A finite difference approach to despiking in-stationary velocity data - tested on a triple-lidar
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meyer Forsting, Alexander Raul; Troldborg, Niels
2016-01-01
A novel despiking method is presented for in-stationary wind lidar velocity measurements. A finite difference approach yields the upper and lower bounds for a valid velocity reading. The sole input to the algorithm is the velocity series and optionally a far- field reference to the temporal...
Bossa, Matias; Zacur, Ernesto; Olmos, Salvador
2010-07-01
Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is an analysis technique where anatomical information is characterized by means of the spatial transformations mapping a customized template with the observed images. Therefore, accurate inter-subject non-rigid registration is an essential prerequisite for both template estimation and image warping. Subsequent statistical analysis on the spatial transformations is performed to highlight voxel-wise differences. Most of previous TBM studies did not explore the influence of the registration parameters, such as the parameters defining the deformation and the regularization models. In this work performance evaluation of TBM using stationary velocity field (SVF) diffeomorphic registration was performed in a subset of subjects from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. A wide range of values of the registration parameters that define the transformation smoothness and the balance between image matching and regularization were explored in the evaluation. The proposed methodology provided brain atrophy maps with very detailed anatomical resolution and with a high significance level compared with results recently published on the same data set using a non-linear elastic registration method. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bossa, Matías Nicolás; Zacur, Ernesto; Olmos, Salvador
2009-01-01
Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is an analysis technique where anatomical information is characterized by means of the spatial transformations between a customized template and observed images. Therefore, accurate inter-subject non-rigid registration is an essential prerrequisite. Further statistical analysis of the spatial transformations is used to highlight some useful information, such as local statistical differences among populations. With the new advent of recent and powerful non-rigid registration algorithms based on the large deformation paradigm, TBM is being increasingly used. In this work we evaluate the statistical power of TBM using stationary velocity field diffeomorphic registration in a large population of subjects from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative project. The proposed methodology provided atrophy maps with very detailed anatomical resolution and with a high significance compared with results published recently on the same data set.
On the existence of classical solutions for stationary extended mean field games
Gomes, Diogo A.; Patrizi, Stefania; Voskanyan, Vardan
2014-01-01
In this paper we consider extended stationary mean-field games, that is mean-field games which depend on the velocity field of the players. We prove various a-priori estimates which generalize the results for quasi-variational mean-field games in Gomes et al. (2012). In addition we use adjoint method techniques to obtain higher regularity bounds. Then we establish the existence of smooth solutions under fairly general conditions by applying the continuity method. When applied to standard stationary mean-field games as in Lasry and Lions (2006), Gomes and Sanchez-Morgado (2011) or Gomes et al. (2012) this paper yields various new estimates and regularity properties not available previously. We discuss additionally several examples where the existence of classical solutions can be proved. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
On the existence of classical solutions for stationary extended mean field games
Gomes, Diogo A.
2014-04-01
In this paper we consider extended stationary mean-field games, that is mean-field games which depend on the velocity field of the players. We prove various a-priori estimates which generalize the results for quasi-variational mean-field games in Gomes et al. (2012). In addition we use adjoint method techniques to obtain higher regularity bounds. Then we establish the existence of smooth solutions under fairly general conditions by applying the continuity method. When applied to standard stationary mean-field games as in Lasry and Lions (2006), Gomes and Sanchez-Morgado (2011) or Gomes et al. (2012) this paper yields various new estimates and regularity properties not available previously. We discuss additionally several examples where the existence of classical solutions can be proved. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stationary echo canceling in velocity estimation by time-domain cross-correlation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
1993-01-01
The application of stationary echo canceling to ultrasonic estimation of blood velocities using time-domain cross-correlation is investigated. Expressions are derived that show the influence from the echo canceler on the signals that enter the cross-correlation estimator. It is demonstrated...
Plasma oscillations in a stationary external magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ciulli, S [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow (USSR); Micu, M [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania)
1958-07-01
The stationary distribution function as well as the small deviations from the stationary state of a gas discharge using the Boltzmann equation is studied as a basis for the calculations. The stationary problem which is discussed corresponds to plasma with cylindrical symmetry. It leads to a Maxwell velocity distribution and to a spatial distribution function which has the asymptotic form 1/r{sup 4}. The plasma perturbations are estimated by the deviations of the first order moments from their Maxwell values. A homogeneous system of differential equations is derived for the Fourier amplitudes of the magnetic field and their asymptotic form is studied. The dispersion relation is obtained by joining smoothly a solution regular at the origin with the regular asymptotic one.A number of idealizations and approximations have been made in the present analysis which limit the utility of the formulae obtained. For example, if the collision term is included in the Boltzmann equation additional quantities appear in the final results, i.e., viscosity, thermal and electrical conductivity, etc. Furthermore, the finite dimensions of linear discharge tubes or the toroidal form of some discharges strongly modify the present results. Taking into account these additional effects, exact solutions are to be obtained numerically for different values of the experimental parameters.
Stationary axisymmetric Einstein--Maxwell field equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catenacci, R.; Diaz Alonso, J.
1976-01-01
We show the existence of a formal identity between Einstein's and Ernst's stationary axisymmetric gravitational field equations and the Einstein--Maxwell and the Ernst equations for the electrostatic and magnetostatic axisymmetric cases. Our equations are invariant under very simple internal symmetry groups, and one of them appears to be new. We also obtain a method for associating two stationary axisymmetric vacuum solutions with every electrostatic known
Direct imaging of slow, stored and stationary EIT polaritons
Campbell, Geoff T.; Cho, Young-Wook; Su, Jian; Everett, Jesse; Robins, Nicholas; Lam, Ping Koy; Buchler, Ben
2017-09-01
Stationary and slow light effects are of great interest for quantum information applications. Using laser-cooled Rb87 atoms, we performed side imaging of our atomic ensemble under slow and stationary light conditions, which allows direct comparison with numerical models. The polaritons were generated using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), with stationary light generated using counter-propagating control fields. By controlling the power ratio of the two control fields, we show fine control of the group velocity of the stationary light. We also compare the dynamics of stationary light using monochromatic and bichromatic control fields. Our results show negligible difference between the two situations, in contrast to previous work in EIT-based systems.
Expansions of general stationary stochastic optical fields: general formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez-Herrero, R.; Mejias, P.M.
1985-01-01
A new expansion of a general stationary stochastic optical field is derived. Each term of the series is seen to represent a recently defined new class of optical fields, the so-called spectrally quasi-factorizable fields. Alternative expansion in terms of nonstationary fields that obey the wave equation is also shown. A relationship between temporal and spatial features of stationary free optical fields is discussed
Quantum field theory in stationary coordinate systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfautsch, J.D.
1981-01-01
Quantum field theory is examined in stationary coordinate systems in Minkowski space. Preliminary to quantization of the scalar field, all of the possible stationary coordinate systems in flat spacetime are classified and explicitly constructed. Six distinct classes of such systems are found. Of these six, three have (identical) event horizons associated with them and five have Killing horizons. Two classes have distinct Killing and event horizons, with an intervening region analogous to the ergosphere in rotating black holes. Particular representatives of each class are selected for subsequent use in the quantum field theory. The scalar field is canonically quantized and a vacuum defined in each of the particular coordinate systems chosen. The vacuum states can be regarded as adapted to the six classes of stationary motions. There are only two vacuum states found, the Minkowski vacuum in those coordinate systems without event horizons and the Fulling vacuum in those with event horizons. The responses of monopole detectors traveling along stationary world lines are calculated in both the Minkowski and Fulling vacuums. The responses for each class of motions are distinct from those for every other class. A vacuum defined by the response of a detector must therefore not be equivalent in general to a vacuum defined by canonical quantization. Quantization of the scalar field within a rotating wedge is examined. It has not been possible to construct mode functions satisfying appropriate boundary conditions on the surface of the wedge. The asymptotic form of the renormalized stress tensor near the surfaces had been calculated and is found to include momentum terms which represent a circulation of energy within the wedge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramos, J.
1987-01-01
The displacement of a wall-stabilized electric arc by a stationary transverse magnetic field is measured to different pressures of the ionized gas. The increase of the pressure makes the heat transfer function and the mass flow velocity in the arc column to raise, and it makes the arc displacement to decrease. (author)
Modeling of electron cyclotron resonance acceleration in a stationary inhomogeneous magnetic field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valeri D. Dougar-Jabon
2008-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the cyclotron autoresonance acceleration of electrons in a stationary inhomogeneous magnetic field is studied. The trajectory and energy of electrons are found through a numerical solution of the relativistic Newton-Lorentz equation by a finite difference method. The electrons move along a TE_{112} cylinder cavity in a steady-state magnetic field whose axis coincides with the cavity axis. The magnetic field profile is such that it keeps the phase difference between the electric microwave field and the electron velocity vector within the acceleration phase band. The microwaves amplitude of 6 kV/cm is used for numerical calculations. It is shown that an electron with an initial longitudinal energy of 8 keV can be accelerated up to 260 keV by 2.45 GHz microwaves at a distance of 17 cm.
Image registration using stationary velocity fields parameterized by norm-minimizing Wendland kernel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru; Sommer, Stefan Horst; Sørensen, Lauge
by the regularization term. In a variational formulation, this term is traditionally expressed as a squared norm which is a scalar inner product of the interpolating kernels parameterizing the velocity fields. The minimization of this term using the standard spline interpolation kernels (linear or cubic) is only...... approximative because of the lack of a compatible norm. In this paper, we propose to replace such interpolants with a norm-minimizing interpolant - the Wendland kernel which has the same computational simplicity like B-Splines. An application on the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative showed...... that Wendland SVF based measures separate (Alzheimer's disease v/s normal controls) better than both B-Spline SVFs (p
Effect of velocity variation on secondary-ion-emission probability: Quantum stationary approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldberg, E.C.; Ferron, J.; Passeggi, M.C.G.
1989-01-01
The ion-velocity dependence of the ionization probability for an atom ejected from a surface is examined by using a quantum approach in which the coupled motion between electrons and the outgoing nucleus is followed along the whole trajectory by solving the stationary Schroedinger equation. We choose a very-small-cluster-model system in which the motion of the atom is restricted to one dimension, and with energy potential curves corresponding to the involved channels varying appreciably with the atom position. We found an exponential dependence on the inverse of the asymptotic ion velocity for high emission energies, and a smoother behavior with slight oscillations at low energies. These results are compared with those obtained within a dynamical-trajectory approximation using either a constant velocity equal to the asymptotic ionic value, or expressions for the velocity derived from the eikonal approximation and from the classical limit of the current vector. Both approaches give similar results provided the velocity is allowed to adjust self-consistently to potential energies and transition-amplitude variations. Strong oscillations are observed in the low-emission-energy range either if the transitions are neglected, or a constant velocity along the whole path is assumed for the ejected particle
The stationary states of interacting fields
Frazer, W.R.; Hove, Léon van
1958-01-01
As an application of a time-independent perturbation formalism developed earlier for systems with many degrees of freedom, we give in terms of diagrams the general perturbation expressions for the exact stationary states of interacting fields. The physical vacuum is obtained by applying to the bare
Cherry, Erica M; Maxim, Peter G; Eaton, John K
2010-01-01
A physics-based model of a general magnetic drug targeting (MDT) system was developed with the goal of realizing the practical limitations of MDT when electromagnets are the source of the magnetic field. The simulation tracks magnetic particles subject to gravity, drag force, magnetic force, and hydrodynamic lift in specified flow fields and external magnetic field distributions. A model problem was analyzed to determine the effect of drug particle size, blood flow velocity, and magnetic field gradient strength on efficiency in holding particles stationary in a laminar Poiseuille flow modeling blood flow in a medium-sized artery. It was found that particle retention rate increased with increasing particle diameter and magnetic field gradient strength and decreased with increasing bulk flow velocity. The results suggest that MDT systems with electromagnets are unsuitable for use in small arteries because it is difficult to control particles smaller than about 20 microm in diameter.
Jamieson, E.C.; Rennie, C.D.; Jacobson, R.B.; Townsend, R.D.
2011-01-01
Detailed mapping of bathymetry and apparent bed load velocity using a boat-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was carried out along a 388-m section of the lower Missouri River near Columbia, Missouri. Sampling transects (moving boat) were completed at 5- and 20-m spacing along the study section. Stationary (fixed-boat) measurements were made by maintaining constant boat position over a target point where the position of the boat did not deviate more than 3 m in any direction. For each transect and stationary measurement, apparent bed load velocity (vb) was estimated using ADCP bottom tracking data and high precision real-time kinematic (RTK) global positioning system (GPS). The principal objectives of this research are to (1) determine whether boat motion introduces a bias in apparent bed load velocity measurements; and (2) evaluate the reliability of ADCP bed velocity measurements for a range of sediment transport environments. Results indicate that both high transport (vb>0.6 m/s) and moving-boat conditions (for both high and low transport environments) increase the relative variability in estimates of mean bed velocity. Despite this, the spatially dense single-transect measurements were capable of producing detailed bed velocity maps that correspond closely with the expected pattern of sediment transport over large dunes. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.
The Local Stellar Velocity Field via Vector Spherical Harmonics
Markarov, V. V.; Murphy, D. W.
2007-01-01
), but here we surmise its existence in the thin disk at z less than 200 pc. The most unexpected and unexplained term within the Ogorodnikov-Milne model is the first-degree magnetic harmonic, representing a rigid rotation of the stellar field about the axis -Y pointing opposite to the direction of rotation. This harmonic comes out with a statistically robust coefficient of 6.2 +/- 0.9 km s(exp -1) kpc(exp -1) and is also present in the velocity field of more distant stars. The ensuing upward vertical motion of stars in the general direction of the Galactic center and the downward motion in the anticenter direction are opposite to the vector field expected from the stationary Galactic warp model.
Acoustic Characterization of a Stationary Field Synchronous Motor
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Woodward, E
2001-01-01
.... We investigate the gross acoustic signature of a notional stationary field synchronous motor utilized as a marine propulsion motor in a naval combatant using the following methodology: (1) model the forces...
Spin in stationary gravitational fields and rotating frames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obukhov, Yuri N.; Silenko, Alexander J.; Teryaev, Oleg V.
2010-01-01
A spin motion of particles in stationary spacetimes is investigated in the framework of the classical gravity and relativistic quantum mechanics. We bring the Dirac equation for relativistic particles in nonstatic spacetimes to the Hamiltonian form and perform the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. We show the importance of the choice of tetrads for description of spin dynamics in the classical gravity. We derive classical and quantum mechanical equations of motion of the spin for relativistic particles in stationary gravitational fields and rotating frames and establish the full agreement between the classical and quantum mechanical approaches.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cremaschini, Claudio; Miller, John C.; Tessarotto, Massimo
2011-01-01
A kinetic treatment is developed for collisionless magnetized plasmas occurring in high-temperature, low-density astrophysical accretion disks, such as are thought to be present in some radiatively inefficient accretion flows onto black holes. Quasi-stationary configurations are investigated, within the framework of a Vlasov-Maxwell description. The plasma is taken to be axisymmetric and subject to the action of slowly time-varying gravitational and electromagnetic fields. The magnetic field is assumed to be characterized by a family of locally nested but open magnetic surfaces. The slow collisionless dynamics of these plasmas is investigated, yielding a reduced gyrokinetic Vlasov equation for the kinetic distribution function. For doing this, an asymptotic quasi-stationary solution is first determined, represented by a generalized bi-Maxwellian distribution expressed in terms of the relevant adiabatic invariants. The existence of the solution is shown to depend on having suitable kinetic constraints and conditions leading to particle trapping phenomena. With this solution, one can treat temperature anisotropy, toroidal and poloidal flow velocities, and finite Larmor-radius effects. An asymptotic expansion for the distribution function permits analytic evaluation of all the relevant fluid fields. Basic theoretical features of the solution and their astrophysical implications are discussed. As an application, the possibility of describing the dynamics of slowly time-varying accretion flows and the self-generation of magnetic field by means of a ''kinetic dynamo effect'' are discussed. Both effects are shown to be related to intrinsically kinetic physical mechanisms.
Stationary two-variable gravitational vortex fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koppel, A.
1974-01-01
Some properties of stationary two-variable solutions of the Einstein equations were studied on the basis of rigorous analysis of the nonrelativistic limit of the relativistic gravitation theory. For this case a particular method was developed of determining so-called vortex gravitational fields described by vortex solutions, which in the nonrelativistic limit transform from → infinity to the nonnewtonian type solutions. The main formulae for such fields are derived and a scheme for their calculation is presented. It is shown that under certain conditions the exact stationary solutions of the Papapetrou type for vacuum relativistic equations are vortical. From this fact, first, the presence of particular exact vortical solutions for the Einstein equations is proved, and secondly, a new possibility of a physical interpretation is proposed for the Papapetrou solutions. It is also shown that the nonrelativistic limit of this class of solutions strongly depends on the structure of solution parameters (under certain conditions these solutions may also have the Newtonian limit). 'Multipole' and 'one-variable' partial solutions of the Papapetrou class solution are derived as particular examples of vortical solutions. It is shown that for a specific parameter structure the known NUT solution is also vortical, since it belongs to the Papapetrou class [ru
Lr-Lp Stability of the Incompressible Flows with Nonzero Far-Field Velocity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaiok Roh
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the stability of stationary solutions w for the exterior Navier-Stokes flows with a nonzero constant velocity u∞ at infinity. For u∞=0 with nonzero stationary solution w, Chen (1993, Kozono and Ogawa (1994, and Borchers and Miyakawa (1995 have studied the temporal stability in Lp spaces for 11 and obtain Lr-Lp stability as Kozono and Ogawa and Borchers and Miyakawa obtained for u∞=0.
Two Numerical Approaches to Stationary Mean-Field Games
Almulla, Noha; Ferreira, Rita; Gomes, Diogo A.
2016-01-01
Here, we consider numerical methods for stationary mean-field games (MFG) and investigate two classes of algorithms. The first one is a gradient-flow method based on the variational characterization of certain MFG. The second one uses monotonicity properties of MFG. We illustrate our methods with various examples, including one-dimensional periodic MFG, congestion problems, and higher-dimensional models.
Two Numerical Approaches to Stationary Mean-Field Games
Almulla, Noha
2016-10-04
Here, we consider numerical methods for stationary mean-field games (MFG) and investigate two classes of algorithms. The first one is a gradient-flow method based on the variational characterization of certain MFG. The second one uses monotonicity properties of MFG. We illustrate our methods with various examples, including one-dimensional periodic MFG, congestion problems, and higher-dimensional models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogawa, Takeshi; Kayano, Mitsunaga; Kikuchi, Hideo; Abe, Takeo; Saga, Kyoji
1995-01-01
In Environmental Radioactivity Research Institute, the verification and investigation of the wind velocity field forecast model 'EXPRESS-1' have been carried out since 1991. In fiscal year 1994, as the general analysis, the validity of weather observation data, the local features of wind field, and the validity of the positions of monitoring stations were investigated. The EXPRESS which adopted 500 m mesh so far was improved to 250 m mesh, and the heightening of forecast accuracy was examined, and the comparison with another wind velocity field forecast model 'SPEEDI' was carried out. As the results, there are the places where the correlation with other points of measurement is high and low, and it was found that for the forecast of wind velocity field, by excluding the data of the points with low correlation or installing simplified observation stations to take their data in, the forecast accuracy is improved. The outline of the investigation, the general analysis of weather observation data and the improvements of wind velocity field forecast model and forecast accuracy are reported. (K.I.)
Concentration field in traveling-wave and stationary convection in fluid mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eaton, K.D.; Ohlsen, D.R.; Yamamoto, S.Y.; Surko, C.M.; Barten, W.; Luecke, M.; Kamps, M.; Kolodner, P.
1991-01-01
By comparison of measurements of shadowgraph images of convection in ethanol-water mixtures with the results of recent numerical calculations, we study the role of the concentration field in traveling-wave and stationary convection. The results confirm the existence of a large concentration contrast between adjacent traveling-wave convection rolls. This concentration modulation, which decreases as the Rayleigh number is increased and the transition to stationary convection is approached, is fundamental to the translation of the pattern
On the Existence of Solutions for Stationary Mean-Field Games with Congestion
Evangelista, David; Gomes, Diogo A.
2017-01-01
Mean-field games (MFGs) are models of large populations of rational agents who seek to optimize an objective function that takes into account their location and the distribution of the remaining agents. Here, we consider stationary MFGs with congestion and prove the existence of stationary solutions. Because moving in congested areas is difficult, agents prefer to move in non-congested areas. As a consequence, the model becomes singular near the zero density. The existence of stationary solutions was previously obtained for MFGs with quadratic Hamiltonians thanks to a very particular identity. Here, we develop robust estimates that give the existence of a solution for general subquadratic Hamiltonians.
On the Existence of Solutions for Stationary Mean-Field Games with Congestion
Evangelista, David
2017-09-11
Mean-field games (MFGs) are models of large populations of rational agents who seek to optimize an objective function that takes into account their location and the distribution of the remaining agents. Here, we consider stationary MFGs with congestion and prove the existence of stationary solutions. Because moving in congested areas is difficult, agents prefer to move in non-congested areas. As a consequence, the model becomes singular near the zero density. The existence of stationary solutions was previously obtained for MFGs with quadratic Hamiltonians thanks to a very particular identity. Here, we develop robust estimates that give the existence of a solution for general subquadratic Hamiltonians.
Stability of Bifurcating Stationary Solutions of the Artificial Compressible System
Teramoto, Yuka
2018-02-01
The artificial compressible system gives a compressible approximation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes system. The latter system is obtained from the former one in the zero limit of the artificial Mach number ɛ which is a singular limit. The sets of stationary solutions of both systems coincide with each other. It is known that if a stationary solution of the incompressible system is asymptotically stable and the velocity field of the stationary solution satisfies an energy-type stability criterion, then it is also stable as a solution of the artificial compressible one for sufficiently small ɛ . In general, the range of ɛ shrinks when the spectrum of the linearized operator for the incompressible system approaches to the imaginary axis. This can happen when a stationary bifurcation occurs. It is proved that when a stationary bifurcation from a simple eigenvalue occurs, the range of ɛ can be taken uniformly near the bifurcation point to conclude the stability of the bifurcating solution as a solution of the artificial compressible system.
Neutron stars velocities and magnetic fields
Paret, Daryel Manreza; Martinez, A. Perez; Ayala, Alejandro.; Piccinelli, G.; Sanchez, A.
2018-01-01
We study a model that explain neutron stars velocities due to the anisotropic emission of neutrinos. Strong magnetic fields present in neutron stars are the source of the anisotropy in the system. To compute the velocity of the neutron star we model its core as composed by strange quark matter and analice the properties of a magnetized quark gas at finite temperature and density. Specifically we have obtained the electron polarization and the specific heat of magnetized fermions as a functions of the temperature, chemical potential and magnetic field which allow us to study the velocity of the neutron star as a function of these parameters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)
2017-12-15
It has recently been demonstrated that asymptotically flat neutral reflecting stars are characterized by an intriguing no-hair property. In particular, it has been proved that these horizonless compact objects cannot support spatially regular static matter configurations made of scalar (spin-0) fields, vector (spin-1) fields and tensor (spin-2) fields. In the present paper we shall explicitly prove that spherically symmetric compact reflecting stars can support stationary (rather than static) bound-state massive scalar fields in their exterior spacetime regions. To this end, we solve analytically the Klein-Gordon wave equation for a linearized scalar field of mass μ and proper frequency ω in the curved background of a spherically symmetric compact reflecting star of mass M and radius R{sub s}. It is proved that the regime of existence of these stationary composed star-field configurations is characterized by the simple inequalities 1 - 2M/R{sub s} < (ω/μ){sup 2} < 1. Interestingly, in the regime M/R{sub s} << 1 of weakly self-gravitating stars we derive a remarkably compact analytical equation for the discrete spectrum {ω(M,R_s, μ)}{sup n=∞}{sub n=1} of resonant oscillation frequencies which characterize the stationary composed compact-reflecting-star-linearized-massive-scalar-field configurations. Finally, we verify the accuracy of the analytically derived resonance formula of the composed star-field configurations with direct numerical computations. (orig.)
Existence for stationary mean-field games with congestion and quadratic Hamiltonians
Gomes, Diogo A.; Mitake, Hiroyoshi
2015-01-01
Here, we investigate the existence of solutions to a stationary mean-field game model introduced by J.-M. Lasry and P.-L. Lions. This model features a quadratic Hamiltonian and congestion effects. The fundamental difficulty of potential singular
Dilution and Mixing in transient velocity fields: a first-order analysis
Di Dato, Mariaines; de Barros, Felipe, P. J.; Fiori, Aldo; Bellin, Alberto
2017-04-01
An appealing remediation technique is in situ oxidation, which effectiveness is hampered by difficulties in obtaining good mixing of the injected oxidant with the contaminant, particularly when the contaminant plume is contained and therefore its deformation is physically constrained. Under such conditions (i.e. containment), mixing may be augmented by inducing temporal fluctuations of the velocity field. The temporal variability of the flow field may increase the deformation of the plume such that diffusive mass flux becomes more effective. A transient periodic velocity field can be obtained by an engineered sequence of injections and extractions from wells, which may serve also as a hydraulic barrier to confine the plume. Assessing the effectiveness of periodic flows to maximize solute mixing is a difficult task given the need to use a 3D setup and the large number of possible flow configurations that should be analyzed in order to identify the optimal one. This is the typical situation in which analytical solutions, though approximated, may assist modelers in screening possible alternative flow configurations such that solute dilution is maximized. To quantify dilution (i.e. a precondition that enables reactive mixing) we utilize the concept of the dilution index [1]. In this presentation, the periodic flow takes place in an aquifer with spatially variable hydraulic conductivity field which is modeled as a Stationary Spatial Random Function. We developed a novel first-order analytical solution of the dilution index under the hypothesis that the flow can be approximated as a sequence of steady state configurations with the mean velocity changing with time in intensity and direction. This is equivalent to assume that the characteristic time of the transient behavior is small compared to the period characterizing the change in time of the mean velocity. A few closed paths have been analyzed quantifying their effectiveness in enhancing dilution and thereby mixing
On quantization of free fields in stationary space-times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreno, C.
1977-01-01
In Section 1 the structure of the infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian system described by the Klein-Gordon equation (free real scalar field) in stationary space-times with closed space sections, is analysed, an existence and uniqueness theorem is given for the Lichnerowicz distribution kernel G 1 together with its proper Fourier expansion, and the Hilbert spaces of frequency-part solutions defined by means of G 1 are constructed. In Section 2 an analysis, a theorem and a construction similar to the above are formulated for the free real field spin 1, mass m>0, in one kind of static space-times. (Auth.)
Near-field Oblique Remote Sensing of Stream Water-surface Elevation, Slope, and Surface Velocity
Minear, J. T.; Kinzel, P. J.; Nelson, J. M.; McDonald, R.; Wright, S. A.
2014-12-01
A major challenge for estimating discharges during flood events or in steep channels is the difficulty and hazard inherent in obtaining in-stream measurements. One possible solution is to use near-field remote sensing to obtain simultaneous water-surface elevations, slope, and surface velocities. In this test case, we utilized Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) to remotely measure water-surface elevations and slope in combination with surface velocities estimated from particle image velocimetry (PIV) obtained by video-camera and/or infrared camera. We tested this method at several sites in New Mexico and Colorado using independent validation data consisting of in-channel measurements from survey-grade GPS and Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) instruments. Preliminary results indicate that for relatively turbid or steep streams, TLS collects tens of thousands of water-surface elevations and slopes in minutes, much faster than conventional means and at relatively high precision, at least as good as continuous survey-grade GPS measurements. Estimated surface velocities from this technique are within 15% of measured velocity magnitudes and within 10 degrees from the measured velocity direction (using extrapolation from the shallowest bin of the ADCP measurements). Accurately aligning the PIV results into Cartesian coordinates appears to be one of the main sources of error, primarily due to the sensitivity at these shallow oblique look angles and the low numbers of stationary objects for rectification. Combining remotely-sensed water-surface elevations, slope, and surface velocities produces simultaneous velocity measurements from a large number of locations in the channel and is more spatially extensive than traditional velocity measurements. These factors make this technique useful for improving estimates of flow measurements during flood flows and in steep channels while also decreasing the difficulty and hazard associated with making measurements in these
Condensational theory of stationary tornadoes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makarieva, A.M.; Gorshkov, V.G.; Nefiodov, A.V.
2011-01-01
Using the Bernoulli integral for air streamline with condensing water vapor a stationary axisymmetric tornado circulation is described. The obtained profiles of vertical, radial and tangential velocities are in agreement with observations for the Mulhall tornado, world's largest on record and longest-lived among the three tornadoes for which 3D velocity data are available. Maximum possible vortex velocities are estimated. -- Highlights: → Water vapor condensation causes a logarithmic drop of air pressure towards tornado center. → The first ever theoretical description of tornado velocities is obtained. → The maximum vortex velocity grows logarithmically with decreasing tornado eye radius. → Air motion with high velocities can only develop in sufficiently large condensation areas.
Convergence to stationary solutions for a parabolic-hyperbolic phase-field system
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Grasselli, M.; Petzeltová, Hana; Schimperna, G.
2006-01-01
Roč. 5, č. 4 (2006), s. 827-838 ISSN 1534-0392 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1019302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : phase-field models * convergence to stationary solutions * Łojasiewicz-Simon inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.857, year: 2006
POLARIZED LINE FORMATION IN NON-MONOTONIC VELOCITY FIELDS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N., E-mail: sampoorna@iiap.res.in, E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bengaluru 560034 (India)
2016-12-10
For a correct interpretation of the observed spectro-polarimetric data from astrophysical objects such as the Sun, it is necessary to solve the polarized line transfer problems taking into account a realistic temperature structure, the dynamical state of the atmosphere, a realistic scattering mechanism (namely, the partial frequency redistribution—PRD), and the magnetic fields. In a recent paper, we studied the effects of monotonic vertical velocity fields on linearly polarized line profiles formed in isothermal atmospheres with and without magnetic fields. However, in general the velocity fields that prevail in dynamical atmospheres of astrophysical objects are non-monotonic. Stellar atmospheres with shocks, multi-component supernova atmospheres, and various kinds of wave motions in solar and stellar atmospheres are examples of non-monotonic velocity fields. Here we present studies on the effect of non-relativistic non-monotonic vertical velocity fields on the linearly polarized line profiles formed in semi-empirical atmospheres. We consider a two-level atom model and PRD scattering mechanism. We solve the polarized transfer equation in the comoving frame (CMF) of the fluid using a polarized accelerated lambda iteration method that has been appropriately modified for the problem at hand. We present numerical tests to validate the CMF method and also discuss the accuracy and numerical instabilities associated with it.
First-order, stationary mean-field games with congestion
Evangelista, David
2018-04-30
Mean-field games (MFGs) are models for large populations of competing rational agents that seek to optimize a suitable functional. In the case of congestion, this functional takes into account the difficulty of moving in high-density areas. Here, we study stationary MFGs with congestion with quadratic or power-like Hamiltonians. First, using explicit examples, we illustrate two main difficulties: the lack of classical solutions and the existence of areas with vanishing densities. Our main contribution is a new variational formulation for MFGs with congestion. With this formulation, we prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions. Finally, we consider applications to numerical methods.
First-order, stationary mean-field games with congestion
Evangelista, David; Ferreira, Rita; Gomes, Diogo A.; Nurbekyan, Levon; Voskanyan, Vardan K.
2018-01-01
Mean-field games (MFGs) are models for large populations of competing rational agents that seek to optimize a suitable functional. In the case of congestion, this functional takes into account the difficulty of moving in high-density areas. Here, we study stationary MFGs with congestion with quadratic or power-like Hamiltonians. First, using explicit examples, we illustrate two main difficulties: the lack of classical solutions and the existence of areas with vanishing densities. Our main contribution is a new variational formulation for MFGs with congestion. With this formulation, we prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions. Finally, we consider applications to numerical methods.
Bao, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Yan; Cui, Cui-Li; Meng, Shao-Ying; Fang, You-Wei; Tian, Xue-Dong
2018-04-01
We propose an efficient scheme for generating and controlling beating stationary light pulses in a five-level atomic sample driven into electromagnetically induced transparency condition. This scheme relies on an asymmetrical procedure of light storage and retrieval tuned by two counter-propagating control fields where an additional coupling field, such as the microwave field, is introduced in the retrieval stage. A quantum probe field, incident upon such an atomic sample, is first transformed into spin coherence excitation of the atoms and then retrieved as beating stationary light pulses exhibiting a series of maxima and minima in intensity due to the alternative constructive and destructive interference. It is convenient to control the beating stationary light pulses just by manipulating the intensity and detuning of the additional microwave field. This interesting phenomenon involves in fact the coherent manipulation of dark-state polaritons and could be explored to achieve the efficient temporal splitting of stationary light pulses and accurate measurement of the microwave intensity.
Study of the stability of the stationary wave of nuclear fission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khotyanintsev, V.N.; Aksenov, A.V.; Khotyanintseva, E.N.; Pavlovich, V.N.
2014-01-01
Stability of the stationary wave of nuclear burning in fast reactor with uranium-plutonium fuel chain is investigated. The reactor model including 1-D diffusion equation in one-group approximation for neutron flux density and kinetic equations for nuclear densities describes slow evolution of nuclear densities followed by neutron flux. New analytical approach was proposed, which is based on the approximation of small wave velocity of the stationary wave. We obtain so-called wave velocity characteristic of the reactor which is the dependence of wave velocity to the effective absorber concentration. We show that due to instability of long-living 241 Pu a turning point and lower branch of stationary solutions appear. Numerical solution of the time dependent problem proves that the solutions of the lower branch are unstable. Thus, the turning point of the velocity characteristic corresponds to the lower margin of possible wave velocities of nuclear fission waves of the steady shape. At the same time the solutions of the upper branch are stable with respect to slow evolution of nuclear densities
Quasi-Stationary Temperature Field of Two-Layer Half-Space with Moving Boundary
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. A. Vlasov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Due to intensive introduction of mathematical modeling methods into engineering practice, analytical methods for solving problems of heat conduction theory along with computational methods become increasingly important. Despite the well-known limitations of the analytical method applicability, this trend is caused by many reasons. In particular, solutions of the appropriate problems presented in analytically closed form can be used to test the new efficient computational algorithms, to carry out a parametric study of the temperature field of the analyzed system and to explore specific features of its formation, to formulate and solve optimization problems. In addition, these solutions allow us to explore the possibility for simplifying mathematical model with retaining its adequacy to the studied process.The main goal of the conducted research is to provide an analytically closed-form solution to the problem of finding the quasi-stationary temperature field of the system, which is simulated by isotropic half-space with isotropic coating of constant thickness. The outer boundary of this system is exposed to the Gaussian-type heat flux and uniformly moves in parallel with itself.A two-dimensional mathematical model that takes into account the axial symmetry of the studied process has been used. After the transition to a moving coordinate system rigidly associated with a moving boundary the Hankel integral transform of zero order (with respect to the radial variable and the Laplace transform (with respect to the temporal variable were used. Next, the image of the Hankel transform for the stationary temperature field of the system with respect to the moving coordinate system was found using a limit theorem of operational calculus. This allowed representing the required quasi-stationary field in the form of an improper integral of the first kind, which depends on the parameters. This result obtained can be used to conduct a parametric study and solve
Variational multi-valued velocity field estimation for transparent sequences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramírez-Manzanares, Alonso; Rivera, Mariano; Kornprobst, Pierre
2011-01-01
Motion estimation in sequences with transparencies is an important problem in robotics and medical imaging applications. In this work we propose a variational approach for estimating multi-valued velocity fields in transparent sequences. Starting from existing local motion estimators, we derive...... a variational model for integrating in space and time such a local information in order to obtain a robust estimation of the multi-valued velocity field. With this approach, we can indeed estimate multi-valued velocity fields which are not necessarily piecewise constant on a layer –each layer can evolve...
Jovian cloud structure and velocity fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitchell, J.L.; Terrile, R.J.; Collins, S.A.; Smith, B.A.; Muller, J.P.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Hunt, G.E.; Beebe, R.F.
