Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Jegadeeshwaran
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In automobile, brake system is an essential part responsible for control of the vehicle. Any failure in the brake system impacts the vehicle's motion. It will generate frequent catastrophic effects on the vehicle cum passenger's safety. Thus the brake system plays a vital role in an automobile and hence condition monitoring of the brake system is essential. Vibration based condition monitoring using machine learning techniques are gaining momentum. This study is one such attempt to perform the condition monitoring of a hydraulic brake system through vibration analysis. In this research, the performance of a Clonal Selection Classification Algorithm (CSCA for brake fault diagnosis has been reported. A hydraulic brake system test rig was fabricated. Under good and faulty conditions of a brake system, the vibration signals were acquired using a piezoelectric transducer. The statistical parameters were extracted from the vibration signal. The best feature set was identified for classification using attribute evaluator. The selected features were then classified using CSCA. The classification accuracy of such artificial intelligence technique has been compared with other machine learning approaches and discussed. The Clonal Selection Classification Algorithm performs better and gives the maximum classification accuracy (96% for the fault diagnosis of a hydraulic brake system.
Android Malware Classification Using K-Means Clustering Algorithm
Hamid, Isredza Rahmi A.; Syafiqah Khalid, Nur; Azma Abdullah, Nurul; Rahman, Nurul Hidayah Ab; Chai Wen, Chuah
2017-08-01
Malware was designed to gain access or damage a computer system without user notice. Besides, attacker exploits malware to commit crime or fraud. This paper proposed Android malware classification approach based on K-Means clustering algorithm. We evaluate the proposed model in terms of accuracy using machine learning algorithms. Two datasets were selected to demonstrate the practicing of K-Means clustering algorithms that are Virus Total and Malgenome dataset. We classify the Android malware into three clusters which are ransomware, scareware and goodware. Nine features were considered for each types of dataset such as Lock Detected, Text Detected, Text Score, Encryption Detected, Threat, Porn, Law, Copyright and Moneypak. We used IBM SPSS Statistic software for data classification and WEKA tools to evaluate the built cluster. The proposed K-Means clustering algorithm shows promising result with high accuracy when tested using Random Forest algorithm.
SAW Classification Algorithm for Chinese Text Classification
Xiaoli Guo; Huiyu Sun; Tiehua Zhou; Ling Wang; Zhaoyang Qu; Jiannan Zang
2015-01-01
Considering the explosive growth of data, the increased amount of text data’s effect on the performance of text categorization forward the need for higher requirements, such that the existing classification method cannot be satisfied. Based on the study of existing text classification technology and semantics, this paper puts forward a kind of Chinese text classification oriented SAW (Structural Auxiliary Word) algorithm. The algorithm uses the special space effect of Chinese text where words...
A Comparative Analysis of Classification Algorithms on Diverse Datasets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Alghobiri
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Data mining involves the computational process to find patterns from large data sets. Classification, one of the main domains of data mining, involves known structure generalizing to apply to a new dataset and predict its class. There are various classification algorithms being used to classify various data sets. They are based on different methods such as probability, decision tree, neural network, nearest neighbor, boolean and fuzzy logic, kernel-based etc. In this paper, we apply three diverse classification algorithms on ten datasets. The datasets have been selected based on their size and/or number and nature of attributes. Results have been discussed using some performance evaluation measures like precision, accuracy, F-measure, Kappa statistics, mean absolute error, relative absolute error, ROC Area etc. Comparative analysis has been carried out using the performance evaluation measures of accuracy, precision, and F-measure. We specify features and limitations of the classification algorithms for the diverse nature datasets.
Unsupervised Classification Using Immune Algorithm
Al-Muallim, M. T.; El-Kouatly, R.
2012-01-01
Unsupervised classification algorithm based on clonal selection principle named Unsupervised Clonal Selection Classification (UCSC) is proposed in this paper. The new proposed algorithm is data driven and self-adaptive, it adjusts its parameters to the data to make the classification operation as fast as possible. The performance of UCSC is evaluated by comparing it with the well known K-means algorithm using several artificial and real-life data sets. The experiments show that the proposed U...
Comparison analysis for classification algorithm in data mining and the study of model use
Chen, Junde; Zhang, Defu
2018-04-01
As a key technique in data mining, classification algorithm was received extensive attention. Through an experiment of classification algorithm in UCI data set, we gave a comparison analysis method for the different algorithms and the statistical test was used here. Than that, an adaptive diagnosis model for preventive electricity stealing and leakage was given as a specific case in the paper.
Recursive automatic classification algorithms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bauman, E V; Dorofeyuk, A A
1982-03-01
A variational statement of the automatic classification problem is given. The dependence of the form of the optimal partition surface on the form of the classification objective functional is investigated. A recursive algorithm is proposed for maximising a functional of reasonably general form. The convergence problem is analysed in connection with the proposed algorithm. 8 references.
Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhenhua Guo
Full Text Available Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8, image patch (Statistical_Joint and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor.
A method for classification of network traffic based on C5.0 Machine Learning Algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bujlow, Tomasz; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup
2012-01-01
current network traffic. To overcome the drawbacks of existing methods for traffic classification, usage of C5.0 Machine Learning Algorithm (MLA) was proposed. On the basis of statistical traffic information received from volunteers and C5.0 algorithm we constructed a boosted classifier, which was shown...... and classification, an algorithm for recognizing flow direction and the C5.0 itself. Classified applications include Skype, FTP, torrent, web browser traffic, web radio, interactive gaming and SSH. We performed subsequent tries using different sets of parameters and both training and classification options...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianning Wu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The accurate identification of gait asymmetry is very beneficial to the assessment of at-risk gait in the clinical applications. This paper investigated the application of classification method based on statistical learning algorithm to quantify gait symmetry based on the assumption that the degree of intrinsic change in dynamical system of gait is associated with the different statistical distributions between gait variables from left-right side of lower limbs; that is, the discrimination of small difference of similarity between lower limbs is considered the reorganization of their different probability distribution. The kinetic gait data of 60 participants were recorded using a strain gauge force platform during normal walking. The classification method is designed based on advanced statistical learning algorithm such as support vector machine algorithm for binary classification and is adopted to quantitatively evaluate gait symmetry. The experiment results showed that the proposed method could capture more intrinsic dynamic information hidden in gait variables and recognize the right-left gait patterns with superior generalization performance. Moreover, our proposed techniques could identify the small significant difference between lower limbs when compared to the traditional symmetry index method for gait. The proposed algorithm would become an effective tool for early identification of the elderly gait asymmetry in the clinical diagnosis.
Wu, Jianning; Wu, Bin
2015-01-01
The accurate identification of gait asymmetry is very beneficial to the assessment of at-risk gait in the clinical applications. This paper investigated the application of classification method based on statistical learning algorithm to quantify gait symmetry based on the assumption that the degree of intrinsic change in dynamical system of gait is associated with the different statistical distributions between gait variables from left-right side of lower limbs; that is, the discrimination of small difference of similarity between lower limbs is considered the reorganization of their different probability distribution. The kinetic gait data of 60 participants were recorded using a strain gauge force platform during normal walking. The classification method is designed based on advanced statistical learning algorithm such as support vector machine algorithm for binary classification and is adopted to quantitatively evaluate gait symmetry. The experiment results showed that the proposed method could capture more intrinsic dynamic information hidden in gait variables and recognize the right-left gait patterns with superior generalization performance. Moreover, our proposed techniques could identify the small significant difference between lower limbs when compared to the traditional symmetry index method for gait. The proposed algorithm would become an effective tool for early identification of the elderly gait asymmetry in the clinical diagnosis.
Classification algorithms using adaptive partitioning
Binev, Peter; Cohen, Albert; Dahmen, Wolfgang; DeVore, Ronald
2014-01-01
© 2014 Institute of Mathematical Statistics. Algorithms for binary classification based on adaptive tree partitioning are formulated and analyzed for both their risk performance and their friendliness to numerical implementation. The algorithms can be viewed as generating a set approximation to the Bayes set and thus fall into the general category of set estimators. In contrast with the most studied tree-based algorithms, which utilize piecewise constant approximation on the generated partition [IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 52 (2006) 1335.1353; Mach. Learn. 66 (2007) 209.242], we consider decorated trees, which allow us to derive higher order methods. Convergence rates for these methods are derived in terms the parameter - of margin conditions and a rate s of best approximation of the Bayes set by decorated adaptive partitions. They can also be expressed in terms of the Besov smoothness β of the regression function that governs its approximability by piecewise polynomials on adaptive partition. The execution of the algorithms does not require knowledge of the smoothness or margin conditions. Besov smoothness conditions are weaker than the commonly used Holder conditions, which govern approximation by nonadaptive partitions, and therefore for a given regression function can result in a higher rate of convergence. This in turn mitigates the compatibility conflict between smoothness and margin parameters.
Classification algorithms using adaptive partitioning
Binev, Peter
2014-12-01
© 2014 Institute of Mathematical Statistics. Algorithms for binary classification based on adaptive tree partitioning are formulated and analyzed for both their risk performance and their friendliness to numerical implementation. The algorithms can be viewed as generating a set approximation to the Bayes set and thus fall into the general category of set estimators. In contrast with the most studied tree-based algorithms, which utilize piecewise constant approximation on the generated partition [IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 52 (2006) 1335.1353; Mach. Learn. 66 (2007) 209.242], we consider decorated trees, which allow us to derive higher order methods. Convergence rates for these methods are derived in terms the parameter - of margin conditions and a rate s of best approximation of the Bayes set by decorated adaptive partitions. They can also be expressed in terms of the Besov smoothness β of the regression function that governs its approximability by piecewise polynomials on adaptive partition. The execution of the algorithms does not require knowledge of the smoothness or margin conditions. Besov smoothness conditions are weaker than the commonly used Holder conditions, which govern approximation by nonadaptive partitions, and therefore for a given regression function can result in a higher rate of convergence. This in turn mitigates the compatibility conflict between smoothness and margin parameters.
Xu, Sai; Zhou, Zhiyan; Lu, Huazhong; Luo, Xiwen; Lan, Yubin
2014-03-19
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is one of the main methods used for electronic nose pattern recognition. However, poor classification performance is common in classification and recognition when using regular PCA. This paper aims to improve the classification performance of regular PCA based on the existing Wilks Λ-statistic (i.e., combined PCA with the Wilks distribution). The improved algorithms, which combine regular PCA with the Wilks Λ-statistic, were developed after analysing the functionality and defects of PCA. Verification tests were conducted using a PEN3 electronic nose. The collected samples consisted of the volatiles of six varieties of rough rice (Zhongxiang1, Xiangwan13, Yaopingxiang, WufengyouT025, Pin 36, and Youyou122), grown in same area and season. The first two principal components used as analysis vectors cannot perform the rough rice varieties classification task based on a regular PCA. Using the improved algorithms, which combine the regular PCA with the Wilks Λ-statistic, many different principal components were selected as analysis vectors. The set of data points of the Mahalanobis distance between each of the varieties of rough rice was selected to estimate the performance of the classification. The result illustrates that the rough rice varieties classification task is achieved well using the improved algorithm. A Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN) was also established to test the effectiveness of the improved algorithms. The first two principal components (namely PC1 and PC2) and the first and fifth principal component (namely PC1 and PC5) were selected as the inputs of PNN for the classification of the six rough rice varieties. The results indicate that the classification accuracy based on the improved algorithm was improved by 6.67% compared to the results of the regular method. These results prove the effectiveness of using the Wilks Λ-statistic to improve the classification accuracy of the regular PCA approach. The results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiří Fejfar
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We are presenting results comparison of three artificial intelligence algorithms in a classification of time series derived from musical excerpts in this paper. Algorithms were chosen to represent different principles of classification – statistic approach, neural networks and competitive learning. The first algorithm is a classical k-Nearest neighbours algorithm, the second algorithm is Multilayer Perceptron (MPL, an example of artificial neural network and the third one is a Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ algorithm representing supervised counterpart to unsupervised Self Organizing Map (SOM.After our own former experiments with unlabelled data we moved forward to the data labels utilization, which generally led to a better accuracy of classification results. As we need huge data set of labelled time series (a priori knowledge of correct class which each time series instance belongs to, we used, with a good experience in former studies, musical excerpts as a source of real-world time series. We are using standard deviation of the sound signal as a descriptor of a musical excerpts volume level.We are describing principle of each algorithm as well as its implementation briefly, giving links for further research. Classification results of each algorithm are presented in a confusion matrix showing numbers of misclassifications and allowing to evaluate overall accuracy of the algorithm. Results are compared and particular misclassifications are discussed for each algorithm. Finally the best solution is chosen and further research goals are given.
Sreejith, Sreevarsha; Pereverzyev, Sergiy, Jr.; Kelvin, Lee S.; Marleau, Francine R.; Haltmeier, Markus; Ebner, Judith; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Driver, Simon P.; Graham, Alister W.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Liske, Jochen; Loveday, Jon; Moffett, Amanda J.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Taylor, Edward N.; Wang, Lingyu; Wright, Angus H.
2018-03-01
We apply four statistical learning methods to a sample of 7941 galaxies (z test the feasibility of using automated algorithms to classify galaxies. Using 10 features measured for each galaxy (sizes, colours, shape parameters, and stellar mass), we apply the techniques of Support Vector Machines, Classification Trees, Classification Trees with Random Forest (CTRF) and Neural Networks, and returning True Prediction Ratios (TPRs) of 75.8 per cent, 69.0 per cent, 76.2 per cent, and 76.0 per cent, respectively. Those occasions whereby all four algorithms agree with each other yet disagree with the visual classification (`unanimous disagreement') serves as a potential indicator of human error in classification, occurring in ˜ 9 per cent of ellipticals, ˜ 9 per cent of little blue spheroids, ˜ 14 per cent of early-type spirals, ˜ 21 per cent of intermediate-type spirals, and ˜ 4 per cent of late-type spirals and irregulars. We observe that the choice of parameters rather than that of algorithms is more crucial in determining classification accuracy. Due to its simplicity in formulation and implementation, we recommend the CTRF algorithm for classifying future galaxy data sets. Adopting the CTRF algorithm, the TPRs of the five galaxy types are : E, 70.1 per cent; LBS, 75.6 per cent; S0-Sa, 63.6 per cent; Sab-Scd, 56.4 per cent, and Sd-Irr, 88.9 per cent. Further, we train a binary classifier using this CTRF algorithm that divides galaxies into spheroid-dominated (E, LBS, and S0-Sa) and disc-dominated (Sab-Scd and Sd-Irr), achieving an overall accuracy of 89.8 per cent. This translates into an accuracy of 84.9 per cent for spheroid-dominated systems and 92.5 per cent for disc-dominated systems.
Analysis and Evaluation of IKONOS Image Fusion Algorithm Based on Land Cover Classification
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xia; JING; Yan; BAO
2015-01-01
Different fusion algorithm has its own advantages and limitations,so it is very difficult to simply evaluate the good points and bad points of the fusion algorithm. Whether an algorithm was selected to fuse object images was also depended upon the sensor types and special research purposes. Firstly,five fusion methods,i. e. IHS,Brovey,PCA,SFIM and Gram-Schmidt,were briefly described in the paper. And then visual judgment and quantitative statistical parameters were used to assess the five algorithms. Finally,in order to determine which one is the best suitable fusion method for land cover classification of IKONOS image,the maximum likelihood classification( MLC) was applied using the above five fusion images. The results showed that the fusion effect of SFIM transform and Gram-Schmidt transform were better than the other three image fusion methods in spatial details improvement and spectral information fidelity,and Gram-Schmidt technique was superior to SFIM transform in the aspect of expressing image details. The classification accuracy of the fused image using Gram-Schmidt and SFIM algorithms was higher than that of the other three image fusion methods,and the overall accuracy was greater than 98%. The IHS-fused image classification accuracy was the lowest,the overall accuracy and kappa coefficient were 83. 14% and 0. 76,respectively. Thus the IKONOS fusion images obtained by the Gram-Schmidt and SFIM were better for improving the land cover classification accuracy.
Wu, Chong; Liu, Liping; Wei, Ming; Xi, Baozhu; Yu, Minghui
2018-03-01
A modified hydrometeor classification algorithm (HCA) is developed in this study for Chinese polarimetric radars. This algorithm is based on the U.S. operational HCA. Meanwhile, the methodology of statistics-based optimization is proposed including calibration checking, datasets selection, membership functions modification, computation thresholds modification, and effect verification. Zhuhai radar, the first operational polarimetric radar in South China, applies these procedures. The systematic bias of calibration is corrected, the reliability of radar measurements deteriorates when the signal-to-noise ratio is low, and correlation coefficient within the melting layer is usually lower than that of the U.S. WSR-88D radar. Through modification based on statistical analysis of polarimetric variables, the localized HCA especially for Zhuhai is obtained, and it performs well over a one-month test through comparison with sounding and surface observations. The algorithm is then utilized for analysis of a squall line process on 11 May 2014 and is found to provide reasonable details with respect to horizontal and vertical structures, and the HCA results—especially in the mixed rain-hail region—can reflect the life cycle of the squall line. In addition, the kinematic and microphysical processes of cloud evolution and the differences between radar-detected hail and surface observations are also analyzed. The results of this study provide evidence for the improvement of this HCA developed specifically for China.
Cameron, Enrico; Pilla, Giorgio; Stella, Fabio A.
2018-01-01
The application of statistical classification methods is investigated—in comparison also to spatial interpolation methods—for predicting the acceptability of well-water quality in a situation where an effective quantitative model of the hydrogeological system under consideration cannot be developed. In the example area in northern Italy, in particular, the aquifer is locally affected by saline water and the concentration of chloride is the main indicator of both saltwater occurrence and groundwater quality. The goal is to predict if the chloride concentration in a water well will exceed the allowable concentration so that the water is unfit for the intended use. A statistical classification algorithm achieved the best predictive performances and the results of the study show that statistical classification methods provide further tools for dealing with groundwater quality problems concerning hydrogeological systems that are too difficult to describe analytically or to simulate effectively.
A Semisupervised Cascade Classification Algorithm
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Stamatis Karlos
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Classification is one of the most important tasks of data mining techniques, which have been adopted by several modern applications. The shortage of enough labeled data in the majority of these applications has shifted the interest towards using semisupervised methods. Under such schemes, the use of collected unlabeled data combined with a clearly smaller set of labeled examples leads to similar or even better classification accuracy against supervised algorithms, which use labeled examples exclusively during the training phase. A novel approach for increasing semisupervised classification using Cascade Classifier technique is presented in this paper. The main characteristic of Cascade Classifier strategy is the use of a base classifier for increasing the feature space by adding either the predicted class or the probability class distribution of the initial data. The classifier of the second level is supplied with the new dataset and extracts the decision for each instance. In this work, a self-trained NB∇C4.5 classifier algorithm is presented, which combines the characteristics of Naive Bayes as a base classifier and the speed of C4.5 for final classification. We performed an in-depth comparison with other well-known semisupervised classification methods on standard benchmark datasets and we finally reached to the point that the presented technique has better accuracy in most cases.
Gradient Evolution-based Support Vector Machine Algorithm for Classification
Zulvia, Ferani E.; Kuo, R. J.
2018-03-01
This paper proposes a classification algorithm based on a support vector machine (SVM) and gradient evolution (GE) algorithms. SVM algorithm has been widely used in classification. However, its result is significantly influenced by the parameters. Therefore, this paper aims to propose an improvement of SVM algorithm which can find the best SVMs’ parameters automatically. The proposed algorithm employs a GE algorithm to automatically determine the SVMs’ parameters. The GE algorithm takes a role as a global optimizer in finding the best parameter which will be used by SVM algorithm. The proposed GE-SVM algorithm is verified using some benchmark datasets and compared with other metaheuristic-based SVM algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed GE-SVM algorithm obtains better results than other algorithms tested in this paper.
Toward optimal feature selection using ranking methods and classification algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Novaković Jasmina
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We presented a comparison between several feature ranking methods used on two real datasets. We considered six ranking methods that can be divided into two broad categories: statistical and entropy-based. Four supervised learning algorithms are adopted to build models, namely, IB1, Naive Bayes, C4.5 decision tree and the RBF network. We showed that the selection of ranking methods could be important for classification accuracy. In our experiments, ranking methods with different supervised learning algorithms give quite different results for balanced accuracy. Our cases confirm that, in order to be sure that a subset of features giving the highest accuracy has been selected, the use of many different indices is recommended.
An Improved Brain-Inspired Emotional Learning Algorithm for Fast Classification
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Ying Mei
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Classification is an important task of machine intelligence in the field of information. The artificial neural network (ANN is widely used for classification. However, the traditional ANN shows slow training speed, and it is hard to meet the real-time requirement for large-scale applications. In this paper, an improved brain-inspired emotional learning (BEL algorithm is proposed for fast classification. The BEL algorithm was put forward to mimic the high speed of the emotional learning mechanism in mammalian brain, which has the superior features of fast learning and low computational complexity. To improve the accuracy of BEL in classification, the genetic algorithm (GA is adopted for optimally tuning the weights and biases of amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in the BEL neural network. The combinational algorithm named as GA-BEL has been tested on eight University of California at Irvine (UCI datasets and two well-known databases (Japanese Female Facial Expression, Cohn–Kanade. The comparisons of experiments indicate that the proposed GA-BEL is more accurate than the original BEL algorithm, and it is much faster than the traditional algorithm.
14 CFR Section 19 - Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics
2010-01-01
... Statistics Section 19 Section 19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Section 19 Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics ...
A Classification of Statistics Courses (A Framework for Studying Statistical Education)
Turner, J. C.
1976-01-01
A classification of statistics courses in presented, with main categories of "course type,""methods of presentation,""objectives," and "syllabus." Examples and suggestions for uses of the classification are given. (DT)
Wu, Jianning; Wu, Bin
2015-01-01
The accurate identification of gait asymmetry is very beneficial to the assessment of at-risk gait in the clinical applications. This paper investigated the application of classification method based on statistical learning algorithm to quantify gait symmetry based on the assumption that the degree of intrinsic change in dynamical system of gait is associated with the different statistical distributions between gait variables from left-right side of lower limbs; that is, the discrimination of...
Parallelizing Gene Expression Programming Algorithm in Enabling Large-Scale Classification
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Lixiong Xu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available As one of the most effective function mining algorithms, Gene Expression Programming (GEP algorithm has been widely used in classification, pattern recognition, prediction, and other research fields. Based on the self-evolution, GEP is able to mine an optimal function for dealing with further complicated tasks. However, in big data researches, GEP encounters low efficiency issue due to its long time mining processes. To improve the efficiency of GEP in big data researches especially for processing large-scale classification tasks, this paper presents a parallelized GEP algorithm using MapReduce computing model. The experimental results show that the presented algorithm is scalable and efficient for processing large-scale classification tasks.
Statistical classification techniques in high energy physics (SDDT algorithm)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouř, Petr; Kůs, Václav; Franc, Jiří
2016-01-01
We present our proposal of the supervised binary divergence decision tree with nested separation method based on the generalized linear models. A key insight we provide is the clustering driven only by a few selected physical variables. The proper selection consists of the variables achieving the maximal divergence measure between two different classes. Further, we apply our method to Monte Carlo simulations of physics processes corresponding to a data sample of top quark-antiquark pair candidate events in the lepton+jets decay channel. The data sample is produced in pp̅ collisions at √S = 1.96 TeV. It corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 9.7 fb"-"1 recorded with the D0 detector during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The efficiency of our algorithm achieves 90% AUC in separating signal from background. We also briefly deal with the modification of statistical tests applicable to weighted data sets in order to test homogeneity of the Monte Carlo simulations and measured data. The justification of these modified tests is proposed through the divergence tests. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ganchimeg Ganbold
2017-03-01
Full Text Available There are several statistical classification algorithms available for landuse/land cover classification. However, each has a certain bias orcompromise. Some methods like the parallel piped approach in supervisedclassification, cannot classify continuous regions within a feature. Onthe other hand, while unsupervised classification method takes maximumadvantage of spectral variability in an image, the maximally separableclusters in spectral space may not do much for our perception of importantclasses in a given study area. In this research, the output of an ANNalgorithm was compared with the Possibilistic c-Means an improvementof the fuzzy c-Means on both moderate resolutions Landsat8 and a highresolution Formosat 2 images. The Formosat 2 image comes with an8m spectral resolution on the multispectral data. This multispectral imagedata was resampled to 10m in order to maintain a uniform ratio of1:3 against Landsat 8 image. Six classes were chosen for analysis including:Dense forest, eucalyptus, water, grassland, wheat and riverine sand. Using a standard false color composite (FCC, the six features reflecteddifferently in the infrared region with wheat producing the brightestpixel values. Signature collection per class was therefore easily obtainedfor all classifications. The output of both ANN and FCM, were analyzedseparately for accuracy and an error matrix generated to assess the qualityand accuracy of the classification algorithms. When you compare theresults of the two methods on a per-class-basis, ANN had a crisperoutput compared to PCM which yielded clusters with pixels especiallyon the moderate resolution Landsat 8 imagery.
Wang, Xue; Bi, Dao-wei; Ding, Liang; Wang, Sheng
2007-01-01
The recent availability of low cost and miniaturized hardware has allowed wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to retrieve audio and video data in real world applications, which has fostered the development of wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs). Resource constraints and challenging multimedia data volume make development of efficient algorithms to perform in-network processing of multimedia contents imperative. This paper proposes solving problems in the domain of WMSNs from the perspective of multi-agent systems. The multi-agent framework enables flexible network configuration and efficient collaborative in-network processing. The focus is placed on target classification in WMSNs where audio information is retrieved by microphones. To deal with the uncertainties related to audio information retrieval, the statistical approaches of power spectral density estimates, principal component analysis and Gaussian process classification are employed. A multi-agent negotiation mechanism is specially developed to efficiently utilize limited resources and simultaneously enhance classification accuracy and reliability. The negotiation is composed of two phases, where an auction based approach is first exploited to allocate the classification task among the agents and then individual agent decisions are combined by the committee decision mechanism. Simulation experiments with real world data are conducted and the results show that the proposed statistical approaches and negotiation mechanism not only reduce memory and computation requirements in WMSNs but also significantly enhance classification accuracy and reliability. PMID:28903223
Adaptive phase k-means algorithm for waveform classification
Song, Chengyun; Liu, Zhining; Wang, Yaojun; Xu, Feng; Li, Xingming; Hu, Guangmin
2018-01-01
Waveform classification is a powerful technique for seismic facies analysis that describes the heterogeneity and compartments within a reservoir. Horizon interpretation is a critical step in waveform classification. However, the horizon often produces inconsistent waveform phase, and thus results in an unsatisfied classification. To alleviate this problem, an adaptive phase waveform classification method called the adaptive phase k-means is introduced in this paper. Our method improves the traditional k-means algorithm using an adaptive phase distance for waveform similarity measure. The proposed distance is a measure with variable phases as it moves from sample to sample along the traces. Model traces are also updated with the best phase interference in the iterative process. Therefore, our method is robust to phase variations caused by the interpretation horizon. We tested the effectiveness of our algorithm by applying it to synthetic and real data. The satisfactory results reveal that the proposed method tolerates certain waveform phase variation and is a good tool for seismic facies analysis.
Evolutionary Algorithms For Neural Networks Binary And Real Data Classification
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Dr. Hanan A.R. Akkar
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Artificial neural networks are complex networks emulating the way human rational neurons process data. They have been widely used generally in prediction clustering classification and association. The training algorithms that used to determine the network weights are almost the most important factor that influence the neural networks performance. Recently many meta-heuristic and Evolutionary algorithms are employed to optimize neural networks weights to achieve better neural performance. This paper aims to use recently proposed algorithms for optimizing neural networks weights comparing these algorithms performance with other classical meta-heuristic algorithms used for the same purpose. However to evaluate the performance of such algorithms for training neural networks we examine such algorithms to classify four opposite binary XOR clusters and classification of continuous real data sets such as Iris and Ecoli.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Motasem Aldiab
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Traditionally, the Internet provides only a “best-effort” service, treating all packets going to the same destination equally. However, providing differentiated services for different users based on their quality requirements is increasingly becoming a demanding issue. For this, routers need to have the capability to distinguish and isolate traffic belonging to different flows. This ability to determine the flow each packet belongs to is called packet classification. Technology vendors are reluctant to support algorithmic solutions for classification due to their nondeterministic performance. Although content addressable memories (CAMs are favoured by technology vendors due to their deterministic high-lookup rates, they suffer from the problems of high-power consumption and high-silicon cost. This paper provides a new algorithmic-architectural solution for packet classification that mixes CAMs with algorithms based on multilevel cutting of the classification space into smaller spaces. The provided solution utilizes the geometrical distribution of rules in the classification space. It provides the deterministic performance of CAMs, support for dynamic updates, and added flexibility for system designers.
Prediction of customer behaviour analysis using classification algorithms
Raju, Siva Subramanian; Dhandayudam, Prabha
2018-04-01
Customer Relationship management plays a crucial role in analyzing of customer behavior patterns and their values with an enterprise. Analyzing of customer data can be efficient performed using various data mining techniques, with the goal of developing business strategies and to enhance the business. In this paper, three classification models (NB, J48, and MLPNN) are studied and evaluated for our experimental purpose. The performance measures of the three classifications are compared using three different parameters (accuracy, sensitivity, specificity) and experimental results expose J48 algorithm has better accuracy with compare to NB and MLPNN algorithm.
Statistical Fractal Models Based on GND-PCA and Its Application on Classification of Liver Diseases
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Huiyan Jiang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A new method is proposed to establish the statistical fractal model for liver diseases classification. Firstly, the fractal theory is used to construct the high-order tensor, and then Generalized -dimensional Principal Component Analysis (GND-PCA is used to establish the statistical fractal model and select the feature from the region of liver; at the same time different features have different weights, and finally, Support Vector Machine Optimized Ant Colony (ACO-SVM algorithm is used to establish the classifier for the recognition of liver disease. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, PCA eigenface method and normal SVM method are chosen as the contrast methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method can reconstruct liver volume better and improve the classification accuracy of liver diseases.
Implementation of several mathematical algorithms to breast tissue density classification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quintana, C.; Redondo, M.; Tirao, G.
2014-01-01
The accuracy of mammographic abnormality detection methods is strongly dependent on breast tissue characteristics, where a dense breast tissue can hide lesions causing cancer to be detected at later stages. In addition, breast tissue density is widely accepted to be an important risk indicator for the development of breast cancer. This paper presents the implementation and the performance of different mathematical algorithms designed to standardize the categorization of mammographic images, according to the American College of Radiology classifications. These mathematical techniques are based on intrinsic properties calculations and on comparison with an ideal homogeneous image (joint entropy, mutual information, normalized cross correlation and index Q) as categorization parameters. The algorithms evaluation was performed on 100 cases of the mammographic data sets provided by the Ministerio de Salud de la Provincia de Córdoba, Argentina—Programa de Prevención del Cáncer de Mama (Department of Public Health, Córdoba, Argentina, Breast Cancer Prevention Program). The obtained breast classifications were compared with the expert medical diagnostics, showing a good performance. The implemented algorithms revealed a high potentiality to classify breasts into tissue density categories. - Highlights: • Breast density classification can be obtained by suitable mathematical algorithms. • Mathematical processing help radiologists to obtain the BI-RADS classification. • The entropy and joint entropy show high performance for density classification
A semi-supervised classification algorithm using the TAD-derived background as training data
Fan, Lei; Ambeau, Brittany; Messinger, David W.
2013-05-01
In general, spectral image classification algorithms fall into one of two categories: supervised and unsupervised. In unsupervised approaches, the algorithm automatically identifies clusters in the data without a priori information about those clusters (except perhaps the expected number of them). Supervised approaches require an analyst to identify training data to learn the characteristics of the clusters such that they can then classify all other pixels into one of the pre-defined groups. The classification algorithm presented here is a semi-supervised approach based on the Topological Anomaly Detection (TAD) algorithm. The TAD algorithm defines background components based on a mutual k-Nearest Neighbor graph model of the data, along with a spectral connected components analysis. Here, the largest components produced by TAD are used as regions of interest (ROI's),or training data for a supervised classification scheme. By combining those ROI's with a Gaussian Maximum Likelihood (GML) or a Minimum Distance to the Mean (MDM) algorithm, we are able to achieve a semi supervised classification method. We test this classification algorithm against data collected by the HyMAP sensor over the Cooke City, MT area and University of Pavia scene.
QUEST: Eliminating Online Supervised Learning for Efficient Classification Algorithms.
Zwartjes, Ardjan; Havinga, Paul J M; Smit, Gerard J M; Hurink, Johann L
2016-10-01
In this work, we introduce QUEST (QUantile Estimation after Supervised Training), an adaptive classification algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) that eliminates the necessity for online supervised learning. Online processing is important for many sensor network applications. Transmitting raw sensor data puts high demands on the battery, reducing network life time. By merely transmitting partial results or classifications based on the sampled data, the amount of traffic on the network can be significantly reduced. Such classifications can be made by learning based algorithms using sampled data. An important issue, however, is the training phase of these learning based algorithms. Training a deployed sensor network requires a lot of communication and an impractical amount of human involvement. QUEST is a hybrid algorithm that combines supervised learning in a controlled environment with unsupervised learning on the location of deployment. Using the SITEX02 dataset, we demonstrate that the presented solution works with a performance penalty of less than 10% in 90% of the tests. Under some circumstances, it even outperforms a network of classifiers completely trained with supervised learning. As a result, the need for on-site supervised learning and communication for training is completely eliminated by our solution.
Ranaie, Mehrdad; Soffianian, Alireza; Pourmanafi, Saeid; Mirghaffari, Noorollah; Tarkesh, Mostafa
2018-03-01
In recent decade, analyzing the remotely sensed imagery is considered as one of the most common and widely used procedures in the environmental studies. In this case, supervised image classification techniques play a central role. Hence, taking a high resolution Worldview-3 over a mixed urbanized landscape in Iran, three less applied image classification methods including Bagged CART, Stochastic gradient boosting model and Neural network with feature extraction were tested and compared with two prevalent methods: random forest and support vector machine with linear kernel. To do so, each method was run ten time and three validation techniques was used to estimate the accuracy statistics consist of cross validation, independent validation and validation with total of train data. Moreover, using ANOVA and Tukey test, statistical difference significance between the classification methods was significantly surveyed. In general, the results showed that random forest with marginal difference compared to Bagged CART and stochastic gradient boosting model is the best performing method whilst based on independent validation there was no significant difference between the performances of classification methods. It should be finally noted that neural network with feature extraction and linear support vector machine had better processing speed than other.
Wang, Bingjie; Pi, Shaohua; Sun, Qi; Jia, Bo
2015-05-01
An improved classification algorithm that considers multiscale wavelet packet Shannon entropy is proposed. Decomposition coefficients at all levels are obtained to build the initial Shannon entropy feature vector. After subtracting the Shannon entropy map of the background signal, components of the strongest discriminating power in the initial feature vector are picked out to rebuild the Shannon entropy feature vector, which is transferred to radial basis function (RBF) neural network for classification. Four types of man-made vibrational intrusion signals are recorded based on a modified Sagnac interferometer. The performance of the improved classification algorithm has been evaluated by the classification experiments via RBF neural network under different diffusion coefficients. An 85% classification accuracy rate is achieved, which is higher than the other common algorithms. The classification results show that this improved classification algorithm can be used to classify vibrational intrusion signals in an automatic real-time monitoring system.
QUEST: Eliminating Online Supervised Learning for Efficient Classification Algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ardjan Zwartjes
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In this work, we introduce QUEST (QUantile Estimation after Supervised Training, an adaptive classification algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs that eliminates the necessity for online supervised learning. Online processing is important for many sensor network applications. Transmitting raw sensor data puts high demands on the battery, reducing network life time. By merely transmitting partial results or classifications based on the sampled data, the amount of traffic on the network can be significantly reduced. Such classifications can be made by learning based algorithms using sampled data. An important issue, however, is the training phase of these learning based algorithms. Training a deployed sensor network requires a lot of communication and an impractical amount of human involvement. QUEST is a hybrid algorithm that combines supervised learning in a controlled environment with unsupervised learning on the location of deployment. Using the SITEX02 dataset, we demonstrate that the presented solution works with a performance penalty of less than 10% in 90% of the tests. Under some circumstances, it even outperforms a network of classifiers completely trained with supervised learning. As a result, the need for on-site supervised learning and communication for training is completely eliminated by our solution.
TEXT CLASSIFICATION USING NAIVE BAYES UPDATEABLE ALGORITHM IN SBMPTN TEST QUESTIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ristu Saptono
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Document classification is a growing interest in the research of text mining. Classification can be done based on the topics, languages, and so on. This study was conducted to determine how Naive Bayes Updateable performs in classifying the SBMPTN exam questions based on its theme. Increment model of one classification algorithm often used in text classification Naive Bayes classifier has the ability to learn from new data introduces with the system even after the classifier has been produced with the existing data. Naive Bayes Classifier classifies the exam questions based on the theme of the field of study by analyzing keywords that appear on the exam questions. One of feature selection method DF-Thresholding is implemented for improving the classification performance. Evaluation of the classification with Naive Bayes classifier algorithm produces 84,61% accuracy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sheng Wang
2007-10-01
Full Text Available The recent availability of low cost and miniaturized hardware has allowedwireless sensor networks (WSNs to retrieve audio and video data in real worldapplications, which has fostered the development of wireless multimedia sensor networks(WMSNs. Resource constraints and challenging multimedia data volume makedevelopment of efficient algorithms to perform in-network processing of multimediacontents imperative. This paper proposes solving problems in the domain of WMSNs fromthe perspective of multi-agent systems. The multi-agent framework enables flexible networkconfiguration and efficient collaborative in-network processing. The focus is placed ontarget classification in WMSNs where audio information is retrieved by microphones. Todeal with the uncertainties related to audio information retrieval, the statistical approachesof power spectral density estimates, principal component analysis and Gaussian processclassification are employed. A multi-agent negotiation mechanism is specially developed toefficiently utilize limited resources and simultaneously enhance classification accuracy andreliability. The negotiation is composed of two phases, where an auction based approach isfirst exploited to allocate the classification task among the agents and then individual agentdecisions are combined by the committee decision mechanism. Simulation experiments withreal world data are conducted and the results show that the proposed statistical approachesand negotiation mechanism not only reduce memory and computation requi
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dakun Zhang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The necessary of classification research on common formula of group (dihedral group cycle decomposition expression is illustrated. It includes the reflection and rotation conversion, which derived six common formulae on cycle decomposition expressions of group; it designed the generation algorithm on the cycle decomposition expressions of group, which is based on the method of replacement conversion and the classification formula; algorithm analysis and the results of the process show that the generation algorithm which is based on the classification formula is outperformed by the general algorithm which is based on replacement conversion; it has great significance to solve the enumeration of the necklace combinational scheme, especially the structural problems of combinational scheme, by using group theory and computer.
Wang, Jeen-Shing; Lin, Che-Wei; Yang, Ya-Ting C; Ho, Yu-Jen
2012-10-01
This paper presents a walking pattern classification and a walking distance estimation algorithm using gait phase information. A gait phase information retrieval algorithm was developed to analyze the duration of the phases in a gait cycle (i.e., stance, push-off, swing, and heel-strike phases). Based on the gait phase information, a decision tree based on the relations between gait phases was constructed for classifying three different walking patterns (level walking, walking upstairs, and walking downstairs). Gait phase information was also used for developing a walking distance estimation algorithm. The walking distance estimation algorithm consists of the processes of step count and step length estimation. The proposed walking pattern classification and walking distance estimation algorithm have been validated by a series of experiments. The accuracy of the proposed walking pattern classification was 98.87%, 95.45%, and 95.00% for level walking, walking upstairs, and walking downstairs, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed walking distance estimation algorithm was 96.42% over a walking distance.
A fingerprint classification algorithm based on combination of local and global information
Liu, Chongjin; Fu, Xiang; Bian, Junjie; Feng, Jufu
2011-12-01
Fingerprint recognition is one of the most important technologies in biometric identification and has been wildly applied in commercial and forensic areas. Fingerprint classification, as the fundamental procedure in fingerprint recognition, can sharply decrease the quantity for fingerprint matching and improve the efficiency of fingerprint recognition. Most fingerprint classification algorithms are based on the number and position of singular points. Because the singular points detecting method only considers the local information commonly, the classification algorithms are sensitive to noise. In this paper, we propose a novel fingerprint classification algorithm combining the local and global information of fingerprint. Firstly we use local information to detect singular points and measure their quality considering orientation structure and image texture in adjacent areas. Furthermore the global orientation model is adopted to measure the reliability of singular points group. Finally the local quality and global reliability is weighted to classify fingerprint. Experiments demonstrate the accuracy and effectivity of our algorithm especially for the poor quality fingerprint images.
Vijay, S Arul Antran; GaneshKumar, P
2018-02-21
In the growing scenario, microarray data is extensively used since it provides a more comprehensive understanding of genetic variants among diseases. As the gene expression samples have high dimensionality it becomes tedious to analyze the samples manually. Hence an automated system is needed to analyze these samples. The fuzzy expert system offers a clear classification when compared to the machine learning and statistical methodologies. In fuzzy classification, knowledge acquisition would be a major concern. Despite several existing approaches for knowledge acquisition much effort is necessary to enhance the learning process. This paper proposes an innovative Hybrid Stem Cell (HSC) algorithm that utilizes Ant Colony optimization and Stem Cell algorithm for designing fuzzy classification system to extract the informative rules to form the membership functions from the microarray dataset. The HSC algorithm uses a novel Adaptive Stem Cell Optimization (ASCO) to improve the points of membership function and Ant Colony Optimization to produce the near optimum rule set. In order to extract the most informative genes from the large microarray dataset a method called Mutual Information is used. The performance results of the proposed technique evaluated using the five microarray datasets are simulated. These results prove that the proposed Hybrid Stem Cell (HSC) algorithm produces a precise fuzzy system than the existing methodologies.
Zhang, Y.; Li, F.; Zhang, S.; Hao, W.; Zhu, T.; Yuan, L.; Xiao, F.
2017-09-01
In this paper, Statistical Distribution based Conditional Random Fields (STA-CRF) algorithm is exploited for improving marginal ice-water classification. Pixel level ice concentration is presented as the comparison of methods based on CRF. Furthermore, in order to explore the effective statistical distribution model to be integrated into STA-CRF, five statistical distribution models are investigated. The STA-CRF methods are tested on 2 scenes around Prydz Bay and Adélie Depression, where contain a variety of ice types during melt season. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can resolve sea ice edge well in Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) and show a robust distinction of ice and water.
An algorithm for the arithmetic classification of multilattices.
Indelicato, Giuliana
2013-01-01
A procedure for the construction and the classification of monoatomic multilattices in arbitrary dimension is developed. The algorithm allows one to determine the location of the points of all monoatomic multilattices with a given symmetry, or to determine whether two assigned multilattices are arithmetically equivalent. This approach is based on ideas from integral matrix theory, in particular the reduction to the Smith normal form, and can be coded to provide a classification software package.
A Support Vector Machine Hydrometeor Classification Algorithm for Dual-Polarization Radar
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicoletta Roberto
2017-07-01
Full Text Available An algorithm based on a support vector machine (SVM is proposed for hydrometeor classification. The training phase is driven by the output of a fuzzy logic hydrometeor classification algorithm, i.e., the most popular approach for hydrometer classification algorithms used for ground-based weather radar. The performance of SVM is evaluated by resorting to a weather scenario, generated by a weather model; the corresponding radar measurements are obtained by simulation and by comparing results of SVM classification with those obtained by a fuzzy logic classifier. Results based on the weather model and simulations show a higher accuracy of the SVM classification. Objective comparison of the two classifiers applied to real radar data shows that SVM classification maps are spatially more homogenous (textural indices, energy, and homogeneity increases by 21% and 12% respectively and do not present non-classified data. The improvements found by SVM classifier, even though it is applied pixel-by-pixel, can be attributed to its ability to learn from the entire hyperspace of radar measurements and to the accurate training. The reliability of results and higher computing performance make SVM attractive for some challenging tasks such as its implementation in Decision Support Systems for helping pilots to make optimal decisions about changes inthe flight route caused by unexpected adverse weather.
Classification, (big) data analysis and statistical learning
Conversano, Claudio; Vichi, Maurizio
2018-01-01
This edited book focuses on the latest developments in classification, statistical learning, data analysis and related areas of data science, including statistical analysis of large datasets, big data analytics, time series clustering, integration of data from different sources, as well as social networks. It covers both methodological aspects as well as applications to a wide range of areas such as economics, marketing, education, social sciences, medicine, environmental sciences and the pharmaceutical industry. In addition, it describes the basic features of the software behind the data analysis results, and provides links to the corresponding codes and data sets where necessary. This book is intended for researchers and practitioners who are interested in the latest developments and applications in the field. The peer-reviewed contributions were presented at the 10th Scientific Meeting of the Classification and Data Analysis Group (CLADAG) of the Italian Statistical Society, held in Santa Margherita di Pul...
Alshamlan, Hala M; Badr, Ghada H; Alohali, Yousef A
2015-06-01
Naturally inspired evolutionary algorithms prove effectiveness when used for solving feature selection and classification problems. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) is a relatively new swarm intelligence method. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid gene selection method, namely Genetic Bee Colony (GBC) algorithm. The proposed algorithm combines the used of a Genetic Algorithm (GA) along with Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm. The goal is to integrate the advantages of both algorithms. The proposed algorithm is applied to a microarray gene expression profile in order to select the most predictive and informative genes for cancer classification. In order to test the accuracy performance of the proposed algorithm, extensive experiments were conducted. Three binary microarray datasets are use, which include: colon, leukemia, and lung. In addition, another three multi-class microarray datasets are used, which are: SRBCT, lymphoma, and leukemia. Results of the GBC algorithm are compared with our recently proposed technique: mRMR when combined with the Artificial Bee Colony algorithm (mRMR-ABC). We also compared the combination of mRMR with GA (mRMR-GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (mRMR-PSO) algorithms. In addition, we compared the GBC algorithm with other related algorithms that have been recently published in the literature, using all benchmark datasets. The GBC algorithm shows superior performance as it achieved the highest classification accuracy along with the lowest average number of selected genes. This proves that the GBC algorithm is a promising approach for solving the gene selection problem in both binary and multi-class cancer classification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Optimization of Neuro-Fuzzy System Using Genetic Algorithm for Chromosome Classification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Sarosa
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Neuro-fuzzy system has been shown to provide a good performance on chromosome classification but does not offer a simple method to obtain the accurate parameter values required to yield the best recognition rate. This paper presents a neuro-fuzzy system where its parameters can be automatically adjusted using genetic algorithms. The approach combines the advantages of fuzzy logic theory, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. The structure consists of a four layer feed-forward neural network that uses a GBell membership function as the output function. The proposed methodology has been applied and tested on banded chromosome classification from the Copenhagen Chromosome Database. Simulation result showed that the proposed neuro-fuzzy system optimized by genetic algorithms offers advantages in setting the parameter values, improves the recognition rate significantly and decreases the training/testing time which makes genetic neuro-fuzzy system suitable for chromosome classification.
Detecting Hijacked Journals by Using Classification Algorithms.
Andoohgin Shahri, Mona; Jazi, Mohammad Davarpanah; Borchardt, Glenn; Dadkhah, Mehdi
2018-04-01
Invalid journals are recent challenges in the academic world and many researchers are unacquainted with the phenomenon. The number of victims appears to be accelerating. Researchers might be suspicious of predatory journals because they have unfamiliar names, but hijacked journals are imitations of well-known, reputable journals whose websites have been hijacked. Hijacked journals issue calls for papers via generally laudatory emails that delude researchers into paying exorbitant page charges for publication in a nonexistent journal. This paper presents a method for detecting hijacked journals by using a classification algorithm. The number of published articles exposing hijacked journals is limited and most of them use simple techniques that are limited to specific journals. Hence we needed to amass Internet addresses and pertinent data for analyzing this type of attack. We inspected the websites of 104 scientific journals by using a classification algorithm that used criteria common to reputable journals. We then prepared a decision tree that we used to test five journals we knew were authentic and five we knew were hijacked.
Yan, Dan; Bai, Lianfa; Zhang, Yi; Han, Jing
2018-02-01
For the problems of missing details and performance of the colorization based on sparse representation, we propose a conceptual model framework for colorizing gray-scale images, and then a multi-sparse dictionary colorization algorithm based on the feature classification and detail enhancement (CEMDC) is proposed based on this framework. The algorithm can achieve a natural colorized effect for a gray-scale image, and it is consistent with the human vision. First, the algorithm establishes a multi-sparse dictionary classification colorization model. Then, to improve the accuracy rate of the classification, the corresponding local constraint algorithm is proposed. Finally, we propose a detail enhancement based on Laplacian Pyramid, which is effective in solving the problem of missing details and improving the speed of image colorization. In addition, the algorithm not only realizes the colorization of the visual gray-scale image, but also can be applied to the other areas, such as color transfer between color images, colorizing gray fusion images, and infrared images.
Benchmarking protein classification algorithms via supervised cross-validation
Kertész-Farkas, A.; Dhir, S.; Sonego, P.; Pacurar, M.; Netoteia, S.; Nijveen, H.; Kuzniar, A.; Leunissen, J.A.M.; Kocsor, A.; Pongor, S.
2008-01-01
Development and testing of protein classification algorithms are hampered by the fact that the protein universe is characterized by groups vastly different in the number of members, in average protein size, similarity within group, etc. Datasets based on traditional cross-validation (k-fold,
An evaluation of classification algorithms for intrusion detection ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
An evaluation of classification algorithms for intrusion detection. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Most of the available IDSs use all the 41 features in the network to evaluate and search for intrusive pattern in which ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simon Fong
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Voice biometrics has a long history in biosecurity applications such as verification and identification based on characteristics of the human voice. The other application called voice classification which has its important role in grouping unlabelled voice samples, however, has not been widely studied in research. Lately voice classification is found useful in phone monitoring, classifying speakers’ gender, ethnicity and emotion states, and so forth. In this paper, a collection of computational algorithms are proposed to support voice classification; the algorithms are a combination of hierarchical clustering, dynamic time wrap transform, discrete wavelet transform, and decision tree. The proposed algorithms are relatively more transparent and interpretable than the existing ones, though many techniques such as Artificial Neural Networks, Support Vector Machine, and Hidden Markov Model (which inherently function like a black box have been applied for voice verification and voice identification. Two datasets, one that is generated synthetically and the other one empirically collected from past voice recognition experiment, are used to verify and demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed voice classification algorithm.
Structure-Based Algorithms for Microvessel Classification
Smith, Amy F.
2015-02-01
© 2014 The Authors. Microcirculation published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Objective: Recent developments in high-resolution imaging techniques have enabled digital reconstruction of three-dimensional sections of microvascular networks down to the capillary scale. To better interpret these large data sets, our goal is to distinguish branching trees of arterioles and venules from capillaries. Methods: Two novel algorithms are presented for classifying vessels in microvascular anatomical data sets without requiring flow information. The algorithms are compared with a classification based on observed flow directions (considered the gold standard), and with an existing resistance-based method that relies only on structural data. Results: The first algorithm, developed for networks with one arteriolar and one venular tree, performs well in identifying arterioles and venules and is robust to parameter changes, but incorrectly labels a significant number of capillaries as arterioles or venules. The second algorithm, developed for networks with multiple inlets and outlets, correctly identifies more arterioles and venules, but is more sensitive to parameter changes. Conclusions: The algorithms presented here can be used to classify microvessels in large microvascular data sets lacking flow information. This provides a basis for analyzing the distinct geometrical properties and modelling the functional behavior of arterioles, capillaries, and venules.
A Novel Algorithm for Imbalance Data Classification Based on Neighborhood Hypergraph
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feng Hu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The classification problem for imbalance data is paid more attention to. So far, many significant methods are proposed and applied to many fields. But more efficient methods are needed still. Hypergraph may not be powerful enough to deal with the data in boundary region, although it is an efficient tool to knowledge discovery. In this paper, the neighborhood hypergraph is presented, combining rough set theory and hypergraph. After that, a novel classification algorithm for imbalance data based on neighborhood hypergraph is developed, which is composed of three steps: initialization of hyperedge, classification of training data set, and substitution of hyperedge. After conducting an experiment of 10-fold cross validation on 18 data sets, the proposed algorithm has higher average accuracy than others.
Classification of lung sounds using higher-order statistics: A divide-and-conquer approach.
Naves, Raphael; Barbosa, Bruno H G; Ferreira, Danton D
2016-06-01
Lung sound auscultation is one of the most commonly used methods to evaluate respiratory diseases. However, the effectiveness of this method depends on the physician's training. If the physician does not have the proper training, he/she will be unable to distinguish between normal and abnormal sounds generated by the human body. Thus, the aim of this study was to implement a pattern recognition system to classify lung sounds. We used a dataset composed of five types of lung sounds: normal, coarse crackle, fine crackle, monophonic and polyphonic wheezes. We used higher-order statistics (HOS) to extract features (second-, third- and fourth-order cumulants), Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Fisher's Discriminant Ratio (FDR) to reduce dimensionality, and k-Nearest Neighbors and Naive Bayes classifiers to recognize the lung sound events in a tree-based system. We used the cross-validation procedure to analyze the classifiers performance and the Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference criterion to compare the results. Our results showed that the Genetic Algorithms outperformed the Fisher's Discriminant Ratio for feature selection. Moreover, each lung class had a different signature pattern according to their cumulants showing that HOS is a promising feature extraction tool for lung sounds. Besides, the proposed divide-and-conquer approach can accurately classify different types of lung sounds. The classification accuracy obtained by the best tree-based classifier was 98.1% for classification accuracy on training, and 94.6% for validation data. The proposed approach achieved good results even using only one feature extraction tool (higher-order statistics). Additionally, the implementation of the proposed classifier in an embedded system is feasible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wen, Hongwei; Liu, Yue; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Jishui; Peng, Yun; He, Huiguang
2016-03-01
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a developmental neuropsychiatric disorder with the cardinal symptoms of motor and vocal tics which emerges in early childhood and fluctuates in severity in later years. To date, the neural basis of TS is not fully understood yet and TS has a long-term prognosis that is difficult to accurately estimate. Few studies have looked at the potential of using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in conjunction with machine learning algorithms in order to automate the classification of healthy children and TS children. Here we apply Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) method to 44 TS children and 48 age and gender matched healthy children in order to extract the diffusion values from each voxel in the white matter (WM) skeleton, and a feature selection algorithm (ReliefF) was used to select the most salient voxels for subsequent classification with support vector machine (SVM). We use a nested cross validation to yield an unbiased assessment of the classification method and prevent overestimation. The accuracy (88.04%), sensitivity (88.64%) and specificity (87.50%) were achieved in our method as peak performance of the SVM classifier was achieved using the axial diffusion (AD) metric, demonstrating the potential of a joint TBSS and SVM pipeline for fast, objective classification of healthy and TS children. These results support that our methods may be useful for the early identification of subjects with TS, and hold promise for predicting prognosis and treatment outcome for individuals with TS.
A Decision-Tree-Based Algorithm for Speech/Music Classification and Segmentation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lavner Yizhar
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We present an efficient algorithm for segmentation of audio signals into speech or music. The central motivation to our study is consumer audio applications, where various real-time enhancements are often applied. The algorithm consists of a learning phase and a classification phase. In the learning phase, predefined training data is used for computing various time-domain and frequency-domain features, for speech and music signals separately, and estimating the optimal speech/music thresholds, based on the probability density functions of the features. An automatic procedure is employed to select the best features for separation. In the test phase, initial classification is performed for each segment of the audio signal, using a three-stage sieve-like approach, applying both Bayesian and rule-based methods. To avoid erroneous rapid alternations in the classification, a smoothing technique is applied, averaging the decision on each segment with past segment decisions. Extensive evaluation of the algorithm, on a database of more than 12 hours of speech and more than 22 hours of music showed correct identification rates of 99.4% and 97.8%, respectively, and quick adjustment to alternating speech/music sections. In addition to its accuracy and robustness, the algorithm can be easily adapted to different audio types, and is suitable for real-time operation.
A Comprehensive Study of Features and Algorithms for URL-Based Topic Classification
Weber, I; Henzinger, M; Baykan, E
2011-01-01
Given only the URL of a Web page, can we identify its topic? We study this problem in detail by exploring a large number of different feature sets and algorithms on several datasets. We also show that the inherent overlap between topics and the sparsity of the information in URLs makes this a very challenging problem. Web page classification without a page's content is desirable when the content is not available at all, when a classification is needed before obtaining the content, or when classification speed is of utmost importance. For our experiments we used five different corpora comprising a total of about 3 million (URL, classification) pairs. We evaluated several techniques for feature generation and classification algorithms. The individual binary classifiers were then combined via boosting into metabinary classifiers. We achieve typical F-measure values between 80 and 85, and a typical precision of around 86. The precision can be pushed further over 90 while maintaining a typical level of recall betw...
QUEST : Eliminating online supervised learning for efficient classification algorithms
Zwartjes, Ardjan; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Hurink, Johann L.
