counts. Results: Hippocampal perfusion significantly correlated with the MMSE score with similar statistical significance (p<0.01) between the two reconstruction methods. Correlation between hippocampal perfusion and the SRT score was better with the CG method (r=0.50 for both hemispheres, p<0

  11. Space-Varying Iterative Restoration of Diffuse Optical Tomograms Reconstructed by the Photon Average Trajectories Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravtsenyuk Olga V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of improving the spatial resolution of diffuse optical tomograms reconstructed by the photon average trajectories (PAT method is substantiated. The PAT method recently presented by us is based on a concept of an average statistical trajectory for transfer of light energy, the photon average trajectory (PAT. The inverse problem of diffuse optical tomography is reduced to a solution of an integral equation with integration along a conditional PAT. As a result, the conventional algorithms of projection computed tomography can be used for fast reconstruction of diffuse optical images. The shortcoming of the PAT method is that it reconstructs the images blurred due to averaging over spatial distributions of photons which form the signal measured by the receiver. To improve the resolution, we apply a spatially variant blur model based on an interpolation of the spatially invariant point spread functions simulated for the different small subregions of the image domain. Two iterative algorithms for solving a system of linear algebraic equations, the conjugate gradient algorithm for least squares problem and the modified residual norm steepest descent algorithm, are used for deblurring. It is shown that a gain in spatial resolution can be obtained.

  12. Space-Varying Iterative Restoration of Diffuse Optical Tomograms Reconstructed by the Photon Average Trajectories Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Lyubimov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of improving the spatial resolution of diffuse optical tomograms reconstructed by the photon average trajectories (PAT method is substantiated. The PAT method recently presented by us is based on a concept of an average statistical trajectory for transfer of light energy, the photon average trajectory (PAT. The inverse problem of diffuse optical tomography is reduced to a solution of an integral equation with integration along a conditional PAT. As a result, the conventional algorithms of projection computed tomography can be used for fast reconstruction of diffuse optical images. The shortcoming of the PAT method is that it reconstructs the images blurred due to averaging over spatial distributions of photons which form the signal measured by the receiver. To improve the resolution, we apply a spatially variant blur model based on an interpolation of the spatially invariant point spread functions simulated for the different small subregions of the image domain. Two iterative algorithms for solving a system of linear algebraic equations, the conjugate gradient algorithm for least squares problem and the modified residual norm steepest descent algorithm, are used for deblurring. It is shown that a 27% gain in spatial resolution can be obtained.

  13. Pulmonary nodules: Effect of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) technique on performance of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system—Comparison of performance between different-dose CT scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagawa, Masahiro, E-mail: m-yanagawa@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Honda, Osamu, E-mail: ohonda@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kikuyama, Ayano, E-mail: a-kikuyama@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Gyobu, Tomoko, E-mail: t-gyobu@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sumikawa, Hiromitsu, E-mail: h-sumikawa@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Koyama, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: m-koyama@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tomiyama, Noriyuki, E-mail: tomiyama@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of ASIR on CAD system of pulmonary nodules using clinical routine-dose CT and lower-dose CT. Materials and methods: Thirty-five patients (body mass index, 22.17 ± 4.37 kg/m{sup 2}) were scanned by multidetector-row CT with tube currents (clinical routine-dose CT, automatically adjusted mA; lower-dose CT, 10 mA) and X-ray voltage (120 kVp). Each 0.625-mm-thick image was reconstructed at 0%-, 50%-, and 100%-ASIR: 0%-ASIR is reconstructed using only the filtered back-projection algorithm (FBP), while 100%-ASIR is reconstructed using the maximum ASIR and 50%-ASIR implies a blending of 50% FBP and ASIR. CAD output was compared retrospectively with the results of the reference standard which was established using a consensus panel of three radiologists. Data were analyzed using Bonferroni/Dunn's method. Radiation dose was calculated by multiplying dose-length product by conversion coefficient of 0.021. Results: The consensus panel found 265 non-calcified nodules ≤30 mm (ground-glass opacity [GGO], 103; part-solid, 34; and solid, 128). CAD sensitivity was significantly higher at 100%-ASIR [clinical routine-dose CT, 71% (overall), 49% (GGO); lower-dose CT, 52% (overall), 67% (solid)] than at 0%-ASIR [clinical routine-dose CT, 54% (overall), 25% (GGO); lower-dose CT, 36% (overall), 50% (solid)] (p < 0.001). Mean number of false-positive findings per examination was significantly higher at 100%-ASIR (clinical routine-dose CT, 8.5; lower-dose CT, 6.2) than at 0%-ASIR (clinical routine-dose CT, 4.6; lower-dose CT, 3.5; p < 0.001). Effective doses were 10.77 ± 3.41 mSv in clinical routine-dose CT and 2.67 ± 0.17 mSv in lower-dose CT. Conclusion: CAD sensitivity at 100%-ASIR on lower-dose CT is almost equal to that at 0%-ASIR on clinical routine-dose CT. ASIR can increase CAD sensitivity despite increased false-positive findings.

  14. Pulmonary nodules: Effect of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) technique on performance of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system—Comparison of performance between different-dose CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagawa, Masahiro; Honda, Osamu; Kikuyama, Ayano; Gyobu, Tomoko; Sumikawa, Hiromitsu; Koyama, Mitsuhiro; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of ASIR on CAD system of pulmonary nodules using clinical routine-dose CT and lower-dose CT. Materials and methods: Thirty-five patients (body mass index, 22.17 ± 4.37 kg/m 2 ) were scanned by multidetector-row CT with tube currents (clinical routine-dose CT, automatically adjusted mA; lower-dose CT, 10 mA) and X-ray voltage (120 kVp). Each 0.625-mm-thick image was reconstructed at 0%-, 50%-, and 100%-ASIR: 0%-ASIR is reconstructed using only the filtered back-projection algorithm (FBP), while 100%-ASIR is reconstructed using the maximum ASIR and 50%-ASIR implies a blending of 50% FBP and ASIR. CAD output was compared retrospectively with the results of the reference standard which was established using a consensus panel of three radiologists. Data were analyzed using Bonferroni/Dunn's method. Radiation dose was calculated by multiplying dose-length product by conversion coefficient of 0.021. Results: The consensus panel found 265 non-calcified nodules ≤30 mm (ground-glass opacity [GGO], 103; part-solid, 34; and solid, 128). CAD sensitivity was significantly higher at 100%-ASIR [clinical routine-dose CT, 71% (overall), 49% (GGO); lower-dose CT, 52% (overall), 67% (solid)] than at 0%-ASIR [clinical routine-dose CT, 54% (overall), 25% (GGO); lower-dose CT, 36% (overall), 50% (solid)] (p < 0.001). Mean number of false-positive findings per examination was significantly higher at 100%-ASIR (clinical routine-dose CT, 8.5; lower-dose CT, 6.2) than at 0%-ASIR (clinical routine-dose CT, 4.6; lower-dose CT, 3.5; p < 0.001). Effective doses were 10.77 ± 3.41 mSv in clinical routine-dose CT and 2.67 ± 0.17 mSv in lower-dose CT. Conclusion: CAD sensitivity at 100%-ASIR on lower-dose CT is almost equal to that at 0%-ASIR on clinical routine-dose CT. ASIR can increase CAD sensitivity despite increased false-positive findings

  15. Reducing radiation dose in adult head CT using iterative reconstruction. A clinical study in 177 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, D. [Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Kahn, J.; Huizing, L.; Wiener, E.; Grupp, U.; Boening, G.; Streitparth, F. [Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Ghadjar, P. [Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Renz, D.M. [Jena University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-02-15

    To assess how ASIR (adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction) contributes to dose reduction and affects image quality of non-contrast cranial computed tomography (cCT). Non-contrast emergency CT scans of the head acquired in 177 patients were evaluated. The scans were acquired and processed using four different protocols: Group A (control): 120 kV, FBP (filtered back projection) n=71; group B1: 120 kV, scan and reconstruction performed with 20 % ASIR (blending of 20 % ASIR and 80 % FBP), n=86; group B2: raw data from group B1 reconstructed using a blending of 40 % ASIR and 60 % FBP, n=74; group C1: 120 kV, scan and reconstruction performed with 30 % ASIR, n=20; group C2: raw data from group C1 reconstructed using a blending of 50 % ASIR and 50 % FBP, n=20. The effective dose was calculated. Image quality was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Compared to group A, groups B1/2 and C1/2 showed a significantly reduced effective dose of 40.4 % and 73.3 % (p < 0.0001), respectively. Group B1 and group C1/2 also showed significantly reduced quantitative and qualitative image quality parameters. In group B2, quantitative measures were comparable to group A, and qualitative scores were lower compared to group A but higher compared to group B1. Diagnostic confidence grading showed groups B1/2 to be adequate for everyday clinical practice. Group C2 was considered acceptable for follow-up imaging of severe acute events such as bleeding or subacute stroke. Conclusion: Use of ASIR makes it possible to reduce radiation significantly while maintaining adequate image quality in non-contrast head CT, which may be particularly useful for younger patients in an emergency setting and in follow-up.

  16. Reducing Radiation Dose in Adult Head CT using Iterative Reconstruction - A Clinical Study in 177 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, D; Kahn, J; Huizing, L; Wiener, E; Grupp, U; Böning, G; Ghadjar, P; Renz, D M; Streitparth, F

    2016-02-01

    To assess how ASIR (adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction) contributes to dose reduction and affects image quality of non-contrast cranial computed tomography (cCT). Non-contrast emergency CT scans of the head acquired in 177 patients were evaluated. The scans were acquired and processed using four different protocols: Group A (control): 120 kV, FBP (filtered back projection) n = 71; group B1: 120 kV, scan and reconstruction performed with 20 % ASIR (blending of 20 % ASIR and 80 % FBP), n = 86; group B2: raw data from group B1 reconstructed using a blending of 40 % ASIR and 60 % FBP, n = 74; group C1: 120 kV, scan and reconstruction performed with 30 % ASIR, n = 20; group C2: raw data from group C1 reconstructed using a blending of 50 % ASIR and 50 % FBP, n = 20. The effective dose was calculated. Image quality was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Compared to group A, groups B1/2 and C1/2 showed a significantly reduced effective dose of 40.4 % and 73.3 % (p ASIR makes it possible to reduce radiation significantly while maintaining adequate image quality in non-contrast head CT, which may be particularly useful for younger patients in an emergency setting and in follow-up. ASIR may reduce radiation significantly while maintaining adequate image quality. cCT protocol with 20 % ASIR and 40 %ASIR/60 %FBP blending is adequate for everyday clinical use. cCT protocol with 30 % ASIR and 50 %ASIR/50 %FBP blending is adequate for follow-up imaging © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Reducing radiation dose in adult head CT using iterative reconstruction. A clinical study in 177 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, D.; Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Berlin; Kahn, J.; Huizing, L.; Wiener, E.; Grupp, U.; Boening, G.; Streitparth, F.; Ghadjar, P.; Renz, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    To assess how ASIR (adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction) contributes to dose reduction and affects image quality of non-contrast cranial computed tomography (cCT). Non-contrast emergency CT scans of the head acquired in 177 patients were evaluated. The scans were acquired and processed using four different protocols: Group A (control): 120 kV, FBP (filtered back projection) n=71; group B1: 120 kV, scan and reconstruction performed with 20 % ASIR (blending of 20 % ASIR and 80 % FBP), n=86; group B2: raw data from group B1 reconstructed using a blending of 40 % ASIR and 60 % FBP, n=74; group C1: 120 kV, scan and reconstruction performed with 30 % ASIR, n=20; group C2: raw data from group C1 reconstructed using a blending of 50 % ASIR and 50 % FBP, n=20. The effective dose was calculated. Image quality was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Compared to group A, groups B1/2 and C1/2 showed a significantly reduced effective dose of 40.4 % and 73.3 % (p < 0.0001), respectively. Group B1 and group C1/2 also showed significantly reduced quantitative and qualitative image quality parameters. In group B2, quantitative measures were comparable to group A, and qualitative scores were lower compared to group A but higher compared to group B1. Diagnostic confidence grading showed groups B1/2 to be adequate for everyday clinical practice. Group C2 was considered acceptable for follow-up imaging of severe acute events such as bleeding or subacute stroke. Conclusion: Use of ASIR makes it possible to reduce radiation significantly while maintaining adequate image quality in non-contrast head CT, which may be particularly useful for younger patients in an emergency setting and in follow-up.

  18. Influence of Ultra-Low-Dose and Iterative Reconstructions on the Visualization of Orbital Soft Tissues on Maxillofacial CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmann, G; Juranek, D; Waldenberger, F; Schullian, P; Dennhardt, A; Hoermann, R; Steurer, M; Gassner, E-M; Puelacher, W

    2017-08-01

    Dose reduction on CT scans for surgical planning and postoperative evaluation of midface and orbital fractures is an important concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variability of various low-dose and iterative reconstruction techniques on the visualization of orbital soft tissues. Contrast-to-noise ratios of the optic nerve and inferior rectus muscle and subjective scores of a human cadaver were calculated from CT with a reference dose protocol (CT dose index volume = 36.69 mGy) and a subsequent series of low-dose protocols (LDPs I-4: CT dose index volume = 4.18, 2.64, 0.99, and 0.53 mGy) with filtered back-projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR)-50, ASIR-100, and model-based iterative reconstruction. The Dunn Multiple Comparison Test was used to compare each combination of protocols (α = .05). Compared with the reference dose protocol with FBP, the following statistically significant differences in contrast-to-noise ratios were shown (all, P ≤ .012) for the following: 1) optic nerve: LDP-I with FBP; LDP-II with FBP and ASIR-50; LDP-III with FBP, ASIR-50, and ASIR-100; and LDP-IV with FBP, ASIR-50, and ASIR-100; and 2) inferior rectus muscle: LDP-II with FBP, LDP-III with FBP and ASIR-50, and LDP-IV with FBP, ASIR-50, and ASIR-100. Model-based iterative reconstruction showed the best contrast-to-noise ratio in all images and provided similar subjective scores for LDP-II. ASIR-50 had no remarkable effect, and ASIR-100, a small effect on subjective scores. Compared with a reference dose protocol with FBP, model-based iterative reconstruction may show similar diagnostic visibility of orbital soft tissues at a CT dose index volume of 2.64 mGy. Low-dose technology and iterative reconstruction technology may redefine current reference dose levels in maxillofacial CT. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  19. Investigation of vessel visibility of iterative reconstruction method in coronary computed tomography angiography using simulated vessel phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Uto, Fumiaki; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Hara, Takanori; Urikura, Atsushi; Hoshino, Takashi; Miura, Youhei; Terakawa, Syouichi

    2012-01-01

    Iterative reconstruction methods can reduce the noise of computed tomography (CT) images, which are expected to contribute to the reduction of patient dose CT examinations. The purpose of this study was to investigate impact of an iterative reconstruction method (iDose 4 , Philips Healthcare) on vessel visibility in coronary CT angiography (CTA) by using phantom studies. A simulated phantom was scanned by a CT system (iCT, Philips Healthcare), and the axial images were reconstructed by filtered back projection (FBP) and given a level of 1 to 7 (L1-L7) of the iterative reconstruction (IR). The vessel visibility was evaluated by a quantitative analysis using profiles across a 1.5-mm diameter simulated vessel as well as visual evaluation for multi planar reformation (MPR) images and volume rendering (VR) images in terms of the normalized-rank method with analysis of variance. The peak CT value of the profiles decreased with IR level and full width at half maximum of the profile also decreased with the IR level. For normalized-rank method, there was no statistical difference between FBP and L1 (20% dose reduction) for both MPR and VR images. The IR levels higher than L1 sacrificed the spatial resolution for the 1.5-mm simulated vessel, and their visual vessel visibilities were significantly inferior to that of the FBP. (author)

  20. Iterative Reconstruction Techniques in Abdominopelvic CT: Technical Concepts and Clinical Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Manuel; Fuentes, Jorge M; Singh, Sarabjeet; Hahn, Peter F; Sahani, Dushyant V

    2015-07-01

    This article discusses the clinical challenge of low-radiation-dose examinations, the commonly used approaches for dose optimization, and their effect on image quality. We emphasize practical aspects of the different iterative reconstruction techniques, along with their benefits, pitfalls, and clinical implementation. The widespread use of CT has raised concerns about potential radiation risks, motivating diverse strategies to reduce the radiation dose associated with CT. CT manufacturers have developed alternative reconstruction algorithms intended to improve image quality on dose-optimized CT studies, mainly through noise and artifact reduction. Iterative reconstruction techniques take unique approaches to noise reduction and provide distinct strength levels or settings.

  1. MO-FG-204-04: How Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms Affect the NPS of CT Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G; Liu, X; Dodge, C; Jensen, C; Rong, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate how the third generation model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) compares with filtered back-projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR), and the second generation MBIR based on noise power spectrum (NPS) analysis over a wide range of clinically applicable dose levels. Methods: The Catphan 600 CTP515 module, surrounded by an oval, fat-equivalent ring to mimic patient size/shape, was scanned on a GE HD750 CT scanner at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 19mGy CTDIvol levels with typical patient scan parameters: 120kVp, 0.8s, 40mm beam width, large SFOV, 0.984 pitch and reconstructed thickness 2.5mm (VEO3.0: Abd/Pelvis with Texture and NR05). At each CTDIvol level, 10 repeated scans were acquired for achieving sufficient data sampling. The images were reconstructed using Standard kernel with FBP; 20%, 40% and 70% ASiR; and two versions of MBIR (VEO2.0 and 3.0). For evaluating the effect of the ROI spatial location to the Result of NPS, 4 ROI groups were categorized based on their distances from the center of the phantom. Results: VEO3.0 performed inferiorly comparing to VEO2.0 over all dose levels. On the other hand, at low dose levels (less than 3 mGy), it clearly outperformed ASiR and FBP, in NPS values. Therefore, the lower the dose level, the relative performance of MBIR improves. However, the shapes of the NPS show substantial differences in horizontal and vertical sampling dimensions. These differences may determine the characteristics of the noise/texture features in images, and hence, play an important role in image interpretation. Conclusion: The third generation MBIR did not improve over the second generation MBIR in term of NPS analysis. The overall performance of both versions of MBIR improved as compared to other reconstruction algorithms when dose was reduced. The shapes of the NPS curves provided additional value for future characterization of the image noise/texture features

  2. MO-FG-204-04: How Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms Affect the NPS of CT Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G; Liu, X; Dodge, C; Jensen, C; Rong, J [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate how the third generation model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) compares with filtered back-projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR), and the second generation MBIR based on noise power spectrum (NPS) analysis over a wide range of clinically applicable dose levels. Methods: The Catphan 600 CTP515 module, surrounded by an oval, fat-equivalent ring to mimic patient size/shape, was scanned on a GE HD750 CT scanner at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 19mGy CTDIvol levels with typical patient scan parameters: 120kVp, 0.8s, 40mm beam width, large SFOV, 0.984 pitch and reconstructed thickness 2.5mm (VEO3.0: Abd/Pelvis with Texture and NR05). At each CTDIvol level, 10 repeated scans were acquired for achieving sufficient data sampling. The images were reconstructed using Standard kernel with FBP; 20%, 40% and 70% ASiR; and two versions of MBIR (VEO2.0 and 3.0). For evaluating the effect of the ROI spatial location to the Result of NPS, 4 ROI groups were categorized based on their distances from the center of the phantom. Results: VEO3.0 performed inferiorly comparing to VEO2.0 over all dose levels. On the other hand, at low dose levels (less than 3 mGy), it clearly outperformed ASiR and FBP, in NPS values. Therefore, the lower the dose level, the relative performance of MBIR improves. However, the shapes of the NPS show substantial differences in horizontal and vertical sampling dimensions. These differences may determine the characteristics of the noise/texture features in images, and hence, play an important role in image interpretation. Conclusion: The third generation MBIR did not improve over the second generation MBIR in term of NPS analysis. The overall performance of both versions of MBIR improved as compared to other reconstruction algorithms when dose was reduced. The shapes of the NPS curves provided additional value for future characterization of the image noise/texture features.

  3. Effect of hybrid iterative reconstruction technique on quantitative and qualitative image analysis at 256-slice prospective gating cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Weigold, W. Guy; Weissman, Gaby; Taylor, Allen J.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of hybrid iterative reconstruction on qualitative and quantitative parameters at 256-slice cardiac CT. Prospective cardiac CT images from 20 patients were analysed. Paired image sets were created using 3 reconstructions, i.e. filtered back projection (FBP) and moderate- and high-level iterative reconstructions. Quantitative parameters including CT-attenuation, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were determined in both proximal- and distal coronary segments. Image quality was graded on a 4-point scale. Coronary CT attenuation values were similar for FBP, moderate- and high-level iterative reconstruction at 293 ± 74-, 290 ± 75-, and 283 ± 78 Hounsfield units (HU), respectively. CNR was significantly higher with moderate- and high-level iterative reconstructions (10.9 ± 3.5 and 18.4 ± 6.2, respectively) than FBP (8.2 ± 2.5) as was the visual grading of proximal vessels. Visualisation of distal vessels was better with high-level iterative reconstruction than FBP. The mean number of assessable segments among 289 segments was 245, 260, and 267 for FBP, moderate- and high-level iterative reconstruction, respectively; the difference between FBP and high-level iterative reconstruction was significant. Interobserver agreement was significantly higher for moderate- and high-level iterative reconstruction than FBP. Cardiac CT using hybrid iterative reconstruction yields higher CNR and better image quality than FBP. circle Cardiac CT helps clinicians to assess patients with coronary artery disease circle Hybrid iterative reconstruction provides improved cardiac CT image quality circle Hybrid iterative reconstruction improves the number of assessable coronary segments circle Hybrid iterative reconstruction improves interobserver agreement on cardiac CT. (orig.)

  4. Improvement of brain perfusion SPET using iterative reconstruction with scatter and non-uniform attenuation correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauppinen, T.; Vanninen, E.; Kuikka, J.T. [Kuopio Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Clinical Physiology; Koskinen, M.O. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Tampere Univ. Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Alenius, S. [Signal Processing Lab., Tampere Univ. of Technology, Tampere (Finland)

    2000-09-01

    Filtered back-projection (FBP) is generally used as the reconstruction method for single-photon emission tomography although it produces noisy images with apparent streak artefacts. It is possible to improve the image quality by using an algorithm with iterative correction steps. The iterative reconstruction technique also has an additional benefit in that computation of attenuation correction can be included in the process. A commonly used iterative method, maximum-likelihood expectation maximisation (ML-EM), can be accelerated using ordered subsets (OS-EM). We have applied to the OS-EM algorithm a Bayesian one-step late correction method utilising median root prior (MRP). Methodological comparison was performed by means of measurements obtained with a brain perfusion phantom and using patient data. The aim of this work was to quantitate the accuracy of iterative reconstruction with scatter and non-uniform attenuation corrections and post-filtering in SPET brain perfusion imaging. SPET imaging was performed using a triple-head gamma camera with fan-beam collimators. Transmission and emission scans were acquired simultaneously. The brain phantom used was a high-resolution three-dimensional anthropomorphic JB003 phantom. Patient studies were performed in ten chronic pain syndrome patients. The images were reconstructed using conventional FBP and iterative OS-EM and MRP techniques including scatter and nonuniform attenuation corrections. Iterative reconstructions were individually post-filtered. The quantitative results obtained with the brain perfusion phantom were compared with the known actual contrast ratios. The calculated difference from the true values was largest with the FBP method; iteratively reconstructed images proved closer to the reality. Similar findings were obtained in the patient studies. The plain OS-EM method improved the contrast whereas in the case of the MRP technique the improvement in contrast was not so evident with post-filtering. (orig.)

  5. Improvement of brain perfusion SPET using iterative reconstruction with scatter and non-uniform attenuation correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauppinen, T.; Vanninen, E.; Kuikka, J.T.; Alenius, S.

    2000-01-01

    Filtered back-projection (FBP) is generally used as the reconstruction method for single-photon emission tomography although it produces noisy images with apparent streak artefacts. It is possible to improve the image quality by using an algorithm with iterative correction steps. The iterative reconstruction technique also has an additional benefit in that computation of attenuation correction can be included in the process. A commonly used iterative method, maximum-likelihood expectation maximisation (ML-EM), can be accelerated using ordered subsets (OS-EM). We have applied to the OS-EM algorithm a Bayesian one-step late correction method utilising median root prior (MRP). Methodological comparison was performed by means of measurements obtained with a brain perfusion phantom and using patient data. The aim of this work was to quantitate the accuracy of iterative reconstruction with scatter and non-uniform attenuation corrections and post-filtering in SPET brain perfusion imaging. SPET imaging was performed using a triple-head gamma camera with fan-beam collimators. Transmission and emission scans were acquired simultaneously. The brain phantom used was a high-resolution three-dimensional anthropomorphic JB003 phantom. Patient studies were performed in ten chronic pain syndrome patients. The images were reconstructed using conventional FBP and iterative OS-EM and MRP techniques including scatter and nonuniform attenuation corrections. Iterative reconstructions were individually post-filtered. The quantitative results obtained with the brain perfusion phantom were compared with the known actual contrast ratios. The calculated difference from the true values was largest with the FBP method; iteratively reconstructed images proved closer to the reality. Similar findings were obtained in the patient studies. The plain OS-EM method improved the contrast whereas in the case of the MRP technique the improvement in contrast was not so evident with post-filtering. (orig.)

  6. Accelerated perturbation-resilient block-iterative projection methods with application to image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikazad, T; Davidi, R; Herman, G T

    2012-03-01

    We study the convergence of a class of accelerated perturbation-resilient block-iterative projection methods for solving systems of linear equations. We prove convergence to a fixed point of an operator even in the presence of summable perturbations of the iterates, irrespective of the consistency of the linear system. For a consistent system, the limit point is a solution of the system. In the inconsistent case, the symmetric version of our method converges to a weighted least squares solution. Perturbation resilience is utilized to approximate the minimum of a convex functional subject to the equations. A main contribution, as compared to previously published approaches to achieving similar aims, is a more than an order of magnitude speed-up, as demonstrated by applying the methods to problems of image reconstruction from projections. In addition, the accelerated algorithms are illustrated to be better, in a strict sense provided by the method of statistical hypothesis testing, than their unaccelerated versions for the task of detecting small tumors in the brain from X-ray CT projection data.