1979-01-01
A regional comparison of the cloud structures and velocity fields (meridional as well as zonal velocities) in the jovian atmosphere (scales > 200 km) as observed by the Voyager 1 imaging system is given. It is shown that although both hemispheres of Jupiter show similar patterns of diminishing and alternating eastward and westward jets as one progresses polewards, there is a pronounced asymmetry in the structural appearance of the two hemispheres. (UK)
Explicit solutions of one-dimensional, first-order, stationary mean-field games with congestion
Gomes, Diogo A.; Nurbekyan, Levon; Prazeres, Mariana
2017-01-01
Here, we consider one-dimensional first-order stationary mean-field games with congestion. These games arise when crowds face difficulty moving in high-density regions. We look at both monotone decreasing and increasing interactions and construct
Stationary vacuum fields with a conformally flat three-space Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukacs, B.; Perjes, Z.; Sebestyen, A.; Sparling, G.A.J.
1982-01-01
A generalized notion of conformastat space-times is introduced in relativity theory. In this sense, the conformastat space-time is stationary with the three-space of time-like Killing trajectories being conformally flat. A 3+1 decomposition of the field equations is given, and two classes of nonstatic conformastat vacuum fields are exhaustively investigated. The resulting three metrics form a NUT-type extension of the solution of the static conformastat vacuum problem. The authors conjecture that all conformastat vacuum space-times are axially symmetric. (author)
Calculation of stationary plasma parameters in an electromagnetic trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karpukhin, V.I.; Lavrent'ev, O.A.; Sappa, N.N.
1978-01-01
The model of energy and particle balance is considered and the numerical calculations for stationary plasma parameters, supported by the electron injection, are obtained for a hypothetical electromagnetic trap with linear dimensions, magnetic field strength and energy contribution to plasma of the order of these parameters for the modern tokamak-type traps. The process of limitation of an effective injection current and energy contribution to plasma caused by returning of electrons to the injector due to diffusion in the velocity space is simulated. In approximation of a classical diffusion dependences are obtained of the effective energy contribution to plasma and of the parameters ntausub(E) and Tsub(i) (n is a plasma density; tausub(E)- energetic lifetime; Tsub(i) ion temperature) on electron injection current and power and on the confining magnetic field strength. It had been established that at classical character of diffusion in electromagnetic trap with above parameters one could obtain stationary plasma with ntausub(E)=10 12 cm -3 s and Tsub(i)=1keV, maintaining only by electron injection
Flow field investigations in rotating facilities by means of stationary PIV systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armellini, A; Mucignat, C; Casarsa, L; Giannattasio, P
2012-01-01
The flow field inside rotating test sections can be investigated by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV) operated in the phase-locked mode. With this experimental approach, the measurement system is kept fixed and it is synchronized with the periodical passage of the test section. Therefore, the direct output of the PIV measurements is the absolute velocity field, while the relative one is indirectly obtained from proper data processing that relies on accurate knowledge of the peripheral velocity field. This work provides an uncertainty analysis about the evaluation of the peripheral displacement field in phase-locked PIV measurements. The analysis leads to the detection of the levels of accuracy required in the estimation of both the angular velocity and the position of the center of rotation to ensure correct evaluation of the peripheral displacement field. In this regard, a simple methodology is proposed to evaluate the center of rotation position with an accuracy below 1 px. Finally, a procedure to pre-process the PIV images by subtracting the peripheral displacement is described. The advantages of its implementation are highlighted by the comparison with the performance of a more standard methodology where the peripheral field is subtracted from the absolute velocity field and not directly from the PIV raw data
Linear simulation of the stationary eddies in a GCM. II - The 'Mountain' model
Nigam, Sumant; Held, Isaac M.; Lyons, Steven W.
1988-01-01
Linear stationary wave theory is used to account for zonal asymmetries of the winter-averaged tropospheric circulation obtained in a GCM. The eddy zonal velocity field in the upper troposphere indicates that the orographic and thermal plus transient contributions are nearly equal in amplitude, while the eddy meridional velocity field (which is dominated by shorter zonal scales) shows the orographic contribution to be dominant. The two contributions are found to be roughly in phase over the east Asian coast, and they contribute roughly equal amounts to the low level Siberian high. Results indicate that the 300 mb extratropical response to tropical forcing reaches 50 gpm over Alaska, and that the responses to sensible heating and lower tropospheric transients are strongly anticorrelated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zentner, I. [IMSIA, UMR EDF-ENSTA-CNRS-CEA 9219, Université Paris-Saclay, 828 Boulevard des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Ferré, G., E-mail: gregoire.ferre@ponts.org [CERMICS – Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, 6 et 8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, Champs sur Marne, 77455 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); Poirion, F. [Department of Structural Dynamics and Aeroelasticity, ONERA, BP 72, 29 avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92322 Chatillon Cedex (France); Benoit, M. [Institut de Recherche sur les Phénomènes Hors Equilibre (IRPHE), UMR 7342 (CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, Ecole Centrale Marseille), 49 rue Frédéric Joliot-Curie, BP 146, 13384 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)
2016-06-01
In this paper, a new method for the identification and simulation of non-Gaussian and non-stationary stochastic fields given a database is proposed. It is based on two successive biorthogonal decompositions aiming at representing spatio–temporal stochastic fields. The proposed double expansion allows to build the model even in the case of large-size problems by separating the time, space and random parts of the field. A Gaussian kernel estimator is used to simulate the high dimensional set of random variables appearing in the decomposition. The capability of the method to reproduce the non-stationary and non-Gaussian features of random phenomena is illustrated by applications to earthquakes (seismic ground motion) and sea states (wave heights).
Magnetic fields, velocity fields and brightness in the central region of the Solar disk
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsap, T T
1978-01-01
The longitudinal magnetic fields, velocity fields and brightness at the center of the Solar disk are studied. Observations of the magnetic field, line-of-sight velocities and brightness have been made with the doublemagnetograph of the Crimean astrophysical observatory. It is found that the average magnetic field strength recorded in the iron line lambda 5233 A is 18 Gs for the elements of N-polarity and 23 Gs for the elements of S-polarity. The magnetic elements with the field strength more than 200 Gs are observed in some of the cases. There is a close correlation between the magnetic field distribution in the lambda 5250 A FeI and D/sub 1/ Na I lines and between the magnetic field in the lambda 5250 A and brightness in the K/sub 3/CaII line. The dimensions of the magnetic elements in the lambda and D/sub 1/NaI lines are equal. The comparison of the magnetic field with the radial velocity recorded in the lambda 5250 and 5233 A lines has shown that radial velocities are close to zero in the regions of maximum longitudinal magnetic field. The chromospheric network-like pattern is observed in the brightness distribution of ten different spectral lines.
A Unified Geodetic Vertical Velocity Field (UGVVF), Version 1.0
Schmalzle, G.; Wdowinski, S.
2014-12-01
Tectonic motion, volcanic inflation or deflation, as well as oil, gas and water pumping can induce vertical motion. In southern California these signals are inter-mingled. In tectonics, properly identifying regions that are contaminated by other signals can be important when estimating fault slip rates. Until recently vertical deformation rates determined by high precision Global Positioning Systems (GPS) had large uncertainties compared to horizontal components and were rarely used to constrain tectonic models of fault motion. However, many continuously occupied GPS stations have been operating for ten or more years, often delivering uncertainties of ~1 mm/yr or less, providing better constraints for tectonic modeling. Various processing centers produced GPS time series and estimated vertical velocity fields, each with their own set of processing techniques and assumptions. We compare vertical velocity solutions estimated by seven data processing groups as well as two combined solutions (Figure 1). These groups include: Central Washington University (CWU) and New Mexico Institute of Technology (NMT), and their combined solution provided by the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) through the UNAVCO website. Also compared are the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC) and their combined solution provided as part of the NASA MEaSUREs project. Smaller velocity fields included are from Amos et al., 2014, processed at the Nevada Geodetic Laboratory, Shen et al., 2011, processed by UCLA and called the Crustal Motion Map 4.0 (CMM4) dataset, and a new velocity field provided by the University of Miami (UM). Our analysis includes estimating and correcting for systematic vertical velocity and uncertainty differences between groups. Our final product is a unified velocity field that contains the median values of the adjusted velocity fields and their uncertainties. This product will be periodically updated when new velocity fields
Velocity field calculation for non-orthogonal numerical grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2015-03-01
Computational grids containing cell faces that do not align with an orthogonal (e.g. Cartesian, cylindrical) coordinate system are routinely encountered in porous-medium numerical simulations. Such grids are referred to in this study as non-orthogonal grids because some cell faces are not orthogonal to a coordinate system plane (e.g. xy, yz or xz plane in Cartesian coordinates). Non-orthogonal grids are routinely encountered at the Savannah River Site in porous-medium flow simulations for Performance Assessments and groundwater flow modeling. Examples include grid lines that conform to the sloping roof of a waste tank or disposal unit in a 2D Performance Assessment simulation, and grid surfaces that conform to undulating stratigraphic surfaces in a 3D groundwater flow model. Particle tracking is routinely performed after a porous-medium numerical flow simulation to better understand the dynamics of the flow field and/or as an approximate indication of the trajectory and timing of advective solute transport. Particle tracks are computed by integrating the velocity field from cell to cell starting from designated seed (starting) positions. An accurate velocity field is required to attain accurate particle tracks. However, many numerical simulation codes report only the volumetric flowrate (e.g. PORFLOW) and/or flux (flowrate divided by area) crossing cell faces. For an orthogonal grid, the normal flux at a cell face is a component of the Darcy velocity vector in the coordinate system, and the pore velocity for particle tracking is attained by dividing by water content. For a non-orthogonal grid, the flux normal to a cell face that lies outside a coordinate plane is not a true component of velocity with respect to the coordinate system. Nonetheless, normal fluxes are often taken as Darcy velocity components, either naively or with accepted approximation. To enable accurate particle tracking or otherwise present an accurate depiction of the velocity field for a non
Stationary quenching wave in magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alikhanov, S.G.; Glushkov, I.S.
1976-01-01
The interaction of a magnetized hot plasma (ωsub(e)tau sub(e)>>1) with cold plasma or a gas leads to the appearanci of a cooling wave. The transition layer between hot and cold plasma is the main source of radiation losses which should be compensated by a heat flow from the hot region. A stationary state is considered, equations are written in the system in which temperature and magnetic field profiles are steady, and the plasma flux with magnetic field passes through the cooling wave. Calculations, have been carried out on a computer. The dependence of the magnetized plasma flux velocity Vsub(r) on the ratio p/Hsub(r) is shown, where p is the pressure, Hsub(r) is the magnetic field in the hot reqion. The dependence of the characteristic dimension of the cooling wave on the magnetic field is determined for the hot plasma region. A considerable fraction of the rediation losses is shown to fall to the region of (ωsub(e)tausub(e)< or approximately)1
Existence for stationary mean-field games with congestion and quadratic Hamiltonians
Gomes, Diogo A.
2015-09-03
Here, we investigate the existence of solutions to a stationary mean-field game model introduced by J.-M. Lasry and P.-L. Lions. This model features a quadratic Hamiltonian and congestion effects. The fundamental difficulty of potential singular behavior is caused by congestion. Thanks to a new class of a priori bounds, combined with the continuation method, we prove the existence of smooth solutions in arbitrary dimensions. © 2015 Springer Basel
Bi, Chuan-Xing; Geng, Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Zheng
2016-05-01
In the sound field with multiple non-stationary sources, the measured pressure is the sum of the pressures generated by all sources, and thus cannot be used directly for studying the vibration and sound radiation characteristics of every source alone. This paper proposes a separation model based on the interpolated time-domain equivalent source method (ITDESM) to separate the pressure field belonging to every source from the non-stationary multi-source sound field. In the proposed method, ITDESM is first extended to establish the relationship between the mixed time-dependent pressure and all the equivalent sources distributed on every source with known location and geometry information, and all the equivalent source strengths at each time step are solved by an iterative solving process; then, the corresponding equivalent source strengths of one interested source are used to calculate the pressure field generated by that source alone. Numerical simulation of two baffled circular pistons demonstrates that the proposed method can be effective in separating the non-stationary pressure generated by every source alone in both time and space domains. An experiment with two speakers in a semi-anechoic chamber further evidences the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Magnetic field dependence of ultrasound velocity in high-Tc superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Higgins, M.J.; Goshorn, D.P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Johnston, D.C.
1989-01-01
The magnetic field dependence of ultrasound velocity in the superconductor La 1.8 Sr 0.2 CuO 4-y is studied. The sound velocity anomaly near T c is shown to be unambiguously related to superconductivity. Below T c , the sound velocity is found to be sensitive to the dynamics of a pinned flux lattice. A combination of sound velocity and magnetization measurements suggests three regimes of pinning behavior. A generic pinning ''phase diagram'' is obtained in the superconducting state. An anomalous peak effect in the magnetization is also observed at intermediate field strengths
Therapy by stationary photon fields from a 42 MeV betatron using wedge filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wicke, L.; Kaercher, K.H.; Naesiger, H.; Prokosch, E.; Vienna Univ.
1975-01-01
The dose distribution in photon beams from a 42 MeV betatron using wedge filters of lead with different angles of slope is described. The wedge coefficient to be considered at a field size of 10 x 10 cm is given. The scope for isodoses modified by wedge filters is discussed with regard to stationary-field photon therapy. (orig.) [de
Patch near field acoustic holography based on particle velocity measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Yong-Bin; Jacobsen, Finn; Bi, Chuan-Xing
2009-01-01
Patch near field acoustic holography (PNAH) based on sound pressure measurements makes it possible to reconstruct the source field near a source by measuring the sound pressure at positions on a surface. that is comparable in size to the source region of concern. Particle velocity is an alternative...... examines the use of particle velocity as the input of PNAH. Because the particle velocity decays faster toward the edges of the measurement aperture than the pressure does and because the wave number ratio that enters into the inverse propagator from pressure to velocity amplifies high spatial frequencies...
Stone Stability under Stationary Nonuniform Flows
Steenstra, Remco; Hofland, B.; Paarlberg, Andries; Smale, Alfons; Huthoff, Fredrik; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.
2016-01-01
A stability parameter for rock in bed protections under nonuniform stationary flow is derived. The influence of the mean flow velocity, turbulence, and mean acceleration of the flow are included explicitly in the parameter. The relatively new notion of explicitly incorporating the mean acceleration
The velocity field induced by a helical vortex tube
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fukumoto, Y.; Okulov, Valery
2005-01-01
The influence of finite-core thickness on the velocity field around a vortex tube is addressed. An asymptotic expansion of the Biot-Savart law is made to a higher order in a small parameter, the ratio of core radius to curvature radius, which consists of the velocity field due to lines of monopoles...... and dipoles arranged on the centerline of the tube. The former is associated with an infinitely thin core and is featured by the circulation alone. The distribution of vorticity in the core reflects on the strength of dipole. This result is applied to a helical vortex tube, and the induced velocity due...
Three-Dimensional Velocity Field De-Noising using Modal Projection
Frank, Sarah; Ameli, Siavash; Szeri, Andrew; Shadden, Shawn
2017-11-01
PCMRI and Doppler ultrasound are common modalities for imaging velocity fields inside the body (e.g. blood, air, etc) and PCMRI is increasingly being used for other fluid mechanics applications where optical imaging is difficult. This type of imaging is typically applied to internal flows, which are strongly influenced by domain geometry. While these technologies are evolving, it remains that measured data is noisy and boundary layers are poorly resolved. We have developed a boundary modal analysis method to de-noise 3D velocity fields such that the resulting field is divergence-free and satisfies no-slip/no-penetration boundary conditions. First, two sets of divergence-free modes are computed based on domain geometry. The first set accounts for flow through ``truncation boundaries'', and the second set of modes has no-slip/no-penetration conditions imposed on all boundaries. The modes are calculated by minimizing the velocity gradient throughout the domain while enforcing a divergence-free condition. The measured velocity field is then projected onto these modes using a least squares algorithm. This method is demonstrated on CFD simulations with artificial noise. Different degrees of noise and different numbers of modes are tested to reveal the capabilities of the approach. American Heart Association Award 17PRE33660202.
Linear velocity fields in non-Gaussian models for large-scale structure
Scherrer, Robert J.
1992-01-01
Linear velocity fields in two types of physically motivated non-Gaussian models are examined for large-scale structure: seed models, in which the density field is a convolution of a density profile with a distribution of points, and local non-Gaussian fields, derived from a local nonlinear transformation on a Gaussian field. The distribution of a single component of the velocity is derived for seed models with randomly distributed seeds, and these results are applied to the seeded hot dark matter model and the global texture model with cold dark matter. An expression for the distribution of a single component of the velocity in arbitrary local non-Gaussian models is given, and these results are applied to such fields with chi-squared and lognormal distributions. It is shown that all seed models with randomly distributed seeds and all local non-Guassian models have single-component velocity distributions with positive kurtosis.
Transient state of electron transport in semiconductors: over velocity and ballistic effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laval, S.
1984-01-01
As the dimensions of the active regions of electronic components are reduced, transient effects must be considered when electrons encounter a high electric field gradient. The electron velocity can overshoot its stationary value over a few tenths of a micron and during about one picosecond. This has been observed experimentally and permits to forecast new ultrafast electronic devices [fr
A stochastic differential equation framework for the turbulent velocity field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Schmiegel, Jürgen
We discuss a stochastic differential equation, as a modelling framework for the turbulent velocity field, that is capable of capturing basic stylized facts of the statistics of velocity increments. In particular, we focus on the evolution of the probability density of velocity increments...
A unique Fock quantization for fields in non-stationary spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cortez, Jerónimo; Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M.
2010-01-01
In curved spacetimes, the lack of criteria for the construction of a unique quantization is a fundamental problem undermining the significance of the predictions of quantum field theory. Inequivalent quantizations lead to different physics. Recently, however, some uniqueness results have been obtained for fields in non-stationary settings. In particular, for vacua that are invariant under the background symmetries, a unitary implementation of the classical evolution suffices to pick up a unique Fock quantization in the case of Klein-Gordon fields with time-dependent mass, propagating in a static spacetime whose spatial sections are three-spheres. In fact, the field equation can be reinterpreted as describing the propagation in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime after a suitable scaling of the field by a function of time. For this class of fields, we prove here an even stronger result about the Fock quantization: the uniqueness persists when one allows for linear time-dependent transformations of the field in order to account for a scaling by background functions. In total, paying attention to the dynamics, there exists a preferred choice of quantum field, and only one SO(4)-invariant Fock representation for it that respects the standard probabilistic interpretation along the evolution. The result has relevant implications e.g. in cosmology
The Simon and Simon-Mars tensors for stationary Einstein-Maxwell fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bini, Donato; Cherubini, Christian; Jantzen, Robert T; Miniutti, Giovanni
2004-01-01
Modulo conventional scale factors, the Simon and Simon-Mars tensors are defined for stationary vacuum spacetimes so that their equality follows from the Bianchi identities of the second kind. In the nonvacuum case one can absorb additional source terms into a redefinition of the Simon tensor so that this equality is maintained. Among the electrovacuum class of solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, the expression for the Simon tensor in the Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT spacetime in terms of the Ernst potential is formally the same as in the vacuum case (modulo a scale factor), and its vanishing guarantees the simultaneous alignment of the principal null directions of the Weyl tensor, the Papapetrou field associated with the timelike Killing vector field, the electromagnetic field of the spacetime and even the Killing-Yano tensor
Expansion of a stochastic stationary optical field at a fixed point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez-Herrero, R.; Mejias, P.M.
1984-01-01
An important problem in single and multifold photoelectron statistics is to determine the statistical properties of a totally polarized optical field at some point →r from the photoelectron counts registered by the detector. The solution to this problem may be found in the determination of the statistical properties of an integral over a stochastic process; a complicated and formidable task. This problem can be solved in some cases of interest by expanding the process V(t) (which represents the field at →r) in a set of complete orthonormal deterministic functions, resulting in the so-called Karhunen-Loeve expansion of V(t). Two disadvantages are that the process must be defined over a finite time interval, and that each term of the series does not represent any special optical field. Taking into account these limitations of the expansion, the purpose of this work is to find another alternative expansion of stationary optical fields defined over the infinite time interval, and whose terms represent stochastic fields
Particle image velocimetry measurements of 2-dimensional velocity field around twisted tape
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Min Seop; Park, So Hyun; Kim, Eung Soo, E-mail: kes7741@snu.ac.kr
2016-11-01
Highlights: • Measurements of the flow field in a pipe with twisted tape were conducted by particle image velocimetry (PIV). • A novel matching index of refraction technique utilizing 3D printing and oil mixture was adopted to make the test section transparent. • Undistorted particle images were clearly captured in the presence of twisted tape. • 2D flow field in the pipe with twisted tape revealed the characteristic two-peak velocity profile. - Abstract: Twisted tape is a passive component used to enhance heat exchange in various devices. It induces swirl flow that increases the mixing of fluid. Thus, ITER selected the twisted tape as one of the candidates for turbulence promoting in the divertor cooling. Previous study was mainly focused on the thermohydraulic performance of the twisted tape. As detailed data on the velocity field around the twisted tape was insufficient, flow visualization study was performed to provide fundamental data on velocity field. To visualize the flow in a complex structure, novel matching index of refraction technique was used with 3-D printing and mixture of anise and mineral oil. This technique enables the camera to capture undistorted particle image for velocity field measurement. Velocity fields at Reynolds number 1370–9591 for 3 different measurement plane were obtained through particle image velocimetry. The 2-dimensional averaged velocity field data were obtained from 177 pair of instantaneous velocity fields. It reveals the characteristic two-peak flow motion in axial direction. In addition, the normalized velocity profiles were converged with increase of Reynolds numbers. Finally, the uncertainty of the result data was analyzed.
Explicit solutions of one-dimensional, first-order, stationary mean-field games with congestion
Gomes, Diogo A.
2017-01-05
Here, we consider one-dimensional first-order stationary mean-field games with congestion. These games arise when crowds face difficulty moving in high-density regions. We look at both monotone decreasing and increasing interactions and construct explicit solutions using the current formulation. We observe new phenomena such as discontinuities, unhappiness traps and the non-existence of solutions.
Near-field acoustic holography with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fernandez Grande, Efren
of the particle velocity has notable potential in NAH, and furthermore, combined measurement of sound pressure and particle velocity opens a new range of possibilities that are examined in this study. On this basis, sound field separation methods have been studied, and a new measurement principle based on double...... layer measurements of the particle velocity has been proposed. Also, the relation between near-field and far-field radiation from sound sources has been examined using the concept of the supersonic intensity. The calculation of this quantity has been extended to other holographic methods, and studied...
Three-dimensional instantaneous velocity field measurement using ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-02-13
Feb 13, 2014 ... Abstract. In the present study, a digital holography microscope has been developed to study instantaneous 3D velocity field in a square channel of 1000 × 1000 μm2 cross-section. The flow field is seeded with polystyrene microspheres of size dp = 2.1 μm. The volumetric flow rate is set equal to 20 μl/min.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moawad, S. M.; Ibrahim, D. A.
2016-01-01
The equilibrium properties of three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are investigated. Incompressible and compressible flows are considered. The governing equations are taken in a steady state such that the magnetic field is parallel to the plasma flow. Equations of stationary equilibrium for both of incompressible and compressible MHD flows are derived and described in a mathematical mode. For incompressible MHD flows, Alfvénic and non-Alfvénic flows with constant and variable magnetofluid density are investigated. For Alfvénic incompressible flows, the general three-dimensional solutions are determined with the aid of two potential functions of the velocity field. For non-Alfvénic incompressible flows, the stationary equilibrium equations are reduced to two differential constraints on the potential functions, flow velocity, magnetofluid density, and the static pressure. Some examples which may be of some relevance to axisymmetric confinement systems are presented. For compressible MHD flows, equations of the stationary equilibrium are derived with the aid of a single potential function of the velocity field. The existence of three-dimensional solutions for these MHD flows is investigated. Several classes of three-dimensional exact solutions for several cases of nonlinear equilibrium equations are presented.
Identification of Non-Stationary Magnetic Field Sources Using the Matching Pursuit Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beata Palczynska
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The measurements of electromagnetic field emissions, performed on board a vessel have showed that, in this specific environment, a high level of non-stationary magnetic fields (MFs is observed. The adaptive time-frequency method can be used successfully to analyze this type of measured signal. It allows one to specify the time interval in which the individual frequency components of the signal occur. In this paper, the method of identification of non-stationary MF sources based on the matching pursuit (MP algorithm is presented. It consists of the decomposition of an examined time-waveform into the linear expansion of chirplet atoms and the analysis of the matrix of their parameters. The main feature of the proposed method is the modification of the chirplet’s matrix in a way that atoms, whose normalized energies are lower than a certain threshold, will be rejected. On the time-frequency planes of the spectrograms, obtained separately for each remaining chirlpet, it can clearly identify the time-frequency structures appearing in the examined signal. The choice of a threshold defines the computing speed and precision of the performed analysis. The method was implemented in the virtual application and used for processing real data, obtained from measurements of time-vary MF emissions onboard a ship.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Higdon, J.C.
1986-01-01
A model of anisotropic, plasma-fluid variations was used to investigate the unknown origin of the power spectra of interstellar electron fluctuations inferred by Armstrong, Cordes, and Rickett (1981). The modeled electron variations are interpreted as density components of an anisotropic stationary mode of nonlinear magnetogasdynamics-tangential pressure balances. It is suggested that the wavenumber spectra of electron variations are identical to the spectra of the convecting velocity fields over a wide range of wavenumbers. 55 references
Measuring average angular velocity with a smartphone magnetic field sensor
Pili, Unofre; Violanda, Renante
2018-02-01
The angular velocity of a spinning object is, by standard, measured using a device called a tachometer. However, by directly using it in a classroom setting, the activity is likely to appear as less instructive and less engaging. Indeed, some alternative classroom-suitable methods for measuring angular velocity have been presented. In this paper, we present a further alternative that is smartphone-based, making use of the real-time magnetic field (simply called B-field in what follows) data gathering capability of the B-field sensor of the smartphone device as the timer for measuring average rotational period and average angular velocity. The in-built B-field sensor in smartphones has already found a number of uses in undergraduate experimental physics. For instance, in elementary electrodynamics, it has been used to explore the well-known Bio-Savart law and in a measurement of the permeability of air.
Monte Carlo code Serpent calculation of the parameters of the stationary nuclear fission wave
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. M. Khotyayintsev
2017-12-01
Full Text Available n this work, propagation of the stationary nuclear fission wave was simulated for series of fixed power values using Monte Carlo code Serpent. The wave moved in the axial direction in 5 m long cylindrical core of fast reactor with pure 238U raw fuel. Stationary wave mode arises some period later after the wave ignition and lasts sufficiently long to determine kef with high enough accuracy. The velocity characteristic of the reactor was determined as the dependence of the wave velocity on the neutron multiplication factor. As we have recently shown within a one-group diffusion description, the velocity characteristic is two-valued due to the effect of concentration mechanisms, while thermal feedback affects it only quantitatively. The shape and parameters of the velocity characteristic critically affect feasibility of the reactor design since stationary wave solutions of the lower branch are unstable and do not correspond to any real waves in self-regulated reactor, like CANDLE. In this work calculations were performed without taking into account thermal feedback. They confirm that theoretical dependence correctly describes the shape of the velocity characteristic calculated using the results of the Serpent modeling.
Nonlocal effective actions in semiclassical gravity: Thermal effects in stationary geometries
Elías, M.; Mazzitelli, F. D.; Trombetta, L. G.
2017-11-01
We compute the gravitational effective action by integrating out quantum matter fields in a weak gravitational field, using the Schwinger-Keldysh (in-in) formalism. We pay particular attention to the role of the initial quantum state in the structure of the nonlocal terms in the effective action, with an eye to nonlinear completions of the theory that may be relevant in astrophysics and cosmology. In this first paper we consider a quantum scalar field in thermal equilibrium, in a stationary gravitational field. We obtain a covariant expression for the nonlocal effective action, which can be expressed in terms of the curvature tensor, the four-velocity of the thermal bath, and the local Tolman temperature. We discuss the connection between the results for ultrastatic and static metrics through conformal transformations, and the main features of the thermal corrections to the semiclassical Einstein equations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hesse, M.; Birn, J.; Schindler, K.
1990-01-01
A self-consistent two-fluid theory that includes the magnetic field and shear patterns therein is developed to model stationary electrostatic structures with field-aligned potential drops. Shear flow is also included in the theory since this seems to be a prominent feature of the structures of interest. In addition, Ohmic dissipation, a Hall term and pressure gradients in a generalized Ohm's law, modified for cases without quasi-neutrality are included. In the analytic theory, the electrostatic force is balanced by field-aligned pressure gradients, i.e., thermal effects in the direction of the magnetic field, and by pressure gradients and magnetic stresses in the perpendicular direction. Within this theory simple examples of applications are presented to demonstrate the kind of solutions resulting from the model. The results show how the effects of charge separation and shear in the magnetic field and the velocity can be combined to form self-consistent structures such as are found to exist above the aurora, suggested also in association with solar flares
On the Field of a Stationary Charged Spherical Source
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stavroulakis N.
2009-04-01
Full Text Available The equations of gravitation related to the field of a spherical charged source imply the existence of an interdependence between gravitation and electricity [5]. The present paper deals with the joint action of gravitation and electricity in the case of a stationary charged spherical source. Let m and " be respectively the mass and the charge of the source, and let k be the gravitational constant. Then the equations of gravitation need specific discussion according as j " j m p k (source strongly charged. In any case the curvature radius of the sphere bounding the matter possesses a strictly positive greatest lower hound, so that the source is necessarily an extended object. Pointwise sources do not exist. In particular, charged black holes do not exist.
Measurement of pressure distributions and velocity fields of water jet intake flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong, Eun Ho; Yoon, Sang Youl; Kwon, Seong Hoon; Chun, Ho Hwan; Kim, Mun Chan; Kim, Kyung Chun
2002-01-01
Waterjet propulsion system can avoid cavitation problem which is being arised conventional propeller propulsion system. The main issue of designing waterjet system is the boundary layer separation at ramp and lib of water inlet. The flow characteristics are highly depended on Jet to Velocity Ratio(JVR) as well as the intake geometry. The present study is conducted in a wind tunnel to provide accurate pressure destribution at the inlet wall and velocity field of the inlet and exit planes. Particle image velocimetry technique is used to obtain detail velocity fields. Pressure distributions and velocity field are discussed with accelerating and deaccelerating flow zones and the effect of JVR
Liu, Zhangjun; Liu, Zenghui; Peng, Yongbo
2018-03-01
In view of the Fourier-Stieltjes integral formula of multivariate stationary stochastic processes, a unified formulation accommodating spectral representation method (SRM) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is deduced. By introducing random functions as constraints correlating the orthogonal random variables involved in the unified formulation, the dimension-reduction spectral representation method (DR-SRM) and the dimension-reduction proper orthogonal decomposition (DR-POD) are addressed. The proposed schemes are capable of representing the multivariate stationary stochastic process with a few elementary random variables, bypassing the challenges of high-dimensional random variables inherent in the conventional Monte Carlo methods. In order to accelerate the numerical simulation, the technique of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is integrated with the proposed schemes. For illustrative purposes, the simulation of horizontal wind velocity field along the deck of a large-span bridge is proceeded using the proposed methods containing 2 and 3 elementary random variables. Numerical simulation reveals the usefulness of the dimension-reduction representation methods.
Newly velocity field of Sulawesi Island from GPS observation
Sarsito, D. A.; Susilo, Simons, W. J. F.; Abidin, H. Z.; Sapiie, B.; Triyoso, W.; Andreas, H.
2017-07-01
Sulawesi microplate Island is located at famous triple junction area of the Eurasian, India-Australian, and Philippine Sea plates. Under the influence of the northward moving Australian plate and the westward motion of the Philippine plate, the island at Eastern part of Indonesia is collide and with the Eurasian plate and Sunda Block. Those recent microplate tectonic motions can be quantitatively determine by GNSS-GPS measurement. We use combine GNSS-GPS observation types (campaign type and continuous type) from 1997 to 2015 to derive newly velocity field of the area. Several strategies are applied and tested to get the optimum result, and finally we choose regional strategy to reduce error propagation contribution from global multi baseline processing using GAMIT/GLOBK 10.5. Velocity field are analyzed in global reference frame ITRF 2008 and local reference frame by fixing with respect alternatively to Eurasian plate - Sunda block, India-Australian plate and Philippine Sea plates. Newly results show dense distribution of velocity field. This information is useful for tectonic deformation studying in geospatial era.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yahalom, A
2014-01-01
Variational principles for magnetohydrodynamics have been introduced by previous authors both in Lagrangian and Eulerian form. Yahalom and Lynden-Bell (2008) have previously introduced simpler Eulerian variational principles from which all the relevant equations of barotropic magnetohydrodynamics can be derived. These variational principles were given in terms of six independent functions for non-stationary barotropic flows with given topologies and three independent functions for stationary barotropic flows. This is less then the seven variables which appear in the standard equations of barotropic magnetohydrodynamics which are the magnetic field B-vector the velocity field v-vector and the density ρ. Later, Yahalom (2010) introduced a simpler variational principle in terms of four functions for non-stationary barotropic magnetohydrodynamics. It was shown that the above variational principles are also relevant for flows of non-trivial topologies and in fact using those variational variables one arrives at additional topological conservation laws in terms of cuts of variables which have close resemblance to the Aharonov- Bohm phase (Yahalom (2013)). In previous examples (Yahalom and Lynden-Bell (2008); Yahalom (2013)) the magnetic field lines with non-trivial topology were at the intersection of two surface one of which was always multivalued; in this paper an example is introduced in which the magnetic helicity is not zero yet both surfaces are single-valued
Group velocity measurement using spectral interference in near-field scanning optical microscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mills, John D.; Chaipiboonwong, Tipsuda; Brocklesby, William S.; Charlton, Martin D. B.; Netti, Caterina; Zoorob, Majd E.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.
2006-01-01
Near-field scanning optical microscopy provides a tool for studying the behavior of optical fields inside waveguides. In this experiment the authors measure directly the variation of group velocity between different modes of a planar slab waveguide as the modes propagate along the guide. The measurement is made using the spectral interference between pulses propagating inside the waveguide with different group velocities, collected using a near-field scanning optical microscope at different points down the guide and spectrally resolved. The results are compared to models of group velocities in simple guides
Velocity field measurements on high-frequency, supersonic microactuators
Kreth, Phillip A.; Ali, Mohd Y.; Fernandez, Erik J.; Alvi, Farrukh S.
2016-05-01
The resonance-enhanced microjet actuator which was developed at the Advanced Aero-Propulsion Laboratory at Florida State University is a fluidic-based device that produces pulsed, supersonic microjets by utilizing a number of microscale, flow-acoustic resonance phenomena. The microactuator used in this study consists of an underexpanded source jet that flows into a cylindrical cavity with a single, 1-mm-diameter exhaust orifice through which an unsteady, supersonic jet issues at a resonant frequency of 7 kHz. The flowfields of a 1-mm underexpanded free jet and the microactuator are studied in detail using high-magnification, phase-locked flow visualizations (microschlieren) and two-component particle image velocimetry. These are the first direct measurements of the velocity fields produced by such actuators. Comparisons are made between the flow visualizations and the velocity field measurements. The results clearly show that the microactuator produces pulsed, supersonic jets with velocities exceeding 400 m/s for roughly 60 % of their cycles. With high unsteady momentum output, this type of microactuator has potential in a range of ow control applications.
Measurement of core velocity fluctuations and the dynamo in a reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Den Hartog, D.J.; Craig, D.; Fiksel, G.; Fontana, P.W.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Chapman, J.T.