2016-01-01
In this work, we introduce QUEST (QUantile Estimation after Supervised Training), an adaptive classification algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) that eliminates the necessity for online supervised learning. Online processing is important for many sensor network applications. Transmitting
Quantum Algorithm for K-Nearest Neighbors Classification Based on the Metric of Hamming Distance
Ruan, Yue; Xue, Xiling; Liu, Heng; Tan, Jianing; Li, Xi
2017-11-01
K-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm is a common algorithm used for classification, and also a sub-routine in various complicated machine learning tasks. In this paper, we presented a quantum algorithm (QKNN) for implementing this algorithm based on the metric of Hamming distance. We put forward a quantum circuit for computing Hamming distance between testing sample and each feature vector in the training set. Taking advantage of this method, we realized a good analog for classical KNN algorithm by setting a distance threshold value t to select k - n e a r e s t neighbors. As a result, QKNN achieves O( n 3) performance which is only relevant to the dimension of feature vectors and high classification accuracy, outperforms Llyod's algorithm (Lloyd et al. 2013) and Wiebe's algorithm (Wiebe et al. 2014).
Al-Rajab, Murad; Lu, Joan; Xu, Qiang
2017-07-01
This paper examines the accuracy and efficiency (time complexity) of high performance genetic data feature selection and classification algorithms for colon cancer diagnosis. The need for this research derives from the urgent and increasing need for accurate and efficient algorithms. Colon cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, hence it is vitally important for the cancer tissues to be expertly identified and classified in a rapid and timely manner, to assure both a fast detection of the disease and to expedite the drug discovery process. In this research, a three-phase approach was proposed and implemented: Phases One and Two examined the feature selection algorithms and classification algorithms employed separately, and Phase Three examined the performance of the combination of these. It was found from Phase One that the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm performed best with the colon dataset as a feature selection (29 genes selected) and from Phase Two that the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm outperformed other classifications, with an accuracy of almost 86%. It was also found from Phase Three that the combined use of PSO and SVM surpassed other algorithms in accuracy and performance, and was faster in terms of time analysis (94%). It is concluded that applying feature selection algorithms prior to classification algorithms results in better accuracy than when the latter are applied alone. This conclusion is important and significant to industry and society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Classification of Noisy Data: An Approach Based on Genetic Algorithms and Voronoi Tessellation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khan, Abdul Rauf; Schiøler, Henrik; Knudsen, Torben
Classification is one of the major constituents of the data-mining toolkit. The well-known methods for classification are built on either the principle of logic or statistical/mathematical reasoning for classification. In this article we propose: (1) a different strategy, which is based on the po......Classification is one of the major constituents of the data-mining toolkit. The well-known methods for classification are built on either the principle of logic or statistical/mathematical reasoning for classification. In this article we propose: (1) a different strategy, which is based...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Ahmed
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Packet classification plays a crucial role for a number of network services such as policy-based routing, firewalls, and traffic billing, to name a few. However, classification can be a bottleneck in the above-mentioned applications if not implemented properly and efficiently. In this paper, we propose PCIU, a novel classification algorithm, which improves upon previously published work. PCIU provides lower preprocessing time, lower memory consumption, ease of incremental rule update, and reasonable classification time compared to state-of-the-art algorithms. The proposed algorithm was evaluated and compared to RFC and HiCut using several benchmarks. Results obtained indicate that PCIU outperforms these algorithms in terms of speed, memory usage, incremental update capability, and preprocessing time. The algorithm, furthermore, was improved and made more accessible for a variety of applications through implementation in hardware. Two such implementations are detailed and discussed in this paper. The results indicate that a hardware/software codesign approach results in a slower, but easier to optimize and improve within time constraints, PCIU solution. A hardware accelerator based on an ESL approach using Handel-C, on the other hand, resulted in a 31x speed-up over a pure software implementation running on a state of the art Xeon processor.
Classification of Specialized Farms Applying Multivariate Statistical Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zuzana Hloušková
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Classification of specialized farms applying multivariate statistical methods The paper is aimed at application of advanced multivariate statistical methods when classifying cattle breeding farming enterprises by their economic size. Advantage of the model is its ability to use a few selected indicators compared to the complex methodology of current classification model that requires knowledge of detailed structure of the herd turnover and structure of cultivated crops. Output of the paper is intended to be applied within farm structure research focused on future development of Czech agriculture. As data source, the farming enterprises database for 2014 has been used, from the FADN CZ system. The predictive model proposed exploits knowledge of actual size classes of the farms tested. Outcomes of the linear discriminatory analysis multifactor classification method have supported the chance of filing farming enterprises in the group of Small farms (98 % filed correctly, and the Large and Very Large enterprises (100 % filed correctly. The Medium Size farms have been correctly filed at 58.11 % only. Partial shortages of the process presented have been found when discriminating Medium and Small farms.
Patent Keyword Extraction Algorithm Based on Distributed Representation for Patent Classification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jie Hu
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Many text mining tasks such as text retrieval, text summarization, and text comparisons depend on the extraction of representative keywords from the main text. Most existing keyword extraction algorithms are based on discrete bag-of-words type of word representation of the text. In this paper, we propose a patent keyword extraction algorithm (PKEA based on the distributed Skip-gram model for patent classification. We also develop a set of quantitative performance measures for keyword extraction evaluation based on information gain and cross-validation, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM classification, which are valuable when human-annotated keywords are not available. We used a standard benchmark dataset and a homemade patent dataset to evaluate the performance of PKEA. Our patent dataset includes 2500 patents from five distinct technological fields related to autonomous cars (GPS systems, lidar systems, object recognition systems, radar systems, and vehicle control systems. We compared our method with Frequency, Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF, TextRank and Rapid Automatic Keyword Extraction (RAKE. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm provides a promising way to extract keywords from patent texts for patent classification.
Classification of EEG Signals using adaptive weighted distance nearest neighbor algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Parvinnia
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG signals are often used to diagnose diseases such as seizure, alzheimer, and schizophrenia. One main problem with the recorded EEG samples is that they are not equally reliable due to the artifacts at the time of recording. EEG signal classification algorithms should have a mechanism to handle this issue. It seems that using adaptive classifiers can be useful for the biological signals such as EEG. In this paper, a general adaptive method named weighted distance nearest neighbor (WDNN is applied for EEG signal classification to tackle this problem. This classification algorithm assigns a weight to each training sample to control its influence in classifying test samples. The weights of training samples are used to find the nearest neighbor of an input query pattern. To assess the performance of this scheme, EEG signals of thirteen schizophrenic patients and eighteen normal subjects are analyzed for the classification of these two groups. Several features including, fractal dimension, band power and autoregressive (AR model are extracted from EEG signals. The classification results are evaluated using Leave one (subject out cross validation for reliable estimation. The results indicate that combination of WDNN and selected features can significantly outperform the basic nearest-neighbor and the other methods proposed in the past for the classification of these two groups. Therefore, this method can be a complementary tool for specialists to distinguish schizophrenia disorder.
Classification algorithm of Web document in ionization radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geng Zengmin; Liu Wanchun
2005-01-01
Resources in the Internet is numerous. It is one of research directions of Web mining (WM) how to mine the resource of some calling or trade more efficiently. The paper studies the classification of Web document in ionization radiation (IR) based on the algorithm of Bayes, Rocchio, Widrow-Hoff, and analyses the result of trial effect. (authors)
Land-cover classification with an expert classification algorithm using digital aerial photographs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José L. de la Cruz
2010-05-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the spectral information of digital aerial sensors in determining land-cover classification using new digital techniques. The land covers that have been evaluated are the following, (1 bare soil, (2 cereals, including maize (Zea mays L., oats (Avena sativa L., rye (Secale cereale L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and barley (Hordeun vulgare L., (3 high protein crops, such as peas (Pisum sativum L. and beans (Vicia faba L., (4 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., (5 woodlands and scrublands, including holly oak (Quercus ilex L. and common retama (Retama sphaerocarpa L., (6 urban soil, (7 olive groves (Olea europaea L. and (8 burnt crop stubble. The best result was obtained using an expert classification algorithm, achieving a reliability rate of 95%. This result showed that the images of digital airborne sensors hold considerable promise for the future in the field of digital classifications because these images contain valuable information that takes advantage of the geometric viewpoint. Moreover, new classification techniques reduce problems encountered using high-resolution images; while reliabilities are achieved that are better than those achieved with traditional methods.
The ability of current statistical classifications to separate services and manufacturing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard
2013-01-01
This paper explores the performance of current statistical classification systems in classifying firms and, in particular, their ability to distinguish between firms that provide services and firms that provide manufacturing. We find that a large share of firms, almost 20%, are not classified...... as expected based on a comparison of their statements of activities with the assigned industry codes. This result is robust to analyses on different levels of aggregation and is validated in an additional survey. It is well known from earlier literature that industry classification systems are not perfect....... This paper provides a quantification of the flaws in classifications of firms. Moreover, it is explained why the classifications of firms are imprecise. The increasing complexity of production, inertia in changes to statistical systems and the increasing integration of manufacturing products and services...
A statistical approach to root system classification.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gernot eBodner
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for plant functional type identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. We demonstrate that combining principal component and cluster analysis yields a meaningful classification of rooting types based on morphological traits. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. Biplot inspection is used to determine key traits and to ensure stability in cluster based grouping. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Three rooting types emerged from measured data, distinguished by diameter/weight, density and spatial distribution respectively. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement
Sinha, S K; Karray, F
2002-01-01
Pipeline surface defects such as holes and cracks cause major problems for utility managers, particularly when the pipeline is buried under the ground. Manual inspection for surface defects in the pipeline has a number of drawbacks, including subjectivity, varying standards, and high costs. Automatic inspection system using image processing and artificial intelligence techniques can overcome many of these disadvantages and offer utility managers an opportunity to significantly improve quality and reduce costs. A recognition and classification of pipe cracks using images analysis and neuro-fuzzy algorithm is proposed. In the preprocessing step the scanned images of pipe are analyzed and crack features are extracted. In the classification step the neuro-fuzzy algorithm is developed that employs a fuzzy membership function and error backpropagation algorithm. The idea behind the proposed approach is that the fuzzy membership function will absorb variation of feature values and the backpropagation network, with its learning ability, will show good classification efficiency.
An arrhythmia classification algorithm using a dedicated wavelet adapted to different subjects.
Kim, Jinkwon; Min, Se Dong; Lee, Myoungho
2011-06-27
Numerous studies have been conducted regarding a heartbeat classification algorithm over the past several decades. However, many algorithms have also been studied to acquire robust performance, as biosignals have a large amount of variation among individuals. Various methods have been proposed to reduce the differences coming from personal characteristics, but these expand the differences caused by arrhythmia. In this paper, an arrhythmia classification algorithm using a dedicated wavelet adapted to individual subjects is proposed. We reduced the performance variation using dedicated wavelets, as in the ECG morphologies of the subjects. The proposed algorithm utilizes morphological filtering and a continuous wavelet transform with a dedicated wavelet. A principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were utilized to compress the morphological data transformed by the dedicated wavelets. An extreme learning machine was used as a classifier in the proposed algorithm. A performance evaluation was conducted with the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The results showed a high sensitivity of 97.51%, specificity of 85.07%, accuracy of 97.94%, and a positive predictive value of 97.26%. The proposed algorithm achieves better accuracy than other state-of-the-art algorithms with no intrasubject between the training and evaluation datasets. And it significantly reduces the amount of intervention needed by physicians.
An arrhythmia classification algorithm using a dedicated wavelet adapted to different subjects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Min Se Dong
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have been conducted regarding a heartbeat classification algorithm over the past several decades. However, many algorithms have also been studied to acquire robust performance, as biosignals have a large amount of variation among individuals. Various methods have been proposed to reduce the differences coming from personal characteristics, but these expand the differences caused by arrhythmia. Methods In this paper, an arrhythmia classification algorithm using a dedicated wavelet adapted to individual subjects is proposed. We reduced the performance variation using dedicated wavelets, as in the ECG morphologies of the subjects. The proposed algorithm utilizes morphological filtering and a continuous wavelet transform with a dedicated wavelet. A principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were utilized to compress the morphological data transformed by the dedicated wavelets. An extreme learning machine was used as a classifier in the proposed algorithm. Results A performance evaluation was conducted with the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The results showed a high sensitivity of 97.51%, specificity of 85.07%, accuracy of 97.94%, and a positive predictive value of 97.26%. Conclusions The proposed algorithm achieves better accuracy than other state-of-the-art algorithms with no intrasubject between the training and evaluation datasets. And it significantly reduces the amount of intervention needed by physicians.
Automatic modulation classification principles, algorithms and applications
Zhu, Zhechen
2014-01-01
Automatic Modulation Classification (AMC) has been a key technology in many military, security, and civilian telecommunication applications for decades. In military and security applications, modulation often serves as another level of encryption; in modern civilian applications, multiple modulation types can be employed by a signal transmitter to control the data rate and link reliability. This book offers comprehensive documentation of AMC models, algorithms and implementations for successful modulation recognition. It provides an invaluable theoretical and numerical comparison of AMC algo
Algorithms for the Automatic Classification and Sorting of Conifers in the Garden Nursery Industry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petri, Stig
with the classification and sorting of plants using machine vision have been discussed as an introduction to the work reported here. The use of Nordmann firs as a basis for evaluating the developed algorithms naturally introduces a bias towards this species in the algorithms, but steps have been taken throughout...... was used as the basis for evaluating the constructed feature extraction algorithms. Through an analysis of the construction of a machine vision system suitable for classifying and sorting plants, the needs with regard to physical frame, lighting system, camera and software algorithms have been uncovered......The ultimate purpose of this work is the development of general feature extraction algorithms useful for the classification and sorting of plants in the garden nursery industry. Narrowing the area of focus to bare-root plants, more specifically Nordmann firs, the scientific literature dealing...
Machine learning algorithms for mode-of-action classification in toxicity assessment.
Zhang, Yile; Wong, Yau Shu; Deng, Jian; Anton, Cristina; Gabos, Stephan; Zhang, Weiping; Huang, Dorothy Yu; Jin, Can
2016-01-01
Real Time Cell Analysis (RTCA) technology is used to monitor cellular changes continuously over the entire exposure period. Combining with different testing concentrations, the profiles have potential in probing the mode of action (MOA) of the testing substances. In this paper, we present machine learning approaches for MOA assessment. Computational tools based on artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) are developed to analyze the time-concentration response curves (TCRCs) of human cell lines responding to tested chemicals. The techniques are capable of learning data from given TCRCs with known MOA information and then making MOA classification for the unknown toxicity. A novel data processing step based on wavelet transform is introduced to extract important features from the original TCRC data. From the dose response curves, time interval leading to higher classification success rate can be selected as input to enhance the performance of the machine learning algorithm. This is particularly helpful when handling cases with limited and imbalanced data. The validation of the proposed method is demonstrated by the supervised learning algorithm applied to the exposure data of HepG2 cell line to 63 chemicals with 11 concentrations in each test case. Classification success rate in the range of 85 to 95 % are obtained using SVM for MOA classification with two clusters to cases up to four clusters. Wavelet transform is capable of capturing important features of TCRCs for MOA classification. The proposed SVM scheme incorporated with wavelet transform has a great potential for large scale MOA classification and high-through output chemical screening.
Implementation of several mathematical algorithms to breast tissue density classification
Quintana, C.; Redondo, M.; Tirao, G.
2014-02-01
The accuracy of mammographic abnormality detection methods is strongly dependent on breast tissue characteristics, where a dense breast tissue can hide lesions causing cancer to be detected at later stages. In addition, breast tissue density is widely accepted to be an important risk indicator for the development of breast cancer. This paper presents the implementation and the performance of different mathematical algorithms designed to standardize the categorization of mammographic images, according to the American College of Radiology classifications. These mathematical techniques are based on intrinsic properties calculations and on comparison with an ideal homogeneous image (joint entropy, mutual information, normalized cross correlation and index Q) as categorization parameters. The algorithms evaluation was performed on 100 cases of the mammographic data sets provided by the Ministerio de Salud de la Provincia de Córdoba, Argentina—Programa de Prevención del Cáncer de Mama (Department of Public Health, Córdoba, Argentina, Breast Cancer Prevention Program). The obtained breast classifications were compared with the expert medical diagnostics, showing a good performance. The implemented algorithms revealed a high potentiality to classify breasts into tissue density categories.
Calisto, A; Bramanti, A; Galeano, M; Angileri, F; Campobello, G; Serrano, S; Azzerboni, B
2009-01-01
The objective of this study is to investigate Id-iopatic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (INPH) through a multidimensional and multiparameter analysis of statistical data obtained from accurate analysis of Intracranial Pressure (ICP) recordings. Such a study could permit to detect new factors, correlated with therapeutic response, which are able to validate a predicting significance for infusion test. The algorithm developed by the authors computes 13 ICP parameter trends on each of the recording, afterward 9 statistical information from each trend is determined. All data are transferred to the datamining software WEKA. According to the exploited feature-selection techniques, the WEKA has revealed that the most significant statistical parameter is the maximum of Single-Wave-Amplitude: setting a 27 mmHg threshold leads to over 90% of correct classification.
A Chinese text classification system based on Naive Bayes algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cui Wei
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, aiming at the characteristics of Chinese text classification, using the ICTCLAS(Chinese lexical analysis system of Chinese academy of sciences for document segmentation, and for data cleaning and filtering the Stop words, using the information gain and document frequency feature selection algorithm to document feature selection. Based on this, based on the Naive Bayesian algorithm implemented text classifier , and use Chinese corpus of Fudan University has carried on the experiment and analysis on the system.
A review of classification algorithms for EEG-based brain-computer interfaces: a 10 year update.
Lotte, F; Bougrain, L; Cichocki, A; Clerc, M; Congedo, M; Rakotomamonjy, A; Yger, F
2018-06-01
Most current electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are based on machine learning algorithms. There is a large diversity of classifier types that are used in this field, as described in our 2007 review paper. Now, approximately ten years after this review publication, many new algorithms have been developed and tested to classify EEG signals in BCIs. The time is therefore ripe for an updated review of EEG classification algorithms for BCIs. We surveyed the BCI and machine learning literature from 2007 to 2017 to identify the new classification approaches that have been investigated to design BCIs. We synthesize these studies in order to present such algorithms, to report how they were used for BCIs, what were the outcomes, and to identify their pros and cons. We found that the recently designed classification algorithms for EEG-based BCIs can be divided into four main categories: adaptive classifiers, matrix and tensor classifiers, transfer learning and deep learning, plus a few other miscellaneous classifiers. Among these, adaptive classifiers were demonstrated to be generally superior to static ones, even with unsupervised adaptation. Transfer learning can also prove useful although the benefits of transfer learning remain unpredictable. Riemannian geometry-based methods have reached state-of-the-art performances on multiple BCI problems and deserve to be explored more thoroughly, along with tensor-based methods. Shrinkage linear discriminant analysis and random forests also appear particularly useful for small training samples settings. On the other hand, deep learning methods have not yet shown convincing improvement over state-of-the-art BCI methods. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the modern classification algorithms used in EEG-based BCIs, presents the principles of these methods and guidelines on when and how to use them. It also identifies a number of challenges to further advance EEG classification in BCI.
A review of classification algorithms for EEG-based brain–computer interfaces: a 10 year update
Lotte, F.; Bougrain, L.; Cichocki, A.; Clerc, M.; Congedo, M.; Rakotomamonjy, A.; Yger, F.
2018-06-01
Objective. Most current electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) are based on machine learning algorithms. There is a large diversity of classifier types that are used in this field, as described in our 2007 review paper. Now, approximately ten years after this review publication, many new algorithms have been developed and tested to classify EEG signals in BCIs. The time is therefore ripe for an updated review of EEG classification algorithms for BCIs. Approach. We surveyed the BCI and machine learning literature from 2007 to 2017 to identify the new classification approaches that have been investigated to design BCIs. We synthesize these studies in order to present such algorithms, to report how they were used for BCIs, what were the outcomes, and to identify their pros and cons. Main results. We found that the recently designed classification algorithms for EEG-based BCIs can be divided into four main categories: adaptive classifiers, matrix and tensor classifiers, transfer learning and deep learning, plus a few other miscellaneous classifiers. Among these, adaptive classifiers were demonstrated to be generally superior to static ones, even with unsupervised adaptation. Transfer learning can also prove useful although the benefits of transfer learning remain unpredictable. Riemannian geometry-based methods have reached state-of-the-art performances on multiple BCI problems and deserve to be explored more thoroughly, along with tensor-based methods. Shrinkage linear discriminant analysis and random forests also appear particularly useful for small training samples settings. On the other hand, deep learning methods have not yet shown convincing improvement over state-of-the-art BCI methods. Significance. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the modern classification algorithms used in EEG-based BCIs, presents the principles of these methods and guidelines on when and how to use them. It also identifies a number of challenges
Computerized Classification Testing with the Rasch Model
Eggen, Theo J. H. M.
2011-01-01
If classification in a limited number of categories is the purpose of testing, computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with algorithms based on sequential statistical testing perform better than estimation-based CATs (e.g., Eggen & Straetmans, 2000). In these computerized classification tests (CCTs), the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) (Wald,…
Classification Using Markov Blanket for Feature Selection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zeng, Yifeng; Luo, Jian
2009-01-01
Selecting relevant features is in demand when a large data set is of interest in a classification task. It produces a tractable number of features that are sufficient and possibly improve the classification performance. This paper studies a statistical method of Markov blanket induction algorithm...... for filtering features and then applies a classifier using the Markov blanket predictors. The Markov blanket contains a minimal subset of relevant features that yields optimal classification performance. We experimentally demonstrate the improved performance of several classifiers using a Markov blanket...... induction as a feature selection method. In addition, we point out an important assumption behind the Markov blanket induction algorithm and show its effect on the classification performance....
Delimata, Paweł
2010-01-01
We discuss two, in a sense extreme, kinds of nondeterministic rules in decision tables. The first kind of rules, called as inhibitory rules, are blocking only one decision value (i.e., they have all but one decisions from all possible decisions on their right hand sides). Contrary to this, any rule of the second kind, called as a bounded nondeterministic rule, can have on the right hand side only a few decisions. We show that both kinds of rules can be used for improving the quality of classification. In the paper, two lazy classification algorithms of polynomial time complexity are considered. These algorithms are based on deterministic and inhibitory decision rules, but the direct generation of rules is not required. Instead of this, for any new object the considered algorithms extract from a given decision table efficiently some information about the set of rules. Next, this information is used by a decision-making procedure. The reported results of experiments show that the algorithms based on inhibitory decision rules are often better than those based on deterministic decision rules. We also present an application of bounded nondeterministic rules in construction of rule based classifiers. We include the results of experiments showing that by combining rule based classifiers based on minimal decision rules with bounded nondeterministic rules having confidence close to 1 and sufficiently large support, it is possible to improve the classification quality. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
New Dandelion Algorithm Optimizes Extreme Learning Machine for Biomedical Classification Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiguang Li
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Inspired by the behavior of dandelion sowing, a new novel swarm intelligence algorithm, namely, dandelion algorithm (DA, is proposed for global optimization of complex functions in this paper. In DA, the dandelion population will be divided into two subpopulations, and different subpopulations will undergo different sowing behaviors. Moreover, another sowing method is designed to jump out of local optimum. In order to demonstrate the validation of DA, we compare the proposed algorithm with other existing algorithms, including bat algorithm, particle swarm optimization, and enhanced fireworks algorithm. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm seems much superior to other algorithms. At the same time, the proposed algorithm can be applied to optimize extreme learning machine (ELM for biomedical classification problems, and the effect is considerable. At last, we use different fusion methods to form different fusion classifiers, and the fusion classifiers can achieve higher accuracy and better stability to some extent.
SOMOTE_EASY: AN ALGORITHM TO TREAT THE CLASSIFICATION ISSUE IN REAL DATABASES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hugo Leonardo Pereira Rufino
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Most classification tools assume that data distribution be balanced or with similar costs, when not properly classified. Nevertheless, in practical terms, the existence of database where unbalanced classes occur is commonplace, such as in the diagnosis of diseases, in which the confirmed cases are usually rare when compared with a healthy population. Other examples are the detection of fraudulent calls and the detection of system intruders. In these cases, the improper classification of a minority class (for instance, to diagnose a person with cancer as healthy may result in more serious consequences that incorrectly classify a majority class. Therefore, it is important to treat the database where unbalanced classes occur. This paper presents the SMOTE_Easy algorithm, which can classify data, even if there is a high level of unbalancing between different classes. In order to prove its efficiency, a comparison with the main algorithms to treat classification issues was made, where unbalanced data exist. This process was successful in nearly all tested databases
Yuldashev, M. N.; Vlasov, A. I.; Novikov, A. N.
2018-05-01
This paper focuses on the development of an energy-efficient algorithm for classification of states of a wireless sensor network using machine learning methods. The proposed algorithm reduces energy consumption by: 1) elimination of monitoring of parameters that do not affect the state of the sensor network, 2) reduction of communication sessions over the network (the data are transmitted only if their values can affect the state of the sensor network). The studies of the proposed algorithm have shown that at classification accuracy close to 100%, the number of communication sessions can be reduced by 80%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hala Alshamlan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available An artificial bee colony (ABC is a relatively recent swarm intelligence optimization approach. In this paper, we propose the first attempt at applying ABC algorithm in analyzing a microarray gene expression profile. In addition, we propose an innovative feature selection algorithm, minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR, and combine it with an ABC algorithm, mRMR-ABC, to select informative genes from microarray profile. The new approach is based on a support vector machine (SVM algorithm to measure the classification accuracy for selected genes. We evaluate the performance of the proposed mRMR-ABC algorithm by conducting extensive experiments on six binary and multiclass gene expression microarray datasets. Furthermore, we compare our proposed mRMR-ABC algorithm with previously known techniques. We reimplemented two of these techniques for the sake of a fair comparison using the same parameters. These two techniques are mRMR when combined with a genetic algorithm (mRMR-GA and mRMR when combined with a particle swarm optimization algorithm (mRMR-PSO. The experimental results prove that the proposed mRMR-ABC algorithm achieves accurate classification performance using small number of predictive genes when tested using both datasets and compared to previously suggested methods. This shows that mRMR-ABC is a promising approach for solving gene selection and cancer classification problems.
Alshamlan, Hala; Badr, Ghada; Alohali, Yousef
2015-01-01
An artificial bee colony (ABC) is a relatively recent swarm intelligence optimization approach. In this paper, we propose the first attempt at applying ABC algorithm in analyzing a microarray gene expression profile. In addition, we propose an innovative feature selection algorithm, minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR), and combine it with an ABC algorithm, mRMR-ABC, to select informative genes from microarray profile. The new approach is based on a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to measure the classification accuracy for selected genes. We evaluate the performance of the proposed mRMR-ABC algorithm by conducting extensive experiments on six binary and multiclass gene expression microarray datasets. Furthermore, we compare our proposed mRMR-ABC algorithm with previously known techniques. We reimplemented two of these techniques for the sake of a fair comparison using the same parameters. These two techniques are mRMR when combined with a genetic algorithm (mRMR-GA) and mRMR when combined with a particle swarm optimization algorithm (mRMR-PSO). The experimental results prove that the proposed mRMR-ABC algorithm achieves accurate classification performance using small number of predictive genes when tested using both datasets and compared to previously suggested methods. This shows that mRMR-ABC is a promising approach for solving gene selection and cancer classification problems.
Multi-objective evolutionary algorithms for fuzzy classification in survival prediction.
Jiménez, Fernando; Sánchez, Gracia; Juárez, José M
2014-03-01
This paper presents a novel rule-based fuzzy classification methodology for survival/mortality prediction in severe burnt patients. Due to the ethical aspects involved in this medical scenario, physicians tend not to accept a computer-based evaluation unless they understand why and how such a recommendation is given. Therefore, any fuzzy classifier model must be both accurate and interpretable. The proposed methodology is a three-step process: (1) multi-objective constrained optimization of a patient's data set, using Pareto-based elitist multi-objective evolutionary algorithms to maximize accuracy and minimize the complexity (number of rules) of classifiers, subject to interpretability constraints; this step produces a set of alternative (Pareto) classifiers; (2) linguistic labeling, which assigns a linguistic label to each fuzzy set of the classifiers; this step is essential to the interpretability of the classifiers; (3) decision making, whereby a classifier is chosen, if it is satisfactory, according to the preferences of the decision maker. If no classifier is satisfactory for the decision maker, the process starts again in step (1) with a different input parameter set. The performance of three multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, niched pre-selection multi-objective algorithm, elitist Pareto-based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm for diversity reinforcement (ENORA) and the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II), was tested using a patient's data set from an intensive care burn unit and a standard machine learning data set from an standard machine learning repository. The results are compared using the hypervolume multi-objective metric. Besides, the results have been compared with other non-evolutionary techniques and validated with a multi-objective cross-validation technique. Our proposal improves the classification rate obtained by other non-evolutionary techniques (decision trees, artificial neural networks, Naive Bayes, and case
[Automatic Sleep Stage Classification Based on an Improved K-means Clustering Algorithm].
Xiao, Shuyuan; Wang, Bei; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Qunfeng; Zou, Junzhong
2016-10-01
Sleep stage scoring is a hotspot in the field of medicine and neuroscience.Visual inspection of sleep is laborious and the results may be subjective to different clinicians.Automatic sleep stage classification algorithm can be used to reduce the manual workload.However,there are still limitations when it encounters complicated and changeable clinical cases.The purpose of this paper is to develop an automatic sleep staging algorithm based on the characteristics of actual sleep data.In the proposed improved K-means clustering algorithm,points were selected as the initial centers by using a concept of density to avoid the randomness of the original K-means algorithm.Meanwhile,the cluster centers were updated according to the‘Three-Sigma Rule’during the iteration to abate the influence of the outliers.The proposed method was tested and analyzed on the overnight sleep data of the healthy persons and patients with sleep disorders after continuous positive airway pressure(CPAP)treatment.The automatic sleep stage classification results were compared with the visual inspection by qualified clinicians and the averaged accuracy reached 76%.With the analysis of morphological diversity of sleep data,it was proved that the proposed improved K-means algorithm was feasible and valid for clinical practice.
Optimized Audio Classification and Segmentation Algorithm by Using Ensemble Methods
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Saadia Zahid
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Audio segmentation is a basis for multimedia content analysis which is the most important and widely used application nowadays. An optimized audio classification and segmentation algorithm is presented in this paper that segments a superimposed audio stream on the basis of its content into four main audio types: pure-speech, music, environment sound, and silence. An algorithm is proposed that preserves important audio content and reduces the misclassification rate without using large amount of training data, which handles noise and is suitable for use for real-time applications. Noise in an audio stream is segmented out as environment sound. A hybrid classification approach is used, bagged support vector machines (SVMs with artificial neural networks (ANNs. Audio stream is classified, firstly, into speech and nonspeech segment by using bagged support vector machines; nonspeech segment is further classified into music and environment sound by using artificial neural networks and lastly, speech segment is classified into silence and pure-speech segments on the basis of rule-based classifier. Minimum data is used for training classifier; ensemble methods are used for minimizing misclassification rate and approximately 98% accurate segments are obtained. A fast and efficient algorithm is designed that can be used with real-time multimedia applications.
Statistical trajectory of an approximate EM algorithm for probabilistic image processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Titterington, D M
2007-01-01
We calculate analytically a statistical average of trajectories of an approximate expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm with generalized belief propagation (GBP) and a Gaussian graphical model for the estimation of hyperparameters from observable data in probabilistic image processing. A statistical average with respect to observed data corresponds to a configuration average for the random-field Ising model in spin glass theory. In the present paper, hyperparameters which correspond to interactions and external fields of spin systems are estimated by an approximate EM algorithm. A practical algorithm is described for gray-level image restoration based on a Gaussian graphical model and GBP. The GBP approach corresponds to the cluster variation method in statistical mechanics. Our main result in the present paper is to obtain the statistical average of the trajectory in the approximate EM algorithm by using loopy belief propagation and GBP with respect to degraded images generated from a probability density function with true values of hyperparameters. The statistical average of the trajectory can be expressed in terms of recursion formulas derived from some analytical calculations
Sokolov, Anton; Gengembre, Cyril; Dmitriev, Egor; Delbarre, Hervé
2017-04-01
The problem is considered of classification of local atmospheric meteorological events in the coastal area such as sea breezes, fogs and storms. The in-situ meteorological data as wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity and turbulence are used as predictors. Local atmospheric events of 2013-2014 were analysed manually to train classification algorithms in the coastal area of English Channel in Dunkirk (France). Then, ultrasonic anemometer data and LIDAR wind profiler data were used as predictors. A few algorithms were applied to determine meteorological events by local data such as a decision tree, the nearest neighbour classifier, a support vector machine. The comparison of classification algorithms was carried out, the most important predictors for each event type were determined. It was shown that in more than 80 percent of the cases machine learning algorithms detect the meteorological class correctly. We expect that this methodology could be applied also to classify events by climatological in-situ data or by modelling data. It allows estimating frequencies of each event in perspective of climate change.
Statistical methods for segmentation and classification of images
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosholm, Anders
1997-01-01
The central matter of the present thesis is Bayesian statistical inference applied to classification of images. An initial review of Markov Random Fields relates to the modeling aspect of the indicated main subject. In that connection, emphasis is put on the relatively unknown sub-class of Pickard...... with a Pickard Random Field modeling of a considered (categorical) image phenomemon. An extension of the fast PRF based classification technique is presented. The modification introduces auto-correlation into the model of an involved noise process, which previously has been assumed independent. The suitability...... of the extended model is documented by tests on controlled image data containing auto-correlated noise....
Neighborhood Hypergraph Based Classification Algorithm for Incomplete Information System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feng Hu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of classification in incomplete information system is a hot issue in intelligent information processing. Hypergraph is a new intelligent method for machine learning. However, it is hard to process the incomplete information system by the traditional hypergraph, which is due to two reasons: (1 the hyperedges are generated randomly in traditional hypergraph model; (2 the existing methods are unsuitable to deal with incomplete information system, for the sake of missing values in incomplete information system. In this paper, we propose a novel classification algorithm for incomplete information system based on hypergraph model and rough set theory. Firstly, we initialize the hypergraph. Second, we classify the training set by neighborhood hypergraph. Third, under the guidance of rough set, we replace the poor hyperedges. After that, we can obtain a good classifier. The proposed approach is tested on 15 data sets from UCI machine learning repository. Furthermore, it is compared with some existing methods, such as C4.5, SVM, NavieBayes, and KNN. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance via Precision, Recall, AUC, and F-measure.
Unsupervised classification of multivariate geostatistical data: Two algorithms
Romary, Thomas; Ors, Fabien; Rivoirard, Jacques; Deraisme, Jacques
2015-12-01
With the increasing development of remote sensing platforms and the evolution of sampling facilities in mining and oil industry, spatial datasets are becoming increasingly large, inform a growing number of variables and cover wider and wider areas. Therefore, it is often necessary to split the domain of study to account for radically different behaviors of the natural phenomenon over the domain and to simplify the subsequent modeling step. The definition of these areas can be seen as a problem of unsupervised classification, or clustering, where we try to divide the domain into homogeneous domains with respect to the values taken by the variables in hand. The application of classical clustering methods, designed for independent observations, does not ensure the spatial coherence of the resulting classes. Image segmentation methods, based on e.g. Markov random fields, are not adapted to irregularly sampled data. Other existing approaches, based on mixtures of Gaussian random functions estimated via the expectation-maximization algorithm, are limited to reasonable sample sizes and a small number of variables. In this work, we propose two algorithms based on adaptations of classical algorithms to multivariate geostatistical data. Both algorithms are model free and can handle large volumes of multivariate, irregularly spaced data. The first one proceeds by agglomerative hierarchical clustering. The spatial coherence is ensured by a proximity condition imposed for two clusters to merge. This proximity condition relies on a graph organizing the data in the coordinates space. The hierarchical algorithm can then be seen as a graph-partitioning algorithm. Following this interpretation, a spatial version of the spectral clustering algorithm is also proposed. The performances of both algorithms are assessed on toy examples and a mining dataset.
An Incremental Classification Algorithm for Mining Data with Feature Space Heterogeneity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Feature space heterogeneity often exists in many real world data sets so that some features are of different importance for classification over different subsets. Moreover, the pattern of feature space heterogeneity might dynamically change over time as more and more data are accumulated. In this paper, we develop an incremental classification algorithm, Supervised Clustering for Classification with Feature Space Heterogeneity (SCCFSH, to address this problem. In our approach, supervised clustering is implemented to obtain a number of clusters such that samples in each cluster are from the same class. After the removal of outliers, relevance of features in each cluster is calculated based on their variations in this cluster. The feature relevance is incorporated into distance calculation for classification. The main advantage of SCCFSH lies in the fact that it is capable of solving a classification problem with feature space heterogeneity in an incremental way, which is favorable for online classification tasks with continuously changing data. Experimental results on a series of data sets and application to a database marketing problem show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Classification of Aerosol Retrievals from Spaceborne Polarimetry Using a Multiparameter Algorithm
Russell, Philip B.; Kacenelenbogen, Meloe; Livingston, John M.; Hasekamp, Otto P.; Burton, Sharon P.; Schuster, Gregory L.; Johnson, Matthew S.; Knobelspiesse, Kirk D.; Redemann, Jens; Ramachandran, S.;
2013-01-01
In this presentation, we demonstrate application of a new aerosol classification algorithm to retrievals from the POLDER-3 polarimter on the PARASOL spacecraft. Motivation and method: Since the development of global aerosol measurements by satellites and AERONET, classification of observed aerosols into several types (e.g., urban-industrial, biomass burning, mineral dust, maritime, and various subtypes or mixtures of these) has proven useful to: understanding aerosol sources, transformations, effects, and feedback mechanisms; improving accuracy of satellite retrievals and quantifying assessments of aerosol radiative impacts on climate.
A novel evaluation of two related and two independent algorithms for eye movement classification during reading.
Friedman, Lee; Rigas, Ioannis; Abdulin, Evgeny; Komogortsev, Oleg V
2018-05-15
Nystrӧm and Holmqvist have published a method for the classification of eye movements during reading (ONH) (Nyström & Holmqvist, 2010). When we applied this algorithm to our data, the results were not satisfactory, so we modified the algorithm (now the MNH) to better classify our data. The changes included: (1) reducing the amount of signal filtering, (2) excluding a new type of noise, (3) removing several adaptive thresholds and replacing them with fixed thresholds, (4) changing the way that the start and end of each saccade was determined, (5) employing a new algorithm for detecting PSOs, and (6) allowing a fixation period to either begin or end with noise. A new method for the evaluation of classification algorithms is presented. It was designed to provide comprehensive feedback to an algorithm developer, in a time-efficient manner, about the types and numbers of classification errors that an algorithm produces. This evaluation was conducted by three expert raters independently, across 20 randomly chosen recordings, each classified by both algorithms. The MNH made many fewer errors in determining when saccades start and end, and it also detected some fixations and saccades that the ONH did not. The MNH fails to detect very small saccades. We also evaluated two additional algorithms: the EyeLink Parser and a more current, machine-learning-based algorithm. The EyeLink Parser tended to find more saccades that ended too early than did the other methods, and we found numerous problems with the output of the machine-learning-based algorithm.
Goyal, Shrigopal; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Khandelwal, S K
2012-07-01
Two of the most commonly used nosological systems- International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV are under revision. This process has generated a lot of interesting debates with regards to future of the current diagnostic categories. In fact, the status of categorical approach in the upcoming versions of ICD and DSM is also being debated. The current article focuses on the debate with regards to the eating disorders. The existing classification of eating disorders has been criticized for its limitations. A host of new diagnostic categories have been recommended for inclusion in the upcoming revisions. Also the structure of the existing categories has also been put under scrutiny.
Random forests for classification in ecology
Cutler, D.R.; Edwards, T.C.; Beard, K.H.; Cutler, A.; Hess, K.T.; Gibson, J.; Lawler, J.J.
2007-01-01
Classification procedures are some of the most widely used statistical methods in ecology. Random forests (RF) is a new and powerful statistical classifier that is well established in other disciplines but is relatively unknown in ecology. Advantages of RF compared to other statistical classifiers include (1) very high classification accuracy; (2) a novel method of determining variable importance; (3) ability to model complex interactions among predictor variables; (4) flexibility to perform several types of statistical data analysis, including regression, classification, survival analysis, and unsupervised learning; and (5) an algorithm for imputing missing values. We compared the accuracies of RF and four other commonly used statistical classifiers using data on invasive plant species presence in Lava Beds National Monument, California, USA, rare lichen species presence in the Pacific Northwest, USA, and nest sites for cavity nesting birds in the Uinta Mountains, Utah, USA. We observed high classification accuracy in all applications as measured by cross-validation and, in the case of the lichen data, by independent test data, when comparing RF to other common classification methods. We also observed that the variables that RF identified as most important for classifying invasive plant species coincided with expectations based on the literature. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.
Texture classification using autoregressive filtering
Lawton, W. M.; Lee, M.
1984-01-01
A general theory of image texture models is proposed and its applicability to the problem of scene segmentation using texture classification is discussed. An algorithm, based on half-plane autoregressive filtering, which optimally utilizes second order statistics to discriminate between texture classes represented by arbitrary wide sense stationary random fields is described. Empirical results of applying this algorithm to natural and sysnthesized scenes are presented and future research is outlined.
Experiments in Discourse Analysis Impact on Information Classification and Retrieval Algorithms.
Morato, Jorge; Llorens, J.; Genova, G.; Moreiro, J. A.
2003-01-01
Discusses the inclusion of contextual information in indexing and retrieval systems to improve results and the ability to carry out text analysis by means of linguistic knowledge. Presents research that investigated whether discourse variables have an impact on information and retrieval and classification algorithms. (Author/LRW)
Does a Diagnostic Classification Algorithm Help to Predict the Course of Low Back Pain?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hartvigsen, Lisbeth; Kongsted, Alice; Vach, Werner
2018-01-01
). Objectives To investigate if a diagnostic classification algorithm is associated with activity limitation and LBP intensity at 2-week and 3-month follow up, and 1-year trajectories of LBP intensity, and if it improves prediction of outcome when added to a set of known predictors. Methods 934 consecutive......Study Design A prospective observational study. Background A diagnostic classification algorithm was developed by Petersen et al., consisting of 12 categories based on a standardized examination protocol with the primary purpose of identifying clinically homogeneous subgroups of low back pain (LBP...... adult patients, with new episodes of LBP, who were visiting chiropractic practices in primary care were categorized according to the Petersen classification. Outcomes were disability and pain intensity measured at 2 weeks and 3 months, and 1-year trajectories of LBP based on weekly responses to text...
An up-to-date comparison of state-of-the-art classification algorithms
Zhang, Chongsheng
2017-04-05
Current benchmark reports of classification algorithms generally concern common classifiers and their variants but do not include many algorithms that have been introduced in recent years. Moreover, important properties such as the dependency on number of classes and features and CPU running time are typically not examined. In this paper, we carry out a comparative empirical study on both established classifiers and more recently proposed ones on 71 data sets originating from different domains, publicly available at UCI and KEEL repositories. The list of 11 algorithms studied includes Extreme Learning Machine (ELM), Sparse Representation based Classification (SRC), and Deep Learning (DL), which have not been thoroughly investigated in existing comparative studies. It is found that Stochastic Gradient Boosting Trees (GBDT) matches or exceeds the prediction performance of Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Random Forests (RF), while being the fastest algorithm in terms of prediction efficiency. ELM also yields good accuracy results, ranking in the top-5, alongside GBDT, RF, SVM, and C4.5 but this performance varies widely across all data sets. Unsurprisingly, top accuracy performers have average or slow training time efficiency. DL is the worst performer in terms of accuracy but second fastest in prediction efficiency. SRC shows good accuracy performance but it is the slowest classifier in both training and testing.
An up-to-date comparison of state-of-the-art classification algorithms
Zhang, Chongsheng; Liu, Changchang; Zhang, Xiangliang; Almpanidis, George
2017-01-01
Current benchmark reports of classification algorithms generally concern common classifiers and their variants but do not include many algorithms that have been introduced in recent years. Moreover, important properties such as the dependency on number of classes and features and CPU running time are typically not examined. In this paper, we carry out a comparative empirical study on both established classifiers and more recently proposed ones on 71 data sets originating from different domains, publicly available at UCI and KEEL repositories. The list of 11 algorithms studied includes Extreme Learning Machine (ELM), Sparse Representation based Classification (SRC), and Deep Learning (DL), which have not been thoroughly investigated in existing comparative studies. It is found that Stochastic Gradient Boosting Trees (GBDT) matches or exceeds the prediction performance of Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Random Forests (RF), while being the fastest algorithm in terms of prediction efficiency. ELM also yields good accuracy results, ranking in the top-5, alongside GBDT, RF, SVM, and C4.5 but this performance varies widely across all data sets. Unsurprisingly, top accuracy performers have average or slow training time efficiency. DL is the worst performer in terms of accuracy but second fastest in prediction efficiency. SRC shows good accuracy performance but it is the slowest classifier in both training and testing.
A Region-Based GeneSIS Segmentation Algorithm for the Classification of Remotely Sensed Images
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stelios K. Mylonas
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes an object-based segmentation/classification scheme for remotely sensed images, based on a novel variant of the recently proposed Genetic Sequential Image Segmentation (GeneSIS algorithm. GeneSIS segments the image in an iterative manner, whereby at each iteration a single object is extracted via a genetic-based object extraction algorithm. Contrary to the previous pixel-based GeneSIS where the candidate objects to be extracted were evaluated through the fuzzy content of their included pixels, in the newly developed region-based GeneSIS algorithm, a watershed-driven fine segmentation map is initially obtained from the original image, which serves as the basis for the forthcoming GeneSIS segmentation. Furthermore, in order to enhance the spatial search capabilities, we introduce a more descriptive encoding scheme in the object extraction algorithm, where the structural search modules are represented by polygonal shapes. Our objectives in the new framework are posed as follows: enhance the flexibility of the algorithm in extracting more flexible object shapes, assure high level classification accuracies, and reduce the execution time of the segmentation, while at the same time preserving all the inherent attributes of the GeneSIS approach. Finally, exploiting the inherent attribute of GeneSIS to produce multiple segmentations, we also propose two segmentation fusion schemes that operate on the ensemble of segmentations generated by GeneSIS. Our approaches are tested on an urban and two agricultural images. The results show that region-based GeneSIS has considerably lower computational demands compared to the pixel-based one. Furthermore, the suggested methods achieve higher classification accuracies and good segmentation maps compared to a series of existing algorithms.
Tan, Bin; Brown de Colstoun, Eric; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tilton, James C.; Huang, Chengquan; Smith, Sarah E.
2012-01-01
An algorithm is developed to automatically screen the outliers from massive training samples for Global Land Survey - Imperviousness Mapping Project (GLS-IMP). GLS-IMP is to produce a global 30 m spatial resolution impervious cover data set for years 2000 and 2010 based on the Landsat Global Land Survey (GLS) data set. This unprecedented high resolution impervious cover data set is not only significant to the urbanization studies but also desired by the global carbon, hydrology, and energy balance researches. A supervised classification method, regression tree, is applied in this project. A set of accurate training samples is the key to the supervised classifications. Here we developed the global scale training samples from 1 m or so resolution fine resolution satellite data (Quickbird and Worldview2), and then aggregate the fine resolution impervious cover map to 30 m resolution. In order to improve the classification accuracy, the training samples should be screened before used to train the regression tree. It is impossible to manually screen 30 m resolution training samples collected globally. For example, in Europe only, there are 174 training sites. The size of the sites ranges from 4.5 km by 4.5 km to 8.1 km by 3.6 km. The amount training samples are over six millions. Therefore, we develop this automated statistic based algorithm to screen the training samples in two levels: site and scene level. At the site level, all the training samples are divided to 10 groups according to the percentage of the impervious surface within a sample pixel. The samples following in each 10% forms one group. For each group, both univariate and multivariate outliers are detected and removed. Then the screen process escalates to the scene level. A similar screen process but with a looser threshold is applied on the scene level considering the possible variance due to the site difference. We do not perform the screen process across the scenes because the scenes might vary due to
The surgical algorithm for the AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system
Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Kepler, Christopher K.; Cumhur Oner, F.; Vialle, Luiz R.; Kandziora, Frank; Koerner, John D.; Kurd, Mark F.; Reinhold, Max; Schnake, Klaus J.; Chapman, Jens; Aarabi, Bizhan; Fehlings, Michael G.; Dvorak, Marcel F.
2016-01-01
Purpose: The goal of the current study is to establish a surgical algorithm to accompany the AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system. Methods: A survey was sent to AOSpine members from the six AO regions of the world, and surgeons were asked if a patient should undergo an initial
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bülent Haznedar
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Classification is an important data mining technique, which is used in many fields mostly exemplified as medicine, genetics and biomedical engineering. The number of studies about classification of the datum on DNA microarray gene expression is specifically increased in recent years. However, because of the reasons as the abundance of gene numbers in the datum as microarray gene expressions and the nonlinear relations mostly across those datum, the success of conventional classification algorithms can be limited. Because of these reasons, the interest on classification methods which are based on artificial intelligence to solve the problem on classification has been gradually increased in recent times. In this study, a hybrid approach which is based on Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS and Genetic Algorithm (GA are suggested in order to classify liver microarray cancer data set. Simulation results are compared with the results of other methods. According to the results obtained, it is seen that the recommended method is better than the other methods.
Algorithm for image retrieval based on edge gradient orientation statistical code.
Zeng, Jiexian; Zhao, Yonggang; Li, Weiye; Fu, Xiang
2014-01-01
Image edge gradient direction not only contains important information of the shape, but also has a simple, lower complexity characteristic. Considering that the edge gradient direction histograms and edge direction autocorrelogram do not have the rotation invariance, we put forward the image retrieval algorithm which is based on edge gradient orientation statistical code (hereinafter referred to as EGOSC) by sharing the application of the statistics method in the edge direction of the chain code in eight neighborhoods to the statistics of the edge gradient direction. Firstly, we construct the n-direction vector and make maximal summation restriction on EGOSC to make sure this algorithm is invariable for rotation effectively. Then, we use Euclidean distance of edge gradient direction entropy to measure shape similarity, so that this method is not sensitive to scaling, color, and illumination change. The experimental results and the algorithm analysis demonstrate that the algorithm can be used for content-based image retrieval and has good retrieval results.
Classification and authentication of unknown water samples using machine learning algorithms.
Kundu, Palash K; Panchariya, P C; Kundu, Madhusree
2011-07-01
This paper proposes the development of water sample classification and authentication, in real life which is based on machine learning algorithms. The proposed techniques used experimental measurements from a pulse voltametry method which is based on an electronic tongue (E-tongue) instrumentation system with silver and platinum electrodes. E-tongue include arrays of solid state ion sensors, transducers even of different types, data collectors and data analysis tools, all oriented to the classification of liquid samples and authentication of unknown liquid samples. The time series signal and the corresponding raw data represent the measurement from a multi-sensor system. The E-tongue system, implemented in a laboratory environment for 6 numbers of different ISI (Bureau of Indian standard) certified water samples (Aquafina, Bisleri, Kingfisher, Oasis, Dolphin, and McDowell) was the data source for developing two types of machine learning algorithms like classification and regression. A water data set consisting of 6 numbers of sample classes containing 4402 numbers of features were considered. A PCA (principal component analysis) based classification and authentication tool was developed in this study as the machine learning component of the E-tongue system. A proposed partial least squares (PLS) based classifier, which was dedicated as well; to authenticate a specific category of water sample evolved out as an integral part of the E-tongue instrumentation system. The developed PCA and PLS based E-tongue system emancipated an overall encouraging authentication percentage accuracy with their excellent performances for the aforesaid categories of water samples. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Simplified Algorithm for Statistical Investigation of Damage Spreading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gecow, Andrzej
2009-01-01
On the way to simulating adaptive evolution of complex system describing a living object or human developed project, a fitness should be defined on node states or network external outputs. Feedbacks lead to circular attractors of these states or outputs which make it difficult to define a fitness. The main statistical effects of adaptive condition are the result of small change tendency and to appear, they only need a statistically correct size of damage initiated by evolutionary change of system. This observation allows to cut loops of feedbacks and in effect to obtain a particular statistically correct state instead of a long circular attractor which in the quenched model is expected for chaotic network with feedback. Defining fitness on such states is simple. We calculate only damaged nodes and only once. Such an algorithm is optimal for investigation of damage spreading i.e. statistical connections of structural parameters of initial change with the size of effected damage. It is a reversed-annealed method--function and states (signals) may be randomly substituted but connections are important and are preserved. The small damages important for adaptive evolution are correctly depicted in comparison to Derrida annealed approximation which expects equilibrium levels for large networks. The algorithm indicates these levels correctly. The relevant program in Pascal, which executes the algorithm for a wide range of parameters, can be obtained from the author.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Fernandez-Lozano
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Given the background of the use of Neural Networks in problems of apple juice classification, this paper aim at implementing a newly developed method in the field of machine learning: the Support Vector Machines (SVM. Therefore, a hybrid model that combines genetic algorithms and support vector machines is suggested in such a way that, when using SVM as a fitness function of the Genetic Algorithm (GA, the most representative variables for a specific classification problem can be selected.
Characteristic statistic algorithm (CSA) for in-core loading pattern optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Zhihong; Hu Yongming; Shi Gong
2007-01-01
To solve the problem of PWR in-core loading pattern optimization, a more suitable global optimization algorithm, i.e., Characteristic statistic algorithm (CSA), is used. The searching process of this algorithm and how to apply it to this problem are presented. Loading pattern optimization code SCYCLE is developed. Two different problems on real PWR models are calculated and the results are compared with other algorithms. It is shown that SCYCLE has high efficiency and good global performance on this problem. (authors)
Hardware Accelerators Targeting a Novel Group Based Packet Classification Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Ahmed
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Packet classification is a ubiquitous and key building block for many critical network devices. However, it remains as one of the main bottlenecks faced when designing fast network devices. In this paper, we propose a novel Group Based Search packet classification Algorithm (GBSA that is scalable, fast, and efficient. GBSA consumes an average of 0.4 megabytes of memory for a 10 k rule set. The worst-case classification time per packet is 2 microseconds, and the preprocessing speed is 3 M rules/second based on an Xeon processor operating at 3.4 GHz. When compared with other state-of-the-art classification techniques, the results showed that GBSA outperforms the competition with respect to speed, memory usage, and processing time. Moreover, GBSA is amenable to implementation in hardware. Three different hardware implementations are also presented in this paper including an Application Specific Instruction Set Processor (ASIP implementation and two pure Register-Transfer Level (RTL implementations based on Impulse-C and Handel-C flows, respectively. Speedups achieved with these hardware accelerators ranged from 9x to 18x compared with a pure software implementation running on an Xeon processor.
Kernel Clustering with a Differential Harmony Search Algorithm for Scheme Classification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Feng
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a kernel fuzzy clustering with a novel differential harmony search algorithm to coordinate with the diversion scheduling scheme classification. First, we employed a self-adaptive solution generation strategy and differential evolution-based population update strategy to improve the classical harmony search. Second, we applied the differential harmony search algorithm to the kernel fuzzy clustering to help the clustering method obtain better solutions. Finally, the combination of the kernel fuzzy clustering and the differential harmony search is applied for water diversion scheduling in East Lake. A comparison of the proposed method with other methods has been carried out. The results show that the kernel clustering with the differential harmony search algorithm has good performance to cooperate with the water diversion scheduling problems.
Liu, Aiming; Chen, Kun; Liu, Quan; Ai, Qingsong; Xie, Yi; Chen, Anqi
2017-11-08
Motor Imagery (MI) electroencephalography (EEG) is widely studied for its non-invasiveness, easy availability, portability, and high temporal resolution. As for MI EEG signal processing, the high dimensions of features represent a research challenge. It is necessary to eliminate redundant features, which not only create an additional overhead of managing the space complexity, but also might include outliers, thereby reducing classification accuracy. The firefly algorithm (FA) can adaptively select the best subset of features, and improve classification accuracy. However, the FA is easily entrapped in a local optimum. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method of combining the firefly algorithm and learning automata (LA) to optimize feature selection for motor imagery EEG. We employed a method of combining common spatial pattern (CSP) and local characteristic-scale decomposition (LCD) algorithms to obtain a high dimensional feature set, and classified it by using the spectral regression discriminant analysis (SRDA) classifier. Both the fourth brain-computer interface competition data and real-time data acquired in our designed experiments were used to verify the validation of the proposed method. Compared with genetic and adaptive weight particle swarm optimization algorithms, the experimental results show that our proposed method effectively eliminates redundant features, and improves the classification accuracy of MI EEG signals. In addition, a real-time brain-computer interface system was implemented to verify the feasibility of our proposed methods being applied in practical brain-computer interface systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aiming Liu
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Motor Imagery (MI electroencephalography (EEG is widely studied for its non-invasiveness, easy availability, portability, and high temporal resolution. As for MI EEG signal processing, the high dimensions of features represent a research challenge. It is necessary to eliminate redundant features, which not only create an additional overhead of managing the space complexity, but also might include outliers, thereby reducing classification accuracy. The firefly algorithm (FA can adaptively select the best subset of features, and improve classification accuracy. However, the FA is easily entrapped in a local optimum. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method of combining the firefly algorithm and learning automata (LA to optimize feature selection for motor imagery EEG. We employed a method of combining common spatial pattern (CSP and local characteristic-scale decomposition (LCD algorithms to obtain a high dimensional feature set, and classified it by using the spectral regression discriminant analysis (SRDA classifier. Both the fourth brain–computer interface competition data and real-time data acquired in our designed experiments were used to verify the validation of the proposed method. Compared with genetic and adaptive weight particle swarm optimization algorithms, the experimental results show that our proposed method effectively eliminates redundant features, and improves the classification accuracy of MI EEG signals. In addition, a real-time brain–computer interface system was implemented to verify the feasibility of our proposed methods being applied in practical brain–computer interface systems.