  7. Iterative reconstruction for x-ray computed tomography using prior-image induced nonlocal regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Huang, Jing; Ma, Jianhua; Bian, Zhaoying; Feng, Qianjin; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong; Chen, Wufan

    2014-09-01

    Repeated X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans are often required in several specific applications such as perfusion imaging, image-guided biopsy needle, image-guided intervention, and radiotherapy with noticeable benefits. However, the associated cumulative radiation dose significantly increases as comparison with that used in the conventional CT scan, which has raised major concerns in patients. In this study, to realize radiation dose reduction by reducing the X-ray tube current and exposure time (mAs) in repeated CT scans, we propose a prior-image induced nonlocal (PINL) regularization for statistical iterative reconstruction via the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) criteria, which we refer to as "PWLS-PINL". Specifically, the PINL regularization utilizes the redundant information in the prior image and the weighted least-squares term considers a data-dependent variance estimation, aiming to improve current low-dose image quality. Subsequently, a modified iterative successive overrelaxation algorithm is adopted to optimize the associative objective function. Experimental results on both phantom and patient data show that the present PWLS-PINL method can achieve promising gains over the other existing methods in terms of the noise reduction, low-contrast object detection, and edge detail preservation.

  8. Impact of the algorithm of iterative reconstruction ASIR in the CTDI of studies in TCHMC; Impacto del algoritmo de reconstruccion iterativa ASIR en el CTDI de los estudios en TCHMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambroa Rey, E. M.; Vazquez Vazquez, R.; Gimenez Insua, M.; Sanchez Garcia, M.; Otero Martinez, C.; Luna Vega, V.; Mosquera Sueiro, J.; Lobato Busto, R.; Pombar Camean, M.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work is to make a comparison of the doses in the 10 protocols most commonly used in our Center, before and after the commissioning of the software ASIR (Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction). (Author)

  9. A noise power spectrum study of a new model-based iterative reconstruction system: Veo 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Liu, Xinming; Dodge, Cristina T; Jensen, Corey T; Rong, X John

    2016-09-08

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance of the third generation of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) system, Veo 3.0, based on noise power spectrum (NPS) analysis with various clinical presets over a wide range of clinically applicable dose levels. A CatPhan 600 surrounded by an oval, fat-equivalent ring to mimic patient size/shape was scanned 10 times at each of six dose levels on a GE HD 750 scanner. NPS analysis was performed on images reconstructed with various Veo 3.0 preset combinations for comparisons of those images reconstructed using Veo 2.0, filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruc-tion (ASiR). The new Target Thickness setting resulted in higher noise in thicker axial images. The new Texture Enhancement function achieved a more isotropic noise behavior with less image artifacts. Veo 3.0 provides additional reconstruction options designed to allow the user choice of balance between spatial resolution and image noise, relative to Veo 2.0. Veo 3.0 provides more user selectable options and in general improved isotropic noise behavior in comparison to Veo 2.0. The overall noise reduction performance of both versions of MBIR was improved in comparison to FBP and ASiR, especially at low-dose levels. © 2016 The Authors.

  10. A noise power spectrum study of a new model‐based iterative reconstruction system: Veo 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Liu, Xinming; Dodge, Cristina T.; Jensen, Corey T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance of the third generation of model‐based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) system, Veo 3.0, based on noise power spectrum (NPS) analysis with various clinical presets over a wide range of clinically applicable dose levels. A CatPhan 600 surrounded by an oval, fat‐equivalent ring to mimic patient size/shape was scanned 10 times at each of six dose levels on a GE HD 750 scanner. NPS analysis was performed on images reconstructed with various Veo 3.0 preset combinations for comparisons of those images reconstructed using Veo 2.0, filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR). The new Target Thickness setting resulted in higher noise in thicker axial images. The new Texture Enhancement function achieved a more isotropic noise behavior with less image artifacts. Veo 3.0 provides additional reconstruction options designed to allow the user choice of balance between spatial resolution and image noise, relative to Veo 2.0. Veo 3.0 provides more user selectable options and in general improved isotropic noise behavior in comparison to Veo 2.0. The overall noise reduction performance of both versions of MBIR was improved in comparison to FBP and ASiR, especially at low‐dose levels. PACS number(s): 87.57.‐s, 87.57.Q‐, 87.57.C‐, 87.57.nf, 87.57.C‐, 87.57.cm PMID:27685118

  11. Paediatric cardiac CT examinations: impact of the iterative reconstruction method ASIR on image quality - preliminary findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieville, Frederic A.; Gudinchet, Francois; Rizzo, Elena; Ou, Phalla; Brunelle, Francis; Bochud, Francois O.; Verdun, Francis R.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation dose exposure is of particular concern in children due to the possible harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) method is a promising new technique that reduces image noise and produces better overall image quality compared with routine-dose contrast-enhanced methods. To assess the benefits of ASIR on the diagnostic image quality in paediatric cardiac CT examinations. Four paediatric radiologists based at two major hospitals evaluated ten low-dose paediatric cardiac examinations (80 kVp, CTDI vol 4.8-7.9 mGy, DLP 37.1-178.9 mGy.cm). The average age of the cohort studied was 2.6 years (range 1 day to 7 years). Acquisitions were performed on a 64-MDCT scanner. All images were reconstructed at various ASIR percentages (0-100%). For each examination, radiologists scored 19 anatomical structures using the relative visual grading analysis method. To estimate the potential for dose reduction, acquisitions were also performed on a Catphan phantom and a paediatric phantom. The best image quality for all clinical images was obtained with 20% and 40% ASIR (p < 0.001) whereas with ASIR above 50%, image quality significantly decreased (p < 0.001). With 100% ASIR, a strong noise-free appearance of the structures reduced image conspicuity. A potential for dose reduction of about 36% is predicted for a 2- to 3-year-old child when using 40% ASIR rather than the standard filtered back-projection method. Reconstruction including 20% to 40% ASIR slightly improved the conspicuity of various paediatric cardiac structures in newborns and children with respect to conventional reconstruction (filtered back-projection) alone. (orig.)

  12. Paediatric cardiac CT examinations: impact of the iterative reconstruction method ASIR on image quality - preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mieville, Frederic A. [University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, Institute of Radiation Physics, Lausanne (Switzerland); University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, Institute of Radiation Physics - Medical Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Gudinchet, Francois; Rizzo, Elena [University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ou, Phalla; Brunelle, Francis [Necker Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Bochud, Francois O.; Verdun, Francis R. [University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, Institute of Radiation Physics, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-09-15

    Radiation dose exposure is of particular concern in children due to the possible harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) method is a promising new technique that reduces image noise and produces better overall image quality compared with routine-dose contrast-enhanced methods. To assess the benefits of ASIR on the diagnostic image quality in paediatric cardiac CT examinations. Four paediatric radiologists based at two major hospitals evaluated ten low-dose paediatric cardiac examinations (80 kVp, CTDI{sub vol} 4.8-7.9 mGy, DLP 37.1-178.9 mGy.cm). The average age of the cohort studied was 2.6 years (range 1 day to 7 years). Acquisitions were performed on a 64-MDCT scanner. All images were reconstructed at various ASIR percentages (0-100%). For each examination, radiologists scored 19 anatomical structures using the relative visual grading analysis method. To estimate the potential for dose reduction, acquisitions were also performed on a Catphan phantom and a paediatric phantom. The best image quality for all clinical images was obtained with 20% and 40% ASIR (p < 0.001) whereas with ASIR above 50%, image quality significantly decreased (p < 0.001). With 100% ASIR, a strong noise-free appearance of the structures reduced image conspicuity. A potential for dose reduction of about 36% is predicted for a 2- to 3-year-old child when using 40% ASIR rather than the standard filtered back-projection method. Reconstruction including 20% to 40% ASIR slightly improved the conspicuity of various paediatric cardiac structures in newborns and children with respect to conventional reconstruction (filtered back-projection) alone. (orig.)

  13. Krylov iterative methods and synthetic acceleration for transport in binary statistical media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtl, Erin D.; Warsa, James S.; Prinja, Anil K.

    2009-01-01

    In particle transport applications there are numerous physical constructs in which heterogeneities are randomly distributed. The quantity of interest in these problems is the ensemble average of the flux, or the average of the flux over all possible material 'realizations.' The Levermore-Pomraning closure assumes Markovian mixing statistics and allows a closed, coupled system of equations to be written for the ensemble averages of the flux in each material. Generally, binary statistical mixtures are considered in which there are two (homogeneous) materials and corresponding coupled equations. The solution process is iterative, but convergence may be slow as either or both materials approach the diffusion and/or atomic mix limits. A three-part acceleration scheme is devised to expedite convergence, particularly in the atomic mix-diffusion limit where computation is extremely slow. The iteration is first divided into a series of 'inner' material and source iterations to attenuate the diffusion and atomic mix error modes separately. Secondly, atomic mix synthetic acceleration is applied to the inner material iteration and S 2 synthetic acceleration to the inner source iterations to offset the cost of doing several inner iterations per outer iteration. Finally, a Krylov iterative solver is wrapped around each iteration, inner and outer, to further expedite convergence. A spectral analysis is conducted and iteration counts and computing cost for the new two-step scheme are compared against those for a simple one-step iteration, to which a Krylov iterative method can also be applied.

  14. An algebraic iterative reconstruction technique for differential X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian; Schleede, Simone; Tan, Renbo; Chen, Liyuan; Bech, Martin; Achterhold, Klaus; Gifford, Martin; Loewen, Rod; Ruth, Ronald; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2013-09-01

    Iterative reconstruction has a wide spectrum of proven advantages in the field of conventional X-ray absorption-based computed tomography (CT). In this paper, we report on an algebraic iterative reconstruction technique for grating-based differential phase-contrast CT (DPC-CT). Due to the differential nature of DPC-CT projections, a differential operator and a smoothing operator are added to the iterative reconstruction, compared to the one commonly used for absorption-based CT data. This work comprises a numerical study of the algorithm and its experimental verification using a dataset measured at a two-grating interferometer setup. Since the algorithm is easy to implement and allows for the extension to various regularization possibilities, we expect a significant impact of the method for improving future medical and industrial DPC-CT applications. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  15. A study of reconstruction artifacts in cone beam tomography using filtered backprojection and iterative EM algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, G.L.; Gullberg, G.T.

    1990-01-01

    Reconstruction artifacts in cone beam tomography are studied for filtered backprojection (Feldkamp) and iterative EM algorithms. The filtered backprojection algorithm uses a voxel-driven, interpolated backprojection to reconstruct the cone beam data; whereas, the iterative EM algorithm performs ray-driven projection and backprojection operations for each iteration. Two weight in schemes for the projection and backprojection operations in the EM algorithm are studied. One weights each voxel by the length of the ray through the voxel and the other equates the value of a voxel to the functional value of the midpoint of the line intersecting the voxel, which is obtained by interpolating between eight neighboring voxels. Cone beam reconstruction artifacts such as rings, bright vertical extremities, and slice-to slice cross talk are not found with parallel beam and fan beam geometries

  16. LOR-OSEM: statistical PET reconstruction from raw line-of-response histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadrmas, Dan J

    2004-01-01

    Iterative statistical reconstruction methods are becoming the standard in positron emission tomography (PET). Conventional maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (MLEM) and ordered-subsets (OSEM) algorithms act on data which have been pre-processed into corrected, evenly-spaced histograms; however, such pre-processing corrupts the Poisson statistics. Recent advances have incorporated attenuation, scatter and randoms compensation into the iterative reconstruction. The objective of this work was to incorporate the remaining pre-processing steps, including arc correction, to reconstruct directly from raw unevenly-spaced line-of-response (LOR) histograms. This exactly preserves Poisson statistics and full spatial information in a manner closely related to listmode ML, making full use of the ML statistical model. The LOR-OSEM algorithm was implemented using a rotation-based projector which maps directly to the unevenly-spaced LOR grid. Simulation and phantom experiments were performed to characterize resolution, contrast and noise properties for 2D PET. LOR-OSEM provided a beneficial noise-resolution tradeoff, outperforming AW-OSEM by about the same margin that AW-OSEM outperformed pre-corrected OSEM. The relationship between LOR-ML and listmode ML algorithms was explored, and implementation differences are discussed. LOR-OSEM is a viable alternative to AW-OSEM for histogram-based reconstruction with improved spatial resolution and noise properties

  17. Computer-assisted solid lung nodule 3D volumetry on CT. Influence of scan mode and iterative reconstruction. A CT phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, Adriaan; Honda, Osamu; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Jagt, Eric J. van der

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of high-resolution scan mode and iterative reconstruction on lung nodule 3D volumetry. Solid nodules with various sizes (5, 8, 10 and 12 mm) were placed inside a chest phantom. CT images were obtained with various tube currents, scan modes (conventional mode, high-resolution mode) and iterative reconstructions [0, 50 and 100% blending of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) and filtered back projection]. The nodule volumes were calculated using semiautomatic software and compared with the assumed volume from the nodules. The mean absolute and relative percentage error improved when using iterative reconstruction especially when using the conventional scan mode; however, this effect was not significant. Significant reduction in volume overestimation was observed when using high-resolution scan mode (P=0.011). The high-resolution mode significantly reduces the volume overestimation of 3D volumetry. Iterative reconstruction shows a reduction in volume overestimation and error margin especially with the conventional scan mode; however, this effect was not significant. (author)

  18. Reducing the effects of acoustic heterogeneity with an iterative reconstruction method from experimental data in microwave induced thermoacoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jinguo; Zhao, Zhiqin; Song, Jian; Chen, Guoping; Nie, Zaiping; Liu, Qing-Huo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: An iterative reconstruction method has been previously reported by the authors of this paper. However, the iterative reconstruction method was demonstrated by solely using the numerical simulations. It is essential to apply the iterative reconstruction method to practice conditions. The objective of this work is to validate the capability of the iterative reconstruction method for reducing the effects of acoustic heterogeneity with the experimental data in microwave induced thermoacoustic tomography. Methods: Most existing reconstruction methods need to combine the ultrasonic measurement technology to quantitatively measure the velocity distribution of heterogeneity, which increases the system complexity. Different to existing reconstruction methods, the iterative reconstruction method combines time reversal mirror technique, fast marching method, and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique to iteratively estimate the velocity distribution of heterogeneous tissue by solely using the measured data. Then, the estimated velocity distribution is used subsequently to reconstruct the highly accurate image of microwave absorption distribution. Experiments that a target placed in an acoustic heterogeneous environment are performed to validate the iterative reconstruction method. Results: By using the estimated velocity distribution, the target in an acoustic heterogeneous environment can be reconstructed with better shape and higher image contrast than targets that are reconstructed with a homogeneous velocity distribution. Conclusions: The distortions caused by the acoustic heterogeneity can be efficiently corrected by utilizing the velocity distribution estimated by the iterative reconstruction method. The advantage of the iterative reconstruction method over the existing correction methods is that it is successful in improving the quality of the image of microwave absorption distribution without increasing the system complexity

  19. Comparison of pure and hybrid iterative reconstruction techniques with conventional filtered back projection: Image quality assessment in the cervicothoracic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsura, Masaki; Sato, Jiro; Akahane, Masaaki; Matsuda, Izuru; Ishida, Masanori; Yasaka, Koichiro; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact on image quality of three different image reconstruction techniques in the cervicothoracic region: model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and filtered back projection (FBP). Methods: Forty-four patients underwent unenhanced standard-of-care clinical computed tomography (CT) examinations which included the cervicothoracic region with a 64-row multidetector CT scanner. Images were reconstructed with FBP, 50% ASIR-FBP blending (ASIR50), and MBIR. Two radiologists assessed the cervicothoracic region in a blinded manner for streak artifacts, pixilated blotchy appearances, critical reproduction of visually sharp anatomical structures (thyroid gland, common carotid artery, and esophagus), and overall diagnostic acceptability. Objective image noise was measured in the internal jugular vein. Data were analyzed using the sign test and pair-wise Student's t-test. Results: MBIR images had significant lower quantitative image noise (8.88 ± 1.32) compared to ASIR images (18.63 ± 4.19, P 0.9 for ASIR vs. FBP for both readers). MBIR images were all diagnostically acceptable. Unique features of MBIR images included pixilated blotchy appearances, which did not adversely affect diagnostic acceptability. Conclusions: MBIR significantly improves image noise and streak artifacts of the cervicothoracic region over ASIR and FBP. MBIR is expected to enhance the value of CT examinations for areas where image noise and streak artifacts are problematic

  20. An analytical statistical approach to the 3D reconstruction problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cierniak, Robert [Czestochowa Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Computer Engineering

    2011-07-01

    The presented here approach is concerned with the reconstruction problem for 3D spiral X-ray tomography. The reconstruction problem is formulated taking into considerations the statistical properties of signals obtained in X-ray CT. Additinally, image processing performed in our approach is involved in analytical methodology. This conception significantly improves quality of the obtained after reconstruction images and decreases the complexity of the reconstruction problem in comparison with other approaches. Computer simulations proved that schematically described here reconstruction algorithm outperforms conventional analytical methods in obtained image quality. (orig.)

  1. Iterative reconstruction with attenuation compensation from cone-beam projections acquired via nonplanar orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, G.L.; Weng, Y.; Gullberg, G.T.

    1997-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging with cone-beam collimators provides improved sensitivity and spatial resolution for imaging small objects with large field-of-view detectors. It is known that Tuy's cone-beam data sufficiency condition must be met to obtain artifact-free reconstructions. Even though Tuy's condition was derived for an attenuation-free situation, the authors hypothesize that an artifact-free reconstruction can be obtained even if the cone-beam data are attenuated, provided the imaging orbit satisfies Tuy's condition and the exact attenuation map is known. In the authors' studies, emission data are acquired using nonplanar circle-and-line orbits to acquire cone-beam data for tomographic reconstructions. An extended iterative ML-EM (maximum likelihood-expectation maximization) reconstruction algorithm is derived and used to reconstruct projection data with either a pre-acquired or assumed attenuation map. Quantitative accuracy of the attenuation corrected emission reconstruction is significantly improved

  2. Does iterative reconstruction lower CT radiation dose: evaluation of 15,000 examinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter B Noël

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluation of 15,000 computed tomography (CT examinations to investigate if iterative reconstruction (IR reduces sustainably radiation exposure. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Information from 15,000 CT examinations was collected, including all aspects of the exams such as scan parameter, patient information, and reconstruction instructions. The examinations were acquired between January 2010 and December 2012, while after 15 months a first generation IR algorithm was installed. To collect the necessary information from PACS, RIS, MPPS and structured reports a Dose Monitoring System was developed. To harvest all possible information an optical character recognition system was integrated, for example to collect information from the screenshot CT-dose report. The tool transfers all data to a database for further processing such as the calculation of effective dose and organ doses. To evaluate if IR provides a sustainable dose reduction, the effective dose values were statistically analyzed with respect to protocol type, diagnostic indication, and patient population. RESULTS: IR has the potential to reduce radiation dose significantly. Before clinical introduction of IR the average effective dose was 10.1±7.8mSv and with IR 8.9±7.1mSv (p*=0.01. Especially in CTA, with the possibility to use kV reduction protocols, such as in aortic CTAs (before IR: average14.2±7.8mSv; median11.4mSv /with IR:average9.9±7.4mSv; median7.4mSv, or pulmonary CTAs (before IR: average9.7±6.2mSV; median7.7mSv /with IR: average6.4±4.7mSv; median4.8mSv the dose reduction effect is significant(p*=0.01. On the contrary for unenhanced low-dose scans of the cranial (for example sinuses the reduction is not significant (before IR:average6.6±5.8mSv; median3.9mSv/with IR:average6.0±3.1mSV; median3.2mSv. CONCLUSION: The dose aspect remains a priority in CT research. Iterative reconstruction algorithms reduce sustainably and significantly radiation dose in the clinical routine

  3. Cardiovascular CT angiography in neonates and children : Image quality and potential for radiation dose reduction with iterative image reconstruction techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tricarico, Francesco; Hlavacek, Anthony M.; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Nance, John W.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Cho, Young Jun; Spears, J. Reid; Secchi, Francesco; Savino, Giancarlo; Marano, Riccardo; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Apfaltrer, Paul

    To evaluate image quality (IQ) of low-radiation-dose paediatric cardiovascular CT angiography (CTA), comparing iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS) and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) with filtered back-projection (FBP) and estimate the potential for further dose

  4. A comparison in the reconstruction of neutron spectrums using classical iterative techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz R, J. M.; Martinez B, M. R.; Vega C, H. R.; Gallego, E.

    2009-10-01

    One of the key drawbacks to the use of BUNKI code is that the process begins the reconstruction of the spectrum based on a priori knowledge as close as possible to the solution that is sought. The user has to specify the initial spectrum or do it through a subroutine called MAXIET to calculate a Maxwellian and a 1/E spectrum as initial spectrum. Because the application of iterative procedures by to resolve the reconstruction of neutron spectrum needs an initial spectrum, it is necessary to have new proposals for the election of the same. Based on the experience gained with a widely used method of reconstruction, called BUNKI, has developed a new computational tools for neutron spectrometry and dosimetry, which was first introduced, which operates by means of an iterative algorithm for the reconstruction of neutron spectra. The main feature of this tool is that unlike the existing iterative codes, the choice of the initial spectrum is performed automatically by the program, through a neutron spectra catalog. To develop the code, the algorithm was selected as the routine iterative SPUNIT be used in computing tool and response matrix UTA4 for 31 energy groups. (author)

  5. The effect of iterative reconstruction on computed tomography assessment of emphysema, air trapping and airway dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mets, Onno M.; Willemink, Martin J.; de Kort, Freek P. L.; Mol, Christian P.; Leiner, Tim; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Prokop, Mathias; de Jong, Pim A.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the influence of iterative reconstruction (IR) on quantitative computed tomography (CT) measurements of emphysema, air trapping, and airway wall and lumen dimensions, compared to filtered back-projection (FBP). Inspiratory and expiratory chest CTs of 75 patients (37 male, 38 female;

  6. Projector and Backprojector for Iterative CT Reconstruction with Blobs using CUDA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bippus, R.D.; Koehler, T.; Bergner, F.; Brendel, B.; Hansis, E.; Proksa, R.

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at modeling the system’s geometry correctly accounting for the major effects influencing image quality within an iterative reconstruction framework we want to achieve this within reasonable processing times. This principle objective led us to using blobs for imagerepresentation and a

  7. Convergence of SART + OS + TV iterative reconstruction algorithm for optical CT imaging of gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yi; Yu, Gongyi; Xiang, Xincheng; Wang, Xiangang; De Deene, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Computational simulations are used to investigate the convergence of a hybrid iterative algorithm for optical CT reconstruction, i.e. the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) integrated with ordered subsets (OS) iteration and total variation (TV) minimization regularization, or SART+OS+TV for short. The influence of parameter selection to reach convergence, spatial dose gradient integrity, MTF and convergent speed are discussed. It’s shown that the results of SART+OS+TV algorithm converge to the true values without significant bias, and MTF and convergent speed are affected by different parameter sets used for iterative calculation. In conclusion, the performance of the SART+OS+TV depends on parameter selection, which also implies that careful parameter tuning work is required and necessary for proper spatial performance and fast convergence. (paper)

  8. Development of an iterative 3D reconstruction method for the control of heavy-ion oncotherapy with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauckner, K.

    1999-06-01

    The dissertation reports the approach and work for developing and implementing an image space reconstruction method that allows to check the 3D activity distribution and detect possible deviations from irradiation planning data. Other than usual PET scanners, the BASTEI instrument is equipped with two detectors positioned at opposite sides above and below the patient, so that there is enough space for suitable positioning of patient and radiation source. Due to the restricted field of view of the positron camera, the 3D imaging process is subject to displacement-dependent variations, creating bad reconstruction conditions. In addition, the counting rate is lower by two or three orders of magnitude than the usual counting rates of nuclear-medicine PET applications. This is why an iterative 3D algorithm is needed. Two iterative methods known from conventional PET were examined for their suitability and compared with respect to results. The MLEM algorithm proposed by Shepp and Vardi interprets the measured data as a random sample of independent variables of Poisson distributions, to be used for assessing the unknown activity distribution. A disadvantage of this algorithm is the considerable calculation effort required. For minimizing the calculation effort, and in order to make iterative statistical methods applicable to measured 3D data, Daube-Whitherspoon and Muehllehner developed the Iterative Image Space Reconstruction Algorithm, ISRA, derived through modification of the sequence of development steps of the MLEM algorithm. Problem solution with ISRA is based on least square deviation method, other than with the MLEM algorithm which uses the best probability method. (orig./CB) [de

  9. Mean-variance analysis of block-iterative reconstruction algorithms modeling 3D detector response in SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalush, D. S.; Tsui, B. M. W.

    1998-06-01

    We study the statistical convergence properties of two fast iterative reconstruction algorithms, the rescaled block-iterative (RBI) and ordered subset (OS) EM algorithms, in the context of cardiac SPECT with 3D detector response modeling. The Monte Carlo method was used to generate nearly noise-free projection data modeling the effects of attenuation, detector response, and scatter from the MCAT phantom. One thousand noise realizations were generated with an average count level approximating a typical T1-201 cardiac study. Each noise realization was reconstructed using the RBI and OS algorithms for cases with and without detector response modeling. For each iteration up to twenty, we generated mean and variance images, as well as covariance images for six specific locations. Both OS and RBI converged in the mean to results that were close to the noise-free ML-EM result using the same projection model. When detector response was not modeled in the reconstruction, RBI exhibited considerably lower noise variance than OS for the same resolution. When 3D detector response was modeled, the RBI-EM provided a small improvement in the tradeoff between noise level and resolution recovery, primarily in the axial direction, while OS required about half the number of iterations of RBI to reach the same resolution. We conclude that OS is faster than RBI, but may be sensitive to errors in the projection model. Both OS-EM and RBI-EM are effective alternatives to the EVIL-EM algorithm, but noise level and speed of convergence depend on the projection model used.