1998-01-01
Plasma flow velocity fluctuations have been directly measured in the high temperature magnetically confined plasma in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP). These measurements show that the flow velocity fluctuations are correlated with magnetic field fluctuations. This initial measurement is subject to limitations of spatial localization and other uncertainties, but is evidence for sustainment of the RFP magnetic field configuration by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo. Both the flow velocity and magnetic field fluctuations are the result of global resistive MHD modes of helicity m = 1, n = 5--10 in the core of MST. Chord-averaged flow velocity fluctuations are measured in the core of MST by recording the Doppler shift of impurity line emission with a specialized high resolution and throughput grating spectrometer. Magnetic field fluctuations are recorded with a large array of small edge pickup coils, which allows spectral decomposition into discrete modes and subsequent correlation with the velocity fluctuation data
Measurement of particle velocity using a mutual inductance technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerr, Stephen; Kirkpatrick, Douglas; Garden, Steven
2004-01-01
Preliminary work on the development of a novel method for the measurement of particle velocity is described. The technique relies on measurement of the mutual inductance between two coaxial coils, one stationary and the other perturbed by the shock wave. The moving coil is the gauge and is deposited on thin film. The method was developed to assist in the study of particle velocities in large samples of porous media surrounding an explosive charge. The technique does not require measurements to be taken in a region of uniform magnetic field and therefore dispenses with the need for Helmholtz coils, the size and cost of which can become prohibitive for large experiments. This has the added advantage of allowing measurements to be taken at points widely dispersed through a sample with relative ease. Measurements of particle velocity in porous media have been compared with those from co-located conventional electromagnetic particle velocity gauges with reasonable agreement
Sediment motion and velocity in a glacier-fed stream
Mao, L.; Dell'Agnese, A.; Comiti, F.
2017-08-01
Current understanding of coarse sediment transport (e.g. threshold for motion, travel length and virtual velocity) in mountain rivers is still quite limited, and even less is known about glacial streams. However, the hydrological characteristics of these systems (strong daily discharge fluctuations, high water turbidity) pose challenges to the use of tracers to monitor bed sediment dynamics, as tagged clasts are usually located after bedload events when flow stage has receded, e.g. by means of portable antennas in the case of Passive Integrated Transponders (PIT). The use of stationary antennas, still scarcely in use worldwide, to detect PIT-tagged particles has potential advantages in glacier-fed streams. If water discharge is monitored continuously, a stationary antenna provides real time data on the actual discharge at the moment of tracer particles passage. This study focuses on incipient motion and virtual velocity of bed particles measured by a stationary antennas system in a steep mountain channel (Saldur River, drainage area 18.6 km2, Italian Alps) where significant daily discharge fluctuations and bedload transport occur as a result of a nivo-glacial regime. Four stationary antennas were installed 50-m apart in the study reach. A total of 629 PIT-tagged clasts were inserted in the studied reach between 2011 and 2014, ranging in size from 35 mm to 580 mm, with an overall recovery rate of around 44%. Critical discharge for sediment entrainment was obtained by detecting the movement of tracers placed immediately upstream of antennas. Virtual velocity was derived by knowing distances between the antennas and travel time of tracers. Results on initiation of motion show that the relationship between the size of transported tracers and the discharge measured at the time clasts were passing the stationary antenna is very weak. The influence of antecedent flows on incipient motion was thus investigated by dividing the highest discharge recorded between each PIT
Propagation of Boundary-Induced Discontinuity in Stationary Radiative Transfer
Kawagoe, Daisuke; Chen, I.-Kun
2018-01-01
We consider the boundary value problem of the stationary transport equation in the slab domain of general dimensions. In this paper, we discuss the relation between discontinuity of the incoming boundary data and that of the solution to the stationary transport equation. We introduce two conditions posed on the boundary data so that discontinuity of the boundary data propagates along positive characteristic lines as that of the solution to the stationary transport equation. Our analysis does not depend on the celebrated velocity averaging lemma, which is different from previous works. We also introduce an example in two dimensional case which shows that piecewise continuity of the boundary data is not a sufficient condition for the main result.
Stationary rotary force waves on the liquid-air core interface of a swirl atomizer
Chinn, J. J.; Cooper, D.; Yule, A. J.; Nasr, G. G.
2016-10-01
A one-dimensional wave equation, applicable to the waves on the surface of the air-core of a swirl atomizer is derived analytically, by analogy to the similar one-dimensional wave equation derivation for shallow-water gravity waves. In addition an analogy to the flow of water over a weir is used to produce an analytical derivation of the flow over the lip of the outlet of a swirl atomizer using the principle of maximum flow. The principle of maximum flow is substantiated by reference to continuity of the discharge in the direction of streaming. For shallow-water gravity waves, the phase velocity is the same expression as for the critical velocity over the weir. Similarly, in the present work, the wave phase velocity on the surface of the air-core is shown to be the same expression as for the critical velocity for the flow at the outlet. In addition, this wave phase velocity is shown to be the square root of the product of the radial acceleration and the liquid thickness, as analogous with the wave phase velocity for shallow water gravity waves, which is the square root of the product of the acceleration due to gravity and the water depth. The work revisits the weirs and flumes work of Binnie et al. but using a different methodology. The results corroborate with the work of Binnie. High speed video, Laser Doppler Anemometry and deflected laser beam experimental work has been carried out on an oversize Perspex (Plexiglas) swirl atomizer. Three distinctive types of waves were detected: helical striations, low amplitude random ripples and low frequency stationary waves. It is the latter wave type that is considered further in this article. The experimentally observed waves appear to be stationary upon the axially moving flow. The mathematical analysis allows for the possibility of a negative value for the phase velocity expression. Therefore the critical velocity and the wave phase velocity do indeed lead to stationary waves in the atomizer. A quantitative comparison
The geostrophic velocity field in shallow water over topography
Charnock, Henry; Killworth, Peter D.
1998-01-01
A recent note (Hopkins, T.S., 1996. A note on the geostrophic velocity field referenced to a point. Continental Shelf Research 16, 1621-1630) suggests a method for evaluating absolute pressure gradients in stratified water over topography. We demonstrate that this method requires no along-slope bottom velocity, in contradiction to what is usually observed, and that mass is not conserved.
Radiation of an electron in an electric field. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fedosov, N.I.; Flesher, G.I.
1976-01-01
The problem of electron radiation in a field of a travelling electric wave is solved by methods of classical electrodynamics. Such a field may serve as a model of a field on the linear accelerator axis. It is shown that the total radiation power, as well as the spectral-angular distribution of the radiation energy of an electron travelling in a longitudinal electric wave coincide with radiation in a stationary uniform electric field with the strength equal to that of the wave at the point where the particle velocity becomes close to the velocity of light [ru
Temperature and velocity measurement fields of fluids using a schlieren system.
Martínez-González, Adrian; Guerrero-Viramontes, J A; Moreno-Hernández, David
2012-06-01
This paper proposes a combined method for two-dimensional temperature and velocity measurements in liquid and gas flow using a schlieren system. Temperature measurements are made by relating the intensity level of each pixel in a schlieren image to the corresponding knife-edge position measured at the exit focal plane of the schlieren system. The same schlieren images were also used to measure the velocity of the fluid flow. The measurement is made by using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The PIV software used in this work analyzes motion between consecutive schlieren frames to obtain velocity fields. The proposed technique was applied to measure the temperature and velocity fields in the natural convection of water provoked by a heated rectangular plate.
A dissipative model of solar system and stability of stationary rotations
Vilke, V. G.
2009-04-01
receives the equations describing movements of the centers of mass of planets and their own rotations. In the offered model takes place a dissipation of the energy which source are internally viscous forces of each planet. The system supposes the first integral - the law of preservation of the kinetic moment concerning the centre of mass of system. As a result of deformations of planets in the law of the universal gravitation which has been written down for material points, there are small conservative amendments. The equations of motion describe motions of the centers of mass of planets and their rotation around of the centers of mass in view of the tidal phenomena and the dissipative forces. The connected system of the equations consists of 3 the vector equations of the second order representing the theorems of motion of the center of mass of planets, and the vector equations of the first order determining changes of the own kinetic moments of each planet. Stationary values of full mechanical energy on the variety set in integral of the kinetic moment, correspond to stationary motions - to rotations of system as rigid body with constant angular velocity around of the centre of mass of all system. Angular velocity of stationary rotation is directed along a constant vector of the kinetic moment, and the axis of rotation is the principal central axis of inertia of system. We shall notice, that deformations of planets in stationary motion are constant, as in system of coordinates rotating with constant angular velocity centrifugal forces and forces of gravitational interaction of planets are constant. Stationary configurations of system are determined according to Routh`s technique as stationary points of the changed potential energy submitted by the sum potential energies of centrifugal and gravitational forces. The first variation of the changed potential energy addresses in zero on a stationary configuration. The judgment about stability stationary configurations is based
Magnetic and Velocity Field Variations in the Active Regions NOAA ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We study the magnetic and velocity field evolution in the two magnetically complex active regions NOAA 10486 and NOAA 10488 observed during October–November 2003. We have used the available data to examine net flux and Doppler velocity time profiles to identify changes associated with evolutionary and ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E.M. Almukhametova
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract. The last few years, work has been carried out to study the effectiveness of non-stationary exposure in the highly viscous oil field Northern Buzachi (Republic of Kazakhstan. It has been proved that this technology is quite effective in the development of highly viscous oil reservoirs, however, in order to constantly maintain high technological effect, a constant modification of this technology is required, since it has a characteristic feature of rapid «aging». Further search for the conditions of effective application of non-stationary exposure on highly-viscous oil deposits can be carried out in two directions: the implementation of non-stationary exposure in new areas with other reservoir parameters and the change in the parameters of non-stationary exposure technology (including combining with other technologies in areas where this technology is already in use. Both approaches are used on the Northern Buzachi field. Thus, the positive experience of using non-stationary waterflooding in combination with changing direction of the filtration flow in the section of the seventh block of the Northern Buzachi field allowed us to recommend new sites for the implementation of this technology. With the participation of the author of this work, a non-stationary waterflooding program was developed and implemented on the site of the sixth block (south of the first operational facility.
Anomalous cross-field velocities in a CIV laboratory experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Axnaes, I.
1988-10-01
The axial and radial ion velocities and the electron radial velocity are determined in coaxial plasma gun operated under critical velocity conditions. The particle celocities are determined from probe measurement together with He I 3889 AA absolute intensity measurements and the consideration of the total momentum balance of the current sheet. The ions are found move axially and the electrons radially much faster than predicted by the E/B drift in the macroscopic fields. These results agree with what can be expected from the instability processes, which has earlier been proposed to operate in these experiments. It is therefore a direct experimental demonstration that instability processes have to be invoked not only for the electron heating, but also to explain the macroscopic velocities and currents. (author)
Magnetic field correlations in random flow with strong steady shear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolokolov, I. V.; Lebedev, V. V.; Sizov, G. A.
2011-01-01
We analyze the magnetic kinematic dynamo in a conducting fluid where a stationary shear flow is accompanied by relatively weak random velocity fluctuations. The diffusionless and diffusion regimes are described. The growth rates of the magnetic field moments are related to the statistical characteristics of the flow describing divergence of the Lagrangian trajectories. The magnetic field correlation functions are examined, and their growth rates and scaling behavior are established. General assertions are illustrated by the explicit solution of a model where the velocity field is short-correlated in time.
Entropy production of stationary diffusions on non-compact Riemannian manifolds
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
龚光鲁; 钱敏平
1997-01-01
The closed form of the entropy production of stationary diffusion processes with bounded Nelson’s current velocity is given.The limit of the entropy productions of a sequence of reflecting diffusions is also discussed.
Far-Field and Middle-Field Vertical Velocities Associated with Megathrust Earthquakes
Fleitout, L.; Trubienko, O.; Klein, E.; Vigny, C.; Garaud, J.; Shestakov, N.; Satirapod, C.; Simons, W. J.
2013-12-01
The recent megathrust earthquakes (Sumatra, Chili and Japan) have induced far-field postseismic subsidence with velocities from a few mm/yr to more than 1cm/yr at distances from 500 to 1500km from the earthquake epicentre, for several years following the earthquake. This subsidence is observed in Argentina, China, Korea, far-East Russia and in Malaysia and Thailand as reported by Satirapod et al. ( ASR, 2013). In the middle-field a very pronounced uplift is localized on the flank of the volcanic arc facing the trench. This is observed both over Honshu, in Chile and on the South-West coast of Sumatra. In Japan, the deformations prior to Tohoku earthquake are well measured by the GSI GPS network: While the East coast was slightly subsiding, the West coast was raising. A 3D finite element code (Zebulon-Zset) is used to understand the deformations through the seismic cycle in the areas surrounding the last three large subduction earthquakes. The meshes designed for each region feature a broad spherical shell portion with a viscoelastic asthenosphere. They are refined close to the subduction zones. Using these finite element models, we find that the pattern of the predicted far-field vertical postseismic displacements depends upon the thicknesses of the elastic plate and of the low viscosity asthenosphere. A low viscosity asthenosphere at shallow depth, just below the lithosphere is required to explain the subsidence at distances from 500 to 1500km. A thick (for example 600km) asthenosphere with a uniform viscosity predicts subsidence too far away from the trench. Slip on the subduction interface is unable tot induce the observed far-field subsidence. However, a combination of relaxation in a low viscosity wedge and slip or relaxation on the bottom part of the subduction interface is necessary to explain the observed postseismic uplift in the middle-field (volcanic arc area). The creep laws of the various zones used to explain the postseismic data can be injected in
Stationary velocity distributions in traffic flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1997-01-01
We introduce a traffic flow model that incorporates clustering and passing. We obtain analytically the steady state characteristics of the flow from a Boltzmann-like equation. A single dimensionless parameter, R=c 0 v 0 t 0 with c 0 the concentration, v 0 the velocity range, and t 0 -1 the passing rate, determines the nature of the steady state. When R 1, large clusters with average mass left-angle m right-angle ∼R α form, and the flux is J∼R -γ . The initial distribution of slow cars governs the statistics. When P 0 (v)∼v μ as v→0, the scaling exponents are γ=1/(μ+2), α=1/2 when μ>0, and α=(μ+1)/(μ+2) when μ<0. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
The stationary Alfven wave in laboratory and space regimes
Finnegan, S. M.
In this thesis, a non-linear, collisional, two-fluid model of uniform plasma convection across field-aligned current (FAC) sheets, describing stationary Alfven (StA) waves is developed in support of laboratory experiments performed to test the hypothesis that a stationary inertial Alfven wave pattern forms within a channel of parallel electron current across which plasma is convected. In a previous work, Knudsen (D. J. Knudsen, J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,761 (1996)) showed that, for cold, collisionless plasma, stationary inertial Alfven (StIA) waves can accelerate electrons parallel to a background magnetic field and cause large, time-independent plasma-density variations having spatial periodicity in the direction of the convective flow over a broad range of spatial scales and energies. Here, Knudsen's model has been generalized for warm, collisional, anisotropic plasma. The inclusion of parallel electron thermal pressure introduces dispersive effects which extend the model to the kinetic (beta > me/mi) regime. The effects of both ion-neutral and electron-ion collisional resistivity on StIA and stationary kinetic Alfven (StKA) wave solutions is studied. Conditions for both periodic and solitary wave solutions are identified. In the small amplitude limit, it is shown that the StA wave equation reduces to the differential equation describing the behavior of a forced harmonic oscillator. Analytical solutions are obtained for both a step and impulse, of finite width, forcing functions. Plasma rotation experiments in the West Virginia University Q-machine (WVUQ) demonstrate that an electron-emitting spiral electrode produces controllable, parabolic radial profile of floating potential, while the space potential showed no such structure. Laser-induced fluorescence measurements confirmed that the azimuthal ion drift velocity is inconsistent with a drift due to a gradient in the space potential. Experiments designed to produce StIA wave signatures were performed in the
Long time tails in stationary random media. I. Theory
Ernst, M.H.; Machta, J.; Dorfman, J.R.; Beijeren, H. van
1984-01-01
Diffusion of moving particles in stationary disordered media is studied using a phenomenological mode-coupling theory. The presence of disorder leads to a generalized diffusion equation, with memory kernels having power law long time tails. The velocity autocorrelation function is found to decay
Transformations Based on Continuous Piecewise-Affine Velocity Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Freifeld, Oren; Hauberg, Søren; Batmanghelich, Kayhan
2017-01-01
We propose novel finite-dimensional spaces of well-behaved transformations. The latter are obtained by (fast and highly-accurate) integration of continuous piecewise-affine velocity fields. The proposed method is simple yet highly expressive, effortlessly handles optional constraints (e.g., volum...
High-magnification velocity field measurements on high-frequency, supersonic microactuators
Kreth, Phil; Fernandez, Erik; Ali, Mohd; Alvi, Farrukh
2014-11-01
The Resonance-Enhanced Microjet (REM) actuator developed at our laboratory produces pulsed, supersonic microjets by utilizing a number of microscale, flow-acoustic resonance phenomena. The microactuator used in this study consists of an underexpanded source jet flowing into a cylindrical cavity with a single orifice through which an unsteady, supersonic jet issues at a resonant frequency of 7 kHz. The flowfields of a 1 mm underexpanded free jet and the microactuator are studied in detail using high-magnification, phase-locked flow visualizations (microschlieren) and 2-component particle image velocimetry. The challenges of these measurements at such small scales and supersonic velocities are discussed. The results clearly show that the microactuator produces supersonic pulsed jets with velocities exceeding 400 m/s. This is the first direct measurement of the velocity field and its temporal evolution produced by such actuators. Comparisons are made between the flow visualizations, velocity field measurements, and simulations using Implicit LES for a similar microactuator. With high, unsteady momentum output, this type of microactuator has potential in a range of flow control applications.
Visualization of velocity field and phase distribution in gas-liquid two-phase flow by NMR imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsui, G.; Monji, H.; Obata, J.
2004-01-01
NMR imaging has been applied in the field of fluid mechanics, mainly single phase flow, to visualize the instantaneous flow velocity field. In the present study, NMR imaging was used to visualize simultaneously both the instantaneous phase structure and velocity field of gas-liquid two-phase flow. Two methods of NMR imaging were applied. One is useful to visualize both the one component of liquid velocity and the phase distribution. This method was applied to horizontal two-phase flow and a bubble rising in stagnant oil. It was successful in obtaining some pictures of velocity field and phase distribution on the cross section of the pipe. The other is used to visualize a two-dimensional velocity field. This method was applied to a bubble rising in a stagnant water. The velocity field was visualized after and before the passage of a bubble at the measuring cross section. Furthermore, the distribution of liquid velocity was obtained. (author)
Velocity field measurement in micro-bubble emission boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, Daisuke; Saito, Yasushi; Natazuka, Jun
2017-01-01
Liquid inlet behavior to a heat surface in micro-bubble emission boiling (MEB) was investigated by flow measurement using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Subcooled pool boiling experiments under atmospheric pressure were carried out using a heat surface with a diameter of 10 mm. An upper end of a heater block made of copper was used as the heat surface. Working fluid was the deionized water and the subcooling was varied from 40 K to 70 K. Three K-type thermocouples were installed in the copper block to measure the temperature gradient, and the heat flux and wall superheat were estimated from these temperature data to make a boiling curve. The flow visualization around the heat surface was carried out using a high-speed video camera and a light sheet. The microbubbles generated in the MEB were used as tracer particles and the velocity field was obtained by PIV analysis of the acquired image sequence. As a result, the higher heat fluxes than the critical heat flux could be obtained in the MEB region. In addition, the distribution characteristics of the velocity in MEB region were studied using the PIV results and the location of the stagnation point in the velocity fields was discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guilet, Jerome; Foglizzo, Thierry
2010-01-01
The effect of a magnetic field on the linear phase of the advective-acoustic instability is investigated as a first step toward a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory of the stationary accretion shock instability taking place during stellar core collapse. We study a toy model where the flow behind a planar stationary accretion shock is adiabatically decelerated by an external potential. Two magnetic field geometries are considered: parallel or perpendicular to the shock. The entropy-vorticity wave, which is simply advected in the unmagnetized limit, separates into five different waves: the entropy perturbations are advected, while the vorticity can propagate along the field lines through two Alfven waves and two slow magnetosonic waves. The two cycles existing in the unmagnetized limit, advective-acoustic and purely acoustic, are replaced by up to six distinct MHD cycles. The phase differences among the cycles play an important role in determining the total cycle efficiency and hence the growth rate. Oscillations in the growth rate as a function of the magnetic field strength are due to this varying phase shift. A vertical magnetic field hardly affects the cycle efficiency in the regime of super-Alfvenic accretion that is considered. In contrast, we find that a horizontal magnetic field strongly increases the efficiencies of the vorticity cycles that bend the field lines, resulting in a significant increase of the growth rate if the different cycles are in phase. These magnetic effects are significant for large-scale modes if the Alfven velocity is a sizable fraction of the flow velocity.
3-D seismic velocity and attenuation structures in the geothermal field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nugraha, Andri Dian [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Syahputra, Ahmad [Geophyisical Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Fatkhan,; Sule, Rachmat [Applied Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)
2013-09-09
We conducted delay time tomography to determine 3-D seismic velocity structures (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio) using micro-seismic events in the geothermal field. The P-and S-wave arrival times of these micro-seismic events have been used as input for the tomographic inversion. Our preliminary seismic velocity results show that the subsurface condition of geothermal field can be fairly delineated the characteristic of reservoir. We then extended our understanding of the subsurface physical properties through determining of attenuation structures (Qp, Qs, and Qs/Qp ratio) using micro-seismic waveform. We combined seismic velocities and attenuation structures to get much better interpretation of the reservoir characteristic. Our preliminary attanuation structures results show reservoir characterization can be more clearly by using the 3-D attenuation model of Qp, Qs, and Qs/Qp ratio combined with 3-D seismic velocity model of Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio.
Temporal Changes of the Photospheric Velocity Fields
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Klvaňa, Miroslav; Švanda, Michal; Bumba, Václav
2005-01-01
Roč. 29, č. 1 (2005), s. 89-98 ISSN 0351-2657. [Hvar astrophysical colloquium /7./: Solar activity cycle and global phenomena. Hvar, 20.09.2004-24.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/2129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Solar photosphere * velocity fields * tidal waves Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics
Vacillations induced by interference of stationary and traveling planetary waves
Salby, Murry L.; Garcia, Rolando R.
1987-01-01
The interference pattern produced when a traveling planetary wave propagates over a stationary forced wave is explored, examining the interference signature in a variety of diagnostics. The wave field is first restricted to a diatomic spectrum consisting of two components: a single stationary wave and a single monochromatic traveling wave. A simple barotropic normal mode propagating over a simple stationary plane wave is considered, and closed form solutions are obtained. The wave fields are then restricted spatially, providing more realistic structures without sacrificing the advantages of an analytical solution. Both stationary and traveling wave fields are calculated numerically with the linearized Primitive Equations in a realistic basic state. The mean flow reaction to the fluctuating eddy forcing which results from interference is derived. Synoptic geopotential behavior corresponding to the combined wave and mean flow fields is presented, and the synoptic signature in potential vorticity on isentropic surfaces is examined.
Streams and magnetic fields in surface layers of Ap-stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolginov, A.Z.; Urpin, V.A.
1978-01-01
Magnetic field generation of Ap-stars is considered. It is shown that in the surface layers of Ap-stars inhomogeneity of chemical composition produces a strong magnetic field. Velocities of possible circulation of stellar matter are estimated. It is shown that circulation does not prevent the process of the magnetic field generation. It needs the order of million years, for arranging the stationary magnetic field in surface layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grimaldi, G; Leo, A; Cirillo, C; Attanasio, C; Nigro, A; Pace, S [CNR-INFM Laboratorio Regionale SuperMat, Via Salvador Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (Italy)], E-mail: grimaldi@sa.infn.it
2009-06-24
We study the vortex dynamics in the instability regime induced by high dissipative states well above the critical current in Nb superconducting strips. The magnetic field and temperature behavior of the critical vortex velocity corresponding to the observed dynamic instability is ascribed to intrinsic non-equilibrium phenomena. The Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) theory of electronic instability in high velocity vortex motion has been applied to interpret the temperature dependence of the critical vortex velocity. The magnetic field dependence of the vortex critical velocity shows new features in the low-field regime not predicted by LO.
Viscosity estimation utilizing flow velocity field measurements in a rotating magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshimura, Shinji; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y.
2008-01-01
The importance of viscosity in determining plasma flow structures has been widely recognized. In laboratory plasmas, however, viscosity measurements have been seldom performed so far. In this paper we present and discuss an estimation method of effective plasma kinematic viscosity utilizing flow velocity field measurements. Imposing steady and axisymmetric conditions, we derive the expression for radial flow velocity from the azimuthal component of the ion fluid equation. The expression contains kinematic viscosity, vorticity of azimuthal rotation and its derivative, collision frequency, azimuthal flow velocity and ion cyclotron frequency. Therefore all quantities except the viscosity are given provided that the flow field can be measured. We applied this method to a rotating magnetized argon plasma produced by the Hyper-I device. The flow velocity field measurements were carried out using a directional Langmuir probe installed in a tilting motor drive unit. The inward ion flow in radial direction, which is not driven in collisionless inviscid plasmas, was clearly observed. As a result, we found the anomalous viscosity, the value of which is two orders of magnitude larger than the classical one. (author)
Drift velocities of 150-km Field-Aligned Irregularities observed by the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuichi Otsuka
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Between 130 and 170 km altitude in the daytime ionosphere, the so-called 150-km field-aligned irregularities (FAIs have been observed since the 1960s at equatorial regions with several very high frequency (VHF radars. We report statistical results of 150-km FAI drift velocities on a plane perpendicular to the geomagnetic field, acquired by analyzing the Doppler velocities of 150-km FAIs observed with the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR at Kototabang, Indonesia during the period from Aug. 2007 to Oct. 2009. We found that the southward/upward perpendicular drift velocity of the 150-km FAIs tends to decrease in the afternoon and that this feature is consistent with that of F-region plasma drift velocities over the magnetic equator. The zonal component of the 150-km FAI drift velocity is westward and decreases with time, whereas the F-region plasma drift velocity observed with the incoherent scatter radar at Jicamarca, Peru, which is westward, reaches a maximum at about noon. The southward/upward and zonal drift velocities of the 150-km FAIs are smaller than that of the F-region plasma drift velocity by approximately 3 m/s and 25 m/s, respectively, on average. The large difference between the 150-km FAI and F-region plasma drift velocities may not arise from a difference in the magnetic latitudes at which their electric fields are generated. Electric fields generated at the altitude at which the 150-km FAIs occur may not be negligible.
Anomalous scaling of a passive vector advected by the Navier-Stokes velocity field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jurcisinova, E; Jurcisin, M; Remecky, R
2009-01-01
Using the field theoretic renormalization group and the operator-product expansion, the model of a passive vector field (a weak magnetic field in the framework of the kinematic MHD) advected by the velocity field which is governed by the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation with the Gaussian random stirring force δ-correlated in time and with the correlator proportional to k 4-d-2ε is investigated to the first order in ε (one-loop approximation). It is shown that the single-time correlation functions of the advected vector field have anomalous scaling behavior and the corresponding exponents are calculated in the isotropic case, as well as in the case with the presence of large-scale anisotropy. The hierarchy of the anisotropic critical dimensions is briefly discussed and the persistence of the anisotropy inside the inertial range is demonstrated on the behavior of the skewness and hyperskewness (dimensionless ratios of correlation functions) as functions of the Reynolds number Re. It is shown that even though the present model of a passive vector field advected by the realistic velocity field is mathematically more complicated than, on one hand, the corresponding models of a passive vector field advected by 'synthetic' Gaussian velocity fields and, on the other hand, than the corresponding model of a passive scalar quantity advected by the velocity field driven by the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation, the final one-loop approximate asymptotic scaling behavior of the single-time correlation or structure functions of the advected fields of all models are defined by the same anomalous dimensions (up to normalization)
Velocity-space particle loss in field-reversed theta pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsiao, M.Y.
1983-01-01
A field-reversed theta pinch (FRTP) is a compact device for magnetic fusion. It has attracted much attention in recent years since encouraging experimental results have been obtained. However, the definite causes for the observed particle loss rate and plasma rotation are not well known. In this work, we study the velocity-space particle loss (VSPL), i.e., particle loss due to the existence of a loss region in velocity space, in FRTP's in order to have a better understanding about the characteristics of this device
Tightly localized stationary pulses in a multilevel atomic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Xiong-Jun; Oh, C. H.; Liu, Xin; Liu, Zheng-Xin; Kwek, L. C.
2007-01-01
We show that the pulse matching phenomenon can be obtained in the general multilevel system with electromagnetically induced transparency. For this we find a different way to create tightly localized stationary pulses by using counterpropagating pump fields. The present process is a spatial compression of excitation so that it allows us to shape and further intensify the localized stationary pulses, without using standing waves of pump fields or spatially modulated pump fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kowal, Grzegorz; Lazarian, A.
2010-01-01
We study compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, which holds the key to many astrophysical processes, including star formation and cosmic-ray propagation. To account for the variations of the magnetic field in the strongly turbulent fluid, we use wavelet decomposition of the turbulent velocity field into Alfven, slow, and fast modes, which presents an extension of the Cho and Lazarian decomposition approach based on Fourier transforms. The wavelets allow us to follow the variations of the local direction of the magnetic field and therefore improve the quality of the decomposition compared to the Fourier transforms, which are done in the mean field reference frame. For each resulting component, we calculate the spectra and two-point statistics such as longitudinal and transverse structure functions as well as higher order intermittency statistics. In addition, we perform a Helmholtz- Hodge decomposition of the velocity field into incompressible and compressible parts and analyze these components. We find that the turbulence intermittency is different for different components, and we show that the intermittency statistics depend on whether the phenomenon was studied in the global reference frame related to the mean magnetic field or in the frame defined by the local magnetic field. The dependencies of the measures we obtained are different for different components of the velocity; for instance, we show that while the Alfven mode intermittency changes marginally with the Mach number, the intermittency of the fast mode is substantially affected by the change.
Wide-field absolute transverse blood flow velocity mapping in vessel centerline
Wu, Nanshou; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Bifeng; Guan, Caizhong; Wang, Mingyi; Han, Dingan; Tan, Haishu; Zeng, Yaguang
2018-02-01
We propose a wide-field absolute transverse blood flow velocity measurement method in vessel centerline based on absorption intensity fluctuation modulation effect. The difference between the light absorption capacities of red blood cells and background tissue under low-coherence illumination is utilized to realize the instantaneous and average wide-field optical angiography images. The absolute fuzzy connection algorithm is used for vessel centerline extraction from the average wide-field optical angiography. The absolute transverse velocity in the vessel centerline is then measured by a cross-correlation analysis according to instantaneous modulation depth signal. The proposed method promises to contribute to the treatment of diseases, such as those related to anemia or thrombosis.
Methodology to estimate the relative pressure field from noisy experimental velocity data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolin, C D; Raguin, L G
2008-01-01
The determination of intravascular pressure fields is important to the characterization of cardiovascular pathology. We present a two-stage method that solves the inverse problem of estimating the relative pressure field from noisy velocity fields measured by phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) on an irregular domain with limited spatial resolution, and includes a filter for the experimental noise. For the pressure calculation, the Poisson pressure equation is solved by embedding the irregular flow domain into a regular domain. To lessen the propagation of the noise inherent to the velocity measurements, three filters - a median filter and two physics-based filters - are evaluated using a 2-D Couette flow. The two physics-based filters outperform the median filter for the estimation of the relative pressure field for realistic signal-to-noise ratios (SNR = 5 to 30). The most accurate pressure field results from a filter that applies in a least-squares sense three constraints simultaneously: consistency between measured and filtered velocity fields, divergence-free and additional smoothness conditions. This filter leads to a 5-fold gain in accuracy for the estimated relative pressure field compared to without noise filtering, in conditions consistent with PC-MRI of the carotid artery: SNR = 5, 20 x 20 discretized flow domain (25 X 25 computational domain).
Reconstructing the velocity field beyond the local universe
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Johnston, R
2014-10-01
Full Text Available an estimate of the velocity field derived from the galaxy over-density d(sub g) and the second makes use of the matter linear density power spectrum P(sub k). Using N-body simulations we find, with an SDSS-like sample (N(sub gal) 33 per deg(sup 2...
Observation and analysis of abrupt changes in the interplanetary plasma velocity and magnetic field.
Martin, R. N.; Belcher, J. W.; Lazarus, A. J.
1973-01-01
This paper presents a limited study of the physical nature of abrupt changes in the interplanetary plasma velocity and magnetic field based on 19 day's data from the Pioneer 6 spacecraft. The period was chosen to include a high-velocity solar wind stream and low-velocity wind. Abrupt events were accepted for study if the sum of the energy density in the magnetic field and velocity changes was above a specified minimum. A statistical analysis of the events in the high-velocity solar wind stream shows that Alfvenic changes predominate. This conclusion is independent of whether steady state requirements are imposed on conditions before and after the event. Alfvenic changes do not dominate in the lower-speed wind. This study extends the plasma field evidence for outwardly propagating Alfvenic changes to time scales as small as 1 min (scale lengths on the order of 20,000 km).
Gravitational and electromagnetic potentials of the stationary Einstein-Maxwell field equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, T.C.
1979-01-01
Associated with the stationary Einstein-Maxwell field equations is an infinite hierarchy of potentials. The basic characteristics of these potentials are examined in general and then in greater detail for the particular case of the Reissner-Nordstrom metric. Thier essential utility in the process of solution generation is elucidated, and the necessary equations for solution generation are developed. Appropriate generating functions, which contain the complete infinite hierarchy of potentials, are developed and analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the inherent gauge freedom of these generating functions. Two methods of solution generation, which yield asymptotically flat solutions in vacuum, are generalized to include electromagnetism. One method, using potentials consistent with the Harrison transformation and the Reissner-Nordstrom metric, is discussed in detail, and its resultant difficulties are explored
Non-stationary covariance function modelling in 2D least-squares collocation
Darbeheshti, N.; Featherstone, W. E.
2009-06-01
Standard least-squares collocation (LSC) assumes 2D stationarity and 3D isotropy, and relies on a covariance function to account for spatial dependence in the observed data. However, the assumption that the spatial dependence is constant throughout the region of interest may sometimes be violated. Assuming a stationary covariance structure can result in over-smoothing of, e.g., the gravity field in mountains and under-smoothing in great plains. We introduce the kernel convolution method from spatial statistics for non-stationary covariance structures, and demonstrate its advantage for dealing with non-stationarity in geodetic data. We then compared stationary and non- stationary covariance functions in 2D LSC to the empirical example of gravity anomaly interpolation near the Darling Fault, Western Australia, where the field is anisotropic and non-stationary. The results with non-stationary covariance functions are better than standard LSC in terms of formal errors and cross-validation against data not used in the interpolation, demonstrating that the use of non-stationary covariance functions can improve upon standard (stationary) LSC.
Suppression of thermal noise in a non-Markovian random velocity field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueda, Masahiko
2016-01-01
We study the diffusion of Brownian particles in a Gaussian random velocity field with short memory. By extending the derivation of an effective Fokker–Planck equation for the Lanvegin equation with weakly colored noise to a random velocity-field problem, we find that the effect of thermal noise on particles is suppressed by the existence of memory. We also find that the renormalization effect for the relative diffusion of two particles is stronger than that for single-particle diffusion. The results are compared with those of molecular dynamics simulations. (paper: classical statistical mechanics, equilibrium and non-equilibrium)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stuchbery, A.E.; Ryan, G.C.; Bolotin, H.H.; Sie, S.H.
1980-01-01
The velocity-dependence of the magnitude of the enchanced dynamic hyperfine magnetic field (EDF) manifest at nuclei of 108 Pd ions swiftly recoiling through thin magnetized Fe has been investigated at ion velocities higher than have heretofore been examined for the heavier nuclides (i.e., at initial recoil velocities (v/Zv 0 )=0.090 and 0.160, v 0 =c/137). These results for 108 Pd, when taken in conjunction with those of prior similar measurements for 106 Pd at lower velocities, and fitted to a velocity dependence for the EDF, give for the Pd isotopes over the extended velocity range 1.74 0 )<=7.02, p=0.41+-0.15; a result incompatible with previous attributions of a linear velocity dependence for the field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ermuratschii V.V.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available e paper presents a method of the approximate calculation of the non-stationary temperature field inside of thermal packed bed energy storages with feasible and latent heat. Applying thermoelectric models and computational methods in electrical engineering, the task of computing non-stationary heat transfer is resolved with respect to third type boundary conditions without applying differential equations of the heat transfer. For sub-volumes of the energy storage the method is executed iteratively in spatiotemporal domain. Single-body heating is modeled for each sub-volume, and modeling conditions are assumed to be identical for remained bod-ies, located in the same sub-volume. For each iteration step the boundary conditions will be represented by re-sults at the previous step. The fulfillment of the first law of thermodynamics for system “energy storage - body” is obtained by the iterative search of the mean temperature of the energy storage. Under variable boundary con-ditions the proposed method maybe applied to calculating temperature field inside of energy storages with packed beds consisted of solid material, liquid and phase-change material. The method may also be employed to compute transient, power and performance characteristics of packed bed energy storages.