Improved RMR Rock Mass Classification Using Artificial Intelligence Algorithms
Gholami, Raoof; Rasouli, Vamegh; Alimoradi, Andisheh
2013-09-01
Rock mass classification systems such as rock mass rating (RMR) are very reliable means to provide information about the quality of rocks surrounding a structure as well as to propose suitable support systems for unstable regions. Many correlations have been proposed to relate measured quantities such as wave velocity to rock mass classification systems to limit the associated time and cost of conducting the sampling and mechanical tests conventionally used to calculate RMR values. However, these empirical correlations have been found to be unreliable, as they usually overestimate or underestimate the RMR value. The aim of this paper is to compare the results of RMR classification obtained from the use of empirical correlations versus machine-learning methodologies based on artificial intelligence algorithms. The proposed methods were verified based on two case studies located in northern Iran. Relevance vector regression (RVR) and support vector regression (SVR), as two robust machine-learning methodologies, were used to predict the RMR for tunnel host rocks. RMR values already obtained by sampling and site investigation at one tunnel were taken into account as the output of the artificial networks during training and testing phases. The results reveal that use of empirical correlations overestimates the predicted RMR values. RVR and SVR, however, showed more reliable results, and are therefore suggested for use in RMR classification for design purposes of rock structures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sheng Yang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Sequencing is widely used to discover associations between microRNAs (miRNAs and diseases. However, the negative binomial distribution (NB and high dimensionality of data obtained using sequencing can lead to low-power results and low reproducibility. Several statistical learning algorithms have been proposed to address sequencing data, and although evaluation of these methods is essential, such studies are relatively rare. The performance of seven feature selection (FS algorithms, including baySeq, DESeq, edgeR, the rank sum test, lasso, particle swarm optimistic decision tree, and random forest (RF, was compared by simulation under different conditions based on the difference of the mean, the dispersion parameter of the NB, and the signal to noise ratio. Real data were used to evaluate the performance of RF, logistic regression, and support vector machine. Based on the simulation and real data, we discuss the behaviour of the FS and classification algorithms. The Apriori algorithm identified frequent item sets (mir-133a, mir-133b, mir-183, mir-937, and mir-96 from among the deregulated miRNAs of six datasets from The Cancer Genomics Atlas. Taking these findings altogether and considering computational memory requirements, we propose a strategy that combines edgeR and DESeq for large sample sizes.
Aircraft target detection algorithm based on high resolution spaceborne SAR imagery
Zhang, Hui; Hao, Mengxi; Zhang, Cong; Su, Xiaojing
2018-03-01
In this paper, an image classification algorithm for airport area is proposed, which based on the statistical features of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and the spatial information of pixels. The algorithm combines Gamma mixture model and MRF. The algorithm using Gamma mixture model to obtain the initial classification result. Pixel space correlation based on the classification results are optimized by the MRF technique. Additionally, morphology methods are employed to extract airport (ROI) region where the suspected aircraft target samples are clarified to reduce the false alarm and increase the detection performance. Finally, this paper presents the plane target detection, which have been verified by simulation test.
Robust Semi-Supervised Manifold Learning Algorithm for Classification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mingxia Chen
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In the recent years, manifold learning methods have been widely used in data classification to tackle the curse of dimensionality problem, since they can discover the potential intrinsic low-dimensional structures of the high-dimensional data. Given partially labeled data, the semi-supervised manifold learning algorithms are proposed to predict the labels of the unlabeled points, taking into account label information. However, these semi-supervised manifold learning algorithms are not robust against noisy points, especially when the labeled data contain noise. In this paper, we propose a framework for robust semi-supervised manifold learning (RSSML to address this problem. The noisy levels of the labeled points are firstly predicted, and then a regularization term is constructed to reduce the impact of labeled points containing noise. A new robust semi-supervised optimization model is proposed by adding the regularization term to the traditional semi-supervised optimization model. Numerical experiments are given to show the improvement and efficiency of RSSML on noisy data sets.
Arabic text classification using Polynomial Networks
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Mayy M. Al-Tahrawi
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an Arabic statistical learning-based text classification system has been developed using Polynomial Neural Networks. Polynomial Networks have been recently applied to English text classification, but they were never used for Arabic text classification. In this research, we investigate the performance of Polynomial Networks in classifying Arabic texts. Experiments are conducted on a widely used Arabic dataset in text classification: Al-Jazeera News dataset. We chose this dataset to enable direct comparisons of the performance of Polynomial Networks classifier versus other well-known classifiers on this dataset in the literature of Arabic text classification. Results of experiments show that Polynomial Networks classifier is a competitive algorithm to the state-of-the-art ones in the field of Arabic text classification.
REMAINING LIFE TIME PREDICTION OF BEARINGS USING K-STAR ALGORITHM – A STATISTICAL APPROACH
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R. SATISHKUMAR
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The role of bearings is significant in reducing the down time of all rotating machineries. The increasing trend of bearing failures in recent times has triggered the need and importance of deployment of condition monitoring. There are multiple factors associated to a bearing failure while it is in operation. Hence, a predictive strategy is required to evaluate the current state of the bearings in operation. In past, predictive models with regression techniques were widely used for bearing lifetime estimations. The Objective of this paper is to estimate the remaining useful life of bearings through a machine learning approach. The ultimate objective of this study is to strengthen the predictive maintenance. The present study was done using classification approach following the concepts of machine learning and a predictive model was built to calculate the residual lifetime of bearings in operation. Vibration signals were acquired on a continuous basis from an experiment wherein the bearings are made to run till it fails naturally. It should be noted that the experiment was carried out with new bearings at pre-defined load and speed conditions until the bearing fails on its own. In the present work, statistical features were deployed and feature selection process was carried out using J48 decision tree and selected features were used to develop the prognostic model. The K-Star classification algorithm, a supervised machine learning technique is made use of in building a predictive model to estimate the lifetime of bearings. The performance of classifier was cross validated with distinct data. The result shows that the K-Star classification model gives 98.56% classification accuracy with selected features.
Movia, A.; Beinat, A.; Crosilla, F.
2015-04-01
The recognition of vegetation by the analysis of very high resolution (VHR) aerial images provides meaningful information about environmental features; nevertheless, VHR images frequently contain shadows that generate significant problems for the classification of the image components and for the extraction of the needed information. The aim of this research is to classify, from VHR aerial images, vegetation involved in the balance process of the environmental biochemical cycle, and to discriminate it with respect to urban and agricultural features. Three classification algorithms have been experimented in order to better recognize vegetation, and compared to NDVI index; unfortunately all these methods are conditioned by the presence of shadows on the images. Literature presents several algorithms to detect and remove shadows in the scene: most of them are based on the RGB to HSI transformations. In this work some of them have been implemented and compared with one based on RGB bands. Successively, in order to remove shadows and restore brightness on the images, some innovative algorithms, based on Procrustes theory, have been implemented and applied. Among these, we evaluate the capability of the so called "not-centered oblique Procrustes" and "anisotropic Procrustes" methods to efficiently restore brightness with respect to a linear correlation correction based on the Cholesky decomposition. Some experimental results obtained by different classification methods after shadows removal carried out with the innovative algorithms are presented and discussed.
Classification of Internet banking customers using data mining algorithms
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Reza Radfar
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Classifying customers using data mining algorithms, enables banks to keep old customers loyality while attracting new ones. Using decision tree as a data mining technique, we can optimize customer classification provided that the appropriate decision tree is selected. In this article we have presented an appropriate model to classify customers who use internet banking service. The model is developed based on CRISP-DM standard and we have used real data of Sina bank’s Internet bank. In compare to other decision trees, ours is based on both optimization and accuracy factors that recognizes new potential internet banking customers using a three level classification, which is low/medium and high. This is a practical, documentary-based research. Mining customer rules enables managers to make policies based on found out patterns in order to have a better perception of what customers really desire.
Hosfelt, Diane Duros
2015-01-01
Threats from the internet, particularly malicious software (i.e., malware) often use cryptographic algorithms to disguise their actions and even to take control of a victim's system (as in the case of ransomware). Malware and other threats proliferate too quickly for the time-consuming traditional methods of binary analysis to be effective. By automating detection and classification of cryptographic algorithms, we can speed program analysis and more efficiently combat malware. This thesis wil...
A Formal Approach for RT-DVS Algorithms Evaluation Based on Statistical Model Checking
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Shengxin Dai
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Energy saving is a crucial concern in embedded real time systems. Many RT-DVS algorithms have been proposed to save energy while preserving deadline guarantees. This paper presents a novel approach to evaluate RT-DVS algorithms using statistical model checking. A scalable framework is proposed for RT-DVS algorithms evaluation, in which the relevant components are modeled as stochastic timed automata, and the evaluation metrics including utilization bound, energy efficiency, battery awareness, and temperature awareness are expressed as statistical queries. Evaluation of these metrics is performed by verifying the corresponding queries using UPPAAL-SMC and analyzing the statistical information provided by the tool. We demonstrate the applicability of our framework via a case study of five classical RT-DVS algorithms.
Statistical algorithm for automated signature analysis of power spectral density data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piety, K.R.
1977-01-01
A statistical algorithm has been developed and implemented on a minicomputer system for on-line, surveillance applications. Power spectral density (PSD) measurements on process signals are the performance signatures that characterize the ''health'' of the monitored equipment. Statistical methods provide a quantitative basis for automating the detection of anomalous conditions. The surveillance algorithm has been tested on signals from neutron sensors, proximeter probes, and accelerometers to determine its potential for monitoring nuclear reactors and rotating machinery
Lo, Benjamin W Y; Fukuda, Hitoshi; Angle, Mark; Teitelbaum, Jeanne; Macdonald, R Loch; Farrokhyar, Forough; Thabane, Lehana; Levine, Mitchell A H
2016-01-01
Classification and regression tree analysis involves the creation of a decision tree by recursive partitioning of a dataset into more homogeneous subgroups. Thus far, there is scarce literature on using this technique to create clinical prediction tools for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The classification and regression tree analysis technique was applied to the multicenter Tirilazad database (3551 patients) in order to create the decision-making algorithm. In order to elucidate prognostic subgroups in aneurysmal SAH, neurologic, systemic, and demographic factors were taken into account. The dependent variable used for analysis was the dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Score at 3 months. Classification and regression tree analysis revealed seven prognostic subgroups. Neurological grade, occurrence of post-admission stroke, occurrence of post-admission fever, and age represented the explanatory nodes of this decision tree. Split sample validation revealed classification accuracy of 79% for the training dataset and 77% for the testing dataset. In addition, the occurrence of fever at 1-week post-aneurysmal SAH is associated with increased odds of post-admission stroke (odds ratio: 1.83, 95% confidence interval: 1.56-2.45, P tree was generated, which serves as a prediction tool to guide bedside prognostication and clinical treatment decision making. This prognostic decision-making algorithm also shed light on the complex interactions between a number of risk factors in determining outcome after aneurysmal SAH.
Berti, Matteo; Corsini, Alessandro; Franceschini, Silvia; Iannacone, Jean Pascal
2013-04-01
The application of space borne synthetic aperture radar interferometry has progressed, over the last two decades, from the pioneer use of single interferograms for analyzing changes on the earth's surface to the development of advanced multi-interferogram techniques to analyze any sort of natural phenomena which involves movements of the ground. The success of multi-interferograms techniques in the analysis of natural hazards such as landslides and subsidence is widely documented in the scientific literature and demonstrated by the consensus among the end-users. Despite the great potential of this technique, radar interpretation of slope movements is generally based on the sole analysis of average displacement velocities, while the information embraced in multi interferogram time series is often overlooked if not completely neglected. The underuse of PS time series is probably due to the detrimental effect of residual atmospheric errors, which make the PS time series characterized by erratic, irregular fluctuations often difficult to interpret, and also to the difficulty of performing a visual, supervised analysis of the time series for a large dataset. In this work is we present a procedure for automatic classification of PS time series based on a series of statistical characterization tests. The procedure allows to classify the time series into six distinctive target trends (0=uncorrelated; 1=linear; 2=quadratic; 3=bilinear; 4=discontinuous without constant velocity; 5=discontinuous with change in velocity) and retrieve for each trend a series of descriptive parameters which can be efficiently used to characterize the temporal changes of ground motion. The classification algorithms were developed and tested using an ENVISAT datasets available in the frame of EPRS-E project (Extraordinary Plan of Environmental Remote Sensing) of the Italian Ministry of Environment (track "Modena", Northern Apennines). This dataset was generated using standard processing, then the
CLASSIFICATION ALGORITHMS FOR BIG DATA ANALYSIS, A MAP REDUCE APPROACH
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V. A. Ayma
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Since many years ago, the scientific community is concerned about how to increase the accuracy of different classification methods, and major achievements have been made so far. Besides this issue, the increasing amount of data that is being generated every day by remote sensors raises more challenges to be overcome. In this work, a tool within the scope of InterIMAGE Cloud Platform (ICP, which is an open-source, distributed framework for automatic image interpretation, is presented. The tool, named ICP: Data Mining Package, is able to perform supervised classification procedures on huge amounts of data, usually referred as big data, on a distributed infrastructure using Hadoop MapReduce. The tool has four classification algorithms implemented, taken from WEKA’s machine learning library, namely: Decision Trees, Naïve Bayes, Random Forest and Support Vector Machines (SVM. The results of an experimental analysis using a SVM classifier on data sets of different sizes for different cluster configurations demonstrates the potential of the tool, as well as aspects that affect its performance.
Clustering performance comparison using K-means and expectation maximization algorithms.
Jung, Yong Gyu; Kang, Min Soo; Heo, Jun
2014-11-14
Clustering is an important means of data mining based on separating data categories by similar features. Unlike the classification algorithm, clustering belongs to the unsupervised type of algorithms. Two representatives of the clustering algorithms are the K -means and the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. Linear regression analysis was extended to the category-type dependent variable, while logistic regression was achieved using a linear combination of independent variables. To predict the possibility of occurrence of an event, a statistical approach is used. However, the classification of all data by means of logistic regression analysis cannot guarantee the accuracy of the results. In this paper, the logistic regression analysis is applied to EM clusters and the K -means clustering method for quality assessment of red wine, and a method is proposed for ensuring the accuracy of the classification results.
Ganguly, S.; Kumar, U.; Nemani, R. R.; Kalia, S.; Michaelis, A.
2017-12-01
In this work, we use a Fully Constrained Least Squares Subpixel Learning Algorithm to unmix global WELD (Web Enabled Landsat Data) to obtain fractions or abundances of substrate (S), vegetation (V) and dark objects (D) classes. Because of the sheer nature of data and compute needs, we leveraged the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) high performance computing architecture to optimize and scale our algorithm for large-scale processing. Subsequently, the S-V-D abundance maps were characterized into 4 classes namely, forest, farmland, water and urban areas (with NPP-VIIRS - national polar orbiting partnership visible infrared imaging radiometer suite nighttime lights data) over California, USA using Random Forest classifier. Validation of these land cover maps with NLCD (National Land Cover Database) 2011 products and NAFD (North American Forest Dynamics) static forest cover maps showed that an overall classification accuracy of over 91% was achieved, which is a 6% improvement in unmixing based classification relative to per-pixel based classification. As such, abundance maps continue to offer an useful alternative to high-spatial resolution data derived classification maps for forest inventory analysis, multi-class mapping for eco-climatic models and applications, fast multi-temporal trend analysis and for societal and policy-relevant applications needed at the watershed scale.
Statistical Emulator for Expensive Classification Simulators
Ross, Jerret; Samareh, Jamshid A.
2016-01-01
Expensive simulators prevent any kind of meaningful analysis to be performed on the phenomena they model. To get around this problem the concept of using a statistical emulator as a surrogate representation of the simulator was introduced in the 1980's. Presently, simulators have become more and more complex and as a result running a single example on these simulators is very expensive and can take days to weeks or even months. Many new techniques have been introduced, termed criteria, which sequentially select the next best (most informative to the emulator) point that should be run on the simulator. These criteria methods allow for the creation of an emulator with only a small number of simulator runs. We follow and extend this framework to expensive classification simulators.
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D. Ramyachitra
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Microarray technology allows simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of thousands of genes within a biological tissue sample. The fundamental power of microarrays lies within the ability to conduct parallel surveys of gene expression using microarray data. The classification of tissue samples based on gene expression data is an important problem in medical diagnosis of diseases such as cancer. In gene expression data, the number of genes is usually very high compared to the number of data samples. Thus the difficulty that lies with data are of high dimensionality and the sample size is small. This research work addresses the problem by classifying resultant dataset using the existing algorithms such as Support Vector Machine (SVM, K-nearest neighbor (KNN, Interval Valued Classification (IVC and the improvised Interval Value based Particle Swarm Optimization (IVPSO algorithm. Thus the results show that the IVPSO algorithm outperformed compared with other algorithms under several performance evaluation functions.
Ramyachitra, D; Sofia, M; Manikandan, P
2015-09-01
Microarray technology allows simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of thousands of genes within a biological tissue sample. The fundamental power of microarrays lies within the ability to conduct parallel surveys of gene expression using microarray data. The classification of tissue samples based on gene expression data is an important problem in medical diagnosis of diseases such as cancer. In gene expression data, the number of genes is usually very high compared to the number of data samples. Thus the difficulty that lies with data are of high dimensionality and the sample size is small. This research work addresses the problem by classifying resultant dataset using the existing algorithms such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), Interval Valued Classification (IVC) and the improvised Interval Value based Particle Swarm Optimization (IVPSO) algorithm. Thus the results show that the IVPSO algorithm outperformed compared with other algorithms under several performance evaluation functions.
The Top Ten Algorithms in Data Mining
Wu, Xindong
2009-01-01
From classification and clustering to statistical learning, association analysis, and link mining, this book covers the most important topics in data mining research. It presents the ten most influential algorithms used in the data mining community today. Each chapter provides a detailed description of the algorithm, a discussion of available software implementation, advanced topics, and exercises. With a simple data set, examples illustrate how each algorithm works and highlight the overall performance of each algorithm in a real-world application. Featuring contributions from leading researc
Video Segmentation Using Fast Marching and Region Growing Algorithms
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Eftychis Sifakis
2002-04-01
Full Text Available The algorithm presented in this paper is comprised of three main stages: (1 classification of the image sequence and, in the case of a moving camera, parametric motion estimation, (2 change detection having as reference a fixed frame, an appropriately selected frame or a displaced frame, and (3 object localization using local colour features. The image sequence classification is based on statistical tests on the frame difference. The change detection module uses a two-label fast marching algorithm. Finally, the object localization uses a region growing algorithm based on the colour similarity. Video object segmentation results are shown using the COST 211 data set.
Kerr, Laura T.; Adams, Aine; O'Dea, Shirley; Domijan, Katarina; Cullen, Ivor; Hennelly, Bryan M.
2014-05-01
Raman microspectroscopy can be applied to the urinary bladder for highly accurate classification and diagnosis of bladder cancer. This technique can be applied in vitro to bladder epithelial cells obtained from urine cytology or in vivo as an optical biopsy" to provide results in real-time with higher sensitivity and specificity than current clinical methods. However, there exists a high degree of variability across experimental parameters which need to be standardised before this technique can be utilized in an everyday clinical environment. In this study, we investigate different laser wavelengths (473 nm and 532 nm), sample substrates (glass, fused silica and calcium fluoride) and multivariate statistical methods in order to gain insight into how these various experimental parameters impact on the sensitivity and specificity of Raman cytology.
Multiview Discriminative Geometry Preserving Projection for Image Classification
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Ziqiang Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In many image classification applications, it is common to extract multiple visual features from different views to describe an image. Since different visual features have their own specific statistical properties and discriminative powers for image classification, the conventional solution for multiple view data is to concatenate these feature vectors as a new feature vector. However, this simple concatenation strategy not only ignores the complementary nature of different views, but also ends up with “curse of dimensionality.” To address this problem, we propose a novel multiview subspace learning algorithm in this paper, named multiview discriminative geometry preserving projection (MDGPP for feature extraction and classification. MDGPP can not only preserve the intraclass geometry and interclass discrimination information under a single view, but also explore the complementary property of different views to obtain a low-dimensional optimal consensus embedding by using an alternating-optimization-based iterative algorithm. Experimental results on face recognition and facial expression recognition demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Cloud field classification based on textural features
Sengupta, Sailes Kumar
1989-01-01
An essential component in global climate research is accurate cloud cover and type determination. Of the two approaches to texture-based classification (statistical and textural), only the former is effective in the classification of natural scenes such as land, ocean, and atmosphere. In the statistical approach that was adopted, parameters characterizing the stochastic properties of the spatial distribution of grey levels in an image are estimated and then used as features for cloud classification. Two types of textural measures were used. One is based on the distribution of the grey level difference vector (GLDV), and the other on a set of textural features derived from the MaxMin cooccurrence matrix (MMCM). The GLDV method looks at the difference D of grey levels at pixels separated by a horizontal distance d and computes several statistics based on this distribution. These are then used as features in subsequent classification. The MaxMin tectural features on the other hand are based on the MMCM, a matrix whose (I,J)th entry give the relative frequency of occurrences of the grey level pair (I,J) that are consecutive and thresholded local extremes separated by a given pixel distance d. Textural measures are then computed based on this matrix in much the same manner as is done in texture computation using the grey level cooccurrence matrix. The database consists of 37 cloud field scenes from LANDSAT imagery using a near IR visible channel. The classification algorithm used is the well known Stepwise Discriminant Analysis. The overall accuracy was estimated by the percentage or correct classifications in each case. It turns out that both types of classifiers, at their best combination of features, and at any given spatial resolution give approximately the same classification accuracy. A neural network based classifier with a feed forward architecture and a back propagation training algorithm is used to increase the classification accuracy, using these two classes
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Emmanouil Styvaktakis
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the two main types of classification methods for power quality disturbances based on underlying causes: deterministic classification, giving an expert system as an example, and statistical classification, with support vector machines (a novel method as an example. An expert system is suitable when one has limited amount of data and sufficient power system expert knowledge; however, its application requires a set of threshold values. Statistical methods are suitable when large amount of data is available for training. Two important issues to guarantee the effectiveness of a classifier, data segmentation, and feature extraction are discussed. Segmentation of a sequence of data recording is preprocessing to partition the data into segments each representing a duration containing either an event or a transition between two events. Extraction of features is applied to each segment individually. Some useful features and their effectiveness are then discussed. Some experimental results are included for demonstrating the effectiveness of both systems. Finally, conclusions are given together with the discussion of some future research directions.
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Branislava Gemovic
2013-01-01
Full Text Available There are more than 500 amino acid substitutions in each human genome, and bioinformatics tools irreplaceably contribute to determination of their functional effects. We have developed feature-based algorithm for the detection of mutations outside conserved functional domains (CFDs and compared its classification efficacy with the most commonly used phylogeny-based tools, PolyPhen-2 and SIFT. The new algorithm is based on the informational spectrum method (ISM, a feature-based technique, and statistical analysis. Our dataset contained neutral polymorphisms and mutations associated with myeloid malignancies from epigenetic regulators ASXL1, DNMT3A, EZH2, and TET2. PolyPhen-2 and SIFT had significantly lower accuracies in predicting the effects of amino acid substitutions outside CFDs than expected, with especially low sensitivity. On the other hand, only ISM algorithm showed statistically significant classification of these sequences. It outperformed PolyPhen-2 and SIFT by 15% and 13%, respectively. These results suggest that feature-based methods, like ISM, are more suitable for the classification of amino acid substitutions outside CFDs than phylogeny-based tools.
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Wodziński Marek
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an alternative approach to the sequential data classification, based on traditional machine learning algorithms (neural networks, principal component analysis, multivariate Gaussian anomaly detector and finding the shortest path in a directed acyclic graph, using A* algorithm with a regression-based heuristic. Palm gestures were used as an example of the sequential data and a quadrocopter was the controlled object. The study includes creation of a conceptual model and practical construction of a system using the GPU to ensure the realtime operation. The results present the classification accuracy of chosen gestures and comparison of the computation time between the CPU- and GPU-based solutions.
A Constructive Data Classification Version of the Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm
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Alexandre Szabo
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The particle swarm optimization algorithm was originally introduced to solve continuous parameter optimization problems. It was soon modified to solve other types of optimization tasks and also to be applied to data analysis. In the latter case, however, there are few works in the literature that deal with the problem of dynamically building the architecture of the system. This paper introduces new particle swarm algorithms specifically designed to solve classification problems. The first proposal, named Particle Swarm Classifier (PSClass, is a derivation of a particle swarm clustering algorithm and its architecture, as in most classifiers, is pre-defined. The second proposal, named Constructive Particle Swarm Classifier (cPSClass, uses ideas from the immune system to automatically build the swarm. A sensitivity analysis of the growing procedure of cPSClass and an investigation into a proposed pruning procedure for this algorithm are performed. The proposals were applied to a wide range of databases from the literature and the results show that they are competitive in relation to other approaches, with the advantage of having a dynamically constructed architecture.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
García, A; Romano, H; Laciar, E; Correa, R
2011-01-01
In this work a detection and classification algorithm for heartbeats analysis in Holter records was developed. First, a QRS complexes detector was implemented and their temporal and morphological characteristics were extracted. A vector was built with these features; this vector is the input of the classification module, based on discriminant analysis. The beats were classified in three groups: Premature Ventricular Contraction beat (PVC), Atrial Premature Contraction beat (APC) and Normal Beat (NB). These beat categories represent the most important groups of commercial Holter systems. The developed algorithms were evaluated in 76 ECG records of two validated open-access databases 'arrhythmias MIT BIH database' and M IT BIH supraventricular arrhythmias database . A total of 166343 beats were detected and analyzed, where the QRS detection algorithm provides a sensitivity of 99.69 % and a positive predictive value of 99.84 %. The classification stage gives sensitivities of 97.17% for NB, 97.67% for PCV and 92.78% for APC.
Devos, Olivier; Downey, Gerard; Duponchel, Ludovic
2014-04-01
Classification is an important task in chemometrics. For several years now, support vector machines (SVMs) have proven to be powerful for infrared spectral data classification. However such methods require optimisation of parameters in order to control the risk of overfitting and the complexity of the boundary. Furthermore, it is established that the prediction ability of classification models can be improved using pre-processing in order to remove unwanted variance in the spectra. In this paper we propose a new methodology based on genetic algorithm (GA) for the simultaneous optimisation of SVM parameters and pre-processing (GENOPT-SVM). The method has been tested for the discrimination of the geographical origin of Italian olive oil (Ligurian and non-Ligurian) on the basis of near infrared (NIR) or mid infrared (FTIR) spectra. Different classification models (PLS-DA, SVM with mean centre data, GENOPT-SVM) have been tested and statistically compared using McNemar's statistical test. For the two datasets, SVM with optimised pre-processing give models with higher accuracy than the one obtained with PLS-DA on pre-processed data. In the case of the NIR dataset, most of this accuracy improvement (86.3% compared with 82.8% for PLS-DA) occurred using only a single pre-processing step. For the FTIR dataset, three optimised pre-processing steps are required to obtain SVM model with significant accuracy improvement (82.2%) compared to the one obtained with PLS-DA (78.6%). Furthermore, this study demonstrates that even SVM models have to be developed on the basis of well-corrected spectral data in order to obtain higher classification rates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
2010-07-08
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the... Prevention, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards, 3311 Toledo Road, Room 2337, Hyattsville, MD...
2013-08-28
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the... Administrator, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, NCHS, 3311 Toledo Road, Room 2337...
2013-02-07
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the..., Medical Systems Administrator, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, NCHS, 3311 Toledo...
Statistical methods of discrimination and classification advances in theory and applications
Choi, Sung C
1986-01-01
Statistical Methods of Discrimination and Classification: Advances in Theory and Applications is a collection of papers that tackles the multivariate problems of discriminating and classifying subjects into exclusive population. The book presents 13 papers that cover that advancement in the statistical procedure of discriminating and classifying. The studies in the text primarily focus on various methods of discriminating and classifying variables, such as multiple discriminant analysis in the presence of mixed continuous and categorical data; choice of the smoothing parameter and efficiency o
Squiers, John J.; Li, Weizhi; King, Darlene R.; Mo, Weirong; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Yang; Sellke, Eric W.; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J. Michael; Thatcher, Jeffrey E.
2016-03-01
The clinical judgment of expert burn surgeons is currently the standard on which diagnostic and therapeutic decisionmaking regarding burn injuries is based. Multispectral imaging (MSI) has the potential to increase the accuracy of burn depth assessment and the intraoperative identification of viable wound bed during surgical debridement of burn injuries. A highly accurate classification model must be developed using machine-learning techniques in order to translate MSI data into clinically-relevant information. An animal burn model was developed to build an MSI training database and to study the burn tissue classification ability of several models trained via common machine-learning algorithms. The algorithms tested, from least to most complex, were: K-nearest neighbors (KNN), decision tree (DT), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), weighted linear discriminant analysis (W-LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), ensemble linear discriminant analysis (EN-LDA), ensemble K-nearest neighbors (EN-KNN), and ensemble decision tree (EN-DT). After the ground-truth database of six tissue types (healthy skin, wound bed, blood, hyperemia, partial injury, full injury) was generated by histopathological analysis, we used 10-fold cross validation to compare the algorithms' performances based on their accuracies in classifying data against the ground truth, and each algorithm was tested 100 times. The mean test accuracy of the algorithms were KNN 68.3%, DT 61.5%, LDA 70.5%, W-LDA 68.1%, QDA 68.9%, EN-LDA 56.8%, EN-KNN 49.7%, and EN-DT 36.5%. LDA had the highest test accuracy, reflecting the bias-variance tradeoff over the range of complexities inherent to the algorithms tested. Several algorithms were able to match the current standard in burn tissue classification, the clinical judgment of expert burn surgeons. These results will guide further development of an MSI burn tissue classification system. Given that there are few surgeons and facilities specializing in burn care
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang Jie; Nett, Brian E; Chen Guanghong
2009-01-01
Of all available reconstruction methods, statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms appear particularly promising since they enable accurate physical noise modeling. The newly developed compressive sampling/compressed sensing (CS) algorithm has shown the potential to accurately reconstruct images from highly undersampled data. The CS algorithm can be implemented in the statistical reconstruction framework as well. In this study, we compared the performance of two standard statistical reconstruction algorithms (penalized weighted least squares and q-GGMRF) to the CS algorithm. In assessing the image quality using these iterative reconstructions, it is critical to utilize realistic background anatomy as the reconstruction results are object dependent. A cadaver head was scanned on a Varian Trilogy system at different dose levels. Several figures of merit including the relative root mean square error and a quality factor which accounts for the noise performance and the spatial resolution were introduced to objectively evaluate reconstruction performance. A comparison is presented between the three algorithms for a constant undersampling factor comparing different algorithms at several dose levels. To facilitate this comparison, the original CS method was formulated in the framework of the statistical image reconstruction algorithms. Important conclusions of the measurements from our studies are that (1) for realistic neuro-anatomy, over 100 projections are required to avoid streak artifacts in the reconstructed images even with CS reconstruction, (2) regardless of the algorithm employed, it is beneficial to distribute the total dose to more views as long as each view remains quantum noise limited and (3) the total variation-based CS method is not appropriate for very low dose levels because while it can mitigate streaking artifacts, the images exhibit patchy behavior, which is potentially harmful for medical diagnosis.
Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra
2007-01-01
This book provides a unified framework that describes how genetic learning can be used to design pattern recognition and learning systems. It examines how a search technique, the genetic algorithm, can be used for pattern classification mainly through approximating decision boundaries. Coverage also demonstrates the effectiveness of the genetic classifiers vis-à-vis several widely used classifiers, including neural networks.
The ability of current statistical classifications to separate services and manufacturing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard
The paper explores how well our statistical classification systems perform in classifying firms and in particular how they distinguish firms doing services and/or manufacturing. It is found that a large share, almost 20%, of firms can be said to be misclassified based on their statements on activ...
Nawi, Nazri Mohd.; Khan, Abdullah; Rehman, M. Z.
2015-05-01
A nature inspired behavior metaheuristic techniques which provide derivative-free solutions to solve complex problems. One of the latest additions to the group of nature inspired optimization procedure is Cuckoo Search (CS) algorithm. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) training is an optimization task since it is desired to find optimal weight set of a neural network in training process. Traditional training algorithms have some limitation such as getting trapped in local minima and slow convergence rate. This study proposed a new technique CSLM by combining the best features of two known algorithms back-propagation (BP) and Levenberg Marquardt algorithm (LM) for improving the convergence speed of ANN training and avoiding local minima problem by training this network. Some selected benchmark classification datasets are used for simulation. The experiment result show that the proposed cuckoo search with Levenberg Marquardt algorithm has better performance than other algorithm used in this study.
Illouz, Tomer; Madar, Ravit; Louzon, Yoram; Griffioen, Kathleen J; Okun, Eitan
2016-02-01
The assessment of spatial cognitive learning in rodents is a central approach in neuroscience, as it enables one to assess and quantify the effects of treatments and genetic manipulations from a broad perspective. Although the Morris water maze (MWM) is a well-validated paradigm for testing spatial learning abilities, manual categorization of performance in the MWM into behavioral strategies is subject to individual interpretation, and thus to biases. Here we offer a support vector machine (SVM) - based, automated, MWM unbiased strategy classification (MUST-C) algorithm, as well as a cognitive score scale. This model was examined and validated by analyzing data obtained from five MWM experiments with changing platform sizes, revealing a limitation in the spatial capacity of the hippocampus. We have further employed this algorithm to extract novel mechanistic insights on the impact of members of the Toll-like receptor pathway on cognitive spatial learning and memory. The MUST-C algorithm can greatly benefit MWM users as it provides a standardized method of strategy classification as well as a cognitive scoring scale, which cannot be derived from typical analysis of MWM data. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yalin Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The grinding-classification is the prerequisite process for full recovery of the nonrenewable minerals with both production quality and quantity objectives concerned. Its natural formulation is a constrained multiobjective optimization problem of complex expression since the process is composed of one grinding machine and two classification machines. In this paper, a hybrid differential evolution (DE algorithm with multi-population is proposed. Some infeasible solutions with better performance are allowed to be saved, and they participate randomly in the evolution. In order to exploit the meaningful infeasible solutions, a functionally partitioned multi-population mechanism is designed to find an optimal solution from all possible directions. Meanwhile, a simplex method for local search is inserted into the evolution process to enhance the searching strategy in the optimization process. Simulation results from the test of some benchmark problems indicate that the proposed algorithm tends to converge quickly and effectively to the Pareto frontier with better distribution. Finally, the proposed algorithm is applied to solve a multiobjective optimization model of a grinding and classification process. Based on the technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS, the satisfactory solution is obtained by using a decision-making method for multiple attributes.
Automatic Derivation of Statistical Algorithms: The EM Family and Beyond
Gray, Alexander G.; Fischer, Bernd; Schumann, Johann; Buntine, Wray
2003-01-01
Machine learning has reached a point where many probabilistic methods can be understood as variations, extensions and combinations of a much smaller set of abstract themes, e.g., as different instances of the EM algorithm. This enables the systematic derivation of algorithms customized for different models. Here, we describe the AUTOBAYES system which takes a high-level statistical model specification, uses powerful symbolic techniques based on schema-based program synthesis and computer alge...
Algorithms for adaptive nonlinear pattern recognition
Schmalz, Mark S.; Ritter, Gerhard X.; Hayden, Eric; Key, Gary
2011-09-01
In Bayesian pattern recognition research, static classifiers have featured prominently in the literature. A static classifier is essentially based on a static model of input statistics, thereby assuming input ergodicity that is not realistic in practice. Classical Bayesian approaches attempt to circumvent the limitations of static classifiers, which can include brittleness and narrow coverage, by training extensively on a data set that is assumed to cover more than the subtense of expected input. Such assumptions are not realistic for more complex pattern classification tasks, for example, object detection using pattern classification applied to the output of computer vision filters. In contrast, we have developed a two step process, that can render the majority of static classifiers adaptive, such that the tracking of input nonergodicities is supported. Firstly, we developed operations that dynamically insert (or resp. delete) training patterns into (resp. from) the classifier's pattern database, without requiring that the classifier's internal representation of its training database be completely recomputed. Secondly, we developed and applied a pattern replacement algorithm that uses the aforementioned pattern insertion/deletion operations. This algorithm is designed to optimize the pattern database for a given set of performance measures, thereby supporting closed-loop, performance-directed optimization. This paper presents theory and algorithmic approaches for the efficient computation of adaptive linear and nonlinear pattern recognition operators that use our pattern insertion/deletion technology - in particular, tabular nearest-neighbor encoding (TNE) and lattice associative memories (LAMs). Of particular interest is the classification of nonergodic datastreams that have noise corruption with time-varying statistics. The TNE and LAM based classifiers discussed herein have been successfully applied to the computation of object classification in hyperspectral
Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers: A Review of Statistical Methods for Computer Algorithm Comparisons
2014-01-01
Quantitative biomarkers from medical images are becoming important tools for clinical diagnosis, staging, monitoring, treatment planning, and development of new therapies. While there is a rich history of the development of quantitative imaging biomarker (QIB) techniques, little attention has been paid to the validation and comparison of the computer algorithms that implement the QIB measurements. In this paper we provide a framework for QIB algorithm comparisons. We first review and compare various study designs, including designs with the true value (e.g. phantoms, digital reference images, and zero-change studies), designs with a reference standard (e.g. studies testing equivalence with a reference standard), and designs without a reference standard (e.g. agreement studies and studies of algorithm precision). The statistical methods for comparing QIB algorithms are then presented for various study types using both aggregate and disaggregate approaches. We propose a series of steps for establishing the performance of a QIB algorithm, identify limitations in the current statistical literature, and suggest future directions for research. PMID:24919829
Quantitative imaging biomarkers: a review of statistical methods for computer algorithm comparisons.
Obuchowski, Nancy A; Reeves, Anthony P; Huang, Erich P; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Buckler, Andrew J; Kim, Hyun J Grace; Barnhart, Huiman X; Jackson, Edward F; Giger, Maryellen L; Pennello, Gene; Toledano, Alicia Y; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Apanasovich, Tatiyana V; Kinahan, Paul E; Myers, Kyle J; Goldgof, Dmitry B; Barboriak, Daniel P; Gillies, Robert J; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Sullivan, Daniel C
2015-02-01
Quantitative biomarkers from medical images are becoming important tools for clinical diagnosis, staging, monitoring, treatment planning, and development of new therapies. While there is a rich history of the development of quantitative imaging biomarker (QIB) techniques, little attention has been paid to the validation and comparison of the computer algorithms that implement the QIB measurements. In this paper we provide a framework for QIB algorithm comparisons. We first review and compare various study designs, including designs with the true value (e.g. phantoms, digital reference images, and zero-change studies), designs with a reference standard (e.g. studies testing equivalence with a reference standard), and designs without a reference standard (e.g. agreement studies and studies of algorithm precision). The statistical methods for comparing QIB algorithms are then presented for various study types using both aggregate and disaggregate approaches. We propose a series of steps for establishing the performance of a QIB algorithm, identify limitations in the current statistical literature, and suggest future directions for research. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Ciany, Charles M.; Zurawski, William; Kerfoot, Ian
2001-10-01
The performance of Computer Aided Detection/Computer Aided Classification (CAD/CAC) Fusion algorithms on side-scan sonar images was evaluated using data taken at the Navy's's Fleet Battle Exercise-Hotel held in Panama City, Florida, in August 2000. A 2-of-3 binary fusion algorithm is shown to provide robust performance. The algorithm accepts the classification decisions and associated contact locations form three different CAD/CAC algorithms, clusters the contacts based on Euclidian distance, and then declares a valid target when a clustered contact is declared by at least 2 of the 3 individual algorithms. This simple binary fusion provided a 96 percent probability of correct classification at a false alarm rate of 0.14 false alarms per image per side. The performance represented a 3.8:1 reduction in false alarms over the best performing single CAD/CAC algorithm, with no loss in probability of correct classification.
Secondary structure classification of amino-acid sequences using state-space modeling
Brunnert, Marcus; Krahnke, Tillmann; Urfer, Wolfgang
2001-01-01
The secondary structure classification of amino acid sequences can be carried out by a statistical analysis of sequence and structure data using state-space models. Aiming at this classification, a modified filter algorithm programmed in S is applied to data of three proteins. The application leads to correct classifications of two proteins even when using relatively simple estimation methods for the parameters of the state-space models. Furthermore, it has been shown that the assumed initial...
Steinberg, P. D.; Brener, G.; Duffy, D.; Nearing, G. S.; Pelissier, C.
2017-12-01
Hyperparameterization, of statistical models, i.e. automated model scoring and selection, such as evolutionary algorithms, grid searches, and randomized searches, can improve forecast model skill by reducing errors associated with model parameterization, model structure, and statistical properties of training data. Ensemble Learning Models (Elm), and the related Earthio package, provide a flexible interface for automating the selection of parameters and model structure for machine learning models common in climate science and land cover classification, offering convenient tools for loading NetCDF, HDF, Grib, or GeoTiff files, decomposition methods like PCA and manifold learning, and parallel training and prediction with unsupervised and supervised classification, clustering, and regression estimators. Continuum Analytics is using Elm to experiment with statistical soil moisture forecasting based on meteorological forcing data from NASA's North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). There Elm is using the NSGA-2 multiobjective optimization algorithm for optimizing statistical preprocessing of forcing data to improve goodness-of-fit for statistical models (i.e. feature engineering). This presentation will discuss Elm and its components, including dask (distributed task scheduling), xarray (data structures for n-dimensional arrays), and scikit-learn (statistical preprocessing, clustering, classification, regression), and it will show how NSGA-2 is being used for automate selection of soil moisture forecast statistical models for North America.
Data fusion for target tracking and classification with wireless sensor network
Pannetier, Benjamin; Doumerc, Robin; Moras, Julien; Dezert, Jean; Canevet, Loic
2016-10-01
In this paper, we address the problem of multiple ground target tracking and classification with information obtained from a unattended wireless sensor network. A multiple target tracking (MTT) algorithm, taking into account road and vegetation information, is proposed based on a centralized architecture. One of the key issue is how to adapt classical MTT approach to satisfy embedded processing. Based on track statistics, the classification algorithm uses estimated location, velocity and acceleration to help to classify targets. The algorithms enables tracking human and vehicles driving both on and off road. We integrate road or trail width and vegetation cover, as constraints in target motion models to improve performance of tracking under constraint with classification fusion. Our algorithm also presents different dynamic models, to palliate the maneuvers of targets. The tracking and classification algorithms are integrated into an operational platform (the fusion node). In order to handle realistic ground target tracking scenarios, we use an autonomous smart computer deposited in the surveillance area. After the calibration step of the heterogeneous sensor network, our system is able to handle real data from a wireless ground sensor network. The performance of system is evaluated in a real exercise for intelligence operation ("hunter hunt" scenario).
Sarabandi, Pooya
economical way. A terrain-dependent-search algorithm is formulated to facilitate the search for correspondences in a quasi-stereo pair of images. The calculated heights for sample buildings using cross-sensor data fusion algorithm show an average coefficient of variation 1.03%. In order to infer structural-type and occupancy-type, i.e. engineering attributes, of buildings from spatial and geometric attributes of 3-D models, a statistical data analysis framework is formulated. Applications of "Classification Trees" and "Multinomial Logistic Models" in modeling the marginal probabilities of class-membership of engineering attributes are investigated. Adaptive statistical models to incorporate different spatial and geometric attributes of buildings---while inferring the engineering attributes---are developed in this dissertation. The inferred engineering attributes in conjunction with the spatial and geometric attributes derived from the imagery can be used to augment regional building inventories and therefore enhance the result of catastrophe models. In the last part of the dissertation, a set of empirically-derived motion-damage relationships based on the correlation of observed building performance with measured ground-motion parameters from 1994 Northridge and 1999 Chi-Chi Taiwan earthquakes are developed. Fragility functions in the form of cumulative lognormal distributions and damage probability matrices for several classes of buildings (wood, steel and concrete), as well as number of ground-motion intensity measures are developed and compared to currently-used motion-damage relationships.
Olofsson, Per; Norén, Håkan; Carlsson, Ann
2018-02-01
The updated intrapartum cardiotocography (CTG) classification system by FIGO in 2015 (FIGO2015) and the FIGO2015-approached classification by the Swedish Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologist in 2017 (SSOG2017) are not harmonized with the fetal ECG ST analysis (STAN) algorithm from 2007 (STAN2007). The study aimed to reveal homogeneity and agreement between the systems in classifying CTG and ST events, and relate them to maternal and perinatal outcomes. Among CTG traces with ST events, 100 traces originally classified as normal, 100 as suspicious and 100 as pathological were randomly selected from a STAN database and classified by two experts in consensus. Homogeneity and agreement statistics between the CTG classifications were performed. Maternal and perinatal outcomes were evaluated in cases with clinically hidden ST data (n = 151). A two-tailed p ST events, heterogeneities were significant and agreements moderate to almost perfect (STAN2007 vs. FIGO2015 0.86, 0.72; STAN2007 vs. SSOG2017 0.92, 0.84; FIGO2015 vs. SSOG2017 0.94, 0.87). Significant ST events occurred more often combined with STAN2007 than with FIGO2015 classification, but not with SSOG2017; correct identification of adverse outcomes was not significantly different between the systems. There are discrepancies in the classification of CTG patterns and significant ST events between the old and new systems. The clinical relevance of the findings remains to be shown. © 2017 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG).
French, Robert M; Glady, Yannick; Thibaut, Jean-Pierre
2017-08-01
In recent years, eyetracking has begun to be used to study the dynamics of analogy making. Numerous scanpath-comparison algorithms and machine-learning techniques are available that can be applied to the raw eyetracking data. We show how scanpath-comparison algorithms, combined with multidimensional scaling and a classification algorithm, can be used to resolve an outstanding question in analogy making-namely, whether or not children's and adults' strategies in solving analogy problems are different. (They are.) We show which of these scanpath-comparison algorithms is best suited to the kinds of analogy problems that have formed the basis of much analogy-making research over the years. Furthermore, we use machine-learning classification algorithms to examine the item-to-item saccade vectors making up these scanpaths. We show which of these algorithms best predicts, from very early on in a trial, on the basis of the frequency of various item-to-item saccades, whether a child or an adult is doing the problem. This type of analysis can also be used to predict, on the basis of the item-to-item saccade dynamics in the first third of a trial, whether or not a problem will be solved correctly.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dezhi Wang
2018-02-01
Full Text Available In the dwindling natural mangrove today, mangrove reforestation projects are conducted worldwide to prevent further losses. Due to monoculture and the low survival rate of artificial mangroves, it is necessary to pay attention to mapping and monitoring them dynamically. Remote sensing techniques have been widely used to map mangrove forests due to their capacity for large-scale, accurate, efficient, and repetitive monitoring. This study evaluated the capability of a 0.5-m Pléiades-1 in classifying artificial mangrove species using both pixel-based and object-based classification schemes. For comparison, three machine learning algorithms—decision tree (DT, support vector machine (SVM, and random forest (RF—were used as the classifiers in the pixel-based and object-based classification procedure. The results showed that both the pixel-based and object-based approaches could recognize the major discriminations between the four major artificial mangrove species. However, the object-based method had a better overall accuracy than the pixel-based method on average. For pixel-based image analysis, SVM produced the highest overall accuracy (79.63%; for object-based image analysis, RF could achieve the highest overall accuracy (82.40%, and it was also the best machine learning algorithm for classifying artificial mangroves. The patches produced by object-based image analysis approaches presented a more generalized appearance and could contiguously depict mangrove species communities. When the same machine learning algorithms were compared by McNemar’s test, a statistically significant difference in overall classification accuracy between the pixel-based and object-based classifications only existed in the RF algorithm. Regarding species, monoculture and dominant mangrove species Sonneratia apetala group 1 (SA1 as well as partly mixed and regular shape mangrove species Hibiscus tiliaceus (HT could well be identified. However, for complex and easily
Strecht, Pedro; Cruz, Luís; Soares, Carlos; Mendes-Moreira, João; Abreu, Rui
2015-01-01
Predicting the success or failure of a student in a course or program is a problem that has recently been addressed using data mining techniques. In this paper we evaluate some of the most popular classification and regression algorithms on this problem. We address two problems: prediction of approval/failure and prediction of grade. The former is…
A novel Neuro-fuzzy classification technique for data mining
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Soumadip Ghosh
2014-11-01
Full Text Available In our study, we proposed a novel Neuro-fuzzy classification technique for data mining. The inputs to the Neuro-fuzzy classification system were fuzzified by applying generalized bell-shaped membership function. The proposed method utilized a fuzzification matrix in which the input patterns were associated with a degree of membership to different classes. Based on the value of degree of membership a pattern would be attributed to a specific category or class. We applied our method to ten benchmark data sets from the UCI machine learning repository for classification. Our objective was to analyze the proposed method and, therefore compare its performance with two powerful supervised classification algorithms Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN and Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS. We assessed the performance of these classification methods in terms of different performance measures such as accuracy, root-mean-square error, kappa statistic, true positive rate, false positive rate, precision, recall, and f-measure. In every aspect the proposed method proved to be superior to RBFNN and ANFIS algorithms.
Posner, Kelly; Oquendo, Maria A; Gould, Madelyn; Stanley, Barbara; Davies, Mark
2007-07-01
To evaluate the link between antidepressants and suicidal behavior and ideation (suicidality) in youth, adverse events from pediatric clinical trials were classified in order to identify suicidal events. The authors describe the Columbia Classification Algorithm for Suicide Assessment (C-CASA), a standardized suicidal rating system that provided data for the pediatric suicidal risk analysis of antidepressants conducted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Adverse events (N=427) from 25 pediatric antidepressant clinical trials were systematically identified by pharmaceutical companies. Randomly assigned adverse events were evaluated by three of nine independent expert suicidologists using the Columbia classification algorithm. Reliability of the C-CASA ratings and agreement with pharmaceutical company classification were estimated. Twenty-six new, possibly suicidal events (behavior and ideation) that were not originally identified by pharmaceutical companies were identified in the C-CASA, and 12 events originally labeled as suicidal by pharmaceutical companies were eliminated, which resulted in a total of 38 discrepant ratings. For the specific label of "suicide attempt," a relatively low level of agreement was observed between the C-CASA and pharmaceutical company ratings, with the C-CASA reporting a 50% reduction in ratings. Thus, although the C-CASA resulted in the identification of more suicidal events overall, fewer events were classified as suicide attempts. Additionally, the C-CASA ratings were highly reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=0.89). Utilizing a methodical, anchored approach to categorizing suicidality provides an accurate and comprehensive identification of suicidal events. The FDA's audit of the C-CASA demonstrated excellent transportability of this approach. The Columbia algorithm was used to classify suicidal adverse events in the recent FDA adult antidepressant safety analyses and has also been mandated to be applied to all
Geraci, Joseph; Dharsee, Moyez; Nuin, Paulo; Haslehurst, Alexandria; Koti, Madhuri; Feilotter, Harriet E; Evans, Ken
2014-03-01
We introduce a novel method for visualizing high dimensional data via a discrete dynamical system. This method provides a 2D representation of the relationship between subjects according to a set of variables without geometric projections, transformed axes or principal components. The algorithm exploits a memory-type mechanism inherent in a certain class of discrete dynamical systems collectively referred to as the chaos game that are closely related to iterative function systems. The goal of the algorithm was to create a human readable representation of high dimensional patient data that was capable of detecting unrevealed subclusters of patients from within anticipated classifications. This provides a mechanism to further pursue a more personalized exploration of pathology when used with medical data. For clustering and classification protocols, the dynamical system portion of the algorithm is designed to come after some feature selection filter and before some model evaluation (e.g. clustering accuracy) protocol. In the version given here, a univariate features selection step is performed (in practice more complex feature selection methods are used), a discrete dynamical system is driven by this reduced set of variables (which results in a set of 2D cluster models), these models are evaluated for their accuracy (according to a user-defined binary classification) and finally a visual representation of the top classification models are returned. Thus, in addition to the visualization component, this methodology can be used for both supervised and unsupervised machine learning as the top performing models are returned in the protocol we describe here. Butterfly, the algorithm we introduce and provide working code for, uses a discrete dynamical system to classify high dimensional data and provide a 2D representation of the relationship between subjects. We report results on three datasets (two in the article; one in the appendix) including a public lung cancer
Hartmann, Alexander K.; Weigt, Martin
2005-10-01
A concise, comprehensive introduction to the topic of statistical physics of combinatorial optimization, bringing together theoretical concepts and algorithms from computer science with analytical methods from physics. The result bridges the gap between statistical physics and combinatorial optimization, investigating problems taken from theoretical computing, such as the vertex-cover problem, with the concepts and methods of theoretical physics. The authors cover rapid developments and analytical methods that are both extremely complex and spread by word-of-mouth, providing all the necessary basics in required detail. Throughout, the algorithms are shown with examples and calculations, while the proofs are given in a way suitable for graduate students, post-docs, and researchers. Ideal for newcomers to this young, multidisciplinary field.
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Ali MOMENNEZHAD
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a linear predictive coding (LPC model is used to improve classification accuracy, convergent speed to maximum accuracy, and maximum bitrates in brain computer interface (BCI system based on extracting EEG-P300 signals. First, EEG signal is filtered in order to eliminate high frequency noise. Then, the parameters of filtered EEG signal are extracted using LPC model. Finally, the samples are reconstructed by LPC coefficients and two classifiers, a Bayesian Linear discriminant analysis (BLDA, and b the υ-support vector machine (υ-SVM are applied in order to classify. The proposed algorithm performance is compared with fisher linear discriminant analysis (FLDA. Results show that the efficiency of our algorithm in improving classification accuracy and convergent speed to maximum accuracy are much better. As example at the proposed algorithms, respectively BLDA with LPC model and υ-SVM with LPC model with8 electrode configuration for subject S1 the total classification accuracy is improved as 9.4% and 1.7%. And also, subject 7 at BLDA and υ-SVM with LPC model algorithms (LPC+BLDA and LPC+ υ-SVM after block 11th converged to maximum accuracy but Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA algorithm did not converge to maximum accuracy (with the same configuration. So, it can be used as a promising tool in designing BCI systems.
Statistical learning in high energy and astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimmermann, J.
2005-01-01
This thesis studies the performance of statistical learning methods in high energy and astrophysics where they have become a standard tool in physics analysis. They are used to perform complex classification or regression by intelligent pattern recognition. This kind of artificial intelligence is achieved by the principle ''learning from examples'': The examples describe the relationship between detector events and their classification. The application of statistical learning methods is either motivated by the lack of knowledge about this relationship or by tight time restrictions. In the first case learning from examples is the only possibility since no theory is available which would allow to build an algorithm in the classical way. In the second case a classical algorithm exists but is too slow to cope with the time restrictions. It is therefore replaced by a pattern recognition machine which implements a fast statistical learning method. But even in applications where some kind of classical algorithm had done a good job, statistical learning methods convinced by their remarkable performance. This thesis gives an introduction to statistical learning methods and how they are applied correctly in physics analysis. Their flexibility and high performance will be discussed by showing intriguing results from high energy and astrophysics. These include the development of highly efficient triggers, powerful purification of event samples and exact reconstruction of hidden event parameters. The presented studies also show typical problems in the application of statistical learning methods. They should be only second choice in all cases where an algorithm based on prior knowledge exists. Some examples in physics analyses are found where these methods are not used in the right way leading either to wrong predictions or bad performance. Physicists also often hesitate to profit from these methods because they fear that statistical learning methods cannot be controlled in a
Statistical learning in high energy and astrophysics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zimmermann, J.