  10. Experimental results and validation of a method to reconstruct forces on the ITER test blanket modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeile, Christian; Maione, Ivan A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An in operation force measurement system for the ITER EU HCPB TBM has been developed. • The force reconstruction methods are based on strain measurements on the attachment system. • An experimental setup and a corresponding mock-up have been built. • A set of test cases representing ITER relevant excitations has been used for validation. • The influence of modeling errors on the force reconstruction has been investigated. - Abstract: In order to reconstruct forces on the test blanket modules in ITER, two force reconstruction methods, the augmented Kalman filter and a model predictive controller, have been selected and developed to estimate the forces based on strain measurements on the attachment system. A dedicated experimental setup with a corresponding mock-up has been designed and built to validate these methods. A set of test cases has been defined to represent possible excitation of the system. It has been shown that the errors in the estimated forces mainly depend on the accuracy of the identified model used by the algorithms. Furthermore, it has been found that a minimum of 10 strain gauges is necessary to allow for a low error in the reconstructed forces.

  11. The impact of iterative reconstruction in low-dose computed tomography on the evaluation of diffuse interstitial lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyun Ju; Chung, Myung Jin; Shin, Kyung Eun; Hwang, Hye Sun; Lee, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Radiology nd Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    To evaluate the impact of iterative reconstruction (IR) on the assessment of diffuse interstitial lung disease (DILD) using CT. An American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom (module 4 to assess spatial resolution) was scanned with 10-100 effective mAs at 120 kVp. The images were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), with blending ratios of 0%, 30%, 70% and 100%, and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), and their spatial resolution was objectively assessed by the line pair structure method. The patient study was based on retrospective interpretation of prospectively acquired data, and it was approved by the institutional review board. Chest CT scans of 23 patients (mean age 64 years) were performed at 120 kVp using 1) standard dose protocol applying 142-275 mA with dose modulation (high-resolution computed tomography [HRCT]) and 2) low-dose protocol applying 20 mA (low dose CT, LDCT). HRCT images were reconstructed with FBP, and LDCT images were reconstructed using FBP, ASIR, and MBIR. Matching images were randomized and independently reviewed by chest radiologists. Subjective assessment of disease presence and radiological diagnosis was made on a 10-point scale. In addition, semi-quantitative results were compared for the extent of abnormalities estimated to the nearest 5% of parenchymal involvement. In the phantom study, ASIR was comparable to FBP in terms of spatial resolution. However, for MBIR, the spatial resolution was greatly decreased under 10 mA. In the patient study, the detection of the presence of disease was not significantly different. The values for area under the curve for detection of DILD by HRCT, FBP, ASIR, and MBIR were as follows: 0.978, 0.979, 0.972, and 0.963. LDCT images reconstructed with FBP, ASIR, and MBIR tended to underestimate reticular or honeycombing opacities (-2.8%, -4.1%, and -5.3%, respectively) and overestimate ground glass opacities (+4.6%, +8.9%, and

  12. Motion tolerant iterative reconstruction algorithm for cone-beam helical CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hisashi; Goto, Taiga; Hirokawa, Koichi; Miyazaki, Osamu [Hitachi Medical Corporation, Chiba-ken (Japan). CT System Div.

    2011-07-01

    We have developed a new advanced iterative reconstruction algorithm for cone-beam helical CT. The features of this algorithm are: (a) it uses separable paraboloidal surrogate (SPS) technique as a foundation for reconstruction to reduce noise and cone-beam artifact, (b) it uses a view weight in the back-projection process to reduce motion artifact. To confirm the improvement of our proposed algorithm over other existing algorithm, such as Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) or SPS algorithm, we compared the motion artifact reduction, image noise reduction (standard deviation of CT number), and cone-beam artifact reduction on simulated and clinical data set. Our results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm dramatically reduces motion artifacts compared with the SPS algorithm, and decreases image noise compared with the FDK algorithm. In addition, the proposed algorithm potentially improves time resolution of iterative reconstruction. (orig.)

  13. Model-based Iterative Reconstruction: Effect on Patient Radiation Dose and Image Quality in Pediatric Body CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Jonathan R.; Goodsitt, Mitchell M.; Christodoulou, Emmanuel G.; Keshavarzi, Nahid; Strouse, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To retrospectively compare image quality and radiation dose between a reduced-dose computed tomographic (CT) protocol that uses model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) and a standard-dose CT protocol that uses 30% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) with filtered back projection. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained. Clinical CT images of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis obtained with a reduced-dose protocol were identified. Images were reconstructed with two algorithms: MBIR and 100% ASIR. All subjects had undergone standard-dose CT within the prior year, and the images were reconstructed with 30% ASIR. Reduced- and standard-dose images were evaluated objectively and subjectively. Reduced-dose images were evaluated for lesion detectability. Spatial resolution was assessed in a phantom. Radiation dose was estimated by using volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol) and calculated size-specific dose estimates (SSDE). A combination of descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and t tests was used for statistical analysis. Results In the 25 patients who underwent the reduced-dose protocol, mean decrease in CTDIvol was 46% (range, 19%–65%) and mean decrease in SSDE was 44% (range, 19%–64%). Reduced-dose MBIR images had less noise (P > .004). Spatial resolution was superior for reduced-dose MBIR images. Reduced-dose MBIR images were equivalent to standard-dose images for lungs and soft tissues (P > .05) but were inferior for bones (P = .004). Reduced-dose 100% ASIR images were inferior for soft tissues (P ASIR. Conclusion CT performed with a reduced-dose protocol and MBIR is feasible in the pediatric population, and it maintains diagnostic quality. © RSNA, 2013 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:24091359

  14. Ultralow dose dentomaxillofacial CT imaging and iterative reconstruction techniques: variability of Hounsfield units and contrast-to-noise ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischel, Alexander; Stratis, Andreas; Kakar, Apoorv; Bosmans, Hilde; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Gassner, Eva-Maria; Puelacher, Wolfgang; Pauwels, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether application of ultralow dose protocols and iterative reconstruction technology (IRT) influence quantitative Hounsfield units (HUs) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in dentomaxillofacial CT imaging. Methods: A phantom with inserts of five types of materials was scanned using protocols for (a) a clinical reference for navigated surgery (CT dose index volume 36.58 mGy), (b) low-dose sinus imaging (18.28 mGy) and (c) four ultralow dose imaging (4.14, 2.63, 0.99 and 0.53 mGy). All images were reconstructed using: (i) filtered back projection (FBP); (ii) IRT: adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-50 (ASIR-50), ASIR-100 and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR); and (iii) standard (std) and bone kernel. Mean HU, CNR and average HU error after recalibration were determined. Each combination of protocols was compared using Friedman analysis of variance, followed by Dunn's multiple comparison test. Results: Pearson's sample correlation coefficients were all >0.99. Ultralow dose protocols using FBP showed errors of up to 273 HU. Std kernels had less HU variability than bone kernels. MBIR reduced the error value for the lowest dose protocol to 138 HU and retained the highest relative CNR. ASIR could not demonstrate significant advantages over FBP. Conclusions: Considering a potential dose reduction as low as 1.5% of a std protocol, ultralow dose protocols and IRT should be further tested for clinical dentomaxillofacial CT imaging. Advances in knowledge: HU as a surrogate for bone density may vary significantly in CT ultralow dose imaging. However, use of std kernels and MBIR technology reduce HU error values and may retain the highest CNR. PMID:26859336

  15. Iterative reconstruction technique with reduced volume CT dose index: diagnostic accuracy in pediatric acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier, Ryne A.; Vajtai, Petra L.; Hopkins, Katharine L.

    2015-01-01

    Iterative reconstruction technique has been proposed as a means of reducing patient radiation dose in pediatric CT. Yet, the effect of such reductions on diagnostic accuracy has not been thoroughly evaluated. This study compares accuracy of diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis using contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans performed with traditional pediatric weight-based protocols and filtered back projection reconstruction vs. a filtered back projection/iterative reconstruction technique blend with reduced volume CT dose index (CTDI vol ). Results of pediatric contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans done for pain and/or suspected appendicitis were reviewed in two groups: A, 192 scans performed with the hospital's established weight-based CT protocols and filtered back projection reconstruction; B, 194 scans performed with iterative reconstruction technique and reduced CTDI vol . Reduced CTDI vol was achieved primarily by reductions in effective tube current-time product (mAs eff ) and tube peak kilovoltage (kVp). CT interpretation was correlated with clinical follow-up and/or surgical pathology. CTDI vol , size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) and performance characteristics of the two CT techniques were then compared. Between groups A and B, mean CTDI vol was reduced by 45%, and mean SSDE was reduced by 46%. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 96%, 97% and 96% in group A vs. 100%, 99% and 99% in group B. Accuracy in diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis was maintained in contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans that incorporated iterative reconstruction technique, despite reductions in mean CTDI vol and SSDE by nearly half as compared to the hospital's traditional weight-based protocols. (orig.)

  16. Iterative reconstruction technique with reduced volume CT dose index: diagnostic accuracy in pediatric acute appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didier, Ryne A. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, DC7R, Portland, OR (United States); Vajtai, Petra L. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Pediatrics, Portland, OR (United States); Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, DC7R, Portland, OR (United States); Hopkins, Katharine L. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, DC7R, Portland, OR (United States); Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Pediatrics, Portland, OR (United States)

    2014-07-05

    Iterative reconstruction technique has been proposed as a means of reducing patient radiation dose in pediatric CT. Yet, the effect of such reductions on diagnostic accuracy has not been thoroughly evaluated. This study compares accuracy of diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis using contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans performed with traditional pediatric weight-based protocols and filtered back projection reconstruction vs. a filtered back projection/iterative reconstruction technique blend with reduced volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}). Results of pediatric contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans done for pain and/or suspected appendicitis were reviewed in two groups: A, 192 scans performed with the hospital's established weight-based CT protocols and filtered back projection reconstruction; B, 194 scans performed with iterative reconstruction technique and reduced CTDI{sub vol}. Reduced CTDI{sub vol} was achieved primarily by reductions in effective tube current-time product (mAs{sub eff}) and tube peak kilovoltage (kVp). CT interpretation was correlated with clinical follow-up and/or surgical pathology. CTDI{sub vol}, size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) and performance characteristics of the two CT techniques were then compared. Between groups A and B, mean CTDI{sub vol} was reduced by 45%, and mean SSDE was reduced by 46%. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 96%, 97% and 96% in group A vs. 100%, 99% and 99% in group B. Accuracy in diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis was maintained in contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans that incorporated iterative reconstruction technique, despite reductions in mean CTDI{sub vol} and SSDE by nearly half as compared to the hospital's traditional weight-based protocols. (orig.)

  17. A Study on GPU-based Iterative ML-EM Reconstruction Algorithm for Emission Computed Tomographic Imaging Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Woo Seok; Kim, Soo Mee; Park, Min Jae; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (ML-EM) is the statistical reconstruction algorithm derived from probabilistic model of the emission and detection processes. Although the ML-EM has many advantages in accuracy and utility, the use of the ML-EM is limited due to the computational burden of iterating processing on a CPU (central processing unit). In this study, we developed a parallel computing technique on GPU (graphic processing unit) for ML-EM algorithm. Using Geforce 9800 GTX+ graphic card and CUDA (compute unified device architecture) the projection and backprojection in ML-EM algorithm were parallelized by NVIDIA's technology. The time delay on computations for projection, errors between measured and estimated data and backprojection in an iteration were measured. Total time included the latency in data transmission between RAM and GPU memory. The total computation time of the CPU- and GPU-based ML-EM with 32 iterations were 3.83 and 0.26 sec, respectively. In this case, the computing speed was improved about 15 times on GPU. When the number of iterations increased into 1024, the CPU- and GPU-based computing took totally 18 min and 8 sec, respectively. The improvement was about 135 times and was caused by delay on CPU-based computing after certain iterations. On the other hand, the GPU-based computation provided very small variation on time delay per iteration due to use of shared memory. The GPU-based parallel computation for ML-EM improved significantly the computing speed and stability. The developed GPU-based ML-EM algorithm could be easily modified for some other imaging geometries

  18. A Study on GPU-based Iterative ML-EM Reconstruction Algorithm for Emission Computed Tomographic Imaging Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Woo Seok; Kim, Soo Mee; Park, Min Jae; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Jae Sung

    2009-01-01

    The maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (ML-EM) is the statistical reconstruction algorithm derived from probabilistic model of the emission and detection processes. Although the ML-EM has many advantages in accuracy and utility, the use of the ML-EM is limited due to the computational burden of iterating processing on a CPU (central processing unit). In this study, we developed a parallel computing technique on GPU (graphic processing unit) for ML-EM algorithm. Using Geforce 9800 GTX+ graphic card and CUDA (compute unified device architecture) the projection and backprojection in ML-EM algorithm were parallelized by NVIDIA's technology. The time delay on computations for projection, errors between measured and estimated data and backprojection in an iteration were measured. Total time included the latency in data transmission between RAM and GPU memory. The total computation time of the CPU- and GPU-based ML-EM with 32 iterations were 3.83 and 0.26 sec, respectively. In this case, the computing speed was improved about 15 times on GPU. When the number of iterations increased into 1024, the CPU- and GPU-based computing took totally 18 min and 8 sec, respectively. The improvement was about 135 times and was caused by delay on CPU-based computing after certain iterations. On the other hand, the GPU-based computation provided very small variation on time delay per iteration due to use of shared memory. The GPU-based parallel computation for ML-EM improved significantly the computing speed and stability. The developed GPU-based ML-EM algorithm could be easily modified for some other imaging geometries

  19. Reconstructing Macroeconomics Based on Statistical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Masanao; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    We believe that time has come to integrate the new approach based on statistical physics or econophysics into macroeconomics. Toward this goal, there must be more dialogues between physicists and economists. In this paper, we argue that there is no reason why the methods of statistical physics so successful in many fields of natural sciences cannot be usefully applied to macroeconomics that is meant to analyze the macroeconomy comprising a large number of economic agents. It is, in fact, weird to regard the macroeconomy as a homothetic enlargement of the representative micro agent. We trust the bright future of the new approach to macroeconomies based on statistical physics.

  20. Application of iterative reconstruction in prospective electrocardiography-triggered CT coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Yang; Yu Bing; Guo Qiyong; Wang Yuke; Yu Mei

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the image quality (IQ) of an iterative reconstruction (IR) technique (iDose"4) from prospective electrocardiography (ECG)-triggered coronary CTA on a 256 MSCT scanner and determine the optimal dose reduction using IR that can provide IQ comparable to filtered back projection (FBP). Methods: Prospectively ECG gated CCTA were performed on 120 patients [76 men, 44 women; age: (53 ± 10) y] using a 256-slice MSCT (Brilliance iCT, Philips Healthcare). The control group (Group A , n = 30) were scanned using the conventional tube output (120 kVp, 210 mAs) and reconstructed using FBP. The other 3 groups were scanned with the same kVp but successively reduced tube output as follows: B (n = 30) : 105 mAs , C (n = 30) : 84 mAs: D (n = 30) : 65 mAs and reconstructed using IR levels of L4 to L6, respectively. All images were reconstructed using the same kernel (XCB). Two radiologists graded IQ in a blinded fashion on a 4-point scale (4-excellent, 3-good, 2-fair and 1-poor). Quantitative measurements of CT values, image noise, Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were obtained in each group. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparisons of objective evaluation indices (noise, CNR) and radiation dose (CTDIvol, DLP, ED) between the four groups. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for comparisons of demographic data and for detection of differences in subjective evaluation of IQ among groups. A level of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A ROC analysis was performed to determine a radiation reduction threshold up to which excellent IQ was maintained. Results: There was no significant differences in objective noise among Groups A (37.4 ± 7.9) HU, B (33.2 ± 7.1) HU, C (35.7 ± 9.8) HU, and D (36.0 ± 6.8) HU (F = 1.48, P = 0.22). There was no significant differences in CNR among Groups A (15.0 ± 2.3), B (16.5 ± 3.6), C (16.3 ± 3.5), and D (15.3 ± 2.8) (F = 1.70, P = 0.17). Group B and C had good and excellent

  1. Iterative image reconstruction algorithms in coronary CT angiography improve the detection of lipid-core plaque - a comparison with histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchner, Stefan B.; Ferencik, Maros; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal; Nakano, Masataka; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Virmani, Renu; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hoffmann, Udo; Schlett, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether iterative reconstruction algorithms improve the diagnostic accuracy of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for detection of lipid-core plaque (LCP) compared to histology. CCTA and histological data were acquired from three ex vivo hearts. CCTA images were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive-statistical (ASIR) and model-based (MBIR) iterative algorithms. Vessel cross-sections were co-registered between FBP/ASIR/MBIR and histology. Plaque area 2 : 5.78 ± 2.29 vs. 3.39 ± 1.68 FBP; 5.92 ± 1.87 vs. 3.43 ± 1.62 ASIR; 6.40 ± 1.55 vs. 3.49 ± 1.50 MBIR; all p < 0.0001). AUC for detecting LCP was 0.803/0.850/0.903 for FBP/ASIR/MBIR and was significantly higher for MBIR compared to FBP (p = 0.01). MBIR increased sensitivity for detection of LCP by CCTA. Plaque area <60 HU in CCTA was associated with LCP in histology regardless of the reconstruction algorithm. However, MBIR demonstrated higher accuracy for detecting LCP, which may improve vulnerable plaque detection by CCTA. (orig.)

  2. Iterative reconstruction of SiPM light response functions in a square-shaped compact gamma camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A.; Alves, F.; Marcos, J.; Martins, R.; Pereira, L.; Solovov, V.; Chepel, V.

    2017-05-01

    Compact gamma cameras with a square-shaped monolithic scintillator crystal and an array of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are actively being developed for applications in areas such as small animal imaging, cancer diagnostics and radiotracer guided surgery. Statistical methods of position reconstruction, which are potentially superior to the traditional centroid method, require accurate knowledge of the spatial response of each photomultiplier. Using both Monte Carlo simulations and experimental data obtained with a camera prototype, we show that the spatial response of all photomultipliers (light response functions) can be parameterized with axially symmetric functions obtained iteratively from flood field irradiation data. The study was performed with a camera prototype equipped with a 30  ×  30  ×  2 mm3 LYSO crystal and an 8  ×  8 array of SiPMs for 140 keV gamma rays. The simulations demonstrate that the images, reconstructed with the maximum likelihood method using the response obtained with the iterative approach, exhibit only minor distortions: the average difference between the reconstructed and the true positions in X and Y directions does not exceed 0.2 mm in the central area of 22  ×  22 mm2 and 0.4 mm at the periphery of the camera. A similar level of image distortions is shown experimentally with the camera prototype.

  3. Statistics of electron multiplication in multiplier phototube: iterative method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Ortiz Sanchez, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    An iterative method is applied to study the variation of dynode response in the multiplier phototube. Three different situations are considered that correspond to the following ways of electronic incidence on the first dynode: incidence of exactly one electron, incidence of exactly r electrons and incidence of an average anti-r electrons. The responses are given for a number of steps between 1 and 5, and for values of the multiplication factor of 2.1, 2.5, 3 and 5. We study also the variance, the skewness and the excess of jurtosis for different multiplication factors. (author)

  4. Statistics of electron multiplication in a multiplier phototube; Iterative method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, J. F.; Grau, A.

    1985-01-01

    In the present paper an iterative method is applied to study the variation of dynode response in the multiplier phototube. Three different situation are considered that correspond to the following ways of electronic incidence on the first dynode: incidence of exactly one electron, incidence of exactly r electrons and incidence of an average r electrons. The responses are given for a number of steps between 1 and 5, and for values of the multiplication factor of 2.1, 2.5, 3 and 5. We study also the variance, the skewness and the excess of jurtosis for different multiplication factors. (Author) 11 refs

  5. Quantitative Analysis of the Effect of Iterative Reconstruction Using a Phantom: Determining the Appropriate Blending Percentage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Young Han; Choi, Jin-Young; Park, Mi-Suk; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Kim, Ki Whang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the optimal blending percentage of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) in a reduced radiation dose while preserving a degree of image quality and texture that is similar to that of standard-dose computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods The CT performance phantom was scanned with standard and dose reduction protocols including reduced mAs or kVp. Image quality parameters including noise, spatial, and low-contrast resolution, as well as image texture, were quantitatively evaluated after applying various blending percentages of ASIR. The optimal blending percentage of ASIR that preserved image quality and texture compared to standard dose CT was investigated in each radiation dose reduction protocol. Results As the percentage of ASIR increased, noise and spatial-resolution decreased, whereas low-contrast resolution increased. In the texture analysis, an increasing percentage of ASIR resulted in an increase of angular second moment, inverse difference moment, and correlation and in a decrease of contrast and entropy. The 20% and 40% dose reduction protocols with 20% and 40% ASIR blending, respectively, resulted in an optimal quality of images with preservation of the image texture. Conclusion Blending the 40% ASIR to the 40% reduced tube-current product can maximize radiation dose reduction and preserve adequate image quality and texture. PMID:25510772

  6. Characterization of a computed tomography iterative reconstruction algorithm by image quality evaluations with an anthropomorphic phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rampado, O.; Bossi, L.; Garabello, D.; Davini, O.; Ropolo, R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the consequences on dose and image quality of the choices of different combinations of NI and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) percentage, the image quality parameters of GE CT equipment. Methods: An anthropomorphic phantom was used to simulate the chest and upper abdomen of a standard weight patient. Images were acquired with tube current modulation and different values of noise index, in the range 10–22 for a slice thickness of 5 mm and a tube voltage of 120 kV. For each selected noise index, several image series were reconstructed using different percentages of ASIR (0, 40, 50, 60, 70, 100). Quantitative noise was assessed at different phantom locations. Computed tomography dose index (CTDI) and dose length products (DLP) were recorded. Three radiologists reviewed the images in a blinded and randomized manner and assessed the subjective image quality by comparing the image series with the one acquired with the reference protocol (noise index 14, ASIR 40%). The perceived noise, contrast, edge sharpness and overall quality were graded on a scale from −2 (much worse) to +2 (much better). Results: A repeatable trend of noise reduction versus the percentage of ASIR was observed for different noise levels and phantom locations. The different combinations of noise index and percentage of ASIR to obtain a desired dose reduction were assessed. The subjective image quality evaluation evidenced a possible dose reduction between 24 and 40% as a consequence of an increment of ASIR percentage to 50 or 70%, respectively. Conclusion: These results highlighted that the same patient dose reduction can be obtained with several combinations of noise index and percentages of ASIR, providing a model with which to choose these acquisition parameters in future optimization studies, with the aim of reducing patient dose by maintaining image quality in diagnostic levels.

  7. Characterization of a computed tomography iterative reconstruction algorithm by image quality evaluations with an anthropomorphic phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampado, O., E-mail: orampado@molinette.piemonte.it [S.C. Fisica Sanitaria, San Giovanni Battista Hospital of Turin, Corso Bramante 88, Torino 10126 (Italy); Bossi, L., E-mail: laura-bossi@hotmail.it [S.C. Fisica Sanitaria, San Giovanni Battista Hospital of Turin, Corso Bramante 88, Torino 10126 (Italy); Garabello, D., E-mail: dgarabello@molinette.piemonte.it [S.C. Radiodiagnostica DEA, San Giovanni Battista Hospital of Turin, Corso Bramante 88, Torino 10126 (Italy); Davini, O., E-mail: odavini@molinette.piemonte.it [S.C. Radiodiagnostica DEA, San Giovanni Battista Hospital of Turin, Corso Bramante 88, Torino 10126 (Italy); Ropolo, R., E-mail: rropolo@molinette.piemonte.it [S.C. Fisica Sanitaria, San Giovanni Battista Hospital of Turin, Corso Bramante 88, Torino 10126 (Italy)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the consequences on dose and image quality of the choices of different combinations of NI and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) percentage, the image quality parameters of GE CT equipment. Methods: An anthropomorphic phantom was used to simulate the chest and upper abdomen of a standard weight patient. Images were acquired with tube current modulation and different values of noise index, in the range 10-22 for a slice thickness of 5 mm and a tube voltage of 120 kV. For each selected noise index, several image series were reconstructed using different percentages of ASIR (0, 40, 50, 60, 70, 100). Quantitative noise was assessed at different phantom locations. Computed tomography dose index (CTDI) and dose length products (DLP) were recorded. Three radiologists reviewed the images in a blinded and randomized manner and assessed the subjective image quality by comparing the image series with the one acquired with the reference protocol (noise index 14, ASIR 40%). The perceived noise, contrast, edge sharpness and overall quality were graded on a scale from -2 (much worse) to +2 (much better). Results: A repeatable trend of noise reduction versus the percentage of ASIR was observed for different noise levels and phantom locations. The different combinations of noise index and percentage of ASIR to obtain a desired dose reduction were assessed. The subjective image quality evaluation evidenced a possible dose reduction between 24 and 40% as a consequence of an increment of ASIR percentage to 50 or 70%, respectively. Conclusion: These results highlighted that the same patient dose reduction can be obtained with several combinations of noise index and percentages of ASIR, providing a model with which to choose these acquisition parameters in future optimization studies, with the aim of reducing patient dose by maintaining image quality in diagnostic levels.

  8. Optimization of PET image quality by means of 3D data acquisition and iterative image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, J.; Zaers, J.; Trojan, H.; Bellemann, M.E.; Adam, L.E.; Haberkorn, U.; Brix, G.