Osorno, T.; Devlin, J. F.
2017-12-01
Reliable estimates of groundwater velocity is essential in order to best implement in-situ monitoring and remediation technologies. The In-well Point Velocity Probe (IWPVP) is an inexpensive, reusable tool developed for rapid measurement of groundwater velocity at the centimeter-scale in monitoring wells. IWPVP measurements of groundwater speed are based on a small-scale tracer test conducted as ambient groundwater passes through the well screen and the body of the probe. Horizontal flow direction can be determined from the difference in tracer mass passing detectors placed in four funnel-and-channel pathways through the probe, arranged in a cross pattern. The design viability of the IWPVP was confirmed using a two-dimensional numerical model in Comsol Multiphysics, followed by a series of laboratory tank experiments in which IWPVP measurements were calibrated to quantify seepage velocities in both fine and medium sand. Lab results showed that the IWPVP was capable of measuring the seepage velocity in less than 20 minutes per test, when the seepage velocity was in the range of 0.5 to 4.0 m/d. Further, the IWPVP estimated the groundwater speed with a precision of ± 7%, and an accuracy of ± 14%, on average. The horizontal flow direction was determined with an accuracy of ± 15°, on average. Recently, a pilot field test of the IWPVP was conducted in the Borden aquifer, C.F.B. Borden, Ontario, Canada. A total of approximately 44 IWPVP tests were conducted within two 2-inch groundwater monitoring wells comprising a 5 ft. section of #8 commercial well screen. Again, all tests were completed in under 20 minutes. The velocities estimated from IWPVP data were compared to 21 Point Velocity Probe (PVP) tests, as well as Darcy-based estimates of groundwater velocity. Preliminary data analysis shows strong agreement between the IWPVP and PVP estimates of groundwater velocity. Further, both the IWPVP and PVP estimates of groundwater velocity appear to be reasonable when
TAURUS observations of the emission-line velocity field of Centaurus A (NGC 5128)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, K.; Atherton, P.D.
1983-01-01
Using TAURUS - an Imaging Fabry Perot system in conjunction with the IPCS on the AAT, the authors have studied the velocity field of the Hα emission line at a spatial resolution of 1.7'' over the dark lane structure of Centaurus A. The derived velocity field is quite symmetrical and strongly suggests that the emission line material is orbiting the elliptical component, as a warped disc. (orig.)
A simple stationary semi-analytical wake model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Gunner Chr.
We present an idealized simple, but fast, semi-analytical algorithm for computation of stationary wind farm wind fields with a possible potential within a multi-fidelity strategy for wind farm topology optimization. Basically, the model considers wakes as linear perturbations on the ambient non......-linear. With each of these approached, a parabolic system are described, which is initiated by first considering the most upwind located turbines and subsequently successively solved in the downstream direction. Algorithms for the resulting wind farm flow fields are proposed, and it is shown that in the limit......-uniform mean wind field, although the modelling of the individual stationary wake flow fields includes non-linear terms. The simulation of the individual wake contributions are based on an analytical solution of the thin shear layer approximation of the NS equations. The wake flow fields are assumed...
The Limit Deposit Velocity model, a new approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miedema Sape A.
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In slurry transport of settling slurries in Newtonian fluids, it is often stated that one should apply a line speed above a critical velocity, because blow this critical velocity there is the danger of plugging the line. There are many definitions and names for this critical velocity. It is referred to as the velocity where a bed starts sliding or the velocity above which there is no stationary bed or sliding bed. Others use the velocity where the hydraulic gradient is at a minimum, because of the minimum energy consumption. Most models from literature are one term one equation models, based on the idea that the critical velocity can be explained that way.
Anchoring Polar Magnetic Field in a Stationary Thick Accretion Disk
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Samadi, Maryam; Abbassi, Shahram, E-mail: samadimojarad@um.ac.ir [Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, 91775-1436 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-08-20
We investigate the properties of a hot accretion flow bathed in a poloidal magnetic field. We consider an axisymmetric viscous-resistive flow in the steady-state configuration. We assume that the dominant mechanism of energy dissipation is due to turbulence viscosity and magnetic diffusivity. A certain fraction of that energy can be advected toward the central compact object. We employ the self-similar method in the radial direction to find a system of ODEs with just one varible, θ in the spherical coordinates. For the existence and maintenance of a purely poloidal magnetic field in a rotating thick disk, we find that the necessary condition is a constant value of angular velocity along a magnetic field line. We obtain an analytical solution for the poloidal magnetic flux. We explore possible changes in the vertical structure of the disk under the influences of symmetric and asymmetric magnetic fields. Our results reveal that a polar magnetic field with even symmetry about the equatorial plane makes the disk vertically thin. Moreover, the accretion rate decreases when we consider a strong magnetic field. Finally, we notice that hot magnetized accretion flows can be fully advected even in a slim shape.
L. Sun; X. Zhou; S.M. Mahalingam; D.R. Weise
2005-01-01
We investigated a simultaneous temporally and spatially resolved 2-D velocity field above a burning circular pan of alcohol using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The results obtained from PIV were used to assess a thermal particle image velocimetry (TPIV) algorithm previously developed to approximate the velocity field using the temperature field, simultaneously...
The IBM-5C stationary in source without an external magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulygin, V.M.; Malakhov, N.P.; Panasenkov, A.A.; Pleshivtsev, N.V.; Romanov, V.I.; Semashko, N.N.; Seregin, V.S.; Chukhin, I.A.; Shmeleva, V.I.
1982-01-01
With the purpose of constructing efficient injectors of hydrogen fast atoms for plasma heating in magnetic traps problems arising in the course of creation of stationary high-current ion sources and specific methods of solution of these problems are considered. The design and characteristics of the YVM-50 stationary ion source without an external magnetic field intended for obtaining hydrogen ion beams with energy up to 40 keV, current 30 A and pulse duration over 2 sec. are described. Thermal regime of ion source direct heating cathode is considered. It is shown that the lanthanum hexaboride cathode at the temperature 1700 deg C ensures 30 A/cm 2 emission density radiating about 60 W/cm 2 . YBM-5c consists of a gas-discharge chamber (GDC) and ion-optical system (IOS). GDS is composed of a cathode unit, anode flange, casing, gas supply system, IOS consists of emission accelerating and earthed electrodes. At the discharge pulse duration less than 1 sec. current emission density attains 0,5 A/cm 2 which permits to extract from the ion source 30 A current beam. The ion source operation in complex with a high-voltage supply system has shown that one of the most important problems is reliability of high-voltage protection from break-downs and stability of modulators operation
Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin
2012-01-01
separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure...... and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance......In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field...
The wave properties of matter and the zeropoint radiation field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pena, L. de la; Cetto, A.M.
1994-01-01
The origin of the wave properties of matter is discussed from the point of view of stochastic electrodynamics. A nonrelativistic model of a changed particle with an effective structure embedded in the random zeropoint radiation field reveals that the field induces a high-frequency vibration on the particle; internal consistency of the theory fixes the frequency of this jittering at mc 2 /h. The particle is therefore assumed to interact intensely with stationary zeropoint waves of this frequency as seen from its proper frame of reference; such waves, identified here as de Broglie's phase waves, give rise to a modulated wave in the laboratory frame, with de Broglie's wavelength and phase velocity equal to the particle velocity. The time-independent equation that describes this modulated wave is shown to be the stationary Schroedinger equation (or the Klein-Gordon equation in the relativistic version). In a heuristic analysis applied to simple periodic cases, the quantization rules are recovered from the assumption that for a particle in a stationary state there must correspond a stationary modulation. Along an independent and complementary line of reasoning, an equation for the probability amplitude in configuration space for a particle under a general potential V(x) is constructed, and it is shown that under conditions derived from stochastic electrodynamics it reduces to Schroedinger's equation. This equation reflects therefore the dual nature of the quantum particles, by describing simultaneously the corresponding modulated wave and the ensemble of particles
Quasi-stationary states and fermion pair creation from a vacuum in supercritical Coulomb field
Khalilov, V. R.
2017-12-01
Creation of charged fermion pair from a vacuum in so-called supercritical Coulomb potential is examined for the case when fermions can move only in the same (one) plane. In which case, quantum dynamics of charged massive or massless fermions can be described by the two-dimensional Dirac Hamiltonians with an usual (-a/r) Coulomb potential. These Hamiltonians are singular and require the additional definition in order for them to be treated as self-adjoint quantum-mechanical operators. We construct the self-adjoint two-dimensional Dirac Hamiltonians with a Coulomb potential and determine the quantum-mechanical states for such Hamiltonians in the corresponding Hilbert spaces of square-integrable functions. We determine the scattering amplitude in which the self-adjoint extension parameter is incorporated and then obtain equations implicitly defining possible discrete energy spectra of the self-adjoint Dirac Hamiltonians with a Coulomb potential. It is shown that this quantum system becomes unstable in the presence of a supercritical Coulomb potential which manifests in the appearance of quasi-stationary states in the lower (negative) energy continuum. The energy spectrum of those states is quasi-discrete, consists of broadened levels with widths related to the inverse lifetimes of the quasi-stationary states as well as the probability of creation of charged fermion pair by a supercritical Coulomb field. Explicit analytical expressions for the creation probabilities of charged (massive or massless) fermion pair are obtained in a supercritical Coulomb field.
Kinesiological Analysis of Stationary Running Performed in Aquatic and Dry Land Environments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lima Alberton Cristine
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze the electromyographic (EMG signals of the rectus femoris (RF, vastus lateralis (VL, semitendinosus (ST and short head of the biceps femoris (BF during the performance of stationary running at different intensities in aquatic and dry land environments. The sample consisted of 12 female volunteers who performed the stationary running exercise in aquatic and dry land environments at a submaximal cadence (80 beats·min-1 controlled by a metronome and at maximal velocity, with EMG signal measurements from the RF, VL, ST and BF muscles. The results showed a distinct pattern between environments for each muscle examined. For the submaximal cadence of 80 beats·min-1, there was a reduced magnitude of the EMG signal in the aquatic environment, except for the ST muscle, the pattern of which was similar in both environments. In contrast to the submaximal cadence, the pattern of the EMG signal from all of the muscles showed similar magnitudes for both environments and phases of movement at maximal velocity, except for the VL muscle. Therefore, the EMG signals from the RF, VL, ST and BF muscles of women during stationary running had different patterns of activation over the range of motion between aquatic and dry land environments for different intensities. Moreover, the neuromuscular responses of the lower limbs were optimized by an increase in intensity from submaximal cadence to maximal velocity.
Channel flow analysis. [velocity distribution throughout blade flow field
Katsanis, T.
1973-01-01
The design of a proper blade profile requires calculation of the blade row flow field in order to determine the velocities on the blade surfaces. An analysis theory is presented for several methods used for this calculation and associated computer programs that were developed are discussed.
Mean germination time and germination rate of oat seeds subjected to stationary magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez Ramirez, Elvira; Florez Garcia, Mercedes; Carbonell, Maria Victoria; Amaya Garcia de la Escosura, Jose Manuel
2007-01-01
The objective of the present study is to determine and quantify the effect produced by stationary magnetic fields on oat seed germination (Avena sativa, L. var. c obena ) . For this purpose, seeds were exposed to a magnetic field 125 mT of 250 mT during different periods of time: 20 minutes (E1, E5), 1 hour (E2, E6), 24 hours (E3, E7), or in a conic form (E4, E8) during the whole germination process. Germination tests were carried out under laboratory conditions with cylindrical magnets to obtain the magnetic field. For magnetic treatment seed on Petri dishes were placed on magnets during time necessary for each treatment. Seeds without exposition to the magnetic field were used as control group. Parameters used for germination speed analysis were: number of germinated seeds (G), mean germination time (MGT) and necessary time for germination of 1, 10, 25, 50 and 75% of N number of speeds used for each treatment (T1, T10, T25, T50, and T75). These parameters were supplied through the software Seed calculator, as well as the corresponding germination curves. In general, from the results obtained it can be said that the time required to obtain different germination percentages was lower for seeds exposed to the magnetic field (treatments E1 and E8). Reduction in time for E1 treatment stands up with 20 a minutes-exposition-time to 125 mT. MGT obtained for seeds with magnetic treatment E1 was significantly lower (11.48%) than the control group. Parameters T1, T10, T25 were also lower for seeds submitted to treatment, obtaining reductions of 46.62 %, 24.02 % and 13.46 % respectively. Reduction in germination parameters indicates that germination speed is higher. Because parameters T1 and T10 are related to the beginning of germination, this study represents a progress in germination and a reduction in the induction phase in most of the magnetic treatments applied. Previous studies done by authors about the influence of stationary magnetic fields have shown increases in
Stationary Density Variation Produced by a Standing Plasma Wave
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1977-01-01
Measurements are presented of a stationary density modulation produced by a standing electron plasma wave. The experimental results are well explained by taking into account the ponderomotive forces on the electrons exerted by the high frequency field.......Measurements are presented of a stationary density modulation produced by a standing electron plasma wave. The experimental results are well explained by taking into account the ponderomotive forces on the electrons exerted by the high frequency field....
Stationary solutions and asymptotic flatness I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reiris, Martin
2014-01-01
In general relativity, a stationary isolated system is defined as an asymptotically flat (AF) stationary spacetime with compact material sources. Other definitions that are less restrictive on the type of asymptotic could in principle be possible. Between this article and its sequel, we show that under basic assumptions, asymptotic flatness indeed follows as a consequence of Einstein's theory. In particular, it is proved that any vacuum stationary spacetime-end whose (quotient) manifold is diffeomorphic to R 3 minus a ball and whose Killing field has its norm bounded away from zero, is necessarily AF with Schwarzschildian fall off. The ‘excised’ ball would contain (if any) the actual material body, but this information is unnecessary to reach the conclusion. In this first article, we work with weakly asymptotically flat (WAF) stationary ends, a notion that generalizes as much as possible that of the AF end, and prove that WAF ends are AF with Schwarzschildian fall off. Physical and mathematical implications are also discussed. (paper)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Deuring, P.; Kračmar, S.; Nečasová, Šárka
2013-01-01
Roč. 255, č. 7 (2013), s. 1576-1606 ISSN 0022-0396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : stationary incompressible Navier-Stokes system * rotating body * fundamental solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.570, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022039613002106
New Non-Stationary Gradient Model of Heat-Mass-Electric Charge Transfer in Thin Porous Media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Rogankov
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The well-known complicated system of non-equilibrium balance equations for a continuous fluid (f medium needs the new non-Gibbsian model of f-phase to be applicable for description of the heterogeneous porous media (PMs. It should be supplemented by the respective coupled thermal and caloric equations of state (EOS developed specially for PMs to become adequate and solvable for the irreversible transport f-processes. The set of standard assumptions adopted by the linear (or quasi-linear non-equilibrium thermodynamics are based on the empirical gradient-caused correlations between flows and forces. It leads, in particular, to the oversimplified stationary solutions for PMs. The most questionable but typical modeling suppositions of the stationary gradient (SG theory are: 1 the assumption of incompressibility accepted, as a rule, for f-flows; 2 the ignorance of distinctions between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic influence of a porous matrix on the properties; 3 the omission of effects arising due to the concomitant phase intra-porous transitions between the neighboring f-fragments with the sharp differences in densities; 4 the use of exclusively Gibbsian (i.e. homogeneous and everywhere differentiable description of any f-phase in PM; 5 the very restrictive reduction of the mechanical velocity field to its specific potential form in the balance equation of f-motion as well as of the heat velocity field in the balance equation of internal energy; 6 the neglect of the new specific peculiarities arising due to the study of any non-equilibrium PM in the meso- and nano-scales of a finite-size macroscopic (N,V-system of discrete particles. This work is an attempt to develop the alternative non-stationary gradient (NSG model of real irreversible processes in PM. Another aim is to apply it without the above restrictions 1-6 to the description of f-flows through the obviously non-Gibbsian thin porous medium (TPM. We will suppose that it is composed by two
Magnetic field-aligned plasma expansion in critical ionization velocity space experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, N.
1989-01-01
Motivated by the recent Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) experiments in space, the temporal evolution of a plasma cloud released in an ambient plasma is studied. Time-dependent Vlasov equations for both electrons and ions, along with the Poisson equation for the self-consistent electric field parallel to the ambient magnetic field, are solved. The initial cloud is assumed to consist of cold, warm, and hot electrons with temperatures T/sub c/ ≅ 0.2 eV, T/sub w/ ≅ 2 eV, and T/sub h/ ≅ 10 eV, respectively. It is found that the minor hot electrons escape the cloud, and their velocity distribution function shows the typical time-of-flight dispersion feature - that is, the larger the distance from the cloud, the larger is the average drift velocity of the escaping electrons. The major warm electrons expand along the magnetic field line with the corresponding ion-acoustic speed. The combined effect of the escaping hot electrons and the expanding warm ones sets up an electric potential structure which accelerates the ambient electrons into the cloud. Thus, the energy loss due to the electron escape is partly replenished. The electric field distribution in the potential structure depends on the stage of the evolution; before the rarefaction waves propagating from the edges of the cloud reach its center, the electric fields point into the cloud. After this stage the cloud divides into two subclouds, with each having their own bipolar electric fields. Effects of collisions on the evolution of plasma clouds are also discussed. The relevance of the results seen from the calculations are discussed in the context of recent space experiments on CIV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; McGaugh, Stacy S.; Mihos, J. Christopher
2009-01-01
We model the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) potential to determine if, and under what conditions, the NFW halo appears consistent with the observed velocity fields of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. We present mock DensePak Integral Field Unit (IFU) velocity fields and rotation curves of axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric potentials that are well matched to the spatial resolution and velocity range of our sample galaxies. We find that the DensePak IFU can accurately reconstruct the velocity field produced by an axisymmetric NFW potential and that a tilted-ring fitting program can successfully recover the corresponding NFW rotation curve. We also find that nonaxisymmetric potentials with fixed axis ratios change only the normalization of the mock velocity fields and rotation curves and not their shape. The shape of the modeled NFW rotation curves does not reproduce the data: these potentials are unable to simultaneously bring the mock data at both small and large radii into agreement with observations. Indeed, to match the slow rise of LSB galaxy rotation curves, a specific viewing angle of the nonaxisymmetric potential is required. For each of the simulated LSB galaxies, the observer's line of sight must be along the minor axis of the potential, an arrangement that is inconsistent with a random distribution of halo orientations on the sky.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Min, Young Uk; Kim, Kyung Chun
2011-01-01
The conventional two-dimensional (2D) micro-particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) technique has inherent bias error due to the depth of focus along the optical axis to measure the velocity field near the wall of a microfluidics device. However, the far-field measurement of velocity vectors yields good accuracy for micro-scale flows. Nano-PIV using the evanescent wave of total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy can measure near-field velocity vectors within a distance of around 200 nm from the solid surface. A micro-/nano-hybrid PIV system is proposed to measure both near- and far-field velocity vectors simultaneously in microfluidics. A near-field particle image can be obtained by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy using nanoparticles, and the far-field velocity vectors are measured by three-hole defocusing micro-particle tracking velocimetry (micro-PTV) using micro-particles. In order to identify near- and far-field particle images, lasers of different wavelengths are adopted and tested in a straight microchannel for acquiring the three-dimensional three-component velocity field. We found that the new technique gives superior accuracy for the velocity profile near the wall compared to that of conventional nano-PIV. This method has been successfully applied to precisely measure wall shear stress in 2D microscale Poiseulle flows
Chiba, D; Kawaguchi, M; Fukami, S; Ishiwata, N; Shimamura, K; Kobayashi, K; Ono, T
2012-06-06
Controlling the displacement of a magnetic domain wall is potentially useful for information processing in magnetic non-volatile memories and logic devices. A magnetic domain wall can be moved by applying an external magnetic field and/or electric current, and its velocity depends on their magnitudes. Here we show that the applying an electric field can change the velocity of a magnetic domain wall significantly. A field-effect device, consisting of a top-gate electrode, a dielectric insulator layer, and a wire-shaped ferromagnetic Co/Pt thin layer with perpendicular anisotropy, was used to observe it in a finite magnetic field. We found that the application of the electric fields in the range of ± 2-3 MV cm(-1) can change the magnetic domain wall velocity in its creep regime (10(6)-10(3) m s(-1)) by more than an order of magnitude. This significant change is due to electrical modulation of the energy barrier for the magnetic domain wall motion.
A model relating Eulerian spatial and temporal velocity correlations
Cholemari, Murali R.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.
2006-03-01
In this paper we propose a model to relate Eulerian spatial and temporal velocity autocorrelations in homogeneous, isotropic and stationary turbulence. We model the decorrelation as the eddies of various scales becoming decorrelated. This enables us to connect the spatial and temporal separations required for a certain decorrelation through the ‘eddy scale’. Given either the spatial or the temporal velocity correlation, we obtain the ‘eddy scale’ and the rate at which the decorrelation proceeds. This leads to a spatial separation from the temporal correlation and a temporal separation from the spatial correlation, at any given value of the correlation relating the two correlations. We test the model using experimental data from a stationary axisymmetric turbulent flow with homogeneity along the axis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bramantya, M A; Sawada, T; Motozawa, M
2010-01-01
Ultrasonic propagation velocity in a magnetic fluid (MF) and magnetorheological fluid (MRF) changes with the application of an external magnetic field. The formation of clustering structures inside the MF and MRF clearly has an influence on the ultrasonic propagation velocity. Therefore, we propose a qualitative analysis of these structures by measuring properties of ultrasonic propagation. Since MF and MRF are opaque, non-contact inspection using the ultrasonic technique can be very useful for analyzing the inner structures of MF and MRF. In this study, we measured ultrasonic propagation velocity in a hydrocarbon-based MF and MRF precisely. Based on these results, the clustering structures of these fluids are analyzed experimentally in terms of elapsed time dependence and the effect of external magnetic field strength. The results reveal hysteresis and anisotropy in the ultrasonic propagation velocity. We also discuss differences of ultrasonic propagation velocity between MF and MRF.
Mass conservative fluid flow visualization for CFD velocity fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Zhenquan; Mallinson, Gordon D.
2001-01-01
Mass conservation is a key issue for accurate streamline and stream surface visualization of flow fields. This paper complements an existing method (Feng et al., 1997) for CFD velocity fields defined at discrete locations in space that uses dual stream functions to generate streamlines and stream surfaces. Conditions for using the method have been examined and its limitations defined. A complete set of dual stream functions for all possible cases of the linear fields on which the method relies are presented. The results in this paper are important for developing new methods for mass conservative streamline visualization from CFD data and using the existing method
Blender, R.
2009-04-01
An approach for the reconstruction of atmospheric flow is presented which uses space- and time-dependent fields of density ?, potential vorticity Q and potential temperature Î& cedil;[J. Phys. A, 38, 6419 (2005)]. The method is based on the fundamental equations without approximation. The basic idea is to consider the time-dependent continuity equation as a condition for zero divergence of momentum in four dimensions (time and space, with unit velocity in time). This continuity equation is solved by an ansatz for the four-dimensional momentum using three conserved stream functions, the potential vorticity, potential temperature and a third field, denoted as ?-potential. In zonal flows, the ?-potential identifies the initial longitude of particles, whereas potential vorticity and potential temperature identify mainly meridional and vertical positions. Since the Lagrangian tracers Q, Î&,cedil; and ? determine the Eulerian velocity field, the reconstruction combines the Eulerian and the Lagrangian view of hydrodynamics. In stationary flows, the ?-potential is related to the Bernoulli function. The approach requires that the gradients of the potential vorticity and potential temperature do not vanish when the velocity remains finite. This behavior indicates a possible interrelation with stability conditions. Examples with analytical solutions are presented for a Rossby wave and zonal and rotational shear flows.
H2 emission from non-stationary magnetized bow shocks
Tram, L. N.; Lesaffre, P.; Cabrit, S.; Gusdorf, A.; Nhung, P. T.
2018-01-01
When a fast moving star or a protostellar jet hits an interstellar cloud, the surrounding gas gets heated and illuminated: a bow shock is born that delineates the wake of the impact. In such a process, the new molecules that are formed and excited in the gas phase become accessible to observations. In this paper, we revisit models of H2 emission in these bow shocks. We approximate the bow shock by a statistical distribution of planar shocks computed with a magnetized shock model. We improve on previous works by considering arbitrary bow shapes, a finite irradiation field and by including the age effect of non-stationary C-type shocks on the excitation diagram and line profiles of H2. We also examine the dependence of the line profiles on the shock velocity and on the viewing angle: we suggest that spectrally resolved observations may greatly help to probe the dynamics inside the bow shock. For reasonable bow shapes, our analysis shows that low-velocity shocks largely contribute to H2 excitation diagram. This can result in an observational bias towards low velocities when planar shocks are used to interpret H2 emission from an unresolved bow. We also report a large magnetization bias when the velocity of the planar model is set independently. Our 3D models reproduce excitation diagrams in BHR 71 and Orion bow shocks better than previous 1D models. Our 3D model is also able to reproduce the shape and width of the broad H2 1-0S(1) line profile in an Orion bow shock (Brand et al. 1989).
Stationary stochastic processes theory and applications
Lindgren, Georg
2012-01-01
Some Probability and Process BackgroundSample space, sample function, and observablesRandom variables and stochastic processesStationary processes and fieldsGaussian processesFour historical landmarksSample Function PropertiesQuadratic mean propertiesSample function continuityDerivatives, tangents, and other characteristicsStochastic integrationAn ergodic resultExercisesSpectral RepresentationsComplex-valued stochastic processesBochner's theorem and the spectral distributionSpectral representation of a stationary processGaussian processesStationary counting processesExercisesLinear Filters - General PropertiesLinear time invariant filtersLinear filters and differential equationsWhite noise in linear systemsLong range dependence, non-integrable spectra, and unstable systemsThe ARMA-familyLinear Filters - Special TopicsThe Hilbert transform and the envelopeThe sampling theoremKarhunen-Loève expansionClassical Ergodic Theory and MixingThe basic ergodic theorem in L2Stationarity and transformationsThe ergodic th...
Existence of weak solutions to first-order stationary mean-field games with Dirichlet conditions
Ferreira, Rita; Gomes, Diogo A.; Tada, Teruo
2018-01-01
In this paper, we study first-order stationary monotone mean-field games (MFGs) with Dirichlet boundary conditions. While for Hamilton--Jacobi equations Dirichlet conditions may not be satisfied, here, we establish the existence of solutions of MFGs that satisfy those conditions. To construct these solutions, we introduce a monotone regularized problem. Applying Schaefer's fixed-point theorem and using the monotonicity of the MFG, we verify that there exists a unique weak solution to the regularized problem. Finally, we take the limit of the solutions of the regularized problem and using Minty's method, we show the existence of weak solutions to the original MFG.
Diffusion with intrinsic trapping in 2-d incompressible stochastic velocity fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.; Misguich, J.H.; Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.; Balescu, R.
1998-10-01
A new statistical approach that applies to the high Kubo number regimes for particle diffusion in stochastic velocity fields is presented. This 2-dimensional model describes the partial trapping of the particles in the stochastic field. the results are close to the numerical simulations and also to the estimations based on percolation theory. (authors)
Time-depth and velocity trend analysis of the Wasagu field ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
From this study of data sets from Wasagu field in the Niger Delta, it has been found ... relief) cause big difference in bed velocities or where anisotropy is severe. ... of seismic data and checkshot data sets, which lie three wells, a relationship ...
On the measurements of large scale solar velocity fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersen, B.N.
1985-01-01
A general mathematical formulation for the correction of the scattered light influence on solar Doppler shift measurements has been developed. This method has been applied to the straylight correction of measurements of solar rotation, limb effect, large scale flows and oscillations. It is shown that neglecting the straylight errors may cause spurious large scale velocity fields, oscillations and erronous values for the solar rotation and limb effect. The influence of active regions on full disc velocity measurements has been studied. It is shown that a 13 day periodicity in the global velocity signal will be introduced by the passage of sunspots over the solar disc. With different types of low resolution apertures, other periodicities may be introduced. Accurate measurements of the center-to-limb velocity shift are presented for a set of magnetic insensitive lines well suited for solar velocity measurements. The absolute wavelenght shifts are briefly discussed. The stronger lines have a ''supergravitational'' shift of 300-400 m/s at the solar limb. The results may be explained by the presence of a 20-25 m/s poleward meridional flow and a latitudinal dependence of the granular parameters. Using a simple model it is shown that the main properites of the observations are explained by a 5% increase in the granular size with latitude. Data presented indicate that the resonance line K I, 769.9 nm has a small but significant limb effect of 125 m/s from center to limb
Double path-integral migration velocity analysis: a real data example
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, Jessé C; Schleicher, Jörg
2011-01-01
Path-integral imaging forms an image with no knowledge of the velocity model by summing over the migrated images obtained for a set of migration velocity models. Double path-integral imaging migration extracts the stationary velocities, i.e. those velocities at which common-image gathers align horizontally, as a byproduct. An application of the technique to a real data set demonstrates that quantitative information about the time migration velocity model can be determined by double path-integral migration velocity analysis. Migrated images using interpolations with different regularizations of the extracted velocities prove the high quality of the resulting time-migration velocity information. The so-obtained velocity model can then be used as a starting model for subsequent velocity analysis tools like migration tomography or other tomographic methods
Stopping power for arbitrary angle between test particle velocity and magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cereceda, Carlo; Peretti, Michel de; Deutsch, Claude
2005-01-01
Using the longitudinal dielectric function derived previously for charged test particles in helical movement around magnetic field lines, the numerical convergence of the series involved is found and the double numerical integrations on wave vector components are performed yielding the stopping power for arbitrary angle between the test particle velocity and magnetic field. Calculations are performed for particle Larmor radius larger and shorter than Debye length, i.e., for protons in a cold magnetized plasma and for thermonuclear α particles in a dense, hot, and strongly magnetized plasma. A strong decrease is found for the energy loss as the angle varies from 0 to π/2. The range of thermonuclear α particles as a function of the velocity angle with respect to the magnetic field is also given
Clear and Measurable Signature of Modified Gravity in the Galaxy Velocity Field
Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Barreira, Alexandre; Frenk, Carlos S.; Li, Baojiu; Cole, Shaun
2014-06-01
The velocity field of dark matter and galaxies reflects the continued action of gravity throughout cosmic history. We show that the low-order moments of the pairwise velocity distribution v12 are a powerful diagnostic of the laws of gravity on cosmological scales. In particular, the projected line-of-sight galaxy pairwise velocity dispersion σ12(r) is very sensitive to the presence of modified gravity. Using a set of high-resolution N-body simulations, we compute the pairwise velocity distribution and its projected line-of-sight dispersion for a class of modified gravity theories: the chameleon f(R) gravity and Galileon gravity (cubic and quartic). The velocities of dark matter halos with a wide range of masses would exhibit deviations from general relativity at the (5-10)σ level. We examine strategies for detecting these deviations in galaxy redshift and peculiar velocity surveys. If detected, this signature would be a "smoking gun" for modified gravity.
Sadek, Samir H; Pimenta, Francisco; Pinho, Fernando T; Alves, Manuel A
2017-04-01
In this work, we explore two methods to simultaneously measure the electroosmotic mobility in microchannels and the electrophoretic mobility of micron-sized tracer particles. The first method is based on imposing a pulsed electric field, which allows to isolate electrophoresis and electroosmosis at the startup and shutdown of the pulse, respectively. In the second method, a sinusoidal electric field is generated and the mobilities are found by minimizing the difference between the measured velocity of tracer particles and the velocity computed from an analytical expression. Both methods produced consistent results using polydimethylsiloxane microchannels and polystyrene micro-particles, provided that the temporal resolution of the particle tracking velocimetry technique used to compute the velocity of the tracer particles is fast enough to resolve the diffusion time-scale based on the characteristic channel length scale. Additionally, we present results with the pulse method for viscoelastic fluids, which show a more complex transient response with significant velocity overshoots and undershoots after the start and the end of the applied electric pulse, respectively. © 2016 The Authors. Electrophoresis published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Lei; Li, Yu-Xian; Liu, Jian-Jun
2012-01-01
Using transfer matrix method, transport properties in graphene based double velocity-barrier structures under magnetic and electric fields are numerically studied. It is found that velocity barriers for the velocity ratio (the Fermi velocity inside the barrier to that outside the barrier) less than one (or for the velocity ratio greater than one) have properties similar to electrostatic wells (or barriers). The velocity barriers for the velocity ratio greater than one significantly enlarge the resonant tunneling region of electrostatic barriers. In the presence of magnetic field, the plateau width of the Fano factor with a Poissonian value shortens (or broadens) for the case of the velocity ratio less than one (or greater than one). When the Fermi energy is equal to the electrostatic barrier height, for different values of the velocity ratio, both the conductivities and the Fano factors remain fixed. -- Highlights: ► We model graphene based velocity-barrier structures in electric and magnetic fields. ► Velocity barrier for ξ 1) have property similar to electrostatic well (barrier). ► Velocity barrier for ξ>1 enlarge the resonant tunneling region of electrostatic barrier. ► The plateau width of Fano factor shortens (or broadens) for the case of ξ 1). ► The conductivity remains fixed at the point of E F =U 0 for different values of ξ.
Two-dimensional, average velocity field across the Asal Rift, Djibouti from 1997-2008 RADARSAT data
Tomic, J.; Doubre, C.; Peltzer, G.
2009-12-01
Located at the western end of the Aden ridge, the Asal Rift is the first emerged section of the ridge propagating into Afar, a region of intense volcanic and tectonic activity. We construct a two-dimensional surface velocity map of the 200x400 km2 region covering the rift using the 1997-2008 archive of InSAR data acquired from ascending and descending passes of the RADARSAT satellite. The large phase signal due to turbulent troposphere conditions over the Afar region is mostly removed from the 11-year average line of sight (LOS) velocity maps, revealing a clear deformation signal across the rift. We combine the ascending and descending pass LOS velocity fields with the Arabia-Somalia pole of rotation adjusted to regional GPS velocities (Vigny et al., 2007) to compute the fields of the vertical and horizontal, GPS-parallel components of the velocity over the rift. The vertical velocity field shows a ~40 km wide zone of doming centered over the Fieale caldera associated with shoulder uplift and subsidence of the rift inner floor. Differential movement between shoulders and floor is accommodated by creep at 6 mm/yr on Fault γ and 2.7 mm/yr on Fault E. The horizontal field shows that the two shoulders open at a rate of ~15 mm/yr, while the horizontal velocity decreases away from the rift to the plate motion rate of ~11 mm/yr. Part of the opening is concentrated on faults γ (5 mm/yr) and E (4 mm/yr) and about 4 mm/yr is distributed between Fault E and Fault H in the southern part of the rift. The observed velocity field along a 60 km-long profile across the eastern part of the rift can be explained with a 2D mechanical model involving a 5-9 km-deep, vertical dyke expanding horizontally at a rate of 5 cm/yr, a 2 km-wide, 7 km-deep sill expanding vertically at 1cm/yr, and down-dip and opening of faults γ and E. Results from 3D rift models describing along-strike velocity decrease away from the Goubbet Gulf and the effects of a pressurized magma chamber will be
Kinetic features and non-stationary electron trapping in paraxial magnetic nozzles
Sánchez-Arriaga, G.; Zhou, J.; Ahedo, E.; Martínez-Sánchez, M.; Ramos, J. J.
2018-03-01
The paraxial expansion of a collisionless plasma jet into vacuum, guided by a magnetic nozzle, is studied with an Eulerian and non-stationary Vlasov-Poisson solver. Parametric analyzes varying the magnetic field expansion rate, the size of the simulation box, and the electrostatic potential fall are presented. After choosing the potential fall leading to a zero net current beam, the steady states of the simulations exhibit a quasi-neutral region followed by a downstream sheath. The latter, an unavoidable consequence of the finite size of the computational domain, does not affect the quasi-neutral region if the box size is chosen appropriately. The steady state presents a strong decay of the perpendicular temperature of the electrons, whose profile versus the inverse of the magnetic field does not depend on the expansion rate within the quasi-neutral region. As a consequence, the electron distribution function is highly anisotropic downstream. The simulations revealed that the ions reach a higher velocity during the transient than in the steady state and their distribution functions are not far from mono-energetic. The density percentage of the population of electrons trapped during the transient, which is computed self-consistently by the code, is up to 25% of the total electron density in the quasi-neutral region. It is demonstrated that the exact amount depends on the history of the system and the steady state is not unique. Nevertheless, the amount of trapped electrons is smaller than the one assumed heuristically by kinetic stationary theories.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gurgiolo, C. [Bitterroot Basic Research, Hamilton, MT (United States); Goldstein, M.L.; Vinas, A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Heliospheric Physics Lab.; Matthaeus, W.H. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Bartol Research Foundation; Fazakerley, A.N. [University College London, Dorking (United Kingdom). Mullard Space Science Lab.