2005-06-16
This thesis studies the performance of statistical learning methods in high energy and astrophysics where they have become a standard tool in physics analysis. They are used to perform complex classification or regression by intelligent pattern recognition. This kind of artificial intelligence is achieved by the principle ''learning from examples'': The examples describe the relationship between detector events and their classification. The application of statistical learning methods is either motivated by the lack of knowledge about this relationship or by tight time restrictions. In the first case learning from examples is the only possibility since no theory is available which would allow to build an algorithm in the classical way. In the second case a classical algorithm exists but is too slow to cope with the time restrictions. It is therefore replaced by a pattern recognition machine which implements a fast statistical learning method. But even in applications where some kind of classical algorithm had done a good job, statistical learning methods convinced by their remarkable performance. This thesis gives an introduction to statistical learning methods and how they are applied correctly in physics analysis. Their flexibility and high performance will be discussed by showing intriguing results from high energy and astrophysics. These include the development of highly efficient triggers, powerful purification of event samples and exact reconstruction of hidden event parameters. The presented studies also show typical problems in the application of statistical learning methods. They should be only second choice in all cases where an algorithm based on prior knowledge exists. Some examples in physics analyses are found where these methods are not used in the right way leading either to wrong predictions or bad performance. Physicists also often hesitate to profit from these methods because they fear that statistical learning methods cannot
Predicting disease risk using bootstrap ranking and classification algorithms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ohad Manor
Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS are widely used to search for genetic loci that underlie human disease. Another goal is to predict disease risk for different individuals given their genetic sequence. Such predictions could either be used as a "black box" in order to promote changes in life-style and screening for early diagnosis, or as a model that can be studied to better understand the mechanism of the disease. Current methods for risk prediction typically rank single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs by the p-value of their association with the disease, and use the top-associated SNPs as input to a classification algorithm. However, the predictive power of such methods is relatively poor. To improve the predictive power, we devised BootRank, which uses bootstrapping in order to obtain a robust prioritization of SNPs for use in predictive models. We show that BootRank improves the ability to predict disease risk of unseen individuals in the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC data and results in a more robust set of SNPs and a larger number of enriched pathways being associated with the different diseases. Finally, we show that combining BootRank with seven different classification algorithms improves performance compared to previous studies that used the WTCCC data. Notably, diseases for which BootRank results in the largest improvements were recently shown to have more heritability than previously thought, likely due to contributions from variants with low minimum allele frequency (MAF, suggesting that BootRank can be beneficial in cases where SNPs affecting the disease are poorly tagged or have low MAF. Overall, our results show that improving disease risk prediction from genotypic information may be a tangible goal, with potential implications for personalized disease screening and treatment.
Otero, Fernando E.B.; Freitas, Alex A.
2016-01-01
The vast majority of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithms for inducing classification rules use an ACO-based procedure to create a rule in an one-at-a-time fashion. An improved search strategy has been proposed in the cAnt-MinerPB algorithm, where an ACO-based procedure is used to create a complete list of rules (ordered rules)-i.e., the ACO search is guided by the quality of a list of rules, instead of an individual rule. In this paper we propose an extension of the cAnt-MinerPB algorith...
Chang, Shengjiang; Wong, Kwok-Wo; Zhang, Wenwei; Zhang, Yanxin
1999-08-01
An algorithm for optimizing a bipolar interconnection weight matrix with the Hopfield network is proposed. The effectiveness of this algorithm is demonstrated by computer simulation and optical implementation. In the optical implementation of the neural network the interconnection weights are biased to yield a nonnegative weight matrix. Moreover, a threshold subchannel is added so that the system can realize, in real time, the bipolar weighted summation in a single channel. Preliminary experimental results obtained from the applications in associative memories and multitarget classification with rotation invariance are shown.
Efficient Fingercode Classification
Sun, Hong-Wei; Law, Kwok-Yan; Gollmann, Dieter; Chung, Siu-Leung; Li, Jian-Bin; Sun, Jia-Guang
In this paper, we present an efficient fingerprint classification algorithm which is an essential component in many critical security application systems e. g. systems in the e-government and e-finance domains. Fingerprint identification is one of the most important security requirements in homeland security systems such as personnel screening and anti-money laundering. The problem of fingerprint identification involves searching (matching) the fingerprint of a person against each of the fingerprints of all registered persons. To enhance performance and reliability, a common approach is to reduce the search space by firstly classifying the fingerprints and then performing the search in the respective class. Jain et al. proposed a fingerprint classification algorithm based on a two-stage classifier, which uses a K-nearest neighbor classifier in its first stage. The fingerprint classification algorithm is based on the fingercode representation which is an encoding of fingerprints that has been demonstrated to be an effective fingerprint biometric scheme because of its ability to capture both local and global details in a fingerprint image. We enhance this approach by improving the efficiency of the K-nearest neighbor classifier for fingercode-based fingerprint classification. Our research firstly investigates the various fast search algorithms in vector quantization (VQ) and the potential application in fingerprint classification, and then proposes two efficient algorithms based on the pyramid-based search algorithms in VQ. Experimental results on DB1 of FVC 2004 demonstrate that our algorithms can outperform the full search algorithm and the original pyramid-based search algorithms in terms of computational efficiency without sacrificing accuracy.
A Fast Algorithm of Convex Hull Vertices Selection for Online Classification.
Ding, Shuguang; Nie, Xiangli; Qiao, Hong; Zhang, Bo
2018-04-01
Reducing samples through convex hull vertices selection (CHVS) within each class is an important and effective method for online classification problems, since the classifier can be trained rapidly with the selected samples. However, the process of CHVS is NP-hard. In this paper, we propose a fast algorithm to select the convex hull vertices, based on the convex hull decomposition and the property of projection. In the proposed algorithm, the quadratic minimization problem of computing the distance between a point and a convex hull is converted into a linear equation problem with a low computational complexity. When the data dimension is high, an approximate, instead of exact, convex hull is allowed to be selected by setting an appropriate termination condition in order to delete more nonimportant samples. In addition, the impact of outliers is also considered, and the proposed algorithm is improved by deleting the outliers in the initial procedure. Furthermore, a dimension convention technique via the kernel trick is used to deal with nonlinearly separable problems. An upper bound is theoretically proved for the difference between the support vector machines based on the approximate convex hull vertices selected and all the training samples. Experimental results on both synthetic and real data sets show the effectiveness and validity of the proposed algorithm.
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Yang Xiao
Full Text Available The quality of Landsat images in humid areas is considerably degraded by haze in terms of their spectral response pattern, which limits the possibility of their application in using visible and near-infrared bands. A variety of haze removal algorithms have been proposed to correct these unsatisfactory illumination effects caused by the haze contamination. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the difference of two major algorithms (the improved homomorphic filtering (HF and the virtual cloud point (VCP for their effectiveness in solving spatially varying haze contamination, and to evaluate the impacts of haze removal on land cover classification. A case study with exploiting large quantities of Landsat TM images and climates (clear and haze in the most humid areas in China proved that these haze removal algorithms both perform well in processing Landsat images contaminated by haze. The outcome of the application of VCP appears to be more similar to the reference images compared to HF. Moreover, the Landsat image with VCP haze removal can improve the classification accuracy effectively in comparison to that without haze removal, especially in the cloudy contaminated area
Na, X D; Zang, S Y; Wu, C S; Li, W L
2015-11-01
Knowledge of the spatial extent of forested wetlands is essential to many studies including wetland functioning assessment, greenhouse gas flux estimation, and wildlife suitable habitat identification. For discriminating forested wetlands from their adjacent land cover types, researchers have resorted to image analysis techniques applied to numerous remotely sensed data. While with some success, there is still no consensus on the optimal approaches for mapping forested wetlands. To address this problem, we examined two machine learning approaches, random forest (RF) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithms, and applied these two approaches to the framework of pixel-based and object-based classifications. The RF and KNN algorithms were constructed using predictors derived from Landsat 8 imagery, Radarsat-2 advanced synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and topographical indices. The results show that the objected-based classifications performed better than per-pixel classifications using the same algorithm (RF) in terms of overall accuracy and the difference of their kappa coefficients are statistically significant (pwetlands based on the per-pixel classifications using the RF algorithm. As for the object-based image analysis, there were also statistically significant differences (pwetlands and omissions for agriculture land. This research proves that the object-based classification with RF using optical, radar, and topographical data improved the mapping accuracy of land covers and provided a feasible approach to discriminate the forested wetlands from the other land cover types in forestry area.
Liu, Yu; Xia, Jun; Shi, Chun-Xiang; Hong, Yang
2009-01-01
The crowning objective of this research was to identify a better cloud classification method to upgrade the current window-based clustering algorithm used operationally for China's first operational geostationary meteorological satellite FengYun-2C (FY-2C) data. First, the capabilities of six widely-used Artificial Neural Network (ANN) methods are analyzed, together with the comparison of two other methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Support Vector Machine (SVM), using 2864 cloud samples manually collected by meteorologists in June, July, and August in 2007 from three FY-2C channel (IR1, 10.3-11.3 μm; IR2, 11.5-12.5 μm and WV 6.3-7.6 μm) imagery. The result shows that: (1) ANN approaches, in general, outperformed the PCA and the SVM given sufficient training samples and (2) among the six ANN networks, higher cloud classification accuracy was obtained with the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) and Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN). Second, to compare the ANN methods to the present FY-2C operational algorithm, this study implemented SOM, one of the best ANN network identified from this study, as an automated cloud classification system for the FY-2C multi-channel data. It shows that SOM method has improved the results greatly not only in pixel-level accuracy but also in cloud patch-level classification by more accurately identifying cloud types such as cumulonimbus, cirrus and clouds in high latitude. Findings of this study suggest that the ANN-based classifiers, in particular the SOM, can be potentially used as an improved Automated Cloud Classification Algorithm to upgrade the current window-based clustering method for the FY-2C operational products.
Algorithm for the generation of nuclear spin species and nuclear spin statistical weights
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balasubramanian, K.
1982-01-01
A set of algorithms for the computer generation of nuclear spin species and nuclear spin statistical weights potentially useful in molecular spectroscopy is developed. These algorithms generate the nuclear spin species from group structures known as generalized character cycle indices (GCCIs). Thus the required input for these algorithms is just the set of all GCCIs for the symmetry group of the molecule which can be computed easily from the character table. The algorithms are executed and illustrated with examples
Siuly; Li, Yan; Paul Wen, Peng
2014-03-01
Motor imagery (MI) tasks classification provides an important basis for designing brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. If the MI tasks are reliably distinguished through identifying typical patterns in electroencephalography (EEG) data, a motor disabled people could communicate with a device by composing sequences of these mental states. In our earlier study, we developed a cross-correlation based logistic regression (CC-LR) algorithm for the classification of MI tasks for BCI applications, but its performance was not satisfactory. This study develops a modified version of the CC-LR algorithm exploring a suitable feature set that can improve the performance. The modified CC-LR algorithm uses the C3 electrode channel (in the international 10-20 system) as a reference channel for the cross-correlation (CC) technique and applies three diverse feature sets separately, as the input to the logistic regression (LR) classifier. The present algorithm investigates which feature set is the best to characterize the distribution of MI tasks based EEG data. This study also provides an insight into how to select a reference channel for the CC technique with EEG signals considering the anatomical structure of the human brain. The proposed algorithm is compared with eight of the most recently reported well-known methods including the BCI III Winner algorithm. The findings of this study indicate that the modified CC-LR algorithm has potential to improve the identification performance of MI tasks in BCI systems. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique provides a classification improvement over the existing methods tested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Direct Learning of Systematics-Aware Summary Statistics
CERN. Geneva
2018-01-01
Complex machine learning tools, such as deep neural networks and gradient boosting algorithms, are increasingly being used to construct powerful discriminative features for High Energy Physics analyses. These methods are typically trained with simulated or auxiliary data samples by optimising some classification or regression surrogate objective. The learned feature representations are then used to build a sample-based statistical model to perform inference (e.g. interval estimation or hypothesis testing) over a set of parameters of interest. However, the effectiveness of the mentioned approach can be reduced by the presence of known uncertainties that cause differences between training and experimental data, included in the statistical model via nuisance parameters. This work presents an end-to-end algorithm, which leverages on existing deep learning technologies but directly aims to produce inference-optimal sample-summary statistics. By including the statistical model and a differentiable approximation of ...
Evaluation of a treatment-based classification algorithm for low back pain: a cross-sectional study.
Stanton, Tasha R; Fritz, Julie M; Hancock, Mark J; Latimer, Jane; Maher, Christopher G; Wand, Benedict M; Parent, Eric C
2011-04-01
Several studies have investigated criteria for classifying patients with low back pain (LBP) into treatment-based subgroups. A comprehensive algorithm was created to translate these criteria into a clinical decision-making guide. This study investigated the translation of the individual subgroup criteria into a comprehensive algorithm by studying the prevalence of patients meeting the criteria for each treatment subgroup and the reliability of the classification. This was a cross-sectional, observational study. Two hundred fifty patients with acute or subacute LBP were recruited from the United States and Australia to participate in the study. Trained physical therapists performed standardized assessments on all participants. The researchers used these findings to classify participants into subgroups. Thirty-one participants were reassessed to determine interrater reliability of the algorithm decision. Based on individual subgroup criteria, 25.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]=19.8%-30.6%) of the participants did not meet the criteria for any subgroup, 49.6% (95% CI=43.4%-55.8%) of the participants met the criteria for only one subgroup, and 25.2% (95% CI=19.8%-30.6%) of the participants met the criteria for more than one subgroup. The most common combination of subgroups was manipulation + specific exercise (68.4% of the participants who met the criteria for 2 subgroups). Reliability of the algorithm decision was moderate (kappa=0.52, 95% CI=0.27-0.77, percentage of agreement=67%). Due to a relatively small patient sample, reliability estimates are somewhat imprecise. These findings provide important clinical data to guide future research and revisions to the algorithm. The finding that 25% of the participants met the criteria for more than one subgroup has important implications for the sequencing of treatments in the algorithm. Likewise, the finding that 25% of the participants did not meet the criteria for any subgroup provides important information regarding
Dalton, J. Brad; Bove, Dana; Mladinich, Carol; Clark, Roger; Rockwell, Barnaby; Swayze, Gregg; King, Trude; Church, Stanley
2001-01-01
Recent work on automated spectral classification algorithms has sought to distinguish ever-more similar materials. From modest beginnings separating shade, soil, rock and vegetation to ambitious attempts to discriminate mineral types and specific plant species, the trend seems to be toward using increasingly subtle spectral differences to perform the classification. Rule-based expert systems exploiting the underlying physics of spectroscopy such as the US Geological Society Tetracorder system are now taking advantage of the high spectral resolution and dimensionality of current imaging spectrometer designs to discriminate spectrally similar materials. The current paper details recent efforts to discriminate three minerals having absorptions centered at the same wavelength, with encouraging results.
Generalized t-statistic for two-group classification.
Komori, Osamu; Eguchi, Shinto; Copas, John B
2015-06-01
In the classic discriminant model of two multivariate normal distributions with equal variance matrices, the linear discriminant function is optimal both in terms of the log likelihood ratio and in terms of maximizing the standardized difference (the t-statistic) between the means of the two distributions. In a typical case-control study, normality may be sensible for the control sample but heterogeneity and uncertainty in diagnosis may suggest that a more flexible model is needed for the cases. We generalize the t-statistic approach by finding the linear function which maximizes a standardized difference but with data from one of the groups (the cases) filtered by a possibly nonlinear function U. We study conditions for consistency of the method and find the function U which is optimal in the sense of asymptotic efficiency. Optimality may also extend to other measures of discriminatory efficiency such as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The optimal function U depends on a scalar probability density function which can be estimated non-parametrically using a standard numerical algorithm. A lasso-like version for variable selection is implemented by adding L1-regularization to the generalized t-statistic. Two microarray data sets in the study of asthma and various cancers are used as motivating examples. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.
Computationally efficient algorithms for statistical image processing : implementation in R
Langovoy, M.; Wittich, O.
2010-01-01
In the series of our earlier papers on the subject, we proposed a novel statistical hypothesis testing method for detection of objects in noisy images. The method uses results from percolation theory and random graph theory. We developed algorithms that allowed to detect objects of unknown shapes in
Classification d'images RSO polarimétriques à haute résolution spatiale sur site urbain.
Soheili Majd , Maryam
2014-01-01
In this research, our aim is to assess the potential of a one single look high spatial resolution polarimetric radar image for the classification of urban areas. For that purpose, we concentrate on classes corresponding to different kinds of roofs, objects and ground surfaces.At first, we propose a uni-variate statistical analysis of polarimetric and texture attributes, that can be used in a classification algorithm. We perform a statistical analysis of descriptors and show that the Fisher di...
On using the Multiple Signal Classification algorithm to study microbaroms
Marcillo, O. E.; Blom, P. S.; Euler, G. G.
2016-12-01
Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) (Schmidt, 1986) is a well-known high-resolution algorithm used in array processing for parameter estimation. We report on the application of MUSIC to infrasonic array data in a study of the structure of microbaroms. Microbaroms can be globally observed and display energy centered around 0.2 Hz. Microbaroms are an infrasonic signal generated by the non-linear interaction of ocean surface waves that radiate into the ocean and atmosphere as well as the solid earth in the form of microseisms. Microbaroms sources are dynamic and, in many cases, distributed in space and moving in time. We assume that the microbarom energy detected by an infrasonic array is the result of multiple sources (with different back-azimuths) in the same bandwidth and apply the MUSIC algorithm accordingly to recover the back-azimuth and trace velocity of the individual components. Preliminary results show that the multiple component assumption in MUSIC allows one to resolve the fine structure in the microbarom band that can be related to multiple ocean surface phenomena.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chun-Xiang Shi
2009-07-01
Full Text Available The crowning objective of this research was to identify a better cloud classification method to upgrade the current window-based clustering algorithm used operationally for China’s first operational geostationary meteorological satellite FengYun-2C (FY-2C data. First, the capabilities of six widely-used Artificial Neural Network (ANN methods are analyzed, together with the comparison of two other methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA and a Support Vector Machine (SVM, using 2864 cloud samples manually collected by meteorologists in June, July, and August in 2007 from three FY-2C channel (IR1, 10.3-11.3 μm; IR2, 11.5-12.5 μm and WV 6.3-7.6 μm imagery. The result shows that: (1 ANN approaches, in general, outperformed the PCA and the SVM given sufficient training samples and (2 among the six ANN networks, higher cloud classification accuracy was obtained with the Self-Organizing Map (SOM and Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN. Second, to compare the ANN methods to the present FY-2C operational algorithm, this study implemented SOM, one of the best ANN network identified from this study, as an automated cloud classification system for the FY-2C multi-channel data. It shows that SOM method has improved the results greatly not only in pixel-level accuracy but also in cloud patch-level classification by more accurately identifying cloud types such as cumulonimbus, cirrus and clouds in high latitude. Findings of this study suggest that the ANN-based classifiers, in particular the SOM, can be potentially used as an improved Automated Cloud Classification Algorithm to upgrade the current window-based clustering method for the FY-2C operational products.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Adelabu, S
2013-11-01
Full Text Available in semiarid environments. In this study, we examined the suitability of 5-band RapidEye satellite data for the classification of five tree species in mopane woodland of Botswana using machine leaning algorithms with limited training samples. We performed...
Muthu Rama Krishnan, M; Shah, Pratik; Chakraborty, Chandan; Ray, Ajoy K
2012-04-01
The objective of this paper is to provide an improved technique, which can assist oncopathologists in correct screening of oral precancerous conditions specially oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) with significant accuracy on the basis of collagen fibres in the sub-epithelial connective tissue. The proposed scheme is composed of collagen fibres segmentation, its textural feature extraction and selection, screening perfomance enhancement under Gaussian transformation and finally classification. In this study, collagen fibres are segmented on R,G,B color channels using back-probagation neural network from 60 normal and 59 OSF histological images followed by histogram specification for reducing the stain intensity variation. Henceforth, textural features of collgen area are extracted using fractal approaches viz., differential box counting and brownian motion curve . Feature selection is done using Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence criterion and the screening performance is evaluated based on various statistical tests to conform Gaussian nature. Here, the screening performance is enhanced under Gaussian transformation of the non-Gaussian features using hybrid distribution. Moreover, the routine screening is designed based on two statistical classifiers viz., Bayesian classification and support vector machines (SVM) to classify normal and OSF. It is observed that SVM with linear kernel function provides better classification accuracy (91.64%) as compared to Bayesian classifier. The addition of fractal features of collagen under Gaussian transformation improves Bayesian classifier's performance from 80.69% to 90.75%. Results are here studied and discussed.
Multiscale Monte Carlo algorithms in statistical mechanics and quantum field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lauwers, P G
1990-12-01
Conventional Monte Carlo simulation algorithms for models in statistical mechanics and quantum field theory are afflicted by problems caused by their locality. They become highly inefficient if investigations of critical or nearly-critical systems, i.e., systems with important large scale phenomena, are undertaken. We present two types of multiscale approaches that alleveate problems of this kind: Stochastic cluster algorithms and multigrid Monte Carlo simulation algorithms. Another formidable computational problem in simulations of phenomenologically relevant field theories with fermions is the need for frequently inverting the Dirac operator. This inversion can be accelerated considerably by means of deterministic multigrid methods, very similar to the ones used for the numerical solution of differential equations. (orig.).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
REIS, M V. S. de A.
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the use of machine learning techniques in a database of marine accidents. We analyzed and evaluated the main causes and types of marine accidents in the Northern Fluminense region. For this, machine learning techniques were used. The study showed that the modeling can be done in a satisfactory manner using different configurations of classification algorithms, varying the activation functions and training parameters. The SMO (Sequential Minimal Optimization algorithm showed the best performance result.
Multi-step EMG Classification Algorithm for Human-Computer Interaction
Ren, Peng; Barreto, Armando; Adjouadi, Malek
A three-electrode human-computer interaction system, based on digital processing of the Electromyogram (EMG) signal, is presented. This system can effectively help disabled individuals paralyzed from the neck down to interact with computers or communicate with people through computers using point-and-click graphic interfaces. The three electrodes are placed on the right frontalis, the left temporalis and the right temporalis muscles in the head, respectively. The signal processing algorithm used translates the EMG signals during five kinds of facial movements (left jaw clenching, right jaw clenching, eyebrows up, eyebrows down, simultaneous left & right jaw clenching) into five corresponding types of cursor movements (left, right, up, down and left-click), to provide basic mouse control. The classification strategy is based on three principles: the EMG energy of one channel is typically larger than the others during one specific muscle contraction; the spectral characteristics of the EMG signals produced by the frontalis and temporalis muscles during different movements are different; the EMG signals from adjacent channels typically have correlated energy profiles. The algorithm is evaluated on 20 pre-recorded EMG signal sets, using Matlab simulations. The results show that this method provides improvements and is more robust than other previous approaches.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamil Zidek
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the design of embedded vision equipment of industrial robots for inline diagnosis of product error during manipulation process. The vision equipment can be attached to the end effector of robots or manipulators, and it provides an image snapshot of part surface before grasp, searches for error during manipulation, and separates products with error from the next operation of manufacturing. The new approach is a methodology based on machine teaching for the automated identification, localization, and diagnosis of systematic errors in products of high-volume production. To achieve this, we used two main data mining algorithms: clustering for accumulation of similar errors and classification methods for the prediction of any new error to proposed class. The presented methodology consists of three separate processing levels: image acquisition for fail parameterization, data clustering for categorizing errors to separate classes, and new pattern prediction with a proposed class model. We choose main representatives of clustering algorithms, for example, K-mean from quantization of vectors, fast library for approximate nearest neighbor from hierarchical clustering, and density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise from algorithm based on the density of the data. For machine learning, we selected six major algorithms of classification: support vector machines, normal Bayesian classifier, K-nearest neighbor, gradient boosted trees, random trees, and neural networks. The selected algorithms were compared for speed and reliability and tested on two platforms: desktop-based computer system and embedded system based on System on Chip (SoC with vision equipment.
Iselin, Greg; Le Brocque, Robyne; Kenardy, Justin; Anderson, Vicki; McKinlay, Lynne
2010-10-01
Controversy surrounds the classification of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), particularly in children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). In these populations, it is difficult to differentiate TBI-related organic memory loss from dissociative amnesia. Several alternative PTSD classification algorithms have been proposed for use with children. This paper investigates DSM-IV-TR and alternative PTSD classification algorithms, including and excluding the dissociative amnesia item, in terms of their ability to predict psychosocial function following pediatric TBI. A sample of 184 children aged 6-14 years were recruited following emergency department presentation and/or hospital admission for TBI. PTSD was assessed via semi-structured clinical interview (CAPS-CA) with the child at 3 months post-injury. Psychosocial function was assessed using the parent report CHQ-PF50. Two alternative classification algorithms, the PTSD-AA and 2 of 3 algorithms, reached statistical significance. While the inclusion of the dissociative amnesia item increased prevalence rates across algorithms, it generally resulted in weaker associations with psychosocial function. The PTSD-AA algorithm appears to have the strongest association with psychosocial function following TBI in children and adolescents. Removing the dissociative amnesia item from the diagnostic algorithm generally results in improved validity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Support vector machines optimization based theory, algorithms, and extensions
Deng, Naiyang; Zhang, Chunhua
2013-01-01
Support Vector Machines: Optimization Based Theory, Algorithms, and Extensions presents an accessible treatment of the two main components of support vector machines (SVMs)-classification problems and regression problems. The book emphasizes the close connection between optimization theory and SVMs since optimization is one of the pillars on which SVMs are built.The authors share insight on many of their research achievements. They give a precise interpretation of statistical leaning theory for C-support vector classification. They also discuss regularized twi
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Ting; Guan, Sheng-Uei; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan
2014-01-01
Feature ordering is a significant data preprocessing method in Incremental Attribute Learning (IAL), a novel machine learning approach which gradually trains features according to a given order. Previous research has shown that, similar to feature selection, feature ordering is also important based...... estimation. Moreover, a criterion that summarizes all the produced values of AD is employed with a GA (Genetic Algorithm)-based approach to obtain the optimum feature ordering for classification problems based on neural networks by means of IAL. Compared with the feature ordering obtained by other approaches...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mărăscu, V.; Dinescu, G. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, Bucharest– Magurele (Romania); Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, 405 Atomistilor Street, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Chiţescu, I. [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Bucharest, 14 Academiei Street, Bucharest (Romania); Barna, V. [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, 405 Atomistilor Street, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Ioniţă, M. D.; Lazea-Stoyanova, A.; Mitu, B., E-mail: mitub@infim.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, Bucharest– Magurele (Romania)
2016-03-25
In this paper we propose a statistical approach for describing the self-assembling of sub-micronic polystyrene beads on silicon surfaces, as well as the evolution of surface topography due to plasma treatments. Algorithms for image recognition are used in conjunction with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging of surfaces. In a first step, greyscale images of the surface covered by the polystyrene beads are obtained. Further, an adaptive thresholding method was applied for obtaining binary images. The next step consisted in automatic identification of polystyrene beads dimensions, by using Hough transform algorithm, according to beads radius. In order to analyze the uniformity of the self–assembled polystyrene beads, the squared modulus of 2-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (2- D FFT) was applied. By combining these algorithms we obtain a powerful and fast statistical tool for analysis of micro and nanomaterials with aspect features regularly distributed on surface upon SEM examination.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mărăscu, V.; Dinescu, G.; Chiţescu, I.; Barna, V.; Ioniţă, M. D.; Lazea-Stoyanova, A.; Mitu, B.
2016-01-01
In this paper we propose a statistical approach for describing the self-assembling of sub-micronic polystyrene beads on silicon surfaces, as well as the evolution of surface topography due to plasma treatments. Algorithms for image recognition are used in conjunction with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging of surfaces. In a first step, greyscale images of the surface covered by the polystyrene beads are obtained. Further, an adaptive thresholding method was applied for obtaining binary images. The next step consisted in automatic identification of polystyrene beads dimensions, by using Hough transform algorithm, according to beads radius. In order to analyze the uniformity of the self–assembled polystyrene beads, the squared modulus of 2-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (2- D FFT) was applied. By combining these algorithms we obtain a powerful and fast statistical tool for analysis of micro and nanomaterials with aspect features regularly distributed on surface upon SEM examination.
Stochastic geometry, spatial statistics and random fields models and algorithms
2015-01-01
Providing a graduate level introduction to various aspects of stochastic geometry, spatial statistics and random fields, this volume places a special emphasis on fundamental classes of models and algorithms as well as on their applications, for example in materials science, biology and genetics. This book has a strong focus on simulations and includes extensive codes in Matlab and R, which are widely used in the mathematical community. It can be regarded as a continuation of the recent volume 2068 of Lecture Notes in Mathematics, where other issues of stochastic geometry, spatial statistics and random fields were considered, with a focus on asymptotic methods.
Otero, Fernando E B; Freitas, Alex A
2016-01-01
Most ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithms for inducing classification rules use a ACO-based procedure to create a rule in a one-at-a-time fashion. An improved search strategy has been proposed in the cAnt-Miner[Formula: see text] algorithm, where an ACO-based procedure is used to create a complete list of rules (ordered rules), i.e., the ACO search is guided by the quality of a list of rules instead of an individual rule. In this paper we propose an extension of the cAnt-Miner[Formula: see text] algorithm to discover a set of rules (unordered rules). The main motivations for this work are to improve the interpretation of individual rules by discovering a set of rules and to evaluate the impact on the predictive accuracy of the algorithm. We also propose a new measure to evaluate the interpretability of the discovered rules to mitigate the fact that the commonly used model size measure ignores how the rules are used to make a class prediction. Comparisons with state-of-the-art rule induction algorithms, support vector machines, and the cAnt-Miner[Formula: see text] producing ordered rules are also presented.
Predicting Smoking Status Using Machine Learning Algorithms and Statistical Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles Frank
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Smoking has been proven to negatively affect health in a multitude of ways. As of 2009, smoking has been considered the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States, continuing to plague the country’s overall health. This study aims to investigate the viability and effectiveness of some machine learning algorithms for predicting the smoking status of patients based on their blood tests and vital readings results. The analysis of this study is divided into two parts: In part 1, we use One-way ANOVA analysis with SAS tool to show the statistically significant difference in blood test readings between smokers and non-smokers. The results show that the difference in INR, which measures the effectiveness of anticoagulants, was significant in favor of non-smokers which further confirms the health risks associated with smoking. In part 2, we use five machine learning algorithms: Naïve Bayes, MLP, Logistic regression classifier, J48 and Decision Table to predict the smoking status of patients. To compare the effectiveness of these algorithms we use: Precision, Recall, F-measure and Accuracy measures. The results show that the Logistic algorithm outperformed the four other algorithms with Precision, Recall, F-Measure, and Accuracy of 83%, 83.4%, 83.2%, 83.44%, respectively.
Hartmann, Alexander K
2005-01-01
A concise, comprehensive introduction to the topic of statistical physics of combinatorial optimization, bringing together theoretical concepts and algorithms from computer science with analytical methods from physics. The result bridges the gap between statistical physics and combinatorial optimization, investigating problems taken from theoretical computing, such as the vertex-cover problem, with the concepts and methods of theoretical physics. The authors cover rapid developments and analytical methods that are both extremely complex and spread by word-of-mouth, providing all the necessary
An Efficient Forward-Reverse EM Algorithm for Statistical Inference in Stochastic Reaction Networks
Bayer, Christian
2016-01-06
In this work [1], we present an extension of the forward-reverse algorithm by Bayer and Schoenmakers [2] to the context of stochastic reaction networks (SRNs). We then apply this bridge-generation technique to the statistical inference problem of approximating the reaction coefficients based on discretely observed data. To this end, we introduce an efficient two-phase algorithm in which the first phase is deterministic and it is intended to provide a starting point for the second phase which is the Monte Carlo EM Algorithm.
Enhancing Breast Cancer Recurrence Algorithms Through Selective Use of Medical Record Data.
Kroenke, Candyce H; Chubak, Jessica; Johnson, Lisa; Castillo, Adrienne; Weltzien, Erin; Caan, Bette J
2016-03-01
The utility of data-based algorithms in research has been questioned because of errors in identification of cancer recurrences. We adapted previously published breast cancer recurrence algorithms, selectively using medical record (MR) data to improve classification. We evaluated second breast cancer event (SBCE) and recurrence-specific algorithms previously published by Chubak and colleagues in 1535 women from the Life After Cancer Epidemiology (LACE) and 225 women from the Women's Health Initiative cohorts and compared classification statistics to published values. We also sought to improve classification with minimal MR examination. We selected pairs of algorithms-one with high sensitivity/high positive predictive value (PPV) and another with high specificity/high PPV-using MR information to resolve discrepancies between algorithms, properly classifying events based on review; we called this "triangulation." Finally, in LACE, we compared associations between breast cancer survival risk factors and recurrence using MR data, single Chubak algorithms, and triangulation. The SBCE algorithms performed well in identifying SBCE and recurrences. Recurrence-specific algorithms performed more poorly than published except for the high-specificity/high-PPV algorithm, which performed well. The triangulation method (sensitivity = 81.3%, specificity = 99.7%, PPV = 98.1%, NPV = 96.5%) improved recurrence classification over two single algorithms (sensitivity = 57.1%, specificity = 95.5%, PPV = 71.3%, NPV = 91.9%; and sensitivity = 74.6%, specificity = 97.3%, PPV = 84.7%, NPV = 95.1%), with 10.6% MR review. Triangulation performed well in survival risk factor analyses vs analyses using MR-identified recurrences. Use of multiple recurrence algorithms in administrative data, in combination with selective examination of MR data, may improve recurrence data quality and reduce research costs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For
Study of Image Analysis Algorithms for Segmentation, Feature Extraction and Classification of Cells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Margarita Gamarra
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Recent advances in microcopy and improvements in image processing algorithms have allowed the development of computer-assisted analytical approaches in cell identification. Several applications could be mentioned in this field: Cellular phenotype identification, disease detection and treatment, identifying virus entry in cells and virus classification; these applications could help to complement the opinion of medical experts. Although many surveys have been presented in medical image analysis, they focus mainly in tissues and organs and none of the surveys about image cells consider an analysis following the stages in the typical image processing: Segmentation, feature extraction and classification. The goal of this study is to provide comprehensive and critical analyses about the trends in each stage of cell image processing. In this paper, we present a literature survey about cell identification using different image processing techniques.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saedtler, E.
1981-01-01
The dissertation discusses: 1. Approximative filter algorithms for identification of systems and hierarchical structures. 2. Adaptive statistical pattern recognition and classification. 3. Parameter selection, extraction, and modelling for an automatic control system. 4. Design of a decision tree and an adaptive diagnostic system. (orig./RW) [de
Classification of large-sized hyperspectral imagery using fast machine learning algorithms
Xia, Junshi; Yokoya, Naoto; Iwasaki, Akira
2017-07-01
We present a framework of fast machine learning algorithms in the context of large-sized hyperspectral images classification from the theoretical to a practical viewpoint. In particular, we assess the performance of random forest (RF), rotation forest (RoF), and extreme learning machine (ELM) and the ensembles of RF and ELM. These classifiers are applied to two large-sized hyperspectral images and compared to the support vector machines. To give the quantitative analysis, we pay attention to comparing these methods when working with high input dimensions and a limited/sufficient training set. Moreover, other important issues such as the computational cost and robustness against the noise are also discussed.
Fast Solution in Sparse LDA for Binary Classification
Moghaddam, Baback
2010-01-01
An algorithm that performs sparse linear discriminant analysis (Sparse-LDA) finds near-optimal solutions in far less time than the prior art when specialized to binary classification (of 2 classes). Sparse-LDA is a type of feature- or variable- selection problem with numerous applications in statistics, machine learning, computer vision, computational finance, operations research, and bio-informatics. Because of its combinatorial nature, feature- or variable-selection problems are NP-hard or computationally intractable in cases involving more than 30 variables or features. Therefore, one typically seeks approximate solutions by means of greedy search algorithms. The prior Sparse-LDA algorithm was a greedy algorithm that considered the best variable or feature to add/ delete to/ from its subsets in order to maximally discriminate between multiple classes of data. The present algorithm is designed for the special but prevalent case of 2-class or binary classification (e.g. 1 vs. 0, functioning vs. malfunctioning, or change versus no change). The present algorithm provides near-optimal solutions on large real-world datasets having hundreds or even thousands of variables or features (e.g. selecting the fewest wavelength bands in a hyperspectral sensor to do terrain classification) and does so in typical computation times of minutes as compared to days or weeks as taken by the prior art. Sparse LDA requires solving generalized eigenvalue problems for a large number of variable subsets (represented by the submatrices of the input within-class and between-class covariance matrices). In the general (fullrank) case, the amount of computation scales at least cubically with the number of variables and thus the size of the problems that can be solved is limited accordingly. However, in binary classification, the principal eigenvalues can be found using a special analytic formula, without resorting to costly iterative techniques. The present algorithm exploits this analytic
Scalable Algorithms for Adaptive Statistical Designs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Oehmke
2000-01-01
Full Text Available We present a scalable, high-performance solution to multidimensional recurrences that arise in adaptive statistical designs. Adaptive designs are an important class of learning algorithms for a stochastic environment, and we focus on the problem of optimally assigning patients to treatments in clinical trials. While adaptive designs have significant ethical and cost advantages, they are rarely utilized because of the complexity of optimizing and analyzing them. Computational challenges include massive memory requirements, few calculations per memory access, and multiply-nested loops with dynamic indices. We analyze the effects of various parallelization options, and while standard approaches do not work well, with effort an efficient, highly scalable program can be developed. This allows us to solve problems thousands of times more complex than those solved previously, which helps make adaptive designs practical. Further, our work applies to many other problems involving neighbor recurrences, such as generalized string matching.
Algorithm for the classification of multi-modulating signals on the electrocardiogram.
Mita, Mitsuo
2007-03-01
This article discusses the algorithm to measure electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration simultaneously and to have the diagnostic potentiality for sleep apnoea from ECG recordings. The algorithm is composed by the combination with the three particular scale transform of a(j)(t), u(j)(t), o(j)(a(j)) and the statistical Fourier transform (SFT). Time and magnitude scale transforms of a(j)(t), u(j)(t) change the source into the periodic signal and tau(j) = o(j)(a(j)) confines its harmonics into a few instantaneous components at tau(j) being a common instant on two scales between t and tau(j). As a result, the multi-modulating source is decomposed by the SFT and is reconstructed into ECG, respiration and the other signals by inverse transform. The algorithm is expected to get the partial ventilation and the heart rate variability from scale transforms among a(j)(t), a(j+1)(t) and u(j+1)(t) joining with each modulation. The algorithm has a high potentiality of the clinical checkup for the diagnosis of sleep apnoea from ECG recordings.
Borodinov, A. A.; Myasnikov, V. V.
2018-04-01
The present work is devoted to comparing the accuracy of the known qualification algorithms in the task of recognizing local objects on radar images for various image preprocessing methods. Preprocessing involves speckle noise filtering and normalization of the object orientation in the image by the method of image moments and by a method based on the Hough transform. In comparison, the following classification algorithms are used: Decision tree; Support vector machine, AdaBoost, Random forest. The principal component analysis is used to reduce the dimension. The research is carried out on the objects from the base of radar images MSTAR. The paper presents the results of the conducted studies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Dae Won
2005-01-01
Ultrasonic inspection methods are widely used for detecting flaws in materials. The signal analysis step plays a crucial part in the data interpretation process. A number of signal processing methods have been proposed to classify ultrasonic flaw signals. One of the more popular methods involves the extraction of an appropriate set of features followed by the use of a neural network for the classification of the signals in the feature spare. This paper describes an alternative approach which uses the least mean square (LMS) method and exportation maximization (EM) algorithm with the model based deconvolution which is employed for classifying nondestructive evaluation (NDE) signals from steam generator tubes in a nuclear power plant. The signals due to cracks and deposits are not significantly different. These signals must be discriminated to prevent from happening a huge disaster such as contamination of water or explosion. A model based deconvolution has been described to facilitate comparison of classification results. The method uses the space alternating generalized expectation maximiBation (SAGE) algorithm ill conjunction with the Newton-Raphson method which uses the Hessian parameter resulting in fast convergence to estimate the time of flight and the distance between the tube wall and the ultrasonic sensor. Results using these schemes for the classification of ultrasonic signals from cracks and deposits within steam generator tubes are presented and showed a reasonable performances
Voice based gender classification using machine learning
Raahul, A.; Sapthagiri, R.; Pankaj, K.; Vijayarajan, V.
2017-11-01
Gender identification is one of the major problem speech analysis today. Tracing the gender from acoustic data i.e., pitch, median, frequency etc. Machine learning gives promising results for classification problem in all the research domains. There are several performance metrics to evaluate algorithms of an area. Our Comparative model algorithm for evaluating 5 different machine learning algorithms based on eight different metrics in gender classification from acoustic data. Agenda is to identify gender, with five different algorithms: Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), Classification and Regression Trees (CART), Random Forest (RF), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) on basis of eight different metrics. The main parameter in evaluating any algorithms is its performance. Misclassification rate must be less in classification problems, which says that the accuracy rate must be high. Location and gender of the person have become very crucial in economic markets in the form of AdSense. Here with this comparative model algorithm, we are trying to assess the different ML algorithms and find the best fit for gender classification of acoustic data.
Tamimi, E.; Ebadi, H.; Kiani, A.
2017-09-01
Automatic building detection from High Spatial Resolution (HSR) images is one of the most important issues in Remote Sensing (RS). Due to the limited number of spectral bands in HSR images, using other features will lead to improve accuracy. By adding these features, the presence probability of dependent features will be increased, which leads to accuracy reduction. In addition, some parameters should be determined in Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification. Therefore, it is necessary to simultaneously determine classification parameters and select independent features according to image type. Optimization algorithm is an efficient method to solve this problem. On the other hand, pixel-based classification faces several challenges such as producing salt-paper results and high computational time in high dimensional data. Hence, in this paper, a novel method is proposed to optimize object-based SVM classification by applying continuous Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm. The advantages of the proposed method are relatively high automation level, independency of image scene and type, post processing reduction for building edge reconstruction and accuracy improvement. The proposed method was evaluated by pixel-based SVM and Random Forest (RF) classification in terms of accuracy. In comparison with optimized pixel-based SVM classification, the results showed that the proposed method improved quality factor and overall accuracy by 17% and 10%, respectively. Also, in the proposed method, Kappa coefficient was improved by 6% rather than RF classification. Time processing of the proposed method was relatively low because of unit of image analysis (image object). These showed the superiority of the proposed method in terms of time and accuracy.
A Pruning Neural Network Model in Credit Classification Analysis
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Yajiao Tang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, credit classification models are widely applied because they can help financial decision-makers to handle credit classification issues. Among them, artificial neural networks (ANNs have been widely accepted as the convincing methods in the credit industry. In this paper, we propose a pruning neural network (PNN and apply it to solve credit classification problem by adopting the well-known Australian and Japanese credit datasets. The model is inspired by synaptic nonlinearity of a dendritic tree in a biological neural model. And it is trained by an error back-propagation algorithm. The model is capable of realizing a neuronal pruning function by removing the superfluous synapses and useless dendrites and forms a tidy dendritic morphology at the end of learning. Furthermore, we utilize logic circuits (LCs to simulate the dendritic structures successfully which makes PNN be implemented on the hardware effectively. The statistical results of our experiments have verified that PNN obtains superior performance in comparison with other classical algorithms in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.
Statistical image reconstruction for transmission tomography using relaxed ordered subset algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kole, J S
2005-01-01
Statistical reconstruction methods offer possibilities for improving image quality as compared to analytical methods, but current reconstruction times prohibit routine clinical applications in x-ray computed tomography (CT). To reduce reconstruction times, we have applied (under) relaxation to ordered subset algorithms. This enables us to use subsets consisting of only single projection angle, effectively increasing the number of image updates within an entire iteration. A second advantage of applying relaxation is that it can help improve convergence by removing the limit cycle behaviour of ordered subset algorithms, which normally do not converge to an optimal solution but rather a suboptimal limit cycle consisting of as many points as there are subsets. Relaxation suppresses the limit cycle behaviour by decreasing the stepsize for approaching the solution. A simulation study for a 2D mathematical phantom and three different ordered subset algorithms shows that all three algorithms benefit from relaxation: equal noise-to-resolution trade-off can be achieved using fewer iterations than the conventional algorithms, while a lower minimal normalized mean square error (NMSE) clearly indicates a better convergence. Two different schemes for setting the relaxation parameter are studied, and both schemes yield approximately the same minimal NMSE
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Ole Marius Hoel Rindal
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The automatic classification of sub-techniques in classical cross-country skiing provides unique possibilities for analyzing the biomechanical aspects of outdoor skiing. This is currently possible due to the miniaturization and flexibility of wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs that allow researchers to bring the laboratory to the field. In this study, we aimed to optimize the accuracy of the automatic classification of classical cross-country skiing sub-techniques by using two IMUs attached to the skier’s arm and chest together with a machine learning algorithm. The novelty of our approach is the reliable detection of individual cycles using a gyroscope on the skier’s arm, while a neural network machine learning algorithm robustly classifies each cycle to a sub-technique using sensor data from an accelerometer on the chest. In this study, 24 datasets from 10 different participants were separated into the categories training-, validation- and test-data. Overall, we achieved a classification accuracy of 93.9% on the test-data. Furthermore, we illustrate how an accurate classification of sub-techniques can be combined with data from standard sports equipment including position, altitude, speed and heart rate measuring systems. Combining this information has the potential to provide novel insight into physiological and biomechanical aspects valuable to coaches, athletes and researchers.
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Victor V. Nikitin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The article introduces the algorithm of Russia’s regions investment potential estimation, developed by means of multivariate statistical methods, determines the factors, reflecting regions investment state. The integral indicator was developed on their basis, using statistical data. The article presents regions’ classification on the basis of the integral index
Li, Ruixiao; Li, Kun; Zhao, Changming
2018-01-01
Coherent dual-frequency Lidar (CDFL) is a new development of Lidar which dramatically enhances the ability to decrease the influence of atmospheric interference by using dual-frequency laser to measure the range and velocity with high precision. Based on the nature of CDFL signals, we propose to apply the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm in place of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) to estimate the phase differences in dual-frequency Lidar. In the presence of Gaussian white noise, the simulation results show that the signal peaks are more evident when using MUSIC algorithm instead of FFT in condition of low signal-noise-ratio (SNR), which helps to improve the precision of detection on range and velocity, especially for the long distance measurement systems.
Arana-Daniel, Nancy; Gallegos, Alberto A; López-Franco, Carlos; Alanís, Alma Y; Morales, Jacob; López-Franco, Adriana
2016-01-01
With the increasing power of computers, the amount of data that can be processed in small periods of time has grown exponentially, as has the importance of classifying large-scale data efficiently. Support vector machines have shown good results classifying large amounts of high-dimensional data, such as data generated by protein structure prediction, spam recognition, medical diagnosis, optical character recognition and text classification, etc. Most state of the art approaches for large-scale learning use traditional optimization methods, such as quadratic programming or gradient descent, which makes the use of evolutionary algorithms for training support vector machines an area to be explored. The present paper proposes an approach that is simple to implement based on evolutionary algorithms and Kernel-Adatron for solving large-scale classification problems, focusing on protein structure prediction. The functional properties of proteins depend upon their three-dimensional structures. Knowing the structures of proteins is crucial for biology and can lead to improvements in areas such as medicine, agriculture and biofuels.
Classification Model for Forest Fire Hotspot Occurrences Prediction Using ANFIS Algorithm
Wijayanto, A. K.; Sani, O.; Kartika, N. D.; Herdiyeni, Y.
2017-01-01
This study proposed the application of data mining technique namely Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) on forest fires hotspot data to develop classification models for hotspots occurrence in Central Kalimantan. Hotspot is a point that is indicated as the location of fires. In this study, hotspot distribution is categorized as true alarm and false alarm. ANFIS is a soft computing method in which a given inputoutput data set is expressed in a fuzzy inference system (FIS). The FIS implements a nonlinear mapping from its input space to the output space. The method of this study classified hotspots as target objects by correlating spatial attributes data using three folds in ANFIS algorithm to obtain the best model. The best result obtained from the 3rd fold provided low error for training (error = 0.0093676) and also low error testing result (error = 0.0093676). Attribute of distance to road is the most determining factor that influences the probability of true and false alarm where the level of human activities in this attribute is higher. This classification model can be used to develop early warning system of forest fire.
Zhang, Yu; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shengkai; Zhu, Tingting
2017-04-01
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is significantly important for polar remote sensing since it can provide continuous observations in all days and all weather. SAR can be used for extracting the surface roughness information characterized by the variance of dielectric properties and different polarization channels, which make it possible to observe different ice types and surface structure for deformation analysis. In November, 2016, Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) 33rd cruise has set sails in sea ice zone in Antarctic. Accurate leads spatial distribution in sea ice zone for routine planning of ship navigation is essential. In this study, the semantic relationship between leads and sea ice categories has been described by the Conditional Random Fields (CRF) model, and leads characteristics have been modeled by statistical distributions in SAR imagery. In the proposed algorithm, a mixture statistical distribution based CRF is developed by considering the contexture information and the statistical characteristics of sea ice for improving leads detection in Sentinel-1A dual polarization SAR imagery. The unary potential and pairwise potential in CRF model is constructed by integrating the posteriori probability estimated from statistical distributions. For mixture statistical distribution parameter estimation, Method of Logarithmic Cumulants (MoLC) is exploited for single statistical distribution parameters estimation. The iteration based Expectation Maximal (EM) algorithm is investigated to calculate the parameters in mixture statistical distribution based CRF model. In the posteriori probability inference, graph-cut energy minimization method is adopted in the initial leads detection. The post-processing procedures including aspect ratio constrain and spatial smoothing approaches are utilized to improve the visual result. The proposed method is validated on Sentinel-1A SAR C-band Extra Wide Swath (EW) Ground Range Detected (GRD) imagery with a
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Afaz Uddin Ahmed
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An artificial neural network (ANN and affinity propagation (AP algorithm based user categorization technique is presented. The proposed algorithm is designed for closed access femtocell network. ANN is used for user classification process and AP algorithm is used to optimize the ANN training process. AP selects the best possible training samples for faster ANN training cycle. The users are distinguished by using the difference of received signal strength in a multielement femtocell device. A previously developed directive microstrip antenna is used to configure the femtocell device. Simulation results show that, for a particular house pattern, the categorization technique without AP algorithm takes 5 indoor users and 10 outdoor users to attain an error-free operation. While integrating AP algorithm with ANN, the system takes 60% less training samples reducing the training time up to 50%. This procedure makes the femtocell more effective for closed access operation.
Ahmed, Afaz Uddin; Tariqul Islam, Mohammad; Ismail, Mahamod; Kibria, Salehin; Arshad, Haslina
2014-01-01
An artificial neural network (ANN) and affinity propagation (AP) algorithm based user categorization technique is presented. The proposed algorithm is designed for closed access femtocell network. ANN is used for user classification process and AP algorithm is used to optimize the ANN training process. AP selects the best possible training samples for faster ANN training cycle. The users are distinguished by using the difference of received signal strength in a multielement femtocell device. A previously developed directive microstrip antenna is used to configure the femtocell device. Simulation results show that, for a particular house pattern, the categorization technique without AP algorithm takes 5 indoor users and 10 outdoor users to attain an error-free operation. While integrating AP algorithm with ANN, the system takes 60% less training samples reducing the training time up to 50%. This procedure makes the femtocell more effective for closed access operation. PMID:25133214
Building an asynchronous web-based tool for machine learning classification.
Weber, Griffin; Vinterbo, Staal; Ohno-Machado, Lucila
2002-01-01
Various unsupervised and supervised learning methods including support vector machines, classification trees, linear discriminant analysis and nearest neighbor classifiers have been used to classify high-throughput gene expression data. Simpler and more widely accepted statistical tools have not yet been used for this purpose, hence proper comparisons between classification methods have not been conducted. We developed free software that implements logistic regression with stepwise variable selection as a quick and simple method for initial exploration of important genetic markers in disease classification. To implement the algorithm and allow our collaborators in remote locations to evaluate and compare its results against those of other methods, we developed a user-friendly asynchronous web-based application with a minimal amount of programming using free, downloadable software tools. With this program, we show that classification using logistic regression can perform as well as other more sophisticated algorithms, and it has the advantages of being easy to interpret and reproduce. By making the tool freely and easily available, we hope to promote the comparison of classification methods. In addition, we believe our web application can be used as a model for other bioinformatics laboratories that need to develop web-based analysis tools in a short amount of time and on a limited budget.
Active learning for clinical text classification: is it better than random sampling?
Figueroa, Rosa L; Ngo, Long H; Goryachev, Sergey; Wiechmann, Eduardo P
2012-01-01
Objective This study explores active learning algorithms as a way to reduce the requirements for large training sets in medical text classification tasks. Design Three existing active learning algorithms (distance-based (DIST), diversity-based (DIV), and a combination of both (CMB)) were used to classify text from five datasets. The performance of these algorithms was compared to that of passive learning on the five datasets. We then conducted a novel investigation of the interaction between dataset characteristics and the performance results. Measurements Classification accuracy and area under receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for each algorithm at different sample sizes were generated. The performance of active learning algorithms was compared with that of passive learning using a weighted mean of paired differences. To determine why the performance varies on different datasets, we measured the diversity and uncertainty of each dataset using relative entropy and correlated the results with the performance differences. Results The DIST and CMB algorithms performed better than passive learning. With a statistical significance level set at 0.05, DIST outperformed passive learning in all five datasets, while CMB was found to be better than passive learning in four datasets. We found strong correlations between the dataset diversity and the DIV performance, as well as the dataset uncertainty and the performance of the DIST algorithm. Conclusion For medical text classification, appropriate active learning algorithms can yield performance comparable to that of passive learning with considerably smaller training sets. In particular, our results suggest that DIV performs better on data with higher diversity and DIST on data with lower uncertainty. PMID:22707743
Statistical behaviour of adaptive multilevel splitting algorithms in simple models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rolland, Joran; Simonnet, Eric
2015-01-01
Adaptive multilevel splitting algorithms have been introduced rather recently for estimating tail distributions in a fast and efficient way. In particular, they can be used for computing the so-called reactive trajectories corresponding to direct transitions from one metastable state to another. The algorithm is based on successive selection–mutation steps performed on the system in a controlled way. It has two intrinsic parameters, the number of particles/trajectories and the reaction coordinate used for discriminating good or bad trajectories. We investigate first the convergence in law of the algorithm as a function of the timestep for several simple stochastic models. Second, we consider the average duration of reactive trajectories for which no theoretical predictions exist. The most important aspect of this work concerns some systems with two degrees of freedom. They are studied in detail as a function of the reaction coordinate in the asymptotic regime where the number of trajectories goes to infinity. We show that during phase transitions, the statistics of the algorithm deviate significatively from known theoretical results when using non-optimal reaction coordinates. In this case, the variance of the algorithm is peaking at the transition and the convergence of the algorithm can be much slower than the usual expected central limit behaviour. The duration of trajectories is affected as well. Moreover, reactive trajectories do not correspond to the most probable ones. Such behaviour disappears when using the optimal reaction coordinate called committor as predicted by the theory. We finally investigate a three-state Markov chain which reproduces this phenomenon and show logarithmic convergence of the trajectory durations
MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD CLASSIFICATION OF HIGH-RESOLUTION SAR IMAGES IN URBAN AREA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Soheili Majd
2012-09-01
Full Text Available In this work, we propose a state-of-the-art on statistical analysis of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR data, through the modeling of several indices. We concentrate on eight ground classes which have been carried out from amplitudes, co-polarisation ratio, depolarization ratios, and other polarimetric descriptors. To study their different statistical behaviours, we consider Gauss, log- normal, Beta I, Weibull, Gamma, and Fisher statistical models and estimate their parameters using three methods: method of moments (MoM, maximum-likelihood (ML methodology, and log-cumulants method (MoML. Then, we study the opportunity of introducing this information in an adapted supervised classification scheme based on Maximum–Likelihood and Fisher pdf. Our work relies on an image of a suburban area, acquired by the airborne RAMSES SAR sensor of ONERA. The results prove the potential of such data to discriminate urban surfaces and show the usefulness of adapting any classical classification algorithm however classification maps present a persistant class confusion between flat gravelled or concrete roofs and trees.
Fall detection using supervised machine learning algorithms: A comparative study
Zerrouki, Nabil; Harrou, Fouzi; Houacine, Amrane; Sun, Ying
2017-01-01
Fall incidents are considered as the leading cause of disability and even mortality among older adults. To address this problem, fall detection and prevention fields receive a lot of intention over the past years and attracted many researcher efforts. We present in the current study an overall performance comparison between fall detection systems using the most popular machine learning approaches which are: Naïve Bayes, K nearest neighbor, neural network, and support vector machine. The analysis of the classification power associated to these most widely utilized algorithms is conducted on two fall detection databases namely FDD and URFD. Since the performance of the classification algorithm is inherently dependent on the features, we extracted and used the same features for all classifiers. The classification evaluation is conducted using different state of the art statistical measures such as the overall accuracy, the F-measure coefficient, and the area under ROC curve (AUC) value.
Fall detection using supervised machine learning algorithms: A comparative study
Zerrouki, Nabil
2017-01-05
Fall incidents are considered as the leading cause of disability and even mortality among older adults. To address this problem, fall detection and prevention fields receive a lot of intention over the past years and attracted many researcher efforts. We present in the current study an overall performance comparison between fall detection systems using the most popular machine learning approaches which are: Naïve Bayes, K nearest neighbor, neural network, and support vector machine. The analysis of the classification power associated to these most widely utilized algorithms is conducted on two fall detection databases namely FDD and URFD. Since the performance of the classification algorithm is inherently dependent on the features, we extracted and used the same features for all classifiers. The classification evaluation is conducted using different state of the art statistical measures such as the overall accuracy, the F-measure coefficient, and the area under ROC curve (AUC) value.