    1998-01-01

    The experiments were performed at the latest-generation whole-body PET system ECAT EXACT HR + . For 2D data acquisition, a collimator of thin tungsten septa was positioned in the field-of-view. Prior to image reconstruction, the measured 3D data were sorted into 2D sinograms by using the Fourier rebinning (FORE) algorithm developed by M. Defrise. The standard filtered backprojection (FBP) method and an optimized ML/EM algorithm with overrelaxation for accelerated convergence were employed for image reconstruction. The spatial resolution of both methods as well as the convergence and noise properties of the ML/EM algorithm were studied in phantom measurements. Furthermore, patient data were acquired in the 2D mode as well as in the 3D mode and reconstructed with both techniques. At the same spatial resolution, the ML/EM-reconstructed images showed fewer and less prominent artefacts than the FBP-reconstructed images. The resulting improved detail conspicuously was achieved for the data acquired in the 2D mode as well as in the 3D mode. The best image quality was obtained by iterative 2D reconstruction of 3D data sets which were previously rebinned into 2D sinograms with help of the FORE algorithm. The phantom measurements revealed that 50 iteration steps with the otpimized ML/EM algorithm were sufficient to keep the relative quantitation error below 5%. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Low contrast detectability and spatial resolution with model-based iterative reconstructions of MDCT images: a phantom and cadaveric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millon, Domitille; Coche, Emmanuel E. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Vlassenbroek, Alain [Philips Healthcare, Brussels (Belgium); Maanen, Aline G. van; Cambier, Samantha E. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Statistics Unit, King Albert II Cancer Institute, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-03-15

    To compare image quality [low contrast (LC) detectability, noise, contrast-to-noise (CNR) and spatial resolution (SR)] of MDCT images reconstructed with an iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm and a filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm. The experimental study was performed on a 256-slice MDCT. LC detectability, noise, CNR and SR were measured on a Catphan phantom scanned with decreasing doses (48.8 down to 0.7 mGy) and parameters typical of a chest CT examination. Images were reconstructed with FBP and a model-based IR algorithm. Additionally, human chest cadavers were scanned and reconstructed using the same technical parameters. Images were analyzed to illustrate the phantom results. LC detectability and noise were statistically significantly different between the techniques, supporting model-based IR algorithm (p < 0.0001). At low doses, the noise in FBP images only enabled SR measurements of high contrast objects. The superior CNR of model-based IR algorithm enabled lower dose measurements, which showed that SR was dose and contrast dependent. Cadaver images reconstructed with model-based IR illustrated that visibility and delineation of anatomical structure edges could be deteriorated at low doses. Model-based IR improved LC detectability and enabled dose reduction. At low dose, SR became dose and contrast dependent. (orig.)

  10. Determination of quantitative tissue composition by iterative reconstruction on 3D DECT volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Maria [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics; Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV); Malusek, Alexandr [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics; Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV); Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Radiation Dosimetry; Muhammad, Arif [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics; Carlsson, Gudrun Alm [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics; Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV)

    2011-07-01

    Quantitative tissue classification using dual-energy CT has the potential to improve accuracy in radiation therapy dose planning as it provides more information about material composition of scanned objects than the currently used methods based on single-energy CT. One problem that hinders successful application of both single- and dual-energy CT is the presence of beam hardening and scatter artifacts in reconstructed data. Current pre- and post-correction methods used for image reconstruction often bias CT attenuation values and thus limit their applicability for quantitative tissue classification. Here we demonstrate simulation studies with a novel iterative algorithm that decomposes every soft tissue voxel into three base materials: water, protein, and adipose. The results demonstrate that beam hardening artifacts can effectively be removed and accurate estimation of mass fractions of each base material can be achieved. Our iterative algorithm starts with calculating parallel projections on two previously reconstructed DECT volumes reconstructed from fan-beam or helical projections with small conebeam angle. The parallel projections are then used in an iterative loop. Future developments include segmentation of soft and bone tissue and subsequent determination of bone composition. (orig.)

  11. Accelerated fast iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithms for sparsity-regularized cone-beam CT image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Qiaofeng; Sawatzky, Alex; Anastasio, Mark A.; Yang, Deshan; Tan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The development of iterative image reconstruction algorithms for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) remains an active and important research area. Even with hardware acceleration, the overwhelming majority of the available 3D iterative algorithms that implement nonsmooth regularizers remain computationally burdensome and have not been translated for routine use in time-sensitive applications such as image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). In this work, two variants of the fast iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm (FISTA) are proposed and investigated for accelerated iterative image reconstruction in CBCT. Methods: Algorithm acceleration was achieved by replacing the original gradient-descent step in the FISTAs by a subproblem that is solved by use of the ordered subset simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (OS-SART). Due to the preconditioning matrix adopted in the OS-SART method, two new weighted proximal problems were introduced and corresponding fast gradient projection-type algorithms were developed for solving them. We also provided efficient numerical implementations of the proposed algorithms that exploit the massive data parallelism of multiple graphics processing units. Results: The improved rates of convergence of the proposed algorithms were quantified in computer-simulation studies and by use of clinical projection data corresponding to an IGRT study. The accelerated FISTAs were shown to possess dramatically improved convergence properties as compared to the standard FISTAs. For example, the number of iterations to achieve a specified reconstruction error could be reduced by an order of magnitude. Volumetric images reconstructed from clinical data were produced in under 4 min. Conclusions: The FISTA achieves a quadratic convergence rate and can therefore potentially reduce the number of iterations required to produce an image of a specified image quality as compared to first-order methods. We have proposed and investigated

  12. Accelerated fast iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithms for sparsity-regularized cone-beam CT image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiaofeng; Yang, Deshan; Tan, Jun; Sawatzky, Alex; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The development of iterative image reconstruction algorithms for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) remains an active and important research area. Even with hardware acceleration, the overwhelming majority of the available 3D iterative algorithms that implement nonsmooth regularizers remain computationally burdensome and have not been translated for routine use in time-sensitive applications such as image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). In this work, two variants of the fast iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm (FISTA) are proposed and investigated for accelerated iterative image reconstruction in CBCT. Methods: Algorithm acceleration was achieved by replacing the original gradient-descent step in the FISTAs by a subproblem that is solved by use of the ordered subset simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (OS-SART). Due to the preconditioning matrix adopted in the OS-SART method, two new weighted proximal problems were introduced and corresponding fast gradient projection-type algorithms were developed for solving them. We also provided efficient numerical implementations of the proposed algorithms that exploit the massive data parallelism of multiple graphics processing units. Results: The improved rates of convergence of the proposed algorithms were quantified in computer-simulation studies and by use of clinical projection data corresponding to an IGRT study. The accelerated FISTAs were shown to possess dramatically improved convergence properties as compared to the standard FISTAs. For example, the number of iterations to achieve a specified reconstruction error could be reduced by an order of magnitude. Volumetric images reconstructed from clinical data were produced in under 4 min. Conclusions: The FISTA achieves a quadratic convergence rate and can therefore potentially reduce the number of iterations required to produce an image of a specified image quality as compared to first-order methods. We have proposed and investigated

  13. Suppression of intensity transition artifacts in statistical x-ray computer tomography reconstruction through Radon inversion initialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbijewski, Wojciech; Beekman, Freek J.

    2004-01-01

    Statistical reconstruction (SR) methods provide a general and flexible framework for obtaining tomographic images from projections. For several applications SR has been shown to outperform analytical algorithms in terms of resolution-noise trade-off achieved in the reconstructions. A disadvantage of SR is the long computational time required to obtain the reconstructions, in particular when large data sets characteristic for x-ray computer tomography (CT) are involved. As was shown recently, by combining statistical methods with block iterative acceleration schemes [e.g., like in the ordered subsets convex (OSC) algorithm], the reconstruction time for x-ray CT applications can be reduced by about two orders of magnitude. There are, however, some factors lengthening the reconstruction process that hamper both accelerated and standard statistical algorithms to similar degree. In this simulation study based on monoenergetic and scatter-free projection data, we demonstrate that one of these factors is the extremely high number of iterations needed to remove artifacts that can appear around high-contrast structures. We also show (using the OSC method) that these artifacts can be adequately suppressed if statistical reconstruction is initialized with images generated by means of Radon inversion algorithms like filtered back projection (FBP). This allows the reconstruction time to be shortened by even as much as one order of magnitude. Although the initialization of the statistical algorithm with FBP image introduces some additional noise into the first iteration of OSC reconstruction, the resolution-noise trade-off and the contrast-to-noise ratio of final images are not markedly compromised

  14. An ART iterative reconstruction algorithm for computed tomography of diffraction enhanced imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhentian; Zhang Li; Huang Zhifeng; Kang Kejun; Chen Zhiqiang; Fang Qiaoguang; Zhu Peiping

    2009-01-01

    X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) has extremely high sensitivity for weakly absorbing low-Z samples in medical and biological fields. In this paper, we propose an Algebra Reconstruction Technique (ART) iterative reconstruction algorithm for computed tomography of diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI-CT). An Ordered Subsets (OS) technique is used to accelerate the ART reconstruction. Few-view reconstruction is also studied, and a partial differential equation (PDE) type filter which has the ability of edge-preserving and denoising is used to improve the image quality and eliminate the artifacts. The proposed algorithm is validated with both the numerical simulations and the experiment at the Beijing synchrotron radiation facility (BSRF). (authors)

  15. Evaluation of the OSC-TV iterative reconstruction algorithm for cone-beam optical CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matenine, Dmitri; Mascolo-Fortin, Julia; Goussard, Yves; Després, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The present work evaluates an iterative reconstruction approach, namely, the ordered subsets convex (OSC) algorithm with regularization via total variation (TV) minimization in the field of cone-beam optical computed tomography (optical CT). One of the uses of optical CT is gel-based 3D dosimetry for radiation therapy, where it is employed to map dose distributions in radiosensitive gels. Model-based iterative reconstruction may improve optical CT image quality and contribute to a wider use of optical CT in clinical gel dosimetry. This algorithm was evaluated using experimental data acquired by a cone-beam optical CT system, as well as complementary numerical simulations. A fast GPU implementation of OSC-TV was used to achieve reconstruction times comparable to those of conventional filtered backprojection. Images obtained via OSC-TV were compared with the corresponding filtered backprojections. Spatial resolution and uniformity phantoms were scanned and respective reconstructions were subject to evaluation of the modulation transfer function, image uniformity, and accuracy. The artifacts due to refraction and total signal loss from opaque objects were also studied. The cone-beam optical CT data reconstructions showed that OSC-TV outperforms filtered backprojection in terms of image quality, thanks to a model-based simulation of the photon attenuation process. It was shown to significantly improve the image spatial resolution and reduce image noise. The accuracy of the estimation of linear attenuation coefficients remained similar to that obtained via filtered backprojection. Certain image artifacts due to opaque objects were reduced. Nevertheless, the common artifact due to the gel container walls could not be eliminated. The use of iterative reconstruction improves cone-beam optical CT image quality in many ways. The comparisons between OSC-TV and filtered backprojection presented in this paper demonstrate that OSC-TV can potentially improve the rendering of

  16. Novel Fourier-based iterative reconstruction for sparse fan projection using alternating direction total variation minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Zhao; Zhang Han-Ming; Yan Bin; Li Lei; Wang Lin-Yuan; Cai Ai-Long

    2016-01-01

    Sparse-view x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging is an interesting topic in CT field and can efficiently decrease radiation dose. Compared with spatial reconstruction, a Fourier-based algorithm has advantages in reconstruction speed and memory usage. A novel Fourier-based iterative reconstruction technique that utilizes non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) is presented in this work along with advanced total variation (TV) regularization for a fan sparse-view CT. The proposition of a selective matrix contributes to improve reconstruction quality. The new method employs the NUFFT and its adjoin to iterate back and forth between the Fourier and image space. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through a series of digital simulations and experimental phantom studies. Results of the proposed algorithm are compared with those of existing TV-regularized techniques based on compressed sensing method, as well as basic algebraic reconstruction technique. Compared with the existing TV-regularized techniques, the proposed Fourier-based technique significantly improves convergence rate and reduces memory allocation, respectively. (paper)

  17. X-ray phase laminography with a grating interferometer using iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harasse, Sébastien; Yashiro, Wataru; Momose, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    X-ray phase computed laminography is performed using a Talbot interferometer and synchrotron radiation. An iterative reconstruction algorithm which includes prior information about limited support, range of values and sparsity of the imaged object has been developped. It allows the reconstruction of objects with an improved resolution of the unsampled frequencies, compared to the classical filtered backprojection. The imaging method, demonstrated for a nylon mesh sample and a leaf sample, shows promising results for the imaging of flat, laterally extended objects made of low absorbing elements.

  18. Projector and backprojector for iterative CT reconstruction with blobs using CUDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bippus, Rolf-Dieter; Koehler, Thomas; Bergner, Frank; Brendel, Bernhard; Proksa, Roland [Philips Research Laboratories, Hamburg (Germany); Hansis, Eberhard [Philips Healthcare, Nuclear Medicine, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Using blobs allows modeling the CT system's geometry more correctly within an iterative reconstruction framework. However their application comes with an increased computational demand. This led us to use blobs for image representation and a dedicated GPU hardware implementation to counteract their computational demand. Making extensive use of the texture interpolation capabilities of CUDA and implementing an asymmetric projector/backprojector pair we achieve reasonable processing times and good system modeling at the same time. (orig.)

  19. Image quality of ct angiography using model-based iterative reconstruction in infants with congenital heart disease: Comparison with filtered back projection and hybrid iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Qianjun, E-mail: jiaqianjun@126.com [Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Catheterization Lab, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of South China Structural Heart Disease, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Zhuang, Jian, E-mail: zhuangjian5413@tom.com [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of South China Structural Heart Disease, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Jiang, Jun, E-mail: 81711587@qq.com [Department of Radiology, Shenzhen Second People’s Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong (China); Li, Jiahua, E-mail: 970872804@qq.com [Department of Catheterization Lab, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of South China Structural Heart Disease, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Huang, Meiping, E-mail: huangmeiping_vip@163.com [Department of Catheterization Lab, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of South China Structural Heart Disease, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Liang, Changhong, E-mail: cjr.lchh@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2017-01-15

    Purpose: To compare the image quality, rate of coronary artery visualization and diagnostic accuracy of 256-slice multi-detector computed tomography angiography (CTA) with prospective electrocardiographic (ECG) triggering at a tube voltage of 80 kVp between 3 reconstruction algorithms (filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (iDose{sup 4}) and iterative model reconstruction (IMR)) in infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). Methods: Fifty-one infants with CHD who underwent cardiac CTA in our institution between December 2014 and March 2015 were included. The effective radiation doses were calculated. Imaging data were reconstructed using the FBP, iDose{sup 4} and IMR algorithms. Parameters of objective image quality (noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR)); subjective image quality (overall image quality, image noise and margin sharpness); coronary artery visibility; and diagnostic accuracy for the three algorithms were measured and compared. Results: The mean effective radiation dose was 0.61 ± 0.32 mSv. Compared to FBP and iDose{sup 4}, IMR yielded significantly lower noise (P < 0.01), higher SNR and CNR values (P < 0.01), and a greater subjective image quality score (P < 0.01). The total number of coronary segments visualized was significantly higher for both iDose{sup 4} and IMR than for FBP (P = 0.002 and P = 0.025, respectively), but there was no significant difference in this parameter between iDose{sup 4} and IMR (P = 0.397). There was no significant difference in the diagnostic accuracy between the FBP, iDose{sup 4} and IMR algorithms (χ{sup 2} = 0.343, P = 0.842). Conclusions: For infants with CHD undergoing cardiac CTA, the IMR reconstruction algorithm provided significantly increased objective and subjective image quality compared with the FBP and iDose{sup 4} algorithms. However, IMR did not improve the diagnostic accuracy or coronary artery visualization compared with iDose{sup 4}.

  20. Optimization of the alpha image reconstruction. An iterative CT-image reconstruction with well-defined image quality metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Sergej; Sawall, Stefan; Knaup, Michael; Kachelriess, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Optimization of the AIR-algorithm for improved convergence and performance. TThe AIR method is an iterative algorithm for CT image reconstruction. As a result of its linearity with respect to the basis images, the AIR algorithm possesses well defined, regular image quality metrics, e.g. point spread function (PSF) or modulation transfer function (MTF), unlike other iterative reconstruction algorithms. The AIR algorithm computes weighting images α to blend between a set of basis images that preferably have mutually exclusive properties, e.g. high spatial resolution or low noise. The optimized algorithm uses an approach that alternates between the optimization of rawdata fidelity using an OSSART like update and regularization using gradient descent, as opposed to the initially proposed AIR using a straightforward gradient descent implementation. A regularization strength for a given task is chosen by formulating a requirement for the noise reduction and checking whether it is fulfilled for different regularization strengths, while monitoring the spatial resolution using the voxel-wise defined modulation transfer function for the AIR image. The optimized algorithm computes similar images in a shorter time compared to the initial gradient descent implementation of AIR. The result can be influenced by multiple parameters that can be narrowed down to a relatively simple framework to compute high quality images. The AIR images, for instance, can have at least a 50% lower noise level compared to the sharpest basis image, while the spatial resolution is mostly maintained. The optimization improves performance by a factor of 6, while maintaining image quality. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the spatial resolution for AIR can be determined using regular image quality metrics, given smooth weighting images. This is not possible for other iterative reconstructions as a result of their non linearity. A simple set of parameters for the algorithm is discussed that provides

  1. Optimization of the alpha image reconstruction. An iterative CT-image reconstruction with well-defined image quality metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Sergej; Sawall, Stefan; Knaup, Michael; Kachelriess, Marc [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany).

    2017-10-01

    Optimization of the AIR-algorithm for improved convergence and performance. TThe AIR method is an iterative algorithm for CT image reconstruction. As a result of its linearity with respect to the basis images, the AIR algorithm possesses well defined, regular image quality metrics, e.g. point spread function (PSF) or modulation transfer function (MTF), unlike other iterative reconstruction algorithms. The AIR algorithm computes weighting images α to blend between a set of basis images that preferably have mutually exclusive properties, e.g. high spatial resolution or low noise. The optimized algorithm uses an approach that alternates between the optimization of rawdata fidelity using an OSSART like update and regularization using gradient descent, as opposed to the initially proposed AIR using a straightforward gradient descent implementation. A regularization strength for a given task is chosen by formulating a requirement for the noise reduction and checking whether it is fulfilled for different regularization strengths, while monitoring the spatial resolution using the voxel-wise defined modulation transfer function for the AIR image. The optimized algorithm computes similar images in a shorter time compared to the initial gradient descent implementation of AIR. The result can be influenced by multiple parameters that can be narrowed down to a relatively simple framework to compute high quality images. The AIR images, for instance, can have at least a 50% lower noise level compared to the sharpest basis image, while the spatial resolution is mostly maintained. The optimization improves performance by a factor of 6, while maintaining image quality. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the spatial resolution for AIR can be determined using regular image quality metrics, given smooth weighting images. This is not possible for other iterative reconstructions as a result of their non linearity. A simple set of parameters for the algorithm is discussed that provides

  2. Comparison of computational to human observer detection for evaluation of CT low dose iterative reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Brendan; Fahmi, Rachid; Brown, Kevin M.; Raihani, Nilgoun; Wilson, David L.

    2014-03-01

    Model observers were created and compared to human observers for the detection of low contrast targets in computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed with an advanced, knowledge-based, iterative image reconstruction method for low x-ray dose imaging. A 5-channel Laguerre-Gauss Hotelling Observer (CHO) was used with internal noise added to the decision variable (DV) and/or channel outputs (CO). Models were defined by parameters: (k1) DV-noise with standard deviation (std) proportional to DV std; (k2) DV-noise with constant std; (k3) CO-noise with constant std across channels; and (k4) CO-noise in each channel with std proportional to CO variance. Four-alternative forced choice (4AFC) human observer studies were performed on sub-images extracted from phantom images with and without a "pin" target. Model parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood comparison to human probability correct (PC) data. PC in human and all model observers increased with dose, contrast, and size, and was much higher for advanced iterative reconstruction (IMR) as compared to filtered back projection (FBP). Detection in IMR was better than FPB at 1/3 dose, suggesting significant dose savings. Model(k1,k2,k3,k4) gave the best overall fit to humans across independent variables (dose, size, contrast, and reconstruction) at fixed display window. However Model(k1) performed better when considering model complexity using the Akaike information criterion. Model(k1) fit the extraordinary detectability difference between IMR and FBP, despite the different noise quality. It is anticipated that the model observer will predict results from iterative reconstruction methods having similar noise characteristics, enabling rapid comparison of methods.

  3. A fast method to emulate an iterative POCS image reconstruction algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Gengsheng L

    2017-10-01

    Iterative image reconstruction algorithms are commonly used to optimize an objective function, especially when the objective function is nonquadratic. Generally speaking, the iterative algorithms are computationally inefficient. This paper presents a fast algorithm that has one backprojection and no forward projection. This paper derives a new method to solve an optimization problem. The nonquadratic constraint, for example, an edge-preserving denoising constraint is implemented as a nonlinear filter. The algorithm is derived based on the POCS (projections onto projections onto convex sets) approach. A windowed FBP (filtered backprojection) algorithm enforces the data fidelity. An iterative procedure, divided into segments, enforces edge-enhancement denoising. Each segment performs nonlinear filtering. The derived iterative algorithm is computationally efficient. It contains only one backprojection and no forward projection. Low-dose CT data are used for algorithm feasibility studies. The nonlinearity is implemented as an edge-enhancing noise-smoothing filter. The patient studies results demonstrate its effectiveness in processing low-dose x ray CT data. This fast algorithm can be used to replace many iterative algorithms. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  4. Comparison of pure and hybrid iterative reconstruction techniques with conventional filtered back projection: Image quality assessment in the cervicothoracic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsura, Masaki, E-mail: mkatsura-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Sato, Jiro; Akahane, Masaaki; Matsuda, Izuru; Ishida, Masanori; Yasaka, Koichiro; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact on image quality of three different image reconstruction techniques in the cervicothoracic region: model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and filtered back projection (FBP). Methods: Forty-four patients underwent unenhanced standard-of-care clinical computed tomography (CT) examinations which included the cervicothoracic region with a 64-row multidetector CT scanner. Images were reconstructed with FBP, 50% ASIR-FBP blending (ASIR50), and MBIR. Two radiologists assessed the cervicothoracic region in a blinded manner for streak artifacts, pixilated blotchy appearances, critical reproduction of visually sharp anatomical structures (thyroid gland, common carotid artery, and esophagus), and overall diagnostic acceptability. Objective image noise was measured in the internal jugular vein. Data were analyzed using the sign test and pair-wise Student's t-test. Results: MBIR images had significant lower quantitative image noise (8.88 ± 1.32) compared to ASIR images (18.63 ± 4.19, P < 0.01) and FBP images (26.52 ± 5.8, P < 0.01). Significant improvements in streak artifacts of the cervicothoracic region were observed with the use of MBIR (P < 0.001 each for MBIR vs. the other two image data sets for both readers), while no significant difference was observed between ASIR and FBP (P > 0.9 for ASIR vs. FBP for both readers). MBIR images were all diagnostically acceptable. Unique features of MBIR images included pixilated blotchy appearances, which did not adversely affect diagnostic acceptability. Conclusions: MBIR significantly improves image noise and streak artifacts of the cervicothoracic region over ASIR and FBP. MBIR is expected to enhance the value of CT examinations for areas where image noise and streak artifacts are problematic.

  5. SU-D-206-03: Segmentation Assisted Fast Iterative Reconstruction Method for Cone-Beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, P; Mao, T; Gong, S; Wang, J; Niu, T; Sheng, K; Xie, Y

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Total Variation (TV) based iterative reconstruction (IR) methods enable accurate CT image reconstruction from low-dose measurements with sparse projection acquisition, due to the sparsifiable feature of most CT images using gradient operator. However, conventional solutions require large amount of iterations to generate a decent reconstructed image. One major reason is that the expected piecewise constant property is not taken into consideration at the optimization starting point. In this work, we propose an iterative reconstruction method for cone-beam CT (CBCT) using image segmentation to guide the optimization path more efficiently on the regularization term at the beginning of the optimization trajectory. Methods: Our method applies general knowledge that one tissue component in the CT image contains relatively uniform distribution of CT number. This general knowledge is incorporated into the proposed reconstruction using image segmentation technique to generate the piecewise constant template on the first-pass low-quality CT image reconstructed using analytical algorithm. The template image is applied as an initial value into the optimization process. Results: The proposed method is evaluated on the Shepp-Logan phantom of low and high noise levels, and a head patient. The number of iterations is reduced by overall 40%. Moreover, our proposed method tends to generate a smoother reconstructed image with the same TV value. Conclusion: We propose a computationally efficient iterative reconstruction method for CBCT imaging. Our method achieves a better optimization trajectory and a faster convergence behavior. It does not rely on prior information and can be readily incorporated into existing iterative reconstruction framework. Our method is thus practical and attractive as a general solution to CBCT iterative reconstruction. This work is supported by the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. LR16F010001), National High-tech R

  6. SU-D-206-03: Segmentation Assisted Fast Iterative Reconstruction Method for Cone-Beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, P; Mao, T; Gong, S; Wang, J; Niu, T [Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Institute of Translational Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Sheng, K [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Xie, Y [Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, Guangdong (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Total Variation (TV) based iterative reconstruction (IR) methods enable accurate CT image reconstruction from low-dose measurements with sparse projection acquisition, due to the sparsifiable feature of most CT images using gradient operator. However, conventional solutions require large amount of iterations to generate a decent reconstructed image. One major reason is that the expected piecewise constant property is not taken into consideration at the optimization starting point. In this work, we propose an iterative reconstruction method for cone-beam CT (CBCT) using image segmentation to guide the optimization path more efficiently on the regularization term at the beginning of the optimization trajectory. Methods: Our method applies general knowledge that one tissue component in the CT image contains relatively uniform distribution of CT number. This general knowledge is incorporated into the proposed reconstruction using image segmentation technique to generate the piecewise constant template on the first-pass low-quality CT image reconstructed using analytical algorithm. The template image is applied as an initial value into the optimization process. Results: The proposed method is evaluated on the Shepp-Logan phantom of low and high noise levels, and a head patient. The number of iterations is reduced by overall 40%. Moreover, our proposed method tends to generate a smoother reconstructed image with the same TV value. Conclusion: We propose a computationally efficient iterative reconstruction method for CBCT imaging. Our method achieves a better optimization trajectory and a faster convergence behavior. It does not rely on prior information and can be readily incorporated into existing iterative reconstruction framework. Our method is thus practical and attractive as a general solution to CBCT iterative reconstruction. This work is supported by the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. LR16F010001), National High-tech R

  7. Reduction of metal artifacts from hip prostheses on CT images of the pelvis: value of iterative reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsbach, Fabian; Bickelhaupt, Sebastian; Wanner, Guido A; Krauss, Andreas; Schmidt, Bernhard; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2013-07-01

    To assess the value of iterative frequency split-normalized (IFS) metal artifact reduction (MAR) for computed tomography (CT) of hip prostheses. This study had institutional review board and local ethics committee approval. First, a hip phantom with steel and titanium prostheses that had inlays of water, fat, and contrast media in the pelvis was used to optimize the IFS algorithm. Second, 41 consecutive patients with hip prostheses who were undergoing CT were included. Data sets were reconstructed with filtered back projection, the IFS algorithm, and a linear interpolation MAR algorithm. Two blinded, independent readers evaluated axial, coronal, and sagittal CT reformations for overall image quality, image quality of pelvic organs, and assessment of pelvic abnormalities. CT attenuation and image noise were measured. Statistical analysis included the Friedman test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Levene test. Ex vivo experiments demonstrated an optimized IFS algorithm by using a threshold of 2200 HU with four iterations for both steel and titanium prostheses. Measurements of CT attenuation of the inlays were significantly (P algorithm for CT image reconstruction significantly reduces metal artifacts from hip prostheses, improves the reliability of CT number measurements, and improves the confidence for depicting pelvic abnormalities.