2013-07-01
The Taylor microscale is one of the fundamental turbulence scales. Not easily estimated in the interplanetary medium employing single spacecraft data, it has generally been studied through two point correlations. In this paper we present an alternative, albeit mathematically equivalent, method for estimating the Taylor microscale ({lambda}{sub T}). We make two independent determinations employing multi-spacecraft data sets from the Cluster mission, one using magnetic field data and a second using electron velocity data. Our results using the magnetic field data set yields a scale length of 1538{+-}550 km, slightly less than, but within the same range as, values found in previous magnetic-field-based studies. During time periods where both magnetic field and electron velocity data can be used, the two values can be compared. Relative comparisons show {lambda}{sub T} computed from the velocity is often significantly smaller than that from the magnetic field data. Due to a lack of events where both measurements are available, the absolute {lambda}{sub T} based on the electron fluid velocity is not able to be determined.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Gurgiolo
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The Taylor microscale is one of the fundamental turbulence scales. Not easily estimated in the interplanetary medium employing single spacecraft data, it has generally been studied through two point correlations. In this paper we present an alternative, albeit mathematically equivalent, method for estimating the Taylor microscale (λT. We make two independent determinations employing multi-spacecraft data sets from the Cluster mission, one using magnetic field data and a second using electron velocity data. Our results using the magnetic field data set yields a scale length of 1538 ± 550 km, slightly less than, but within the same range as, values found in previous magnetic-field-based studies. During time periods where both magnetic field and electron velocity data can be used, the two values can be compared. Relative comparisons show λT computed from the velocity is often significantly smaller than that from the magnetic field data. Due to a lack of events where both measurements are available, the absolute λT based on the electron fluid velocity is not able to be determined.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurgiolo, C.; Goldstein, M.L.; Vinas, A.; Matthaeus, W.H.; Fazakerley, A.N.
2013-01-01
The Taylor microscale is one of the fundamental turbulence scales. Not easily estimated in the interplanetary medium employing single spacecraft data, it has generally been studied through two point correlations. In this paper we present an alternative, albeit mathematically equivalent, method for estimating the Taylor microscale (λ T ). We make two independent determinations employing multi-spacecraft data sets from the Cluster mission, one using magnetic field data and a second using electron velocity data. Our results using the magnetic field data set yields a scale length of 1538±550 km, slightly less than, but within the same range as, values found in previous magnetic-field-based studies. During time periods where both magnetic field and electron velocity data can be used, the two values can be compared. Relative comparisons show λ T computed from the velocity is often significantly smaller than that from the magnetic field data. Due to a lack of events where both measurements are available, the absolute λ T based on the electron fluid velocity is not able to be determined.
Conserved quantities for stationary Einstein-Maxwell space-times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esposito, F.P.; Witten, L.
1978-01-01
It is shown that every stationary Einstein-Maxwell space-time has eight divergence-free vector fields and these are isolated in general form. The vector fields and associated conserved quantities are calculated for several families of space-times. (Auth.)
Stationary walking solitons in bulk quadratic nonlinear media
Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, D; Crasonavn, L C; Torner Sabata, Lluís
1997-01-01
We study the mutual trapping of fundamental and second-harmonic light beams propagating in bulk quadratic nonlinear media in the presence of Poynting vector beam walk-off. We show numerically the existence of a two-parameter family of (2 + 1)-dimensional stationary, spatial walking solitons. We have found that the solitons exist at various values of material parameters with different wave intensities and soliton velocities. We discuss the differences between (2 + 1) and (1 + 1)-dimensional wa...
Existence of weak solutions to first-order stationary mean-field games with Dirichlet conditions
Ferreira, Rita
2018-04-19
In this paper, we study first-order stationary monotone mean-field games (MFGs) with Dirichlet boundary conditions. While for Hamilton--Jacobi equations Dirichlet conditions may not be satisfied, here, we establish the existence of solutions of MFGs that satisfy those conditions. To construct these solutions, we introduce a monotone regularized problem. Applying Schaefer\\'s fixed-point theorem and using the monotonicity of the MFG, we verify that there exists a unique weak solution to the regularized problem. Finally, we take the limit of the solutions of the regularized problem and using Minty\\'s method, we show the existence of weak solutions to the original MFG.
Hillesheim, Jon
2015-11-01
High spatial resolution measurements with Doppler backscattering in JET have provided new insights into the development of the edge radial electric field during pedestal formation. The characteristics of Er have been studied as a function of density at 2.5 MA plasma current and 3 T toroidal magnetic field. We observe fine-scale spatial structure in the edge Er well prior to the LH transition, consistent with stationary zonal flows. Zonal flows are a fundamental mechanism for the saturation of turbulence and this is the first direct evidence of stationary zonal flows in a tokamak. The radial wavelength of the zonal flows systematically decreases with density. The zonal flows are clearest in Ohmic conditions, weaker in L-mode, and absent in H-mode. Measurements also show that after neutral beam heating is applied, the edge Er builds up at a constant gradient into the core during L-mode, at radii where Er is mainly due to toroidal velocity. The local stability of velocity shear driven turbulence, such as the parallel velocity gradient mode, will be assessed with gyrokinetic simulations. This critical Er shear persists across the LH transition into H-mode. Surprisingly, a reduction in the apparent magnitude of the Er well depth is observed directly following the LH transition at high densities. Establishing the physics basis for the LH transition is important for projecting scalings to ITER and these observations challenge existing models based on increased Er shear or strong zonal flows as the trigger for the transition. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium and has received funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 under grant agreement No 633053. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bol, G H; Lagendijk, J J W; Raaymakers, B W
2015-01-01
With the development of the 1.5 T MRI linear accelerator and the clinical introduction of the 0.35 T ViewRay™ system, delivering intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in a transverse magnetic field becomes increasingly important. When delivering dose in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, one of the most prominent phenomena occurs around air cavities: the electron return effect (ERE). For stationary, spherical air cavities which are centrally located in the phantom, the ERE can be compensated by using opposing beams configurations in combination with IMRT. In this paper we investigate the effects of non-stationary spherical air cavities, centrally located within the target in a phantom containing no organs at risk, on IMRT dose delivery in 0.35 T and 1.5 T transverse magnetic fields by using Monte Carlo simulations. We show that IMRT can be used for compensating ERE around those air cavities, except for intrafraction appearing or disappearing air cavities. For these cases, gating or plan re-optimization should be used. We also analyzed the option of using IMRT plans optimized at 0 T to be delivered in the presence of 0.35 T and 1.5 T magnetic field. When delivering dose at 0.35 T, IMRT plans optimized at 0 T and 0.35 T perform equally well regarding ERE compensation. Within a 1.5 T environment, the 1.5 T optimized plans perform slightly better for the static and random intra- and interfraction air cavity movement cases than the 0 T optimized plans. For non-stationary spherical air cavities with a baseline shift (intra- and interfraction) the 0 T optimized plans perform better. These observations show the intrinsic ERE compensation by equidistant and opposing beam configurations for spherical air cavities within the target area. IMRT gives some additional compensation, but only in case of correct positioning of the air cavity according to the IMRT compensation. For intrafraction appearing or disappearing air cavities this correct
New Methods for Estimating Water Current Velocity Fields from Autonomous Underwater Vehicles
Kinsey, J. C.; Medagoda, L.
2016-02-01
Water current velocities are a crucial component of understanding oceanographic processes and underwater robots, such as autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), provide a mobile platform for obtaining these observations. Estimating water current velocities requires both measurements of the water velocity, often obtained with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP), as well as estimates of the vehicle velocity. Presently, vehicle velocities are supplied on the sea surface with velocity from GPS, or near the seafloor where Doppler Velocity Log (DVL) in bottom-lock is available; however, this capability is unavailable in the mid-water column where DVL bottom-lock and GPS are unavailable. Here we present a method which calculates vehicle velocities using consecutive ADCP measurements in the mid-water using an extended Kalman filter (EKF). The correlation of the spatially changing water current states, along with mass transport and shear constraints on the water current field, is formulated using least square constraints. Results from the Sentry AUV from a mid-water surveying mission at Deepwater Horizon and a small-scale hydrothermal vent flux estimation mission suggest the method is suitable for real-time use. DVL data is denied to simulate mid-water missions and the results compared to ground truth water velocity measurements estimated using DVL velocities. Results show quantifiable uncertainties in the water current velocities, along with similar performance, for the DVL and no-DVL case in the mid-water. This method has the potential to provide geo-referenced water velocity measurements from mobile ocean robots in the absence of GPS and DVL as well as estimate the uncertainty associated with the measurements.
On the stationary Einstein-Maxwell-Klein-Gordon equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gegenberg, J.D.
1981-05-01
The stationary Einstein-Maxwell-Klein-Gordon (EMKG) equations for interacting gravitational, electromagnetic and meson fields are examined. The theory is cast into the formalism of principal fiber bundles with a connection, wherein its relationship to current trends in theoretical physics is made manifest. The EMKG equations are shown to admit a Higgs-like mechanism for giving mass to the gauge field. A theorem specifying sufficient conditions for the stationarity of the spacetime metric to imply stationarity of the other fields is proved. By imposing additional constraints and symmetries, the EMKG equations are considerably simplified. An attempt is made to apply a solution-generation technique, and this meets with only partial success. Finally, a stationary but non-static solution is found, and the geometric and physical properties are discussed
Onset of flows of weakly conducting media in an inhomogeneous electric field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozyrenko, V.E.
1986-01-01
This paper attempts to take account of the effect of the inhomogeneous nature of the field occurring in real conditions on the onset of liquid flow. The electric field distribution in the liquid and the motion ensuing under its influence are described by a closed system of equations for the stationary case. The author considers the case when the field, induced by the space charge, is appreciably smaller than the applied field. The results obtained permit one to pass on to the determination of the velocity field. The procedures discussed can be considerably simplified
A visual description of the convective flow field around the heat of a human
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Özcan, Oktay; Meyer, Knud Erik; Melikov, Arsen Krikor
2005-01-01
Mean velocity data obtained by PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) around the head of a real-life size breathing thermal manikin are presented for two cases of `no breathing' and `continuous exhalation through nose'. Experiments were conducted in a special chamber which provided stationary convectiv...... flows around the seated manikin. Results are limited to the plane of symmetry. The paper aims to describe the physical structure of the turbulent flow field by presenting velocity and vorticity data in color graphics....
Lagrangian velocity correlations in homogeneous isotropic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gotoh, T.; Rogallo, R.S.; Herring, J.R.; Kraichnan, R.H.
1993-01-01
The Lagrangian velocity autocorrelation and the time correlations for individual wave-number bands are computed by direct numerical simulation (DNS) using the passive vector method (PVM), and the accuracy of the method is studied. It is found that the PVM is accurate when K max /k d ≥2 where K max is the maximum wave number carried in the simulation and k d is the Kolmogorov wave number. The Eulerian and Lagrangian time correlations for various wave-number bands are compared. At moderate to high wave number the Eulerian time correlation decays faster than the Lagrangian, and the effect of sweep on the former is observed. The time scale of the Eulerian correlation is found to be (kU 0 ) -1 while that of the Lagrangian is [∫ 0 k p 2 E(p)dp] -1/2 . The Lagrangian velocity autocorrelation in a frozen turbulent field is computed using the DIA, ALHDIA, and LRA theories and is compared with DNS measurements. The Markovianized Lagrangian renormalized approximation (MLRA) is compared with the DNS, and good agreement is found for one-time quantities in decaying turbulence at low Reynolds numbers and for the Lagrangian velocity autocorrelation in stationary turbulence at moderate Reynolds number. The effect of non-Gaussianity on the Lagrangian correlation predicted by the theories is also discussed
Estimation of 3-D conduction velocity vector fields from cardiac mapping data.
Barnette, A R; Bayly, P V; Zhang, S; Walcott, G P; Ideker, R E; Smith, W M
2000-08-01
A method to estimate three-dimensional (3-D) conduction velocity vector fields in cardiac tissue is presented. The speed and direction of propagation are found from polynomial "surfaces" fitted to space-time (x, y, z, t) coordinates of cardiac activity. The technique is applied to sinus rhythm and paced rhythm mapped with plunge needles at 396-466 sites in the canine myocardium. The method was validated on simulated 3-D plane and spherical waves. For simulated data, conduction velocities were estimated with an accuracy of 1%-2%. In experimental data, estimates of conduction speeds during paced rhythm were slower than those found during normal sinus rhythm. Vector directions were also found to differ between different types of beats. The technique was able to distinguish between premature ventricular contractions and sinus beats and between sinus and paced beats. The proposed approach to computing velocity vector fields provides an automated, physiological, and quantitative description of local electrical activity in 3-D tissue. This method may provide insight into abnormal conduction associated with fatal ventricular arrhythmias.
Ab initio velocity-field curves in monoclinic β-Ga2O3
Ghosh, Krishnendu; Singisetti, Uttam
2017-07-01
We investigate the high-field transport in monoclinic β-Ga2O3 using a combination of ab initio calculations and full band Monte Carlo (FBMC) simulation. Scattering rate calculation and the final state selection in the FBMC simulation use complete wave-vector (both electron and phonon) and crystal direction dependent electron phonon interaction (EPI) elements. We propose and implement a semi-coarse version of the Wannier-Fourier interpolation method [Giustino et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 165108 (2007)] for short-range non-polar optical phonon (EPI) elements in order to ease the computational requirement in FBMC simulation. During the interpolation of the EPI, the inverse Fourier sum over the real-space electronic grids is done on a coarse mesh while the unitary rotations are done on a fine mesh. This paper reports the high field transport in monoclinic β-Ga2O3 with deep insight into the contribution of electron-phonon interactions and velocity-field characteristics for electric fields ranging up to 450 kV/cm in different crystal directions. A peak velocity of 2 × 107 cm/s is estimated at an electric field of 200 kV/cm.
The large-scale peculiar velocity field in flat models of the universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vittorio, N.; Turner, M.S.
1986-10-01
The inflationary Universe scenario predicts a flat Universe and both adiabatic and isocurvature primordial density perturbations with the Zel'dovich spectrum. The two simplest realizations, models dominated by hot or cold dark matter, seem to be in conflict with observations. Flat models are examined with two components of mass density, where one of the components of mass density is smoothly distributed and the large-scale (≥10h -1 MpC) peculiar velocity field for these models is considered. For the smooth component relativistic particles, a relic cosmological term, and light strings are considered. At present the observational situation is unsettled; but, in principle, the large-scale peculiar velocity field is very powerful discriminator between these different models. 61 refs
Geophysics-based method of locating a stationary earth object
Daily, Michael R [Albuquerque, NM; Rohde, Steven B [Corrales, NM; Novak, James L [Albuquerque, NM
2008-05-20
A geophysics-based method for determining the position of a stationary earth object uses the periodic changes in the gravity vector of the earth caused by the sun- and moon-orbits. Because the local gravity field is highly irregular over a global scale, a model of local tidal accelerations can be compared to actual accelerometer measurements to determine the latitude and longitude of the stationary object.
Quantum manipulation of two-color stationary light: Quantum wavelength conversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moiseev, S. A.; Ham, B. S.
2006-01-01
We present a quantum manipulation of a traveling light pulse using electromagnetically induced transparency-based slow light phenomenon for the generation of two-color stationary light. We theoretically discuss the two-color stationary light for the quantum wavelength conversion process in terms of pulse area, energy transfer, and propagation directions. The condition of the two-color stationary light pulse generation has been found and the quantum light dynamics has been studied analytically in the adiabatic limit. The quantum frequency conversion rate of the traveling light is dependent on the spatial spreading of the two-color stationary light pulse and can be near unity in an optically dense medium for the optimal frequencies of the control laser fields
Moreno-Casas, P. A.; Bombardelli, F. A.
2015-12-01
A 3D Lagrangian particle tracking model is coupled to a 3D channel velocity field to simulate the saltation motion of a single sediment particle moving in saltation mode. The turbulent field is a high-resolution three dimensional velocity field that reproduces a by-pass transition to turbulence on a flat plate due to free-stream turbulence passing above de plate. In order to reduce computational costs, a decoupled approached is used, i.e., the turbulent flow is simulated independently from the tracking model, and then used to feed the 3D Lagrangian particle model. The simulations are carried using the point-particle approach. The particle tracking model contains three sub-models, namely, particle free-flight, a post-collision velocity and bed representation sub-models. The free-flight sub-model considers the action of the following forces: submerged weight, non-linear drag, lift, virtual mass, Magnus and Basset forces. The model also includes the effect of particle angular velocity. The post-collision velocities are obtained by applying conservation of angular and linear momentum. The complete model was validated with experimental results from literature within the sand range. Results for particle velocity time series and distribution of particle turbulent intensities are presented.
Cappell, M S; Spray, D C; Bennett, M V
1988-06-28
Protractor muscles in the gastropod mollusc Navanax inermis exhibit typical spontaneous miniature end plate potentials with mean amplitude 1.71 +/- 1.19 (standard deviation) mV. The evoked end plate potential is quantized, with a quantum equal to the miniature end plate potential amplitude. When their rate is stationary, occurrence of miniature end plate potentials is a random, Poisson process. When non-stationary, spontaneous miniature end plate potential occurrence is a non-stationary Poisson process, a Poisson process with the mean frequency changing with time. This extends the random Poisson model for miniature end plate potentials to the frequently observed non-stationary occurrence. Reported deviations from a Poisson process can sometimes be accounted for by the non-stationary Poisson process and more complex models, such as clustered release, are not always needed.
The Seismo-Generated Electric Field Probed by the Ionospheric Ion Velocity
(Tiger) Liu, Jann-Yenq
2017-04-01
The ion density, ion temperature, and the ion velocity probed by IPEI (ionospheric Plasma and Electrodynamics Instrument) onboard ROCSAT (i.e. FORMOSAT-1), and the global ionospheric map (GIM) of the total electron content (TEC) derived from measurements of ground-based GPS receivers are employed to study seismo-ionospheric precursors (SIPs) of the 31 March 2002 M6.8 Earthquake in Taiwan. The GIM TEC and ROCSAT/IPEI ion density significantly decrease specifically over the epicenter area 1-5 days before the earthquake, which suggests that the associated SIPs have observed. The ROCSAT/IPEI ion temperature reveals no significant changes before and after the earthquake, while the latitude-time-TEC plots extracted from the GIMs along the Taiwan longitude illustrate that the equatorial ionization anomaly significantly weakens and moves equatorward, which indicates that the daily dynamo electric field has been disturbed and cancelled by possible seismo-generated electric field on 2 days before (29 March) the earthquake. Here, for the first time a vector parameter of ion velocity is employed to study SIPs. It is found that ROCSAT/IPEI ion velocity becomes significantly downward, which confirms that a westward electric field of about 0.91mV/m generated during the earthquake preparation period being essential 1-5 days before the earthquake. Liu, J. Y., and C. K. Chao (2016), An observing system simulation experiment for FORMOSAT-5/AIP detecting seismo-ionospheric precursors, Terrestrial Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, DOI: 10.3319/TAO.2016.07.18.01(EOF5).
Non-gyrotropic pressure anisotropy induced by velocity shear.
Tenerani, A.; Del Sarto, D.; Pegoraro, F.; Califano, F.
2015-12-01
We discuss how, in a collisionless magnetized plasma, a sheared velocity field may lead to the anisotropization of an initial Maxwellian state. By including the full pressure tensor dynamics in a fluid plasma model, we show, analytically and numerically, that a sheared velocity field makes an initial isotropic state anisotropic and non-gyrotropic [1], i.e., makes the plasma pressure tensor anisotropic also in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. The propagation of transverse magneto-elastic waves in the anisotropic plasma affects the process of formation of a non-gyrotropic pressure and can lead to its spatial filamentation. This plasma dynamics implies in particular that isotropic MHD equilibria cease to be equilibria in presence of a stationary sheared flow. Similarly, in the case of turbulence, where small-scale spatial inhomogeneities are naturally developed during the direct cascade, we may expect that isotropic turbulent states are not likely to exist whenever a full pressure tensor evolution is accounted for. These results may be relevant to understanding the agyrotropic pressure configurations which are well documented in solar wind measurements and possibly correlated to plasma flows (see e.g. Refs.[2,3]), and which have also been measured in Vlasov simulations of Alfvenic turbulence [4]. [1] D. Del Sarto, F. Pegoraro, F. Califano, "Pressure anisotropy and small spatial scales induced by a velocity shear", http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.04895 [2] H.F. Astudillo, E. Marsch, S. Livi, H. Rosenbauer, "TAUS measurements of non-gyrotropic distribution functions of solar wind alpha particles", AIP Conf. Proc. 328, 289 (1996). [3] A. Posner, M.W. Liemhon, T.H. Zurbuchen, "Upstream magnetospheric ion flux tube within a magnetic cloud: Wind/STICS", Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, (2003). [4] S. Servidio, F. Valentini, F. Califano, P. Veltri, "Local kinetic effects in Two-Dimensional Plasma Turbulence", Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 045001 (2012).
High-power plasma dynamic systems of quasi-stationary type in IPP NSK KIPT: results and prospects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solyakov, D.G.
2015-01-01
This paper is devoted to brief review of main experimental results of investigations of high-power quasi-stationary plasma dynamic systems in the IPP NSC KIPT. In experiments were shown that to received accelerated plasma streams with high value of energy in quasi-stationary modes all conditions on the accelerating channel boundary should be controlled independently. As a results of optimizations of the modes of operation all QSPA active elements quasi-stationary plasma flow in the channel during 480 μs at discharge durations 550μs was obtained. The plasma streams velocity was close to theoretical limit for present experimental conditions. Plasma streams with maximum velocity up to 4.2 · 10 7 cm/s and total value of energy containment in the stream 0.4...0.6 MJ were received. The main properties of compression zone formation in the plasma streams generated by magneto-plasma compressor in quasi-stationary modes were investigated. In experiments were shown that initial conditions, namely residual pressure in the vacuum chamber made a big influence on the value of plasma density in compression zone. Compressive plasma streams with density (2...4)·10 18 cm -3 during 20...25μs at discharge duration 10μs were obtained. This value of plasma density is close to theoretical limit for present experimental conditions
The spectral analysis of cyclo-non-stationary signals
Abboud, D.; Baudin, S.; Antoni, J.; Rémond, D.; Eltabach, M.; Sauvage, O.
2016-06-01
Condition monitoring of rotating machines in speed-varying conditions remains a challenging task and an active field of research. Specifically, the produced vibrations belong to a particular class of non-stationary signals called cyclo-non-stationary: although highly non-stationary, they contain hidden periodicities related to the shaft angle; the phenomenon of long term modulations is what makes them different from cyclostationary signals which are encountered under constant speed regimes. In this paper, it is shown that the optimal way of describing cyclo-non-stationary signals is jointly in the time and the angular domains. While the first domain describes the waveform characteristics related to the system dynamics, the second one reveals existing periodicities linked to the system kinematics. Therefore, a specific class of signals - coined angle-time cyclostationary is considered, expressing the angle-time interaction. Accordingly, the related spectral representations, the order-frequency spectral correlation and coherence functions are proposed and their efficiency is demonstrated on two industrial cases.
Non-Stationary Dependence Structures for Spatial Extremes
Huser, Raphaël
2016-03-03
Max-stable processes are natural models for spatial extremes because they provide suitable asymptotic approximations to the distribution of maxima of random fields. In the recent past, several parametric families of stationary max-stable models have been developed, and fitted to various types of data. However, a recurrent problem is the modeling of non-stationarity. In this paper, we develop non-stationary max-stable dependence structures in which covariates can be easily incorporated. Inference is performed using pairwise likelihoods, and its performance is assessed by an extensive simulation study based on a non-stationary locally isotropic extremal t model. Evidence that unknown parameters are well estimated is provided, and estimation of spatial return level curves is discussed. The methodology is demonstrated with temperature maxima recorded over a complex topography. Models are shown to satisfactorily capture extremal dependence.
Tellez, Jackson; Gomez, Manuel; Russo, Beniamino; Redondo, Jose M.
2015-04-01
An important achievement in hydraulic engineering is the proposal and development of new techniques for the measurement of field velocities in hydraulic problems. The technological advances in digital cameras with high resolution and high speed found in the market, and the advances in digital image processing techniques now provides a tremendous potential to measure and study the behavior of the water surface flows. This technique was applied at the Laboratory of Hydraulics at the Technical University of Catalonia - Barcelona Tech to study the 2D velocity fields in the vicinity of a grate inlet. We used a platform to test grate inlets capacity with dimensions of 5.5 m long and 4 m wide allowing a zone of useful study of 5.5m x 3m, where the width is similar of the urban road lane. The platform allows you to modify the longitudinal slopes from 0% to 10% and transversal slope from 0% to 4%. Flow rates can arrive to 200 l/s. In addition a high resolution camera with 1280 x 1024 pixels resolution with maximum speed of 488 frames per second was used. A novel technique using particle image velocimetry to measure surface flow velocities has been developed and validated with the experimental data from the grate inlets capacity. In this case, the proposed methodology can become a useful tools to understand the velocity fields of the flow approaching the inlet where the traditional measuring equipment have serious problems and limitations. References DigiFlow User Guide. (2012), (June). Russo, B., Gómez, M., & Tellez, J. (2013). Methodology to Estimate the Hydraulic Efficiency of Nontested Continuous Transverse Grates. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 139(10), 864-871. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000625 Teresa Vila (1), Jackson Tellez (1), Jesus Maria Sanchez (2), Laura Sotillos (1), Margarita Diez (3, 1), and J., & (1), M. R. (2014). Diffusion in fractal wakes and convective thermoelectric flows. Geophysical Research Abstracts - EGU General Assembly 2014
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Min Seop; Park, So Hyun; Kim, Eung Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
Many researchers conducted experiments and numerical simulations to measure or predict a Nusselt number or a friction factor in a pipe with a twisted tape while some other studies focused on the heat transfer performance enhancement using various twisted tape configurations. However, since the optical access to the inner space of a pipe with a twisted tape was limited, the detailed flow field data were not obtainable so far. Thus, researchers mainly relied on the numerical simulations to obtain the data of the flow field. In this study, a 3D printing technique was used to manufacture a transparent test section for optical access. And also, a noble refractive index matching technique was used to eliminate optical distortion. This two combined techniques enabled to measure the velocity profile with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The measured velocity field data can be used either to understand the fundamental flow characteristics around a twisted tape or to validate turbulence models in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In this study, the flow field in the test-section was measured for various flow conditions and it was finally compared with numerically calculated data. Velocity fields in a pipe with a classic twisted tape was measured using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. To obtain undistorted particle images, a noble optical technique, refractive index matching, was used and it was proved that high-quality image can be obtained from this experimental equipment. The velocity data from the PIV was compared with the CFD simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Min Seop; Park, So Hyun; Kim, Eung Soo
2014-01-01
Many researchers conducted experiments and numerical simulations to measure or predict a Nusselt number or a friction factor in a pipe with a twisted tape while some other studies focused on the heat transfer performance enhancement using various twisted tape configurations. However, since the optical access to the inner space of a pipe with a twisted tape was limited, the detailed flow field data were not obtainable so far. Thus, researchers mainly relied on the numerical simulations to obtain the data of the flow field. In this study, a 3D printing technique was used to manufacture a transparent test section for optical access. And also, a noble refractive index matching technique was used to eliminate optical distortion. This two combined techniques enabled to measure the velocity profile with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The measured velocity field data can be used either to understand the fundamental flow characteristics around a twisted tape or to validate turbulence models in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In this study, the flow field in the test-section was measured for various flow conditions and it was finally compared with numerically calculated data. Velocity fields in a pipe with a classic twisted tape was measured using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. To obtain undistorted particle images, a noble optical technique, refractive index matching, was used and it was proved that high-quality image can be obtained from this experimental equipment. The velocity data from the PIV was compared with the CFD simulations
Comparison of velocity and temperature fields for two types of spacers in an annular channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lávička David
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with measurement of flow field using a modern laser method (PIV in an annular channel of very small dimension - a fuel cell model. The velocity field was measured in several positions and plains around the spacer. The measurement was extended also to record temperatures by thermocouples soldered into stainless-steel tube wall. The measurement was focused on cooling process of the preheated fuel cell tube model, where the tube was very slowly flooded with water. Main result of the paper is comparison of two spacer's designs with respect to measured velocity and temperature fields.
Velocity dependence of transient hyperfine field at Pt ions rapidly recoiling through magnetized Fe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stuchbery, A.E.; Ryan, C.G.; Bolotin, H.H.
1981-01-01
The velocity-dependence of the transient hyperfine magnetic field acting at nuclei of 196 Pt ions rapidly recoiling through thin magnetized Fe was investigated at a number of recoil velocities. The state of interest (2 1 + ) was populated by Coulomb excitation using beams of 80- and 120-MeV 32 S and 150- and 220-MeV 58 Ni ions. The 2 1 + →0 1 + γ-ray angular distribution precession measurements were carried out in coincidence with backscattered projectiles. From these results, the strength of the transient field acting on Pt ions recoiling through magnetized Fe with average velocities in the extended range 2.14<=v/vsub(o)<=4.82 (vsub(o) = c/137) was found to be consistent with a linear velocity dependence and to be incompatible with the specific vsup(0.45+-0.18) dependence which has been previously reported to account well for all ions in the mass range from oxygen through samarium. This seemingly singular behaviour for Pt and other ions in the Pt mass vicinity is discussed
Damping of Quasi-stationary Waves Between Two Miscible Liquids
Duval, Walter M. B.
2002-01-01
Two viscous miscible liquids with an initially sharp interface oriented vertically inside a cavity become unstable against oscillatory external forcing due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The instability causes growth of quasi-stationary (q-s) waves at the interface between the two liquids. We examine computationally the dynamics of a four-mode q-s wave, for a fixed energy input, when one of the components of the external forcing is suddenly ceased. The external forcing consists of a steady and oscillatory component as realizable in a microgravity environment. Results show that when there is a jump discontinuity in the oscillatory excitation that produced the four-mode q-s wave, the interface does not return to its equilibrium position, the structure of the q-s wave remains imbedded between the two fluids over a long time scale. The damping characteristics of the q-s wave from the time history of the velocity field show overdamped and critically damped response; there is no underdamped oscillation as the flow field approaches steady state. Viscous effects serve as a dissipative mechanism to effectively damp the system. The stability of the four-mode q-s wave is dependent on both a geometric length scale as well as the level of background steady acceleration.
Production of a rapidly rotating plasma by cross-field injection of gun-produced plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohzu, Akira; Ikehata, Takashi; Tanabe, Toshio; Mase, Hiroshi
1984-01-01
Cross-field plasma injection with use of a JxB plasma gun is described as a method to produce rapidly rotating plasma in a crossed electric and magnetic field system. The rotational velocity of the plasma is seriously limited by neutrals surrounding the plasma through strong interactions at the boundary layer. The concentration of neutrals can be reduced by the injection of fully or partially ionized plasma into the discharge volume instead of filling the volume with an operating gas. With use of this method, it is observed that the rotational velocity increases by a factor of 2 to 3 when compared with the conventional method of stationary gas-filling. (author)
Velocity fields and transition densities in nuclear collective modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stringari, S [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Libera Universita di Trento, Italy
1979-08-13
The shape of the deformations occurring in nuclear collective modes is investigated by means of a microscopic approach. Analytical solutions of the equations of motion are obtained by using simplified nuclear potentials. It is found that the structure of the velocity field and of the transition density of low-lying modes is considerably different from the predictions of irrotational hydrodynamic models. The low-lying octupole state is studied in particular detail by using the Skyrme force.
Experimental analysis of the velocity field in an anular channel with helicoidal wire
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemos, M.J.S. de.
1979-06-01
In general, nuclear reactor fuel elements are rod bundles with coolant flowing axially among them. LMFBR's (Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor) have wire wrapped fuel rods, with the wire working as spacer and mixer. The present work consists in the experimental analysis of the velocity field created by a typical LMFBR fuel rod placed in a cylinder, yielding an annular channel with helicoidal wire. Using hot wire anemometry, the main and secondary velocity fields were measured. The range for Re was from 2.2x 10 4 to 6.1x 10 4 , for air. The aspect ratio, P/D, and the lead-to-diameter ratio, 1/D, were 1.2 and 15, respectively. (Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goetzbach, G.
1977-10-01
For the simulation of non stationary, three-dimensional, turbulent flow- and temperature-fields in channel flows with constant properties a method is presented which is based on a finite difference scheme of the complete conservation equations for mass, momentum and enthalpie. The fluxes of momentum and heat within the grid cells are described by sub-grid scale models. The sub-grid scale model for momentum introduced here is for the first time applicable to small Reynolds-numbers, rather coarse grids, and channels with space dependent roughness distributions. (orig.) [de
Spinning Kerr black holes with stationary massive scalar clouds: the large-coupling regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hod, Shahar [Marine sciences, The Ruppin Academic Center,Ruppin, Emeq Hefer 40250 (Israel); Biotechnology, The Hadassah Academic College,37 Hanevi’im St., Jerusalem 9101001 (Israel)
2017-01-09
We study analytically the Klein-Gordon wave equation for stationary massive scalar fields linearly coupled to spinning Kerr black holes. In particular, using the WKB approximation, we derive a compact formula for the discrete spectrum of scalar field masses which characterize the stationary composed Kerr-black-hole-massive-scalar-field configurations in the large-coupling regime Mμ≫1 (here M and μ are respectively the mass of the central black hole and the proper mass of the scalar field). We confirm our analytically derived formula for the Kerr-scalar-field mass spectrum with numerical data that recently appeared in the literature.
Stability of stationary solutions for inflow problem on the micropolar fluid model
Yin, Haiyan
2017-04-01
In this paper, we study the asymptotic behavior of solutions to the initial boundary value problem for the micropolar fluid model in a half-line R+:=(0,∞). We prove that the corresponding stationary solutions of the small amplitude to the inflow problem for the micropolar fluid model are time asymptotically stable under small H1 perturbations in both the subsonic and degenerate cases. The microrotation velocity brings us some additional troubles compared with Navier-Stokes equations in the absence of the microrotation velocity. The proof of asymptotic stability is based on the basic energy method.
Towards Gravitating Discs around Stationary Black Holes
Semerák, Oldřich
This article outlines the search for an exact general relativistic description of the exterior(vacuum) gravitational field of a rotating spheroidal black hole surrounded by a realistic axially symmetric disc of matter. The problem of multi-body stationary spacetimes is first exposed from the perspective of the relativity theory (section 1) and astrophysics (section 2), listing the basic methods employed and results obtained. Then (in section 3) basic formulas for stationary axisymmetric solutions are summarized. Sections 4 and 5 review what we have learnt with Miroslav Žáček and Tomáš Zellerin about certain static and stationary situations recently. Concluding remarks are given in section 6. Although the survey part is quite general, the list of references cannot be complete.Our main desideratum was the informative value rather than originality — novelties have been preferred, mainly reviews and those with detailed introductions.
Direct simultaneous measurement of intraglottal geometry and velocity fields in excised larynges.