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Robert J Hickey
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: As an alternative to DNA microarrays, mass spectrometry based analysis of proteomic patterns has shown great potential in cancer diagnosis. The ultimate application of this technique in clinical settings relies on the advancement of the technology itself and the maturity of the computational tools used to analyze the data. A number of computational algorithms constructed on different principles are available for the classification of disease status based on proteomic patterns. Nevertheless, few studies have addressed the difference in the performance of these approaches. In this report, we describe a comparative case study on the classification accuracy of hepatocellular carcinoma based on the serum proteomic pattern generated from a Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI mass spectrometer.Methods: Nine supervised classifi cation algorithms are implemented in R software and compared for the classification accuracy.Results: We found that the support vector machine with radial function is preferable as a tool for classification of hepatocellular carcinoma using features in SELDI mass spectra. Among the rest of the methods, random forest and prediction analysis of microarrays have better performance. A permutation-based technique reveals that the support vector machine with a radial function seems intrinsically superior in learning from the training data since it has a lower prediction error than others when there is essentially no differential signal. On the other hand, the performance of the random forest and prediction analysis of microarrays rely on their capability of capturing the signals with substantial differentiation between groups.Conclusions: Our finding is similar to a previous study, where classification methods based on the Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI mass spectrometry are compared for the prediction accuracy of ovarian cancer. The support vector machine, random forest and prediction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
In microarray-based cancer classification, gene selection is an important issue owing to the large number of variables and small number of samples as well as its non-linearity. It is difficult to get satisfying results by using conventional linear statistical methods. Recursive feature elimination based on support vector machine (SVM RFE) is an effective algorithm for gene selection and cancer classification, which are integrated into a consistent framework. In this paper, we propose a new method to select parameters of the aforementioned algorithm implemented with Gaussian kernel SVMs as better alternatives to the common practice of selecting the apparently best parameters by using a genetic algorithm to search for a couple of optimal parameter. Fast implementation issues for this method are also discussed for pragmatic reasons. The proposed method was tested on two representative hereditary breast cancer and acute leukaemia datasets. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method performs well in selecting genes and achieves high classification accuracies with these genes.
Slow Learner Prediction Using Multi-Variate Naïve Bayes Classification Algorithm
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Shiwani Rana
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Machine Learning is a field of computer science that learns from data by studying algorithms and their constructions. In machine learning, for specific inputs, algorithms help to make predictions. Classification is a supervised learning approach, which maps a data item into predefined classes. For predicting slow learners in an institute, a modified Naïve Bayes algorithm implemented. The implementation is carried sing Python. It takes into account a combination of likewise multi-valued attributes. A dataset of the 60 students of BE (Information Technology Third Semester for the subject of Digital Electronics of University Institute of Engineering and Technology (UIET, Panjab University (PU, Chandigarh, India is taken to carry out the simulations. The analysis is done by choosing most significant forty-eight attributes. The experimental results have shown that the modified Naïve Bayes model has outperformed the Naïve Bayes Classifier in accuracy but requires significant improvement in the terms of elapsed time. By using Modified Naïve Bayes approach, the accuracy is found out to be 71.66% whereas it is calculated 66.66% using existing Naïve Bayes model. Further, a comparison is drawn by using WEKA tool. Here, an accuracy of Naïve Bayes is obtained as 58.33 %.
A Novel Classification Algorithm Based on Incremental Semi-Supervised Support Vector Machine.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Gao
Full Text Available For current computational intelligence techniques, a major challenge is how to learn new concepts in changing environment. Traditional learning schemes could not adequately address this problem due to a lack of dynamic data selection mechanism. In this paper, inspired by human learning process, a novel classification algorithm based on incremental semi-supervised support vector machine (SVM is proposed. Through the analysis of prediction confidence of samples and data distribution in a changing environment, a "soft-start" approach, a data selection mechanism and a data cleaning mechanism are designed, which complete the construction of our incremental semi-supervised learning system. Noticeably, with the ingenious design procedure of our proposed algorithm, the computation complexity is reduced effectively. In addition, for the possible appearance of some new labeled samples in the learning process, a detailed analysis is also carried out. The results show that our algorithm does not rely on the model of sample distribution, has an extremely low rate of introducing wrong semi-labeled samples and can effectively make use of the unlabeled samples to enrich the knowledge system of classifier and improve the accuracy rate. Moreover, our method also has outstanding generalization performance and the ability to overcome the concept drift in a changing environment.
Automated Tissue Classification Framework for Reproducible Chronic Wound Assessment
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Rashmi Mukherjee
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to develop a computer assisted tissue classification (granulation, necrotic, and slough scheme for chronic wound (CW evaluation using medical image processing and statistical machine learning techniques. The red-green-blue (RGB wound images grabbed by normal digital camera were first transformed into HSI (hue, saturation, and intensity color space and subsequently the “S” component of HSI color channels was selected as it provided higher contrast. Wound areas from 6 different types of CW were segmented from whole images using fuzzy divergence based thresholding by minimizing edge ambiguity. A set of color and textural features describing granulation, necrotic, and slough tissues in the segmented wound area were extracted using various mathematical techniques. Finally, statistical learning algorithms, namely, Bayesian classification and support vector machine (SVM, were trained and tested for wound tissue classification in different CW images. The performance of the wound area segmentation protocol was further validated by ground truth images labeled by clinical experts. It was observed that SVM with 3rd order polynomial kernel provided the highest accuracies, that is, 86.94%, 90.47%, and 75.53%, for classifying granulation, slough, and necrotic tissues, respectively. The proposed automated tissue classification technique achieved the highest overall accuracy, that is, 87.61%, with highest kappa statistic value (0.793.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mustafa Serter Uzer
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper offers a hybrid approach that uses the artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm for feature selection and support vector machines for classification. The purpose of this paper is to test the effect of elimination of the unimportant and obsolete features of the datasets on the success of the classification, using the SVM classifier. The developed approach conventionally used in liver diseases and diabetes diagnostics, which are commonly observed and reduce the quality of life, is developed. For the diagnosis of these diseases, hepatitis, liver disorders and diabetes datasets from the UCI database were used, and the proposed system reached a classification accuracies of 94.92%, 74.81%, and 79.29%, respectively. For these datasets, the classification accuracies were obtained by the help of the 10-fold cross-validation method. The results show that the performance of the method is highly successful compared to other results attained and seems very promising for pattern recognition applications.
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Alfonso Antón
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Alfonso Antón1,2,3, Marta Castany1,2, Marta Pazos-Lopez1,2, Ruben Cuadrado3, Ana Flores3, Miguel Castilla11Hospital de la Esperanza-Hospital del Mar (IMAS, Barcelona, Spain; 2Institut Català de la Retina (ICR, Barcelona, Spain. Glaucoma Department; 3Instituto Universitario de Oftalmobiología Aplicada (IOBA, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, EspañaPurpose: To assess the reproducibility of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL measurements and the variability of the probabilistic classification algorithm in normal, hypertensive and glaucomatous eyes using Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT.Methods: Forty-nine eyes (13 normal, 17 ocular hypertensive [OHT] and 19 glaucomatous of 49 subjects were included in this study. RNFL was determined with Stratus OCT using the standard protocol RNFL thickness 3.4. Three different images of each eye were taken consecutively during the same session. To evaluate OCT reproducibility, coefficient of variation (COV and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC were calculated for average thickness (AvgT, superior average thickness (Savg, and inferior average thickness (Iavg parameters. The variability of the results of the probabilistic classification algorithm, based on the OCT normative database, was also analyzed. The percentage of eyes with changes in the category assigned was calculated for each group.Results: The 50th percentile of COV was 2.96%, 4.00%, and 4.31% for AvgT, Savg, and Iavg, respectively. Glaucoma group presented the largest COV for all three parameters (3.87%, 5.55%, 7.82%. ICC were greater than 0.75 for almost all measures (except from the inferior thickness parameter in the normal group; ICC = 0.64, 95% CI 0.334–0.857. Regarding the probabilistic classification algorithm for the three parameters (AvgT, Savg, Iavg, the percentage of eyes without color-code category changes among the three images was as follows: normal group, 100%, 84.6% and 92%; OHT group, 89.5%, 52.7%, 79%; and
2010-09-16
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the... Public Health Data Standards Staff, NCHS, 3311 Toledo Road, Room 2337, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782, e...
Partitional clustering algorithms
2015-01-01
This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Tamimi
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Automatic building detection from High Spatial Resolution (HSR images is one of the most important issues in Remote Sensing (RS. Due to the limited number of spectral bands in HSR images, using other features will lead to improve accuracy. By adding these features, the presence probability of dependent features will be increased, which leads to accuracy reduction. In addition, some parameters should be determined in Support Vector Machine (SVM classification. Therefore, it is necessary to simultaneously determine classification parameters and select independent features according to image type. Optimization algorithm is an efficient method to solve this problem. On the other hand, pixel-based classification faces several challenges such as producing salt-paper results and high computational time in high dimensional data. Hence, in this paper, a novel method is proposed to optimize object-based SVM classification by applying continuous Ant Colony Optimization (ACO algorithm. The advantages of the proposed method are relatively high automation level, independency of image scene and type, post processing reduction for building edge reconstruction and accuracy improvement. The proposed method was evaluated by pixel-based SVM and Random Forest (RF classification in terms of accuracy. In comparison with optimized pixel-based SVM classification, the results showed that the proposed method improved quality factor and overall accuracy by 17% and 10%, respectively. Also, in the proposed method, Kappa coefficient was improved by 6% rather than RF classification. Time processing of the proposed method was relatively low because of unit of image analysis (image object. These showed the superiority of the proposed method in terms of time and accuracy.
Hohn, M. Ed; Nuhfer, E.B.; Vinopal, R.J.; Klanderman, D.S.
1980-01-01
Classifying very fine-grained rocks through fabric elements provides information about depositional environments, but is subject to the biases of visual taxonomy. To evaluate the statistical significance of an empirical classification of very fine-grained rocks, samples from Devonian shales in four cored wells in West Virginia and Virginia were measured for 15 variables: quartz, illite, pyrite and expandable clays determined by X-ray diffraction; total sulfur, organic content, inorganic carbon, matrix density, bulk density, porosity, silt, as well as density, sonic travel time, resistivity, and ??-ray response measured from well logs. The four lithologic types comprised: (1) sharply banded shale, (2) thinly laminated shale, (3) lenticularly laminated shale, and (4) nonbanded shale. Univariate and multivariate analyses of variance showed that the lithologic classification reflects significant differences for the variables measured, difference that can be detected independently of stratigraphic effects. Little-known statistical methods found useful in this work included: the multivariate analysis of variance with more than one effect, simultaneous plotting of samples and variables on canonical variates, and the use of parametric ANOVA and MANOVA on ranked data. ?? 1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation.
A New Method for Solving Supervised Data Classification Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Parvaneh Shabanzadeh
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Supervised data classification is one of the techniques used to extract nontrivial information from data. Classification is a widely used technique in various fields, including data mining, industry, medicine, science, and law. This paper considers a new algorithm for supervised data classification problems associated with the cluster analysis. The mathematical formulations for this algorithm are based on nonsmooth, nonconvex optimization. A new algorithm for solving this optimization problem is utilized. The new algorithm uses a derivative-free technique, with robustness and efficiency. To improve classification performance and efficiency in generating classification model, a new feature selection algorithm based on techniques of convex programming is suggested. Proposed methods are tested on real-world datasets. Results of numerical experiments have been presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
Asynchronous data-driven classification of weapon systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin, Xin; Mukherjee, Kushal; Gupta, Shalabh; Ray, Asok; Phoha, Shashi; Damarla, Thyagaraju
2009-01-01
This communication addresses real-time weapon classification by analysis of asynchronous acoustic data, collected from microphones on a sensor network. The weapon classification algorithm consists of two parts: (i) feature extraction from time-series data using symbolic dynamic filtering (SDF), and (ii) pattern classification based on the extracted features using the language measure (LM) and support vector machine (SVM). The proposed algorithm has been tested on field data, generated by firing of two types of rifles. The results of analysis demonstrate high accuracy and fast execution of the pattern classification algorithm with low memory requirements. Potential applications include simultaneous shooter localization and weapon classification with soldier-wearable networked sensors. (rapid communication)
Oscillating feature subset search algorithm for text categorization
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Novovičová, Jana; Somol, Petr; Pudil, Pavel
2006-01-01
Roč. 44, č. 4225 (2006), s. 578-587 ISSN 0302-9743 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2075302; GA MŠk 2C06019 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : text classification * feature selection * oscillating search algorithm * Bhattacharyya distance Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005
Raymond L. Czaplewski
2015-01-01
Wall-to-wall remotely sensed data are increasingly available to monitor landscape dynamics over large geographic areas. However, statistical monitoring programs that use post-stratification cannot fully utilize those sensor data. The Kalman filter (KF) is an alternative statistical estimator. I develop a new KF algorithm that is numerically robust with large numbers of...
A Separation Algorithm for Sources with Temporal Structure Only Using Second-order Statistics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.G. Wang
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Unlike conventional blind source separation (BSS deals with independent identically distributed (i.i.d. sources, this paper addresses the separation from mixtures of sources with temporal structure, such as linear autocorrelations. Many sequential extraction algorithms have been reported, resulting in inevitable cumulated errors introduced by the deflation scheme. We propose a robust separation algorithm to recover original sources simultaneously, through a joint diagonalizer of several average delayed covariance matrices at positions of the optimal time delay and its integers. The proposed algorithm is computationally simple and efficient, since it is based on the second-order statistics only. Extensive simulation results confirm the validity and high performance of the algorithm. Compared with related extraction algorithms, its separation signal-to-noise rate for a desired source can reach 20dB higher, and it seems rather insensitive to the estimation error of the time delay.
Implementation and statistical analysis of Metropolis algorithm for SU(3)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katznelson, E.; Nobile, A.
1984-12-01
In this paper we study the statistical properties of an implementation of the Metropolis algorithm for SU(3) gauge theory. It is shown that the results have normal distribution. We demonstrate that in this case error analysis can be carried on in a simple way and we show that applying it to both the measurement strategy and the output data analysis has an important influence on the performance and reliability of the simulation. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Viswanath Satish
2012-02-01
of high-dimensional biomedical data classification and segmentation problems. Our generalizable framework allows for improved representation and classification in the context of both imaging and non-imaging data. The algorithm offers a promising solution to problems that currently plague DR methods, and may allow for extension to other areas of biomedical data analysis.
Statistical-mechanics analysis of Gaussian labeled-unlabeled classification problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Toshiyuki
2013-01-01
The labeled-unlabeled classification problem in semi-supervised learning is studied via statistical-mechanics approach. We analytically investigate performance of a learner with an equal-weight mixture of two symmetrically-located Gaussians, performing posterior mean estimation of the parameter vector on the basis of a dataset consisting of labeled and unlabeled data generated from the same probability model as that assumed by the learner. Under the assumption of replica symmetry, we have analytically obtained a set of saddle-point equations, which allows us to numerically evaluate performance of the learner. On the basis of the analytical result we have observed interesting phenomena, in particular the coexistence of good and bad solutions, which may happen when the number of unlabeled data is relatively large compared with that of labeled data
Classification of smooth Fano polytopes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Øbro, Mikkel
A simplicial lattice polytope containing the origin in the interior is called a smooth Fano polytope, if the vertices of every facet is a basis of the lattice. The study of smooth Fano polytopes is motivated by their connection to toric varieties. The thesis concerns the classification of smooth...... Fano polytopes up to isomorphism. A smooth Fano -polytope can have at most vertices. In case of vertices an explicit classification is known. The thesis contains the classification in case of vertices. Classifications of smooth Fano -polytopes for fixed exist only for . In the thesis an algorithm...... for the classification of smooth Fano -polytopes for any given is presented. The algorithm has been implemented and used to obtain the complete classification for ....
An Efficient Forward-Reverse EM Algorithm for Statistical Inference in Stochastic Reaction Networks
Bayer, Christian; Moraes, Alvaro; Tempone, Raul; Vilanova, Pedro
2016-01-01
In this work [1], we present an extension of the forward-reverse algorithm by Bayer and Schoenmakers [2] to the context of stochastic reaction networks (SRNs). We then apply this bridge-generation technique to the statistical inference problem
The efficiency of the RULES-4 classification learning algorithm in predicting the density of agents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ziad Salem
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Learning is the act of obtaining new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviours, skills or preferences. The ability to learn is found in humans, other organisms and some machines. Learning is always based on some sort of observations or data such as examples, direct experience or instruction. This paper presents a classification algorithm to learn the density of agents in an arena based on the measurements of six proximity sensors of a combined actuator sensor units (CASUs. Rules are presented that were induced by the learning algorithm that was trained with data-sets based on the CASU’s sensor data streams collected during a number of experiments with “Bristlebots (agents in the arena (environment”. It was found that a set of rules generated by the learning algorithm is able to predict the number of bristlebots in the arena based on the CASU’s sensor readings with satisfying accuracy.
Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Wu, Zhuoting
2012-01-01
The overarching goal of this research was to develop and demonstrate an automated Cropland Classification Algorithm (ACCA) that will rapidly, routinely, and accurately classify agricultural cropland extent, areas, and characteristics (e.g., irrigated vs. rainfed) over large areas such as a country or a region through combination of multi-sensor remote sensing and secondary data. In this research, a rule-based ACCA was conceptualized, developed, and demonstrated for the country of Tajikistan u...
The linear attenuation coefficients as features of multiple energy CT image classification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Homem, M.R.P.; Mascarenhas, N.D.A.; Cruvinel, P.E.
2000-01-01
We present in this paper an analysis of the linear attenuation coefficients as useful features of single and multiple energy CT images with the use of statistical pattern classification tools. We analyzed four CT images through two pointwise classifiers (the first classifier is based on the maximum-likelihood criterion and the second classifier is based on the k-means clustering algorithm) and one contextual Bayesian classifier (ICM algorithm - Iterated Conditional Modes) using an a priori Potts-Strauss model. A feature extraction procedure using the Jeffries-Matusita (J-M) distance and the Karhunen-Loeve transformation was also performed. Both the classification and the feature selection procedures were found to be in agreement with the predicted discrimination given by the separation of the linear attenuation coefficient curves for different materials
Feature selection and nearest centroid classification for protein mass spectrometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Levner Ilya
2005-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of mass spectrometry as a proteomics tool is poised to revolutionize early disease diagnosis and biomarker identification. Unfortunately, before standard supervised classification algorithms can be employed, the "curse of dimensionality" needs to be solved. Due to the sheer amount of information contained within the mass spectra, most standard machine learning techniques cannot be directly applied. Instead, feature selection techniques are used to first reduce the dimensionality of the input space and thus enable the subsequent use of classification algorithms. This paper examines feature selection techniques for proteomic mass spectrometry. Results This study examines the performance of the nearest centroid classifier coupled with the following feature selection algorithms. Student-t test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and the P-test are univariate statistics used for filter-based feature ranking. From the wrapper approaches we tested sequential forward selection and a modified version of sequential backward selection. Embedded approaches included shrunken nearest centroid and a novel version of boosting based feature selection we developed. In addition, we tested several dimensionality reduction approaches, namely principal component analysis and principal component analysis coupled with linear discriminant analysis. To fairly assess each algorithm, evaluation was done using stratified cross validation with an internal leave-one-out cross-validation loop for automated feature selection. Comprehensive experiments, conducted on five popular cancer data sets, revealed that the less advocated sequential forward selection and boosted feature selection algorithms produce the most consistent results across all data sets. In contrast, the state-of-the-art performance reported on isolated data sets for several of the studied algorithms, does not hold across all data sets. Conclusion This study tested a number of popular feature
Improving permafrost distribution modelling using feature selection algorithms
Deluigi, Nicola; Lambiel, Christophe; Kanevski, Mikhail
2016-04-01
The availability of an increasing number of spatial data on the occurrence of mountain permafrost allows the employment of machine learning (ML) classification algorithms for modelling the distribution of the phenomenon. One of the major problems when dealing with high-dimensional dataset is the number of input features (variables) involved. Application of ML classification algorithms to this large number of variables leads to the risk of overfitting, with the consequence of a poor generalization/prediction. For this reason, applying feature selection (FS) techniques helps simplifying the amount of factors required and improves the knowledge on adopted features and their relation with the studied phenomenon. Moreover, taking away irrelevant or redundant variables from the dataset effectively improves the quality of the ML prediction. This research deals with a comparative analysis of permafrost distribution models supported by FS variable importance assessment. The input dataset (dimension = 20-25, 10 m spatial resolution) was constructed using landcover maps, climate data and DEM derived variables (altitude, aspect, slope, terrain curvature, solar radiation, etc.). It was completed with permafrost evidences (geophysical and thermal data and rock glacier inventories) that serve as training permafrost data. Used FS algorithms informed about variables that appeared less statistically important for permafrost presence/absence. Three different algorithms were compared: Information Gain (IG), Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS) and Random Forest (RF). IG is a filter technique that evaluates the worth of a predictor by measuring the information gain with respect to the permafrost presence/absence. Conversely, CFS is a wrapper technique that evaluates the worth of a subset of predictors by considering the individual predictive ability of each variable along with the degree of redundancy between them. Finally, RF is a ML algorithm that performs FS as part of its
Weakly supervised classification in high energy physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dery, Lucio Mwinmaarong [Physics Department, Stanford University,Stanford, CA, 94305 (United States); Nachman, Benjamin [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Rubbo, Francesco; Schwartzman, Ariel [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA, 94025 (United States)
2017-05-29
As machine learning algorithms become increasingly sophisticated to exploit subtle features of the data, they often become more dependent on simulations. This paper presents a new approach called weakly supervised classification in which class proportions are the only input into the machine learning algorithm. Using one of the most challenging binary classification tasks in high energy physics — quark versus gluon tagging — we show that weakly supervised classification can match the performance of fully supervised algorithms. Furthermore, by design, the new algorithm is insensitive to any mis-modeling of discriminating features in the data by the simulation. Weakly supervised classification is a general procedure that can be applied to a wide variety of learning problems to boost performance and robustness when detailed simulations are not reliable or not available.
Weakly supervised classification in high energy physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dery, Lucio Mwinmaarong; Nachman, Benjamin; Rubbo, Francesco; Schwartzman, Ariel
2017-01-01
As machine learning algorithms become increasingly sophisticated to exploit subtle features of the data, they often become more dependent on simulations. This paper presents a new approach called weakly supervised classification in which class proportions are the only input into the machine learning algorithm. Using one of the most challenging binary classification tasks in high energy physics — quark versus gluon tagging — we show that weakly supervised classification can match the performance of fully supervised algorithms. Furthermore, by design, the new algorithm is insensitive to any mis-modeling of discriminating features in the data by the simulation. Weakly supervised classification is a general procedure that can be applied to a wide variety of learning problems to boost performance and robustness when detailed simulations are not reliable or not available.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiayi Wu
Full Text Available Structural heterogeneity in single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM data represents a major challenge for high-resolution structure determination. Unsupervised classification may serve as the first step in the assessment of structural heterogeneity. However, traditional algorithms for unsupervised classification, such as K-means clustering and maximum likelihood optimization, may classify images into wrong classes with decreasing signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR in the image data, yet demand increased computational costs. Overcoming these limitations requires further development of clustering algorithms for high-performance cryo-EM data processing. Here we introduce an unsupervised single-particle clustering algorithm derived from a statistical manifold learning framework called generative topographic mapping (GTM. We show that unsupervised GTM clustering improves classification accuracy by about 40% in the absence of input references for data with lower SNRs. Applications to several experimental datasets suggest that our algorithm can detect subtle structural differences among classes via a hierarchical clustering strategy. After code optimization over a high-performance computing (HPC environment, our software implementation was able to generate thousands of reference-free class averages within hours in a massively parallel fashion, which allows a significant improvement on ab initio 3D reconstruction and assists in the computational purification of homogeneous datasets for high-resolution visualization.
Wu, Jiayi; Ma, Yong-Bei; Congdon, Charles; Brett, Bevin; Chen, Shuobing; Xu, Yaofang; Ouyang, Qi; Mao, Youdong
2017-01-01
Structural heterogeneity in single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data represents a major challenge for high-resolution structure determination. Unsupervised classification may serve as the first step in the assessment of structural heterogeneity. However, traditional algorithms for unsupervised classification, such as K-means clustering and maximum likelihood optimization, may classify images into wrong classes with decreasing signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) in the image data, yet demand increased computational costs. Overcoming these limitations requires further development of clustering algorithms for high-performance cryo-EM data processing. Here we introduce an unsupervised single-particle clustering algorithm derived from a statistical manifold learning framework called generative topographic mapping (GTM). We show that unsupervised GTM clustering improves classification accuracy by about 40% in the absence of input references for data with lower SNRs. Applications to several experimental datasets suggest that our algorithm can detect subtle structural differences among classes via a hierarchical clustering strategy. After code optimization over a high-performance computing (HPC) environment, our software implementation was able to generate thousands of reference-free class averages within hours in a massively parallel fashion, which allows a significant improvement on ab initio 3D reconstruction and assists in the computational purification of homogeneous datasets for high-resolution visualization.
Statistics that learn: can logistic discriminant analysis improve diagnosis in brain SPECT?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behin-Ain, S.; Barnden, L.; Kwiatek, R.; Del Fante, P.; Casse, R.; Burnet, R.; Chew, G.; Kitchener, M.; Boundy, K.; Unger, S.
2002-01-01
Full text: Logistic discriminant analysis (LDA) is a statistical technique capable of discriminating individuals within a diseased group against normals. It also enables classification of various diseases within a group of patients. This technique provides a quantitative, automated and non-subjective clinical diagnostic tool. Based on a population known to have the disease and a normal control group, an algorithm was developed and trained to identify regions in the human brain responsible for the disease in question. The algorithm outputs a statistical map representing diseased or normal probability on a voxel or cluster basis from which an index is generated for each subject. The algorithm also generates a set of coefficients which is used to generate an index for the purpose of classification of new subjects. The results are comparable and complement those of Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) which employs a more common linear discriminant technique. The results are presented for brain SPECT studies of two diseases: chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM). A 100% specificity and 94% sensitivity is achieved for the CFS study (similar to SPM results) and for the FM study 82% specificity and 94% sensitivity is achieved with corresponding SPM results showing 90% specificity and 82% sensitivity. The results encourages application of LDA for discrimination of new single subjects as well as of diseased and normal groups. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc
PHOTOMETRIC SUPERNOVA CLASSIFICATION WITH MACHINE LEARNING
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lochner, Michelle; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Lahav, Ofer; Winter, Max K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); McEwen, Jason D., E-mail: dr.michelle.lochner@gmail.com [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)
2016-08-01
Automated photometric supernova classification has become an active area of research in recent years in light of current and upcoming imaging surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, given that spectroscopic confirmation of type for all supernovae discovered will be impossible. Here, we develop a multi-faceted classification pipeline, combining existing and new approaches. Our pipeline consists of two stages: extracting descriptive features from the light curves and classification using a machine learning algorithm. Our feature extraction methods vary from model-dependent techniques, namely SALT2 fits, to more independent techniques that fit parametric models to curves, to a completely model-independent wavelet approach. We cover a range of representative machine learning algorithms, including naive Bayes, k -nearest neighbors, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, and boosted decision trees (BDTs). We test the pipeline on simulated multi-band DES light curves from the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. Using the commonly used area under the curve (AUC) of the Receiver Operating Characteristic as a metric, we find that the SALT2 fits and the wavelet approach, with the BDTs algorithm, each achieve an AUC of 0.98, where 1 represents perfect classification. We find that a representative training set is essential for good classification, whatever the feature set or algorithm, with implications for spectroscopic follow-up. Importantly, we find that by using either the SALT2 or the wavelet feature sets with a BDT algorithm, accurate classification is possible purely from light curve data, without the need for any redshift information.
PHOTOMETRIC SUPERNOVA CLASSIFICATION WITH MACHINE LEARNING
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lochner, Michelle; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Lahav, Ofer; Winter, Max K.; McEwen, Jason D.
2016-01-01
Automated photometric supernova classification has become an active area of research in recent years in light of current and upcoming imaging surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, given that spectroscopic confirmation of type for all supernovae discovered will be impossible. Here, we develop a multi-faceted classification pipeline, combining existing and new approaches. Our pipeline consists of two stages: extracting descriptive features from the light curves and classification using a machine learning algorithm. Our feature extraction methods vary from model-dependent techniques, namely SALT2 fits, to more independent techniques that fit parametric models to curves, to a completely model-independent wavelet approach. We cover a range of representative machine learning algorithms, including naive Bayes, k -nearest neighbors, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, and boosted decision trees (BDTs). We test the pipeline on simulated multi-band DES light curves from the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. Using the commonly used area under the curve (AUC) of the Receiver Operating Characteristic as a metric, we find that the SALT2 fits and the wavelet approach, with the BDTs algorithm, each achieve an AUC of 0.98, where 1 represents perfect classification. We find that a representative training set is essential for good classification, whatever the feature set or algorithm, with implications for spectroscopic follow-up. Importantly, we find that by using either the SALT2 or the wavelet feature sets with a BDT algorithm, accurate classification is possible purely from light curve data, without the need for any redshift information.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsumoto, S.; Ohno, Y.; Takenaka, D.; Sugimura, K.; Yamagata, H.
2007-01-01
Classification of the nodule candidates in computer-aided detection (CAD) of lung nodules in CT images was addressed by constructing a nonlinear discriminant function using a kernel-based learning algorithm called the kernel recursive least-squares (KRLS) algorithm. Using the nodule candidates derived from the processing by a CAD scheme of 100 CT datasets containing 253 non-calcified nodules or 3 mm or larger as determined by the consensus of two thoracic radiologists, the following trial were carried out 100 times: by randomly selecting 50 datasets for training, a nonlinear discriminant function was obtained using the nodule candidates in the training datasets and tested with the remaining candidates; for comparison, a rule-based classification was tested in a similar manner. At the number of false positives per case of about 5, the nonlinear classification method showed an improved sensitivity of 80% (mean over the 100 trials) compared with 74% of the rule-based method. (orig.)
Schildkrout, Barbara
2016-10-01
A new nosology for mental disorders is needed as a basis for effective scientific inquiry. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases diagnoses are not natural, biological categories, and these diagnostic systems do not address mental phenomena that exist on a spectrum. Advances in neuroscience offer the hope of breakthroughs for diagnosing and treating major mental illness in the future. At present, a neuroscience-based understanding of brain/behavior relationships can reshape clinical thinking. Neuroscience literacy allows psychiatrists to formulate biologically informed psychological theories, to follow neuroscientific literature pertinent to psychiatry, and to embark on a path toward neurologically informed clinical thinking that can help move the field away from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases conceptualizations. Psychiatrists are urged to work toward attaining neuroscience literacy to prepare for and contribute to the development of a new nosology.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moscote-Salazar Luis Rafael
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Subarachnoid pleural fistulas are rare. They have been described as complications of thoracic surgery, penetrating injuries and spinal surgery, among others. We present the case of a 3-year-old female child, who suffer spinal cord trauma secondary to a car accident, developing a posterior subarachnoid pleural fistula. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a pediatric patient with subarachnoid pleural fistula resulting from closed trauma, requiring intensive multimodal management. We also present a management algorithm and a proposed classification. The diagnosis of this pathology is difficult when not associated with neurological deficit. A high degree of suspicion, multidisciplinary management and timely surgical intervention allow optimal management.
Support vector machines and evolutionary algorithms for classification single or together?
Stoean, Catalin
2014-01-01
When discussing classification, support vector machines are known to be a capable and efficient technique to learn and predict with high accuracy within a quick time frame. Yet, their black box means to do so make the practical users quite circumspect about relying on it, without much understanding of the how and why of its predictions. The question raised in this book is how can this ‘masked hero’ be made more comprehensible and friendly to the public: provide a surrogate model for its hidden optimization engine, replace the method completely or appoint a more friendly approach to tag along and offer the much desired explanations? Evolutionary algorithms can do all these and this book presents such possibilities of achieving high accuracy, comprehensibility, reasonable runtime as well as unconstrained performance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. A. Azeez
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Data compression is the process of reducing the size of a file to effectively reduce storage space and communication cost. The evolvement in technology and digital age has led to an unparalleled usage of digital files in this current decade. The usage of data has resulted to an increase in the amount of data being transmitted via various channels of data communication which has prompted the need to look into the current lossless data compression algorithms to check for their level of effectiveness so as to maximally reduce the bandwidth requirement in communication and transfer of data. Four lossless data compression algorithm: Lempel-Ziv Welch algorithm, Shannon-Fano algorithm, Adaptive Huffman algorithm and Run-Length encoding have been selected for implementation. The choice of these algorithms was based on their similarities, particularly in application areas. Their level of efficiency and effectiveness were evaluated using some set of predefined performance evaluation metrics namely compression ratio, compression factor, compression time, saving percentage, entropy and code efficiency. The algorithms implementation was done in the NetBeans Integrated Development Environment using Java as the programming language. Through the statistical analysis performed using Boxplot and ANOVA and comparison made on the four algo
Coding and classification in drug statistics – From national to global application
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marit Rønning
2009-11-01
Full Text Available SUMMARYThe Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC classification system and the defined daily dose (DDDwas developed in Norway in the early seventies. The creation of the ATC/DDD methodology was animportant basis for presenting drug utilisation statistics in a sensible way. Norway was in 1977 also thefirst country to publish national drug utilisation statistics from wholesalers on an annual basis. Thecombination of these activities in Norway in the seventies made us a pioneer country in the area of drugutilisation research. Over the years, the use of the ATC/DDD methodology has gradually increased incountries outside Norway. Since 1996, the methodology has been recommended by WHO for use ininternational drug utilisation studies. The WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodologyin Oslo handles the maintenance and development of the ATC/DDD system. The Centre is now responsiblefor the global co-ordination. After nearly 30 years of experience with ATC/DDD, the methodologyhas demonstrated its suitability in drug use research. The main challenge in the coming years is toeducate the users worldwide in how to use the methodology properly.
Comparative analysis of decision tree algorithms on quality of water contaminated with soil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mara Andrea Dota
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Agriculture, roads, animal farms and other land uses may modify the water quality from rivers, dams and other surface freshwaters. In the control of the ecological process and for environmental management, it is necessary to quickly and accurately identify surface water contamination (in areas such as rivers and dams with contaminated runoff waters coming, for example, from cultivation and urban areas. This paper presents a comparative analysis of different classification algorithms applied to the data collected from a sample of soil-contaminated water aiming to identify if the water quality classification proposed in this research agrees with reality. The sample was part of a laboratory experiment, which began with a sample of treated water added with increasing fractions of soil. The results show that the proposed classification for water quality in this scenario is coherent, because different algorithms indicated a strong statistic relationship between the classes and their instances, that is, in the classes that qualify the water sample and the values which describe each class. The proposed water classification varies from excelling to very awful (12 classes
Automatic Derivation of Statistical Data Analysis Algorithms: Planetary Nebulae and Beyond
Fischer, Bernd; Hajian, Arsen; Knuth, Kevin; Schumann, Johann
2004-04-01
AUTOBAYES is a fully automatic program synthesis system for the data analysis domain. Its input is a declarative problem description in form of a statistical model; its output is documented and optimized C/C++ code. The synthesis process relies on the combination of three key techniques. Bayesian networks are used as a compact internal representation mechanism which enables problem decompositions and guides the algorithm derivation. Program schemas are used as independently composable building blocks for the algorithm construction; they can encapsulate advanced algorithms and data structures. A symbolic-algebraic system is used to find closed-form solutions for problems and emerging subproblems. In this paper, we describe the application of AUTOBAYES to the analysis of planetary nebulae images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. We explain the system architecture, and present in detail the automatic derivation of the scientists' original analysis as well as a refined analysis using clustering models. This study demonstrates that AUTOBAYES is now mature enough so that it can be applied to realistic scientific data analysis tasks.
LDA boost classification: boosting by topics
Lei, La; Qiao, Guo; Qimin, Cao; Qitao, Li
2012-12-01
AdaBoost is an efficacious classification algorithm especially in text categorization (TC) tasks. The methodology of setting up a classifier committee and voting on the documents for classification can achieve high categorization precision. However, traditional Vector Space Model can easily lead to the curse of dimensionality and feature sparsity problems; so it affects classification performance seriously. This article proposed a novel classification algorithm called LDABoost based on boosting ideology which uses Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to modeling the feature space. Instead of using words or phrase, LDABoost use latent topics as the features. In this way, the feature dimension is significantly reduced. Improved Naïve Bayes (NB) is designed as the weaker classifier which keeps the efficiency advantage of classic NB algorithm and has higher precision. Moreover, a two-stage iterative weighted method called Cute Integration in this article is proposed for improving the accuracy by integrating weak classifiers into strong classifier in a more rational way. Mutual Information is used as metrics of weights allocation. The voting information and the categorization decision made by basis classifiers are fully utilized for generating the strong classifier. Experimental results reveals LDABoost making categorization in a low-dimensional space, it has higher accuracy than traditional AdaBoost algorithms and many other classic classification algorithms. Moreover, its runtime consumption is lower than different versions of AdaBoost, TC algorithms based on support vector machine and Neural Networks.
Gendron, Marlin Lee
During Mine Warfare (MIW) operations, MIW analysts perform change detection by visually comparing historical sidescan sonar imagery (SSI) collected by a sidescan sonar with recently collected SSI in an attempt to identify objects (which might be explosive mines) placed at sea since the last time the area was surveyed. This dissertation presents a data structure and three algorithms, developed by the author, that are part of an automated change detection and classification (ACDC) system. MIW analysts at the Naval Oceanographic Office, to reduce the amount of time to perform change detection, are currently using ACDC. The dissertation introductory chapter gives background information on change detection, ACDC, and describes how SSI is produced from raw sonar data. Chapter 2 presents the author's Geospatial Bitmap (GB) data structure, which is capable of storing information geographically and is utilized by the three algorithms. This chapter shows that a GB data structure used in a polygon-smoothing algorithm ran between 1.3--48.4x faster than a sparse matrix data structure. Chapter 3 describes the GB clustering algorithm, which is the author's repeatable, order-independent method for clustering. Results from tests performed in this chapter show that the time to cluster a set of points is not affected by the distribution or the order of the points. In Chapter 4, the author presents his real-time computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithm that automatically detects mine-like objects on the seafloor in SSI. The author ran his GB-based CAD algorithm on real SSI data, and results of these tests indicate that his real-time CAD algorithm performs comparably to or better than other non-real-time CAD algorithms. The author presents his computer-aided search (CAS) algorithm in Chapter 5. CAS helps MIW analysts locate mine-like features that are geospatially close to previously detected features. A comparison between the CAS and a great circle distance algorithm shows that the
Lossless Compression of Classification-Map Data
Hua, Xie; Klimesh, Matthew
2009-01-01
A lossless image-data-compression algorithm intended specifically for application to classification-map data is based on prediction, context modeling, and entropy coding. The algorithm was formulated, in consideration of the differences between classification maps and ordinary images of natural scenes, so as to be capable of compressing classification- map data more effectively than do general-purpose image-data-compression algorithms. Classification maps are typically generated from remote-sensing images acquired by instruments aboard aircraft (see figure) and spacecraft. A classification map is a synthetic image that summarizes information derived from one or more original remote-sensing image(s) of a scene. The value assigned to each pixel in such a map is the index of a class that represents some type of content deduced from the original image data for example, a type of vegetation, a mineral, or a body of water at the corresponding location in the scene. When classification maps are generated onboard the aircraft or spacecraft, it is desirable to compress the classification-map data in order to reduce the volume of data that must be transmitted to a ground station.
Effects of supervised Self Organising Maps parameters on classification performance.
Ballabio, Davide; Vasighi, Mahdi; Filzmoser, Peter
2013-02-26
Self Organising Maps (SOMs) are one of the most powerful learning strategies among neural networks algorithms. SOMs have several adaptable parameters and the selection of appropriate network architectures is required in order to make accurate predictions. The major disadvantage of SOMs is probably due to the network optimisation, since this procedure can be often time-expensive. Effects of network size, training epochs and learning rate on the classification performance of SOMs are known, whereas the effect of other parameters (type of SOMs, weights initialisation, training algorithm, topology and boundary conditions) are not so obvious. This study was addressed to analyse the effect of SOMs parameters on the network classification performance, as well as on their computational times, taking into consideration a significant number of real datasets, in order to achieve a comprehensive statistical comparison. Parameters were contemporaneously evaluated by means of an approach based on the design of experiments, which enabled the investigation of their interaction effects. Results highlighted the most important parameters which influence the classification performance and enabled the identification of the optimal settings, as well as the optimal architectures to reduce the computational time of SOMs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A statistical framework for evaluating neural networks to predict recurrent events in breast cancer
Gorunescu, Florin; Gorunescu, Marina; El-Darzi, Elia; Gorunescu, Smaranda
2010-07-01
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women today. Sometimes, breast cancer can return after primary treatment. A medical diagnosis of recurrent cancer is often a more challenging task than the initial one. In this paper, we investigate the potential contribution of neural networks (NNs) to support health professionals in diagnosing such events. The NN algorithms are tested and applied to two different datasets. An extensive statistical analysis has been performed to verify our experiments. The results show that a simple network structure for both the multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function can produce equally good results, not all attributes are needed to train these algorithms and, finally, the classification performances of all algorithms are statistically robust. Moreover, we have shown that the best performing algorithm will strongly depend on the features of the datasets, and hence, there is not necessarily a single best classifier.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tadaki, Kohtaro
2010-01-01
The statistical mechanical interpretation of algorithmic information theory (AIT, for short) was introduced and developed by our former works [K. Tadaki, Local Proceedings of CiE 2008, pp. 425-434, 2008] and [K. Tadaki, Proceedings of LFCS'09, Springer's LNCS, vol. 5407, pp. 422-440, 2009], where we introduced the notion of thermodynamic quantities, such as partition function Z(T), free energy F(T), energy E(T), statistical mechanical entropy S(T), and specific heat C(T), into AIT. We then discovered that, in the interpretation, the temperature T equals to the partial randomness of the values of all these thermodynamic quantities, where the notion of partial randomness is a stronger representation of the compression rate by means of program-size complexity. Furthermore, we showed that this situation holds for the temperature T itself, which is one of the most typical thermodynamic quantities. Namely, we showed that, for each of the thermodynamic quantities Z(T), F(T), E(T), and S(T) above, the computability of its value at temperature T gives a sufficient condition for T is an element of (0,1) to satisfy the condition that the partial randomness of T equals to T. In this paper, based on a physical argument on the same level of mathematical strictness as normal statistical mechanics in physics, we develop a total statistical mechanical interpretation of AIT which actualizes a perfect correspondence to normal statistical mechanics. We do this by identifying a microcanonical ensemble in the framework of AIT. As a result, we clarify the statistical mechanical meaning of the thermodynamic quantities of AIT.
Automatic Derivation of Statistical Data Analysis Algorithms: Planetary Nebulae and Beyond
Fischer, Bernd; Knuth, Kevin; Hajian, Arsen; Schumann, Johann
2004-01-01
AUTOBAYES is a fully automatic program synthesis system for the data analysis domain. Its input is a declarative problem description in form of a statistical model; its output is documented and optimized C/C++ code. The synthesis process relies on the combination of three key techniques. Bayesian networks are used as a compact internal representation mechanism which enables problem decompositions and guides the algorithm derivation. Program schemas are used as independently composable buildin...
Development of modelling algorithm of technological systems by statistical tests
Shemshura, E. A.; Otrokov, A. V.; Chernyh, V. G.
2018-03-01
The paper tackles the problem of economic assessment of design efficiency regarding various technological systems at the stage of their operation. The modelling algorithm of a technological system was performed using statistical tests and with account of the reliability index allows estimating the level of machinery technical excellence and defining the efficiency of design reliability against its performance. Economic feasibility of its application shall be determined on the basis of service quality of a technological system with further forecasting of volumes and the range of spare parts supply.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arran Schlosberg
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Improvements in speed and cost of genome sequencing are resulting in increasing numbers of novel non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs in genes known to be associated with disease. The large number of nsSNPs makes laboratory-based classification infeasible and familial co-segregation with disease is not always possible. In-silico methods for classification or triage are thus utilised. A popular tool based on multiple-species sequence alignments (MSAs and work by Grantham, Align-GVGD, has been shown to underestimate deleterious effects, particularly as sequence numbers increase. We utilised the DEFLATE compression algorithm to account for expected variation across a number of species. With the adjusted Grantham measure we derived a means of quantitatively clustering known neutral and deleterious nsSNPs from the same gene; this was then used to assign novel variants to the most appropriate cluster as a means of binary classification. Scaling of clusters allows for inter-gene comparison of variants through a single pathogenicity score. The approach improves upon the classification accuracy of Align-GVGD while correcting for sensitivity to large MSAs. Open-source code and a web server are made available at https://github.com/aschlosberg/CompressGV.
A simple method to combine multiple molecular biomarkers for dichotomous diagnostic classification
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Amin Manik A
2006-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of the recognized diagnostic potential of biomarkers, the quest for squelching noise and wringing in information from a given set of biomarkers continues. Here, we suggest a statistical algorithm that – assuming each molecular biomarker to be a diagnostic test – enriches the diagnostic performance of an optimized set of independent biomarkers employing established statistical techniques. We validated the proposed algorithm using several simulation datasets in addition to four publicly available real datasets that compared i subjects having cancer with those without; ii subjects with two different cancers; iii subjects with two different types of one cancer; and iv subjects with same cancer resulting in differential time to metastasis. Results Our algorithm comprises of three steps: estimating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for each biomarker, identifying a subset of biomarkers using linear regression and combining the chosen biomarkers using linear discriminant function analysis. Combining these established statistical methods that are available in most statistical packages, we observed that the diagnostic accuracy of our approach was 100%, 99.94%, 96.67% and 93.92% for the real datasets used in the study. These estimates were comparable to or better than the ones previously reported using alternative methods. In a synthetic dataset, we also observed that all the biomarkers chosen by our algorithm were indeed truly differentially expressed. Conclusion The proposed algorithm can be used for accurate diagnosis in the setting of dichotomous classification of disease states.
Hoell, Simon; Omenzetter, Piotr
2017-04-01
The increasing demand for carbon neutral energy in a challenging economic environment is a driving factor for erecting ever larger wind turbines in harsh environments using novel wind turbine blade (WTBs) designs characterized by high flexibilities and lower buckling capacities. To counteract resulting increasing of operation and maintenance costs, efficient structural health monitoring systems can be employed to prevent dramatic failures and to schedule maintenance actions according to the true structural state. This paper presents a novel methodology for classifying structural damages using vibrational responses from a single sensor. The method is based on statistical classification using Bayes' theorem and an advanced statistic, which allows controlling the performance by varying the number of samples which represent the current state. This is done for multivariate damage sensitive features defined as partial autocorrelation coefficients (PACCs) estimated from vibrational responses and principal component analysis scores from PACCs. Additionally, optimal DSFs are composed not only for damage classification but also for damage detection based on binary statistical hypothesis testing, where features selections are found with a fast forward procedure. The method is applied to laboratory experiments with a small scale WTB with wind-like excitation and non-destructive damage scenarios. The obtained results demonstrate the advantages of the proposed procedure and are promising for future applications of vibration-based structural health monitoring in WTBs.
Classification of remotely sensed images
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dudeni, N
2008-10-01
Full Text Available For this research, the researchers examine various existing image classification algorithms with the aim of demonstrating how these algorithms can be applied to remote sensing images. These algorithms are broadly divided into supervised...
CCM: A Text Classification Method by Clustering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock
2011-01-01
In this paper, a new Cluster based Classification Model (CCM) for suspicious email detection and other text classification tasks, is presented. Comparative experiments of the proposed model against traditional classification models and the boosting algorithm are also discussed. Experimental results...... show that the CCM outperforms traditional classification models as well as the boosting algorithm for the task of suspicious email detection on terrorism domain email dataset and topic categorization on the Reuters-21578 and 20 Newsgroups datasets. The overall finding is that applying a cluster based...
Acoustic firearm discharge detection and classification in an enclosed environment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luzi, Lorenzo; Gonzalez, Eric; Bruillard, Paul; Prowant, Matthew; Skorpik, James; Hughes, Michael; Child, Scott; Kist, Duane; McCarthy, John E.
2016-05-01
Two different signal processing algorithms are described for detection and classification of acoustic signals generated by firearm discharges in small enclosed spaces. The first is based on the logarithm of the signal energy. The second is a joint entropy. The current study indicates that a system using both signal energy and joint entropy would be able to both detect weapon discharges and classify weapon type, in small spaces, with high statistical certainty.
Tumor Classification Using High-Order Gene Expression Profiles Based on Multilinear ICA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming-gang Du
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Motivation. Independent Components Analysis (ICA maximizes the statistical independence of the representational components of a training gene expression profiles (GEP ensemble, but it cannot distinguish relations between the different factors, or different modes, and it is not available to high-order GEP Data Mining. In order to generalize ICA, we introduce Multilinear-ICA and apply it to tumor classification using high order GEP. Firstly, we introduce the basis conceptions and operations of tensor and recommend Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier and Multilinear-ICA. Secondly, the higher score genes of original high order GEP are selected by using t-statistics and tabulate tensors. Thirdly, the tensors are performed by Multilinear-ICA. Finally, the SVM is used to classify the tumor subtypes. Results. To show the validity of the proposed method, we apply it to tumor classification using high order GEP. Though we only use three datasets, the experimental results show that the method is effective and feasible. Through this survey, we hope to gain some insight into the problem of high order GEP tumor classification, in aid of further developing more effective tumor classification algorithms.
The generalization ability of online SVM classification based on Markov sampling.
Xu, Jie; Yan Tang, Yuan; Zou, Bin; Xu, Zongben; Li, Luoqing; Lu, Yang
2015-03-01
In this paper, we consider online support vector machine (SVM) classification learning algorithms with uniformly ergodic Markov chain (u.e.M.c.) samples. We establish the bound on the misclassification error of an online SVM classification algorithm with u.e.M.c. samples based on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces and obtain a satisfactory convergence rate. We also introduce a novel online SVM classification algorithm based on Markov sampling, and present the numerical studies on the learning ability of online SVM classification based on Markov sampling for benchmark repository. The numerical studies show that the learning performance of the online SVM classification algorithm based on Markov sampling is better than that of classical online SVM classification based on random sampling as the size of training samples is larger.
Can Automatic Classification Help to Increase Accuracy in Data Collection?
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Frederique Lang
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The authors aim at testing the performance of a set of machine learning algorithms that could improve the process of data cleaning when building datasets. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is centered on cleaning datasets gathered from publishers and online resources by the use of specific keywords. In this case, we analyzed data from the Web of Science. The accuracy of various forms of automatic classification was tested here in comparison with manual coding in order to determine their usefulness for data collection and cleaning. We assessed the performance of seven supervised classification algorithms (Support Vector Machine (SVM, Scaled Linear Discriminant Analysis, Lasso and elastic-net regularized generalized linear models, Maximum Entropy, Regression Tree, Boosting, and Random Forest and analyzed two properties: accuracy and recall. We assessed not only each algorithm individually, but also their combinations through a voting scheme. We also tested the performance of these algorithms with different sizes of training data. When assessing the performance of different combinations, we used an indicator of coverage to account for the agreement and disagreement on classification between algorithms. Findings: We found that the performance of the algorithms used vary with the size of the sample for training. However, for the classification exercise in this paper the best performing algorithms were SVM and Boosting. The combination of these two algorithms achieved a high agreement on coverage and was highly accurate. This combination performs well with a small training dataset (10%, which may reduce the manual work needed for classification tasks. Research limitations: The dataset gathered has significantly more records related to the topic of interest compared to unrelated topics. This may affect the performance of some algorithms, especially in their identification of unrelated papers. Practical implications: Although the
Taylor, Jonathan Christopher; Fenner, John Wesley
2017-11-29
Semi-quantification methods are well established in the clinic for assisted reporting of (I123) Ioflupane images. Arguably, these are limited diagnostic tools. Recent research has demonstrated the potential for improved classification performance offered by machine learning algorithms. A direct comparison between methods is required to establish whether a move towards widespread clinical adoption of machine learning algorithms is justified. This study compared three machine learning algorithms with that of a range of semi-quantification methods, using the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) research database and a locally derived clinical database for validation. Machine learning algorithms were based on support vector machine classifiers with three different sets of features: Voxel intensities Principal components of image voxel intensities Striatal binding radios from the putamen and caudate. Semi-quantification methods were based on striatal binding ratios (SBRs) from both putamina, with and without consideration of the caudates. Normal limits for the SBRs were defined through four different methods: Minimum of age-matched controls Mean minus 1/1.5/2 standard deviations from age-matched controls Linear regression of normal patient data against age (minus 1/1.5/2 standard errors) Selection of the optimum operating point on the receiver operator characteristic curve from normal and abnormal training data Each machine learning and semi-quantification technique was evaluated with stratified, nested 10-fold cross-validation, repeated 10 times. The mean accuracy of the semi-quantitative methods for classification of local data into Parkinsonian and non-Parkinsonian groups varied from 0.78 to 0.87, contrasting with 0.89 to 0.95 for classifying PPMI data into healthy controls and Parkinson's disease groups. The machine learning algorithms gave mean accuracies between 0.88 to 0.92 and 0.95 to 0.97 for local and PPMI data respectively. Classification
Alves, Gelio; Wang, Guanghui; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y; Drake, Steven K; Gucek, Marjan; Sacks, David B; Yu, Yi-Kuo
2018-06-05
Rapid and accurate identification and classification of microorganisms is of paramount importance to public health and safety. With the advance of mass spectrometry (MS) technology, the speed of identification can be greatly improved. However, the increasing number of microbes sequenced is complicating correct microbial identification even in a simple sample due to the large number of candidates present. To properly untwine candidate microbes in samples containing one or more microbes, one needs to go beyond apparent morphology or simple "fingerprinting"; to correctly prioritize the candidate microbes, one needs to have accurate statistical significance in microbial identification. We meet these challenges by using peptide-centric representations of microbes to better separate them and by augmenting our earlier analysis method that yields accurate statistical significance. Here, we present an updated analysis workflow that uses tandem MS (MS/MS) spectra for microbial identification or classification. We have demonstrated, using 226 MS/MS publicly available data files (each containing from 2500 to nearly 100,000 MS/MS spectra) and 4000 additional MS/MS data files, that the updated workflow can correctly identify multiple microbes at the genus and often the species level for samples containing more than one microbe. We have also shown that the proposed workflow computes accurate statistical significances, i.e., E values for identified peptides and unified E values for identified microbes. Our updated analysis workflow MiCId, a freely available software for Microorganism Classification and Identification, is available for download at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/downloads.html . Graphical Abstract ᅟ.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
René Roland Colditz
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Land cover mapping for large regions often employs satellite images of medium to coarse spatial resolution, which complicates mapping of discrete classes. Class memberships, which estimate the proportion of each class for every pixel, have been suggested as an alternative. This paper compares different strategies of training data allocation for discrete and continuous land cover mapping using classification and regression tree algorithms. In addition to measures of discrete and continuous map accuracy the correct estimation of the area is another important criteria. A subset of the 30 m national land cover dataset of 2006 (NLCD2006 of the United States was used as reference set to classify NADIR BRDF-adjusted surface reflectance time series of MODIS at 900 m spatial resolution. Results show that sampling of heterogeneous pixels and sample allocation according to the expected area of each class is best for classification trees. Regression trees for continuous land cover mapping should be trained with random allocation, and predictions should be normalized with a linear scaling function to correctly estimate the total area. From the tested algorithms random forest classification yields lower errors than boosted trees of C5.0, and Cubist shows higher accuracies than random forest regression.
Leydesdorff, Loet; Kogler, Dieter Franz; Yan, Bowen
2017-01-01
The Cooperative Patent Classifications (CPC) recently developed cooperatively by the European and US Patent Offices provide a new basis for mapping patents and portfolio analysis. CPC replaces International Patent Classifications (IPC) of the World Intellectual Property Organization. In this study, we update our routines previously based on IPC for CPC and use the occasion for rethinking various parameter choices. The new maps are significantly different from the previous ones, although this may not always be obvious on visual inspection. We provide nested maps online and a routine for generating portfolio overlays on the maps; a new tool is provided for "difference maps" between patent portfolios of organizations or firms. This is illustrated by comparing the portfolios of patents granted to two competing firms-Novartis and MSD-in 2016. Furthermore, the data is organized for the purpose of statistical analysis.
Li, Xiangyu; Cai, Hao; Wang, Xianlong; Ao, Lu; Guo, You; He, Jun; Gu, Yunyan; Qi, Lishuang; Guan, Qingzhou; Lin, Xu; Guo, Zheng
2017-10-13
To detect differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in small-scale cell line experiments, usually with only two or three technical replicates for each state, the commonly used statistical methods such as significance analysis of microarrays (SAM), limma and RankProd (RP) lack statistical power, while the fold change method lacks any statistical control. In this study, we demonstrated that the within-sample relative expression orderings (REOs) of gene pairs were highly stable among technical replicates of a cell line but often widely disrupted after certain treatments such like gene knockdown, gene transfection and drug treatment. Based on this finding, we customized the RankComp algorithm, previously designed for individualized differential expression analysis through REO comparison, to identify DEGs with certain statistical control for small-scale cell line data. In both simulated and real data, the new algorithm, named CellComp, exhibited high precision with much higher sensitivity than the original RankComp, SAM, limma and RP methods. Therefore, CellComp provides an efficient tool for analyzing small-scale cell line data. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Shi, X.; Wang, B.