  8. The effect of iterative reconstruction on computed tomography assessment of emphysema, air trapping and airway dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mets, Onno M.; Willemink, Martin J.; Kort, Freek P.L. de; Leiner, Tim; Jong, Pim A. de [UMC Utrecht, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 85500, GA, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mol, Christian P. [Utrecht University Medical Center, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs [Groningen University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Prokop, Mathias [Nijmegen University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    To determine the influence of iterative reconstruction (IR) on quantitative computed tomography (CT) measurements of emphysema, air trapping, and airway wall and lumen dimensions, compared to filtered back-projection (FBP). Inspiratory and expiratory chest CTs of 75 patients (37 male, 38 female; mean age 64.0 {+-} 5.7 years) were reconstructed using FBP and IR. CT emphysema, CT air trapping and airway dimensions of a segmental bronchus were quantified using several commonly used quantification methods. The two algorithms were compared using the concordance correlation coefficient (p{sub c}) and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Only the E/I-ratio{sub MLD} as a measure of CT air trapping and airway dimensions showed no significant differences between the algorithms, whereas all CT emphysema and the other CT air trapping measures were significantly different at IR when compared to FBP (P < 0.001). The evaluated IR algorithm significantly influences quantitative CT measures in the assessment of emphysema and air trapping. However, the E/I-ratio{sub MLD} as a measure of CT air trapping, as well as the airway measurements, is unaffected by this reconstruction method. Quantitative CT of the lungs should be performed with careful attention to the CT protocol, especially when iterative reconstruction is introduced. (orig.)

  9. The effect of iterative reconstruction on computed tomography assessment of emphysema, air trapping and airway dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mets, Onno M.; Willemink, Martin J.; Kort, Freek P.L. de; Leiner, Tim; Jong, Pim A. de; Mol, Christian P.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Prokop, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    To determine the influence of iterative reconstruction (IR) on quantitative computed tomography (CT) measurements of emphysema, air trapping, and airway wall and lumen dimensions, compared to filtered back-projection (FBP). Inspiratory and expiratory chest CTs of 75 patients (37 male, 38 female; mean age 64.0 ± 5.7 years) were reconstructed using FBP and IR. CT emphysema, CT air trapping and airway dimensions of a segmental bronchus were quantified using several commonly used quantification methods. The two algorithms were compared using the concordance correlation coefficient (p c ) and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Only the E/I-ratio MLD as a measure of CT air trapping and airway dimensions showed no significant differences between the algorithms, whereas all CT emphysema and the other CT air trapping measures were significantly different at IR when compared to FBP (P MLD as a measure of CT air trapping, as well as the airway measurements, is unaffected by this reconstruction method. Quantitative CT of the lungs should be performed with careful attention to the CT protocol, especially when iterative reconstruction is introduced. (orig.)

  10. Alpha image reconstruction (AIR): A new iterative CT image reconstruction approach using voxel-wise alpha blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Christian; Sawall, Stefan; Knaup, Michael; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Iterative image reconstruction gains more and more interest in clinical routine, as it promises to reduce image noise (and thereby patient dose), to reduce artifacts, or to improve spatial resolution. Among vendors and researchers, however, there is no consensus of how to best achieve these aims. The general approach is to incorporatea priori knowledge into iterative image reconstruction, for example, by adding additional constraints to the cost function, which penalize variations between neighboring voxels. However, this approach to regularization in general poses a resolution noise trade-off because the stronger the regularization, and thus the noise reduction, the stronger the loss of spatial resolution and thus loss of anatomical detail. The authors propose a method which tries to improve this trade-off. The proposed reconstruction algorithm is called alpha image reconstruction (AIR). One starts with generating basis images, which emphasize certain desired image properties, like high resolution or low noise. The AIR algorithm reconstructs voxel-specific weighting coefficients that are applied to combine the basis images. By combining the desired properties of each basis image, one can generate an image with lower noise and maintained high contrast resolution thus improving the resolution noise trade-off. Methods: All simulations and reconstructions are performed in native fan-beam geometry. A water phantom with resolution bar patterns and low contrast disks is simulated. A filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction with a Ram-Lak kernel is used as a reference reconstruction. The results of AIR are compared against the FBP results and against a penalized weighted least squares reconstruction which uses total variation as regularization. The simulations are based on the geometry of the Siemens Somatom Definition Flash scanner. To quantitatively assess image quality, the authors analyze line profiles through resolution patterns to define a contrast

  11. Metal-induced streak artifact reduction using iterative reconstruction algorithms in x-ray computed tomography image of the dentoalveolar region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian; Hayakawa, Yoshihiko; Kannenberg, Sven; Kober, Cornelia

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to reduce metal-induced streak artifact on oral and maxillofacial x-ray computed tomography (CT) images by developing the fast statistical image reconstruction system using iterative reconstruction algorithms. Adjacent CT images often depict similar anatomical structures in thin slices. So, first, images were reconstructed using the same projection data of an artifact-free image. Second, images were processed by the successive iterative restoration method where projection data were generated from reconstructed image in sequence. Besides the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm, the ordered subset-expectation maximization algorithm (OS-EM) was examined. Also, small region of interest (ROI) setting and reverse processing were applied for improving performance. Both algorithms reduced artifacts instead of slightly decreasing gray levels. The OS-EM and small ROI reduced the processing duration without apparent detriments. Sequential and reverse processing did not show apparent effects. Two alternatives in iterative reconstruction methods were effective for artifact reduction. The OS-EM algorithm and small ROI setting improved the performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Iterative image reconstruction for positron emission tomography based on a detector response function estimated from point source measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohme, Michel S; Qi Jinyi

    2009-01-01

    The accuracy of the system model in an iterative reconstruction algorithm greatly affects the quality of reconstructed positron emission tomography (PET) images. For efficient computation in reconstruction, the system model in PET can be factored into a product of a geometric projection matrix and sinogram blurring matrix, where the former is often computed based on analytical calculation, and the latter is estimated using Monte Carlo simulations. Direct measurement of a sinogram blurring matrix is difficult in practice because of the requirement of a collimated source. In this work, we propose a method to estimate the 2D blurring kernels from uncollimated point source measurements. Since the resulting sinogram blurring matrix stems from actual measurements, it can take into account the physical effects in the photon detection process that are difficult or impossible to model in a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, and hence provide a more accurate system model. Another advantage of the proposed method over MC simulation is that it can easily be applied to data that have undergone a transformation to reduce the data size (e.g., Fourier rebinning). Point source measurements were acquired with high count statistics in a relatively fine grid inside the microPET II scanner using a high-precision 2D motion stage. A monotonically convergent iterative algorithm has been derived to estimate the detector blurring matrix from the point source measurements. The algorithm takes advantage of the rotational symmetry of the PET scanner and explicitly models the detector block structure. The resulting sinogram blurring matrix is incorporated into a maximum a posteriori (MAP) image reconstruction algorithm. The proposed method has been validated using a 3 x 3 line phantom, an ultra-micro resolution phantom and a 22 Na point source superimposed on a warm background. The results of the proposed method show improvements in both resolution and contrast ratio when compared with the MAP

  13. Acoustical source reconstruction from non-synchronous sequential measurements by Fast Iterative Shrinkage Thresholding Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Antoni, Jerome; Leclere, Quentin; Jiang, Weikang

    2017-11-01

    Acoustical source reconstruction is a typical inverse problem, whose minimum frequency of reconstruction hinges on the size of the array and maximum frequency depends on the spacing distance between the microphones. For the sake of enlarging the frequency of reconstruction and reducing the cost of an acquisition system, Cyclic Projection (CP), a method of sequential measurements without reference, was recently investigated (JSV,2016,372:31-49). In this paper, the Propagation based Fast Iterative Shrinkage Thresholding Algorithm (Propagation-FISTA) is introduced, which improves CP in two aspects: (1) the number of acoustic sources is no longer needed and the only making assumption is that of a "weakly sparse" eigenvalue spectrum; (2) the construction of the spatial basis is much easier and adaptive to practical scenarios of acoustical measurements benefiting from the introduction of propagation based spatial basis. The proposed Propagation-FISTA is first investigated with different simulations and experimental setups and is next illustrated with an industrial case.

  14. Evaluation of a dedicated MDCT protocol using iterative image reconstruction after cervical spine trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, L L; Körner, M; Hempel, R; Deak, Z; Mueck, F G; Linsenmaier, U; Reiser, M F; Wirth, S

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate radiation exposure for 64-row computed tomography (CT) of the cervical spine comparing two optimized protocols using filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), respectively. Sixty-seven studies using FBP (scanner 1) were retrospectively compared with 80 studies using ASIR (scanner 2). The key scanning parameters were identical (120 kV dose modulation, 64 × 0.625 mm collimation, pitch 0.531:1). In protocol 2, the noise index (NI) was increased from 5 to 25, and ASIR and the high-definition (HD) mode were used. The scan length, CT dose index (CTDI), and dose-length product (DLP) were recorded. The image quality was analysed subjectively by using a three-point scale (0; 1; 2), and objectively by using a region of interest (ROI) analysis. Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon's test were used. In the FBP group, the mean CTDI was 21.43 mGy, mean scan length 186.3 mm, and mean DLP 441.15 mGy cm. In the ASIR group, the mean CTDI was 9.57 mGy, mean scan length 195.21 mm, and mean DLP 204.23 mGy cm. The differences were significant for CTDI and DLP (p 0.05). The estimated mean effective dose decreased from 2.38 mSv (FBP) to 1.10 mSv (ASIR). The radiation dose of 64-row MDCT can be reduced to a level comparable to plain radiography without loss of subjective image quality by implementation of ASIR in a dedicated cervical spine trauma protocol. These results might contribute to an improved relative risk-to-benefit ratio and support the justification of CT as a first-line imaging tool to evaluate cervical spine trauma. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of a dedicated MDCT protocol using iterative image reconstruction after cervical spine trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, L.L.; Körner, M.; Hempel, R.; Deak, Z.; Mueck, F.G.; Linsenmaier, U.; Reiser, M.F.; Wirth, S.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate radiation exposure for 64-row computed tomography (CT) of the cervical spine comparing two optimized protocols using filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), respectively. Materials and methods: Sixty-seven studies using FBP (scanner 1) were retrospectively compared with 80 studies using ASIR (scanner 2). The key scanning parameters were identical (120 kV dose modulation, 64 × 0.625 mm collimation, pitch 0.531:1). In protocol 2, the noise index (NI) was increased from 5 to 25, and ASIR and the high-definition (HD) mode were used. The scan length, CT dose index (CTDI), and dose–length product (DLP) were recorded. The image quality was analysed subjectively by using a three-point scale (0; 1; 2), and objectively by using a region of interest (ROI) analysis. Mann–Whitney U and Wilcoxon's test were used. Results: In the FBP group, the mean CTDI was 21.43 mGy, mean scan length 186.3 mm, and mean DLP 441.15 mGy cm. In the ASIR group, the mean CTDI was 9.57 mGy, mean scan length 195.21 mm, and mean DLP 204.23 mGy cm. The differences were significant for CTDI and DLP (p 0.05). The estimated mean effective dose decreased from 2.38 mSv (FBP) to 1.10 mSv (ASIR). Conclusion: The radiation dose of 64-row MDCT can be reduced to a level comparable to plain radiography without loss of subjective image quality by implementation of ASIR in a dedicated cervical spine trauma protocol. These results might contribute to an improved relative risk-to-benefit ratio and support the justification of CT as a first-line imaging tool to evaluate cervical spine trauma

  16. Evaluation of analytical reconstruction with a new gap-filling method in comparison to iterative reconstruction in [11C]-raclopride PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuna, U.; Johansson, J.; Ruotsalainen, U.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was (1) to evaluate the reconstruction strategies with dynamic [ 11 C]-raclopride human positron emission tomography (PET) studies acquired from ECAT high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT) scanner and (2) to justify for the selected gap-filling method for analytical reconstruction with simulated phantom data. A new transradial bicubic interpolation method has been implemented to enable faster analytical 3D-reprojection (3DRP) reconstructions for the ECAT HRRT PET scanner data. The transradial bicubic interpolation method was compared to the other gap-filling methods visually and quantitatively using the numerical Shepp-Logan phantom. The performance of the analytical 3DRP reconstruction method with this new gap-filling method was evaluated in comparison with the iterative statistical methods: ordinary Poisson ordered subsets expectation maximization (OPOSEM) and resolution modeled OPOSEM methods. The image reconstruction strategies were evaluated using human data at different count statistics and consequently at different noise levels. In the assessments, 14 [ 11 C]-raclopride dynamic PET studies (test-retest studies of 7 healthy subjects) acquired from the HRRT PET scanner were used. Besides the visual comparisons of the methods, we performed regional quantitative evaluations over the cerebellum, caudate and putamen structures. We compared the regional time-activity curves (TACs), areas under the TACs and binding potential (BP ND ) values. The results showed that the new gap-filling method preserves the linearity of the 3DRP method. Results with the 3DRP after gap-filling method exhibited hardly any dependency on the count statistics (noise levels) in the sinograms while we observed changes in the quantitative results with the EM-based methods for different noise contamination in the data. With this study, we showed that 3DRP with transradial bicubic gap-filling method is feasible for the reconstruction of high-resolution PET data with

  17. Development of Acoustic Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction Technique for Thick-Concrete Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almansouri, Hani [Purdue University; Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Polsky, Yarom [ORNL; Bouman, Charlie [Purdue University; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound signals have been used extensively for non-destructive evaluation (NDE). However, typical reconstruction techniques, such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), are limited to quasi-homogenous thin media. New ultrasonic systems and reconstruction algorithms are in need for one-sided NDE of non-homogenous thick objects. An application example space is imaging of reinforced concrete structures for commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). These structures provide important foundation, support, shielding, and containment functions. Identification and management of aging and degradation of concrete structures is fundamental to the proposed long-term operation of NPPs. Another example is geothermal and oil/gas production wells. These multi-layered structures are composed of steel, cement, and several types of soil and rocks. Ultrasound systems with greater penetration range and image quality will allow for better monitoring of the well s health and prediction of high-pressure hydraulic fracturing of the rock. These application challenges need to be addressed with an integrated imaging approach, where the application, hardware, and reconstruction software are highly integrated and optimized. Therefore, we are developing an ultrasonic system with Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR) as the image reconstruction backbone. As the first implementation of MBIR for ultrasonic signals, this paper document the first implementation of the algorithm and show reconstruction results for synthetically generated data.

  18. Development of Acoustic Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction Technique for Thick-Concrete Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almansouri, Hani [Purdue University; Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Polsky, Yarom [ORNL; Bouman, Charlie [Purdue University; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound signals have been used extensively for non-destructive evaluation (NDE). However, typical reconstruction techniques, such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), are limited to quasi-homogenous thin media. New ultrasonic systems and reconstruction algorithms are in need for one-sided NDE of non-homogenous thick objects. An application example space is imaging of reinforced concrete structures for commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). These structures provide important foundation, support, shielding, and containment functions. Identification and management of aging and degradation of concrete structures is fundamental to the proposed long-term operation of NPPs. Another example is geothermal and oil/gas production wells. These multi-layered structures are composed of steel, cement, and several types of soil and rocks. Ultrasound systems with greater penetration range and image quality will allow for better monitoring of the well's health and prediction of high-pressure hydraulic fracturing of the rock. These application challenges need to be addressed with an integrated imaging approach, where the application, hardware, and reconstruction software are highly integrated and optimized. Therefore, we are developing an ultrasonic system with Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR) as the image reconstruction backbone. As the first implementation of MBIR for ultrasonic signals, this paper document the first implementation of the algorithm and show reconstruction results for synthetically generated data.

  19. Development of acoustic model-based iterative reconstruction technique for thick-concrete imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansouri, Hani; Clayton, Dwight; Kisner, Roger; Polsky, Yarom; Bouman, Charles; Santos-Villalobos, Hector

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasound signals have been used extensively for non-destructive evaluation (NDE). However, typical reconstruction techniques, such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), are limited to quasi-homogenous thin media. New ultrasonic systems and reconstruction algorithms are in need for one-sided NDE of non-homogenous thick objects. An application example space is imaging of reinforced concrete structures for commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). These structures provide important foundation, support, shielding, and containment functions. Identification and management of aging and degradation of concrete structures is fundamental to the proposed long-term operation of NPPs. Another example is geothermal and oil/gas production wells. These multi-layered structures are composed of steel, cement, and several types of soil and rocks. Ultrasound systems with greater penetration range and image quality will allow for better monitoring of the well's health and prediction of high-pressure hydraulic fracturing of the rock. These application challenges need to be addressed with an integrated imaging approach, where the application, hardware, and reconstruction software are highly integrated and optimized. Therefore, we are developing an ultrasonic system with Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR) as the image reconstruction backbone. As the first implementation of MBIR for ultrasonic signals, this paper document the first implementation of the algorithm and show reconstruction results for synthetically generated data.1

  20. High resolution reconstruction of PET images using the iterative OSEM algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, J.; Bublitz, O.; Werling, A.; Haberkorn, U.; Semmler, W.; Adam, L.E.; Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA; Brix, G.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: Improvement of the spatial resolution in positron emission tomography (PET) by incorporation of the image-forming characteristics of the scanner into the process of iterative image reconstruction. Methods: All measurements were performed at the whole-body PET system ECAT EXACT HR + in 3D mode. The acquired 3D sinograms were sorted into 2D sinograms by means of the Fourier rebinning (FORE) algorithm, which allows the usage of 2D algorithms for image reconstruction. The scanner characteristics were described by a spatially variant line-spread function (LSF), which was determined from activated copper-64 line sources. This information was used to model the physical degradation processes in PET measurements during the course of 2D image reconstruction with the iterative OSEM algorithm. To assess the performance of the high-resolution OSEM algorithm, phantom measurements performed at a cylinder phantom, the hotspot Jaszczack phantom, and the 3D Hoffmann brain phantom as well as different patient examinations were analyzed. Results: Scanner characteristics could be described by a Gaussian-shaped LSF with a full-width at half-maximum increasing from 4.8 mm at the center to 5.5 mm at a radial distance of 10.5 cm. Incorporation of the LSF into the iteration formula resulted in a markedly improved resolution of 3.0 and 3.5 mm, respectively. The evaluation of phantom and patient studies showed that the high-resolution OSEM algorithm not only lead to a better contrast resolution in the reconstructed activity distributions but also to an improved accuracy in the quantification of activity concentrations in small structures without leading to an amplification of image noise or even the occurrence of image artifacts. Conclusion: The spatial and contrast resolution of PET scans can markedly be improved by the presented image restauration algorithm, which is of special interest for the examination of both patients with brain disorders and small animals. (orig.)

  1. Optimization of hybrid iterative reconstruction level and evaluation of image quality and radiation dose for pediatric cardiac computed tomography angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lin; Liang, Changhong; Zhuang, Jian; Huang, Meiping; Liu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid iterative reconstruction can reduce image noise and produce better image quality compared with filtered back-projection (FBP), but few reports describe optimization of the iteration level. We optimized the iteration level of iDose"4 and evaluated image quality for pediatric cardiac CT angiography. Children (n = 160) with congenital heart disease were enrolled and divided into full-dose (n = 84) and half-dose (n = 76) groups. Four series were reconstructed using FBP, and iDose"4 levels 2, 4 and 6; we evaluated subjective quality of the series using a 5-grade scale and compared the series using a Kruskal-Wallis H test. For FBP and iDose"4-optimal images, we compared contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) using a Student's t-test. We also compared diagnostic-accuracy of each group using a Kruskal-Wallis H test. Mean scores for iDose"4 level 4 were the best in both dose groups (all P < 0.05). CNR was improved in both groups with iDose"4 level 4 as compared with FBP. Mean decrease in SSDE was 53% in the half-dose group. Diagnostic accuracy for the four datasets were in the range 92.6-96.2% (no statistical difference). iDose"4 level 4 was optimal for both the full- and half-dose groups. Protocols with iDose"4 level 4 allowed 53% reduction in SSDE without significantly affecting image quality and diagnostic accuracy. (orig.)

  2. Optimization of hybrid iterative reconstruction level and evaluation of image quality and radiation dose for pediatric cardiac computed tomography angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lin; Liang, Changhong [Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Dept. of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Zhuang, Jian [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Dept. of Cardiac Surgery, Guangdong Cardiovascular Inst., Guangdong Provincial Key Lab. of South China Structural Heart Disease, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Huang, Meiping [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Dept. of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Dept. of Catheterization Lab, Guangdong Cardiovascular Inst., Guangdong Provincial Key Lab. of South China Structural Heart Disease, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Hui [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Dept. of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China)

    2017-01-15

    Hybrid iterative reconstruction can reduce image noise and produce better image quality compared with filtered back-projection (FBP), but few reports describe optimization of the iteration level. We optimized the iteration level of iDose{sup 4} and evaluated image quality for pediatric cardiac CT angiography. Children (n = 160) with congenital heart disease were enrolled and divided into full-dose (n = 84) and half-dose (n = 76) groups. Four series were reconstructed using FBP, and iDose{sup 4} levels 2, 4 and 6; we evaluated subjective quality of the series using a 5-grade scale and compared the series using a Kruskal-Wallis H test. For FBP and iDose{sup 4}-optimal images, we compared contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) using a Student's t-test. We also compared diagnostic-accuracy of each group using a Kruskal-Wallis H test. Mean scores for iDose{sup 4} level 4 were the best in both dose groups (all P < 0.05). CNR was improved in both groups with iDose{sup 4} level 4 as compared with FBP. Mean decrease in SSDE was 53% in the half-dose group. Diagnostic accuracy for the four datasets were in the range 92.6-96.2% (no statistical difference). iDose{sup 4} level 4 was optimal for both the full- and half-dose groups. Protocols with iDose{sup 4} level 4 allowed 53% reduction in SSDE without significantly affecting image quality and diagnostic accuracy. (orig.)

  3. Non-contrast CT at comparable dose to an abdominal radiograph in patients with acute renal colic; impact of iterative reconstruction on image quality and diagnostic performance

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, P. D.; Murphy, K. P.; Hayes, S. A.; Carey, K.; Sammon, J.; Crush, L.; O’Neill, F.; Normoyle, B.; McGarrigle, A. M.; Barry, J. E.; Maher, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to assess the performance of low-dose non-contrast CT of the urinary tract (LD-CT) acquired at radiation exposures close to that of abdominal radiography using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR). Methods Thirty-three patients with clinically suspected renal colic were prospectively included. Conventional dose (CD-CT) and LD-CT data sets were contemporaneously acquired. LD-CT images were reconstructed with 40 %, 70 % and 90 % ASiR. Image quality was sub...

  4. Evaluation of accelerated iterative x-ray CT image reconstruction using floating point graphics hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kole, J S; Beekman, F J

    2006-01-01

    Statistical reconstruction methods offer possibilities to improve image quality as compared with analytical methods, but current reconstruction times prohibit routine application in clinical and micro-CT. In particular, for cone-beam x-ray CT, the use of graphics hardware has been proposed to accelerate the forward and back-projection operations, in order to reduce reconstruction times. In the past, wide application of this texture hardware mapping approach was hampered owing to limited intrinsic accuracy. Recently, however, floating point precision has become available in the latest generation commodity graphics cards. In this paper, we utilize this feature to construct a graphics hardware accelerated version of the ordered subset convex reconstruction algorithm. The aims of this paper are (i) to study the impact of using graphics hardware acceleration for statistical reconstruction on the reconstructed image accuracy and (ii) to measure the speed increase one can obtain by using graphics hardware acceleration. We compare the unaccelerated algorithm with the graphics hardware accelerated version, and for the latter we consider two different interpolation techniques. A simulation study of a micro-CT scanner with a mathematical phantom shows that at almost preserved reconstructed image accuracy, speed-ups of a factor 40 to 222 can be achieved, compared with the unaccelerated algorithm, and depending on the phantom and detector sizes. Reconstruction from physical phantom data reconfirms the usability of the accelerated algorithm for practical cases

  5. Statistical image reconstruction for transmission tomography using relaxed ordered subset algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kole, J S

    2005-01-01

    Statistical reconstruction methods offer possibilities for improving image quality as compared to analytical methods, but current reconstruction times prohibit routine clinical applications in x-ray computed tomography (CT). To reduce reconstruction times, we have applied (under) relaxation to ordered subset algorithms. This enables us to use subsets consisting of only single projection angle, effectively increasing the number of image updates within an entire iteration. A second advantage of applying relaxation is that it can help improve convergence by removing the limit cycle behaviour of ordered subset algorithms, which normally do not converge to an optimal solution but rather a suboptimal limit cycle consisting of as many points as there are subsets. Relaxation suppresses the limit cycle behaviour by decreasing the stepsize for approaching the solution. A simulation study for a 2D mathematical phantom and three different ordered subset algorithms shows that all three algorithms benefit from relaxation: equal noise-to-resolution trade-off can be achieved using fewer iterations than the conventional algorithms, while a lower minimal normalized mean square error (NMSE) clearly indicates a better convergence. Two different schemes for setting the relaxation parameter are studied, and both schemes yield approximately the same minimal NMSE

  6. Iter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iotti, Robert

    2015-04-01

    ITER is an international experimental facility being built by seven Parties to demonstrate the long term potential of fusion energy. The ITER Joint Implementation Agreement (JIA) defines the structure and governance model of such cooperation. There are a number of necessary conditions for such international projects to be successful: a complete design, strong systems engineering working with an agreed set of requirements, an experienced organization with systems and plans in place to manage the project, a cost estimate backed by industry, and someone in charge. Unfortunately for ITER many of these conditions were not present. The paper discusses the priorities in the JIA which led to setting up the project with a Central Integrating Organization (IO) in Cadarache, France as the ITER HQ, and seven Domestic Agencies (DAs) located in the countries of the Parties, responsible for delivering 90%+ of the project hardware as Contributions-in-Kind and also financial contributions to the IO, as ``Contributions-in-Cash.'' Theoretically the Director General (DG) is responsible for everything. In practice the DG does not have the power to control the work of the DAs, and there is not an effective management structure enabling the IO and the DAs to arbitrate disputes, so the project is not really managed, but is a loose collaboration of competing interests. Any DA can effectively block a decision reached by the DG. Inefficiencies in completing design while setting up a competent organization from scratch contributed to the delays and cost increases during the initial few years. So did the fact that the original estimate was not developed from industry input. Unforeseen inflation and market demand on certain commodities/materials further exacerbated the cost increases. Since then, improvements are debatable. Does this mean that the governance model of ITER is a wrong model for international scientific cooperation? I do not believe so. Had the necessary conditions for success

  7. Design of 4D x-ray tomography experiments for reconstruction using regularized iterative algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, K. Aditya

    2017-10-01

    4D X-ray computed tomography (4D-XCT) is widely used to perform non-destructive characterization of time varying physical processes in various materials. The conventional approach to improving temporal resolution in 4D-XCT involves the development of expensive and complex instrumentation that acquire data faster with reduced noise. It is customary to acquire data with many tomographic views at a high signal to noise ratio. Instead, temporal resolution can be improved using regularized iterative algorithms that are less sensitive to noise and limited views. These algorithms benefit from optimization of other parameters such as the view sampling strategy while improving temporal resolution by reducing the total number of views or the detector exposure time. This paper presents the design principles of 4D-XCT experiments when using regularized iterative algorithms derived using the framework of model-based reconstruction. A strategy for performing 4D-XCT experiments is presented that allows for improving the temporal resolution by progressively reducing the number of views or the detector exposure time. Theoretical analysis of the effect of the data acquisition parameters on the detector signal to noise ratio, spatial reconstruction resolution, and temporal reconstruction resolution is also presented in this paper.