Khosla, Sid; Oren, Liran; Ying, Jun; Gutmark, Ephraim
2014-04-01
Current theories regarding the mechanisms of phonation are based on assumptions about the aerodynamics between the vocal folds during the closing phase of vocal fold vibration. However, many of these fundamental assumptions have never been validated in a tissue model. In this study, the main objective was to determine the aerodynamics (velocity fields) and the geometry of the medial surface of the vocal folds during the closing phase of vibration. The main hypothesis is that intraglottal vortices are produced during vocal fold closing when the glottal duct has a divergent shape and that these vortices are associated with negative pressures. Experiments using seven excised canine larynges. The particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) method was used to determine the velocity fields at low, mid-, and high subglottal pressures for each larynx. Modifications were made to previously described PIV methodology to allow the measurement of both the intraglottal velocity fields and the position of the medial aspects of the vocal fold. At relatively low subglottal pressures, little to no intraglottal vortices were seen. At mid- and high subglottal pressures, the flow separation vortices occurred and produced maximum negative pressures, relative to atmospheric, of -2.6 to -14.6 cm H2 O. Possible physiological and surgical implications are discussed. Intraglottal vortices produce significant negative pressures at mid- and high subglottal pressures. These vortices may be important in increasing maximum flow declination rate and acoustic intensity. N/A. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Factors controlling the field settling velocity of cohesive sediment in estuaries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pejrup, Morten; Mikkelsen, Ole
2010-01-01
in the correlation of the description of W-50 and the controlling parameters from each area can be obtained. A generic algorithm describing the data from all the investigated areas is suggested. It works well within specific tidal areas but fails to give a generic description of the field settling velocity....
Field dependence of the electron drift velocity along the hexagonal axis of 4H-SiC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ivanov, P. A., E-mail: Pavel.Ivanov@mail.ioffe.ru; Potapov, A. S.; Samsonova, T. P.; Grekhov, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)
2016-07-15
The forward current–voltage characteristics of mesa-epitaxial 4H-SiC Schottky diodes are measured in high electric fields (up to 4 × 10{sup 5} V/cm) in the n-type base region. A semi-empirical formula for the field dependence of the electron drift velocity in 4H-SiC along the hexagonal axis of the crystal is derived. It is shown that the saturated drift velocity is (1.55 ± 0.05) × 10{sup 7} cm/s in electric fields higher than 2 × 10{sup 5} V/cm.
Temperature Field-Wind Velocity Field Optimum Control of Greenhouse Environment Based on CFD Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongbo Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The computational fluid dynamics technology is applied as the environmental control model, which can include the greenhouse space. Basic environmental factors are set to be the control objects, the field information is achieved via the division of layers by height, and numerical characteristics of each layer are used to describe the field information. Under the natural ventilation condition, real-time requirements, energy consumption, and distribution difference are selected as index functions. The optimization algorithm of adaptive simulated annealing is used to obtain optimal control outputs. A comparison with full-open ventilation shows that the whole index can be reduced at 44.21% and found that a certain mutual exclusiveness exists between the temperature and velocity field in the optimal course. All the results indicate that the application of CFD model has great advantages to improve the control accuracy of greenhouse.
Stationary neoclassical profiles of plasma parameters in stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danilkin, I.S.; Mineev, A.B.
1991-01-01
Peculiarities of neoclassical model of heat and particle transfer, occuring by calculations of plasma stationary profile parameters in stellarators are considered. The main peculiarity out of all consists in ineadequate compatibility with real physical conditions on the boundary, requiring application of supplementary 'anomalous' transfer or special (but technically possible) adjustment of particle and heat sources to achieve solution in form of 'correct' monotonically sloping profile. It is stated, that neoclassical theory does not provide for well-known ambiguity of solutions for ambipolar electrical field by search of monotonous stationary profiles supported by outside sources
Lower bound on the electroweak wall velocity from hydrodynamic instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín; Sánchez, Alejandro D., E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar, E-mail: membiela@mdp.edu.ar, E-mail: sanchez@mdp.edu.ar [IFIMAR (CONICET-UNMdP), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Deán Funes (7600) 3350 Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2015-03-01
The subsonic expansion of bubbles in a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition is a convenient scenario for electroweak baryogenesis. For most extensions of the Standard Model, stationary subsonic solutions (i.e., deflagrations) exist for the propagation of phase transition fronts. However, deflagrations are known to be hydrodynamically unstable for wall velocities below a certain critical value. We calculate this critical velocity for several extensions of the Standard Model and compare with an estimation of the wall velocity. In general, we find a region in parameter space which gives stable deflagrations as well as favorable conditions for electroweak baryogenesis.
Lower bound on the electroweak wall velocity from hydrodynamic instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín; Sánchez, Alejandro D.
2015-01-01
The subsonic expansion of bubbles in a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition is a convenient scenario for electroweak baryogenesis. For most extensions of the Standard Model, stationary subsonic solutions (i.e., deflagrations) exist for the propagation of phase transition fronts. However, deflagrations are known to be hydrodynamically unstable for wall velocities below a certain critical value. We calculate this critical velocity for several extensions of the Standard Model and compare with an estimation of the wall velocity. In general, we find a region in parameter space which gives stable deflagrations as well as favorable conditions for electroweak baryogenesis
Lower bound on the electroweak wall velocity from hydrodynamic instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín; Sánchez, Alejandro D. [IFIMAR (CONICET-UNMdP), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Deán Funes (7600) 3350 Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2015-03-27
The subsonic expansion of bubbles in a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition is a convenient scenario for electroweak baryogenesis. For most extensions of the Standard Model, stationary subsonic solutions (i.e., deflagrations) exist for the propagation of phase transition fronts. However, deflagrations are known to be hydrodynamically unstable for wall velocities below a certain critical value. We calculate this critical velocity for several extensions of the Standard Model and compare with an estimation of the wall velocity. In general, we find a region in parameter space which gives stable deflagrations as well as favorable conditions for electroweak baryogenesis.
A new GPS velocity field in the south-western Balkans: insights for continental dynamics
D'Agostino, N.; Avallone, A.; Duni, L.; Ganas, A.; Georgiev, I.; Jouanne, F.; Koci, R.; Kuka, N.; Metois, M.
2017-12-01
The Balkans peninsula is an area of active distributed deformation located at the southern boundary of the Eurasian plate. Relatively low strain rates and logistical reasons have so far limited the characterization and definition of the active tectonics and crustal kinematics. The increasing number of GNSS stations belonging to national networks deployed for scientific and cadastral purposes, now provides the opportunity to improve the knowledge of the crustal kinematics in this area and to define a cross-national velocity field that illuminates the active tectonic deformation. In this work we homogeneously processed the data from the south western Balkans and neighbouring regions using available rinex files from scientific and cadastral networks (ALBPOS, EUREF, HemusNET, ITALPOS, KOPOS, MAKPOS, METRICA, NETGEO, RING, TGREF). In order to analyze and interpret station velocities relative to the Eurasia plate and to reduce the common mode signal, we updated the Eurasian terrestrial reference frame described in Métois et al. 2015. Starting from this dataset we present a new GPS velocity field covering the south western part of the Balkan Peninsula. Using this new velocity field, we derive the strain rate tensor to analyze the regional style of the deformation. Our results (1) improve the picture of the general southward flow of the crust characterizing the south western Balkans behind the contractional belt at the boundary with Adriatic and (2) provide new key elements for the understanding of continental dynamics in this part of the Eurasian plate boundary.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Marchaudon
2009-03-01
Full Text Available On 20 February 2005, Cluster in the outer magnetosphere and Double Star-2 (TC-2 at mid-altitude are situated in the vicinity of the northern cusp/mantle, with Cluster moving sunward and TC-2 anti-sunward. Their magnetic footprints come very close together at about 15:28 UT, over the common field-of-view of SuperDARN radars. Thanks to this conjunction, we determine the velocity, the transverse sizes, perpendicular and parallel to this velocity, and the shape of three magnetic flux tubes of magnetosheath plasma injection. The velocity of the structures determined from the Cluster four-spacecraft timing analysis is almost purely antisunward, in contrast with the antisunward and duskward convection velocity inside the flux tubes. The transverse sizes are defined from the Cluster-TC-2 separation perpendicular to the magnetic field, and from the time spent by a Cluster spacecraft in one structure; they are comprised between 0.6 and 2 RE in agreement with previous studies. Finally, using a comparison between the eigenvectors deduced from a variance analysis of the magnetic perturbation at the four Cluster and at TC-2, we show that the upstream side of the injection flux tubes is magnetically well defined, with even a concave front for the third one giving a bean-like shape, whereas the downstream side is far more turbulent. We also realise the first quantitative comparison between field-aligned currents at Cluster calculated with the curlometer technique and with the single-spacecraft method, assuming infinite parallel current sheets and taking into account the velocity of the injection flux tubes. The results agree nicely, confirming the validity of both methods. Finally, we compare the field-aligned current distribution of the three injection flux tubes at the altitudes of Cluster and TC-2. Both profiles are fairly similar, with mainly a pair of opposite field-aligned currents, upward at low-latitude and downward at high-latitude. In terms of
Doppler-shifted fluorescence imaging of velocity fields in supersonic reacting flows
Allen, M. G.; Davis, S. J.; Kessler, W. J.; Sonnenfroh, D. M.
1992-01-01
The application of Doppler-shifted fluorescence imaging of velocity fields in supersonic reacting flows is analyzed. Focussing on fluorescence of the OH molecule in typical H2-air Scramjet flows, the effects of uncharacterized variations in temperature, pressure, and collisional partner composition across the measurement plane are examined. Detailed measurements of the (1,0) band OH lineshape variations in H2-air combustions are used, along with single-pulse and time-averaged measurements of an excimer-pumped dye laser, to predict the performance of a model velocimeter with typical Scramjet flow properties. The analysis demonstrates the need for modification and control of the laser bandshape in order to permit accurate velocity measurements in the presence of multivariant flow properties.
Stochastic optimal control of non-stationary response of a single-degree-of-freedom vehicle model
Narayanan, S.; Raju, G. V.
1990-09-01
An active suspension system to control the non-stationary response of a single-degree-of-freedom (sdf) vehicle model with variable velocity traverse over a rough road is investigated. The suspension is optimized with respect to ride comfort and road holding, using stochastic optimal control theory. The ground excitation is modelled as a spatial homogeneous random process, being the output of a linear shaping filter to white noise. The effect of the rolling contact of the tyre is considered by an additional filter in cascade. The non-stationary response with active suspension is compared with that of a passive system.
A Study of the Flow Field Surrounding Interacting Line Fires
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trevor Maynard
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The interaction of converging fires often leads to significant changes in fire behavior, including increased flame length, angle, and intensity. In this paper, the fluid mechanics of two adjacent line fires are studied both theoretically and experimentally. A simple potential flow model is used to explain the tilting of interacting flames towards each other, which results from a momentum imbalance triggered by fire geometry. The model was validated by measuring the velocity field surrounding stationary alcohol pool fires. The flow field was seeded with high-contrast colored smoke, and the motion of smoke structures was analyzed using a cross-correlation optical flow technique. The measured velocities and flame angles are found to compare reasonably with the predicted values, and an analogy between merging fires and wind-blown flames is proposed.
Effects of magnetic field, sheared flow and ablative velocity on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, D.; Zhang, W.L.; Wu, Z.W.
2005-01-01
It is found that magnetic field has a stabilization effect whereas the sheared flow has a destabilization effect on the RT instability in the presence of sharp interface. RT instability only occurs in the long wave region and can be completely suppressed if the stabilizing effect of magnetic field dominates. The RT instability increases with wave number and flow shear, and acts much like a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability when destabilizing effect of sheared flow dominates. It is shown that both of ablation velocity and magnetic filed have stabilization effect on RT instability in the presence of continued interface. The stabilization effect of magnetic field takes place for whole waveband and becomes more significant for the short wavelength. The RT instability can be completely suppressed by the cooperated effect of magnetic field and ablation velocity so that the ICF target shell may be unnecessary to be accelerated to very high speed. The growth rate decreases as the density scale length increases. The stabilization effect of magnetic field is more significant for the short density scale length. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jyegal, Jang
2015-01-01
Velocity overshoot is a critically important nonstationary effect utilized for the enhanced performance of submicron field-effect devices fabricated with high-electron-mobility compound semiconductors. However, the physical mechanisms of velocity overshoot decay dynamics in the devices are not known in detail. Therefore, a numerical analysis is conducted typically for a submicron GaAs metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor in order to elucidate the physical mechanisms. It is found that there exist three different mechanisms, depending on device bias conditions. Specifically, at large drain biases corresponding to the saturation drain current (dc) region, the velocity overshoot suddenly begins to drop very sensitively due to the onset of a rapid decrease of the momentum relaxation time, not the mobility, arising from the effect of velocity-randomizing intervalley scattering. It then continues to drop rapidly and decays completely by severe mobility reduction due to intervalley scattering. On the other hand, at small drain biases corresponding to the linear dc region, the velocity overshoot suddenly begins to drop very sensitively due to the onset of a rapid increase of thermal energy diffusion by electrons in the channel of the gate. It then continues to drop rapidly for a certain channel distance due to the increasing thermal energy diffusion effect, and later completely decays by a sharply decreasing electric field. Moreover, at drain biases close to a dc saturation voltage, the mechanism is a mixture of the above two bias conditions. It is suggested that a large secondary-valley energy separation is essential to increase the performance of submicron devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carver, A.C.
1991-10-01
The study was initiated to determine whether chromium emissions should be regulated under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). To support stationary source regulations, it is important that (1) the sampling procedure not change the chromium valence state during sampling and (2) an analytical technique for measuring low concentration levels of chromium be available. These goals are achieved with the current EPA 'Draft Method for Sampling and Analysis of Hexavalent Chromium at Stationary Sources.' The draft method utilizes a recirculating system to flush impinger reagent into the sampling nozzle during sample collection. Immediate contact of the stack gas with impinger reagent 'fixes' the chromium valence state. Ion chromatography coupled with post column derivatization and ultraviolet visible detector is used to analyze Cr(VI) in the parts per trillion range. Field tests were conducted at metal plating facilities, industrial cooling towers, municipal waste incinerators, sewage sludge incinerators, and hazardous waste incinerators. It was at the hazardous waste facility that the new method was proven to have acceptable precision and essentially no conversion in the sample train
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, G.T.
1980-01-01
Darcian velocity has been conventionally calculated in the finite-element modeling of groundwater flow by taking the derivatives of the computed pressure field. This results in discontinuities in the velocity field at nodal points and element boundaries. Discontinuities become enormous when the computed pressure field is far from a linear distribution. It is proposed in this paper that the finite element procedure that is used to simulate the pressure field or the moisture content field also be applied to Darcy's law with the derivatives of the computed pressure field as the load function. The problem of discontinuity is then eliminated, and the error of mass balance over the region of interest is much reduced. The reduction is from 23.8 to 2.2% by one numerical scheme and from 29.7 to -3.6% by another for a transient problem
Scattering angle-based filtering via extension in velocity
Kazei, Vladimir; Tessmer, Ekkehart; Alkhalifah, Tariq
2016-01-01
The scattering angle between the source and receiver wavefields can be utilized in full-waveform inversion (FWI) and in reverse-time migration (RTM) for regularization and quality control or to remove low frequency artifacts. The access to the scattering angle information is costly as the relation between local image features and scattering angles has non-stationary nature. For the purpose of a more efficient scattering angle information extraction, we develop techniques that utilize the simplicity of the scattering angle based filters for constantvelocity background models. We split the background velocity model into several domains with different velocity ranges, generating an
Scattering angle-based filtering via extension in velocity
Kazei, Vladimir
2016-09-06
The scattering angle between the source and receiver wavefields can be utilized in full-waveform inversion (FWI) and in reverse-time migration (RTM) for regularization and quality control or to remove low frequency artifacts. The access to the scattering angle information is costly as the relation between local image features and scattering angles has non-stationary nature. For the purpose of a more efficient scattering angle information extraction, we develop techniques that utilize the simplicity of the scattering angle based filters for constantvelocity background models. We split the background velocity model into several domains with different velocity ranges, generating an
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stuchbery, A.E.; Doran, C.E.; Byrne, A.P.; Bolotin, H.H.; Dracoulis, G.D.
1986-12-01
Transient-field strengths were measured for 52 Cr ions traversing polarized Fe hosts at velocities up to 12v>=o (v>=o = c/137 = Bohr velocity). The results are compared with predictions of various transient field parametrizations and discussed in terms of possible mechanisms by which polarization might be transferred from the Fe host to inner vacancies of the moving Cr ions. The g-factor of the first 2 + state of 52 Cr was also measured by the transient field technique and found to be in accord with shell-model calculations
The determination of time-stationary two-dimensional convection patterns with single-station radars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freeman, M.P.; Ruohoniemi, J.M.; Greenwald, R.A.
1991-01-01
At the present time, most ground-based radar estimations of ionospheric convection use observations from single-station facilities. This approach requires certain assumptions as to the spatial and/or temporal uniformity of the convection. In this paper the authors present a critical examination of the accuracy of these vector velocity determinations, using realistic modeled flow patterns that are time-stationary but not spatially uniform. They find that under certain circumstances the actual and inferred flow fields show considerable discrepancy, sometimes not even agreeing in the sense of flow direction. Specifically, they show that the natural curvature present in ionospheric convection on varying spatial scales can introduce significant error in the velocity estimate, particularly when the radius of curvature of the flow structure is less than or equal to the radar range to the scattering volume. The presence of flow curvature cannot be detected by radars which determine velocities from measurements in two viewing directions, and it might not be detected by radars using azimuth scanning techniques. Thus they argue that every effort should be made to measure the ionospheric convection by bidirectional or multidirectional observations of a common ionospheric volume and that a synthesis of coherent and incoherent radar observations from different sites is preferable to multidirectional single-station observations using either radar alone. These conclusions are applicable to any Doppler measurement technique and are equally valid for high-latitude wind patterns using Fabry-Perot interferometer techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chaudhuri, A. [B.K.C. College, Department of Physics, Kolkata (India); Chaudhuri, S. [University of Burdwan, Department of Physics, Burdwan (India)
2017-11-15
In the paper, magnetostatic solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations are generated from the gravitational two-soliton solutions of a stationary mass. Using the soliton technique of Belinskii and Zakharov (Sov Phys JETP 48:985, 1978, Sov Phys JETP 50:1, 1979), we construct diagonal two-soliton solutions of Einstein's gravitational field equations for an axially symmetric stationary space-time and investigate some properties of the generated stationary gravitational metric. Magnetostatic solutions corresponding to the generated stationary gravitational solutions are then constructed using the transformation technique of Das and Chaudhuri (Pramana J Phys 40:277, 1993). The mass and the dipole moment of the source are evaluated. In our analysis we make use of a second transformation (Chaudhuri in Pramana J Phys 58:449, 2002), probably for the first time in the literature, to generate magnetostatic solutions from the stationary gravitational two-soliton solutions which give us simple and straightforward expressions for the mass and the magnetic dipole moment. (orig.)
Rainbow Particle Imaging Velocimetry for Dense 3D Fluid Velocity Imaging
Xiong, Jinhui
2017-04-11
Despite significant recent progress, dense, time-resolved imaging of complex, non-stationary 3D flow velocities remains an elusive goal. In this work we tackle this problem by extending an established 2D method, Particle Imaging Velocimetry, to three dimensions by encoding depth into color. The encoding is achieved by illuminating the flow volume with a continuum of light planes (a “rainbow”), such that each depth corresponds to a specific wavelength of light. A diffractive component in the camera optics ensures that all planes are in focus simultaneously. For reconstruction, we derive an image formation model for recovering stationary 3D particle positions. 3D velocity estimation is achieved with a variant of 3D optical flow that accounts for both physical constraints as well as the rainbow image formation model. We evaluate our method with both simulations and an experimental prototype setup.
Stationary black holes: large D analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro
2015-01-01
We consider the effective theory of large D stationary black holes. By solving the Einstein equations with a cosmological constant using the 1/D expansion in near zone of the black hole we obtain the effective equation for the stationary black hole. The effective equation describes the Myers-Perry black hole, bumpy black holes and, possibly, the black ring solution as its solutions. In this effective theory the black hole is represented as an embedded membrane in the background, e.g., Minkowski or Anti-de Sitter spacetime and its mean curvature is given by the surface gravity redshifted by the background gravitational field and the local Lorentz boost. The local Lorentz boost property of the effective equation is observed also in the metric itself. In fact we show that the leading order metric of the Einstein equation in the 1/D expansion is generically regarded as a Lorentz boosted Schwarzschild black hole. We apply this Lorentz boost property of the stationary black hole solution to solve perturbation equations. As a result we obtain an analytic formula for quasinormal modes of the singly rotating Myers-Perry black hole in the 1/D expansion.
Janson, Natalia B; Marsden, Christopher J
2017-12-05
It is well known that architecturally the brain is a neural network, i.e. a collection of many relatively simple units coupled flexibly. However, it has been unclear how the possession of this architecture enables higher-level cognitive functions, which are unique to the brain. Here, we consider the brain from the viewpoint of dynamical systems theory and hypothesize that the unique feature of the brain, the self-organized plasticity of its architecture, could represent the means of enabling the self-organized plasticity of its velocity vector field. We propose that, conceptually, the principle of cognition could amount to the existence of appropriate rules governing self-organization of the velocity field of a dynamical system with an appropriate account of stimuli. To support this hypothesis, we propose a simple non-neuromorphic mathematical model with a plastic self-organized velocity field, which has no prototype in physical world. This system is shown to be capable of basic cognition, which is illustrated numerically and with musical data. Our conceptual model could provide an additional insight into the working principles of the brain. Moreover, hardware implementations of plastic velocity fields self-organizing according to various rules could pave the way to creating artificial intelligence of a novel type.
Temporal Variability in Seismic Velocity at the Salton Sea Geothermal Field
Taira, T.; Nayak, A.; Brenguier, F.
2015-12-01
We characterize the temporal variability of ambient noise wavefield and search for velocity changes associated with activities of the geothermal energy development at the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. The noise cross-correlations (NCFs) are computed for ~6 years of continuous three-component seismic data (December 2007 through January 2014) collected at 8 sites from the CalEnergy Subnetwork (EN network) with MSNoise software (Lecocq et al., 2014, SRL). All seismic data are downloaded from the Southern California Earthquake Data Center. Velocity changes (dv/v) are obtained by measuring time delay between 5-day stacks of NCFs and the reference NCF (average over the entire 6 year period). The time history of dv/v is determined by averaging dv/v measurements over all station/channel pairs (252 combinations). Our preliminary dv/v measurement suggests a gradual increase in dv/v over the 6-year period in a frequency range of 0.5-8.0 Hz. The resultant increase rate of velocity is about 0.01%/year. We also explore the frequency-dependent velocity change at the 5 different frequency bands (0.5-2.0 Hz, 0.75-3.0 Hz, 1.0-4.0 Hz, 1.5-6.0 Hz, and 2.0-8.0 Hz) and find that the level of this long-term dv/v variability is increased with increase of frequency (i.e., the highest increase rate of ~0.15%/year at the 0.5-2.0 Hz band). This result suggests that the velocity changes were mostly occurred in a depth of ~500 m assuming that the coda parts of NCFs (~10-40 s depending on station distances) are predominantly composed of scattered surface waves, with the SoCal velocity model (Dreger and Helmberger, 1993, JGR). No clear seasonal variation of dv/v is observed in the frequency band of 0.5-8.0 Hz.
Investigation of Horizontal Velocity Fields in Stirred Vessels with Helical Coils by PIV
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Volker Bliem
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Horizontal velocity flow fields were measured by particle image velocimetry for a stirred vessel with baffles and two helical coils for enlargement of heat transfer area. The investigation was carried out in a cylindrical vessel with flat base and two different stirrers (radial-flow Rushton turbine and axial-flow propeller stirrer. Combined velocity plots for flow fields at different locations are presented. It was found that helical coils change the flow pattern significantly. Measurements for the axial-flow Rushton turbine showed a strong deflection by the coils, leading to a mainly tangential flow pattern. Behind baffles large areas of unused heat transfer area were found. First results for the axial-flow propeller reveal an extensive absence of fluid movement in the horizontal plane. Improved design considerations for enhanced heat transfer by more compatible equipment compilation are proposed.
Liquid toroidal drop under uniform electric field
Zabarankin, Michael
2017-06-01
The problem of a stationary liquid toroidal drop freely suspended in another fluid and subjected to an electric field uniform at infinity is addressed analytically. Taylor's discriminating function implies that, when the phases have equal viscosities and are assumed to be slightly conducting (leaky dielectrics), a spherical drop is stationary when Q=(2R2+3R+2)/(7R2), where R and Q are ratios of the phases' electric conductivities and dielectric constants, respectively. This condition holds for any electric capillary number, CaE, that defines the ratio of electric stress to surface tension. Pairam and Fernández-Nieves showed experimentally that, in the absence of external forces (CaE=0), a toroidal drop shrinks towards its centre, and, consequently, the drop can be stationary only for some CaE>0. This work finds Q and CaE such that, under the presence of an electric field and with equal viscosities of the phases, a toroidal drop having major radius ρ and volume 4π/3 is qualitatively stationary-the normal velocity of the drop's interface is minute and the interface coincides visually with a streamline. The found Q and CaE depend on R and ρ, and for large ρ, e.g. ρ≥3, they have simple approximations: Q˜(R2+R+1)/(3R2) and CaE∼3 √{3 π ρ / 2 } (6 ln ρ +2 ln [96 π ]-9 )/ (12 ln ρ +4 ln [96 π ]-17 ) (R+1 ) 2/ (R-1 ) 2.
Hu, Liang; Zhao, Nannan; Gao, Zhijian; Mao, Kai; Chen, Wenyu; Fu, Xin
2018-05-01
Determination of the distribution of a generated acoustic field is valuable for studying ultrasonic transducers, including providing the guidance for transducer design and the basis for analyzing their performance, etc. A method calculating the acoustic field based on laser-measured vibration velocities on the ultrasonic transducer surface is proposed in this paper. Without knowing the inner structure of the transducer, the acoustic field outside it can be calculated by solving the governing partial differential equation (PDE) of the field based on the specified boundary conditions (BCs). In our study, the BC on the transducer surface, i.e. the distribution of the vibration velocity on the surface, is accurately determined by laser scanning measurement of discrete points and follows a data fitting computation. In addition, to ensure the calculation accuracy for the whole field even in an inhomogeneous medium, a finite element method is used to solve the governing PDE based on the mixed BCs, including the discretely measured velocity data and other specified BCs. The method is firstly validated on numerical piezoelectric transducer models. The acoustic pressure distributions generated by a transducer operating in an homogeneous and inhomogeneous medium, respectively, are both calculated by the proposed method and compared with the results from other existing methods. Then, the method is further experimentally validated with two actual ultrasonic transducers used for flow measurement in our lab. The amplitude change of the output voltage signal from the receiver transducer due to changing the relative position of the two transducers is calculated by the proposed method and compared with the experimental data. This method can also provide the basis for complex multi-physical coupling computations where the effect of the acoustic field should be taken into account.
Migration velocity analysis using pre-stack wave fields
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Wu, Zedong
2016-01-01
Using both image and data domains to perform velocity inversion can help us resolve the long and short wavelength components of the velocity model, usually in that order. This translates to integrating migration velocity analysis into full waveform
Berger, Jorge
2018-06-01
In the customary mode of operation of a SQUID, the electromagnetic field in the SQUID is an oscillatory function of time. In this situation, electromagnetic radiation is emitted and couples to the sample. This is a back action that can alter the state that we intend to measure. A circuit that could perform as a stationary SQUID consists of a loop of superconducting material that encloses the magnetic flux, connected to a superconducting and to a normal electrode. This circuit does not contain Josephson junctions, or any other miniature feature. We study the evolution of the order parameter and of the electrochemical potential in this circuit; they converge to a stationary regime, and the voltage between the electrodes depends on the enclosed flux. We obtain expressions for the power dissipation and for the heat transported by the electric current; the validity of these expressions does not rely on a particular evolution model for the order parameter. We evaluate the influence of fluctuations. For a SQUID perimeter of the order of 1μ m and temperature 0.9T_c, we obtain a flux resolution of the order of 10^{-5}Φ _0/Hz^{1/2}; the resolution is expected to improve as the temperature is lowered.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baxter, Mathew; Van Gorder, Robert A
2013-01-01
We obtain solutions to a transformation of the axially symmetric Ernst equation, which governs a class of exact solutions of Einstein's field equations. Physically, the equation serves as a model of axially symmetric stationary vacuum gravitational fields. By an application of the method of homotopy analysis, we are able to construct approximate analytic solutions to the relevant boundary value problem in the case where exact solutions are not possible. The results presented constitute a solution for a complicated nonlinear and singular initial value problem. Through appropriate selection of the auxiliary linear operator and convergence control parameter, we are able to obtain low order approximations which minimize residual error over the problem domain. The benefit to such approach is that we obtain very accurate approximations after computing very few terms, hence the computational efficiency is high. Finally, an exact solution is provided in a special case, and this corresponds to the analytical solutions obtained in the more general case. The approximate solutions agree qualitatively with the exact solutions. (paper)
Determine of velocity field with PIV and CFD during the flow around of bridge piers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Picka D.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The article describes the processing of specific junior research FAST-J-11-51/1456 which dealt with physical and CFD of the velocity field during the flow around of bridge piers. Physical modelling has been carried out in Laboratory of water management research in Institute of Water Structures in Brno University of Technology – Faculty of Civil Engineering. To measure of the velocity field in profile of bridge piers were used laser measuring method PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry. The results of PIV served as a basis for comparing experimental data with CFD results of this type of flow in the commercial software ANSYS CFX.
Velocity Field Measurements of Human Coughing Using Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry
Khan, T.; Marr, D. R.; Higuchi, H.; Glauser, M. N.
2003-11-01
Quantitative fluid mechanics analysis of human coughing has been carried out using new Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TRPIV). The study involves measurement of velocity vector time-histories and velocity profiles. It is focused on the average normal human coughing. Some work in the past on cough mechanics has involved measurement of flow rates, tidal volumes and sub-glottis pressure. However, data of unsteady velocity vector field of the exiting highly time-dependent jets is not available. In this study, human cough waveform data are first acquired in vivo using conventional respiratory instrumentation for various volunteers of different gender/age groups. The representative waveform is then reproduced with a coughing/breathing simulator (with or without a manikin) for TRPIV measurements and analysis. The results of this study would be useful not only for designing of indoor air quality and heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, but also for devising means of protection against infectious diseases.
A Two-Dimensional Solar Tracking Stationary Guidance Method Based on Feature-Based Time Series
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keke Zhang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The amount of satellite energy acquired has a direct impact on operational capacities of the satellite. As for practical high functional density microsatellites, solar tracking guidance design of solar panels plays an extremely important role. Targeted at stationary tracking problems incurred in a new system that utilizes panels mounted in the two-dimensional turntable to acquire energies to the greatest extent, a two-dimensional solar tracking stationary guidance method based on feature-based time series was proposed under the constraint of limited satellite attitude coupling control capability. By analyzing solar vector variation characteristics within an orbit period and solar vector changes within the whole life cycle, such a method could be adopted to establish a two-dimensional solar tracking guidance model based on the feature-based time series to realize automatic switching of feature-based time series and stationary guidance under the circumstance of different β angles and the maximum angular velocity control, which was applicable to near-earth orbits of all orbital inclination. It was employed to design a two-dimensional solar tracking stationary guidance system, and a mathematical simulation for guidance performance was carried out in diverse conditions under the background of in-orbit application. The simulation results show that the solar tracking accuracy of two-dimensional stationary guidance reaches 10∘ and below under the integrated constraints, which meet engineering application requirements.
Lossy effects on the lateral shifts in negative-phase-velocity medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
You Yuan
2009-01-01
Theoretical investigations of the lateral shifts of the reflected and transmitted beams were performed, using the stationary-phase approach, for the planar interface of a conventional medium and a lossy negative-phase-velocity medium. The lateral shifts exhibit different behaviors beyond and below a certain angle, for both incident p-polarized and incident s-polarized plane waves. Loss in the negative-phase-velocity medium affects lateral shifts greatly, and may cause changes from negative to positive values for p-polarized incidence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaolong Ding
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The current research on confined submerged waterjets mainly focuses on the flow field of the impinging jet and wall jet. The double-sided wall vertically confined waterjet, which is widely used in many fields such as mining, cleaning and surface strengthening, has rarely been studied so far. In order to explore the influence of a double-sided wall confined width on the velocity field of submerged waterjet, an experiment was conducted with the application of 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV technology. The distribution of mean velocity and turbulent velocity in both horizontal and vertical planes was used to characterize the flow field under various confined widths. The results show that the vertical confinement has an obvious effect on the decay rate of the mean centerline velocity. When the confined width changes from 15 to 5, the velocity is reduced by 20%. In addition, with the decrease of the confined width, the jet has a tendency to spread horizontally. The vertically confined region induces a space hysteresis effect which changes the location of the transition region moving downstream. There are local negative pressure zones separating the fluid and the wall. This study of a double-walled confined jet provides some valuable information with respect to its mechanism and industrial application.
A gain-field encoding of limb position and velocity in the internal model of arm dynamics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eun Jung Hwang
2003-11-01
Full Text Available Adaptability of reaching movements depends on a computation in the brain that transforms sensory cues, such as those that indicate the position and velocity of the arm, into motor commands. Theoretical consideration shows that the encoding properties of neural elements implementing this transformation dictate how errors should generalize from one limb position and velocity to another. To estimate how sensory cues are encoded by these neural elements, we designed experiments that quantified spatial generalization in environments where forces depended on both position and velocity of the limb. The patterns of error generalization suggest that the neural elements that compute the transformation encode limb position and velocity in intrinsic coordinates via a gain-field; i.e., the elements have directionally dependent tuning that is modulated monotonically with limb position. The gain-field encoding makes the counterintuitive prediction of hypergeneralization: there should be growing extrapolation beyond the trained workspace. Furthermore, nonmonotonic force patterns should be more difficult to learn than monotonic ones. We confirmed these predictions experimentally.
Determination of the filtration velocities and mean velocity in ground waters using radiotracers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duran P, Oscar; Diaz V, Francisco; Heresi M, Nelida
1994-01-01
An experimental method to determine filtration, or, Darcy velocity and mean velocity in underground waters using radiotracers, is described. After selecting the most appropriate tracers, from 6 chemical compounds, to measure water velocity, a method to measure filtration velocity was developed. By fully labelling the water column with 2 radioisotopes, Br and tritium, almost identical values were obtained for the aquifer filtration velocity in the sounding S1. This value was 0.04 m/d. Field porosity was calculated at 11% and mean velocity at 0.37 m.d. With the filtration velocity value and knowing the hydraulic variation between the soundings S1 and S2 placed at 10 meters, field permeability was estimated at 2.4 x 10 m/s. (author)
Calendar Year 2016 Stationary Source Emissions Inventory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-01-01
The City of Albuquerque (COA) Environmental Health Department Air Quality Program has issued stationary source permits and registrations the Department of Energy/Sandia Field Office for operations at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. This emission inventory report meets the annual reporting compliance requirements for calendar year (CY) 2016 as required by the COA.
Wu, Qiang; Zhao, Yingwang; Xu, Hua
2018-04-01
Many numerical methods that simulate groundwater flow, particularly the continuous Galerkin finite element method, do not produce velocity information directly. Many algorithms have been proposed to improve the accuracy of velocity fields computed from hydraulic potentials. The differences in the streamlines generated from velocity fields obtained using different algorithms are presented in this report. The superconvergence method employed by FEFLOW, a popular commercial code, and some dual-mesh methods proposed in recent years are selected for comparison. The applications to depict hydrogeologic conditions using streamlines are used, and errors in streamlines are shown to lead to notable errors in boundary conditions, the locations of material interfaces, fluxes and conductivities. Furthermore, the effects of the procedures used in these two types of methods, including velocity integration and local conservation, are analyzed. The method of interpolating velocities across edges using fluxes is shown to be able to eliminate errors associated with refraction points that are not located along material interfaces and streamline ends at no-flow boundaries. Local conservation is shown to be a crucial property of velocity fields and can result in more accurate streamline densities. A case study involving both three-dimensional and two-dimensional cross-sectional models of a coal mine in Inner Mongolia, China, are used to support the conclusions presented.
Chouet, B.; De Luca, G.; Milana, G.; Dawson, P.; Martini, M.; Scarpa, R.