2006-01-01
A brief introduction of characteristic statistic algorithm (CSA) is given in the paper, which is a new global optimization algorithm to solve the problem of PWR in-core fuel management optimization. CSA is modified by the adoption of back propagation neural network and fast local adjustment. Then the modified CSA is applied to PWR Equilibrium Cycle Reloading Optimization, and the corresponding optimization code of CSA-DYW is developed. CSA-DYW is used to optimize the equilibrium cycle of 18 month reloading of Daya bay nuclear plant Unit 1 reactor. The results show that CSA-DYW has high efficiency and good global performance on PWR Equilibrium Cycle Reloading Optimization. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Ozkan
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Marine oil spills due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, etc. are seriously affecting the fragile marine and coastal ecosystem and cause political and environmental concern. A catastrophic explosion and subsequent fire in the Deepwater Horizon oil platform caused the platform to burn and sink, and oil leaked continuously between April 20th and July 15th of 2010, releasing about 780,000 m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Today, space-borne SAR sensors are extensively used for the detection of oil spills in the marine environment, as they are independent from sun light, not affected by cloudiness, and more cost-effective than air patrolling due to covering large areas. In this study, generalization extent of an object based classification algorithm was tested for oil spill detection using multiple SAR imagery data. Among many geometrical, physical and textural features, some more distinctive ones were selected to distinguish oil and look alike objects from each others. The tested classifier was constructed from a Multilayer Perception Artificial Neural Network trained by ABC, LM and BP optimization algorithms. The training data to train the classifier were constituted from SAR data consisting of oil spill originated from Lebanon in 2007. The classifier was then applied to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill data in the Gulf of Mexico on RADARSAT-2 and ALOS PALSAR images to demonstrate the generalization efficiency of oil slick classification algorithm.
Fast Quantum Algorithm for Predicting Descriptive Statistics of Stochastic Processes
Williams Colin P.
1999-01-01
Stochastic processes are used as a modeling tool in several sub-fields of physics, biology, and finance. Analytic understanding of the long term behavior of such processes is only tractable for very simple types of stochastic processes such as Markovian processes. However, in real world applications more complex stochastic processes often arise. In physics, the complicating factor might be nonlinearities; in biology it might be memory effects; and in finance is might be the non-random intentional behavior of participants in a market. In the absence of analytic insight, one is forced to understand these more complex stochastic processes via numerical simulation techniques. In this paper we present a quantum algorithm for performing such simulations. In particular, we show how a quantum algorithm can predict arbitrary descriptive statistics (moments) of N-step stochastic processes in just O(square root of N) time. That is, the quantum complexity is the square root of the classical complexity for performing such simulations. This is a significant speedup in comparison to the current state of the art.
An Efficient Optimization Method for Solving Unsupervised Data Classification Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Parvaneh Shabanzadeh
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Unsupervised data classification (or clustering analysis is one of the most useful tools and a descriptive task in data mining that seeks to classify homogeneous groups of objects based on similarity and is used in many medical disciplines and various applications. In general, there is no single algorithm that is suitable for all types of data, conditions, and applications. Each algorithm has its own advantages, limitations, and deficiencies. Hence, research for novel and effective approaches for unsupervised data classification is still active. In this paper a heuristic algorithm, Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO algorithm, was adapted for data clustering problems by modifying the main operators of BBO algorithm, which is inspired from the natural biogeography distribution of different species. Similar to other population-based algorithms, BBO algorithm starts with an initial population of candidate solutions to an optimization problem and an objective function that is calculated for them. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm assessment was carried on six medical and real life datasets and was compared with eight well known and recent unsupervised data classification algorithms. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed evolutionary optimization algorithm is efficient for unsupervised data classification.
Quantum computing for pattern classification
Schuld, Maria; Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco
2014-01-01
It is well known that for certain tasks, quantum computing outperforms classical computing. A growing number of contributions try to use this advantage in order to improve or extend classical machine learning algorithms by methods of quantum information theory. This paper gives a brief introduction into quantum machine learning using the example of pattern classification. We introduce a quantum pattern classification algorithm that draws on Trugenberger's proposal for measuring the Hamming di...
An edit script for taxonomic classifications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valiente Gabriel
2005-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The NCBI taxonomy provides one of the most powerful ways to navigate sequence data bases but currently users are forced to formulate queries according to a single taxonomic classification. Given that there is not universal agreement on the classification of organisms, providing a single classification places constraints on the questions biologists can ask. However, maintaining multiple classifications is burdensome in the face of a constantly growing NCBI classification. Results In this paper, we present a solution to the problem of generating modifications of the NCBI taxonomy, based on the computation of an edit script that summarises the differences between two classification trees. Our algorithms find the shortest possible edit script based on the identification of all shared subtrees, and only take time quasi linear in the size of the trees because classification trees have unique node labels. Conclusion These algorithms have been recently implemented, and the software is freely available for download from http://darwin.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rpage/forest/.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaganov, P.A.; Kol'tsov, A.A.; Kulikov, V.D.; Mejer, V.A.
1983-01-01
The multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis of samples of mountain rocks (sandstones, aleurolites and shales of one of gold deposits) is performed. The spectra of irradiated samples are measured by Ge(Li) detector of the volume of 35 mm 3 . The content of 22 chemical elements is determined in each sample. The results of analysis serve as reliable basis for multi-dimensional statistic information processing, they constitute the basis for the generalized characteristics of rocks which brings about the solution of classification problem for rocks of different deposits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhou Hao
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The traditional MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC algorithm requires significant computational effort and can not be employed for the Direction Of Arrival (DOA estimation of targets in a low-altitude multipath environment. As such, a novel MUSIC approach is proposed on the basis of the algorithm of Adaptive Step Glowworm Swarm Optimization (ASGSO. The virtual spatial smoothing of the matrix formed by each snapshot is used to realize the decorrelation of the multipath signal and the establishment of a fullorder correlation matrix. ASGSO optimizes the function and estimates the elevation of the target. The simulation results suggest that the proposed method can overcome the low altitude multipath effect and estimate the DOA of target readily and precisely without radar effective aperture loss.
The product composition control system at Savannah River: Statistical process control algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, K.G.
1994-01-01
The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be used to immobilize the approximately 130 million liters of high-level nuclear waste currently stored at the site in 51 carbon steel tanks. Waste handling operations separate this waste into highly radioactive insoluble sludge and precipitate and less radioactive water soluble salts. In DWPF, precipitate (PHA) is blended with insoluble sludge and ground glass frit to produce melter feed slurry which is continuously fed to the DWPF melter. The melter produces a molten borosilicate glass which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in an geologic repository. Described here is the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) process control algorithm. The PCCS is the amalgam of computer hardware and software intended to ensure that the melt will be processable and that the glass wasteform produced will be acceptable. Within PCCS, the Statistical Process Control (SPC) Algorithm is the means which guides control of the DWPF process. The SPC Algorithm is necessary to control the multivariate DWPF process in the face of uncertainties arising from the process, its feeds, sampling, modeling, and measurement systems. This article describes the functions performed by the SPC Algorithm, characterization of DWPF prior to making product, accounting for prediction uncertainty, accounting for measurement uncertainty, monitoring a SME batch, incorporating process information, and advantages of the algorithm. 9 refs., 6 figs
The brain MRI classification problem from wavelets perspective
Bendib, Mohamed M.; Merouani, Hayet F.; Diaba, Fatma
2015-02-01
Haar and Daubechies 4 (DB4) are the most used wavelets for brain MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) classification. The former is simple and fast to compute while the latter is more complex and offers a better resolution. This paper explores the potential of both of them in performing Normal versus Pathological discrimination on the one hand, and Multiclassification on the other hand. The Whole Brain Atlas is used as a validation database, and the Random Forest (RF) algorithm is employed as a learning approach. The achieved results are discussed and statistically compared.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John R. Speakman
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The epidemics of obesity and diabetes have aroused great interest in the analysis of energy balance, with the use of organisms ranging from nematode worms to humans. Although generating energy-intake or -expenditure data is relatively straightforward, the most appropriate way to analyse the data has been an issue of contention for many decades. In the last few years, a consensus has been reached regarding the best methods for analysing such data. To facilitate using these best-practice methods, we present here an algorithm that provides a step-by-step guide for analysing energy-intake or -expenditure data. The algorithm can be used to analyse data from either humans or experimental animals, such as small mammals or invertebrates. It can be used in combination with any commercial statistics package; however, to assist with analysis, we have included detailed instructions for performing each step for three popular statistics packages (SPSS, MINITAB and R. We also provide interpretations of the results obtained at each step. We hope that this algorithm will assist in the statistically appropriate analysis of such data, a field in which there has been much confusion and some controversy.
Li, Y.; Kirchengast, G.; Scherllin-Pirscher, B.; Norman, R.; Yuan, Y. B.; Fritzer, J.; Schwaerz, M.; Zhang, K.
2015-08-01
We introduce a new dynamic statistical optimization algorithm to initialize ionosphere-corrected bending angles of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-based radio occultation (RO) measurements. The new algorithm estimates background and observation error covariance matrices with geographically varying uncertainty profiles and realistic global-mean correlation matrices. The error covariance matrices estimated by the new approach are more accurate and realistic than in simplified existing approaches and can therefore be used in statistical optimization to provide optimal bending angle profiles for high-altitude initialization of the subsequent Abel transform retrieval of refractivity. The new algorithm is evaluated against the existing Wegener Center Occultation Processing System version 5.6 (OPSv5.6) algorithm, using simulated data on two test days from January and July 2008 and real observed CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) and Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) measurements from the complete months of January and July 2008. The following is achieved for the new method's performance compared to OPSv5.6: (1) significant reduction of random errors (standard deviations) of optimized bending angles down to about half of their size or more; (2) reduction of the systematic differences in optimized bending angles for simulated MetOp data; (3) improved retrieval of refractivity and temperature profiles; and (4) realistically estimated global-mean correlation matrices and realistic uncertainty fields for the background and observations. Overall the results indicate high suitability for employing the new dynamic approach in the processing of long-term RO data into a reference climate record, leading to well-characterized and high-quality atmospheric profiles over the entire stratosphere.
Semantic Document Image Classification Based on Valuable Text Pattern
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hossein Pourghassem
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Knowledge extraction from detected document image is a complex problem in the field of information technology. This problem becomes more intricate when we know, a negligible percentage of the detected document images are valuable. In this paper, a segmentation-based classification algorithm is used to analysis the document image. In this algorithm, using a two-stage segmentation approach, regions of the image are detected, and then classified to document and non-document (pure region regions in the hierarchical classification. In this paper, a novel valuable definition is proposed to classify document image in to valuable or invaluable categories. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on a database consisting of the document and non-document image that provide from Internet. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm in the semantic document image classification. The proposed algorithm provides accuracy rate of 98.8% for valuable and invaluable document image classification problem.
Bruijn, de N.G.
1972-01-01
Recently A. W. Joseph described an algorithm providing combinatorial insight into E. Sparre Andersen's so-called Principle of Equivalence in mathematical statistics. In the present paper such algorithms are discussed systematically.
Inverse problems with Poisson data: statistical regularization theory, applications and algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hohage, Thorsten; Werner, Frank
2016-01-01
Inverse problems with Poisson data arise in many photonic imaging modalities in medicine, engineering and astronomy. The design of regularization methods and estimators for such problems has been studied intensively over the last two decades. In this review we give an overview of statistical regularization theory for such problems, the most important applications, and the most widely used algorithms. The focus is on variational regularization methods in the form of penalized maximum likelihood estimators, which can be analyzed in a general setup. Complementing a number of recent convergence rate results we will establish consistency results. Moreover, we discuss estimators based on a wavelet-vaguelette decomposition of the (necessarily linear) forward operator. As most prominent applications we briefly introduce Positron emission tomography, inverse problems in fluorescence microscopy, and phase retrieval problems. The computation of a penalized maximum likelihood estimator involves the solution of a (typically convex) minimization problem. We also review several efficient algorithms which have been proposed for such problems over the last five years. (topical review)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markovic, Romana; Wolf, Sebastian; Cao, Jun
2017-01-01
Occupant behavior in terms of interactions with windows and heating systems is seen as one of the main sources of discrepancy between predicted and measured heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) building energy consumption. Thus, this work analyzes the performance of several...... classification algorithms for detecting occupant's interactions with windows, while taking the imbalanced properties of the available data set into account. The tested methods include support vector machines (SVM), random forests, and their combination with dynamic Bayesian networks (DBN). The results will show...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yukai Yao
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We propose an optimized Support Vector Machine classifier, named PMSVM, in which System Normalization, PCA, and Multilevel Grid Search methods are comprehensively considered for data preprocessing and parameters optimization, respectively. The main goals of this study are to improve the classification efficiency and accuracy of SVM. Sensitivity, Specificity, Precision, and ROC curve, and so forth, are adopted to appraise the performances of PMSVM. Experimental results show that PMSVM has relatively better accuracy and remarkable higher efficiency compared with traditional SVM algorithms.
Vietnamese Document Representation and Classification
Nguyen, Giang-Son; Gao, Xiaoying; Andreae, Peter
Vietnamese is very different from English and little research has been done on Vietnamese document classification, or indeed, on any kind of Vietnamese language processing, and only a few small corpora are available for research. We created a large Vietnamese text corpus with about 18000 documents, and manually classified them based on different criteria such as topics and styles, giving several classification tasks of different difficulty levels. This paper introduces a new syllable-based document representation at the morphological level of the language for efficient classification. We tested the representation on our corpus with different classification tasks using six classification algorithms and two feature selection techniques. Our experiments show that the new representation is effective for Vietnamese categorization, and suggest that best performance can be achieved using syllable-pair document representation, an SVM with a polynomial kernel as the learning algorithm, and using Information gain and an external dictionary for feature selection.
A multiresolution hierarchical classification algorithm for filtering airborne LiDAR data
Chen, Chuanfa; Li, Yanyan; Li, Wei; Dai, Honglei
2013-08-01
We presented a multiresolution hierarchical classification (MHC) algorithm for differentiating ground from non-ground LiDAR point cloud based on point residuals from the interpolated raster surface. MHC includes three levels of hierarchy, with the simultaneous increase of cell resolution and residual threshold from the low to the high level of the hierarchy. At each level, the surface is iteratively interpolated towards the ground using thin plate spline (TPS) until no ground points are classified, and the classified ground points are used to update the surface in the next iteration. 15 groups of benchmark dataset, provided by the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) commission, were used to compare the performance of MHC with those of the 17 other publicized filtering methods. Results indicated that MHC with the average total error and average Cohen’s kappa coefficient of 4.11% and 86.27% performs better than all other filtering methods.
Gatos, Ilias; Tsantis, Stavros; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Karnabatidis, Dimitris; Theotokas, Ioannis; Zoumpoulis, Pavlos; Loupas, Thanasis; Hazle, John D; Kagadis, George C
2017-09-01
The purpose of the present study was to employ a computer-aided diagnosis system that classifies chronic liver disease (CLD) using ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) imaging, with a stiffness value-clustering and machine-learning algorithm. A clinical data set of 126 patients (56 healthy controls, 70 with CLD) was analyzed. First, an RGB-to-stiffness inverse mapping technique was employed. A five-cluster segmentation was then performed associating corresponding different-color regions with certain stiffness value ranges acquired from the SWE manufacturer-provided color bar. Subsequently, 35 features (7 for each cluster), indicative of physical characteristics existing within the SWE image, were extracted. A stepwise regression analysis toward feature reduction was used to derive a reduced feature subset that was fed into the support vector machine classification algorithm to classify CLD from healthy cases. The highest accuracy in classification of healthy to CLD subject discrimination from the support vector machine model was 87.3% with sensitivity and specificity values of 93.5% and 81.2%, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis gave an area under the curve value of 0.87 (confidence interval: 0.77-0.92). A machine-learning algorithm that quantifies color information in terms of stiffness values from SWE images and discriminates CLD from healthy cases is introduced. New objective parameters and criteria for CLD diagnosis employing SWE images provided by the present study can be considered an important step toward color-based interpretation, and could assist radiologists' diagnostic performance on a daily basis after being installed in a PC and employed retrospectively, immediately after the examination. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Progressive Classification Using Support Vector Machines
Wagstaff, Kiri; Kocurek, Michael
2009-01-01
An algorithm for progressive classification of data, analogous to progressive rendering of images, makes it possible to compromise between speed and accuracy. This algorithm uses support vector machines (SVMs) to classify data. An SVM is a machine learning algorithm that builds a mathematical model of the desired classification concept by identifying the critical data points, called support vectors. Coarse approximations to the concept require only a few support vectors, while precise, highly accurate models require far more support vectors. Once the model has been constructed, the SVM can be applied to new observations. The cost of classifying a new observation is proportional to the number of support vectors in the model. When computational resources are limited, an SVM of the appropriate complexity can be produced. However, if the constraints are not known when the model is constructed, or if they can change over time, a method for adaptively responding to the current resource constraints is required. This capability is particularly relevant for spacecraft (or any other real-time systems) that perform onboard data analysis. The new algorithm enables the fast, interactive application of an SVM classifier to a new set of data. The classification process achieved by this algorithm is characterized as progressive because a coarse approximation to the true classification is generated rapidly and thereafter iteratively refined. The algorithm uses two SVMs: (1) a fast, approximate one and (2) slow, highly accurate one. New data are initially classified by the fast SVM, producing a baseline approximate classification. For each classified data point, the algorithm calculates a confidence index that indicates the likelihood that it was classified correctly in the first pass. Next, the data points are sorted by their confidence indices and progressively reclassified by the slower, more accurate SVM, starting with the items most likely to be incorrectly classified. The user
Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kampus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Omar, O. [Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Persiaran MARDI-UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)
2015-05-15
Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC–MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties.
Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis
Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Omar, O.
2015-05-01
Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC-MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties.
Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Omar, O.
2015-01-01
Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC–MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nadezhda S. Lagutina
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to analyze how effectively different types of thesaurus relations can be used for solutions of text classification tasks. The basis of the study is an automatically generated thesaurus of a subject area, that contains three types of relations: synonymous, hierarchical and associative. To generate the thesaurus the authors use a hybrid method based on several linguistic and statistical algorithms for extraction of semantic relations. The method allows to create a thesaurus with a sufficiently large number of terms and relations among them. The authors consider two problems: topical text classification and sentiment classification of large newspaper articles. To solve them, the authors developed two approaches that complement standard algorithms with a procedure that take into account thesaurus relations to determine semantic features of texts. The approach to topical classification includes the standard unsupervised BM25 algorithm and the procedure, that take into account synonymous and hierarchical relations of the thesaurus of the subject area. The approach to sentiment classification consists of two steps. At the first step, a thesaurus is created, whose terms weight polarities are calculated depending on the term occurrences in the training set or on the weights of related thesaurus terms. At the second step, the thesaurus is used to compute the features of words from texts and to classify texts by the algorithm SVM or Naive Bayes. In experiments with text corpora BBCSport, Reuters, PubMed and the corpus of articles about American immigrants, the authors varied the types of thesaurus relations that are involved in the classification and the degree of their use. The results of the experiments make it possible to evaluate the efficiency of the application of thesaurus relations for classification of raw texts and to determine under what conditions certain relationships affect more or less. In particular, the
Algorithm for statistical noise reduction in three-dimensional ion implant simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernandez-Mangas, J.M.; Arias, J.; Jaraiz, M.; Bailon, L.; Barbolla, J.
2001-01-01
As integrated circuit devices scale into the deep sub-micron regime, ion implantation will continue to be the primary means of introducing dopant atoms into silicon. Different types of impurity profiles such as ultra-shallow profiles and retrograde profiles are necessary for deep submicron devices in order to realize the desired device performance. A new algorithm to reduce the statistical noise in three-dimensional ion implant simulations both in the lateral and shallow/deep regions of the profile is presented. The computational effort in BCA Monte Carlo ion implant simulation is also reduced
Statistical methods applied to gamma-ray spectroscopy algorithms in nuclear security missions.
Fagan, Deborah K; Robinson, Sean M; Runkle, Robert C
2012-10-01
Gamma-ray spectroscopy is a critical research and development priority to a range of nuclear security missions, specifically the interdiction of special nuclear material involving the detection and identification of gamma-ray sources. We categorize existing methods by the statistical methods on which they rely and identify methods that have yet to be considered. Current methods estimate the effect of counting uncertainty but in many cases do not address larger sources of decision uncertainty, which may be significantly more complex. Thus, significantly improving algorithm performance may require greater coupling between the problem physics that drives data acquisition and statistical methods that analyze such data. Untapped statistical methods, such as Bayes Modeling Averaging and hierarchical and empirical Bayes methods, could reduce decision uncertainty by rigorously and comprehensively incorporating all sources of uncertainty. Application of such methods should further meet the needs of nuclear security missions by improving upon the existing numerical infrastructure for which these analyses have not been conducted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Algorithmic Information Dynamics of Persistent Patterns and Colliding Particles in the Game of Life
Zenil, Hector
2018-02-18
We demonstrate the way to apply and exploit the concept of \\\\textit{algorithmic information dynamics} in the characterization and classification of dynamic and persistent patterns, motifs and colliding particles in, without loss of generalization, Conway\\'s Game of Life (GoL) cellular automaton as a case study. We analyze the distribution of prevailing motifs that occur in GoL from the perspective of algorithmic probability. We demonstrate how the tools introduced are an alternative to computable measures such as entropy and compression algorithms which are often nonsensitive to small changes and features of non-statistical nature in the study of evolving complex systems and their emergent structures.
Spectral band selection for classification of soil organic matter content
Henderson, Tracey L.; Szilagyi, Andrea; Baumgardner, Marion F.; Chen, Chih-Chien Thomas; Landgrebe, David A.
1989-01-01
This paper describes the spectral-band-selection (SBS) algorithm of Chen and Landgrebe (1987, 1988, and 1989) and uses the algorithm to classify the organic matter content in the earth's surface soil. The effectiveness of the algorithm was evaluated comparing the results of classification of the soil organic matter using SBS bands with those obtained using Landsat MSS bands and TM bands, showing that the algorithm was successful in finding important spectral bands for classification of organic matter content. Using the calculated bands, the probabilities of correct classification for climate-stratified data were found to range from 0.910 to 0.980.
Niazmardi, S.; Safari, A.; Homayouni, S.
2017-09-01
Crop mapping through classification of Satellite Image Time-Series (SITS) data can provide very valuable information for several agricultural applications, such as crop monitoring, yield estimation, and crop inventory. However, the SITS data classification is not straightforward. Because different images of a SITS data have different levels of information regarding the classification problems. Moreover, the SITS data is a four-dimensional data that cannot be classified using the conventional classification algorithms. To address these issues in this paper, we presented a classification strategy based on Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) algorithms for SITS data classification. In this strategy, initially different kernels are constructed from different images of the SITS data and then they are combined into a composite kernel using the MKL algorithms. The composite kernel, once constructed, can be used for the classification of the data using the kernel-based classification algorithms. We compared the computational time and the classification performances of the proposed classification strategy using different MKL algorithms for the purpose of crop mapping. The considered MKL algorithms are: MKL-Sum, SimpleMKL, LPMKL and Group-Lasso MKL algorithms. The experimental tests of the proposed strategy on two SITS data sets, acquired by SPOT satellite sensors, showed that this strategy was able to provide better performances when compared to the standard classification algorithm. The results also showed that the optimization method of the used MKL algorithms affects both the computational time and classification accuracy of this strategy.
Weller, Andrew F.; Harris, Anthony J.; Ware, J. Andrew; Jarvis, Paul S.
2006-11-01
The classification of sedimentary organic matter (OM) images can be improved by determining the saliency of image analysis (IA) features measured from them. Knowing the saliency of IA feature measurements means that only the most significant discriminating features need be used in the classification process. This is an important consideration for classification techniques such as artificial neural networks (ANNs), where too many features can lead to the 'curse of dimensionality'. The classification scheme adopted in this work is a hybrid of morphologically and texturally descriptive features from previous manual classification schemes. Some of these descriptive features are assigned to IA features, along with several others built into the IA software (Halcon) to ensure that a valid cross-section is available. After an image is captured and segmented, a total of 194 features are measured for each particle. To reduce this number to a more manageable magnitude, the SPSS AnswerTree Exhaustive CHAID (χ 2 automatic interaction detector) classification tree algorithm is used to establish each measurement's saliency as a classification discriminator. In the case of continuous data as used here, the F-test is used as opposed to the published algorithm. The F-test checks various statistical hypotheses about the variance of groups of IA feature measurements obtained from the particles to be classified. The aim is to reduce the number of features required to perform the classification without reducing its accuracy. In the best-case scenario, 194 inputs are reduced to 8, with a subsequent multi-layer back-propagation ANN recognition rate of 98.65%. This paper demonstrates the ability of the algorithm to reduce noise, help overcome the curse of dimensionality, and facilitate an understanding of the saliency of IA features as discriminators for sedimentary OM classification.
Chen, R C; Rigon, L; Longo, R
2013-03-25
Phase retrieval is a technique for extracting quantitative phase information from X-ray propagation-based phase-contrast tomography (PPCT). In this paper, the performance of different single distance phase retrieval algorithms will be investigated. The algorithms are herein called phase-attenuation duality Born Algorithm (PAD-BA), phase-attenuation duality Rytov Algorithm (PAD-RA), phase-attenuation duality Modified Bronnikov Algorithm (PAD-MBA), phase-attenuation duality Paganin algorithm (PAD-PA) and phase-attenuation duality Wu Algorithm (PAD-WA), respectively. They are all based on phase-attenuation duality property and on weak absorption of the sample and they employ only a single distance PPCT data. In this paper, they are investigated via simulated noise-free PPCT data considering the fulfillment of PAD property and weakly absorbing conditions, and with experimental PPCT data of a mixture sample containing absorbing and weakly absorbing materials, and of a polymer sample considering different degrees of statistical and structural noise. The simulation shows all algorithms can quantitatively reconstruct the 3D refractive index of a quasi-homogeneous weakly absorbing object from noise-free PPCT data. When the weakly absorbing condition is violated, the PAD-RA and PAD-PA/WA obtain better result than PAD-BA and PAD-MBA that are shown in both simulation and mixture sample results. When considering the statistical noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio values decreases as the photon number is reduced. The structural noise study shows that the result is progressively corrupted by ring-like artifacts with the increase of structural noise (i.e. phantom thickness). The PAD-RA and PAD-PA/WA gain better density resolution than the PAD-BA and PAD-MBA in both statistical and structural noise study.
Performance-scalable volumetric data classification for online industrial inspection
Abraham, Aby J.; Sadki, Mustapha; Lea, R. M.
2002-03-01
Non-intrusive inspection and non-destructive testing of manufactured objects with complex internal structures typically requires the enhancement, analysis and visualization of high-resolution volumetric data. Given the increasing availability of fast 3D scanning technology (e.g. cone-beam CT), enabling on-line detection and accurate discrimination of components or sub-structures, the inherent complexity of classification algorithms inevitably leads to throughput bottlenecks. Indeed, whereas typical inspection throughput requirements range from 1 to 1000 volumes per hour, depending on density and resolution, current computational capability is one to two orders-of-magnitude less. Accordingly, speeding up classification algorithms requires both reduction of algorithm complexity and acceleration of computer performance. A shape-based classification algorithm, offering algorithm complexity reduction, by using ellipses as generic descriptors of solids-of-revolution, and supporting performance-scalability, by exploiting the inherent parallelism of volumetric data, is presented. A two-stage variant of the classical Hough transform is used for ellipse detection and correlation of the detected ellipses facilitates position-, scale- and orientation-invariant component classification. Performance-scalability is achieved cost-effectively by accelerating a PC host with one or more COTS (Commercial-Off-The-Shelf) PCI multiprocessor cards. Experimental results are reported to demonstrate the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the data-parallel classification algorithm for on-line industrial inspection applications.
A Statistical Algorithm for Estimating Chlorophyll Concentration in the New Caledonian Lagoon
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guillaume Wattelez
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Spatial and temporal dynamics of phytoplankton biomass and water turbidity can provide crucial information about the function, health and vulnerability of lagoon ecosystems (coral reefs, sea grasses, etc.. A statistical algorithm is proposed to estimate chlorophyll-a concentration ([chl-a] in optically complex waters of the New Caledonian lagoon from MODIS-derived “remote-sensing” reflectance (Rrs. The algorithm is developed via supervised learning on match-ups gathered from 2002 to 2010. The best performance is obtained by combining two models, selected according to the ratio of Rrs in spectral bands centered on 488 and 555 nm: a log-linear model for low [chl-a] (AFLC and a support vector machine (SVM model or a classic model (OC3 for high [chl-a]. The log-linear model is developed based on SVM regression analysis. This approach outperforms the classical OC3 approach, especially in shallow waters, with a root mean squared error 30% lower. The proposed algorithm enables more accurate assessments of [chl-a] and its variability in this typical oligo- to meso-trophic tropical lagoon, from shallow coastal waters and nearby reefs to deeper waters and in the open ocean.
A Weighted Block Dictionary Learning Algorithm for Classification
Shi, Zhongrong
2016-01-01
Discriminative dictionary learning, playing a critical role in sparse representation based classification, has led to state-of-the-art classification results. Among the existing discriminative dictionary learning methods, two different approaches, shared dictionary and class-specific dictionary, which associate each dictionary atom to all classes or a single class, have been studied. The shared dictionary is a compact method but with lack of discriminative information; the class-specific dict...
Welikala, R A; Fraz, M M; Dehmeshki, J; Hoppe, A; Tah, V; Mann, S; Williamson, T H; Barman, S A
2015-07-01
Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is a condition that carries a high risk of severe visual impairment. The hallmark of PDR is the growth of abnormal new vessels. In this paper, an automated method for the detection of new vessels from retinal images is presented. This method is based on a dual classification approach. Two vessel segmentation approaches are applied to create two separate binary vessel map which each hold vital information. Local morphology features are measured from each binary vessel map to produce two separate 4-D feature vectors. Independent classification is performed for each feature vector using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The system then combines these individual outcomes to produce a final decision. This is followed by the creation of additional features to generate 21-D feature vectors, which feed into a genetic algorithm based feature selection approach with the objective of finding feature subsets that improve the performance of the classification. Sensitivity and specificity results using a dataset of 60 images are 0.9138 and 0.9600, respectively, on a per patch basis and 1.000 and 0.975, respectively, on a per image basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
On the classification techniques in data mining for microarray data classification
Aydadenta, Husna; Adiwijaya
2018-03-01
Cancer is one of the deadly diseases, according to data from WHO by 2015 there are 8.8 million more deaths caused by cancer, and this will increase every year if not resolved earlier. Microarray data has become one of the most popular cancer-identification studies in the field of health, since microarray data can be used to look at levels of gene expression in certain cell samples that serve to analyze thousands of genes simultaneously. By using data mining technique, we can classify the sample of microarray data thus it can be identified with cancer or not. In this paper we will discuss some research using some data mining techniques using microarray data, such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Naive Bayes, k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN), and C4.5, and simulation of Random Forest algorithm with technique of reduction dimension using Relief. The result of this paper show performance measure (accuracy) from classification algorithm (SVM, ANN, Naive Bayes, kNN, C4.5, and Random Forets).The results in this paper show the accuracy of Random Forest algorithm higher than other classification algorithms (Support Vector Machine (SVM), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Naive Bayes, k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN), and C4.5). It is hoped that this paper can provide some information about the speed, accuracy, performance and computational cost generated from each Data Mining Classification Technique based on microarray data.
A real-time classification algorithm for EEG-based BCI driven by self-induced emotions.
Iacoviello, Daniela; Petracca, Andrea; Spezialetti, Matteo; Placidi, Giuseppe
2015-12-01
The aim of this paper is to provide an efficient, parametric, general, and completely automatic real time classification method of electroencephalography (EEG) signals obtained from self-induced emotions. The particular characteristics of the considered low-amplitude signals (a self-induced emotion produces a signal whose amplitude is about 15% of a really experienced emotion) require exploring and adapting strategies like the Wavelet Transform, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the Support Vector Machine (SVM) for signal processing, analysis and classification. Moreover, the method is thought to be used in a multi-emotions based Brain Computer Interface (BCI) and, for this reason, an ad hoc shrewdness is assumed. The peculiarity of the brain activation requires ad-hoc signal processing by wavelet decomposition, and the definition of a set of features for signal characterization in order to discriminate different self-induced emotions. The proposed method is a two stages algorithm, completely parameterized, aiming at a multi-class classification and may be considered in the framework of machine learning. The first stage, the calibration, is off-line and is devoted at the signal processing, the determination of the features and at the training of a classifier. The second stage, the real-time one, is the test on new data. The PCA theory is applied to avoid redundancy in the set of features whereas the classification of the selected features, and therefore of the signals, is obtained by the SVM. Some experimental tests have been conducted on EEG signals proposing a binary BCI, based on the self-induced disgust produced by remembering an unpleasant odor. Since in literature it has been shown that this emotion mainly involves the right hemisphere and in particular the T8 channel, the classification procedure is tested by using just T8, though the average accuracy is calculated and reported also for the whole set of the measured channels. The obtained
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Wang
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Recently, wireless sensor networks (WSNs have drawn great interest due to their outstanding monitoring and management potential in medical, environmental and industrial applications. Most of the applications that employ WSNs demand all of the sensor nodes to run on a common time scale, a requirement that highlights the importance of clock synchronization. The clock synchronization problem in WSNs is inherently related to parameter estimation. The accuracy of clock synchronization algorithms depends essentially on the statistical properties of the parameter estimation algorithms. Recently, studies dedicated to the estimation of synchronization parameters, such as clock offset and skew, have begun to emerge in the literature. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art clock synchronization algorithms for WSNs from a statistical signal processing point of view. This article focuses on describing the key features of the class of clock synchronization algorithms that exploit the traditional two-way message (signal exchange mechanism. Upon introducing the two-way message exchange mechanism, the main clock offset estimation algorithms for pairwise synchronization of sensor nodes are first reviewed, and their performance is compared. The class of fully-distributed clock offset estimation algorithms for network-wide synchronization is then surveyed. The paper concludes with a list of open research problems pertaining to clock synchronization of WSNs.
Integrating Human and Machine Intelligence in Galaxy Morphology Classification Tasks
Beck, Melanie Renee
The large flood of data flowing from observatories presents significant challenges to astronomy and cosmology--challenges that will only be magnified by projects currently under development. Growth in both volume and velocity of astrophysics data is accelerating: whereas the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has produced 60 terabytes of data in the last decade, the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) plans to register 30 terabytes per night starting in the year 2020. Additionally, the Euclid Mission will acquire imaging for 5 x 107 resolvable galaxies. The field of galaxy evolution faces a particularly challenging future as complete understanding often cannot be reached without analysis of detailed morphological galaxy features. Historically, morphological analysis has relied on visual classification by astronomers, accessing the human brains capacity for advanced pattern recognition. However, this accurate but inefficient method falters when confronted with many thousands (or millions) of images. In the SDSS era, efforts to automate morphological classifications of galaxies (e.g., Conselice et al., 2000; Lotz et al., 2004) are reasonably successful and can distinguish between elliptical and disk-dominated galaxies with accuracies of 80%. While this is statistically very useful, a key problem with these methods is that they often cannot say which 80% of their samples are accurate. Furthermore, when confronted with the more complex task of identifying key substructure within galaxies, automated classification algorithms begin to fail. The Galaxy Zoo project uses a highly innovative approach to solving the scalability problem of visual classification. Displaying images of SDSS galaxies to volunteers via a simple and engaging web interface, www.galaxyzoo.org asks people to classify images by eye. Within the first year hundreds of thousands of members of the general public had classified each of the 1 million SDSS galaxies an average of 40 times. Galaxy Zoo
Effective Packet Number for 5G IM WeChat Application at Early Stage Traffic Classification
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Muhammad Shafiq
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Accurate network traffic classification at early stage is very important for 5G network applications. During the last few years, researchers endeavored hard to propose effective machine learning model for classification of Internet traffic applications at early stage with few packets. Nevertheless, this essential problem still needs to be studied profoundly to find out effective packet number as well as effective machine learning (ML model. In this paper, we tried to solve the above-mentioned problem. For this purpose, five Internet traffic datasets are utilized. Initially, we extract packet size of 20 packets and then mutual information analysis is carried out to find out the mutual information of each packet on n flow type. Thereafter, we execute 10 well-known machine learning algorithms using crossover classification method. Two statistical analysis tests, Friedman and Wilcoxon pairwise tests, are applied for the experimental results. Moreover, we also apply the statistical tests for classifiers to find out effective ML classifier. Our experimental results show that 13–19 packets are the effective packet numbers for 5G IM WeChat application at early stage network traffic classification. We also find out effective ML classifier, where Random Forest ML classifier is effective classifier at early stage Internet traffic classification.
Research on Remote Sensing Image Classification Based on Feature Level Fusion
Yuan, L.; Zhu, G.
2018-04-01
Remote sensing image classification, as an important direction of remote sensing image processing and application, has been widely studied. However, in the process of existing classification algorithms, there still exists the phenomenon of misclassification and missing points, which leads to the final classification accuracy is not high. In this paper, we selected Sentinel-1A and Landsat8 OLI images as data sources, and propose a classification method based on feature level fusion. Compare three kind of feature level fusion algorithms (i.e., Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening, Principal Component Analysis transform and Brovey transform), and then select the best fused image for the classification experimental. In the classification process, we choose four kinds of image classification algorithms (i.e. Minimum distance, Mahalanobis distance, Support Vector Machine and ISODATA) to do contrast experiment. We use overall classification precision and Kappa coefficient as the classification accuracy evaluation criteria, and the four classification results of fused image are analysed. The experimental results show that the fusion effect of Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening is better than other methods. In four kinds of classification algorithms, the fused image has the best applicability to Support Vector Machine classification, the overall classification precision is 94.01 % and the Kappa coefficients is 0.91. The fused image with Sentinel-1A and Landsat8 OLI is not only have more spatial information and spectral texture characteristics, but also enhances the distinguishing features of the images. The proposed method is beneficial to improve the accuracy and stability of remote sensing image classification.
Distribution Bottlenecks in Classification Algorithms
Zwartjes, G.J.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Hurink, Johann L.
2012-01-01
The abundance of data available on Wireless Sensor Networks makes online processing necessary. In industrial applications for example, the correct operation of equipment can be the point of interest while raw sampled data is of minor importance. Classication algorithms can be used to make state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, Yusheng; Du, Z W; Yang, Y J; Chen, P; Wang, X H; Cheng, Y; Peng, J; Shen, A G; Hu, J M; Tian, Q; Shang, X L; Liu, Z C; Yao, X Q; Wang, J Z
2013-01-01
Early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has puzzled many clinicians. In this work, laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) was developed to diagnose AD from platelet samples from AD transgenic mice and non-transgenic controls of different ages. An adaptive Gaussian process (GP) classification algorithm was used to re-establish the classification models of early AD, advanced AD and the control group with just two features and the capacity for noise reduction. Compared with the previous multilayer perceptron network method, the GP showed much better classification performance with the same feature set. Besides, spectra of platelets isolated from AD and Parkinson’s disease (PD) mice were also discriminated. Spectral data from 4 month AD (n = 39) and 12 month AD (n = 104) platelets, as well as control data (n = 135), were collected. Prospective application of the algorithm to the data set resulted in a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of about 100% and a Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.81. Samples from PD (n = 120) platelets were also collected for differentiation from 12 month AD. The results suggest that platelet LRS detection analysis with the GP appears to be an easier and more accurate method than current ones for early and differential diagnosis of AD. (paper)
Unsupervised classification of variable stars
Valenzuela, Lucas; Pichara, Karim
2018-03-01
During the past 10 years, a considerable amount of effort has been made to develop algorithms for automatic classification of variable stars. That has been primarily achieved by applying machine learning methods to photometric data sets where objects are represented as light curves. Classifiers require training sets to learn the underlying patterns that allow the separation among classes. Unfortunately, building training sets is an expensive process that demands a lot of human efforts. Every time data come from new surveys; the only available training instances are the ones that have a cross-match with previously labelled objects, consequently generating insufficient training sets compared with the large amounts of unlabelled sources. In this work, we present an algorithm that performs unsupervised classification of variable stars, relying only on the similarity among light curves. We tackle the unsupervised classification problem by proposing an untraditional approach. Instead of trying to match classes of stars with clusters found by a clustering algorithm, we propose a query-based method where astronomers can find groups of variable stars ranked by similarity. We also develop a fast similarity function specific for light curves, based on a novel data structure that allows scaling the search over the entire data set of unlabelled objects. Experiments show that our unsupervised model achieves high accuracy in the classification of different types of variable stars and that the proposed algorithm scales up to massive amounts of light curves.
Agent Collaborative Target Localization and Classification in Wireless Sensor Networks
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Sheng Wang
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are autonomous networks that have beenfrequently deployed to collaboratively perform target localization and classification tasks.Their autonomous and collaborative features resemble the characteristics of agents. Suchsimilarities inspire the development of heterogeneous agent architecture for WSN in thispaper. The proposed agent architecture views WSN as multi-agent systems and mobileagents are employed to reduce in-network communication. According to the architecture,an energy based acoustic localization algorithm is proposed. In localization, estimate oftarget location is obtained by steepest descent search. The search algorithm adapts tomeasurement environments by dynamically adjusting its termination condition. With theagent architecture, target classification is accomplished by distributed support vectormachine (SVM. Mobile agents are employed for feature extraction and distributed SVMlearning to reduce communication load. Desirable learning performance is guaranteed bycombining support vectors and convex hull vectors. Fusion algorithms are designed tomerge SVM classification decisions made from various modalities. Real world experimentswith MICAz sensor nodes are conducted for vehicle localization and classification.Experimental results show the proposed agent architecture remarkably facilitates WSNdesigns and algorithm implementation. The localization and classification algorithms alsoprove to be accurate and energy efficient.
Ensemble Classification of Data Streams Based on Attribute Reduction and a Sliding Window
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Yingchun Chen
2018-04-01
Full Text Available With the current increasing volume and dimensionality of data, traditional data classification algorithms are unable to satisfy the demands of practical classification applications of data streams. To deal with noise and concept drift in data streams, we propose an ensemble classification algorithm based on attribute reduction and a sliding window in this paper. Using mutual information, an approximate attribute reduction algorithm based on rough sets is used to reduce data dimensionality and increase the diversity of reduced results in the algorithm. A double-threshold concept drift detection method and a three-stage sliding window control strategy are introduced to improve the performance of the algorithm when dealing with both noise and concept drift. The classification precision is further improved by updating the base classifiers and their nonlinear weights. Experiments on synthetic datasets and actual datasets demonstrate the performance of the algorithm in terms of classification precision, memory use, and time efficiency.
Multi-label literature classification based on the Gene Ontology graph
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Lu Xinghua
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gene Ontology is a controlled vocabulary for representing knowledge related to genes and proteins in a computable form. The current effort of manually annotating proteins with the Gene Ontology is outpaced by the rate of accumulation of biomedical knowledge in literature, which urges the development of text mining approaches to facilitate the process by automatically extracting the Gene Ontology annotation from literature. The task is usually cast as a text classification problem, and contemporary methods are confronted with unbalanced training data and the difficulties associated with multi-label classification. Results In this research, we investigated the methods of enhancing automatic multi-label classification of biomedical literature by utilizing the structure of the Gene Ontology graph. We have studied three graph-based multi-label classification algorithms, including a novel stochastic algorithm and two top-down hierarchical classification methods for multi-label literature classification. We systematically evaluated and compared these graph-based classification algorithms to a conventional flat multi-label algorithm. The results indicate that, through utilizing the information from the structure of the Gene Ontology graph, the graph-based multi-label classification methods can significantly improve predictions of the Gene Ontology terms implied by the analyzed text. Furthermore, the graph-based multi-label classifiers are capable of suggesting Gene Ontology annotations (to curators that are closely related to the true annotations even if they fail to predict the true ones directly. A software package implementing the studied algorithms is available for the research community. Conclusion Through utilizing the information from the structure of the Gene Ontology graph, the graph-based multi-label classification methods have better potential than the conventional flat multi-label classification approach to facilitate
An Extended Spectral-Spatial Classification Approach for Hyperspectral Data
Akbari, D.
2017-11-01
In this paper an extended classification approach for hyperspectral imagery based on both spectral and spatial information is proposed. The spatial information is obtained by an enhanced marker-based minimum spanning forest (MSF) algorithm. Three different methods of dimension reduction are first used to obtain the subspace of hyperspectral data: (1) unsupervised feature extraction methods including principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA), and minimum noise fraction (MNF); (2) supervised feature extraction including decision boundary feature extraction (DBFE), discriminate analysis feature extraction (DAFE), and nonparametric weighted feature extraction (NWFE); (3) genetic algorithm (GA). The spectral features obtained are then fed into the enhanced marker-based MSF classification algorithm. In the enhanced MSF algorithm, the markers are extracted from the classification maps obtained by both SVM and watershed segmentation algorithm. To evaluate the proposed approach, the Pavia University hyperspectral data is tested. Experimental results show that the proposed approach using GA achieves an approximately 8 % overall accuracy higher than the original MSF-based algorithm.
Stellar Spectral Classification with Locality Preserving Projections ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
With the help of computer tools and algorithms, automatic stellar spectral classification has become an area of current interest. The process of stellar spectral classification mainly includes two steps: dimension reduction and classification. As a popular dimensionality reduction technique, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) ...
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Seyedtabaee Saeed
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with configuration of an algorithm to be used in a speech-passing angle grinder noise-canceling headset. Angle grinder noise is annoying and interrupts ordinary oral communication. Meaning that, low SNR noisy condition is ahead. Since variation in angle grinder working condition changes noise statistics, the noise will be nonstationary with possible jumps in its power. Studies are conducted for picking an appropriate algorithm. A modified version of the well-known spectral subtraction shows superior performance against alternate methods. Noise estimation is calculated through a multi-band fast adapting scheme. The algorithm is adapted very quickly to the non-stationary noise environment while inflecting minimum musical noise and speech distortion on the processed signal. Objective and subjective measures illustrating the performance of the proposed method are introduced.
Online co-regularized algorithms
Ruijter, T. de; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Heskes, T.
2012-01-01
We propose an online co-regularized learning algorithm for classification and regression tasks. We demonstrate that by sequentially co-regularizing prediction functions on unlabeled data points, our algorithm provides improved performance in comparison to supervised methods on several UCI benchmarks
Mimicking human texture classification
Rogowitz, B.E.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van den Broek, Egon; Pappas, T.N.; Schouten, Theo E.; Daly, S.J.
2005-01-01
In an attempt to mimic human (colorful) texture classification by a clustering algorithm three lines of research have been encountered, in which as test set 180 texture images (both their color and gray-scale equivalent) were drawn from the OuTex and VisTex databases. First, a k-means algorithm was
The Classification of Romanian High-Schools
Ivan, Ion; Milodin, Daniel; Naie, Lucian
2006-01-01
The article tries to tackle the issue of high-schools classification from one city, district or from Romania. The classification criteria are presented. The National Database of Education is also presented and the application of criteria is illustrated. An algorithm for high-school multi-rang classification is proposed in order to build classes of…
Wang, Yin; Li, Rudong; Zhou, Yuhua; Ling, Zongxin; Guo, Xiaokui; Xie, Lu; Liu, Lei
2016-01-01
Text data of 16S rRNA are informative for classifications of microbiota-associated diseases. However, the raw text data need to be systematically processed so that features for classification can be defined/extracted; moreover, the high-dimension feature spaces generated by the text data also pose an additional difficulty. Here we present a Phylogenetic Tree-Based Motif Finding algorithm (PMF) to analyze 16S rRNA text data. By integrating phylogenetic rules and other statistical indexes for classification, we can effectively reduce the dimension of the large feature spaces generated by the text datasets. Using the retrieved motifs in combination with common classification methods, we can discriminate different samples of both pneumonia and dental caries better than other existing methods. We extend the phylogenetic approaches to perform supervised learning on microbiota text data to discriminate the pathological states for pneumonia and dental caries. The results have shown that PMF may enhance the efficiency and reliability in analyzing high-dimension text data.
A Survey on Sentiment Classification in Face Recognition
Qian, Jingyu
2018-01-01
Face recognition has been an important topic for both industry and academia for a long time. K-means clustering, autoencoder, and convolutional neural network, each representing a design idea for face recognition method, are three popular algorithms to deal with face recognition problems. It is worthwhile to summarize and compare these three different algorithms. This paper will focus on one specific face recognition problem-sentiment classification from images. Three different algorithms for sentiment classification problems will be summarized, including k-means clustering, autoencoder, and convolutional neural network. An experiment with the application of these algorithms on a specific dataset of human faces will be conducted to illustrate how these algorithms are applied and their accuracy. Finally, the three algorithms are compared based on the accuracy result.
Efficient Feature Selection and Classification of Protein Sequence Data in Bioinformatics
Faye, Ibrahima; Samir, Brahim Belhaouari; Md Said, Abas
2014-01-01
Bioinformatics has been an emerging area of research for the last three decades. The ultimate aims of bioinformatics were to store and manage the biological data, and develop and analyze computational tools to enhance their understanding. The size of data accumulated under various sequencing projects is increasing exponentially, which presents difficulties for the experimental methods. To reduce the gap between newly sequenced protein and proteins with known functions, many computational techniques involving classification and clustering algorithms were proposed in the past. The classification of protein sequences into existing superfamilies is helpful in predicting the structure and function of large amount of newly discovered proteins. The existing classification results are unsatisfactory due to a huge size of features obtained through various feature encoding methods. In this work, a statistical metric-based feature selection technique has been proposed in order to reduce the size of the extracted feature vector. The proposed method of protein classification shows significant improvement in terms of performance measure metrics: accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, recall, F-measure, and so forth. PMID:25045727
Hossen, Jakir; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Chari, Srikant
2015-07-01
Linear pyroelectric array sensors have enabled useful classifications of objects such as humans and animals to be performed with relatively low-cost hardware in border and perimeter security applications. Ongoing research has sought to improve the performance of these sensors through signal processing algorithms. In the research presented here, we introduce the use of hidden Markov tree (HMT) models for object recognition in images generated by linear pyroelectric sensors. HMTs are trained to statistically model the wavelet features of individual objects through an expectation-maximization learning process. Human versus animal classification for a test object is made by evaluating its wavelet features against the trained HMTs using the maximum-likelihood criterion. The classification performance of this approach is compared to two other techniques; a texture, shape, and spectral component features (TSSF) based classifier and a speeded-up robust feature (SURF) classifier. The evaluation indicates that among the three techniques, the wavelet-based HMT model works well, is robust, and has improved classification performance compared to a SURF-based algorithm in equivalent computation time. When compared to the TSSF-based classifier, the HMT model has a slightly degraded performance but almost an order of magnitude improvement in computation time enabling real-time implementation.
Raouafi, Sana; Achiche, Sofiane; Begon, Mickael; Sarcher, Aurélie; Raison, Maxime
2018-01-01
Treatment for cerebral palsy depends upon the severity of the child's condition and requires knowledge about upper limb disability. The aim of this study was to develop a systematic quantitative classification method of the upper limb disability levels for children with spastic unilateral cerebral palsy based on upper limb movements and muscle activation. Thirteen children with spastic unilateral cerebral palsy and six typically developing children participated in this study. Patients were matched on age and manual ability classification system levels I to III. Twenty-three kinematic and electromyographic variables were collected from two tasks. Discriminative analysis and K-means clustering algorithm were applied using 23 kinematic and EMG variables of each participant. Among the 23 kinematic and electromyographic variables, only two variables containing the most relevant information for the prediction of the four levels of severity of spastic unilateral cerebral palsy, which are fixed by manual ability classification system, were identified by discriminant analysis: (1) the Falconer index (CAI E ) which represents the ratio of biceps to triceps brachii activity during extension and (2) the maximal angle extension (θ Extension,max ). A good correlation (Kendall Rank correlation coefficient = -0.53, p = 0.01) was found between levels fixed by manual ability classification system and the obtained classes. These findings suggest that the cost and effort needed to assess and characterize the disability level of a child can be further reduced.
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Mustafa Yıldız
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Introduction: We aimed to develop a classification method to discriminate ventricular septal defect and atrial septal defect by using severalhemodynamic parameters.Patients and Methods: Forty three patients (30 atrial septal defect, 13 ventricular septal defect; 26 female, 17 male with documentedhemodynamic parameters via cardiac catheterization are included to study. Such parameters as blood pressure values of different areas,gender, age and Qp/Qs ratios are used for classification. Parameters, we used in classification are determined by divergence analysismethod. Those parameters are; i pulmonary artery diastolic pressure, ii Qp/Qs ratio, iii right atrium pressure, iv age, v pulmonary arterysystolic pressure, vi left ventricular sistolic pressure, vii aorta mean pressure, viii left ventricular diastolic pressure, ix aorta diastolicpressure, x aorta systolic pressure. Those parameters detected from our study population, are uploaded to multi-layered artificial neuralnetwork and the network was trained by genetic algorithm.Results: Trained cluster consists of 14 factors (7 atrial septal defect and 7 ventricular septal defect. Overall success ratio is 79.2%, andwith a proper instruction of artificial neural network this ratio increases up to 89%.Conclusion: Parameters, belonging to artificial neural network, which are needed to be detected by the investigator in classical methods,can easily be detected with the help of genetic algorithms. During the instruction of artificial neural network by genetic algorithms, boththe topology of network and factors of network can be determined. During the test stage, elements, not included in instruction cluster, areassumed as in test cluster, and as a result of this study, we observed that multi-layered artificial neural network can be instructed properly,and neural network is a successful method for aimed classification.
Li, Jinyan; Fong, Simon; Sung, Yunsick; Cho, Kyungeun; Wong, Raymond; Wong, Kelvin K L
2016-01-01
An imbalanced dataset is defined as a training dataset that has imbalanced proportions of data in both interesting and uninteresting classes. Often in biomedical applications, samples from the stimulating class are rare in a population, such as medical anomalies, positive clinical tests, and particular diseases. Although the target samples in the primitive dataset are small in number, the induction of a classification model over such training data leads to poor prediction performance due to insufficient training from the minority class. In this paper, we use a novel class-balancing method named adaptive swarm cluster-based dynamic multi-objective synthetic minority oversampling technique (ASCB_DmSMOTE) to solve this imbalanced dataset problem, which is common in biomedical applications. The proposed method combines under-sampling and over-sampling into a swarm optimisation algorithm. It adaptively selects suitable parameters for the rebalancing algorithm to find the best solution. Compared with the other versions of the SMOTE algorithm, significant improvements, which include higher accuracy and credibility, are observed with ASCB_DmSMOTE. Our proposed method tactfully combines two rebalancing techniques together. It reasonably re-allocates the majority class in the details and dynamically optimises the two parameters of SMOTE to synthesise a reasonable scale of minority class for each clustered sub-imbalanced dataset. The proposed methods ultimately overcome other conventional methods and attains higher credibility with even greater accuracy of the classification model.
Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Statistical Locally Linear Embedding.
Wang, Xiang; Zheng, Yuan; Zhao, Zhenzhou; Wang, Jinping
2015-07-06
Fault diagnosis is essentially a kind of pattern recognition. The measured signal samples usually distribute on nonlinear low-dimensional manifolds embedded in the high-dimensional signal space, so how to implement feature extraction, dimensionality reduction and improve recognition performance is a crucial task. In this paper a novel machinery fault diagnosis approach based on a statistical locally linear embedding (S-LLE) algorithm which is an extension of LLE by exploiting the fault class label information is proposed. The fault diagnosis approach first extracts the intrinsic manifold features from the high-dimensional feature vectors which are obtained from vibration signals that feature extraction by time-domain, frequency-domain and empirical mode decomposition (EMD), and then translates the complex mode space into a salient low-dimensional feature space by the manifold learning algorithm S-LLE, which outperforms other feature reduction methods such as PCA, LDA and LLE. Finally in the feature reduction space pattern classification and fault diagnosis by classifier are carried out easily and rapidly. Rolling bearing fault signals are used to validate the proposed fault diagnosis approach. The results indicate that the proposed approach obviously improves the classification performance of fault pattern recognition and outperforms the other traditional approaches.
Zhang, T. H.; Ji, H. W.; Hu, Y.; Ye, Q.; Lin, Y.
2018-04-01
Remote Sensing (RS) and Geography Information System (GIS) technologies are widely used in ecological analysis and regional planning. With the advantages of large scale monitoring, combination of point and area, multiple time-phases and repeated observation, they are suitable for monitoring and analysis of environmental information in a large range. In this study, support vector machine (SVM) classification algorithm is used to monitor the land use and land cover change (LUCC), and then to perform the ecological evaluation for Chaohu lake tourism area quantitatively. The automatic classification and the quantitative spatial-temporal analysis for the Chaohu Lake basin are realized by the analysis of multi-temporal and multispectral satellite images, DEM data and slope information data. Furthermore, the ecological buffer zone analysis is also studied to set up the buffer width for each catchment area surrounding Chaohu Lake. The results of LUCC monitoring from 1992 to 2015 has shown obvious affections by human activities. Since the construction of the Chaohu Lake basin is in the crucial stage of the rapid development of urbanization, the application of RS and GIS technique can effectively provide scientific basis for land use planning, ecological management, environmental protection and tourism resources development in the Chaohu Lake Basin.