  8. A framelet-based iterative maximum-likelihood reconstruction algorithm for spectral CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingmei; Wang, Ge; Mao, Shuwei; Cong, Wenxiang; Ji, Zhilong; Cai, Jian-Feng; Ye, Yangbo

    2016-11-01

    Standard computed tomography (CT) cannot reproduce spectral information of an object. Hardware solutions include dual-energy CT which scans the object twice in different x-ray energy levels, and energy-discriminative detectors which can separate lower and higher energy levels from a single x-ray scan. In this paper, we propose a software solution and give an iterative algorithm that reconstructs an image with spectral information from just one scan with a standard energy-integrating detector. The spectral information obtained can be used to produce color CT images, spectral curves of the attenuation coefficient μ (r,E) at points inside the object, and photoelectric images, which are all valuable imaging tools in cancerous diagnosis. Our software solution requires no change on hardware of a CT machine. With the Shepp-Logan phantom, we have found that although the photoelectric and Compton components were not perfectly reconstructed, their composite effect was very accurately reconstructed as compared to the ground truth and the dual-energy CT counterpart. This means that our proposed method has an intrinsic benefit in beam hardening correction and metal artifact reduction. The algorithm is based on a nonlinear polychromatic acquisition model for x-ray CT. The key technique is a sparse representation of iterations in a framelet system. Convergence of the algorithm is studied. This is believed to be the first application of framelet imaging tools to a nonlinear inverse problem.

  9. Efficient methodologies for system matrix modelling in iterative image reconstruction for rotating high-resolution PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortuno, J E; Kontaxakis, G; Rubio, J L; Santos, A [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica (DIE), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Guerra, P [Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: juanen@die.upm.es

    2010-04-07

    A fully 3D iterative image reconstruction algorithm has been developed for high-resolution PET cameras composed of pixelated scintillator crystal arrays and rotating planar detectors, based on the ordered subsets approach. The associated system matrix is precalculated with Monte Carlo methods that incorporate physical effects not included in analytical models, such as positron range effects and interaction of the incident gammas with the scintillator material. Custom Monte Carlo methodologies have been developed and optimized for modelling of system matrices for fast iterative image reconstruction adapted to specific scanner geometries, without redundant calculations. According to the methodology proposed here, only one-eighth of the voxels within two central transaxial slices need to be modelled in detail. The rest of the system matrix elements can be obtained with the aid of axial symmetries and redundancies, as well as in-plane symmetries within transaxial slices. Sparse matrix techniques for the non-zero system matrix elements are employed, allowing for fast execution of the image reconstruction process. This 3D image reconstruction scheme has been compared in terms of image quality to a 2D fast implementation of the OSEM algorithm combined with Fourier rebinning approaches. This work confirms the superiority of fully 3D OSEM in terms of spatial resolution, contrast recovery and noise reduction as compared to conventional 2D approaches based on rebinning schemes. At the same time it demonstrates that fully 3D methodologies can be efficiently applied to the image reconstruction problem for high-resolution rotational PET cameras by applying accurate pre-calculated system models and taking advantage of the system's symmetries.

  10. Iterative image reconstruction algorithms in coronary CT angiography improve the detection of lipid-core plaque - a comparison with histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puchner, Stefan B. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Ferencik, Maros [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Maurovich-Horvat, Pal [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Semmelweis University, MTA-SE Lenduelet Cardiovascular Imaging Research Group, Heart and Vascular Center, Budapest (Hungary); Nakano, Masataka; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Virmani, Renu [CV Path Institute Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University Hospital Heidelberg, Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Hoffmann, Udo [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Schlett, Christopher L. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); University Hospital Heidelberg, Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    To evaluate whether iterative reconstruction algorithms improve the diagnostic accuracy of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for detection of lipid-core plaque (LCP) compared to histology. CCTA and histological data were acquired from three ex vivo hearts. CCTA images were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive-statistical (ASIR) and model-based (MBIR) iterative algorithms. Vessel cross-sections were co-registered between FBP/ASIR/MBIR and histology. Plaque area <60 HU was semiautomatically quantified in CCTA. LCP was defined by histology as fibroatheroma with a large lipid/necrotic core. Area under the curve (AUC) was derived from logistic regression analysis as a measure of diagnostic accuracy. Overall, 173 CCTA triplets (FBP/ASIR/MBIR) were co-registered with histology. LCP was present in 26 cross-sections. Average measured plaque area <60 HU was significantly larger in LCP compared to non-LCP cross-sections (mm{sup 2}: 5.78 ± 2.29 vs. 3.39 ± 1.68 FBP; 5.92 ± 1.87 vs. 3.43 ± 1.62 ASIR; 6.40 ± 1.55 vs. 3.49 ± 1.50 MBIR; all p < 0.0001). AUC for detecting LCP was 0.803/0.850/0.903 for FBP/ASIR/MBIR and was significantly higher for MBIR compared to FBP (p = 0.01). MBIR increased sensitivity for detection of LCP by CCTA. Plaque area <60 HU in CCTA was associated with LCP in histology regardless of the reconstruction algorithm. However, MBIR demonstrated higher accuracy for detecting LCP, which may improve vulnerable plaque detection by CCTA. (orig.)

  11. Rapid alignment of nanotomography data using joint iterative reconstruction and reprojection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsoy, Doğa; Hong, Young P; He, Kuan; Hujsak, Karl; Yoo, Seunghwan; Chen, Si; Li, Yue; Ge, Mingyuan; Miller, Lisa M; Chu, Yong S; De Andrade, Vincent; He, Kai; Cossairt, Oliver; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K; Jacobsen, Chris

    2017-09-18

    As x-ray and electron tomography is pushed further into the nanoscale, the limitations of rotation stages become more apparent, leading to challenges in the alignment of the acquired projection images. Here we present an approach for rapid post-acquisition alignment of these projections to obtain high quality three-dimensional images. Our approach is based on a joint estimation of alignment errors, and the object, using an iterative refinement procedure. With simulated data where we know the alignment error of each projection image, our approach shows a residual alignment error that is a factor of a thousand smaller, and it reaches the same error level in the reconstructed image in less than half the number of iterations. We then show its application to experimental data in x-ray and electron nanotomography.

  12. Phase reconstruction by a multilevel iteratively regularized Gauss–Newton method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langemann, Dirk; Tasche, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider the numerical solution of a phase retrieval problem for a compactly supported, linear spline f : R → C with the Fourier transform f-circumflex, where values of |f| and |f-circumflex| at finitely many equispaced nodes are given. The unknown phases of complex spline coefficients fulfil a well-structured system of nonlinear equations. Thus the phase reconstruction leads to a nonlinear inverse problem, which is solved by a multilevel strategy and iterative Tikhonov regularization. The multilevel strategy concentrates the main effort of the solution of the phase retrieval problem in the coarse, less expensive levels and provides convenient initial guesses at the next finer level. On each level, the corresponding nonlinear system is solved by an iteratively regularized Gauss–Newton method. The multilevel strategy is motivated by convergence results of IRGN. This method is applicable to a wide range of examples as shown in several numerical tests for noiseless and noisy data

  13. Implementation of non-linear filters for iterative penalized maximum likelihood image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Z.; Gilland, D.; Jaszczak, R.; Coleman, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report on the implementation of six edge-preserving, noise-smoothing, non-linear filters applied in image space for iterative penalized maximum-likelihood (ML) SPECT image reconstruction. The non-linear smoothing filters implemented were the median filter, the E 6 filter, the sigma filter, the edge-line filter, the gradient-inverse filter, and the 3-point edge filter with gradient-inverse filter, and the 3-point edge filter with gradient-inverse weight. A 3 x 3 window was used for all these filters. The best image obtained, by viewing the profiles through the image in terms of noise-smoothing, edge-sharpening, and contrast, was the one smoothed with the 3-point edge filter. The computation time for the smoothing was less than 1% of one iteration, and the memory space for the smoothing was negligible. These images were compared with the results obtained using Bayesian analysis

  14. Three-dimensional focus of attention for iterative cone-beam micro-CT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, T M; Gregor, J

    2006-01-01

    Three-dimensional iterative reconstruction of high-resolution, circular orbit cone-beam x-ray CT data is often considered impractical due to the demand for vast amounts of computer cycles and associated memory. In this paper, we show that the computational burden can be reduced by limiting the reconstruction to a small, well-defined portion of the image volume. We first discuss using the support region defined by the set of voxels covered by all of the projection views. We then present a data-driven preprocessing technique called focus of attention that heuristically separates both image and projection data into object and background before reconstruction, thereby further reducing the reconstruction region of interest. We present experimental results for both methods based on mouse data and a parallelized implementation of the SIRT algorithm. The computational savings associated with the support region are substantial. However, the results for focus of attention are even more impressive in that only about one quarter of the computer cycles and memory are needed compared with reconstruction of the entire image volume. The image quality is not compromised by either method

  15. Improvement of image quality and dose management in CT fluoroscopy by iterative 3D image reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosser, Oliver S.; Kupitz, Dennis; Powerski, Maciej; Mohnike, Konrad; Ricke, Jens [University Hospital Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Magdeburg (Germany); Wybranski, Christian [University Hospital Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Magdeburg (Germany); University Hospital Cologne, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Cologne (Germany); Pech, Maciej [University Hospital Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Magdeburg (Germany); Medical University of Gdansk, Second Department of Radiology, Gdansk (Poland); Amthauer, Holger [University Hospital Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Magdeburg (Germany); Charite, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the influence of an iterative CT reconstruction algorithm (IA), newly available for CT-fluoroscopy (CTF), on image noise, readers' confidence and effective dose compared to filtered back projection (FBP). Data from 165 patients (FBP/IA = 82/74) with CTF in the thorax, abdomen and pelvis were included. Noise was analysed in a large-diameter vessel. The impact of reconstruction and variables (e.g. X-ray tube current I) influencing noise and effective dose were analysed by ANOVA and a pairwise t-test with Bonferroni-Holm correction. Noise and readers' confidence were evaluated by three readers. Noise was significantly influenced by reconstruction, I, body region and circumference (all p ≤ 0.0002). IA reduced the noise significantly compared to FBP (p = 0.02). The effect varied for body regions and circumferences (p ≤ 0.001). The effective dose was influenced by the reconstruction, body region, interventional procedure and I (all p ≤ 0.02). The inter-rater reliability for noise and readers' confidence was good (W ≥ 0.75, p < 0.0001). Noise and readers' confidence were significantly better in AIDR-3D compared to FBP (p ≤ 0.03). Generally, IA yielded a significant reduction of the median effective dose. The CTF reconstruction by IA showed a significant reduction in noise and effective dose while readers' confidence increased. (orig.)

  16. Iterative algorithm for reconstructing rotationally asymmetric surface deviation with pixel-level spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Haiyang; Wu, Fan; Hou, Xi

    2015-10-01

    New method for reconstructing rotationally asymmetric surface deviation with pixel-level spatial resolution is proposed. It is based on basic iterative scheme and accelerates the Gauss-Seidel method by introducing an acceleration parameter. This modified Successive Over-relaxation (SOR) is effective for solving the rotationally asymmetric components with pixel-level spatial resolution, without the usage of a fitting procedure. Compared to the Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel method, the modified SOR method with an optimal relaxation factor converges much faster and saves more computational costs and memory space without reducing accuracy. It has been proved by real experimental results.

  17. Projection matrix acquisition for cone-beam computed tomography iterative reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuqiang; Zhang, Dinghua; Huang, Kuidong; Shi, Wenlong; Zhang, Caixin; Gao, Zongzhao

    2017-02-01

    Projection matrix is an essential and time-consuming part in computed tomography (CT) iterative reconstruction. In this article a novel calculation algorithm of three-dimensional (3D) projection matrix is proposed to quickly acquire the matrix for cone-beam CT (CBCT). The CT data needed to be reconstructed is considered as consisting of the three orthogonal sets of equally spaced and parallel planes, rather than the individual voxels. After getting the intersections the rays with the surfaces of the voxels, the coordinate points and vertex is compared to obtain the index value that the ray traversed. Without considering ray-slope to voxel, it just need comparing the position of two points. Finally, the computer simulation is used to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  18. SPET reconstruction with a non-uniform attenuation coefficient using an analytical regularizing iterative method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussaline, F.; LeCoq, C.; Raynaud, C.; Kellershohn, C.

    1982-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of the RIM technique when used in brain studies. The analytical Regulatorizing Iterative Method (RIM) is designed to provide fast and accurate reconstruction of tomographic images when non-uniform attenuation is to be accounted for. As indicated by phantom studies, this method improves the contrast and the signal-to-noise ratio as compared to those obtained with FBP (Filtered Back Projection) technique. Preliminary results obtained in brain studies using AMPI-123 (isopropil-amphetamine I-123) are very encouraging in terms of quantitative regional cellular activity. However, the clinical usefulness of this mathematically accurate reconstruction procedure is going to be demonstrated in our Institution, in comparing quantitative data in heart or liver studies where control values can be obtained

  19. SPET reconstruction with a non-uniform attenuation coefficient using an analytical regularizing iterative method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussaline, F.; LeCoq, C.; Raynaud, C.; Kellershohn

    1982-01-01

    The potential of the Regularizing Iterative Method (RIM), when used in brain studies, is evaluated. RIM is designed to provide fast and accurate reconstruction of tomographic images when non-uniform attenuation is to be accounted for. As indicated by phantom studies, this method improves the contrast and the signal-to-noise ratio as compared to those obtained with Filtered Back Projection (FBP) technique. Preliminary results obtained in brain studies using isopropil-amphetamine I-123 (AMPI-123) are very encouraging in terms of quantitative regional cellular activity. However, the clinical usefulness of this mathematically accurate reconstruction procedure is going to be demonstrated, in comparing quantitative data in heart or liver studies where control values can be obtained

  20. Reconstruction of a cone-beam CT image via forward iterative projection matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, R. Scott; Docef, Alen; Murphy, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of reconstructing a cone-beam CT (CBCT) image by deformably altering a prior fan-beam CT (FBCT) image such that it matches the anatomy portrayed in the CBCT projection data set. Methods: A prior FBCT image of the patient is assumed to be available as a source image. A CBCT projection data set is obtained and used as a target image set. A parametrized deformation model is applied to the source FBCT image, digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) that emulate the CBCT projection image geometry are calculated and compared to the target CBCT projection data, and the deformation model parameters are adjusted iteratively until the DRRs optimally match the CBCT projection data set. The resulting deformed FBCT image is hypothesized to be an accurate representation of the patient's anatomy imaged by the CBCT system. The process is demonstrated via numerical simulation. A known deformation is applied to a prior FBCT image and used to create a synthetic set of CBCT target projections. The iterative projection matching process is then applied to reconstruct the deformation represented in the synthetic target projections; the reconstructed deformation is then compared to the known deformation. The sensitivity of the process to the number of projections and the DRR/CBCT projection mismatch is explored by systematically adding noise to and perturbing the contrast of the target projections relative to the iterated source DRRs and by reducing the number of projections. Results: When there is no noise or contrast mismatch in the CBCT projection images, a set of 64 projections allows the known deformed CT image to be reconstructed to within a nRMS error of 1% and the known deformation to within a nRMS error of 7%. A CT image nRMS error of less than 4% is maintained at noise levels up to 3% of the mean projection intensity, at which the deformation error is 13%. At 1% noise level, the number of projections can be reduced to 8 while maintaining

  1. Novel iterative reconstruction method with optimal dose usage for partially redundant CT-acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, H.; Raupach, R.; Sunnegardh, J.; Allmendinger, T.; Klotz, E.; Stierstorfer, K.; Flohr, T.

    2015-11-01

    In CT imaging, a variety of applications exist which are strongly SNR limited. However, in some cases redundant data of the same body region provide additional quanta. Examples: in dual energy CT, the spatial resolution has to be compromised to provide good SNR for material decomposition. However, the respective spectral dataset of the same body region provides additional quanta which might be utilized to improve SNR of each spectral component. Perfusion CT is a high dose application, and dose reduction is highly desirable. However, a meaningful evaluation of perfusion parameters might be impaired by noisy time frames. On the other hand, the SNR of the average of all time frames is extremely high. In redundant CT acquisitions, multiple image datasets can be reconstructed and averaged to composite image data. These composite image data, however, might be compromised with respect to contrast resolution and/or spatial resolution and/or temporal resolution. These observations bring us to the idea of transferring high SNR of composite image data to low SNR ‘source’ image data, while maintaining their resolution. It has been shown that the noise characteristics of CT image data can be improved by iterative reconstruction (Popescu et al 2012 Book of Abstracts, 2nd CT Meeting (Salt Lake City, UT) p 148). In case of data dependent Gaussian noise it can be modelled with image-based iterative reconstruction at least in an approximate manner (Bruder et al 2011 Proc. SPIE 7961 79610J). We present a generalized update equation in image space, consisting of a linear combination of the previous update, a correction term which is constrained by the source image data, and a regularization prior, which is initialized by the composite image data. This iterative reconstruction approach we call bimodal reconstruction (BMR). Based on simulation data it is shown that BMR can improve low contrast detectability, substantially reduces the noise power and has the potential to recover

  2. Novel iterative reconstruction method with optimal dose usage for partially redundant CT-acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruder, H; Raupach, R; Sunnegardh, J; Allmendinger, T; Klotz, E; Stierstorfer, K; Flohr, T

    2015-01-01

    In CT imaging, a variety of applications exist which are strongly SNR limited. However, in some cases redundant data of the same body region provide additional quanta.Examples: in dual energy CT, the spatial resolution has to be compromised to provide good SNR for material decomposition. However, the respective spectral dataset of the same body region provides additional quanta which might be utilized to improve SNR of each spectral component. Perfusion CT is a high dose application, and dose reduction is highly desirable. However, a meaningful evaluation of perfusion parameters might be impaired by noisy time frames. On the other hand, the SNR of the average of all time frames is extremely high.In redundant CT acquisitions, multiple image datasets can be reconstructed and averaged to composite image data. These composite image data, however, might be compromised with respect to contrast resolution and/or spatial resolution and/or temporal resolution. These observations bring us to the idea of transferring high SNR of composite image data to low SNR ‘source’ image data, while maintaining their resolution.It has been shown that the noise characteristics of CT image data can be improved by iterative reconstruction (Popescu et al 2012 Book of Abstracts, 2nd CT Meeting (Salt Lake City, UT) p 148). In case of data dependent Gaussian noise it can be modelled with image-based iterative reconstruction at least in an approximate manner (Bruder et al 2011 Proc. SPIE 7961 79610J).We present a generalized update equation in image space, consisting of a linear combination of the previous update, a correction term which is constrained by the source image data, and a regularization prior, which is initialized by the composite image data. This iterative reconstruction approach we call bimodal reconstruction (BMR).Based on simulation data it is shown that BMR can improve low contrast detectability, substantially reduces the noise power and has the potential to recover spatial

  3. Iterative model reconstruction reduces calcified plaque volume in coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Károlyi, Mihály, E-mail: mihaly.karolyi@cirg.hu [MTA-SE Cardiovascular Imaging Research Group, Heart and Vascular Center, Semmelweis University, 68. Varosmajor st, 1122, Budapest (Hungary); Szilveszter, Bálint, E-mail: szilveszter.balint@gmail.com [MTA-SE Cardiovascular Imaging Research Group, Heart and Vascular Center, Semmelweis University, 68. Varosmajor st, 1122, Budapest (Hungary); Kolossváry, Márton, E-mail: martonandko@gmail.com [MTA-SE Cardiovascular Imaging Research Group, Heart and Vascular Center, Semmelweis University, 68. Varosmajor st, 1122, Budapest (Hungary); Takx, Richard A.P, E-mail: richard.takx@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 100 Heidelberglaan, 3584, CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Celeng, Csilla, E-mail: celengcsilla@gmail.com [MTA-SE Cardiovascular Imaging Research Group, Heart and Vascular Center, Semmelweis University, 68. Varosmajor st, 1122, Budapest (Hungary); Bartykowszki, Andrea, E-mail: bartyandi@gmail.com [MTA-SE Cardiovascular Imaging Research Group, Heart and Vascular Center, Semmelweis University, 68. Varosmajor st, 1122, Budapest (Hungary); Jermendy, Ádám L., E-mail: adam.jermendy@gmail.com [MTA-SE Cardiovascular Imaging Research Group, Heart and Vascular Center, Semmelweis University, 68. Varosmajor st, 1122, Budapest (Hungary); Panajotu, Alexisz, E-mail: panajotualexisz@gmail.com [MTA-SE Cardiovascular Imaging Research Group, Heart and Vascular Center, Semmelweis University, 68. Varosmajor st, 1122, Budapest (Hungary); Karády, Júlia, E-mail: karadyjulia@gmail.com [MTA-SE Cardiovascular Imaging Research Group, Heart and Vascular Center, Semmelweis University, 68. Varosmajor st, 1122, Budapest (Hungary); and others

    2017-02-15

    Objective: To assess the impact of iterative model reconstruction (IMR) on calcified plaque quantification as compared to filtered back projection reconstruction (FBP) and hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) in coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). Methods: Raw image data of 52 patients who underwent 256-slice CTA were reconstructed with IMR, HIR and FBP. We evaluated qualitative, quantitative image quality parameters and quantified calcified and partially calcified plaque volumes using automated software. Results: Overall qualitative image quality significantly improved with HIR as compared to FBP, and further improved with IMR (p < 0.01 all). Contrast-to-noise ratios were improved with IMR, compared to HIR and FBP (51.0 [43.5–59.9], 20.3 [16.2–25.9] and 14.0 [11.2–17.7], respectively, all p < 0.01) Overall plaque volumes were lowest with IMR and highest with FBP (121.7 [79.3–168.4], 138.7 [90.6–191.7], 147.0 [100.7–183.6]). Similarly, calcified volumes (>130 HU) were decreased with IMR as compared to HIR and FBP (105.9 [62.1–144.6], 110.2 [63.8–166.6], 115.9 [81.7–164.2], respectively, p < 0.05 all). High-attenuation non-calcified volumes (90–129 HU) yielded similar values with FBP and HIR (p = 0.81), however it was lower with IMR (p < 0.05 both). Intermediate- (30–89 HU) and low-attenuation (<30 HU) non-calcified volumes showed no significant difference (p = 0.22 and p = 0.67, respectively). Conclusions: IMR improves image quality of coronary CTA and decreases calcified plaque volumes.