1998-01-01
The properties of the tremor wave field at Stromboli are analyzed using data from small-aperture arrays of short-period seismometers deployed on the north flank of the volcano. The seismometers are configued in two semi-circular arrays with radii of 60 and 150 m and a linear array with length of 600 m. The data are analyzed using a spatiotemporal correlation technique specifically designed for the study of the stationary stochastic wave field of Rayleigh and Love waves generated by volcanic activity and by scattering sources distributed within the island. The correlation coefficients derived as a function of frequency for the three components of motion clearly define the dispersion characteristics for both Rayleigh and Love waves. Love and Rayleigh waves contribute 70% and 30%, respectively, of the surface-wave power. The phase velocities of Rayleigh waves range from 1000 m/sec at 2 Hz to 350 m/sec at 9 Hz, and those for Love waves range from 700 to 400 m/sec over the same frequency band. These velocities are similar to those measured near Puu Oo on the east rift of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, although the dispersion characteristics of Rayleigh waves at Stromboli show a stronger dependence on frequency. Such low velocities are consistent with values expected for densely cracked solidified basalt. The dispersion curves are inverted for a velocity model beneath the arrays, assuming those dispersions represent the fundamental modes of Rayleigh and Love waves.
Effect of turbulent collisions on diffusion in stationary plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia, H.; Ishihara, O.
1990-01-01
Recently the velocity diffusion process was studied by the generalized Langevin equation derived by the projection operator method. The further study shows that the retarded frictional function plays an important role in suppressing particle diffusion in the velocity space in stronger turbulence as much as the resonance broadening effect. The retarded frictional effect, produced by the effective collisions due to the plasma turbulence is assumed to be a Gaussian, but non-Markovian and non-wide-sense stationary process. The relations between the proposed formulation and the extended resonance broadening theory is discussed. The authors also carry out test particle numerical experiment for Langmuir turbulence to test the theories. In a stronger turbulence a deviation of the diffusion rate from the one predicted by both the quasilinear and the extended resonance theories has been observed and is explained qualitatively by the present formulation
Uniqueness of solution to a stationary boundary kinetic problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhykharsky, A.V.
1992-01-01
The paper treats the question of uniqueness of solution to the boundary kinetic problem. This analysis is based on the accurate solutions to the stationary one-dimensional boundary kinetic problem for the limited plasma system. In the paper a simplified problem statement is used (no account is taken of the external magnetic field, a simplest form of boundary conditions is accepted) which, however, covers all features of the problem considered. Omitting the details of the conclusion we will write a set of Vlasov stationary kinetic equations for the cases of plane, cylindrical and spherical geometry of the problem. (author) 1 ref
Stationary two-phase flow evaluation by the dynamic slip model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stevanovic, D.
1986-01-01
The equations which describe a dynamic slip model for stationary conditions are given in the paper. The basic solving procedure by the code DVOF4 is briefly described. The results are verified on the experiment FRIGG 313014. besides the void fraction and the vapor and liquid phase temperatures, the following parameters are plotted and explained: vapor phase generation rate, vapor and liquid phase velocities, slip between the phases, interfacial surface, friction drag between each phase and the wall, two-phase flow friction multiplier and pressure drop along the channel. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kenyon, C.S.
1980-01-01
One particular prediction of Maxwell's theory that has been previously neglected is that the motion of charges traveling in closed loops produces no constant electric fields. This study presents and analyzes the results of two new experiments designed to test for second-order, source-velocity electric fields from steady, closed currents and analyzes another experiment in light of these fields. The first experiment employed an electron beam. The second used a niobium-titanium coil designed so that the voltage measurement configuration could be easily switched from a Faraday to a non-faraday configuration between sets of runs. The implications of the observation of a null charge on magnetically suspended superconducting spheres vis-a-vis the second-order, source-velocity fields were discussed as the third case. The observation of a null potential corresponding to a null effective charge from a hypothetical velocity-squared field in both the beam and the coil experiment placed the upper bound on a field term at 0.02 with respect a Coulomb term. An observed null charge on the suspended spheres reduced this bound to 0.001. Such an upper bound is strong evidence against alternative theories predicting a relative contribution of the order of unity for a simple velocity-squared term. A simple velocity-squared electric field would be indistinguishable from a velocity-squared charge variation. The latter test limits such a charge variation to 0.001 of the total charge. The suspended-spheres test allowed the previously neglected issue of a general second-order, source-velocity electric field to be addressed. The observed null charge in this test contradicts and thus eliminates a hypothesized, general, electric field expression containing three second-order, source-velocity terms
Estimation of the blood velocity spectrum using a recursive lattice filter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Buelund, Claus; Jørgensen, Allan
1996-01-01
acquired for showing the blood velocity distribution are inherently non-stationary, due to the pulsatility of the flow. All current signal processing schemes assume that the signal is stationary within the window of analysis, although this is an approximation. In this paper a recursive least......-stationarity are incorporated through an exponential decay factor, that sets the exponential horizon of the filter. A factor close to 1 gives a long horizon with low variance estimates, but can not track a highly non-stationary flow. Setting the factor is therefore a compromise between estimate variance and the filter...... with the actual distributions that always will be smooth. Setting the exponential decay factor to 0.99 gives satisfactory results for in-vivo data from the carotid artery. The filter can easily be implemented using a standard fixed-point signal processing chip for real-time processing...
Mariano, A.J.; Ryan, E.H.; Huntley, H.S.; Laurindo, L.C.; Coelho, E.; Ozgokmen, TM; Berta, M.; Bogucki, D; Chen, S.S.; Curcic, M.; Drouin, K.L.; Gough, M; Haus, BK; Haza, A.C.; Hogan, P
2016-01-01
The Grand LAgrangian Deployment (GLAD) used multiscale sampling and GPS technology to observe time series of drifter positions with initial drifter separation of O(100 m) to O(10 km), and nominal 5 min sampling, during the summer and fall of 2012 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Histograms of the velocity field and its statistical parameters are non-Gaussian; most are multimodal. The dominant periods for the surface velocity field are 1–2 days due to inertial oscillations, tides, and the sea b...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmid, J.
1985-11-01
A package of updated computer codes for velocity and temperature field calculations for a fast reactor fuel subassembly (or its part) by the finite element method is described. Isoparametric triangular elements of the second degree are used. (author)
On the evolution of magnetic and velocity fields of an originating sunspot group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bachmann, G.
1978-01-01
Magnetographic measurements were made to derive longitudinal magnetic field strengths, line-of-sight velocities and the brightness distribution in an originating sunspot group. These results and photographs of the group are used to compare the evaluation of a relatively simple active region with our present ideas about the evolution of active regions in general. We found that the total magnetic flux increased from about 4 to 20x10 20 Mx over three days. The downward flow of gas in regions with stronger magnetic fields is formed only after the magnetic field has already been bipolar for two days. The maximum velocity always occurred in the main spots of the preceding and the subsequent parts of the sunspot group. Transformation into a flow pattern, which looks like Evershed motion, is observed in the main preceding sunspot after the formation of the penumbra. The generation of new active regions by concentration and amplification of magnetic fields, under the action of supergranulation flow in photospheric layers, cannot play an important role. On the contrary, the behaviour of the active region is in agreement with the conception of rising flux tubes, out of which the gas flows down. Our observations confirm that a magnetic field strength, leading to the generation of sunspots, is attained earlier in the preceding part of the originating active region than in its subsequent part. A series of subflares occurred in the active region, when short-lived small magnetic structure elements emerged in the larger bipolar magnetic field. (author)
Recent development of ionic liquid stationary phases for liquid chromatography.
Shi, Xianzhe; Qiao, Lizhen; Xu, Guowang
2015-11-13
Based on their particular physicochemical characteristics, ionic liquids have been widely applied in many fields of analytical chemistry. Many types of ionic liquids were immobilized on a support like silica or monolith as stationary phases for liquid chromatography. Moreover, different approaches were developed to bond covalently ionic liquids onto the supporting materials. The obtained ionic liquid stationary phases show multi-mode mechanism including hydrophobic, hydrophilic, hydrogen bond, anion exchange, π-π, and dipole-dipole interactions. Therefore, they could be used in different chromatographic modes including ion-exchange, RPLC, NPLC and HILIC to separate various classes of compounds. This review mainly summarizes the immobilized patterns and types of ionic liquid stationary phases, their retention mechanisms and applications in the recent five years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, T.A.
1978-10-01
For one-electron heteropolar systems, the wave-theoretic Lagrangian of Paper I 2 is simplified in two distinct approximations. The first is semiclassical; the second is quantal, for velocities below those for which the semiclassical treatment is reliable. For each approximation, unitarity and detailed balancing are discussed. Then, the variational method as described by Demkov is used to determine the coupled equations for the radial functions and the Euler-Lagrange equations for the translational factors which are part of the theory. Specific semiclassical formulae for the translational factors are given in a many-state approximation. Low-velocity quantal formulae are obtained in a one-state approximation. The one-state results of both approximations agree with an earlier determination by Riley. 14 references
Stationary strings near a higher-dimensional rotating black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, Valeri P.; Stevens, Kory A.
2004-01-01
We study stationary string configurations in a space-time of a higher-dimensional rotating black hole. We demonstrate that the Nambu-Goto equations for a stationary string in the 5D (five-dimensional) Myers-Perry metric allow a separation of variables. We present these equations in the first-order form and study their properties. We prove that the only stationary string configuration that crosses the infinite redshift surface and remains regular there is a principal Killing string. A worldsheet of such a string is generated by a principal null geodesic and a timelike at infinity Killing vector field. We obtain principal Killing string solutions in the Myers-Perry metrics with an arbitrary number of dimensions. It is shown that due to the interaction of a string with a rotating black hole, there is an angular momentum transfer from the black hole to the string. We calculate the rate of this transfer in a space-time with an arbitrary number of dimensions. This effect slows down the rotation of the black hole. We discuss possible final stationary configurations of a rotating black hole interacting with a string
Tilting mode in rigidly rotating field-reversed configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clemente, R.A.; Milovich, J.L.
1983-01-01
The tilting-mode stability of field-reversed configurations is analyzed taking into account plasma rotational effects that had not been included in previous theoretical treatments. It is shown that for a rigidly rotating plasma in stationary equilibrium, stability can be attained if the plasma rotational energy is of the same order as the thermal energy. Since presently available values of the rotational velocities are quite lower than required by the stabilization mechanism considered here, the contribution of this effect to the overall stability of the mode does not appear to be significant
Stationary neoclassical profiles of plasma parameters in stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danilkin, I.S.; Mineev, A.B.
1991-01-01
The properties of the neoclassical model of heat and particle transport are considered in connection with calculations of stationary profiles of the plasma parameters in stellarators. The most important feature is the poor agreement with real physical conditions of the boundary, which imposes the necessity of invoking either an additional anomalous transport or a special (although technically possible) consistency between the particle and heat sources in order to obtain a solution in the form of a correct monotonically decreasing profile. In search for monotonic stationary profiles maintained by external sources, it is ascertained that the neoclassical theory does not give rise to the well-known multivalued solutions for the ambipolar electric field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2000-01-01
Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kling, M.F.; Ni, Yongfeng; Lepine, F.; Khan, J.I.; Vrakking, M.J.J.; Johnsson, P.; Remetter, T.; Varju, K.; Gustafsson, E.; L'Huillier, A.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Boutu, W.
2005-01-01
Full text: In the past decade, the dynamics of atomic and small molecular systems in strong laser fields has received enormous attention, but was mainly studied with femtosecond laser fields. We report on first applications of attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulse trains (APTs) from high-order harmonic generation (HHG) for the study of atomic and molecular electron and ion dynamics in strong laser fields utilizing the Velocity Map Imaging Technique. The APTs were generated in argon from harmonics 13 to 35 of a 35 fs Ti:sapphire laser, and spatially and temporally overlapped with an intense IR laser field (up to 5x10 13 W/cm 2 ) in the interaction region of a Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) machine. In the VMI setup, electrons and ions that were created at the crossing point of the laser fields and an atomic or molecular beam were accelerated in a dc-electric field towards a two-dimensional position-sensitive detector, allowing to reconstruct the full initial three-dimensional velocity distribution. The poster will focus on results that were obtained for argon atoms. We recorded the velocity distribution of electron wave packets that were strongly driven in the IR laser field after their generation in Ar via single-photon ionization by attosecond XUV pulses. The 3D evolution of the electron wave packets was observed on an attosecond timescale. In addition to earlier experiments with APTs using a magnetic bottle electron time-of-flight spectrometers and with single attosecond pulses, the angular dependence of the electrons kinetic energies can give further insight into the details of the dynamics. Initial results that were obtained for molecular systems like H 2 , D 2 , N 2 , and CO 2 using the same powerful approach will be highlighted as well. We will show, that detailed insight into the dynamics of these systems in strong laser fields can be obtained (e.g. on the alignment, above-threshold ionization, direct vs. sequential two-photon ionization, dissociation, and
MULTI-COMPONENT ANALYSIS OF POSITION-VELOCITY CUBES OF THE HH 34 JET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodríguez-González, A.; Esquivel, A.; Raga, A. C.; Cantó, J.; Curiel, S.; Riera, A.; Beck, T. L.
2012-01-01
We present an analysis of Hα spectra of the HH 34 jet with two-dimensional spectral resolution. We carry out multi-Gaussian fits to the spatially resolved line profiles and derive maps of the intensity, radial velocity, and velocity width of each of the components. We find that close to the outflow source we have three components: a high (negative) radial velocity component with a well-collimated, jet-like morphology; an intermediate velocity component with a broader morphology; and a positive radial velocity component with a non-collimated morphology and large linewidth. We suggest that this positive velocity component is associated with jet emission scattered in stationary dust present in the circumstellar environment. Farther away from the outflow source, we find only two components (a high, negative radial velocity component, which has a narrower spatial distribution than an intermediate velocity component). The fitting procedure was carried out with the new AGA-V1 code, which is available online and is described in detail in this paper.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruiz, Jordi-Roger Riba [EUETII, Dept. d' Enginyeria Electrica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Placa del Rei 15, 08700 Igualada, Barcelona (Spain); Garcia Espinosa, Antonio [Dept. d' Enginyeria Electrica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya C/Colom 1, 08222 Terrassa (Spain); Romeral, Luis; Cusido, Jordi [Dept. d' Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya C/Colom 1, 08222 Terrassa (Spain)
2010-10-15
Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) are applied in high performance positioning and variable speed applications because of their enhanced features with respect to other AC motor types. Fault detection and diagnosis of electrical motors for critical applications is an active field of research. However, much research remains to be done in the field of PMSM demagnetization faults, especially when running under non-stationary conditions. This paper presents a time-frequency method specifically focused to detect and diagnose demagnetization faults in PMSMs running under non-stationary speed conditions, based on the Hilbert Huang transform. The effectiveness of the proposed method is proven by means of experimental results. (author)
Three-dimensional groundwater velocity field in an unconfined aquifer under irrigation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zlotnik, V.
1990-01-01
A method for three-dimensional flow velocity calculation has been developed to evaluate unconfined aquifer sensitivity to areal agricultural contamination of groundwater. The methodology of Polubarinova-Kochina is applied to an unconfined homogeneous compressible or incompressible anisotropic aquifer. It is based on a three-dimensional groundwater flow model with a boundary condition on the moving surface. Analytical solutions are obtained for a hydraulic head under the influence of areal sources of circular and rectangular shape using integral transforms. Two-dimensional Hantush formulas result from the vertical averaging of the three-dimensional solutions, and the asymptotic behavior of solutions is analyzed. Analytical expressions for flow velocity components are obtained from the gradient of the hydraulic head field. Areal and temporal variability of specific yield in groundwater recharge areas is also taken into account. As a consequence of linearization of the boundary condition, the operation of any irrigation system with respect to groundwater is represented by superposition of the operating wells and circular and rectangular source influences. Combining the obtained solutions with Dagan or Neuman well functions, one can develop computer codes for the analytical computation of the three-dimensional groundwater hydraulic head and velocity component distributions. Methods for practical implementation are discussed. (Author) (20 refs., 4 figs.)
Electromagnetic Field Theory A Collection of Problems
Mrozynski, Gerd
2013-01-01
After a brief introduction into the theory of electromagnetic fields and the definition of the field quantities the book teaches the analytical solution methods of Maxwell’s equations by means of several characteristic examples. The focus is on static and stationary electric and magnetic fields, quasi stationary fields, and electromagnetic waves. For a deeper understanding, the many depicted field patterns are very helpful. The book offers a collection of problems and solutions which enable the reader to understand and to apply Maxwell’s theory for a broad class of problems including classical static problems right up to waveguide eigenvalue problems. Content Maxwell’s Equations - Electrostatic Fields - Stationary Current Distributions – Magnetic Field of Stationary Currents – Quasi Stationary Fields: Eddy Currents - Electromagnetic Waves Target Groups Advanced Graduate Students in Electrical Engineering, Physics, and related Courses Engineers and Physicists Authors Professor Dr.-Ing. Gerd Mrozynski...
Antarctic Glaciological Data at NSIDC: field data, temperature, and ice velocity
Bauer, R.; Bohlander, J.; Scambos, T.; Berthier, E.; Raup, B.; Scharfen, G.
2003-12-01
An extensive collection of many Antarctic glaciological parameters is available for the polar science community upon request. The National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs funds the Antarctic Glaciological Data Center (AGDC) at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) to archive and distribute Antarctic glaciological and cryospheric system data collected by the U.S. Antarctic Program. AGDC facilitates data exchange among Principal Investigators, preserves recently collected data useful to future research, gathers data sets from past research, and compiles continent-wide information useful for modeling and field work planning. Data sets are available via our web site, http://nsidc.org/agdc/. From here, users can access extensive documentation, citation information, locator maps, derived images and references, and the numerical data. More than 50 Antarctic scientists have contributed data to the archive. Among the compiled products distributed by AGDC are VELMAP and THERMAP. THERMAP is a compilation of over 600 shallow firn temperature measurements ('10-meter temperatures') collected since 1950. These data provide a record of mean annual temperature, and potentially hold a record of climate change on the continent. The data are represented with maps showing the traverse route, and include data sources, measurement technique, and additional measurements made at each site, i.e., snow density and accumulation. VELMAP is an archive of surface ice velocity measurements for the Antarctic Ice Sheet. The primary objective of VELMAP is to assemble a historic record of outlet glaciers and ice shelf ice motion over the Antarctic. The collection includes both PI-contributed measurements and data generated at NSIDC using Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery. Tabular data contain position, speed, bearing, and data quality information, and related references. Two new VELMAP data sets are highlighted: the Mertz Glacier and the Institute Ice Stream. Mertz Glacier ice
Civilini, F.; Mooney, W.; Savage, M. K.; Townend, J.; Zahran, H. M.
2017-12-01
We present seismic shear-velocities for Harrat Rahat, a Cenozoic bimodal alkaline volcanic field in west-central Saudi Arabia, using seismic tomography from natural ambient noise. This project is part of an overall effort by the Saudi Geological Survey and the United States Geological Survey to describe the subsurface structure and assess hazards within the Saudi Arabian shield. Volcanism at Harrat Rahat began approximately 10 Ma, with at least three pulses around 10, 5, and 2 Ma, and at least several pulses in the Quaternary from 1.9 Ma to the present. This area is instrumented by 14 broadband Nanometrics Trillium T120 instruments across an array aperture of approximately 130 kilometers. We used a year of recorded natural ambient noise to determine group and phase velocity surface wave dispersion maps with a 0.1 decimal degree resolution for radial-radial, transverse-transverse, and vertical-vertical components of the empirical Green's function. A grid-search method was used to carry out 1D shear-velocity inversions at each latitude-longitude point and the results were interpolated to produce pseudo-3D shear velocity models. The dispersion maps resolved a zone of slow surface wave velocity south-east of the city of Medina spatially correlated with the 1256 CE eruption. A crustal layer interface at approximately 20 km depth was determined by the inversions for all components, matching the results of prior seismic-refraction studies. Cross-sections of the 3D shear velocity models were compared to gravity measurements obtained in the south-east edge of the field. We found that measurements of low gravity qualitatively correlate with low values of shear-velocity below 20 km along the cross-section profile. We apply these methods to obtain preliminary tomography results on the entire Arabian Shield.
Migration velocity analysis using pre-stack wave fields
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2016-08-25
Using both image and data domains to perform velocity inversion can help us resolve the long and short wavelength components of the velocity model, usually in that order. This translates to integrating migration velocity analysis into full waveform inversion. The migration velocity analysis part of the inversion often requires computing extended images, which is expensive when using conventional methods. As a result, we use pre-stack wavefield (the double-square-root formulation) extrapolation, which includes the extended information (subsurface offsets) naturally, to make the process far more efficient and stable. The combination of the forward and adjoint pre-stack wavefields provides us with update options that can be easily conditioned to improve convergence. We specifically use a modified differential semblance operator to split the extended image into a residual part for classic differential semblance operator updates and the image (Born) modelling part, which provides reflections for higher resolution information. In our implementation, we invert for the velocity and the image simultaneously through a dual objective function. Applications to synthetic examples demonstrate the features of the approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. M. Echim
2008-05-01
Full Text Available We discuss a model for the quasi-stationary coupling between magnetospheric sheared flows in the dusk sector and discrete auroral arcs, previously analyzed for the case of a uniform height-integrated Pedersen conductivity (ΣP. Here we introduce an ionospheric feedback as the variation of ΣP with the energy flux of precipitating magnetospheric electrons (εem. One key-component of the model is the kinetic description of the interface between the duskward LLBL and the plasma sheet that gives the profile of Φm, the magnetospheric electrostatic potential. The velocity shear in the dusk LLBL plays the role of a generator for the auroral circuit closing through Pedersen currents in the auroral ionosphere. The field-aligned current density, j||, and the energy flux of precipitating electrons are given by analytic functions of the field-aligned potential drop, ΔΦ, derived from standard kinetic models of the adiabatic motion of particles. The ionospheric electrostatic potential, Φi (and implicitely ΔΦ is determined from the current continuity equation in the ionosphere. We obtain values of ΔΦ of the order of kilovolt and of j|| of the order of tens of μA/m2 in thin regions of the order of several kilometers at 200 km altitude. The spatial scale is significantly smaller and the peak values of ΔΦ, j|| and εem are higher than in the case of a uniform ΣP. Effects on the postnoon/evening auroral arc electrodynamics due to variations of dusk LLBL and solar wind dynamic and kinetic pressure are discussed. In thin regions (of the order of kilometer embedding the maximum of ΔΦ we evidence a non-linear regime of the current-voltage relationship. The model predicts also that visible arcs form when the velocity shear in LLBL is above a threshold value depending on the generator and ionospheric plasma properties. Brighter arcs are obtained for increased velocity shear in the LLBL; their spatial scale remains virtually unmodified. The field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sharf Abdusalam M.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In the oil and gas industries, understanding the behaviour of a flow through an annulus gap in a vertical position, whose outer wall is stationary whilst the inner wall rotates, is a significantly important issue in drilling wells. The main emphasis is placed on experimental (using an available rig and computational (employing CFD software investigations into the effects of the rotation speed of the inner pipe on the axial velocity profiles. The measured axial velocity profiles, in the cases of low axial flow, show that the axial velocity is influenced by the rotation speed of the inner pipe in the region of almost 33% of the annulus near the inner pipe, and influenced inversely in the rest of the annulus. The position of the maximum axial velocity is shifted from the centre to be nearer the inner pipe, by increasing the rotation speed. However, in the case of higher flow, as the rotation speed increases, the axial velocity is reduced and the position of the maximum axial velocity is skewed towards the centre of the annulus. There is a reduction of the swirl velocity corresponding to the rise of the volumetric flow rate.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Bak, Claus Leth; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella
2014-01-01
In this paper, the electromagnetic pulse propagation velocity on a three-phase cable system, consisting of three single core (SC) cables in flat formation with an earth continuity conductor is under study. The propagation velocity is an important parameter for most travelling wave off- and online...... fault location methods and needs to be exactly known for optimal performance of these algorithm types. Field measurements are carried out on a 6.9 km and a 31.4 km 245 kV crossbonded cable system, and the results are analysed using the modal decomposition theory. Several ways for determining...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Viridi, Sparisoma; Widayani
2017-01-01
Magnetic and electric fields can cause a charged particle to form interesting trajectories. In general, each trajectory is discussed separately in university physics textbooks for undergraduate students. In this work, a solution of a charged particle moving in a uniform electric field at right angles to a uniform magnetic field (uniform crossed electric and magnetic fields) is reported; it is limited to particle motion in a plane. Specific solutions and their trajectories are obtained only by varying the initial particle velocity. The result shows five basic trajectory patterns, i.e., straight line, sinusoid-like, cycloid, cycloid-like with oscillation, and circle-like. The region of each trajectory is also mapped in the initial velocity space of the particle. This paper is intended for undergraduate students and describes further the trajectories of a charged particle through the regions of electric and magnetic fields influenced by initial condition of the particle, where electromagnetic radiation of an accelerated particle is not considered. (paper)
Impact of the Injection Protocol on an Impurity's Stationary State
Gamayun, Oleksandr; Lychkovskiy, Oleg; Burovski, Evgeni; Malcomson, Matthew; Cheianov, Vadim V.; Zvonarev, Mikhail B.
2018-06-01
We examine stationary-state properties of an impurity particle injected into a one-dimensional quantum gas. We show that the value of the impurity's end velocity lies between zero and the speed of sound in the gas and is determined by the injection protocol. This way, the impurity's constant motion is a dynamically emergent phenomenon whose description goes beyond accounting for the kinematic constraints of the Landau approach to superfluidity. We provide exact analytic results in the thermodynamic limit and perform finite-size numerical simulations to demonstrate that the predicted phenomena are within the reach of the ultracold gas experiments.
Ma, Yin-Zhe; Gong, Guo-Dong; Sui, Ning; He, Ping
2018-03-01
We calculate the cross-correlation function between the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich (kSZ) effect and the reconstructed peculiar velocity field using linear perturbation theory, with the aim of constraining the optical depth τ and peculiar velocity bias of central galaxies with Planck data. We vary the optical depth τ and the velocity bias function bv(k) = 1 + b(k/k0)n, and fit the model to the data, with and without varying the calibration parameter y0 that controls the vertical shift of the correlation function. By constructing a likelihood function and constraining the τ, b and n parameters, we find that the quadratic power-law model of velocity bias, bv(k) = 1 + b(k/k0)2, provides the best fit to the data. The best-fit values are τ = (1.18 ± 0.24) × 10-4, b=-0.84^{+0.16}_{-0.20} and y0=(12.39^{+3.65}_{-3.66})× 10^{-9} (68 per cent confidence level). The probability of b > 0 is only 3.12 × 10-8 for the parameter b, which clearly suggests a detection of scale-dependent velocity bias. The fitting results indicate that the large-scale (k ≤ 0.1 h Mpc-1) velocity bias is unity, while on small scales the bias tends to become negative. The value of τ is consistent with the stellar mass-halo mass and optical depth relationship proposed in the literature, and the negative velocity bias on small scales is consistent with the peak background split theory. Our method provides a direct tool for studying the gaseous and kinematic properties of galaxies.
Nikoueeyan, Pourya; Naughton, Jonathan
2016-11-01
Particle Image Velocimetry is a common choice for qualitative and quantitative characterization of unsteady flows associated with moving bodies (e.g. pitching and plunging airfoils). Characterizing the separated flow behavior is of great importance in understanding the flow physics and developing predictive reduced-order models. In most studies, the model under investigation moves within a fixed camera field-of-view, and vector fields are calculated based on this fixed coordinate system. To better characterize the genesis and evolution of vortical structures in these unsteady flows, the velocity fields need to be transformed into the moving-body frame of reference. Data converted to this coordinate system allow for a more detailed analysis of the flow field using advanced statistical tools. In this work, a pitching NACA0015 airfoil has been used to demonstrate the capability of photogrammetry for such an analysis. Photogrammetry has been used first to locate the airfoil within the image and then to determine an appropriate mask for processing the PIV data. The photogrammetry results are then further used to determine the rotation matrix that transforms the velocity fields to airfoil coordinates. Examples of the important capabilities such a process enables are discussed. P. Nikoueeyan is supported by a fellowship from the University of Wyoming's Engineering Initiative.
Experimental study on the critical heat flux in a varying acceleration field, (1)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Yokomura, Takeyoshi; Otsuji, Tomoo; Ikawa, Masahiro; Kurosawa, Akira.
1988-12-01
It is very important for the thermohydraulic design and for the safety assesement of marine reactors, to understand the effect of varying acceleration induced by ship motion on critical heart flux. The purpose of this joint study is to examine quantitatively the influence of varying acceleration on the behavior of bubbles. In the experiment, FREON-113 was used as working fluid. This report describes some experimental results; measurements of void fraction and bubble velocity near the heat transfer surface, measurement of bubble size under stationary acceleration field and observation of bubble behavior under varying acceleration field. (author)
Niemeijer, André; di Toro, Giulio; Nielsen, Stefan; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Romeo, Gianni; di Stefano, Giuseppe; Smith, Steven; di Felice, Fabio; Mariano, Sofia
2010-05-01
Despite considerable effort over the past several decades, the mechanics of earthquakes rupture remain largely unknown. In order to complement fault drilling projects and field and seismological observations, recent friction experiments strive to reproduce as closely as possible in-situ (natural) conditions of slip velocity and acceleration on intact and fault rocks. In this contribution, we present a novel state-of-the-art experimental rotary shear apparatus (SHIVA or Slow to HIgh Velocity Apparatus) capable of shearing samples at sliding velocities up to 10 m/s, accelerations of ~ 40 m/s2 and normal stresses up to 50 MPa. In comparison with existing high speed friction machines, this apparatus extends the range of sliding velocities, normal stresses, sample size and, more importantly, accelerations. The apparatus consists of a pair of brushless electric motors (a low velocity motor, 10-6-10-3 m/s, power 5 kW, and a high velocity motor, 10-3 - 10 m/s, power 270 kW), that are connected by a gear system that allows a switch between motors without loss of velocity and force. The motors drive a rotary shaft which clamps ring-shaped samples (diameter 40- 50 mm). On the other side of the rotary shaft, a stationary shaft holds the other half of the sample assembly. The shaft is held stationary by a pair of stainless steel arms, one of which is attached to the side of the concrete-filled base where torque is measured by a tension cell. Axial force (maximum 37 kN) is applied on this side by a piston-cylinder couple with an arm to increase the force. The entire machine measures by 3.5 by 1.2 meters and weighs 3700 kg. We aim to perform experiments on rock samples of a variety of compositions using slip velocities and accelerations that simulate slip velocity functions that occur during earthquakes. In addition, we plan to develop a pore fluid system and a pressure vessel in order to perform experiments that include the physical-chemical processes that occur during slow
Diffraction imaging and velocity analysis using oriented velocity continuation
Decker, Luke
2014-08-05
We perform seismic diffraction imaging and velocity analysis by separating diffractions from specular reflections and decomposing them into slope components. We image slope components using extrapolation in migration velocity in time-space-slope coordinates. The extrapolation is described by a convection-type partial differential equation and implemented efficiently in the Fourier domain. Synthetic and field data experiments show that the proposed algorithm is able to detect accurate time-migration velocities by automatically measuring the flatness of events in dip-angle gathers.
Formation of X-ray emitting stationary shocks in magnetized protostellar jets
Ustamujic, S.; Orlando, S.; Bonito, R.; Miceli, M.; Gómez de Castro, A. I.; López-Santiago, J.
2016-12-01
Context. X-ray observations of protostellar jets show evidence of strong shocks heating the plasma up to temperatures of a few million degrees. In some cases, the shocked features appear to be stationary. They are interpreted as shock diamonds. Aims: We investigate the physics that guides the formation of X-ray emitting stationary shocks in protostellar jets; the role of the magnetic field in determining the location, stability, and detectability in X-rays of these shocks; and the physical properties of the shocked plasma. Methods: We performed a set of 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations that modelled supersonic jets ramming into a magnetized medium and explored different configurations of the magnetic field. The model takes into account the most relevant physical effects, namely thermal conduction and radiative losses. We compared the model results with observations, via the emission measure and the X-ray luminosity synthesized from the simulations. Results: Our model explains the formation of X-ray emitting stationary shocks in a natural way. The magnetic field collimates the plasma at the base of the jet and forms a magnetic nozzle there. After an initial transient, the nozzle leads to the formation of a shock diamond at its exit which is stationary over the time covered by the simulations ( 40-60 yr; comparable with timescales of the observations). The shock generates a point-like X-ray source located close to the base of the jet with luminosity comparable with that inferred from X-ray observations of protostellar jets. For the range of parameters explored, the evolution of the post-shock plasma is dominated by the radiative cooling, whereas the thermal conduction slightly affects the structure of the shock. A movie is available at http://www.aanda.org
Aucejo, M.; Totaro, N.; Guyader, J.-L.
2010-08-01
In noise control, identification of the source velocity field remains a major problem open to investigation. Consequently, methods such as nearfield acoustical holography (NAH), principal source projection, the inverse frequency response function and hybrid NAH have been developed. However, these methods require free field conditions that are often difficult to achieve in practice. This article presents an alternative method known as inverse patch transfer functions, designed to identify source velocities and developed in the framework of the European SILENCE project. This method is based on the definition of a virtual cavity, the double measurement of the pressure and particle velocity fields on the aperture surfaces of this volume, divided into elementary areas called patches and the inversion of impedances matrices, numerically computed from a modal basis obtained by FEM. Theoretically, the method is applicable to sources with complex 3D geometries and measurements can be carried out in a non-anechoic environment even in the presence of other stationary sources outside the virtual cavity. In the present paper, the theoretical background of the iPTF method is described and the results (numerical and experimental) for a source with simple geometry (two baffled pistons driven in antiphase) are presented and discussed.
Schrodinger's catapult II: entanglement between stationary and flying fields
Pfaff, W.; Axline, C.; Burkhart, L.; Vool, U.; Reinhold, P.; Frunzio, L.; Jiang, L.; Devoret, M.; Schoelkopf, R.
Entanglement between nodes is an elementary resource in a quantum network. An important step towards its realization is entanglement between stationary and flying states. Here we experimentally demonstrate entanglement generation between a long-lived cavity memory and traveling mode in circuit QED. A large on/off ratio and fast control over a parametric mixing process allow us to realize conversion with tunable magnitude and duration between standing and flying mode. In the case of half-conversion, we observe correlations between the standing and flying state that confirm the generation of entangled states. We show this for both single-photon and multi-photon states, paving the way for error-correctable remote entanglement. Our system could serve as an essential component in a modular architecture for error-protected quantum information processing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natal'ya V. Burmasheva
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper a new exact solution of an overdetermined system of Oberbeck–Boussinesq equations that describes a stationary shear flow of a viscous incompressible fluid in an infinite layer is under study. The given exact solution is a generalization of the Ostroumov–Birich class for a layered unidirectional flow. In the proposed solution, the horizontal velocities depend only on the transverse coordinate z. The temperature field and the pressure field are three-dimensional. In contradistinction to the Ostroumov–Birich solution, in the solution presented in the paper the horizontal temperature gradients are linear functions of the $z$ coordinate. This structure of the exact solution allows us to find a nontrivial solution of the Oberbeck–Boussinesq equations by means of the identity zero of the incompressibility equation. This exact solution is suitable for investigating large-scale flows of a viscous incompressible fluid by quasi-two-dimensional equations. Convective fluid motion is caused by the setting of tangential stresses on the free boundary of the layer. Inhomogeneous thermal sources are given on both boundaries. The pressure in the fluid at the upper boundary coincides with the atmospheric pressure. The paper focuses on the study of temperature and pressure fields, which are described by polynomials of three variables. The features of the distribution of the temperature and pressure profiles, which are polynomials of the seventh and eighth degree, respectively, are discussed in detail. To analyze the properties of temperature and pressure, algebraic methods are used to study the number of roots on a segment. It is shown that the background temperature and the background pressure are nonmonotonic functions. The temperature field is stratified into zones that form the thermocline and the thermal boundary layer near the boundaries of the fluid layer. Investigation of the properties of the pressure field showed that it is stratified
Šimkanin, Ján; Kyselica, Juraj
2017-12-01
Numerical simulations of the geodynamo are becoming more realistic because of advances in computer technology. Here, the geodynamo model is investigated numerically at the extremely low Ekman and magnetic Prandtl numbers using the PARODY dynamo code. These parameters are more realistic than those used in previous numerical studies of the geodynamo. Our model is based on the Boussinesq approximation and the temperature gradient between upper and lower boundaries is a source of convection. This study attempts to answer the question how realistic the geodynamo models are. Numerical results show that our dynamo belongs to the strong-field dynamos. The generated magnetic field is dipolar and large-scale while convection is small-scale and sheet-like flows (plumes) are preferred to a columnar convection. Scales of magnetic and velocity fields are separated, which enables hydromagnetic dynamos to maintain the magnetic field at the low magnetic Prandtl numbers. The inner core rotation rate is lower than that in previous geodynamo models. On the other hand, dimensional magnitudes of velocity and magnetic fields and those of the magnetic and viscous dissipation are larger than those expected in the Earth's core due to our parameter range chosen.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monir, C.