A comprehensive simulation study on classification of RNA-Seq data.
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Gökmen Zararsız
Full Text Available RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq is a powerful technique for the gene-expression profiling of organisms that uses the capabilities of next-generation sequencing technologies. Developing gene-expression-based classification algorithms is an emerging powerful method for diagnosis, disease classification and monitoring at molecular level, as well as providing potential markers of diseases. Most of the statistical methods proposed for the classification of gene-expression data are either based on a continuous scale (eg. microarray data or require a normal distribution assumption. Hence, these methods cannot be directly applied to RNA-Seq data since they violate both data structure and distributional assumptions. However, it is possible to apply these algorithms with appropriate modifications to RNA-Seq data. One way is to develop count-based classifiers, such as Poisson linear discriminant analysis and negative binomial linear discriminant analysis. Another way is to bring the data closer to microarrays and apply microarray-based classifiers. In this study, we compared several classifiers including PLDA with and without power transformation, NBLDA, single SVM, bagging SVM (bagSVM, classification and regression trees (CART, and random forests (RF. We also examined the effect of several parameters such as overdispersion, sample size, number of genes, number of classes, differential-expression rate, and the transformation method on model performances. A comprehensive simulation study is conducted and the results are compared with the results of two miRNA and two mRNA experimental datasets. The results revealed that increasing the sample size, differential-expression rate and decreasing the dispersion parameter and number of groups lead to an increase in classification accuracy. Similar with differential-expression studies, the classification of RNA-Seq data requires careful attention when handling data overdispersion. We conclude that, as a count
Opposite Degree Algorithm and Its Applications
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Xiao-Guang Yue
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC algorithm.
Zhou, Xin; Jun, Sun; Zhang, Bing; Jun, Wu
2017-07-01
In order to improve the reliability of the spectrum feature extracted by wavelet transform, a method combining wavelet transform (WT) with bacterial colony chemotaxis algorithm and support vector machine (BCC-SVM) algorithm (WT-BCC-SVM) was proposed in this paper. Besides, we aimed to identify different kinds of pesticide residues on lettuce leaves in a novel and rapid non-destructive way by using fluorescence spectra technology. The fluorescence spectral data of 150 lettuce leaf samples of five different kinds of pesticide residues on the surface of lettuce were obtained using Cary Eclipse fluorescence spectrometer. Standard normalized variable detrending (SNV detrending), Savitzky-Golay coupled with Standard normalized variable detrending (SG-SNV detrending) were used to preprocess the raw spectra, respectively. Bacterial colony chemotaxis combined with support vector machine (BCC-SVM) and support vector machine (SVM) classification models were established based on full spectra (FS) and wavelet transform characteristics (WTC), respectively. Moreover, WTC were selected by WT. The results showed that the accuracy of training set, calibration set and the prediction set of the best optimal classification model (SG-SNV detrending-WT-BCC-SVM) were 100%, 98% and 93.33%, respectively. In addition, the results indicated that it was feasible to use WT-BCC-SVM to establish diagnostic model of different kinds of pesticide residues on lettuce leaves.
Brenčič, Mihael
2016-01-01
Northern hemisphere elementary circulation mechanisms, defined with the Dzerdzeevski classification and published on a daily basis from 1899-2012, are analysed with statistical methods as continuous categorical time series. Classification consists of 41 elementary circulation mechanisms (ECM), which are assigned to calendar days. Empirical marginal probabilities of each ECM were determined. Seasonality and the periodicity effect were investigated with moving dispersion filters and randomisation procedure on the ECM categories as well as with the time analyses of the ECM mode. The time series were determined as being non-stationary with strong time-dependent trends. During the investigated period, periodicity interchanges with periods when no seasonality is present. In the time series structure, the strongest division is visible at the milestone of 1986, showing that the atmospheric circulation pattern reflected in the ECM has significantly changed. This change is result of the change in the frequency of ECM categories; before 1986, the appearance of ECM was more diverse, and afterwards fewer ECMs appear. The statistical approach applied to the categorical climatic time series opens up new potential insight into climate variability and change studies that have to be performed in the future.
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S Anantha Sivaprakasam
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Cervical cancer that is a disease, in which malignant (cancer cells form in the tissues of the cervix, is one of the fourth leading causes of cancer death in female community worldwide. The cervical cancer can be prevented and/or cured if it is diagnosed in the pre-cancerous lesion stage or earlier. A common physical examination technique widely used in the screening is called Papanicolaou test or Pap test which is used to detect the abnormality of the cell. Due to intricacy of the cell nature, automating of this procedure is still a herculean task for the pathologist. This paper addresses solution for the challenges in terms of a simple and novel method to segment and classify the cervical cell automatically. The primary step of this procedure is pre-processing in which de-nosing, de-correlation operation and segregation of colour components are carried out, Then, two new techniques called Morphological and Statistical Edge based segmentation and Morphological and Statistical Region Based segmentation Techniques- put forward in this paper, and that are applied on the each component of image to segment the nuclei from cervical image. Finally, all segmented colour components are combined together to make a final segmentation result. After extracting the nuclei, the morphological features are extracted from the nuclei. The performance of two techniques mentioned above outperformed than standard segmentation techniques. Besides, Morphological and Statistical Edge based segmentation is outperformed than Morphological and Statistical Region based Segmentation. Finally, the nuclei are classified based on the morphological value The segmentation accuracy is echoed in classification accuracy. The overall segmentation accuracy is 97%.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu, Xiao Ran; Zhang, You Yun; Zhu, Yong Sheng [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Xi' an (China)
2012-09-15
Intelligent fault diagnosis benefits from efficient feature selection. Neighborhood rough sets are effective in feature selection. However, determining the neighborhood value accurately remains a challenge. The wrapper feature selection algorithm is designed by combining the kernel method and neighborhood rough sets to self-adaptively select sensitive features. The combination effectively solves the shortcomings in selecting the neighborhood value in the previous application process. The statistical features of time and frequency domains are used to describe the characteristic of the rolling bearing to make the intelligent fault diagnosis approach work. Three classification algorithms, namely, classification and regression tree (CART), commercial version 4.5 (C4.5), and radial basis function support vector machines (RBFSVM), are used to test UCI datasets and 10 fault datasets of rolling bearing. The results indicate that the diagnostic approach presented could effectively select the sensitive fault features and simultaneously identify the type and degree of the fault.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Xiao Ran; Zhang, You Yun; Zhu, Yong Sheng
2012-01-01
Intelligent fault diagnosis benefits from efficient feature selection. Neighborhood rough sets are effective in feature selection. However, determining the neighborhood value accurately remains a challenge. The wrapper feature selection algorithm is designed by combining the kernel method and neighborhood rough sets to self-adaptively select sensitive features. The combination effectively solves the shortcomings in selecting the neighborhood value in the previous application process. The statistical features of time and frequency domains are used to describe the characteristic of the rolling bearing to make the intelligent fault diagnosis approach work. Three classification algorithms, namely, classification and regression tree (CART), commercial version 4.5 (C4.5), and radial basis function support vector machines (RBFSVM), are used to test UCI datasets and 10 fault datasets of rolling bearing. The results indicate that the diagnostic approach presented could effectively select the sensitive fault features and simultaneously identify the type and degree of the fault
Automatic Fault Characterization via Abnormality-Enhanced Classification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bronevetsky, G; Laguna, I; de Supinski, B R
2010-12-20
Enterprise and high-performance computing systems are growing extremely large and complex, employing hundreds to hundreds of thousands of processors and software/hardware stacks built by many people across many organizations. As the growing scale of these machines increases the frequency of faults, system complexity makes these faults difficult to detect and to diagnose. Current system management techniques, which focus primarily on efficient data access and query mechanisms, require system administrators to examine the behavior of various system services manually. Growing system complexity is making this manual process unmanageable: administrators require more effective management tools that can detect faults and help to identify their root causes. System administrators need timely notification when a fault is manifested that includes the type of fault, the time period in which it occurred and the processor on which it originated. Statistical modeling approaches can accurately characterize system behavior. However, the complex effects of system faults make these tools difficult to apply effectively. This paper investigates the application of classification and clustering algorithms to fault detection and characterization. We show experimentally that naively applying these methods achieves poor accuracy. Further, we design novel techniques that combine classification algorithms with information on the abnormality of application behavior to improve detection and characterization accuracy. Our experiments demonstrate that these techniques can detect and characterize faults with 65% accuracy, compared to just 5% accuracy for naive approaches.
SQL based cardiovascular ultrasound image classification.
Nandagopalan, S; Suryanarayana, Adiga B; Sudarshan, T S B; Chandrashekar, Dhanalakshmi; Manjunath, C N
2013-01-01
This paper proposes a novel method to analyze and classify the cardiovascular ultrasound echocardiographic images using Naïve-Bayesian model via database OLAP-SQL. Efficient data mining algorithms based on tightly-coupled model is used to extract features. Three algorithms are proposed for classification namely Naïve-Bayesian Classifier for Discrete variables (NBCD) with SQL, NBCD with OLAP-SQL, and Naïve-Bayesian Classifier for Continuous variables (NBCC) using OLAP-SQL. The proposed model is trained with 207 patient images containing normal and abnormal categories. Out of the three proposed algorithms, a high classification accuracy of 96.59% was achieved from NBCC which is better than the earlier methods.
AN EXTENDED SPECTRAL–SPATIAL CLASSIFICATION APPROACH FOR HYPERSPECTRAL DATA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Akbari
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper an extended classification approach for hyperspectral imagery based on both spectral and spatial information is proposed. The spatial information is obtained by an enhanced marker-based minimum spanning forest (MSF algorithm. Three different methods of dimension reduction are first used to obtain the subspace of hyperspectral data: (1 unsupervised feature extraction methods including principal component analysis (PCA, independent component analysis (ICA, and minimum noise fraction (MNF; (2 supervised feature extraction including decision boundary feature extraction (DBFE, discriminate analysis feature extraction (DAFE, and nonparametric weighted feature extraction (NWFE; (3 genetic algorithm (GA. The spectral features obtained are then fed into the enhanced marker-based MSF classification algorithm. In the enhanced MSF algorithm, the markers are extracted from the classification maps obtained by both SVM and watershed segmentation algorithm. To evaluate the proposed approach, the Pavia University hyperspectral data is tested. Experimental results show that the proposed approach using GA achieves an approximately 8 % overall accuracy higher than the original MSF-based algorithm.
Predictive Manufacturing: A Classification Strategy to Predict Product Failures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khan, Abdul Rauf; Schiøler, Henrik; Kulahci, Murat
2018-01-01
manufacturing analytics model that employs a big data approach to predicting product failures; third, we illustrate the issue of high dimensionality, along with statistically redundant information; and, finally, our proposed method will be compared against the well-known classification methods (SVM, K......-nearest neighbor, artificial neural networks). The results from real data show that our predictive manufacturing analytics approach, using genetic algorithms and Voronoi tessellations, is capable of predicting product failure with reasonable accuracy. The potential application of this method contributes...... to accurately predicting product failures, which would enable manufacturers to reduce production costs without compromising product quality....
Earthquake—explosion discrimination using genetic algorithm-based boosting approach
Orlic, Niksa; Loncaric, Sven
2010-02-01
An important and challenging problem in seismic data processing is to discriminate between natural seismic events such as earthquakes and artificial seismic events such as explosions. Many automatic techniques for seismogram classification have been proposed in the literature. Most of these methods have a similar approach to seismogram classification: a predefined set of features based on ad-hoc feature selection criteria is extracted from the seismogram waveform or spectral data and these features are used for signal classification. In this paper we propose a novel approach for seismogram classification. A specially formulated genetic algorithm has been employed to automatically search for a near-optimal seismogram feature set, instead of using ad-hoc feature selection criteria. A boosting method is added to the genetic algorithm when searching for multiple features in order to improve classification performance. A learning set of seismogram data is used by the genetic algorithm to discover a near-optimal feature set. The feature set identified by the genetic algorithm is then used for seismogram classification. The described method is developed to classify seismograms in two groups, whereas a brief overview of method extension for multiple group classification is given. For method verification, a learning set consisting of 40 local earthquake seismograms and 40 explosion seismograms was used. The method was validated on seismogram set consisting of 60 local earthquake seismograms and 60 explosion seismograms, with correct classification of 85%.
Fetit, Ahmed E; Novak, Jan; Peet, Andrew C; Arvanitits, Theodoros N
2015-09-01
The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of three-dimensional texture analysis (3D TA) of conventional MR images for the classification of childhood brain tumours in a quantitative manner. The dataset comprised pre-contrast T1 - and T2-weighted MRI series obtained from 48 children diagnosed with brain tumours (medulloblastoma, pilocytic astrocytoma and ependymoma). 3D and 2D TA were carried out on the images using first-, second- and higher order statistical methods. Six supervised classification algorithms were trained with the most influential 3D and 2D textural features, and their performances in the classification of tumour types, using the two feature sets, were compared. Model validation was carried out using the leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) approach, as well as stratified 10-fold cross-validation, in order to provide additional reassurance. McNemar's test was used to test the statistical significance of any improvements demonstrated by 3D-trained classifiers. Supervised learning models trained with 3D textural features showed improved classification performances to those trained with conventional 2D features. For instance, a neural network classifier showed 12% improvement in area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC) and 19% in overall classification accuracy. These improvements were statistically significant for four of the tested classifiers, as per McNemar's tests. This study shows that 3D textural features extracted from conventional T1 - and T2-weighted images can improve the diagnostic classification of childhood brain tumours. Long-term benefits of accurate, yet non-invasive, diagnostic aids include a reduction in surgical procedures, improvement in surgical and therapy planning, and support of discussions with patients' families. It remains necessary, however, to extend the analysis to a multicentre cohort in order to assess the scalability of the techniques used. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Classification of ASKAP Vast Radio Light Curves
Rebbapragada, Umaa; Lo, Kitty; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Reed, Colorado; Murphy, Tara; Thompson, David R.
2012-01-01
The VAST survey is a wide-field survey that observes with unprecedented instrument sensitivity (0.5 mJy or lower) and repeat cadence (a goal of 5 seconds) that will enable novel scientific discoveries related to known and unknown classes of radio transients and variables. Given the unprecedented observing characteristics of VAST, it is important to estimate source classification performance, and determine best practices prior to the launch of ASKAP's BETA in 2012. The goal of this study is to identify light curve characterization and classification algorithms that are best suited for archival VAST light curve classification. We perform our experiments on light curve simulations of eight source types and achieve best case performance of approximately 90% accuracy. We note that classification performance is most influenced by light curve characterization rather than classifier algorithm.
Modified Mahalanobis Taguchi System for Imbalance Data Classification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahmoud El-Banna
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MTS is considered one of the most promising binary classification algorithms to handle imbalance data. Unfortunately, MTS lacks a method for determining an efficient threshold for the binary classification. In this paper, a nonlinear optimization model is formulated based on minimizing the distance between MTS Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curve and the theoretical optimal point named Modified Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MMTS. To validate the MMTS classification efficacy, it has been benchmarked with Support Vector Machines (SVMs, Naive Bayes (NB, Probabilistic Mahalanobis Taguchi Systems (PTM, Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique (SMOTE, Adaptive Conformal Transformation (ACT, Kernel Boundary Alignment (KBA, Hidden Naive Bayes (HNB, and other improved Naive Bayes algorithms. MMTS outperforms the benchmarked algorithms especially when the imbalance ratio is greater than 400. A real life case study on manufacturing sector is used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and to compare its performance with Mahalanobis Genetic Algorithm (MGA.
Modified Mahalanobis Taguchi System for Imbalance Data Classification
2017-01-01
The Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MTS) is considered one of the most promising binary classification algorithms to handle imbalance data. Unfortunately, MTS lacks a method for determining an efficient threshold for the binary classification. In this paper, a nonlinear optimization model is formulated based on minimizing the distance between MTS Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve and the theoretical optimal point named Modified Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MMTS). To validate the MMTS classification efficacy, it has been benchmarked with Support Vector Machines (SVMs), Naive Bayes (NB), Probabilistic Mahalanobis Taguchi Systems (PTM), Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique (SMOTE), Adaptive Conformal Transformation (ACT), Kernel Boundary Alignment (KBA), Hidden Naive Bayes (HNB), and other improved Naive Bayes algorithms. MMTS outperforms the benchmarked algorithms especially when the imbalance ratio is greater than 400. A real life case study on manufacturing sector is used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and to compare its performance with Mahalanobis Genetic Algorithm (MGA). PMID:28811820
Algorithms evaluation for fundus images enhancement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braem, V; Marcos, M; Bizai, G; Drozdowicz, B; Salvatelli, A
2011-01-01
Color images of the retina inherently involve noise and illumination artifacts. In order to improve the diagnostic quality of the images, it is desirable to homogenize the non-uniform illumination and increase contrast while preserving color characteristics. The visual result of different pre-processing techniques can be very dissimilar and it is necessary to make an objective assessment of the techniques in order to select the most suitable. In this article the performance of eight algorithms to correct the non-uniform illumination, contrast modification and color preservation was evaluated. In order to choose the most suitable a general score was proposed. The results got good impression from experts, although some differences suggest that not necessarily the best statistical quality of image is the one of best diagnostic quality to the trained doctor eye. This means that the best pre-processing algorithm for an automatic classification may be different to the most suitable one for visual diagnosis. However, both should result in the same final diagnosis.
Dubovik, O; Herman, M.; Holdak, A.; Lapyonok, T.; Taure, D.; Deuze, J. L.; Ducos, F.; Sinyuk, A.
2011-01-01
The proposed development is an attempt to enhance aerosol retrieval by emphasizing statistical optimization in inversion of advanced satellite observations. This optimization concept improves retrieval accuracy relying on the knowledge of measurement error distribution. Efficient application of such optimization requires pronounced data redundancy (excess of the measurements number over number of unknowns) that is not common in satellite observations. The POLDER imager on board the PARASOL microsatellite registers spectral polarimetric characteristics of the reflected atmospheric radiation at up to 16 viewing directions over each observed pixel. The completeness of such observations is notably higher than for most currently operating passive satellite aerosol sensors. This provides an opportunity for profound utilization of statistical optimization principles in satellite data inversion. The proposed retrieval scheme is designed as statistically optimized multi-variable fitting of all available angular observations obtained by the POLDER sensor in the window spectral channels where absorption by gas is minimal. The total number of such observations by PARASOL always exceeds a hundred over each pixel and the statistical optimization concept promises to be efficient even if the algorithm retrieves several tens of aerosol parameters. Based on this idea, the proposed algorithm uses a large number of unknowns and is aimed at retrieval of extended set of parameters affecting measured radiation.
Mander, Luke; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Fowlkes, Charless C; Punyasena, Surangi W
2013-11-07
Taxonomic identification of pollen and spores uses inherently qualitative descriptions of morphology. Consequently, identifications are restricted to categories that can be reliably classified by multiple analysts, resulting in the coarse taxonomic resolution of the pollen and spore record. Grass pollen represents an archetypal example; it is not routinely identified below family level. To address this issue, we developed quantitative morphometric methods to characterize surface ornamentation and classify grass pollen grains. This produces a means of quantifying morphological features that are traditionally described qualitatively. We used scanning electron microscopy to image 240 specimens of pollen from 12 species within the grass family (Poaceae). We classified these species by developing algorithmic features that quantify the size and density of sculptural elements on the pollen surface, and measure the complexity of the ornamentation they form. These features yielded a classification accuracy of 77.5%. In comparison, a texture descriptor based on modelling the statistical distribution of brightness values in image patches yielded a classification accuracy of 85.8%, and seven human subjects achieved accuracies between 68.33 and 81.67%. The algorithmic features we developed directly relate to biologically meaningful features of grass pollen morphology, and could facilitate direct interpretation of unsupervised classification results from fossil material.
Empirical Studies On Machine Learning Based Text Classification Algorithms
Shweta C. Dharmadhikari; Maya Ingle; Parag Kulkarni
2011-01-01
Automatic classification of text documents has become an important research issue now days. Properclassification of text documents requires information retrieval, machine learning and Natural languageprocessing (NLP) techniques. Our aim is to focus on important approaches to automatic textclassification based on machine learning techniques viz. supervised, unsupervised and semi supervised.In this paper we present a review of various text classification approaches under machine learningparadig...
Digitisation of films and texture analysis for digital classification of pulmonary opacities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Desaga, J.F.; Dengler, J.; Wolf, T.; Engelmann, U.; Scheppelmann, D.; Meinzer, H.P.
1988-01-01
The study aimed at evaluating the effect of different methods of digitisation of radiographic films on the digital classification of pulmonary opacities. Test sets from the standard of the International Labour Office (ILO) Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconiosis were prepared by film digitsation using a scanning microdensitometer or a video digitiser based on a personal computer equipped with a real time digitiser board and a vidicon or a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera. Seven different algorithms were used for texture analysis resulting in 16 texture parameters for each region. All methods used for texture analysis were independent of the mean grey value level and the size of the image analysed. Classification was performed by discriminant analysis using the classes from the ILO classification. A hit ratio of at least 85% was achieved for a digitisation by scanner digitisation or the vidicon, while the corresponding results of the CCD camera were significantly less good. Classification by texture analysis of opacities of chest X-rays of pneumoconiosis digitised by a personal computer based video digitiser and a vidicon are of equal quality compared to digitisation by a scanning microdensitometer. Correct classification of 90% was achieved via the described statistical approach. (orig.) [de
Automatic Parallelization Tool: Classification of Program Code for Parallel Computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mustafa Basthikodi
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Performance growth of single-core processors has come to a halt in the past decade, but was re-enabled by the introduction of parallelism in processors. Multicore frameworks along with Graphical Processing Units empowered to enhance parallelism broadly. Couples of compilers are updated to developing challenges forsynchronization and threading issues. Appropriate program and algorithm classifications will have advantage to a great extent to the group of software engineers to get opportunities for effective parallelization. In present work we investigated current species for classification of algorithms, in that related work on classification is discussed along with the comparison of issues that challenges the classification. The set of algorithms are chosen which matches the structure with different issues and perform given task. We have tested these algorithms utilizing existing automatic species extraction toolsalong with Bones compiler. We have added functionalities to existing tool, providing a more detailed characterization. The contributions of our work include support for pointer arithmetic, conditional and incremental statements, user defined types, constants and mathematical functions. With this, we can retain significant data which is not captured by original speciesof algorithms. We executed new theories into the device, empowering automatic characterization of program code.
G0-WISHART Distribution Based Classification from Polarimetric SAR Images
Hu, G. C.; Zhao, Q. H.
2017-09-01
Enormous scientific and technical developments have been carried out to further improve the remote sensing for decades, particularly Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar(PolSAR) technique, so classification method based on PolSAR images has getted much more attention from scholars and related department around the world. The multilook polarmetric G0-Wishart model is a more flexible model which describe homogeneous, heterogeneous and extremely heterogeneous regions in the image. Moreover, the polarmetric G0-Wishart distribution dose not include the modified Bessel function of the second kind. It is a kind of simple statistical distribution model with less parameter. To prove its feasibility, a process of classification has been tested with the full-polarized Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image by the method. First, apply multilook polarimetric SAR data process and speckle filter to reduce speckle influence for classification result. Initially classify the image into sixteen classes by H/A/α decomposition. Using the ICM algorithm to classify feature based on the G0-Wshart distance. Qualitative and quantitative results show that the proposed method can classify polaimetric SAR data effectively and efficiently.
Cattle behaviour classification from collar, halter, and ear tag sensors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Rahman
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we summarise the outcome of a set of experiments aimed at classifying cattle behaviour based on sensor data. Each animal carried sensors generating time series accelerometer data placed on a collar on the neck at the back of the head, on a halter positioned at the side of the head behind the mouth, or on the ear using a tag. The purpose of the study was to determine how sensor data from different placement can classify a range of typical cattle behaviours. Data were collected and animal behaviours (grazing, standing or ruminating were observed over a common time frame. Statistical features were computed from the sensor data and machine learning algorithms were trained to classify each behaviour. Classification accuracies were computed on separate independent test sets. The analysis based on behaviour classification experiments revealed that different sensor placement can achieve good classification accuracy if the feature space (representing motion patterns between the training and test animal is similar. The paper will discuss these analyses in detail and can act as a guide for future studies.
Scalable Packet Classification with Hash Tables
Wang, Pi-Chung
In the last decade, the technique of packet classification has been widely deployed in various network devices, including routers, firewalls and network intrusion detection systems. In this work, we improve the performance of packet classification by using multiple hash tables. The existing hash-based algorithms have superior scalability with respect to the required space; however, their search performance may not be comparable to other algorithms. To improve the search performance, we propose a tuple reordering algorithm to minimize the number of accessed hash tables with the aid of bitmaps. We also use pre-computation to ensure the accuracy of our search procedure. Performance evaluation based on both real and synthetic filter databases shows that our scheme is effective and scalable and the pre-computation cost is moderate.
Structure-Based Algorithms for Microvessel Classification
Smith, Amy F.; Secomb, Timothy W.; Pries, Axel R.; Smith, Nicolas P.; Shipley, Rebecca J.
2015-01-01
algorithm, developed for networks with one arteriolar and one venular tree, performs well in identifying arterioles and venules and is robust to parameter changes, but incorrectly labels a significant number of capillaries as arterioles or venules
BetaTPred: prediction of beta-TURNS in a protein using statistical algorithms.
Kaur, Harpreet; Raghava, G P S
2002-03-01
beta-turns play an important role from a structural and functional point of view. beta-turns are the most common type of non-repetitive structures in proteins and comprise on average, 25% of the residues. In the past numerous methods have been developed to predict beta-turns in a protein. Most of these prediction methods are based on statistical approaches. In order to utilize the full potential of these methods, there is a need to develop a web server. This paper describes a web server called BetaTPred, developed for predicting beta-TURNS in a protein from its amino acid sequence. BetaTPred allows the user to predict turns in a protein using existing statistical algorithms. It also allows to predict different types of beta-TURNS e.g. type I, I', II, II', VI, VIII and non-specific. This server assists the users in predicting the consensus beta-TURNS in a protein. The server is accessible from http://imtech.res.in/raghava/betatpred/
Automatic Generation of Algorithms for the Statistical Analysis of Planetary Nebulae Images
Fischer, Bernd
2004-01-01
Analyzing data sets collected in experiments or by observations is a Core scientific activity. Typically, experimentd and observational data are &aught with uncertainty, and the analysis is based on a statistical model of the conjectured underlying processes, The large data volumes collected by modern instruments make computer support indispensible for this. Consequently, scientists spend significant amounts of their time with the development and refinement of the data analysis programs. AutoBayes [GF+02, FS03] is a fully automatic synthesis system for generating statistical data analysis programs. Externally, it looks like a compiler: it takes an abstract problem specification and translates it into executable code. Its input is a concise description of a data analysis problem in the form of a statistical model as shown in Figure 1; its output is optimized and fully documented C/C++ code which can be linked dynamically into the Matlab and Octave environments. Internally, however, it is quite different: AutoBayes derives a customized algorithm implementing the given model using a schema-based process, and then further refines and optimizes the algorithm into code. A schema is a parameterized code template with associated semantic constraints which define and restrict the template s applicability. The schema parameters are instantiated in a problem-specific way during synthesis as AutoBayes checks the constraints against the original model or, recursively, against emerging sub-problems. AutoBayes schema library contains problem decomposition operators (which are justified by theorems in a formal logic in the domain of Bayesian networks) as well as machine learning algorithms (e.g., EM, k-Means) and nu- meric optimization methods (e.g., Nelder-Mead simplex, conjugate gradient). AutoBayes augments this schema-based approach by symbolic computation to derive closed-form solutions whenever possible. This is a major advantage over other statistical data analysis systems
The Application of Machine Learning Algorithms for Text Mining based on Sentiment Analysis Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reza Samizade
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Classification of the cyber texts and comments into two categories of positive and negative sentiment among social media users is of high importance in the research are related to text mining. In this research, we applied supervised classification methods to classify Persian texts based on sentiment in cyber space. The result of this research is in a form of a system that can decide whether a comment which is published in cyber space such as social networks is considered positive or negative. The comments that are published in Persian movie and movie review websites from 1392 to 1395 are considered as the data set for this research. A part of these data are considered as training and others are considered as testing data. Prior to implementing the algorithms, pre-processing activities such as tokenizing, removing stop words, and n-germs process were applied on the texts. Naïve Bayes, Neural Networks and support vector machine were used for text classification in this study. Out of sample tests showed that there is no evidence indicating that the accuracy of SVM approach is statistically higher than Naïve Bayes or that the accuracy of Naïve Bayes is not statistically higher than NN approach. However, the researchers can conclude that the accuracy of the classification using SVM approach is statistically higher than the accuracy of NN approach in 5% confidence level.
Iris Data Classification Using Quantum Neural Networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahni, Vishal; Patvardhan, C.
2006-01-01
Quantum computing is a novel paradigm that promises to be the future of computing. The performance of quantum algorithms has proved to be stunning. ANN within the context of classical computation has been used for approximation and classification tasks with some success. This paper presents an idea of quantum neural networks along with the training algorithm and its convergence property. It synergizes the unique properties of quantum bits or qubits with the various techniques in vogue in neural networks. An example application of Fisher's Iris data set, a benchmark classification problem has also been presented. The results obtained amply demonstrate the classification capabilities of the quantum neuron and give an idea of their promising capabilities
Motor Oil Classification using Color Histograms and Pattern Recognition Techniques.
Ahmadi, Shiva; Mani-Varnosfaderani, Ahmad; Habibi, Biuck
2018-04-20
Motor oil classification is important for quality control and the identification of oil adulteration. In thiswork, we propose a simple, rapid, inexpensive and nondestructive approach based on image analysis and pattern recognition techniques for the classification of nine different types of motor oils according to their corresponding color histograms. For this, we applied color histogram in different color spaces such as red green blue (RGB), grayscale, and hue saturation intensity (HSI) in order to extract features that can help with the classification procedure. These color histograms and their combinations were used as input for model development and then were statistically evaluated by using linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), and support vector machine (SVM) techniques. Here, two common solutions for solving a multiclass classification problem were applied: (1) transformation to binary classification problem using a one-against-all (OAA) approach and (2) extension from binary classifiers to a single globally optimized multilabel classification model. In the OAA strategy, LDA, QDA, and SVM reached up to 97% in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for both the training and test sets. In extension from binary case, despite good performances by the SVM classification model, QDA and LDA provided better results up to 92% for RGB-grayscale-HSI color histograms and up to 93% for the HSI color map, respectively. In order to reduce the numbers of independent variables for modeling, a principle component analysis algorithm was used. Our results suggest that the proposed method is promising for the identification and classification of different types of motor oils.
Statistical control chart and neural network classification for improving human fall detection
Harrou, Fouzi; Zerrouki, Nabil; Sun, Ying; Houacine, Amrane
2017-01-01
This paper proposes a statistical approach to detect and classify human falls based on both visual data from camera and accelerometric data captured by accelerometer. Specifically, we first use a Shewhart control chart to detect the presence of potential falls by using accelerometric data. Unfortunately, this chart cannot distinguish real falls from fall-like actions, such as lying down. To bypass this difficulty, a neural network classifier is then applied only on the detected cases through visual data. To assess the performance of the proposed method, experiments are conducted on the publicly available fall detection databases: the University of Rzeszow's fall detection (URFD) dataset. Results demonstrate that the detection phase play a key role in reducing the number of sequences used as input into the neural network classifier for classification, significantly reducing computational burden and achieving better accuracy.
Statistical control chart and neural network classification for improving human fall detection
Harrou, Fouzi
2017-01-05
This paper proposes a statistical approach to detect and classify human falls based on both visual data from camera and accelerometric data captured by accelerometer. Specifically, we first use a Shewhart control chart to detect the presence of potential falls by using accelerometric data. Unfortunately, this chart cannot distinguish real falls from fall-like actions, such as lying down. To bypass this difficulty, a neural network classifier is then applied only on the detected cases through visual data. To assess the performance of the proposed method, experiments are conducted on the publicly available fall detection databases: the University of Rzeszow\\'s fall detection (URFD) dataset. Results demonstrate that the detection phase play a key role in reducing the number of sequences used as input into the neural network classifier for classification, significantly reducing computational burden and achieving better accuracy.
Optimized extreme learning machine for urban land cover classification using hyperspectral imagery
Su, Hongjun; Tian, Shufang; Cai, Yue; Sheng, Yehua; Chen, Chen; Najafian, Maryam
2017-12-01
This work presents a new urban land cover classification framework using the firefly algorithm (FA) optimized extreme learning machine (ELM). FA is adopted to optimize the regularization coefficient C and Gaussian kernel σ for kernel ELM. Additionally, effectiveness of spectral features derived from an FA-based band selection algorithm is studied for the proposed classification task. Three sets of hyperspectral databases were recorded using different sensors, namely HYDICE, HyMap, and AVIRIS. Our study shows that the proposed method outperforms traditional classification algorithms such as SVM and reduces computational cost significantly.
Automatic Classification Using Supervised Learning in a Medical Document Filtering Application.
Mostafa, J.; Lam, W.
2000-01-01
Presents a multilevel model of the information filtering process that permits document classification. Evaluates a document classification approach based on a supervised learning algorithm, measures the accuracy of the algorithm in a neural network that was trained to classify medical documents on cell biology, and discusses filtering…
Yepes-Calderon, Fernando; Brun, Caroline; Sant, Nishita; Thompson, Paul; Lepore, Natasha
2015-01-01
Tensor-Based Morphometry (TBM) is an increasingly popular method for group analysis of brain MRI data. The main steps in the analysis consist of a nonlinear registration to align each individual scan to a common space, and a subsequent statistical analysis to determine morphometric differences, or difference in fiber structure between groups. Recently, we implemented the Statistically-Assisted Fluid Registration Algorithm or SAFIRA,1 which is designed for tracking morphometric differences among populations. To this end, SAFIRA allows the inclusion of statistical priors extracted from the populations being studied as regularizers in the registration. This flexibility and degree of sophistication limit the tool to expert use, even more so considering that SAFIRA was initially implemented in command line mode. Here, we introduce a new, intuitive, easy to use, Matlab-based graphical user interface for SAFIRA's multivariate TBM. The interface also generates different choices for the TBM statistics, including both the traditional univariate statistics on the Jacobian matrix, and comparison of the full deformation tensors.2 This software will be freely disseminated to the neuroimaging research community.
Mercier, Lény; Darnaude, Audrey M; Bruguier, Olivier; Vasconcelos, Rita P; Cabral, Henrique N; Costa, Maria J; Lara, Monica; Jones, David L; Mouillot, David
2011-06-01
Reliable assessment of fish origin is of critical importance for exploited species, since nursery areas must be identified and protected to maintain recruitment to the adult stock. During the last two decades, otolith chemical signatures (or "fingerprints") have been increasingly used as tools to discriminate between coastal habitats. However, correct assessment of fish origin from otolith fingerprints depends on various environmental and methodological parameters, including the choice of the statistical method used to assign fish to unknown origin. Among the available methods of classification, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) is the most frequently used, although it assumes data are multivariate normal with homogeneous within-group dispersions, conditions that are not always met by otolith chemical data, even after transformation. Other less constrained classification methods are available, but there is a current lack of comparative analysis in applications to otolith microchemistry. Here, we assessed stock identification accuracy for four classification methods (LDA, Quadratic Discriminant Analysis [QDA], Random Forests [RF], and Artificial Neural Networks [ANN]), through the use of three distinct data sets. In each case, all possible combinations of chemical elements were examined to identify the elements to be used for optimal accuracy in fish assignment to their actual origin. Our study shows that accuracy differs according to the model and the number of elements considered. Best combinations did not include all the elements measured, and it was not possible to define an ad hoc multielement combination for accurate site discrimination. Among all the models tested, RF and ANN performed best, especially for complex data sets (e.g., with numerous fish species and/or chemical elements involved). However, for these data, RF was less time-consuming and more interpretable than ANN, and far more efficient and less demanding in terms of assumptions than LDA or QDA
Motif-Based Text Mining of Microbial Metagenome Redundancy Profiling Data for Disease Classification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yin Wang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Background. Text data of 16S rRNA are informative for classifications of microbiota-associated diseases. However, the raw text data need to be systematically processed so that features for classification can be defined/extracted; moreover, the high-dimension feature spaces generated by the text data also pose an additional difficulty. Results. Here we present a Phylogenetic Tree-Based Motif Finding algorithm (PMF to analyze 16S rRNA text data. By integrating phylogenetic rules and other statistical indexes for classification, we can effectively reduce the dimension of the large feature spaces generated by the text datasets. Using the retrieved motifs in combination with common classification methods, we can discriminate different samples of both pneumonia and dental caries better than other existing methods. Conclusions. We extend the phylogenetic approaches to perform supervised learning on microbiota text data to discriminate the pathological states for pneumonia and dental caries. The results have shown that PMF may enhance the efficiency and reliability in analyzing high-dimension text data.
Quality-Oriented Classification of Aircraft Material Based on SVM
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Hongxia Cai
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The existing material classification is proposed to improve the inventory management. However, different materials have the different quality-related attributes, especially in the aircraft industry. In order to reduce the cost without sacrificing the quality, we propose a quality-oriented material classification system considering the material quality character, Quality cost, and Quality influence. Analytic Hierarchy Process helps to make feature selection and classification decision. We use the improved Kraljic Portfolio Matrix to establish the three-dimensional classification model. The aircraft materials can be divided into eight types, including general type, key type, risk type, and leveraged type. Aiming to improve the classification accuracy of various materials, the algorithm of Support Vector Machine is introduced. Finally, we compare the SVM and BP neural network in the application. The results prove that the SVM algorithm is more efficient and accurate and the quality-oriented material classification is valuable.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fan Wu
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Vessel monitoring is one of the most important maritime applications of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data. Because of the dihedral reflections between the vessel hull and sea surface and the trihedral reflections among superstructures, vessels usually have strong backscattering in SAR images. Furthermore, in high-resolution SAR images, detailed information on vessel structures can be observed, allowing for vessel classification in high-resolution SAR images. This paper focuses on the feature analysis of merchant vessels, including bulk carriers, container ships and oil tankers, in 3 m resolution COSMO-SkyMed stripmap HIMAGE mode images and proposes a method for vessel classification. After preprocessing, a feature vector is estimated by calculating the average value of the kernel density estimation, three structural features and the mean backscattering coefficient. Support vector machine (SVM classifier is used for the vessel classification, and the results are compared with traditional methods, such as the K-nearest neighbor algorithm (K-NN and minimum distance classifier (MDC. In situ investigations are conducted during the SAR data acquisition. Corresponding Automatic Identification System (AIS reports are also obtained as ground truth to evaluate the effectiveness of the classifier. The preliminary results show that the combination of the average value of the kernel density estimation and mean backscattering coefficient has good ability for classifying the three types of vessels. When adding the three structural features, the results slightly improve. The result of the SVM classifier is better than that of K-NN and MDC. However, the SVM requires more time, when the parameters of the kernel are estimated.
Kamiura, Moto; Sano, Kohei
2017-10-01
The principle of optimism in the face of uncertainty is known as a heuristic in sequential decision-making problems. Overtaking method based on this principle is an effective algorithm to solve multi-armed bandit problems. It was defined by a set of some heuristic patterns of the formulation in the previous study. The objective of the present paper is to redefine the value functions of Overtaking method and to unify the formulation of them. The unified Overtaking method is associated with upper bounds of confidence intervals of expected rewards on statistics. The unification of the formulation enhances the universality of Overtaking method. Consequently we newly obtain Overtaking method for the exponentially distributed rewards, numerically analyze it, and show that it outperforms UCB algorithm on average. The present study suggests that the principle of optimism in the face of uncertainty should be regarded as the statistics-based consequence of the law of large numbers for the sample mean of rewards and estimation of upper bounds of expected rewards, rather than as a heuristic, in the context of multi-armed bandit problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nadja Stumberg
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The vegetation in the forest-tundra ecotone zone is expected to be highly affected by climate change and requires effective monitoring techniques. Airborne laser scanning (ALS has been proposed as a tool for the detection of small pioneer trees for such vast areas using laser height and intensity data. The main objective of the present study was to assess a possible improvement in the performance of classifying tree and nontree laser echoes from high-density ALS data. The data were collected along a 1000 km long transect stretching from southern to northern Norway. Different geostatistical and statistical measures derived from laser height and intensity values were used to extent and potentially improve more simple models ignoring the spatial context. Generalised linear models (GLM and support vector machines (SVM were employed as classification methods. Total accuracies and Cohen’s kappa coefficients were calculated and compared to those of simpler models from a previous study. For both classification methods, all models revealed total accuracies similar to the results of the simpler models. Concerning classification performance, however, the comparison of the kappa coefficients indicated a significant improvement for some models both using GLM and SVM, with classification accuracies >94%.
A combined reconstruction-classification method for diffuse optical tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiltunen, P [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Helsinki University of Technology, PO Box 3310, FI-02015 TKK (Finland); Prince, S J D; Arridge, S [Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street London, WC1E 6B (United Kingdom)], E-mail: petri.hiltunen@tkk.fi, E-mail: s.prince@cs.ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: s.arridge@cs.ucl.ac.uk
2009-11-07
We present a combined classification and reconstruction algorithm for diffuse optical tomography (DOT). DOT is a nonlinear ill-posed inverse problem. Therefore, some regularization is needed. We present a mixture of Gaussians prior, which regularizes the DOT reconstruction step. During each iteration, the parameters of a mixture model are estimated. These associate each reconstructed pixel with one of several classes based on the current estimate of the optical parameters. This classification is exploited to form a new prior distribution to regularize the reconstruction step and update the optical parameters. The algorithm can be described as an iteration between an optimization scheme with zeroth-order variable mean and variance Tikhonov regularization and an expectation-maximization scheme for estimation of the model parameters. We describe the algorithm in a general Bayesian framework. Results from simulated test cases and phantom measurements show that the algorithm enhances the contrast of the reconstructed images with good spatial accuracy. The probabilistic classifications of each image contain only a few misclassified pixels.
Document Classification Using Distributed Machine Learning
Aydin, Galip; Hallac, Ibrahim Riza
2018-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the performance and success rates of Na\\"ive Bayes Classification Algorithm for automatic classification of Turkish news into predetermined categories like economy, life, health etc. We use Apache Big Data technologies such as Hadoop, HDFS, Spark and Mahout, and apply these distributed technologies to Machine Learning.
Vehicle Classification Using an Imbalanced Dataset Based on a Single Magnetic Sensor
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Chang Xu
2018-05-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to improve the accuracy of automatic vehicle classifiers for imbalanced datasets. Classification is made through utilizing a single anisotropic magnetoresistive sensor, with the models of vehicles involved being classified into hatchbacks, sedans, buses, and multi-purpose vehicles (MPVs. Using time domain and frequency domain features in combination with three common classification algorithms in pattern recognition, we develop a novel feature extraction method for vehicle classification. These three common classification algorithms are the k-nearest neighbor, the support vector machine, and the back-propagation neural network. Nevertheless, a problem remains with the original vehicle magnetic dataset collected being imbalanced, and may lead to inaccurate classification results. With this in mind, we propose an approach called SMOTE, which can further boost the performance of classifiers. Experimental results show that the k-nearest neighbor (KNN classifier with the SMOTE algorithm can reach a classification accuracy of 95.46%, thus minimizing the effect of the imbalance.
Vehicle Classification Using an Imbalanced Dataset Based on a Single Magnetic Sensor.
Xu, Chang; Wang, Yingguan; Bao, Xinghe; Li, Fengrong
2018-05-24
This paper aims to improve the accuracy of automatic vehicle classifiers for imbalanced datasets. Classification is made through utilizing a single anisotropic magnetoresistive sensor, with the models of vehicles involved being classified into hatchbacks, sedans, buses, and multi-purpose vehicles (MPVs). Using time domain and frequency domain features in combination with three common classification algorithms in pattern recognition, we develop a novel feature extraction method for vehicle classification. These three common classification algorithms are the k-nearest neighbor, the support vector machine, and the back-propagation neural network. Nevertheless, a problem remains with the original vehicle magnetic dataset collected being imbalanced, and may lead to inaccurate classification results. With this in mind, we propose an approach called SMOTE, which can further boost the performance of classifiers. Experimental results show that the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier with the SMOTE algorithm can reach a classification accuracy of 95.46%, thus minimizing the effect of the imbalance.
A Quick Negative Selection Algorithm for One-Class Classification in Big Data Era
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Fangdong Zhu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Negative selection algorithm (NSA is an important kind of the one-class classification model, but it is limited in the big data era due to its low efficiency. In this paper, we propose a new NSA based on Voronoi diagrams: VorNSA. The scheme of the detector generation process is changed from the traditional “Random-Discard” model to the “Computing-Designated” model by VorNSA. Furthermore, we present an immune detection process of VorNSA under Map/Reduce framework (VorNSA/MR to further reduce the time consumption on massive data in the testing stage. Theoretical analyses show that the time complexity of VorNSA decreases from the exponential level to the logarithmic level. Experiments are performed to compare the proposed technique with other NSAs and one-class classifiers. The results show that the time cost of the VorNSA is averagely decreased by 87.5% compared with traditional NSAs in UCI skin dataset.
Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico; Zdeborova, Lenka; Zecchina, Riccardo; Tramel, Eric W; Cugliandolo, Leticia F
2015-01-01
This book contains a collection of the presentations that were given in October 2013 at the Les Houches Autumn School on statistical physics, optimization, inference, and message-passing algorithms. In the last decade, there has been increasing convergence of interest and methods between theoretical physics and fields as diverse as probability, machine learning, optimization, and inference problems. In particular, much theoretical and applied work in statistical physics and computer science has relied on the use of message-passing algorithms and their connection to the statistical physics of glasses and spin glasses. For example, both the replica and cavity methods have led to recent advances in compressed sensing, sparse estimation, and random constraint satisfaction, to name a few. This book’s detailed pedagogical lectures on statistical inference, computational complexity, the replica and cavity methods, and belief propagation are aimed particularly at PhD students, post-docs, and young researchers desir...
Classification and Target Group Selection Based Upon Frequent Patterns
W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); R. Potharst (Rob)
2000-01-01
textabstractIn this technical report , two new algorithms based upon frequent patterns are proposed. One algorithm is a classification method. The other one is an algorithm for target group selection. In both algorithms, first of all, the collection of frequent patterns in the training set is
Land-cover classification in a moist tropical region of Brazil with Landsat TM imagery.
Li, Guiying; Lu, Dengsheng; Moran, Emilio; Hetrick, Scott
2011-01-01
This research aims to improve land-cover classification accuracy in a moist tropical region in Brazil by examining the use of different remote sensing-derived variables and classification algorithms. Different scenarios based on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data and derived vegetation indices and textural images, and different classification algorithms - maximum likelihood classification (MLC), artificial neural network (ANN), classification tree analysis (CTA), and object-based classification (OBC), were explored. The results indicated that a combination of vegetation indices as extra bands into Landsat TM multispectral bands did not improve the overall classification performance, but the combination of textural images was valuable for improving vegetation classification accuracy. In particular, the combination of both vegetation indices and textural images into TM multispectral bands improved overall classification accuracy by 5.6% and kappa coefficient by 6.25%. Comparison of the different classification algorithms indicated that CTA and ANN have poor classification performance in this research, but OBC improved primary forest and pasture classification accuracies. This research indicates that use of textural images or use of OBC are especially valuable for improving the vegetation classes such as upland and liana forest classes having complex stand structures and having relatively large patch sizes.
Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs
Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary
2016-01-01
Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.
Cooper, Rachel
2015-06-01
The latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the D.S.M.-5, was published in May 2013. In the lead up to publication, radical changes to the classification were anticipated; there was widespread dissatisfaction with the previous edition and it was accepted that a "paradigm shift" might be required. In the end, however, and despite huge efforts at revision, the published D.S.M.-5 differs far less than originally envisaged from its predecessor. This paper considers why it is that revising the D.S.M. has become so difficult. The D.S.M. is such an important classification that this question is worth asking in its own right. The case of the D.S.M. can also serve as a study for considering stasis in classification more broadly; why and how can classifications become resistant to change? I suggest that classifications like the D.S.M. can be thought of as forming part of the infrastructure of science, and have much in common with material infrastructure. In particular, as with material technologies, it is possible for "path dependent" development to cause a sub-optimal classification to become "locked in" and hard to replace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Data structures and target classification; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 1, 2, 1991
Libby, Vibeke
1991-08-01
The present conference discusses topics in multisensor fusion and signal processing, data structures in distributed environments, computational methods and architectures, and automatic target recognition. Attention is given to the adaptive selection of sensors, multisensor imagery fusion based on target motion, multisensor imaging technology for airborne surveillance, optimal topology communications networks, scanning strategies for target detection, VLSI fuzzy-logic controller design, an optical pattern recognizer, radar-based target recognition techniques, and algorithms for radar clutter statistical classification.
Optimizing Multiple Kernel Learning for the Classification of UAV Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caroline M. Gevaert
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are capable of providing high-quality orthoimagery and 3D information in the form of point clouds at a relatively low cost. Their increasing popularity stresses the necessity of understanding which algorithms are especially suited for processing the data obtained from UAVs. The features that are extracted from the point cloud and imagery have different statistical characteristics and can be considered as heterogeneous, which motivates the use of Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL for classification problems. In this paper, we illustrate the utility of applying MKL for the classification of heterogeneous features obtained from UAV data through a case study of an informal settlement in Kigali, Rwanda. Results indicate that MKL can achieve a classification accuracy of 90.6%, a 5.2% increase over a standard single-kernel Support Vector Machine (SVM. A comparison of seven MKL methods indicates that linearly-weighted kernel combinations based on simple heuristics are competitive with respect to computationally-complex, non-linear kernel combination methods. We further underline the importance of utilizing appropriate feature grouping strategies for MKL, which has not been directly addressed in the literature, and we propose a novel, automated feature grouping method that achieves a high classification accuracy for various MKL methods.
An Efficient Statistical Computation Technique for Health Care Big Data using R
Sushma Rani, N.; Srinivasa Rao, P., Dr; Parimala, P.
2017-08-01
Due to the changes in living conditions and other factors many critical health related problems are arising. The diagnosis of the problem at earlier stages will increase the chances of survival and fast recovery. This reduces the time of recovery and the cost associated for the treatment. One such medical related issue is cancer and breast cancer has been identified as the second leading cause of cancer death. If detected in the early stage it can be cured. Once a patient is detected with breast cancer tumor, it should be classified whether it is cancerous or non-cancerous. So the paper uses k-nearest neighbors(KNN) algorithm which is one of the simplest machine learning algorithms and is an instance-based learning algorithm to classify the data. Day-to -day new records are added which leds to increase in the data to be classified and this tends to be big data problem. The algorithm is implemented in R whichis the most popular platform applied to machine learning algorithms for statistical computing. Experimentation is conducted by using various classification evaluation metric onvarious values of k. The results show that the KNN algorithm out performes better than existing models.
Zare Hosseini, Zeinab; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi
2016-01-01
The rapid growing of information technology (IT) motivates and makes competitive advantages in health care industry. Nowadays, many hospitals try to build a successful customer relationship management (CRM) to recognize target and potential patients, increase patient loyalty and satisfaction and finally maximize their profitability. Many hospitals have large data warehouses containing customer demographic and transactions information. Data mining techniques can be used to analyze this data and discover hidden knowledge of customers. This research develops an extended RFM model, namely RFML (added parameter: Length) based on health care services for a public sector hospital in Iran with the idea that there is contrast between patient and customer loyalty, to estimate customer life time value (CLV) for each patient. We used Two-step and K-means algorithms as clustering methods and Decision tree (CHAID) as classification technique to segment the patients to find out target, potential and loyal customers in order to implement strengthen CRM. Two approaches are used for classification: first, the result of clustering is considered as Decision attribute in classification process and second, the result of segmentation based on CLV value of patients (estimated by RFML) is considered as Decision attribute. Finally the results of CHAID algorithm show the significant hidden rules and identify existing patterns of hospital consumers. PMID:27610177
Zare Hosseini, Zeinab; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi
2016-01-01
The rapid growing of information technology (IT) motivates and makes competitive advantages in health care industry. Nowadays, many hospitals try to build a successful customer relationship management (CRM) to recognize target and potential patients, increase patient loyalty and satisfaction and finally maximize their profitability. Many hospitals have large data warehouses containing customer demographic and transactions information. Data mining techniques can be used to analyze this data and discover hidden knowledge of customers. This research develops an extended RFM model, namely RFML (added parameter: Length) based on health care services for a public sector hospital in Iran with the idea that there is contrast between patient and customer loyalty, to estimate customer life time value (CLV) for each patient. We used Two-step and K-means algorithms as clustering methods and Decision tree (CHAID) as classification technique to segment the patients to find out target, potential and loyal customers in order to implement strengthen CRM. Two approaches are used for classification: first, the result of clustering is considered as Decision attribute in classification process and second, the result of segmentation based on CLV value of patients (estimated by RFML) is considered as Decision attribute. Finally the results of CHAID algorithm show the significant hidden rules and identify existing patterns of hospital consumers.
On the statistical assessment of classifiers using DNA microarray data
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Carella M
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we present a method for the statistical assessment of cancer predictors which make use of gene expression profiles. The methodology is applied to a new data set of microarray gene expression data collected in Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital, Foggia – Italy. The data set is made up of normal (22 and tumor (25 specimens extracted from 25 patients affected by colon cancer. We propose to give answers to some questions which are relevant for the automatic diagnosis of cancer such as: Is the size of the available data set sufficient to build accurate classifiers? What is the statistical significance of the associated error rates? In what ways can accuracy be considered dependant on the adopted classification scheme? How many genes are correlated with the pathology and how many are sufficient for an accurate colon cancer classification? The method we propose answers these questions whilst avoiding the potential pitfalls hidden in the analysis and interpretation of microarray data. Results We estimate the generalization error, evaluated through the Leave-K-Out Cross Validation error, for three different classification schemes by varying the number of training examples and the number of the genes used. The statistical significance of the error rate is measured by using a permutation test. We provide a statistical analysis in terms of the frequencies of the genes involved in the classification. Using the whole set of genes, we found that the Weighted Voting Algorithm (WVA classifier learns the distinction between normal and tumor specimens with 25 training examples, providing e = 21% (p = 0.045 as an error rate. This remains constant even when the number of examples increases. Moreover, Regularized Least Squares (RLS and Support Vector Machines (SVM classifiers can learn with only 15 training examples, with an error rate of e = 19% (p = 0.035 and e = 18% (p = 0.037 respectively. Moreover, the error rate
SVM classification model in depression recognition based on mutation PSO parameter optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Ming
2017-01-01
Full Text Available At present, the clinical diagnosis of depression is mainly through structured interviews by psychiatrists, which is lack of objective diagnostic methods, so it causes the higher rate of misdiagnosis. In this paper, a method of depression recognition based on SVM and particle swarm optimization algorithm mutation is proposed. To address on the problem that particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm easily trap in local optima, we propose a feedback mutation PSO algorithm (FBPSO to balance the local search and global exploration ability, so that the parameters of the classification model is optimal. We compared different PSO mutation algorithms about classification accuracy for depression, and found the classification accuracy of support vector machine (SVM classifier based on feedback mutation PSO algorithm is the highest. Our study promotes important reference value for establishing auxiliary diagnostic used in depression recognition of clinical diagnosis.
METHODS OF TEXT INFORMATION CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL AND SEMANTIC NETWORKS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. V. Serebryanaya
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The article covers the use of perseptron, Hopfild artificial neural network and semantic network for classification of text information. Network training algorithms are studied. An algorithm of inverse mistake spreading for perceptron network and convergence algorithm for Hopfild network are implemented. On the basis of the offered models and algorithms automatic text classification software is developed and its operation results are evaluated.
Farrington, C. Paddy; Noufaily, Angela; Andrews, Nick J.; Charlett, Andre
2016-01-01
A large-scale multiple surveillance system for infectious disease outbreaks has been in operation in England and Wales since the early 1990s. Changes to the statistical algorithm at the heart of the system were proposed and the purpose of this paper is to compare two new algorithms with the original algorithm. Test data to evaluate performance are created from weekly counts of the number of cases of each of more than 2000 diseases over a twenty-year period. The time series of each disease is separated into one series giving the baseline (background) disease incidence and a second series giving disease outbreaks. One series is shifted forward by twelve months and the two are then recombined, giving a realistic series in which it is known where outbreaks have been added. The metrics used to evaluate performance include a scoring rule that appropriately balances sensitivity against specificity and is sensitive to variation in probabilities near 1. In the context of disease surveillance, a scoring rule can be adapted to reflect the size of outbreaks and this was done. Results indicate that the two new algorithms are comparable to each other and better than the algorithm they were designed to replace. PMID:27513749
Woven fabric defects detection based on texture classification algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben Salem, Y.; Nasri, S.