  4. Reconstruction of sparse-view X-ray computed tomography using adaptive iterative algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Lin, Weikai; Jin, Mingwu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two reconstruction algorithms for sparse-view X-ray computed tomography (CT). Treating the reconstruction problems as data fidelity constrained total variation (TV) minimization, both algorithms adapt the alternate two-stage strategy: projection onto convex sets (POCS) for data fidelity and non-negativity constraints and steepest descent for TV minimization. The novelty of this work is to determine iterative parameters automatically from data, thus avoiding tedious manual parameter tuning. In TV minimization, the step sizes of steepest descent are adaptively adjusted according to the difference from POCS update in either the projection domain or the image domain, while the step size of algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) in POCS is determined based on the data noise level. In addition, projection errors are used to compare with the error bound to decide whether to perform ART so as to reduce computational costs. The performance of the proposed methods is studied and evaluated using both simulated and physical phantom data. Our methods with automatic parameter tuning achieve similar, if not better, reconstruction performance compared to a representative two-stage algorithm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of methods for suppressing edge and aliasing artefacts in iterative x-ray CT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbijewski, Wojciech; Beekman, Freek J

    2006-01-01

    X-ray CT images obtained with iterative reconstruction (IR) can be hampered by the so-called edge and aliasing artefacts, which appear as interference patterns and severe overshoots in the areas of sharp intensity transitions. Previously, we have demonstrated that these artefacts are caused by discretization errors during the projection simulation step in IR. Although these errors are inherent to IR, they can be adequately suppressed by reconstruction on an image grid that is finer than that typically used for analytical methods such as filtered back-projection. Two other methods that may prevent edge artefacts are: (i) smoothing the projections prior to reconstruction or (ii) using an image representation different from voxels; spherically symmetric Kaiser-Bessel functions are a frequently employed example of such a representation. In this paper, we compare reconstruction on a fine grid with the two above-mentioned alternative strategies for edge artefact reduction. We show that the use of a fine grid results in a more adequate suppression of artefacts than the smoothing of projections or using the Kaiser-Bessel image representation

  6. Iterative reconstruction for quantitative computed tomography analysis of emphysema: consistent results using different tube currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamashiro T

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tsuneo Yamashiro,1 Tetsuhiro Miyara,1 Osamu Honda,2 Noriyuki Tomiyama,2 Yoshiharu Ohno,3 Satoshi Noma,4 Sadayuki Murayama1 On behalf of the ACTIve Study Group 1Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa, Japan; 2Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan; 3Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan; 4Department of Radiology, Tenri Hospital, Tenri, Nara, Japan Purpose: To assess the advantages of iterative reconstruction for quantitative computed tomography (CT analysis of pulmonary emphysema. Materials and methods: Twenty-two patients with pulmonary emphysema underwent chest CT imaging using identical scanners with three different tube currents: 240, 120, and 60 mA. Scan data were converted to CT images using Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction using Three Dimensional Processing (AIDR3D and a conventional filtered-back projection mode. Thus, six scans with and without AIDR3D were generated per patient. All other scanning and reconstruction settings were fixed. The percent low attenuation area (LAA%; < -950 Hounsfield units and the lung density 15th percentile were automatically measured using a commercial workstation. Comparisons of LAA% and 15th percentile results between scans with and without using AIDR3D were made by Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Associations between body weight and measurement errors among these scans were evaluated by Spearman rank correlation analysis. Results: Overall, scan series without AIDR3D had higher LAA% and lower 15th percentile values than those with AIDR3D at each tube current (P<0.0001. For scan series without AIDR3D, lower tube currents resulted in higher LAA% values and lower 15th percentiles. The extent of emphysema was significantly different between each pair among scans when not using AIDR3D (LAA%, P<0.0001; 15th percentile, P<0.01, but was not

  7. Variability and accuracy of coronary CT angiography including use of iterative reconstruction algorithms for plaque burden assessment as compared with intravascular ultrasound - an ex vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolzmann, Paul [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Schlett, Christopher L.; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal; Scheffel, Hans; Engel, Leif-Christopher; Karolyi, Mihaly; Hoffmann, Udo [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); Maehara, Akiko; Ma, Shixin; Mintz, Gary S. [Columbia University Medical Center, Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-10-15

    To systematically assess inter-technique and inter-/intra-reader variability of coronary CT angiography (CTA) to measure plaque burden compared with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and to determine whether iterative reconstruction algorithms affect variability. IVUS and CTA data were acquired from nine human coronary arteries ex vivo. CT images were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBPR) and iterative reconstruction algorithms: adaptive-statistical (ASIR) and model-based (MBIR). After co-registration of 284 cross-sections between IVUS and CTA, two readers manually delineated the cross-sectional plaque area in all images presented in random order. Average plaque burden by IVUS was 63.7 {+-} 10.7% and correlated significantly with all CTA measurements (r = 0.45-0.52; P < 0.001), while CTA overestimated the burden by 10 {+-} 10%. There were no significant differences among FBPR, ASIR and MBIR (P > 0.05). Increased overestimation was associated with smaller plaques, eccentricity and calcification (P < 0.001). Reproducibility of plaque burden by CTA and IVUS datasets was excellent with a low mean intra-/inter-reader variability of <1/<4% for CTA and <0.5/<1% for IVUS respectively (P < 0.05) with no significant difference between CT reconstruction algorithms (P > 0.05). In ex vivo coronary arteries, plaque burden by coronary CTA had extremely low inter-/intra-reader variability and correlated significantly with IVUS measurements. Accuracy as well as reader reliability were independent of CT image reconstruction algorithm. (orig.)

  8. Task-based image quality evaluation of iterative reconstruction methods for low dose CT using computer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingyan; Fuld, Matthew K.; Fung, George S. K.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2015-04-01

    Iterative reconstruction (IR) methods for x-ray CT is a promising approach to improve image quality or reduce radiation dose to patients. The goal of this work was to use task based image quality measures and the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) to evaluate both analytic and IR methods for clinical x-ray CT applications. We performed realistic computer simulations at five radiation dose levels, from a clinical reference low dose D0 to 25% D0. A fixed size and contrast lesion was inserted at different locations into the liver of the XCAT phantom to simulate a weak signal. The simulated data were reconstructed on a commercial CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition Flash; Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) using the vendor-provided analytic (WFBP) and IR (SAFIRE) methods. The reconstructed images were analyzed by CHOs with both rotationally symmetric (RS) and rotationally oriented (RO) channels, and with different numbers of lesion locations (5, 10, and 20) in a signal known exactly (SKE), background known exactly but variable (BKEV) detection task. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used as a summary measure to compare the IR and analytic methods; the AUC was also used as the equal performance criterion to derive the potential dose reduction factor of IR. In general, there was a good agreement in the relative AUC values of different reconstruction methods using CHOs with RS and RO channels, although the CHO with RO channels achieved higher AUCs than RS channels. The improvement of IR over analytic methods depends on the dose level. The reference dose level D0 was based on a clinical low dose protocol, lower than the standard dose due to the use of IR methods. At 75% D0, the performance improvement was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The potential dose reduction factor also depended on the detection task. For the SKE/BKEV task involving 10 lesion locations, a dose reduction of at least 25% from D0 was achieved.

  9. Paediatric cardiac CT examinations: impact of the iterative reconstruction method ASIR on image quality--preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miéville, Frédéric A; Gudinchet, François; Rizzo, Elena; Ou, Phalla; Brunelle, Francis; Bochud, François O; Verdun, Francis R

    2011-09-01

    Radiation dose exposure is of particular concern in children due to the possible harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) method is a promising new technique that reduces image noise and produces better overall image quality compared with routine-dose contrast-enhanced methods. To assess the benefits of ASIR on the diagnostic image quality in paediatric cardiac CT examinations. Four paediatric radiologists based at two major hospitals evaluated ten low-dose paediatric cardiac examinations (80 kVp, CTDI(vol) 4.8-7.9 mGy, DLP 37.1-178.9 mGy·cm). The average age of the cohort studied was 2.6 years (range 1 day to 7 years). Acquisitions were performed on a 64-MDCT scanner. All images were reconstructed at various ASIR percentages (0-100%). For each examination, radiologists scored 19 anatomical structures using the relative visual grading analysis method. To estimate the potential for dose reduction, acquisitions were also performed on a Catphan phantom and a paediatric phantom. The best image quality for all clinical images was obtained with 20% and 40% ASIR (p ASIR above 50%, image quality significantly decreased (p ASIR, a strong noise-free appearance of the structures reduced image conspicuity. A potential for dose reduction of about 36% is predicted for a 2- to 3-year-old child when using 40% ASIR rather than the standard filtered back-projection method. Reconstruction including 20% to 40% ASIR slightly improved the conspicuity of various paediatric cardiac structures in newborns and children with respect to conventional reconstruction (filtered back-projection) alone.

  10. First experiences with model based iterative reconstructions influence on quantitative plaque volume and intensity measurements in coronary computed tomography angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precht, H.; Kitslaar, P.H.; Broersen, A.; Gerke, O.; Dijkstra, J.; Thygesen, J.; Egstrup, K.; Lambrechtsen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Investigate the influence of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and the model-based IR (Veo) reconstruction algorithm in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) images on quantitative measurements in coronary arteries for plaque volumes and intensities. Methods: Three patients had three independent dose reduced CCTA performed and reconstructed with 30% ASIR (CTDI vol at 6.7 mGy), 60% ASIR (CTDI vol 4.3 mGy) and Veo (CTDI vol at 1.9 mGy). Coronary plaque analysis was performed for each measured CCTA volumes, plaque burden and intensities. Results: Plaque volume and plaque burden show a decreasing tendency from ASIR to Veo as median volume for ASIR is 314 mm 3 and 337 mm 3 –252 mm 3 for Veo and plaque burden is 42% and 44% for ASIR to 39% for Veo. The lumen and vessel volume decrease slightly from 30% ASIR to 60% ASIR with 498 mm 3 –391 mm 3 for lumen volume and vessel volume from 939 mm 3 to 830 mm 3 . The intensities did not change overall between the different reconstructions for either lumen or plaque. Conclusion: We found a tendency of decreasing plaque volumes and plaque burden but no change in intensities with the use of low dose Veo CCTA (1.9 mGy) compared to dose reduced ASIR CCTA (6.7 mGy & 4.3 mGy), although more studies are warranted. - Highlights: • Veo decrease plaque volumes and plaque burden using low-dose CCTA. • Moving from ASIR 30%, ASIR 60% to Veo did not appear to influence the plaque intensities. • Studies including larger sample size are needed to investigate the effect on plaque.

  11. Statistical list-mode image reconstruction for the high resolution research tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmim, A; Lenox, M; Reader, A J; Michel, C; Burbar, Z; Ruth, T J; Sossi, V

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated statistical list-mode reconstruction applicable to a depth-encoding high resolution research tomograph. An image non-negativity constraint has been employed in the reconstructions and is shown to effectively remove the overestimation bias introduced by the sinogram non-negativity constraint. We have furthermore implemented a convergent subsetized (CS) list-mode reconstruction algorithm, based on previous work (Hsiao et al 2002 Conf. Rec. SPIE Med. Imaging 4684 10-19; Hsiao et al 2002 Conf. Rec. IEEE Int. Symp. Biomed. Imaging 409-12) on convergent histogram OSEM reconstruction. We have demonstrated that the first step of the convergent algorithm is exactly equivalent (unlike the histogram-mode case) to the regular subsetized list-mode EM algorithm, while the second and final step takes the form of additive updates in image space. We have shown that in terms of contrast, noise as well as FWHM width behaviour, the CS algorithm is robust and does not result in limit cycles. A hybrid algorithm based on the ordinary and the convergent algorithms is also proposed, and is shown to combine the advantages of the two algorithms (i.e. it is able to reach a higher image quality in fewer iterations while maintaining the convergent behaviour), making the hybrid approach a good alternative to the ordinary subsetized list-mode EM algorithm

  12. Computed tomography of the chest with model-based iterative reconstruction using a radiation exposure similar to chest X-ray examination: preliminary observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neroladaki, Angeliki; Botsikas, Diomidis; Boudabbous, Sana; Becker, Christoph D.; Montet, Xavier [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic image quality of ultra-low-dose chest computed tomography (ULD-CT) obtained with a radiation dose comparable to chest radiography and reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in comparison with standard dose diagnostic CT (SDD-CT) or low-dose diagnostic CT (LDD-CT) reconstructed with FBP alone. Unenhanced chest CT images of 42 patients acquired with ULD-CT were compared with images obtained with SDD-CT or LDD-CT in the same examination. Noise measurements and image quality, based on conspicuity of chest lesions on all CT data sets were assessed on a five-point scale. The radiation dose of ULD-CT was 0.16 {+-} 0.006 mSv compared with 11.2 {+-} 2.7 mSv for SDD-CT (P < 0.0001) and 2.7 {+-} 0.9 mSv for LDD-CT. Image quality of ULD-CT increased significantly when using MBIR compared with FBP or ASIR (P < 0.001). ULD-CT reconstructed with MBIR enabled to detect as many non-calcified pulmonary nodules as seen on SDD-CT or LDD-CT. However, image quality of ULD-CT was clearly inferior for characterisation of ground glass opacities or emphysema. Model-based iterative reconstruction allows detection of pulmonary nodules with ULD-CT with radiation exposure in the range of a posterior to anterior (PA) and lateral chest X-ray. (orig.)

  13. An Efficient Augmented Lagrangian Method for Statistical X-Ray CT Image Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaojiao; Niu, Shanzhou; Huang, Jing; Bian, Zhaoying; Feng, Qianjin; Yu, Gaohang; Liang, Zhengrong; Chen, Wufan; Ma, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR) for X-ray computed tomography (CT) under the penalized weighted least-squares criteria can yield significant gains over conventional analytical reconstruction from the noisy measurement. However, due to the nonlinear expression of the objective function, most exiting algorithms related to the SIR unavoidably suffer from heavy computation load and slow convergence rate, especially when an edge-preserving or sparsity-based penalty or regularization is incorporated. In this work, to address abovementioned issues of the general algorithms related to the SIR, we propose an adaptive nonmonotone alternating direction algorithm in the framework of augmented Lagrangian multiplier method, which is termed as "ALM-ANAD". The algorithm effectively combines an alternating direction technique with an adaptive nonmonotone line search to minimize the augmented Lagrangian function at each iteration. To evaluate the present ALM-ANAD algorithm, both qualitative and quantitative studies were conducted by using digital and physical phantoms. Experimental results show that the present ALM-ANAD algorithm can achieve noticeable gains over the classical nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm and state-of-the-art split Bregman algorithm in terms of noise reduction, contrast-to-noise ratio, convergence rate, and universal quality index metrics.

  14. Submillisievert coronary calcium quantification using model-based iterative reconstruction: A within-patient analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Annemarie M. den, E-mail: a.m.denharder@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wolterink, Jelmer M. [Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Willemink, Martin J.; Schilham, Arnold M.R.; Jong, Pim A. de [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Budde, Ricardo P.J. [Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Nathoe, Hendrik M. [Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Išgum, Ivana [Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Leiner, Tim [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Iterative reconstruction (IR) allows for low dose coronary calcium scoring (CCS). • Radiation dose can be safely reduced to 0.4 mSv with hybrid and model-based IR. • FBP is not feasible at these dose levels due to excessive noise. - Abstract: Purpose: To determine the effect of model-based iterative reconstruction (IR) on coronary calcium quantification using different submillisievert CT acquisition protocols. Methods: Twenty-eight patients received a clinically indicated non contrast-enhanced cardiac CT. After the routine dose acquisition, low-dose acquisitions were performed with 60%, 40% and 20% of the routine dose mAs. Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid IR (HIR) and model-based IR (MIR) and Agatston scores, calcium volumes and calcium mass scores were determined. Results: Effective dose was 0.9, 0.5, 0.4 and 0.2 mSv, respectively. At 0.5 and 0.4 mSv, differences in Agatston scores with both HIR and MIR compared to FBP at routine dose were small (−0.1 to −2.9%), while at 0.2 mSv, differences in Agatston scores of −12.6 to −14.6% occurred. Reclassification of risk category at reduced dose levels was more frequent with MIR (21–25%) than with HIR (18%). Conclusions: Radiation dose for coronary calcium scoring can be safely reduced to 0.4 mSv using both HIR and MIR, while FBP is not feasible at these dose levels due to excessive noise. Further dose reduction can lead to an underestimation in Agatston score and subsequent reclassification to lower risk categories. Mass scores were unaffected by dose reductions.

  15. SU-G-IeP2-12: The Effect of Iterative Reconstruction and CT Tube Voltage On Hounsfield Unit Values of Iodinated Contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, K; Greene-Donnelly, K; Vallabhaneni, D; Scalzetti, E [SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of changing iterative reconstruction strength and tube voltage on Hounsfield Unit (HU) values of varying concentrations of Iodinated contrast medium in a phantom. Method: Iodinated contrast (Omnipaque 300, GE Healthcare, Princeton NJ) was diluted with distilled water to concentrations of 0.6, 0.9, 1.8, 3.6, 7.2, and 10.8 mg/mL of Iodine. The solutions were scanned in a patient equivalent water phantom on two MDCT scanners: VCT 64 slice (GE Medical Systems, Waukesha, WI) and an Aquilion One 320 slice scanner (Toshiba America Medical Systems, Tustin CA). The phantom was scanned at 80, 100, 120, 140 kV using 400, 255, 180, and 130 mAs, respectively, for the VCT scanner, and 80, 100, 120, and 135 kV using 400, 250, 200, and 150 mAs, respectively, on the Aquilion One. Images were reconstructed at 2.5 mm (VCT) and 0.5 mm (Aquilion One). The VCT images were reconstructed using Advanced Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) at 6 different strengths: 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%. Aquilion One images were reconstructed using Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction (AIDR) at 4 strengths: no AIDR, Weak AIDR, Standard AIDR, and Strong AIDR. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on the images to measure the HU values and standard deviations of the diluted contrast. Second order polynomials were used to fit the HU values as a function of Iodine concentration. Results: For both scanners, there was no significant effect of changing the iterative reconstruction strength. The polynomial fits yielded goodness-of-fit (R2) values averaging 0.997. Conclusion: Changing the strength of the iterative reconstruction has no significant effect on the HU values of Iodinated contrast in a tissue-equivalent phantom. Fit values of HU vs Iodine concentration are useful in quantitative imaging protocols such as the determination of cardiac output from time-density curves in the main pulmonary artery.

  16. A sparsity-regularized Born iterative method for reconstruction of two-dimensional piecewise continuous inhomogeneous domains

    KAUST Repository

    Sandhu, Ali Imran; Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    A sparsity-regularized Born iterative method (BIM) is proposed for efficiently reconstructing two-dimensional piecewise-continuous inhomogeneous dielectric profiles. Such profiles are typically not spatially sparse, which reduces the efficiency of the sparsity-promoting regularization. To overcome this problem, scattered fields are represented in terms of the spatial derivative of the dielectric profile and reconstruction is carried out over samples of the dielectric profile's derivative. Then, like the conventional BIM, the nonlinear problem is iteratively converted into a sequence of linear problems (in derivative samples) and sparsity constraint is enforced on each linear problem using the thresholded Landweber iterations. Numerical results, which demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method in reconstructing piecewise-continuous dielectric profiles, are presented.

  17. A sparsity-regularized Born iterative method for reconstruction of two-dimensional piecewise continuous inhomogeneous domains

    KAUST Repository

    Sandhu, Ali Imran

    2016-04-10

    A sparsity-regularized Born iterative method (BIM) is proposed for efficiently reconstructing two-dimensional piecewise-continuous inhomogeneous dielectric profiles. Such profiles are typically not spatially sparse, which reduces the efficiency of the sparsity-promoting regularization. To overcome this problem, scattered fields are represented in terms of the spatial derivative of the dielectric profile and reconstruction is carried out over samples of the dielectric profile\\'s derivative. Then, like the conventional BIM, the nonlinear problem is iteratively converted into a sequence of linear problems (in derivative samples) and sparsity constraint is enforced on each linear problem using the thresholded Landweber iterations. Numerical results, which demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method in reconstructing piecewise-continuous dielectric profiles, are presented.

  18. Crossing statistic: reconstructing the expansion history of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafieloo, Arman

    2012-01-01

    We present that by combining Crossing Statistic [1,2] and Smoothing method [3-5] one can reconstruct the expansion history of the universe with a very high precision without considering any prior on the cosmological quantities such as the equation of state of dark energy. We show that the presented method performs very well in reconstruction of the expansion history of the universe independent of the underlying models and it works well even for non-trivial dark energy models with fast or slow changes in the equation of state of dark energy. Accuracy of the reconstructed quantities along with independence of the method to any prior or assumption gives the proposed method advantages to the other non-parametric methods proposed before in the literature. Applying on the Union 2.1 supernovae combined with WiggleZ BAO data we present the reconstructed results and test the consistency of the two data sets in a model independent manner. Results show that latest available supernovae and BAO data are in good agreement with each other and spatially flat ΛCDM model is in concordance with the current data

  19. SU-D-12A-05: Iterative Reconstruction Techniques to Enable Intrinsic Respiratory Gated CT in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, T; Sun, N; Tan, S [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Liu, Y; Mistry, N [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Longitudinal studies of lung function in mice need the ability to image different phases of ventilation in free-breathing mice using retrospective gating. However, retrospective gating often produces under-sampled and uneven angular samples, resulting in severe reconstruction artifacts when using traditional FDK based reconstruction algorithms. We wanted to demonstrate the utility of iterative reconstruction method to enable intrinsic respiratory gating in small-animal CT. Methods: Free-breathing mice were imaged using a Siemens Inveon PET/micro-CT system. Evenly distributed projection images were acquired at 360 angles. Retrospective respiratory gating was performed using an intrinsic marker based on the average intensity in a region covering the diaphragm. Projections were classified into 4 and 6 phases (finer temporal resolution) resulting in 138 and 67 projections respectively. Reconstruction was carried out using 3 Methods: conventional FDK, iterative penalized least-square (PWLS) with total variation (TV), and PWLS with edge-preserving penalty. The performance of the methods was compared using contrast-to-noise (CNR) in a region of interest (ROI). Line profile through a specific region was plotted to evaluate the preserving of edges. Results: In both the cases with 4 and 6 phases, inadequate and non-uniform angular sampling results in artifacts using conventional FDK. However, such artifacts are minimized using both the iterative methods. Using both 4 and 6 phases, the iterative techniques outperformed FDK in terms of CNR and maintaining sharp edges. This is further evidenced especially with increased artifacts using FDK for 6 phases. Conclusion: This work indicates fewer artifacts and better image details can be achieved with iterative reconstruction methods in non-uniform under-sampled reconstruction. Using iterative methods can enable free-breathing intrinsic respiratory gating in small-animal CT. Further studies are needed to compare the

  20. Fast parallel algorithm for three-dimensional distance-driven model in iterative computed tomography reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian-Lin; Li Lei; Wang Lin-Yuan; Cai Ai-Long; Xi Xiao-Qi; Zhang Han-Ming; Li Jian-Xin; Yan Bin

    2015-01-01

    The projection matrix model is used to describe the physical relationship between reconstructed object and projection. Such a model has a strong influence on projection and backprojection, two vital operations in iterative computed tomographic reconstruction. The distance-driven model (DDM) is a state-of-the-art technology that simulates forward and back projections. This model has a low computational complexity and a relatively high spatial resolution; however, it includes only a few methods in a parallel operation with a matched model scheme. This study introduces a fast and parallelizable algorithm to improve the traditional DDM for computing the parallel projection and backprojection operations. Our proposed model has been implemented on a GPU (graphic processing unit) platform and has achieved satisfactory computational efficiency with no approximation. The runtime for the projection and backprojection operations with our model is approximately 4.5 s and 10.5 s per loop, respectively, with an image size of 256×256×256 and 360 projections with a size of 512×512. We compare several general algorithms that have been proposed for maximizing GPU efficiency by using the unmatched projection/backprojection models in a parallel computation. The imaging resolution is not sacrificed and remains accurate during computed tomographic reconstruction. (paper)

  1. Improved iterative image reconstruction algorithm for the exterior problem of computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yumeng; Zeng, Li

    2017-01-01

    In industrial applications that are limited by the angle of a fan-beam and the length of a detector, the exterior problem of computed tomography (CT) uses only the projection data that correspond to the external annulus of the objects to reconstruct an image. Because the reconstructions are not affected by the projection data that correspond to the interior of the objects, the exterior problem is widely applied to detect cracks in the outer wall of large-sized objects, such as in-service pipelines. However, image reconstruction in the exterior problem is still a challenging problem due to truncated projection data and beam-hardening, both of which can lead to distortions and artifacts. Thus, developing an effective algorithm and adopting a scanning trajectory suited for the exterior problem may be valuable. In this study, an improved iterative algorithm that combines total variation minimization (TVM) with a region scalable fitting (RSF) model was developed for a unilateral off-centered scanning trajectory and can be utilized to inspect large-sized objects for defects. Experiments involving simulated phantoms and real projection data were conducted to validate the practicality of our algorithm. Furthermore, comparative experiments show that our algorithm outperforms others in suppressing the artifacts caused by truncated projection data and beam-hardening.

  2. Radiation dose reduction in cerebral CT perfusion imaging using iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niesten, Joris M.; Schaaf, Irene C. van der; Riordan, Alan J.; Jong, Hugo W.A.M. de; Eijspaart, Daniel; Smit, Ewoud J.; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Horsch, Alexander D.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether iterative reconstruction (IR) in cerebral CT perfusion (CTP) allows for 50 % dose reduction while maintaining image quality (IQ). A total of 48 CTP examinations were reconstructed into a standard dose (150 mAs) with filtered back projection (FBP) and half-dose (75 mAs) with two strengths of IR (middle and high). Objective IQ (quantitative perfusion values, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), penumbra, infarct area and penumbra/infarct (P/I) index) and subjective IQ (diagnostic IQ on a four-point Likert scale and overall IQ binomial) were compared among the reconstructions. Half-dose CTP with high IR level had, compared with standard dose with FBP, similar objective (grey matter cerebral blood volume (CBV) 4.4 versus 4.3 mL/100 g, CNR 1.59 versus 1.64 and P/I index 0.74 versus 0.73, respectively) and subjective diagnostic IQ (mean Likert scale 1.42 versus 1.49, respectively). The overall IQ in half-dose with high IR level was scored lower in 26-31 %. Half-dose with FBP and with the middle IR level were inferior to standard dose with FBP. With the use of IR in CTP imaging it is possible to examine patients with a half dose without significantly altering the objective and diagnostic IQ. The standard dose with FBP is still preferable in terms of subjective overall IQ in about one quarter of patients. (orig.)

  3. Improved iterative image reconstruction algorithm for the exterior problem of computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yumeng [Chongqing University, College of Mathematics and Statistics, Chongqing 401331 (China); Chongqing University, ICT Research Center, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and System of the Education Ministry of China, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zeng, Li, E-mail: drlizeng@cqu.edu.cn [Chongqing University, College of Mathematics and Statistics, Chongqing 401331 (China); Chongqing University, ICT Research Center, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and System of the Education Ministry of China, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2017-01-11

    In industrial applications that are limited by the angle of a fan-beam and the length of a detector, the exterior problem of computed tomography (CT) uses only the projection data that correspond to the external annulus of the objects to reconstruct an image. Because the reconstructions are not affected by the projection data that correspond to the interior of the objects, the exterior problem is widely applied to detect cracks in the outer wall of large-sized objects, such as in-service pipelines. However, image reconstruction in the exterior problem is still a challenging problem due to truncated projection data and beam-hardening, both of which can lead to distortions and artifacts. Thus, developing an effective algorithm and adopting a scanning trajectory suited for the exterior problem may be valuable. In this study, an improved iterative algorithm that combines total variation minimization (TVM) with a region scalable fitting (RSF) model was developed for a unilateral off-centered scanning trajectory and can be utilized to inspect large-sized objects for defects. Experiments involving simulated phantoms and real projection data were conducted to validate the practicality of our algorithm. Furthermore, comparative experiments show that our algorithm outperforms others in suppressing the artifacts caused by truncated projection data and beam-hardening.