2011-01-01
In this paper we have compared two famous methods in texture classification to solve the problem of recognition and classification of defects occurring in a textile manufacture. We have compared local binary patterns method with co-occurrence matrix. The classifier used is the support vector machines (SVM). The system has been tested using TILDA database. The results obtained are interesting and show that LBP is a good method for the problems of recognition and classifcation defects, it gives a good running time especially for the real time applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hufnagel, Heike; Pennec, Xavier; Ayache, Nicholas; Ehrhardt, Jan; Handels, Heinz
2008-01-01
Identification of point correspondences between shapes is required for statistical analysis of organ shapes differences. Since manual identification of landmarks is not a feasible option in 3D, several methods were developed to automatically find one-to-one correspondences on shape surfaces. For unstructured point sets, however, one-to-one correspondences do not exist but correspondence probabilities can be determined. A method was developed to compute a statistical shape model based on shapes which are represented by unstructured point sets with arbitrary point numbers. A fundamental problem when computing statistical shape models is the determination of correspondences between the points of the shape observations of the training data set. In the absence of landmarks, exact correspondences can only be determined between continuous surfaces, not between unstructured point sets. To overcome this problem, we introduce correspondence probabilities instead of exact correspondences. The correspondence probabilities are found by aligning the observation shapes with the affine expectation maximization-iterative closest points (EM-ICP) registration algorithm. In a second step, the correspondence probabilities are used as input to compute a mean shape (represented once again by an unstructured point set). Both steps are unified in a single optimization criterion which depe nds on the two parameters 'registration transformation' and 'mean shape'. In a last step, a variability model which best represents the variability in the training data set is computed. Experiments on synthetic data sets and in vivo brain structure data sets (MRI) are then designed to evaluate the performance of our algorithm. The new method was applied to brain MRI data sets, and the estimated point correspondences were compared to a statistical shape model built on exact correspondences. Based on established measures of ''generalization ability'' and ''specificity'', the estimates were very satisfactory
Parallel Algorithms for Groebner-Basis Reduction
1987-09-25
22209 ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) * PARALLEL ALGORITHMS FOR GROEBNER -BASIS REDUCTION 12. PERSONAL...All other editions are obsolete. Productivity Engineering in the UNIXt Environment p Parallel Algorithms for Groebner -Basis Reduction Technical Report
Accuracy assessment between different image classification ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
What image classification does is to assign pixel to a particular land cover and land use type that has the most similar spectral signature. However, there are possibilities that different methods or algorithms of image classification of the same data set could produce appreciable variant results in the sizes, shapes and areas of ...
Zhou, Jie; Lamichhane, Santosh; Sterne, Gabriella; Ye, Bing; Peng, Hanchuan
2013-10-04
Pattern recognition algorithms are useful in bioimage informatics applications such as quantifying cellular and subcellular objects, annotating gene expressions, and classifying phenotypes. To provide effective and efficient image classification and annotation for the ever-increasing microscopic images, it is desirable to have tools that can combine and compare various algorithms, and build customizable solution for different biological problems. However, current tools often offer a limited solution in generating user-friendly and extensible tools for annotating higher dimensional images that correspond to multiple complicated categories. We develop the BIOimage Classification and Annotation Tool (BIOCAT). It is able to apply pattern recognition algorithms to two- and three-dimensional biological image sets as well as regions of interest (ROIs) in individual images for automatic classification and annotation. We also propose a 3D anisotropic wavelet feature extractor for extracting textural features from 3D images with xy-z resolution disparity. The extractor is one of the about 20 built-in algorithms of feature extractors, selectors and classifiers in BIOCAT. The algorithms are modularized so that they can be "chained" in a customizable way to form adaptive solution for various problems, and the plugin-based extensibility gives the tool an open architecture to incorporate future algorithms. We have applied BIOCAT to classification and annotation of images and ROIs of different properties with applications in cell biology and neuroscience. BIOCAT provides a user-friendly, portable platform for pattern recognition based biological image classification of two- and three- dimensional images and ROIs. We show, via diverse case studies, that different algorithms and their combinations have different suitability for various problems. The customizability of BIOCAT is thus expected to be useful for providing effective and efficient solutions for a variety of biological
Improved Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization for Mangroves Classification
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Zhehuang Huang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum particle swarm optimization (QPSO is a population based optimization algorithm inspired by social behavior of bird flocking which combines the ideas of quantum computing. For many optimization problems, traditional QPSO algorithm can produce high-quality solution within a reasonable computation time and relatively stable convergence characteristics. But QPSO algorithm also showed some unsatisfactory issues in practical applications, such as premature convergence and poor ability in global optimization. To solve these problems, an improved quantum particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed and implemented in this paper. There are three main works in this paper. Firstly, an improved QPSO algorithm is introduced which can enhance decision making ability of the model. Secondly, we introduce synergetic neural network model to mangroves classification for the first time which can better handle fuzzy matching of remote sensing image. Finally, the improved QPSO algorithm is used to realize the optimization of network parameter. The experiments on mangroves classification showed that the improved algorithm has more powerful global exploration ability and faster convergence speed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lianqing Zhu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In order to improve the classification accuracy of Chinese Salvia miltiorrhiza using near-infrared spectroscopy, a novel local variable selection strategy is thus proposed. Combining the strengths of the local algorithm and interval partial least squares, the spectra data have firstly been divided into several pairs of classes in sample direction and equidistant subintervals in variable direction. Then, a local classification model has been built, and the most proper spectral region has been selected based on the new evaluation criterion considering both classification error rate and best predictive ability under the leave-one-out cross validation scheme for each pair of classes. Finally, each observation can be assigned to belong to the class according to the statistical analysis of classification results of the local classification model built on selected variables. The performance of the proposed method was demonstrated through near-infrared spectra of cultivated or wild Salvia miltiorrhiza, which are collected from 8 geographical origins in 5 provinces of China. For comparison, soft independent modelling of class analogy and partial least squares discriminant analysis methods are, respectively, employed as the classification model. Experimental results showed that classification performance of the classification model with local variable selection was obvious better than that without variable selection.
Auto-SEIA: simultaneous optimization of image processing and machine learning algorithms
Negro Maggio, Valentina; Iocchi, Luca
2015-02-01
Object classification from images is an important task for machine vision and it is a crucial ingredient for many computer vision applications, ranging from security and surveillance to marketing. Image based object classification techniques properly integrate image processing and machine learning (i.e., classification) procedures. In this paper we present a system for automatic simultaneous optimization of algorithms and parameters for object classification from images. More specifically, the proposed system is able to process a dataset of labelled images and to return a best configuration of image processing and classification algorithms and of their parameters with respect to the accuracy of classification. Experiments with real public datasets are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed system.
Assessment of statistical methods used in library-based approaches to microbial source tracking.
Ritter, Kerry J; Carruthers, Ethan; Carson, C Andrew; Ellender, R D; Harwood, Valerie J; Kingsley, Kyle; Nakatsu, Cindy; Sadowsky, Michael; Shear, Brian; West, Brian; Whitlock, John E; Wiggins, Bruce A; Wilbur, Jayson D
2003-12-01
Several commonly used statistical methods for fingerprint identification in microbial source tracking (MST) were examined to assess the effectiveness of pattern-matching algorithms to correctly identify sources. Although numerous statistical methods have been employed for source identification, no widespread consensus exists as to which is most appropriate. A large-scale comparison of several MST methods, using identical fecal sources, presented a unique opportunity to assess the utility of several popular statistical methods. These included discriminant analysis, nearest neighbour analysis, maximum similarity and average similarity, along with several measures of distance or similarity. Threshold criteria for excluding uncertain or poorly matched isolates from final analysis were also examined for their ability to reduce false positives and increase prediction success. Six independent libraries used in the study were constructed from indicator bacteria isolated from fecal materials of humans, seagulls, cows and dogs. Three of these libraries were constructed using the rep-PCR technique and three relied on antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA). Five of the libraries were constructed using Escherichia coli and one using Enterococcus spp. (ARA). Overall, the outcome of this study suggests a high degree of variability across statistical methods. Despite large differences in correct classification rates among the statistical methods, no single statistical approach emerged as superior. Thresholds failed to consistently increase rates of correct classification and improvement was often associated with substantial effective sample size reduction. Recommendations are provided to aid in selecting appropriate analyses for these types of data.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ralf Thiedmann
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The rising global demand in energy and the limited resources in fossil fuels require new technologies in renewable energies like solar cells. Silicon solar cells offer a good efficiency but suffer from high production costs. A promising alternative are polymer solar cells, due to potentially low production costs and high flexibility of the panels. In this paper, the nanostructure of organic–inorganic composites is investigated, which can be used as photoactive layers in hybrid–polymer solar cells. These materials consist of a polymeric (OC1C10-PPV phase with CdSe nanoparticles embedded therein. On the basis of 3D image data with high spatial resolution, gained by electron tomography, an algorithm is developed to automatically extract the CdSe nanoparticles from grayscale images, where we assume them as spheres. The algorithm is based on a modified version of the Hough transform, where a watershed algorithm is used to separate the image data into basins such that each basin contains exactly one nanoparticle. After their extraction, neighboring nanoparticles are connected to form a 3D network that is related to the transport of electrons in polymer solar cells. A detailed statistical analysis of the CdSe network morphology is accomplished, which allows deeper insight into the hopping percolation pathways of electrons.
Algorithms exploiting ultrasonic sensors for subject classification
Desai, Sachi; Quoraishee, Shafik
2009-09-01
Proposed here is a series of techniques exploiting micro-Doppler ultrasonic sensors capable of characterizing various detected mammalian targets based on their physiological movements captured a series of robust features. Employed is a combination of unique and conventional digital signal processing techniques arranged in such a manner they become capable of classifying a series of walkers. These processes for feature extraction develops a robust feature space capable of providing discrimination of various movements generated from bipeds and quadrupeds and further subdivided into large or small. These movements can be exploited to provide specific information of a given signature dividing it in a series of subset signatures exploiting wavelets to generate start/stop times. After viewing a series spectrograms of the signature we are able to see distinct differences and utilizing kurtosis, we generate an envelope detector capable of isolating each of the corresponding step cycles generated during a walk. The walk cycle is defined as one complete sequence of walking/running from the foot pushing off the ground and concluding when returning to the ground. This time information segments the events that are readily seen in the spectrogram but obstructed in the temporal domain into individual walk sequences. This walking sequence is then subsequently translated into a three dimensional waterfall plot defining the expected energy value associated with the motion at particular instance of time and frequency. The value is capable of being repeatable for each particular class and employable to discriminate the events. Highly reliable classification is realized exploiting a classifier trained on a candidate sample space derived from the associated gyrations created by motion from actors of interest. The classifier developed herein provides a capability to classify events as an adult humans, children humans, horses, and dogs at potentially high rates based on the tested sample
Qi, Zhen; Tu, Li-Ping; Chen, Jing-Bo; Hu, Xiao-Juan; Xu, Jia-Tuo; Zhang, Zhi-Feng
2016-01-01
Background and Goal . The application of digital image processing techniques and machine learning methods in tongue image classification in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been widely studied nowadays. However, it is difficult for the outcomes to generalize because of lack of color reproducibility and image standardization. Our study aims at the exploration of tongue colors classification with a standardized tongue image acquisition process and color correction. Methods . Three traditional Chinese medical experts are chosen to identify the selected tongue pictures taken by the TDA-1 tongue imaging device in TIFF format through ICC profile correction. Then we compare the mean value of L * a * b * of different tongue colors and evaluate the effect of the tongue color classification by machine learning methods. Results . The L * a * b * values of the five tongue colors are statistically different. Random forest method has a better performance than SVM in classification. SMOTE algorithm can increase classification accuracy by solving the imbalance of the varied color samples. Conclusions . At the premise of standardized tongue acquisition and color reproduction, preliminary objectification of tongue color classification in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is feasible.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Salmon
2012-07-01
Full Text Available stream_source_info Salmon1_2012_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1654 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Salmon1_2012_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...-1 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Munich, Germany, 22-27 July 2012 A search algorithm to meta-optimize the parameters for an extended Kalman filter to improve classification on hyper-temporal images yzB.P. Salmon, yz...
A Supervised Classification Algorithm for Note Onset Detection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Douglas Eck
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to detecting onsets in music audio files. We use a supervised learning algorithm to classify spectrogram frames extracted from digital audio as being onsets or nononsets. Frames classified as onsets are then treated with a simple peak-picking algorithm based on a moving average. We present two versions of this approach. The first version uses a single neural network classifier. The second version combines the predictions of several networks trained using different hyperparameters. We describe the details of the algorithm and summarize the performance of both variants on several datasets. We also examine our choice of hyperparameters by describing results of cross-validation experiments done on a custom dataset. We conclude that a supervised learning approach to note onset detection performs well and warrants further investigation.
Le, Trang T; Simmons, W Kyle; Misaki, Masaya; Bodurka, Jerzy; White, Bill C; Savitz, Jonathan; McKinney, Brett A
2017-09-15
Classification of individuals into disease or clinical categories from high-dimensional biological data with low prediction error is an important challenge of statistical learning in bioinformatics. Feature selection can improve classification accuracy but must be incorporated carefully into cross-validation to avoid overfitting. Recently, feature selection methods based on differential privacy, such as differentially private random forests and reusable holdout sets, have been proposed. However, for domains such as bioinformatics, where the number of features is much larger than the number of observations p≫n , these differential privacy methods are susceptible to overfitting. We introduce private Evaporative Cooling, a stochastic privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm that uses Relief-F for feature selection and random forest for privacy preserving classification that also prevents overfitting. We relate the privacy-preserving threshold mechanism to a thermodynamic Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, where the temperature represents the privacy threshold. We use the thermal statistical physics concept of Evaporative Cooling of atomic gases to perform backward stepwise privacy-preserving feature selection. On simulated data with main effects and statistical interactions, we compare accuracies on holdout and validation sets for three privacy-preserving methods: the reusable holdout, reusable holdout with random forest, and private Evaporative Cooling, which uses Relief-F feature selection and random forest classification. In simulations where interactions exist between attributes, private Evaporative Cooling provides higher classification accuracy without overfitting based on an independent validation set. In simulations without interactions, thresholdout with random forest and private Evaporative Cooling give comparable accuracies. We also apply these privacy methods to human brain resting-state fMRI data from a study of major depressive disorder. Code
Provost, Floriane; Hibert, Clément; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Stumpf, André; Doubre, Cécile
2016-04-01
Different studies have shown the presence of microseismic activity in soft-rock landslides. The seismic signals exhibit significantly different features in the time and frequency domains which allow their classification and interpretation. Most of the classes could be associated with different mechanisms of deformation occurring within and at the surface (e.g. rockfall, slide-quake, fissure opening, fluid circulation). However, some signals remain not fully understood and some classes contain few examples that prevent any interpretation. To move toward a more complete interpretation of the links between the dynamics of soft-rock landslides and the physical processes controlling their behaviour, a complete catalog of the endogeneous seismicity is needed. We propose a multi-class detection method based on the random forests algorithm to automatically classify the source of seismic signals. Random forests is a supervised machine learning technique that is based on the computation of a large number of decision trees. The multiple decision trees are constructed from training sets including each of the target classes. In the case of seismic signals, these attributes may encompass spectral features but also waveform characteristics, multi-stations observations and other relevant information. The Random Forest classifier is used because it provides state-of-the-art performance when compared with other machine learning techniques (e.g. SVM, Neural Networks) and requires no fine tuning. Furthermore it is relatively fast, robust, easy to parallelize, and inherently suitable for multi-class problems. In this work, we present the first results of the classification method applied to the seismicity recorded at the Super-Sauze landslide between 2013 and 2015. We selected a dozen of seismic signal features that characterize precisely its spectral content (e.g. central frequency, spectrum width, energy in several frequency bands, spectrogram shape, spectrum local and global maxima
Gao, Bin; Li, Xiaoqing; Woo, Wai Lok; Tian, Gui Yun
2018-05-01
Thermographic inspection has been widely applied to non-destructive testing and evaluation with the capabilities of rapid, contactless, and large surface area detection. Image segmentation is considered essential for identifying and sizing defects. To attain a high-level performance, specific physics-based models that describe defects generation and enable the precise extraction of target region are of crucial importance. In this paper, an effective genetic first-order statistical image segmentation algorithm is proposed for quantitative crack detection. The proposed method automatically extracts valuable spatial-temporal patterns from unsupervised feature extraction algorithm and avoids a range of issues associated with human intervention in laborious manual selection of specific thermal video frames for processing. An internal genetic functionality is built into the proposed algorithm to automatically control the segmentation threshold to render enhanced accuracy in sizing the cracks. Eddy current pulsed thermography will be implemented as a platform to demonstrate surface crack detection. Experimental tests and comparisons have been conducted to verify the efficacy of the proposed method. In addition, a global quantitative assessment index F-score has been adopted to objectively evaluate the performance of different segmentation algorithms.
Maximum mutual information regularized classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-09-07
In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.
Maximum mutual information regularized classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin
2014-01-01
In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.
Scaling theory and the classification of phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hilfer, R.
1992-01-01
In this paper, the recent classification theory for phase transitions and its relation with the foundations of statistical physics is reviewed. First it is outlined how Ehrenfests classification scheme can be generalized into a general thermodynamic classification theory for phase transitions. The classification theory implies scaling and multiscaling thereby eliminating the need to postulate the scaling hypothesis as a fourth law of thermodynamics. The new classification has also led to the discovery and distinction of nonequilibrium transitions within equilibrium statistical physics. Nonequilibrium phase transitions are distinguished from equilibrium transitions by orders less than unity and by the fact the equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics become inapplicable at the critical point. The latter fact requires a change in the Gibbs assumption underlying the canonical and grandcanonical ensembles in order to recover the thermodynamic description in the critical limit
Wisesty, Untari N.; Warastri, Riris S.; Puspitasari, Shinta Y.
2018-03-01
Cancer is one of the major causes of mordibility and mortality problems in the worldwide. Therefore, the need of a system that can analyze and identify a person suffering from a cancer by using microarray data derived from the patient’s Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). But on microarray data has thousands of attributes, thus making the challenges in data processing. This is often referred to as the curse of dimensionality. Therefore, in this study built a system capable of detecting a patient whether contracted cancer or not. The algorithm used is Genetic Algorithm as feature selection and Momentum Backpropagation Neural Network as a classification method, with data used from the Kent Ridge Bio-medical Dataset. Based on system testing that has been done, the system can detect Leukemia and Colon Tumor with best accuracy equal to 98.33% for colon tumor data and 100% for leukimia data. Genetic Algorithm as feature selection algorithm can improve system accuracy, which is from 64.52% to 98.33% for colon tumor data and 65.28% to 100% for leukemia data, and the use of momentum parameters can accelerate the convergence of the system in the training process of Neural Network.
Goshvarpour, Ateke; Goshvarpour, Atefeh
2018-04-30
Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis has become a widely used tool for monitoring pathological and psychological states in medical applications. In a typical classification problem, information fusion is a process whereby the effective combination of the data can achieve a more accurate system. The purpose of this article was to provide an accurate algorithm for classifying HRV signals in various psychological states. Therefore, a novel feature level fusion approach was proposed. First, using the theory of information, two similarity indicators of the signal were extracted, including correntropy and Cauchy-Schwarz divergence. Applying probabilistic neural network (PNN) and k-nearest neighbor (kNN), the performance of each index in the classification of meditators and non-meditators HRV signals was appraised. Then, three fusion rules, including division, product, and weighted sum rules were used to combine the information of both similarity measures. For the first time, we propose an algorithm to define the weights of each feature based on the statistical p-values. The performance of HRV classification using combined features was compared with the non-combined features. Totally, the accuracy of 100% was obtained for discriminating all states. The results showed the strong ability and proficiency of division and weighted sum rules in the improvement of the classifier accuracies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siversson, Carl; Nordström, Fredrik; Nilsson, Terese; Nyholm, Tufve; Jonsson, Joakim; Gunnlaugsson, Adalsteinn; Olsson, Lars E.
2015-01-01
Purpose: In order to enable a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) only workflow in radiotherapy treatment planning, methods are required for generating Hounsfield unit (HU) maps (i.e., synthetic computed tomography, sCT) for dose calculations, directly from MRI. The Statistical Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) is a method for automatically generating sCT images from a single MR image volume, based on automatic tissue classification in combination with a model trained using a multimodal template material. This study compares dose calculations between sCT generated by the SDA and conventional CT in the male pelvic region. Methods: The study comprised ten prostate cancer patients, for whom a 3D T2 weighted MRI and a conventional planning CT were acquired. For each patient, sCT images were generated from the acquired MRI using the SDA. In order to decouple the effect of variations in patient geometry between imaging modalities from the effect of uncertainties in the SDA, the conventional CT was nonrigidly registered to the MRI to assure that their geometries were well aligned. For each patient, a volumetric modulated arc therapy plan was created for the registered CT (rCT) and recalculated for both the sCT and the conventional CT. The results were evaluated using several methods, including mean average error (MAE), a set of dose-volume histogram parameters, and a restrictive gamma criterion (2% local dose/1 mm). Results: The MAE within the body contour was 36.5 ± 4.1 (1 s.d.) HU between sCT and rCT. Average mean absorbed dose difference to target was 0.0% ± 0.2% (1 s.d.) between sCT and rCT, whereas it was −0.3% ± 0.3% (1 s.d.) between CT and rCT. The average gamma pass rate was 99.9% for sCT vs rCT, whereas it was 90.3% for CT vs rCT. Conclusions: The SDA enables a highly accurate MRI only workflow in prostate radiotherapy planning. The dosimetric uncertainties originating from the SDA appear negligible and are notably lower than the uncertainties
Kawata, Masaaki; Sato, Chikara
2007-06-01
In determining the three-dimensional (3D) structure of macromolecular assemblies in single particle analysis, a large representative dataset of two-dimensional (2D) average images from huge number of raw images is a key for high resolution. Because alignments prior to averaging are computationally intensive, currently available multireference alignment (MRA) software does not survey every possible alignment. This leads to misaligned images, creating blurred averages and reducing the quality of the final 3D reconstruction. We present a new method, in which multireference alignment is harmonized with classification (multireference multiple alignment: MRMA). This method enables a statistical comparison of multiple alignment peaks, reflecting the similarities between each raw image and a set of reference images. Among the selected alignment candidates for each raw image, misaligned images are statistically excluded, based on the principle that aligned raw images of similar projections have a dense distribution around the correctly aligned coordinates in image space. This newly developed method was examined for accuracy and speed using model image sets with various signal-to-noise ratios, and with electron microscope images of the Transient Receptor Potential C3 and the sodium channel. In every data set, the newly developed method outperformed conventional methods in robustness against noise and in speed, creating 2D average images of higher quality. This statistically harmonized alignment-classification combination should greatly improve the quality of single particle analysis.
Fuzzy One-Class Classification Model Using Contamination Neighborhoods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lev V. Utkin
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A fuzzy classification model is studied in the paper. It is based on the contaminated (robust model which produces fuzzy expected risk measures characterizing classification errors. Optimal classification parameters of the models are derived by minimizing the fuzzy expected risk. It is shown that an algorithm for computing the classification parameters is reduced to a set of standard support vector machine tasks with weighted data points. Experimental results with synthetic data illustrate the proposed fuzzy model.
The paradox of atheoretical classification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjørland, Birger
2016-01-01
A distinction can be made between “artificial classifications” and “natural classifications,” where artificial classifications may adequately serve some limited purposes, but natural classifications are overall most fruitful by allowing inference and thus many different purposes. There is strong...... support for the view that a natural classification should be based on a theory (and, of course, that the most fruitful theory provides the most fruitful classification). Nevertheless, atheoretical (or “descriptive”) classifications are often produced. Paradoxically, atheoretical classifications may...... be very successful. The best example of a successful “atheoretical” classification is probably the prestigious Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) since its third edition from 1980. Based on such successes one may ask: Should the claim that classifications ideally are natural...
Density Based Support Vector Machines for Classification
Zahra Nazari; Dongshik Kang
2015-01-01
Support Vector Machines (SVM) is the most successful algorithm for classification problems. SVM learns the decision boundary from two classes (for Binary Classification) of training points. However, sometimes there are some less meaningful samples amongst training points, which are corrupted by noises or misplaced in wrong side, called outliers. These outliers are affecting on margin and classification performance, and machine should better to discard them. SVM as a popular and widely used cl...
Elhadad, N.; Claassen, J.; Perotte, R.; Goldstein, A.; Hripcsak, G.
2018-01-01
We study the question of how to represent or summarize raw laboratory data taken from an electronic health record (EHR) using parametric model selection to reduce or cope with biases induced through clinical care. It has been previously demonstrated that the health care process (Hripcsak and Albers, 2012, 2013), as defined by measurement context (Hripcsak and Albers, 2013; Albers et al., 2012) and measurement patterns (Albers and Hripcsak, 2010, 2012), can influence how EHR data are distributed statistically (Kohane and Weber, 2013; Pivovarov et al., 2014). We construct an algorithm, PopKLD, which is based on information criterion model selection (Burnham and Anderson, 2002; Claeskens and Hjort, 2008), is intended to reduce and cope with health care process biases and to produce an intuitively understandable continuous summary. The PopKLD algorithm can be automated and is designed to be applicable in high-throughput settings; for example, the output of the PopKLD algorithm can be used as input for phenotyping algorithms. Moreover, we develop the PopKLD-CAT algorithm that transforms the continuous PopKLD summary into a categorical summary useful for applications that require categorical data such as topic modeling. We evaluate our methodology in two ways. First, we apply the method to laboratory data collected in two different health care contexts, primary versus intensive care. We show that the PopKLD preserves known physiologic features in the data that are lost when summarizing the data using more common laboratory data summaries such as mean and standard deviation. Second, for three disease-laboratory measurement pairs, we perform a phenotyping task: we use the PopKLD and PopKLD-CAT algorithms to define high and low values of the laboratory variable that are used for defining a disease state. We then compare the relationship between the PopKLD-CAT summary disease predictions and the same predictions using empirically estimated mean and standard deviation to a
Albers, D J; Elhadad, N; Claassen, J; Perotte, R; Goldstein, A; Hripcsak, G
2018-02-01
We study the question of how to represent or summarize raw laboratory data taken from an electronic health record (EHR) using parametric model selection to reduce or cope with biases induced through clinical care. It has been previously demonstrated that the health care process (Hripcsak and Albers, 2012, 2013), as defined by measurement context (Hripcsak and Albers, 2013; Albers et al., 2012) and measurement patterns (Albers and Hripcsak, 2010, 2012), can influence how EHR data are distributed statistically (Kohane and Weber, 2013; Pivovarov et al., 2014). We construct an algorithm, PopKLD, which is based on information criterion model selection (Burnham and Anderson, 2002; Claeskens and Hjort, 2008), is intended to reduce and cope with health care process biases and to produce an intuitively understandable continuous summary. The PopKLD algorithm can be automated and is designed to be applicable in high-throughput settings; for example, the output of the PopKLD algorithm can be used as input for phenotyping algorithms. Moreover, we develop the PopKLD-CAT algorithm that transforms the continuous PopKLD summary into a categorical summary useful for applications that require categorical data such as topic modeling. We evaluate our methodology in two ways. First, we apply the method to laboratory data collected in two different health care contexts, primary versus intensive care. We show that the PopKLD preserves known physiologic features in the data that are lost when summarizing the data using more common laboratory data summaries such as mean and standard deviation. Second, for three disease-laboratory measurement pairs, we perform a phenotyping task: we use the PopKLD and PopKLD-CAT algorithms to define high and low values of the laboratory variable that are used for defining a disease state. We then compare the relationship between the PopKLD-CAT summary disease predictions and the same predictions using empirically estimated mean and standard deviation to a
Stumpe, B; Engel, T; Steinweg, B; Marschner, B
2012-04-03
In the past, different slag materials were often used for landscaping and construction purposes or simply dumped. Nowadays German environmental laws strictly control the use of slags, but there is still a remaining part of 35% which is uncontrolled dumped in landfills. Since some slags have high heavy metal contents and different slag types have typical chemical and physical properties that will influence the risk potential and other characteristics of the deposits, an identification of the slag types is needed. We developed a FT-IR-based statistical method to identify different slags classes. Slags samples were collected at different sites throughout various cities within the industrial Ruhr area. Then, spectra of 35 samples from four different slags classes, ladle furnace (LF), blast furnace (BF), oxygen furnace steel (OF), and zinc furnace slags (ZF), were determined in the mid-infrared region (4000-400 cm(-1)). The spectra data sets were subject to statistical classification methods for the separation of separate spectral data of different slag classes. Principal component analysis (PCA) models for each slag class were developed and further used for soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). Precise classification of slag samples into four different slag classes were achieved using two different SIMCA models stepwise. At first, SIMCA 1 was used for classification of ZF as well as OF slags over the total spectral range. If no correct classification was found, then the spectrum was analyzed with SIMCA 2 at reduced wavenumbers for the classification of LF as well as BF spectra. As a result, we provide a time- and cost-efficient method based on FT-IR spectroscopy for processing and identifying large numbers of environmental slag samples.
Magana-Mora, Arturo
2017-04-29
Machine-learning (ML) techniques have been widely applied to solve different problems in biology. However, biological data are large and complex, which often result in extremely intricate ML models. Frequently, these models may have a poor performance or may be computationally unfeasible. This study presents a set of novel computational methods and focuses on the application of genetic algorithms (GAs) for the simplification and optimization of ML models and their applications to biological problems. The dissertation addresses the following three challenges. The first is to develop a generalizable classification methodology able to systematically derive competitive models despite the complexity and nature of the data. Although several algorithms for the induction of classification models have been proposed, the algorithms are data dependent. Consequently, we developed OmniGA, a novel and generalizable framework that uses different classification models in a treeXlike decision structure, along with a parallel GA for the optimization of the OmniGA structure. Results show that OmniGA consistently outperformed existing commonly used classification models. The second challenge is the prediction of translation initiation sites (TIS) in plants genomic DNA. We performed a statistical analysis of the genomic DNA and proposed a new set of discriminant features for this problem. We developed a wrapper method based on GAs for selecting an optimal feature subset, which, in conjunction with a classification model, produced the most accurate framework for the recognition of TIS in plants. Finally, results demonstrate that despite the evolutionary distance between different plants, our approach successfully identified conserved genomic elements that may serve as the starting point for the development of a generic model for prediction of TIS in eukaryotic organisms. Finally, the third challenge is the accurate prediction of polyadenylation signals in human genomic DNA. To achieve
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yidong Xu
2017-10-01
Full Text Available A novel localization method based on multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithm is proposed for positioning an electric dipole source in a confined underwater environment by using electric dipole-receiving antenna array. In this method, the boundary element method (BEM is introduced to analyze the boundary of the confined region by use of a matrix equation. The voltage of each dipole pair is used as spatial-temporal localization data, and it does not need to obtain the field component in each direction compared with the conventional fields based localization method, which can be easily implemented in practical engineering applications. Then, a global-multiple region-conjugate gradient (CG hybrid search method is used to reduce the computation burden and to improve the operation speed. Two localization simulation models and a physical experiment are conducted. Both the simulation results and physical experiment result provide accurate positioning performance, with the help to verify the effectiveness of the proposed localization method in underwater environments.
Compensatory neurofuzzy model for discrete data classification in biomedical
Ceylan, Rahime
2015-03-01
Biomedical data is separated to two main sections: signals and discrete data. So, studies in this area are about biomedical signal classification or biomedical discrete data classification. There are artificial intelligence models which are relevant to classification of ECG, EMG or EEG signals. In same way, in literature, many models exist for classification of discrete data taken as value of samples which can be results of blood analysis or biopsy in medical process. Each algorithm could not achieve high accuracy rate on classification of signal and discrete data. In this study, compensatory neurofuzzy network model is presented for classification of discrete data in biomedical pattern recognition area. The compensatory neurofuzzy network has a hybrid and binary classifier. In this system, the parameters of fuzzy systems are updated by backpropagation algorithm. The realized classifier model is conducted to two benchmark datasets (Wisconsin Breast Cancer dataset and Pima Indian Diabetes dataset). Experimental studies show that compensatory neurofuzzy network model achieved 96.11% accuracy rate in classification of breast cancer dataset and 69.08% accuracy rate was obtained in experiments made on diabetes dataset with only 10 iterations.
Supernova Photometric Lightcurve Classification
Zaidi, Tayeb; Narayan, Gautham
2016-01-01
This is a preliminary report on photometric supernova classification. We first explore the properties of supernova light curves, and attempt to restructure the unevenly sampled and sparse data from assorted datasets to allow for processing and classification. The data was primarily drawn from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) simulated data, created for the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. This poster shows a method for producing a non-parametric representation of the light curve data, and applying a Random Forest classifier algorithm to distinguish between supernovae types. We examine the impact of Principal Component Analysis to reduce the dimensionality of the dataset, for future classification work. The classification code will be used in a stage of the ANTARES pipeline, created for use on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope alert data and other wide-field surveys. The final figure-of-merit for the DES data in the r band was 60% for binary classification (Type I vs II).Zaidi was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).
Proposed hybrid-classifier ensemble algorithm to map snow cover area
Nijhawan, Rahul; Raman, Balasubramanian; Das, Josodhir
2018-01-01
Metaclassification ensemble approach is known to improve the prediction performance of snow-covered area. The methodology adopted in this case is based on neural network along with four state-of-art machine learning algorithms: support vector machine, artificial neural networks, spectral angle mapper, K-mean clustering, and a snow index: normalized difference snow index. An AdaBoost ensemble algorithm related to decision tree for snow-cover mapping is also proposed. According to available literature, these methods have been rarely used for snow-cover mapping. Employing the above techniques, a study was conducted for Raktavarn and Chaturangi Bamak glaciers, Uttarakhand, Himalaya using multispectral Landsat 7 ETM+ (enhanced thematic mapper) image. The study also compares the results with those obtained from statistical combination methods (majority rule and belief functions) and accuracies of individual classifiers. Accuracy assessment is performed by computing the quantity and allocation disagreement, analyzing statistic measures (accuracy, precision, specificity, AUC, and sensitivity) and receiver operating characteristic curves. A total of 225 combinations of parameters for individual classifiers were trained and tested on the dataset and results were compared with the proposed approach. It was observed that the proposed methodology produced the highest classification accuracy (95.21%), close to (94.01%) that was produced by the proposed AdaBoost ensemble algorithm. From the sets of observations, it was concluded that the ensemble of classifiers produced better results compared to individual classifiers.
Probabilistic topic modeling for the analysis and classification of genomic sequences
2015-01-01
Background Studies on genomic sequences for classification and taxonomic identification have a leading role in the biomedical field and in the analysis of biodiversity. These studies are focusing on the so-called barcode genes, representing a well defined region of the whole genome. Recently, alignment-free techniques are gaining more importance because they are able to overcome the drawbacks of sequence alignment techniques. In this paper a new alignment-free method for DNA sequences clustering and classification is proposed. The method is based on k-mers representation and text mining techniques. Methods The presented method is based on Probabilistic Topic Modeling, a statistical technique originally proposed for text documents. Probabilistic topic models are able to find in a document corpus the topics (recurrent themes) characterizing classes of documents. This technique, applied on DNA sequences representing the documents, exploits the frequency of fixed-length k-mers and builds a generative model for a training group of sequences. This generative model, obtained through the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) algorithm, is then used to classify a large set of genomic sequences. Results and conclusions We performed classification of over 7000 16S DNA barcode sequences taken from Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) repository, training probabilistic topic models. The proposed method is compared to the RDP tool and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification algorithm in a extensive set of trials using both complete sequences and short sequence snippets (from 400 bp to 25 bp). Our method reaches very similar results to RDP classifier and SVM for complete sequences. The most interesting results are obtained when short sequence snippets are considered. In these conditions the proposed method outperforms RDP and SVM with ultra short sequences and it exhibits a smooth decrease of performance, at every taxonomic level, when the sequence length is decreased. PMID:25916734
Application of a Bayesian algorithm for the Statistical Energy model updating of a railway coach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sadri, Mehran; Brunskog, Jonas; Younesian, Davood
2016-01-01
into account based on published data on comparison between experimental and theoretical results, so that the variance of the theory is estimated. The Monte Carlo Metropolis Hastings algorithm is employed to estimate the modified values of the parameters. It is shown that the algorithm can be efficiently used......The classical statistical energy analysis (SEA) theory is a common approach for vibroacoustic analysis of coupled complex structures, being efficient to predict high-frequency noise and vibration of engineering systems. There are however some limitations in applying the conventional SEA...... the performance of the proposed strategy, the SEA model updating of a railway passenger coach is carried out. First, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to select the most sensitive parameters of the SEA model. For the selected parameters of the model, prior probability density functions are then taken...
Transferability of decision trees for land cover classification in a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper attempts to derive classification rules from training data of four Landsat-8 scenes by using the classification and regression tree (CART) implementation of the decision tree algorithm. The transferability of the ruleset was evaluated by classifying two adjacent scenes. The classification of the four mosaicked scenes ...
Integrating human and machine intelligence in galaxy morphology classification tasks
Beck, Melanie R.; Scarlata, Claudia; Fortson, Lucy F.; Lintott, Chris J.; Simmons, B. D.; Galloway, Melanie A.; Willett, Kyle W.; Dickinson, Hugh; Masters, Karen L.; Marshall, Philip J.; Wright, Darryl
2018-06-01
Quantifying galaxy morphology is a challenging yet scientifically rewarding task. As the scale of data continues to increase with upcoming surveys, traditional classification methods will struggle to handle the load. We present a solution through an integration of visual and automated classifications, preserving the best features of both human and machine. We demonstrate the effectiveness of such a system through a re-analysis of visual galaxy morphology classifications collected during the Galaxy Zoo 2 (GZ2) project. We reprocess the top-level question of the GZ2 decision tree with a Bayesian classification aggregation algorithm dubbed SWAP, originally developed for the Space Warps gravitational lens project. Through a simple binary classification scheme, we increase the classification rate nearly 5-fold classifying 226 124 galaxies in 92 d of GZ2 project time while reproducing labels derived from GZ2 classification data with 95.7 per cent accuracy. We next combine this with a Random Forest machine learning algorithm that learns on a suite of non-parametric morphology indicators widely used for automated morphologies. We develop a decision engine that delegates tasks between human and machine and demonstrate that the combined system provides at least a factor of 8 increase in the classification rate, classifying 210 803 galaxies in just 32 d of GZ2 project time with 93.1 per cent accuracy. As the Random Forest algorithm requires a minimal amount of computational cost, this result has important implications for galaxy morphology identification tasks in the era of Euclid and other large-scale surveys.
Seismic texture classification. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vinther, R.
1997-12-31
The seismic texture classification method, is a seismic attribute that can both recognize the general reflectivity styles and locate variations from these. The seismic texture classification performs a statistic analysis for the seismic section (or volume) aiming at describing the reflectivity. Based on a set of reference reflectivities the seismic textures are classified. The result of the seismic texture classification is a display of seismic texture categories showing both the styles of reflectivity from the reference set and interpolations and extrapolations from these. The display is interpreted as statistical variations in the seismic data. The seismic texture classification is applied to seismic sections and volumes from the Danish North Sea representing both horizontal stratifications and salt diapers. The attribute succeeded in recognizing both general structure of successions and variations from these. Also, the seismic texture classification is not only able to display variations in prospective areas (1-7 sec. TWT) but can also be applied to deep seismic sections. The seismic texture classification is tested on a deep reflection seismic section (13-18 sec. TWT) from the Baltic Sea. Applied to this section the seismic texture classification succeeded in locating the Moho, which could not be located using conventional interpretation tools. The seismic texture classification is a seismic attribute which can display general reflectivity styles and deviations from these and enhance variations not found by conventional interpretation tools. (LN)
Diabetes classification using a redundancy reduction preprocessor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Áurea Celeste Ribeiro
Full Text Available Introduction Diabetes patients can benefit significantly from early diagnosis. Thus, accurate automated screening is becoming increasingly important due to the wide spread of that disease. Previous studies in automated screening have found a maximum accuracy of 92.6%. Methods This work proposes a classification methodology based on efficient coding of the input data, which is carried out by decreasing input data redundancy using well-known ICA algorithms, such as FastICA, JADE and INFOMAX. The classifier used in the task to discriminate diabetics from non-diaibetics is the one class support vector machine. Classification tests were performed using noninvasive and invasive indicators. Results The results suggest that redundancy reduction increases one-class support vector machine performance when discriminating between diabetics and nondiabetics up to an accuracy of 98.47% while using all indicators. By using only noninvasive indicators, an accuracy of 98.28% was obtained. Conclusion The ICA feature extraction improves the performance of the classifier in the data set because it reduces the statistical dependence of the collected data, which increases the ability of the classifier to find accurate class boundaries.
Methods and statistics for combining motif match scores.
Bailey, T L; Gribskov, M
1998-01-01
Position-specific scoring matrices are useful for representing and searching for protein sequence motifs. A sequence family can often be described by a group of one or more motifs, and an effective search must combine the scores for matching a sequence to each of the motifs in the group. We describe three methods for combining match scores and estimating the statistical significance of the combined scores and evaluate the search quality (classification accuracy) and the accuracy of the estimate of statistical significance of each. The three methods are: 1) sum of scores, 2) sum of reduced variates, 3) product of score p-values. We show that method 3) is superior to the other two methods in both regards, and that combining motif scores indeed gives better search accuracy. The MAST sequence homology search algorithm utilizing the product of p-values scoring method is available for interactive use and downloading at URL http:/(/)www.sdsc.edu/MEME.
Optimizing Support Vector Machine Parameters with Genetic Algorithm for Credit Risk Assessment
Manurung, Jonson; Mawengkang, Herman; Zamzami, Elviawaty
2017-12-01
Support vector machine (SVM) is a popular classification method known to have strong generalization capabilities. SVM can solve the problem of classification and linear regression or nonlinear kernel which can be a learning algorithm for the ability of classification and regression. However, SVM also has a weakness that is difficult to determine the optimal parameter value. SVM calculates the best linear separator on the input feature space according to the training data. To classify data which are non-linearly separable, SVM uses kernel tricks to transform the data into a linearly separable data on a higher dimension feature space. The kernel trick using various kinds of kernel functions, such as : linear kernel, polynomial, radial base function (RBF) and sigmoid. Each function has parameters which affect the accuracy of SVM classification. To solve the problem genetic algorithms are proposed to be applied as the optimal parameter value search algorithm thus increasing the best classification accuracy on SVM. Data taken from UCI repository of machine learning database: Australian Credit Approval. The results show that the combination of SVM and genetic algorithms is effective in improving classification accuracy. Genetic algorithms has been shown to be effective in systematically finding optimal kernel parameters for SVM, instead of randomly selected kernel parameters. The best accuracy for data has been upgraded from kernel Linear: 85.12%, polynomial: 81.76%, RBF: 77.22% Sigmoid: 78.70%. However, for bigger data sizes, this method is not practical because it takes a lot of time.
Zhu, Zhe
2017-08-01
The free and open access to all archived Landsat images in 2008 has completely changed the way of using Landsat data. Many novel change detection algorithms based on Landsat time series have been developed We present a comprehensive review of four important aspects of change detection studies based on Landsat time series, including frequencies, preprocessing, algorithms, and applications. We observed the trend that the more recent the study, the higher the frequency of Landsat time series used. We reviewed a series of image preprocessing steps, including atmospheric correction, cloud and cloud shadow detection, and composite/fusion/metrics techniques. We divided all change detection algorithms into six categories, including thresholding, differencing, segmentation, trajectory classification, statistical boundary, and regression. Within each category, six major characteristics of different algorithms, such as frequency, change index, univariate/multivariate, online/offline, abrupt/gradual change, and sub-pixel/pixel/spatial were analyzed. Moreover, some of the widely-used change detection algorithms were also discussed. Finally, we reviewed different change detection applications by dividing these applications into two categories, change target and change agent detection.
Sow-activity classification from acceleration patterns
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Escalante, Hugo Jair; Rodriguez, Sara V.; Cordero, Jorge
2013-01-01
sow-activity classification can be approached with standard machine learning methods for pattern classification. Individual predictions for elements of times series of arbitrary length are combined to classify it as a whole. An extensive comparison of representative learning algorithms, including......This paper describes a supervised learning approach to sow-activity classification from accelerometer measurements. In the proposed methodology, pairs of accelerometer measurements and activity types are considered as labeled instances of a usual supervised classification task. Under this scenario...... neural networks, support vector machines, and ensemble methods, is presented. Experimental results are reported using a data set for sow-activity classification collected in a real production herd. The data set, which has been widely used in related works, includes measurements from active (Feeding...
High Dimensional Classification Using Features Annealed Independence Rules.
Fan, Jianqing; Fan, Yingying
2008-01-01
Classification using high-dimensional features arises frequently in many contemporary statistical studies such as tumor classification using microarray or other high-throughput data. The impact of dimensionality on classifications is largely poorly understood. In a seminal paper, Bickel and Levina (2004) show that the Fisher discriminant performs poorly due to diverging spectra and they propose to use the independence rule to overcome the problem. We first demonstrate that even for the independence classification rule, classification using all the features can be as bad as the random guessing due to noise accumulation in estimating population centroids in high-dimensional feature space. In fact, we demonstrate further that almost all linear discriminants can perform as bad as the random guessing. Thus, it is paramountly important to select a subset of important features for high-dimensional classification, resulting in Features Annealed Independence Rules (FAIR). The conditions under which all the important features can be selected by the two-sample t-statistic are established. The choice of the optimal number of features, or equivalently, the threshold value of the test statistics are proposed based on an upper bound of the classification error. Simulation studies and real data analysis support our theoretical results and demonstrate convincingly the advantage of our new classification procedure.
Biometric Authentication for Gender Classification Techniques: A Review
Mathivanan, P.; Poornima, K.
2017-12-01
One of the challenging biometric authentication applications is gender identification and age classification, which captures gait from far distance and analyze physical information of the subject such as gender, race and emotional state of the subject. It is found that most of the gender identification techniques have focused only with frontal pose of different human subject, image size and type of database used in the process. The study also classifies different feature extraction process such as, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Local Directional Pattern (LDP) that are used to extract the authentication features of a person. This paper aims to analyze different gender classification techniques that help in evaluating strength and weakness of existing gender identification algorithm. Therefore, it helps in developing a novel gender classification algorithm with less computation cost and more accuracy. In this paper, an overview and classification of different gender identification techniques are first presented and it is compared with other existing human identification system by means of their performance.
Polarimetric Segmentation Using Wishart Test Statistic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skriver, Henning; Schou, Jesper; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg
2002-01-01
A newly developed test statistic for equality of two complex covariance matrices following the complex Wishart distribution and an associated asymptotic probability for the test statistic has been used in a segmentation algorithm. The segmentation algorithm is based on the MUM (merge using moments......) approach, which is a merging algorithm for single channel SAR images. The polarimetric version described in this paper uses the above-mentioned test statistic for merging. The segmentation algorithm has been applied to polarimetric SAR data from the Danish dual-frequency, airborne polarimetric SAR, EMISAR...
Classification of Multichannel ECG Signals Using a Cross-Distance Analysis
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Shahram, Morteza
2001-01-01
This paper presents a multi-stage algorithm for multi-channel ECG beat classification into normal and abnormal categories using a sequential beat clustering and a cross- distance analysis algorithm...
Classification of high resolution satellite images
Karlsson, Anders
2003-01-01
In this thesis the Support Vector Machine (SVM)is applied on classification of high resolution satellite images. Sveral different measures for classification, including texture mesasures, 1st order statistics, and simple contextual information were evaluated. Additionnally, the image was segmented, using an enhanced watershed method, in order to improve the classification accuracy.
Classification of permafrost active layer depth from remotely sensed and topographic evidence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peddle, D.R.; Franklin, S.E.
1993-01-01
The remote detection of permafrost (perennially frozen ground) has important implications to environmental resource development, engineering studies, natural hazard prediction, and climate change research. In this study, the authors present results from two experiments into the classification of permafrost active layer depth within the zone of discontinuous permafrost in northern Canada. A new software system based on evidential reasoning was implemented to permit the integrated classification of multisource data consisting of landcover, terrain aspect, and equivalent latitude, each of which possessed different formats, data types, or statistical properties that could not be handled by conventional classification algorithms available to this study. In the first experiment, four active layer depth classes were classified using ground based measurements of the three variables with an accuracy of 83% compared to in situ soil probe determination of permafrost active layer depth at over 500 field sites. This confirmed the environmental significance of the variables selected, and provided a baseline result to which a remote sensing classification could be compared. In the second experiment, evidence for each input variable was obtained from image processing of digital SPOT imagery and a photogrammetric digital elevation model, and used to classify active layer depth with an accuracy of 79%. These results suggest the classification of evidence from remotely sensed measures of spectral response and topography may provide suitable indicators of permafrost active layer depth
MULTI-TEMPORAL CLASSIFICATION AND CHANGE DETECTION USING UAV IMAGES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Makuti
2018-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper different methodologies for the classification and change detection of UAV image blocks are explored. UAV is not only the cheapest platform for image acquisition but it is also the easiest platform to operate in repeated data collections over a changing area like a building construction site. Two change detection techniques have been evaluated in this study: the pre-classification and the post-classification algorithms. These methods are based on three main steps: feature extraction, classification and change detection. A set of state of the art features have been used in the tests: colour features (HSV, textural features (GLCM and 3D geometric features. For classification purposes Conditional Random Field (CRF has been used: the unary potential was determined using the Random Forest algorithm while the pairwise potential was defined by the fully connected CRF. In the performed tests, different feature configurations and settings have been considered to assess the performance of these methods in such challenging task. Experimental results showed that the post-classification approach outperforms the pre-classification change detection method. This was analysed using the overall accuracy, where by post classification have an accuracy of up to 62.6 % and the pre classification change detection have an accuracy of 46.5 %. These results represent a first useful indication for future works and developments.
Obozov, A. A.; Serpik, I. N.; Mihalchenko, G. S.; Fedyaeva, G. A.
2017-01-01
In the article, the problem of application of the pattern recognition (a relatively young area of engineering cybernetics) for analysis of complicated technical systems is examined. It is shown that the application of a statistical approach for hard distinguishable situations could be the most effective. The different recognition algorithms are based on Bayes approach, which estimates posteriori probabilities of a certain event and an assumed error. Application of the statistical approach to pattern recognition is possible for solving the problem of technical diagnosis complicated systems and particularly big powered marine diesel engines.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nair, Preethi B.; Abraham, Roberto G.
2010-01-01
We present a catalog of detailed visual classifications for 14,034 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 4 (DR4). Our sample includes nearly all spectroscopically targeted galaxies in the redshift range 0.01 < z < 0.1 down to an apparent extinction-corrected limit of g < 16 mag. In addition to T-Types, we record the existence of bars, rings, lenses, tails, warps, dust lanes, arm flocculence, and multiplicity. This sample defines a comprehensive local galaxy sample which we will use in future papers to study low-redshift morphology. It will also prove useful for calibrating automated galaxy classification algorithms. In this paper, we describe the classification methodology used, detail the systematics and biases of our sample, and summarize the overall statistical properties of the sample, noting the most obvious trends that are relevant for general comparisons of our catalog with previously published work.
Assessment of various supervised learning algorithms using different performance metrics
Susheel Kumar, S. M.; Laxkar, Deepak; Adhikari, Sourav; Vijayarajan, V.
2017-11-01
Our work brings out comparison based on the performance of supervised machine learning algorithms on a binary classification task. The supervised machine learning algorithms which are taken into consideration in the following work are namely Support Vector Machine(SVM), Decision Tree(DT), K Nearest Neighbour (KNN), Naïve Bayes(NB) and Random Forest(RF). This paper mostly focuses on comparing the performance of above mentioned algorithms on one binary classification task by analysing the Metrics such as Accuracy, F-Measure, G-Measure, Precision, Misclassification Rate, False Positive Rate, True Positive Rate, Specificity, Prevalence.
EOG and EMG: two important switches in automatic sleep stage classification.
Estrada, E; Nazeran, H; Barragan, J; Burk, J R; Lucas, E A; Behbehani, K
2006-01-01
Sleep is a natural periodic state of rest for the body, in which the eyes are usually closed and consciousness is completely or partially lost. In this investigation we used the EOG and EMG signals acquired from 10 patients undergoing overnight polysomnography with their sleep stages determined by expert sleep specialists based on RK rules. Differentiation between Stage 1, Awake and REM stages challenged a well trained neural network classifier to distinguish between classes when only EEG-derived signal features were used. To meet this challenge and improve the classification rate, extra features extracted from EOG and EMG signals were fed to the classifier. In this study, two simple feature extraction algorithms were applied to EOG and EMG signals. The statistics of the results were calculated and displayed in an easy to visualize fashion to observe tendencies for each sleep stage. Inclusion of these features show a great promise to improve the classification rate towards the target rate of 100%
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hobolth, Asger
2008-01-01
-dimensional integrals required in the EM algorithm are estimated using MCMC sampling. The MCMC sampler requires simulation of sample paths from a continuous time Markov process, conditional on the beginning and ending states and the paths of the neighboring sites. An exact path sampling algorithm is developed......The evolution of DNA sequences can be described by discrete state continuous time Markov processes on a phylogenetic tree. We consider neighbor-dependent evolutionary models where the instantaneous rate of substitution at a site depends on the states of the neighboring sites. Neighbor......-dependent substitution models are analytically intractable and must be analyzed using either approximate or simulation-based methods. We describe statistical inference of neighbor-dependent models using a Markov chain Monte Carlo expectation maximization (MCMC-EM) algorithm. In the MCMC-EM algorithm, the high...
Blob-level active-passive data fusion for Benthic classification
Park, Joong Yong; Kalluri, Hemanth; Mathur, Abhinav; Ramnath, Vinod; Kim, Minsu; Aitken, Jennifer; Tuell, Grady
2012-06-01
We extend the data fusion pixel level to the more semantically meaningful blob level, using the mean-shift algorithm to form labeled blobs having high similarity in the feature domain, and connectivity in the spatial domain. We have also developed Bhattacharyya Distance (BD) and rule-based classifiers, and have implemented these higher-level data fusion algorithms into the CZMIL Data Processing System. Applying these new algorithms to recent SHOALS and CASI data at Plymouth Harbor, Massachusetts, we achieved improved benthic classification accuracies over those produced with either single sensor, or pixel-level fusion strategies. These results appear to validate the hypothesis that classification accuracy may be generally improved by adopting higher spatial and semantic levels of fusion.
Open and reproducible global land use classification
Nüst, Daniel; Václavík, Tomáš; Pross, Benjamin
2015-04-01
Researchers led by the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental research (UFZ) developed a new world map of land use systems based on over 30 diverse indicators (http://geoportal.glues.geo.tu-dresden.de/stories/landsystemarchetypes.html) of land use intensity, climate and environmental and socioeconomic factors. They identified twelve land system archetypes (LSA) using a data-driven classification algorithm (self-organizing maps) to assess global impacts of land use on the environment, and found unexpected similarities across global regions. We present how the algorithm behind this analysis can be published as an executable web process using 52°North WPS4R (https://wiki.52north.org/bin/view/Geostatistics/WPS4R) within the GLUES project (http://modul-a.nachhaltiges-landmanagement.de/en/scientific-coordination-glues/). WPS4R is an open source collaboration platform for researchers, analysts and software developers to publish R scripts (http://www.r-project.org/) as a geo-enabled OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) process. The interoperable interface to call the geoprocess allows both reproducibility of the analysis and integration of user data without knowledge about web services or classification algorithms. The open platform allows everybody to replicate the analysis in their own environments. The LSA WPS process has several input parameters, which can be changed via a simple web interface. The input parameters are used to configure both the WPS environment and the LSA algorithm itself. The encapsulation as a web process allows integration of non-public datasets, while at the same time the publication requires a well-defined documentation of the analysis. We demonstrate this platform specifically to domain scientists and show how reproducibility and open source publication of analyses can be enhanced. We also discuss future extensions of the reproducible land use classification, such as the possibility for users to enter their own areas of interest to the system and
Couinaud's classification v.s. Cho's classification. Their feasibility in the right hepatic lobe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shioyama, Yasukazu; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Sato, Motohito; Yoshimi, Fuyo; Kishi, Kazushi; Sato, Morio; Kimura, Masashi
2008-01-01
The objective of this study was to investigate if the new classification system proposed by Cho is feasible to clinical usage comparing with the classical Couinaud's one. One hundred consecutive cases of abdominal CT were studied using a 64 or an 8 slice multislice CT and created three dimensional portal vein images for analysis by the Workstation. We applied both Cho's classification and the classical Couinaud's one for each cases according to their definitions. Three diagnostic radiologists assessed their feasibility as category one (unable to classify) to five (clear to classify with total suit with the original classification criteria). And in each cases, we tried to judge whether Cho's or the classical Couinaud' classification could more easily transmit anatomical information. Analyzers could classified portal veins clearly (category 5) in 77 to 80% of cases and clearly (category 5) or almost clearly (category 4) in 86-93% along with both classifications. In the feasibility of classification, there was no statisticall