  4. Impact of iterative reconstructions on objective and subjective emphysema assessment with computed tomography: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Steve P.; Gariani, Joanna; Hachulla, Anne-Lise; Botsikas, Diomidis; Becker, Christoph D.; Montet, Xavier [Geneva University Hospitals, Division of Radiology, Department of Imaging and Medical Information Sciences, Geneva (Switzerland); Adler, Dan [Geneva University Hospitals, Division of Pneumology, Department of Internal Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Karenovics, Wolfram [Geneva University Hospitals, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-07-15

    To prospectively evaluate the impact of iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms on pulmonary emphysema assessment as compared to filtered back projection (FBP). One hundred ten unenhanced chest CT examinations were obtained on two different scanners. Image reconstructions from a single acquisition were done with different levels of IR and compared with FBP on the basis of the emphysema index (EI), lung volume and voxel densities. Objective emphysema assessment was performed with 3D software provided by each manufacturer. Subjective assessment of emphysema was performed as a blinded evaluation. Quantitative and subjective values were compared using repeated ANOVA analysis, Bland-Altman analysis and Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W). Lung volumes are stable on both units, throughout all IR levels (P ≥ 0.057). EI significantly decreases on both units with the use of any level of IR (P < 0.001). The highest levels of IR are responsible for a decrease of 33-36 % of EI. Significant differences in minimal lung density are found between the different algorithms (P < 0.003). Intra- and inter-reader concordance for emphysema characterisation is generally good (W ≥ 0.77 and W ≥ 0.86, respectively). Both commercially available IR algorithms used in this study significantly changed EI but did not alter visual assessment compared to standard FBP reconstruction at identical radiation exposure. (orig.)

  5. Photogrammetric computer vision statistics, geometry, orientation and reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Förstner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This textbook offers a statistical view on the geometry of multiple view analysis, required for camera calibration and orientation and for geometric scene reconstruction based on geometric image features. The authors have backgrounds in geodesy and also long experience with development and research in computer vision, and this is the first book to present a joint approach from the converging fields of photogrammetry and computer vision. Part I of the book provides an introduction to estimation theory, covering aspects such as Bayesian estimation, variance components, and sequential estimation, with a focus on the statistically sound diagnostics of estimation results essential in vision metrology. Part II provides tools for 2D and 3D geometric reasoning using projective geometry. This includes oriented projective geometry and tools for statistically optimal estimation and test of geometric entities and transformations and their rela­tions, tools that are useful also in the context of uncertain reasoning in po...

  6. Iterative reconstruction or filtered backprojection for semi-quantitative assessment of dopamine D2 receptor SPECT studies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Walter; Suessmair, Christine; Tatsch, Klaus; Poepperl, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    In routine clinical practice striatal dopamine D 2 receptor binding is generally assessed using data reconstructed by filtered backprojection (FBP). The aim of this study was to investigate the use of an iterative reconstruction algorithm (ordered subset expectation maximization, OSEM) and to assess whether it may provide comparable or even better results than those obtained by standard FBP. In 56 patients with parkinsonian syndromes, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans were acquired 2 h after i.v. application of 185 MBq [ 123 I]iodobenzamide (IBZM) using a triple-head gamma camera (Siemens MS 3). The scans were reconstructed both by FBP and OSEM (3 iterations, 8 subsets) and filtered using a Butterworth filter. After attenuation correction the studies were automatically fitted to a mean template with a corresponding 3-D volume of interest (VOI) map covering striatum (S), caudate (C), putamen (P) and several reference VOIs using BRASS software. Visual assessment of the fitted studies suggests a better separation between C and P in studies reconstructed by OSEM than FBP. Unspecific background activity appears more homogeneous after iterative reconstruction. The correlation shows a good accordance of dopamine receptor binding using FBP and OSEM (intra-class correlation coefficients S: 0.87; C: 0.88; P: 0.84). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses show comparable diagnostic power of OSEM and FBP in the differentiation between idiopathic parkinsonian syndrome (IPS) and non-IPS. Iterative reconstruction of IBZM SPECT studies for assessment of the D 2 receptors is feasible in routine clinical practice. Close correlations between FBP and OSEM data suggest that iteratively reconstructed IBZM studies allow reliable quantification of dopamine receptor binding even though a gain in diagnostic power could not be demonstrated. (orig.)

  7. Statistical shape model-based reconstruction of a scaled, patient-specific surface model of the pelvis from a single standard AP x-ray radiograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Guoyan [Institute for Surgical Technology and Biomechanics, University of Bern, Stauffacherstrasse 78, CH-3014 Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to investigate the feasibility of using a statistical shape model (SSM)-based reconstruction technique to derive a scaled, patient-specific surface model of the pelvis from a single standard anteroposterior (AP) x-ray radiograph and the feasibility of estimating the scale of the reconstructed surface model by performing a surface-based 3D/3D matching. Methods: Data sets of 14 pelvises (one plastic bone, 12 cadavers, and one patient) were used to validate the single-image based reconstruction technique. This reconstruction technique is based on a hybrid 2D/3D deformable registration process combining a landmark-to-ray registration with a SSM-based 2D/3D reconstruction. The landmark-to-ray registration was used to find an initial scale and an initial rigid transformation between the x-ray image and the SSM. The estimated scale and rigid transformation were used to initialize the SSM-based 2D/3D reconstruction. The optimal reconstruction was then achieved in three stages by iteratively matching the projections of the apparent contours extracted from a 3D model derived from the SSM to the image contours extracted from the x-ray radiograph: Iterative affine registration, statistical instantiation, and iterative regularized shape deformation. The image contours are first detected by using a semiautomatic segmentation tool based on the Livewire algorithm and then approximated by a set of sparse dominant points that are adaptively sampled from the detected contours. The unknown scales of the reconstructed models were estimated by performing a surface-based 3D/3D matching between the reconstructed models and the associated ground truth models that were derived from a CT-based reconstruction method. Such a matching also allowed for computing the errors between the reconstructed models and the associated ground truth models. Results: The technique could reconstruct the surface models of all 14 pelvises directly from the landmark

  8. Complex amplitude reconstruction by iterative amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm with reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cheng; Guo, Cheng; Tan, Jiubin; Liu, Shutian; Liu, Zhengjun

    2018-06-01

    Multi-image iterative phase retrieval methods have been successfully applied in plenty of research fields due to their simple but efficient implementation. However, there is a mismatch between the measurement of the first long imaging distance and the sequential interval. In this paper, an amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm with reference is put forward without additional measurements or priori knowledge. It gets rid of measuring the first imaging distance. With a designed update formula, it significantly raises the convergence speed and the reconstruction fidelity, especially in phase retrieval. Its superiority over the original amplitude-phase retrieval (APR) method is validated by numerical analysis and experiments. Furthermore, it provides a conceptual design of a compact holographic image sensor, which can achieve numerical refocusing easily.

  9. Iterative Reconstruction Methods for Inverse Problems in Tomography with Hybrid Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherina, Ekaterina

    . The goal of these modalities is to quantify physical parameters of materials or tissues inside an object from given interior data, which is measured everywhere inside the object. The advantage of these modalities is that large variations in physical parameters can be resolved and therefore, they have...... data is precisely the reason why reconstructions with a high contrast and a high resolution can be expected. The main contributions of this thesis consist in formulating the underlying mathematical problems with interior data as nonlinear operator equations, theoretically analysing them within...... iteration and the Levenberg-Marquardt method are employed for solving the problems. The first problem considered in this thesis is a problem of conductivity estimation from interior measurements of the power density, known as Acousto-Electrical Tomography. A special case of limited angle tomography...

  10. Iterative Multiview Side Information for Enhanced Reconstruction in Distributed Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Distributed video coding (DVC is a new paradigm for video compression based on the information theoretical results of Slepian and Wolf (SW and Wyner and Ziv (WZ. DVC entails low-complexity encoders as well as separate encoding of correlated video sources. This is particularly attractive for multiview camera systems in video surveillance and camera sensor network applications, where low complexity is required at the encoder. In addition, the separate encoding of the sources implies no communication between the cameras in a practical scenario. This is an advantage since communication is time and power consuming and requires complex networking. In this work, different intercamera estimation techniques for side information (SI generation are explored and compared in terms of estimating quality, complexity, and rate distortion (RD performance. Further, a technique called iterative multiview side information (IMSI is introduced, where the final SI is used in an iterative reconstruction process. The simulation results show that IMSI significantly improves the RD performance for video with significant motion and activity. Furthermore, DVC outperforms AVC/H.264 Intra for video with average and low motion but it is still inferior to the Inter No Motion and Inter Motion modes.

  11. Radiation dose and image quality in pediatric chest CT: effects of iterative reconstruction in normal weight and overweight children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Haesung; Kim, Myung-Joon; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Mi-Jung; Yoon, Choon-Sik; Choi, Jiin

    2015-01-01

    New CT reconstruction techniques may help reduce the burden of ionizing radiation. To quantify radiation dose reduction when performing pediatric chest CT using a low-dose protocol and 50% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) compared with age/gender-matched chest CT using a conventional dose protocol and reconstructed with filtered back projection (control group) and to determine its effect on image quality in normal weight and overweight children. We retrospectively reviewed 40 pediatric chest CT (M:F = 21:19; range: 0.1-17 years) in both groups. Radiation dose was compared between the two groups using paired Student's t-test. Image quality including noise, sharpness, artifacts and diagnostic acceptability was subjectively assessed by three pediatric radiologists using a four-point scale (superior, average, suboptimal, unacceptable). Eight children in the ASIR group and seven in the control group were overweight. All radiation dose parameters were significantly lower in the ASIR group (P < 0.01) with a greater than 57% dose reduction in overweight children. Image noise was higher in the ASIR group in both normal weight and overweight children. Only one scan in the ASIR group (1/40, 2.5%) was rated as diagnostically suboptimal and there was no unacceptable study. In both normal weight and overweight children, the ASIR technique is associated with a greater than 57% mean dose reduction, without significantly impacting diagnostic image quality in pediatric chest CT examinations. However, CT scans in overweight children may have a greater noise level, even when using the ASIR technique. (orig.)

  12. CT image quality in sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction phantom study - is there a point of diminishing returns?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infante, Juan C. [University of Miami, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Liu, Yu [Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Rigsby, Cynthia K. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-03-15

    In our pediatric practice, we have observed qualitatively limited improvement in the image quality of images generated with sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) compared to series generated with filtered back projection (FBP), particularly in cases near or below a CT dose index volume (CTDI{sub vol}) of 1-mGy. To determine whether the image quality advantage of SAFIRE remains constant across clinically used CT dose levels in an American College of Radiology (ACR) CT accreditation phantom including the lower dose range used in pediatric imaging. An exemption from institutional review board approval was obtained for this phantom-based study. An ACR quality phantom was scanned in incremental kV steps and effective tube current intervals. Acquisitions were reconstructed with FBP and SAFIRE strengths of 1, 3 and 5. Image quality measures were calculated including signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), low-contrast resolution and high-contrast resolution. Peak SNR was also calculated. Descriptive and nonparametric statistics were used to compare these image quality metrics while normalizing to CT dose index (CTDI). The percent improvement in SNR and peak SNR of SAFIRE reconstructions compared to FBP decreased from about 70% for image sets acquired above a 1.42 mGy CTDI to 25% at a 0.25 mGy CTDI. CNR improvement with SAFIRE did not vary with dose. No significant difference was seen in the low-contrast resolution or high-contrast resolution of SAFIRE images compared to FBP. SNR did not improve equally after applying SAFIRE across a spectrum clinically used CTDIs. Below a threshold CTDI, the incremental improvement of SAFIRE compared to FBP decreased. (orig.)

  13. Radiation dose and image quality in pediatric chest CT: effects of iterative reconstruction in normal weight and overweight children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Haesung; Kim, Myung-Joon; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Mi-Jung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Choon-Sik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jiin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    New CT reconstruction techniques may help reduce the burden of ionizing radiation. To quantify radiation dose reduction when performing pediatric chest CT using a low-dose protocol and 50% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) compared with age/gender-matched chest CT using a conventional dose protocol and reconstructed with filtered back projection (control group) and to determine its effect on image quality in normal weight and overweight children. We retrospectively reviewed 40 pediatric chest CT (M:F = 21:19; range: 0.1-17 years) in both groups. Radiation dose was compared between the two groups using paired Student's t-test. Image quality including noise, sharpness, artifacts and diagnostic acceptability was subjectively assessed by three pediatric radiologists using a four-point scale (superior, average, suboptimal, unacceptable). Eight children in the ASIR group and seven in the control group were overweight. All radiation dose parameters were significantly lower in the ASIR group (P < 0.01) with a greater than 57% dose reduction in overweight children. Image noise was higher in the ASIR group in both normal weight and overweight children. Only one scan in the ASIR group (1/40, 2.5%) was rated as diagnostically suboptimal and there was no unacceptable study. In both normal weight and overweight children, the ASIR technique is associated with a greater than 57% mean dose reduction, without significantly impacting diagnostic image quality in pediatric chest CT examinations. However, CT scans in overweight children may have a greater noise level, even when using the ASIR technique. (orig.)

  14. Effects of pure and hybrid iterative reconstruction algorithms on high-resolution computed tomography in the evaluation of interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Masaki; Sato, Jiro; Akahane, Masaaki; Mise, Yoko; Sumida, Kaoru; Abe, Osamu

    2017-08-01

    To compare image quality characteristics of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in the evaluation of interstitial lung disease using three different reconstruction methods: model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and filtered back projection (FBP). Eighty-nine consecutive patients with interstitial lung disease underwent standard-of-care chest CT with 64-row multi-detector CT. HRCT images were reconstructed in 0.625-mm contiguous axial slices using FBP, ASIR, and MBIR. Two radiologists independently assessed the images in a blinded manner for subjective image noise, streak artifacts, and visualization of normal and pathologic structures. Objective image noise was measured in the lung parenchyma. Spatial resolution was assessed by measuring the modulation transfer function (MTF). MBIR offered significantly lower objective image noise (22.24±4.53, PASIR (39.76±7.41) and FBP (51.91±9.71). MTF (spatial resolution) was increased using MBIR compared with ASIR and FBP. MBIR showed improvements in visualization of normal and pathologic structures over ASIR and FBP, while ASIR was rated quite similarly to FBP. MBIR significantly improved subjective image noise (PASIR and FBP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 3D algebraic iterative reconstruction for cone-beam x-ray differential phase-contrast computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian; Hu, Xinhua; Velroyen, Astrid; Bech, Martin; Jiang, Ming; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Due to the potential of compact imaging systems with magnified spatial resolution and contrast, cone-beam x-ray differential phase-contrast computed tomography (DPC-CT) has attracted significant interest. The current proposed FDK reconstruction algorithm with the Hilbert imaginary filter will induce severe cone-beam artifacts when the cone-beam angle becomes large. In this paper, we propose an algebraic iterative reconstruction (AIR) method for cone-beam DPC-CT and report its experiment results. This approach considers the reconstruction process as the optimization of a discrete representation of the object function to satisfy a system of equations that describes the cone-beam DPC-CT imaging modality. Unlike the conventional iterative algorithms for absorption-based CT, it involves the derivative operation to the forward projections of the reconstructed intermediate image to take into account the differential nature of the DPC projections. This method is based on the algebraic reconstruction technique, reconstructs the image ray by ray, and is expected to provide better derivative estimates in iterations. This work comprises a numerical study of the algorithm and its experimental verification using a dataset measured with a three-grating interferometer and a mini-focus x-ray tube source. It is shown that the proposed method can reduce the cone-beam artifacts and performs better than FDK under large cone-beam angles. This algorithm is of interest for future cone-beam DPC-CT applications.

  16. Accurate reconstruction of insertion-deletion histories by statistical phylogenetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Westesson

    Full Text Available The Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA is a computational abstraction that represents a partial summary either of indel history, or of structural similarity. Taking the former view (indel history, it is possible to use formal automata theory to generalize the phylogenetic likelihood framework for finite substitution models (Dayhoff's probability matrices and Felsenstein's pruning algorithm to arbitrary-length sequences. In this paper, we report results of a simulation-based benchmark of several methods for reconstruction of indel history. The methods tested include a relatively new algorithm for statistical marginalization of MSAs that sums over a stochastically-sampled ensemble of the most probable evolutionary histories. For mammalian evolutionary parameters on several different trees, the single most likely history sampled by our algorithm appears less biased than histories reconstructed by other MSA methods. The algorithm can also be used for alignment-free inference, where the MSA is explicitly summed out of the analysis. As an illustration of our method, we discuss reconstruction of the evolutionary histories of human protein-coding genes.

  17. Knowledge-based iterative model reconstruction: comparative image quality and radiation dose with a pediatric computed tomography phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Young Jin; Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In-One; Ha, Seongmin

    2016-01-01

    CT of pediatric phantoms can provide useful guidance to the optimization of knowledge-based iterative reconstruction CT. To compare radiation dose and image quality of CT images obtained at different radiation doses reconstructed with knowledge-based iterative reconstruction, hybrid iterative reconstruction and filtered back-projection. We scanned a 5-year anthropomorphic phantom at seven levels of radiation. We then reconstructed CT data with knowledge-based iterative reconstruction (iterative model reconstruction [IMR] levels 1, 2 and 3; Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA), hybrid iterative reconstruction (iDose 4 , levels 3 and 7; Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA) and filtered back-projection. The noise, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were calculated. We evaluated low-contrast resolutions and detectability by low-contrast targets and subjective and objective spatial resolutions by the line pairs and wire. With radiation at 100 peak kVp and 100 mAs (3.64 mSv), the relative doses ranged from 5% (0.19 mSv) to 150% (5.46 mSv). Lower noise and higher signal-to-noise, contrast-to-noise and objective spatial resolution were generally achieved in ascending order of filtered back-projection, iDose 4 levels 3 and 7, and IMR levels 1, 2 and 3, at all radiation dose levels. Compared with filtered back-projection at 100% dose, similar noise levels were obtained on IMR level 2 images at 24% dose and iDose 4 level 3 images at 50% dose, respectively. Regarding low-contrast resolution, low-contrast detectability and objective spatial resolution, IMR level 2 images at 24% dose showed comparable image quality with filtered back-projection at 100% dose. Subjective spatial resolution was not greatly affected by reconstruction algorithm. Reduced-dose IMR obtained at 0.92 mSv (24%) showed similar image quality to routine-dose filtered back-projection obtained at 3.64 mSv (100%), and half-dose iDose 4 obtained at 1.81 mSv. (orig.)

  18. Knowledge-based iterative model reconstruction: comparative image quality and radiation dose with a pediatric computed tomography phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Young Jin; Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Ha, Seongmin; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In-One

    2016-03-01

    CT of pediatric phantoms can provide useful guidance to the optimization of knowledge-based iterative reconstruction CT. To compare radiation dose and image quality of CT images obtained at different radiation doses reconstructed with knowledge-based iterative reconstruction, hybrid iterative reconstruction and filtered back-projection. We scanned a 5-year anthropomorphic phantom at seven levels of radiation. We then reconstructed CT data with knowledge-based iterative reconstruction (iterative model reconstruction [IMR] levels 1, 2 and 3; Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA), hybrid iterative reconstruction (iDose(4), levels 3 and 7; Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA) and filtered back-projection. The noise, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were calculated. We evaluated low-contrast resolutions and detectability by low-contrast targets and subjective and objective spatial resolutions by the line pairs and wire. With radiation at 100 peak kVp and 100 mAs (3.64 mSv), the relative doses ranged from 5% (0.19 mSv) to 150% (5.46 mSv). Lower noise and higher signal-to-noise, contrast-to-noise and objective spatial resolution were generally achieved in ascending order of filtered back-projection, iDose(4) levels 3 and 7, and IMR levels 1, 2 and 3, at all radiation dose levels. Compared with filtered back-projection at 100% dose, similar noise levels were obtained on IMR level 2 images at 24% dose and iDose(4) level 3 images at 50% dose, respectively. Regarding low-contrast resolution, low-contrast detectability and objective spatial resolution, IMR level 2 images at 24% dose showed comparable image quality with filtered back-projection at 100% dose. Subjective spatial resolution was not greatly affected by reconstruction algorithm. Reduced-dose IMR obtained at 0.92 mSv (24%) showed similar image quality to routine-dose filtered back-projection obtained at 3.64 mSv (100%), and half-dose iDose(4) obtained at 1.81 mSv.

  19. Development of an iterative reconstruction method to overcome 2D detector low resolution limitations in MLC leaf position error detection for 3D dose verification in IMRT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Ruurd; J., Godart; Wauben, D.J.L.; Langendijk, J.; van 't Veld, A.A.; Korevaar, E.W.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to introduce a new iterative method to reconstruct multi leaf collimator (MLC) positions based on low resolution ionization detector array measurements and to evaluate its error detection performance. The iterative reconstruction method consists of a fluence model, a

  20. Effect of radiation dose reduction and iterative reconstruction on computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules : Intra-individual comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Harder, Annemarie M.; Willemink, Martin J.; Van Hamersvelt, Robbert W.; Vonken, Evert-Jan P A; Milles, Julien; Schilham, Arnold M R; Lammers, Jan Willem; De Jong, Pim A.; Leiner, Tim; Budde, Ricardo P J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of radiation dose reduction and iterative reconstruction (IR) on the performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) for pulmonary nodules. Methods In this prospective study twenty-five patients were included who were scanned for pulmonary nodule follow-up. Image

  1. Systematic Error in Lung Nodule Volumetry : Effect of Iterative Reconstruction Versus Filtered Back Projection at Different CT Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemink, Martin J.; Leiner, Tim; Budde, Ricardo P. J.; de Kort, Freek P. L.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Jong, Pim A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Iterative reconstruction potentially can reduce radiation dose compared with filtered back projection (FBP) for chest CT. This is especially important for repeated CT scanning, as is the case in patients with indeterminate lung nodules. It is currently unknown whether absolute nodule

  2. Influence of dose reduction and iterative reconstruction on CT calcium scores : a multi-manufacturer dynamic phantom study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, N R; Willemink, M J; Willems, T P; Greuter, M J W; Leiner, T

    To evaluate the influence of dose reduction in combination with iterative reconstruction (IR) on coronary calcium scores (CCS) in a dynamic phantom on state-of-the-art CT systems from different manufacturers. Calcified inserts in an anthropomorphic chest phantom were translated at 20 mm/s

  3. Reduced-dose abdominopelvic CT using hybrid iterative reconstruction in suspected left-sided colonic diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laqmani, Azien; Dulz, Simon; Behzadi, Cyrus; Schmidt-Holtz, Jakob; Wassenberg, Felicia; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Veldhoen, Simon [University Medical Center Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Derlin, Thorsten [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Sehner, Susanne [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany); Nagel, Hans-Dieter [Scientific and Application-oriented Studies and Consulting in Radiology (SASCRAD), Buchholz (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    To assess the effect of hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and filtered back projection (FBP) on abdominopelvic CT with reduced-dose (RD-APCT) in the evaluation of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis (ALCD). Twenty-five consecutive patients with suspected ALCD who underwent RD-APCT (mean CTDIvol 11.2 ± 4.2 mGy) were enrolled in this study. Raw data were reconstructed using FBP and two increasing HIR levels, L4 and L6. Two radiologists assessed image quality, image noise and reviewer confidence in interpreting findings of ALCD, including wall thickening, pericolic fat inflammation, pericolic abscess, and contained or free extraluminal air. Objective image noise (OIN) was measured. OIN was reduced up to 54 % with HIR compared to FBP. Subjective image quality of HIR images was superior to FBP; subjective image noise was reduced. The detection rate of extraluminal air was higher with HIR L6. Reviewer confidence in interpreting CT findings of ALCD significantly improved with application of HIR. RD-APCT with HIR offers superior image quality and lower image noise compared to FBP, allowing a high level of reviewer confidence in interpreting CT findings in ALCD. HIR facilitates detection of ALCD findings that may be missed with the FBP algorithm. (orig.)

  4. Analysis of iterative region-of-interest image reconstruction for x-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidky, Emil Y.; Kraemer, David N.; Roth, Erin G.; Ullberg, Christer; Reiser, Ingrid S.; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. One of the challenges for iterative image reconstruction (IIR) is that such algorithms solve an imaging model implicitly, requiring a complete representation of the scanned subject within the viewing domain of the scanner. This requirement can place a prohibitively high computational burden for IIR applied to x-ray computed tomography (CT), especially when high-resolution tomographic volumes are required. In this work, we aim to develop an IIR algorithm for direct region-of-interest (ROI) image reconstruction. The proposed class of IIR algorithms is based on an optimization problem that incorporates a data fidelity term, which compares a derivative of the estimated data with the available projection data. In order to characterize this optimization problem, we apply it to computer-simulated two-dimensional fan-beam CT data, using both ideal noiseless data and realistic data containing a level of noise comparable to that of the breast CT application. The proposed method is demonstrated for both complete field-of-view and ROI imaging. To demonstrate the potential utility of the proposed ROI imaging method, it is applied to actual CT scanner data. PMID:25685824

  5. Analysis of iterative region-of-interest image reconstruction for x-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidky, Emil Y; Kraemer, David N; Roth, Erin G; Ullberg, Christer; Reiser, Ingrid S; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2014-10-03

    One of the challenges for iterative image reconstruction (IIR) is that such algorithms solve an imaging model implicitly, requiring a complete representation of the scanned subject within the viewing domain of the scanner. This requirement can place a prohibitively high computational burden for IIR applied to x-ray computed tomography (CT), especially when high-resolution tomographic volumes are required. In this work, we aim to develop an IIR algorithm for direct region-of-interest (ROI) image reconstruction. The proposed class of IIR algorithms is based on an optimization problem that incorporates a data fidelity term, which compares a derivative of the estimated data with the available projection data. In order to characterize this optimization problem, we apply it to computer-simulated two-dimensional fan-beam CT data, using both ideal noiseless data and realistic data containing a level of noise comparable to that of the breast CT application. The proposed method is demonstrated for both complete field-of-view and ROI imaging. To demonstrate the potential utility of the proposed ROI imaging method, it is applied to actual CT scanner data.