1991-02-01
A two-dimensional procedure, VANTACY-II, describing the turbulent velocity and temperature fields for single phase flow in tight lattices is presented and validated. The flow is assumed to be steady, incrompressible and hydraulic and thermal fully developed. First, the state of art of turbulent momentum and heat transport in tight lattices is documented. It is shown that there is a necessity for experimental investigations in the field of turbulent heat transport. The presented new procedure is based on the turbulence model VELASCO-TUBS by NEELEN. The numerical solution of the balance equations is done by the finite element method code VANTACY by KAISER. The validation of the new procedure VANTACY-II is done by comparing the numerically calculated data for the velocity and temperature fields and for natural mixing with the experimental data of SEALE. The comparison shows a good agreement of experimental and numerically computed data. The observed differences can be mainly attributed to the model of the turbulent PRANDTL number used in the new procedure. (orig.) [de
Stationary and non-stationary extreme value modeling of extreme temperature in Malaysia
Hasan, Husna; Salleh, Nur Hanim Mohd; Kassim, Suraiya
2014-09-01
Extreme annual temperature of eighteen stations in Malaysia is fitted to the Generalized Extreme Value distribution. Stationary and non-stationary models with trend are considered for each station and the Likelihood Ratio test is used to determine the best-fitting model. Results show that three out of eighteen stations i.e. Bayan Lepas, Labuan and Subang favor a model which is linear in the location parameter. A hierarchical cluster analysis is employed to investigate the existence of similar behavior among the stations. Three distinct clusters are found in which one of them consists of the stations that favor the non-stationary model. T-year estimated return levels of the extreme temperature are provided based on the chosen models.
Remote determination of the velocity index and mean streamwise velocity profiles
Johnson, E. D.; Cowen, E. A.
2017-09-01
When determining volumetric discharge from surface measurements of currents in a river or open channel, the velocity index is typically used to convert surface velocities to depth-averaged velocities. The velocity index is given by, k=Ub/Usurf, where Ub is the depth-averaged velocity and Usurf is the local surface velocity. The USGS (United States Geological Survey) standard value for this coefficient, k = 0.85, was determined from a series of laboratory experiments and has been widely used in the field and in laboratory measurements of volumetric discharge despite evidence that the velocity index is site-specific. Numerous studies have documented that the velocity index varies with Reynolds number, flow depth, and relative bed roughness and with the presence of secondary flows. A remote method of determining depth-averaged velocity and hence the velocity index is developed here. The technique leverages the findings of Johnson and Cowen (2017) and permits remote determination of the velocity power-law exponent thereby, enabling remote prediction of the vertical structure of the mean streamwise velocity, the depth-averaged velocity, and the velocity index.
H0, q0 and the local velocity field. [Hubble and deceleration constants in Big Bang expansion
Sandage, A.; Tammann, G. A.
1982-01-01
An attempt is made to find a systematic deviation from linearity for distances that are under the control of the Virgo cluster, and to determine the value of the mean random motion about the systematic flow, in order to improve the measurement of the Hubble and the deceleration constants. The velocity-distance relation for large and intermediate distances is studied, and type I supernovae are calibrated relatively as distance indicators and absolutely to obtain a new value for the Hubble constant. Methods of determining the deceleration constant are assessed, including determination from direct measurement, mean luminosity density, virgocentric motion, and the time scale test. The very local velocity field is investigated, and a solution is preferred with a random peculiar radial velocity of very nearby field galaxies of 90-100 km/s, and a Virgocentric motion of the local group of 220 km/s, leading to an underlying expansion rate of 55, in satisfactory agreement with the global value.
Self-adaptive change detection in streaming data with non-stationary distribution
Zhang, Xiangliang; Wang, Wei
2010-01-01
Non-stationary distribution, in which the data distribution evolves over time, is a common issue in many application fields, e.g., intrusion detection and grid computing. Detecting the changes in massive streaming data with a non
Study of the rotation velocity in the stellar system with axial symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanz, J.; Catala, M.A.
1986-01-01
This paper contains the calculation of the tangential component of the velocity for a model of galaxy with axial symmetry, non stationary state and equatorial symmetry plane, from the postulates and fundamental equations of Chandrasekhar theory, that shows a shift of the maximum for different values of the Z coordinate and the θ direction. (author)
Climatic feedbacks between stationary and transient eddies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Branscome, L.E.
1994-01-01
Stationary eddies make a significant contribution to poleward heat transport during Northern Hemisphere winter, equaling the transport by transient eddies. On the other hand, stationary eddy transport during the summer is negligible. The effect of topography on time-mean stationary waves and low-frequency variability has been widely studied. In contrast, little attention has been given to the climatic feedbacks associated with stationary eddies. Furthermore, the relationship between stationary and transient eddies in the context of global and regional climate is not well understood. The response of the climate system to anthropogenic forcing is likely to have some dependence on stationary wave transport and its interaction with transient eddies. Some early GCM simulations and observational analyses indicate a strong feedback between the meridional heat fluxes of stationary and transient eddies
Rainbow particle imaging velocimetry for dense 3D fluid velocity imaging
Xiong, Jinhui
2017-07-21
Despite significant recent progress, dense, time-resolved imaging of complex, non-stationary 3D flow velocities remains an elusive goal. In this work we tackle this problem by extending an established 2D method, Particle Imaging Velocimetry, to three dimensions by encoding depth into color. The encoding is achieved by illuminating the flow volume with a continuum of light planes (a
ACCRETION DISKS WITH A LARGE SCALE MAGNETIC FIELD AROUND BLACK HOLES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gennady Bisnovatyi-Kogan
2013-12-01
Full Text Available We consider accretion disks around black holes at high luminosity, and the problem of the formation of a large-scale magnetic field in such disks, taking into account the non-uniform vertical structure of the disk. The structure of advective accretion disks is investigated, and conditions for the formation of optically thin regions in central parts of the accretion disk are found. The high electrical conductivity of the outer layers of the disk prevents outward diffusion of the magnetic field. This implies a stationary state with a strong magnetic field in the inner parts of the accretion disk close to the black hole, and zero radial velocity at the surface of the disk. The problem of jet collimation by magneto-torsion oscillations is investigated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shams, A.; Roelofs, F.; Komen, E.M.J.; Baglietto, E.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Quasi direct numerical simulations (q-DNS) of a pebble bed configuration has been performed. ► This q-DNS database may serve as a reference for the validation of different turbulence modeling approaches. ► A wide range of qualitative and quantitative data throughout the computational domain has been generated. ► Results for mean, RMS and covariance of velocity field are extensively reported in this paper. -- Abstract: High temperature reactors (HTR) are being considered for deployment around the world because of their excellent safety features. The fuel is embedded in a graphite moderator and can sustain very high temperatures. However, the appearance of hot spots in the pebble bed cores of HTR's may affect the integrity of the pebbles. A good prediction of the flow and heat transport in such a pebble bed core is a challenge for available turbulence models and such models need to be validated. In the present article, quasi direct numerical simulations (q-DNS) of a pebble bed configuration are reported, which may serve as a reference for the validation of different turbulence modeling approaches. Such approaches can be used in order to perform calculations for a randomly arranged pebble bed. Simulations are performed at a Reynolds number of 3088, based on pebble diameter, with a porosity level of 0.42. Detailed flow analyses have shown complex physics flow behavior and make this case challenging for turbulence model validation. Hence, a wide range of qualitative and quantitative data for velocity and temperature field have been extracted for this benchmark. In the present article (part I), results related to the flow field (mean, RMS and covariance of velocity) are documented and discussed in detail. Moreover, the discussion regarding the temperature field will be published in a separate article
Wet and gassy zones in a municipal landfill from P- and S-wave velocity fields
Konstantaki, L.A.; Ghose, R.; Draganov, D.S.; Heimovaara, T.J.
2016-01-01
The knowledge of the distribution of leachate and gas in a municipal landfill is of vital importance to the landfill operators performing improved landfill treatments and for environmental protection and efficient biogas extraction. We have explored the potential of using the velocity fields of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhin, V.I.; Matukhin, N.M.
2000-01-01
The approach to generalization of the non-stationary heat exchange data for the central zones of the nuclear reactor fuel assemblies and the approximate thermal-model-testing criteria are proposed. The fuel assemblies of fast and water-cooled reactors with different fuel compositions have been investigated. The reason of the non-stationary heat exchange is the fuel-energy-release time dependence. (author)
Learning in Non-Stationary Environments Methods and Applications
Lughofer, Edwin
2012-01-01
Recent decades have seen rapid advances in automatization processes, supported by modern machines and computers. The result is significant increases in system complexity and state changes, information sources, the need for faster data handling and the integration of environmental influences. Intelligent systems, equipped with a taxonomy of data-driven system identification and machine learning algorithms, can handle these problems partially. Conventional learning algorithms in a batch off-line setting fail whenever dynamic changes of the process appear due to non-stationary environments and external influences. Learning in Non-Stationary Environments: Methods and Applications offers a wide-ranging, comprehensive review of recent developments and important methodologies in the field. The coverage focuses on dynamic learning in unsupervised problems, dynamic learning in supervised classification and dynamic learning in supervised regression problems. A later section is dedicated to applications in which dyna...
Stationary stochastic processes for scientists and engineers
Lindgren, Georg; Sandsten, Maria
2013-01-01
""This book is designed for a first course in stationary stochastic processes in science and engineering and does a very good job in introducing many concepts and ideas to students in these fields. … the book has probably been tested in the classroom many times, which also manifests itself in its virtual lack of typos. … Another great feature of the book is that it contains a wealth of worked example from many different fields. These help clarify concepts and theorems and I believe students will appreciate them-I certainly did. … The book is well suited for a one-semester course as it contains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Ide
2002-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we develop analytical and numerical methods for finding special hyperbolic trajectories that govern geometry of Lagrangian structures in time-dependent vector fields. The vector fields (or velocity fields may have arbitrary time dependence and be realized only as data sets over finite time intervals, where space and time are discretized. While the notion of a hyperbolic trajectory is central to dynamical systems theory, much of the theoretical developments for Lagrangian transport proceed under the assumption that such a special hyperbolic trajectory exists. This brings in new mathematical issues that must be addressed in order for Lagrangian transport theory to be applicable in practice, i.e. how to determine whether or not such a trajectory exists and, if it does exist, how to identify it in a sequence of instantaneous velocity fields. We address these issues by developing the notion of a distinguished hyperbolic trajectory (DHT. We develop an existence criteria for certain classes of DHTs in general time-dependent velocity fields, based on the time evolution of Eulerian structures that are observed in individual instantaneous fields over the entire time interval of the data set. We demonstrate the concept of DHTs in inhomogeneous (or "forced" time-dependent linear systems and develop a theory and analytical formula for computing DHTs. Throughout this work the notion of linearization is very important. This is not surprising since hyperbolicity is a "linearized" notion. To extend the analytical formula to more general nonlinear time-dependent velocity fields, we develop a series of coordinate transforms including a type of linearization that is not typically used in dynamical systems theory. We refer to it as Eulerian linearization, which is related to the frame independence of DHTs, as opposed to the Lagrangian linearization, which is typical in dynamical systems theory, which is used in the computation of Lyapunov exponents. We
The Effect of Forward-Facing Steps on Stationary Crossflow Instability Growth and Breakdown
Eppink, Jenna L.
2018-01-01
The e?ect of a forward-facing step on stationary cross?ow transition was studied using standard stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) and time-resolved PIV. Step heights ranging from 53 to 71% of the boundary-layer thickness were studied in detail. The steps above a critical step height of approximately 60% of the boundary-layer thickness had a signi?cant impact on the stationary cross?ow growth downstream of the step. For the critical cases, the stationary cross?ow amplitude grew suddenly downstream of the step, decayed for a short region, then grew again. The adverse pressure gradient upstream of the step resulted in a region of cross?ow reversal. A secondary set of vortices, rotating in the opposite direction to the primary vortices, developed underneath the uplifted primary vortices. The wall-normal velocity disturbance (V' ) created by these secondary vortices impacted the step, and is believed to feed into the strong vortex that developed downstream of the step. A large but very short negative cross?ow region formed for a short region downstream of the step due to a sharp inboard curvature of the streamlines near the wall. For the larger step height cases, a cross?ow-reversal region formed just downstream of the strong negative cross?ow region. This cross?ow reversal region is believed to play an important role in the growth of the stationary cross?ow vortices downstream of the step, and may be a good indication of the critical forward-facing step height.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sedov, A.A.; Gagin, V.L.
1995-01-01
For the temperature fields in rod clads of experimental assemblies a good agreement have been got with use of prior calculations by subchannel code COBRA-IV-I, from results of which an additional information about δt/δX 3 distribution was taken. The method of definition the local fields of velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, temperature and eddy diffusivities for one-phase axial stabilized fluids in arbitrary formed rod bundle assemblies with invariable upward geometry was developed. According to this model the AGURA code was worked out to calculate local thermal hydraulic problems in combination with temperature fields in fuel rods and constructive elements of fuel assemblies. The method does not use any prior geometric scales and is based only on invariant local flow parameters: turbulent kinetic energy, velocity field deformation tensor and specific work of inner friction. Verification of this method by available experimental data showed a good agreement of calculation data and findings of velocity and t.k.e. fields, when the secondary flows have not a substantial influence to a balance of axial momentum and turbulent kinetic energy. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, W.-Z.; Hau, L.-N.
2005-01-01
An exact solution of the steady-state, one-dimensional Vlasov-Maxwell equations for a plasma current sheet with oppositely directed magnetic field was found by Harris in 1962. The so-called Harris magnetic field model assumes Maxwellian velocity distributions for oppositely drifting ions and electrons and has been widely used for plasma stability studies. This paper extends Harris solutions by using more general κ distribution functions that incorporate Maxwellian distribution in the limit of κ→∞. A new functional form for the plasma pressure as a function of the magnetic vector potential p(A) is found and the magnetic field is a modified tanh z function. In the extended solutions the effective temperature is no longer spatially uniform like in the Harris model and the thickness of the current layer decreases with decreasing κ
A new estimator for vector velocity estimation [medical ultrasonics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2001-01-01
A new estimator for determining the two-dimensional velocity vector using a pulsed ultrasound field is derived. The estimator uses a transversely modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation...... be introduced, and the velocity estimation is done at a fixed depth in tissue to reduce the influence of a spatial velocity spread. Examples for different velocity vectors and field conditions are shown using both simple and more complex field simulations. A relative accuracy of 10.1% is obtained...
The effect of spatially varying velocity field on the transport of radioactivity in a porous medium.
Sen, Soubhadra; Srinivas, C V; Baskaran, R; Venkatraman, B
2016-10-01
In the event of an accidental leak of the immobilized nuclear waste from an underground repository, it may come in contact of the flow of underground water and start migrating. Depending on the nature of the geological medium, the flow velocity of water may vary spatially. Here, we report a numerical study on the migration of radioactivity due to a space dependent flow field. For a detailed analysis, seven different types of velocity profiles are considered and the corresponding concentrations are compared. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Update schemes of multi-velocity floor field cellular automaton for pedestrian dynamics
Luo, Lin; Fu, Zhijian; Cheng, Han; Yang, Lizhong
2018-02-01
Modeling pedestrian movement is an interesting problem both in statistical physics and in computational physics. Update schemes of cellular automaton (CA) models for pedestrian dynamics govern the schedule of pedestrian movement. Usually, different update schemes make the models behave in different ways, which should be carefully recalibrated. Thus, in this paper, we investigated the influence of four different update schemes, namely parallel/synchronous scheme, random scheme, order-sequential scheme and shuffled scheme, on pedestrian dynamics. The multi-velocity floor field cellular automaton (FFCA) considering the changes of pedestrians' moving properties along walking paths and heterogeneity of pedestrians' walking abilities was used. As for parallel scheme only, the collisions detection and resolution should be considered, resulting in a great difference from any other update schemes. For pedestrian evacuation, the evacuation time is enlarged, and the difference in pedestrians' walking abilities is better reflected, under parallel scheme. In face of a bottleneck, for example a exit, using a parallel scheme leads to a longer congestion period and a more dispersive density distribution. The exit flow and the space-time distribution of density and velocity have significant discrepancies under four different update schemes when we simulate pedestrian flow with high desired velocity. Update schemes may have no influence on pedestrians in simulation to create tendency to follow others, but sequential and shuffled update scheme may enhance the effect of pedestrians' familiarity with environments.
Jurcisinová, E; Jurcisin, M; Remecký, R
2009-10-01
The influence of weak uniaxial small-scale anisotropy on the stability of the scaling regime and on the anomalous scaling of the single-time structure functions of a passive scalar advected by the velocity field governed by the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation is investigated by the field theoretic renormalization group and operator-product expansion within one-loop approximation of a perturbation theory. The explicit analytical expressions for coordinates of the corresponding fixed point of the renormalization-group equations as functions of anisotropy parameters are found, the stability of the three-dimensional Kolmogorov-like scaling regime is demonstrated, and the dependence of the borderline dimension d(c) is an element of (2,3] between stable and unstable scaling regimes is found as a function of the anisotropy parameters. The dependence of the turbulent Prandtl number on the anisotropy parameters is also briefly discussed. The influence of weak small-scale anisotropy on the anomalous scaling of the structure functions of a passive scalar field is studied by the operator-product expansion and their explicit dependence on the anisotropy parameters is present. It is shown that the anomalous dimensions of the structure functions, which are the same (universal) for the Kraichnan model, for the model with finite time correlations of the velocity field, and for the model with the advection by the velocity field driven by the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation in the isotropic case, can be distinguished by the assumption of the presence of the small-scale anisotropy in the systems even within one-loop approximation. The corresponding comparison of the anisotropic anomalous dimensions for the present model with that obtained within the Kraichnan rapid-change model is done.
Prisiazhniuk, D.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Conway, G. D.; Happel, T.; Lebschy, A.; Manz, P.; Nikolaeva, V.; Stroth, U.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team
2017-02-01
In fusion machines, turbulent eddies are expected to be aligned with the direction of the magnetic field lines and to propagate in the perpendicular direction. Time delay measurements of density fluctuations can be used to calculate the magnetic field pitch angle α and perpendicular velocity {{v}\\bot} profiles. The method is applied to poloidal correlation reflectometry installed at ASDEX Upgrade and TEXTOR, which measure density fluctuations from poloidally and toroidally separated antennas. Validation of the method is achieved by comparing the perpendicular velocity (composed of the E× B drift and the phase velocity of turbulence {{v}\\bot}={{v}E× B}+{{v}\\text{ph}} ) with Doppler reflectometry measurements and with neoclassical {{v}E× B} calculations. An important condition for the application of the method is the presence of turbulence with a sufficiently long decorrelation time. It is shown that at the shear layer the decorrelation time is reduced, limiting the application of the method. The magnetic field pitch angle measured by this method shows the expected dependence on the magnetic field, plasma current and radial position. The profile of the pitch angle reproduces the expected shape and values. However, comparison with the equilibrium reconstruction code cliste suggests an additional inclination of turbulent eddies at the pedestal position (2-3°). This additional angle decreases towards the core and at the edge.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. M. Echim
2008-05-01
Full Text Available We discuss a model for the quasi-stationary coupling between magnetospheric sheared flows in the dusk sector and discrete auroral arcs, previously analyzed for the case of a uniform height-integrated Pedersen conductivity (Σ_{P}. Here we introduce an ionospheric feedback as the variation of Σ_{P} with the energy flux of precipitating magnetospheric electrons (ε_{em}. One key-component of the model is the kinetic description of the interface between the duskward LLBL and the plasma sheet that gives the profile of Φ_{m}, the magnetospheric electrostatic potential. The velocity shear in the dusk LLBL plays the role of a generator for the auroral circuit closing through Pedersen currents in the auroral ionosphere. The field-aligned current density, j_{||}, and the energy flux of precipitating electrons are given by analytic functions of the field-aligned potential drop, ΔΦ, derived from standard kinetic models of the adiabatic motion of particles. The ionospheric electrostatic potential, Φ_{i} (and implicitely ΔΦ is determined from the current continuity equation in the ionosphere. We obtain values of ΔΦ of the order of kilovolt and of j_{||} of the order of tens of μA/m^{2} in thin regions of the order of several kilometers at 200 km altitude. The spatial scale is significantly smaller and the peak values of ΔΦ, j_{||} and ε_{em} are higher than in the case of a uniform Σ_{P}. Effects on the postnoon/evening auroral arc electrodynamics due to variations of dusk LLBL and solar wind dynamic and kinetic pressure are discussed. In thin regions (of the order of kilometer embedding the maximum of ΔΦ we evidence a non-linear regime of the current-voltage relationship. The model predicts also that visible arcs form when the velocity shear in LLBL is above a threshold value depending on the generator and
On the phase velocity of plasma waves in a self-modulated laser wake-field accelerator
Andreev, N. E.; Kirsanov, V. I.; Sakharov, A. S.; van Amersfoort, P. W.; Goloviznin, V. V.
1996-01-01
The properties of the wake field excited by a flattop laser pulse with a sharp leading edge and a power below the critical one for relativistic self-focusing are studied analytically and numerically with emphasis on the phase velocity of the plasma wave. The paraxial model describing modulation of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bao Qianqian; Zhang Xiaohang; Gao Junyan; Zhang Yan; Cui Cuili; Wu Jinhui [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)
2011-12-15
We study a five-level double-tripod system of cold atoms for efficiently manipulating the dynamic propagation and evolution of a quantum probe field by modulating four classical control fields. Our numerical results show that it is viable to transform the quantum probe field into a pair of two-color stationary light pulses mutually coupled through two wave packets of atomic spin coherence. The pair of stationary light pulses can be released either from the sample entrance and exit synchronously or just from the sample exit with a controlled time delay. In addition, the two-color stationary light pulses are immune to the fast decay originating from the higher-order Fourier components of atomic spin and optical coherence, and may exhibit the quantum limited beating signals with their characteristic frequency determined by detunings of the four classical control fields. These results could be explored to design novel photonic devices, such as optical routing, beam splitter, and beat generator, for manipulating a quantum light field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bao Qianqian; Zhang Xiaohang; Gao Junyan; Zhang Yan; Cui Cuili; Wu Jinhui
2011-01-01
We study a five-level double-tripod system of cold atoms for efficiently manipulating the dynamic propagation and evolution of a quantum probe field by modulating four classical control fields. Our numerical results show that it is viable to transform the quantum probe field into a pair of two-color stationary light pulses mutually coupled through two wave packets of atomic spin coherence. The pair of stationary light pulses can be released either from the sample entrance and exit synchronously or just from the sample exit with a controlled time delay. In addition, the two-color stationary light pulses are immune to the fast decay originating from the higher-order Fourier components of atomic spin and optical coherence, and may exhibit the quantum limited beating signals with their characteristic frequency determined by detunings of the four classical control fields. These results could be explored to design novel photonic devices, such as optical routing, beam splitter, and beat generator, for manipulating a quantum light field.
A new car-following model for autonomous vehicles flow with mean expected velocity field
Wen-Xing, Zhu; Li-Dong, Zhang
2018-02-01
Due to the development of the modern scientific technology, autonomous vehicles may realize to connect with each other and share the information collected from each vehicle. An improved forward considering car-following model was proposed with mean expected velocity field to describe the autonomous vehicles flow behavior. The new model has three key parameters: adjustable sensitivity, strength factor and mean expected velocity field size. Two lemmas and one theorem were proven as criteria for judging the stability of homogeneousautonomous vehicles flow. Theoretical results show that the greater parameters means larger stability regions. A series of numerical simulations were carried out to check the stability and fundamental diagram of autonomous flow. From the numerical simulation results, the profiles, hysteresis loop and density waves of the autonomous vehicles flow were exhibited. The results show that with increased sensitivity, strength factor or field size the traffic jam was suppressed effectively which are well in accordance with the theoretical results. Moreover, the fundamental diagrams corresponding to three parameters respectively were obtained. It demonstrates that these parameters play almost the same role on traffic flux: i.e. before the critical density the bigger parameter is, the greater flux is and after the critical density, the opposite tendency is. In general, the three parameters have a great influence on the stability and jam state of the autonomous vehicles flow.
Alpha Channeling in Rotating Plasma with Stationary Waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fetterman, A.; Fisch, N.J.
2010-01-01
An extension of the alpha channeling effect to supersonically rotating mirrors shows that the rotation itself can be driven using alpha particle energy. Alpha channeling uses radiofrequency waves to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. We show that stationary magnetic fields with high n θ can be used for this purpose, and simulations show that a large fraction of the alpha energy can be converted to rotation energy.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Y.-B.; Chen, X.-Z.; Jacobsen, Finn
2009-01-01
The advantage of using the normal component of the particle velocity rather than the sound pressure in the hologram plane as the input of conventional spatial Fourier transform based near field acoustic holography (NAH) and also as the input of the statistically optimized variant of NAH has recen...... generated by sources on the two sides of the hologram plane is also examined....
Velocity field measurements in an evaporating sessile droplet by means of micro-PIV technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yagodnitsyna Anna
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Velocity fields are measured in evaporating sessile droplets on two substrates with different contact angles and contact angle hysteresis using micro resolution particle image velocimetry technique. Different flow patterns are observed in different stages of droplet evaporation: a flow with vortices and a radial flow. Flow structure is found to be similar for droplets on different substrates.
Stationary and Transient Response Statistics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Peter Hauge; Krenk, Steen
1982-01-01
The covariance functions for the transient response of a linear MDOF-system due to stationary time limited excitation with an arbitrary frequency content are related directly to the covariance functions of the stationary response. For rational spectral density functions closed form expressions fo...
Visualizing flow fields using acoustic Doppler current profilers and the Velocity Mapping Toolbox
Jackson, P. Ryan
2013-01-01
The purpose of this fact sheet is to provide examples of how the U.S. Geological Survey is using acoustic Doppler current profilers for much more than routine discharge measurements. These instruments are capable of mapping complex three-dimensional flow fields within rivers, lakes, and estuaries. Using the Velocity Mapping Toolbox to process the ADCP data allows detailed visualization of the data, providing valuable information for a range of studies and applications.
The κ parameter and κ-distribution in κ-deformed statistics for the systems in an external field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Lina; Du, Jiulin
2007-01-01
It is naturally important question for us to ask under what physical situation should the κ-deformed statistics be suitable for the statistical description of a system and what should the κ parameter stand for. In this Letter, a formula expression of κ parameter is derived on the basis of the κ-H theorem, the κ-velocity distribution and the generalized Boltzmann equation in the framework of κ-deformed statistics. We thus obtain a physical interpretation for the parameter κ 0 with regard to the temperature gradient and the external force field. We show, as the q-statistics based on Tsallis entropy, the κ-deformed statistics may also be the candidate one suitable for the statistical description of the systems in external fields when being in the nonequilibrium stationary state, but has different physical characteristics. Namely, the κ-distribution is found to describe the nonequilibrium stationary state of the system where the external force should be vertical to the temperature gradient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smetanin, Igor V; Vasil'ev, Petr P
2009-01-01
Parameters of external-cavity semiconductor lasers, when the stationary lasing becomes unstable, were analysed within the framework of a theoretical model of self-starting mode locking. In this case, a train of ultrashort pulses can be generated due to intrinsic nonlinearities of the laser medium. A decisive role of the transverse optical field nonuniformity, pump rate, and gain spectral bandwidth in the development of the instability of stationary lasing was demonstrated. (control of laser radiation parameters)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mei Jianwei
2012-01-01
We suggest a way to study possible conformal symmetries on black hole horizons. We do this by carrying out a Kaluza-Klein-like reduction of the Einstein-Hilbert action along the ignorable coordinates of stationary and axisymmetric black holes. Rigid diffeomorphism invariance of the m-ignorable coordinates then becomes a global SL(m, R) gauge symmetry of the reduced action. Related to each non-vanishing angular velocity, there is a particular SL(2, R) subgroup, which can be extended to the Witt algebra on the black hole horizons. The classical Einstein-Hilbert action thus has k-copies of infinite-dimensional conformal symmetries on a given black hole horizon, with k being the number of non-vanishing angular velocities of the black hole. (paper)
Measurements of Turbulent Flame Speed and Integral Length Scales in a Lean Stationary Premixed Flame
Klingmann, Jens; Johansson, Bengt
1998-01-01
Turbulent premixed natural gas - air flame velocities have been measured in a stationary axi-symmetric burner using LDA. The flame was stabilized by letting the flow retard toward a stagnation plate downstream of the burner exit. Turbulence was generated by letting the flow pass through a plate with drilled holes. Three different hole diameters were used, 3, 6 and 10 mm, in order to achieve different turbulent length scales. Turbulent integral length scales were measured using two-point LD...
Relation between current sheets and vortex sheets in stationary incompressible MHD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. H. Nickeler
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic configurations with strong localized current concentrations and vortices play an important role in the dissipation of energy in space and astrophysical plasma. Within this work we investigate the relation between current sheets and vortex sheets in incompressible, stationary equilibria. For this approach it is helpful that the similar mathematical structure of magnetohydrostatics and stationary incompressible hydrodynamics allows us to transform static equilibria into stationary ones. The main control function for such a transformation is the profile of the Alfvén-Mach number MA, which is always constant along magnetic field lines, but can change from one field line to another. In the case of a global constant MA, vortices and electric current concentrations are parallel. More interesting is the nonlinear case, where MA varies perpendicular to the field lines. This is a typical situation at boundary layers like the magnetopause, heliopause, the solar wind flowing around helmet streamers and at the boundary of solar coronal holes. The corresponding current and vortex sheets show in some cases also an alignment, but not in every case. For special density distributions in 2-D, it is possible to have current but no vortex sheets. In 2-D, vortex sheets of field aligned-flows can also exist without strong current sheets, taking the limit of small Alfvén Mach numbers into account. The current sheet can vanish if the Alfvén Mach number is (almost constant and the density gradient is large across some boundary layer. It should be emphasized that the used theory is not only valid for small Alfvén Mach numbers MA MA ≲ 1. Connection to other theoretical approaches and observations and physical effects in space plasmas are presented. Differences in the various aspects of theoretical investigations of current sheets and vortex sheets are given.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isis Comas-Rodríguez
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs have proven to be a useful oceanographic tool in the study of ocean dynamics. Data from D279, a transatlantic hydrographic cruise carried out in spring 2004 along 24.5°N, were processed, and lowered ADCP (LADCP bottom track data were used to assess the choice of reference velocity for geostrophic calculations. The reference velocities from different combinations of ADCP data were compared to one another and a reference velocity was chosen based on the LADCP data. The barotropic tidal component was subtracted to provide a final reference velocity estimated by LADCP data. The results of the velocity fields are also shown. Further studies involving inverse solutions will include the reference velocity calculated here.
Do weak stationary magnetic fields affect the perceived astringency of red wine?
Stephen Wesley Rowcliffe
2018-01-01
To investigate claims that products containing weak stationary magnets can reduce the astringency of tannic red wine, a double- blind randomized trial was carried out, in which 96 paired tastings were conducted of magnetized and non-magnetized samples of a young Nebbiolo. The data showed no association between reported differences in astringency and actual difference in the magnetic treatments given to the wine (χ2=0.135, degrees of freedom=1, P=0.71). This study confirms an earlier work that...
Exploiting LSPIV to assess debris-flow velocities in the field
Theule, Joshua I.; Crema, Stefano; Marchi, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Marco; Comiti, Francesco
2018-01-01
The assessment of flow velocity has a central role in quantitative analysis of debris flows, both for the characterization of the phenomenology of these processes and for the assessment of related hazards. Large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) can contribute to the assessment of surface velocity of debris flows, provided that the specific features of these processes (e.g. fast stage variations and particles up to boulder size on the flow surface) are taken into account. Three debris-flow events, each of them consisting of several surges featuring different sediment concentrations, flow stages, and velocities, have been analysed at the inlet of a sediment trap in a stream in the eastern Italian Alps (Gadria Creek). Free software has been employed for preliminary treatment (orthorectification and format conversion) of video-recorded images as well as for LSPIV application. Results show that LSPIV velocities are consistent with manual measurements of the orthorectified imagery and with front velocity measured from the hydrographs in a channel recorded approximately 70 m upstream of the sediment trap. Horizontal turbulence, computed as the standard deviation of the flow directions at a given cross section for a given surge, proved to be correlated with surface velocity and with visually estimated sediment concentration. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of LSPIV in the assessment of surface velocity of debris flows and permit the most crucial aspects to be identified in order to improve the accuracy of debris-flow velocity measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertschinger, E.; Dekel, A.; Faber, S.M.; Dressler, A.; Burstein, D.
1990-01-01
A potential flow reconstruction algorithm has been applied to the real universe to reconstruct the three-dimensional potential, velocity, and mass density fields smoothed on large scales. The results are shown as maps of these fields, revealing the three-dimensional structure within 6000 km/s distance from the Local Group. The dominant structure is an extended deep potential well in the Hydra-Centaurus region, stretching across the Galactic plane toward Pavo, broadly confirming the Great Attractor (GA) model of Lynden-Bell et al. (1988). The Local Supercluster appears to be an extended ridge on the near flank of the GA, proceeding through the Virgo Southern Extension to the Virgo and Ursa Major clusters. The Virgo cluster and the Local Group are both falling toward the bottom of the GA potential well with peculiar velocities of 658 + or - 121 km/s and 565 + or - 125 km/s, respectively. 65 refs
Bertschinger, Edmund; Dekel, Avishai; Faber, Sandra M.; Dressler, Alan; Burstein, David
1990-12-01
A potential flow reconstruction algorithm has been applied to the real universe to reconstruct the three-dimensional potential, velocity, and mass density fields smoothed on large scales. The results are shown as maps of these fields, revealing the three-dimensional structure within 6000 km/s distance from the Local Group. The dominant structure is an extended deep potential well in the Hydra-Centaurus region, stretching across the Galactic plane toward Pavo, broadly confirming the Great Attractor (GA) model of Lynden-Bell et al. (1988). The Local Supercluster appears to be an extended ridge on the near flank of the GA, proceeding through the Virgo Southern Extension to the Virgo and Ursa Major clusters. The Virgo cluster and the Local Group are both falling toward the bottom of the GA potential well with peculiar velocities of 658 + or - 121 km/s and 565 + or - 125 km/s, respectively.
Stationary nonlinear Airy beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lotti, A.; Faccio, D.; Couairon, A.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S.; Abdollahpour, D.
2011-01-01
We demonstrate the existence of an additional class of stationary accelerating Airy wave forms that exist in the presence of third-order (Kerr) nonlinearity and nonlinear losses. Numerical simulations and experiments, in agreement with the analytical model, highlight how these stationary solutions sustain the nonlinear evolution of Airy beams. The generic nature of the Airy solution allows extension of these results to other settings, and a variety of applications are suggested.
30 CFR 57.14115 - Stationary grinding machines.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines. 57.14115 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14115 Stationary grinding machines. Stationary grinding machines, other than special bit grinders, shall be equipped with— (a) Peripheral hoods...
Köhler, M.; Boxx, I.; Geigle, K. P.; Meier, W.
2011-05-01
We describe a newly developed combustion diagnostic for the simultaneous planar imaging of soot structure and velocity fields in a highly sooting, lifted turbulent jet flame at 3000 frames per second, or two orders of magnitude faster than "conventional" laser imaging systems. This diagnostic uses short pulse duration (8 ns), frequency-doubled, diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) lasers to excite laser-induced incandescence (LII) at 3 kHz, which is then imaged onto a high framerate CMOS camera. A second (dual-cavity) DPSS laser and CMOS camera form the basis of a particle image velocity (PIV) system used to acquire 2-component velocity field in the flame. The LII response curve (measured in a laminar propane diffusion flame) is presented and the combined diagnostics then applied in a heavily sooting lifted turbulent jet flame. The potential challenges and rewards of application of this combined imaging technique at high speeds are discussed.
Sound field separation with a double layer velocity transducer array (L)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn
2011-01-01
of the array. The technique has been examined and compared with direct velocity based reconstruction, as well as with a technique based on the measurement of the sound pressure and particle velocity. The double layer velocity method circumvents some of the drawbacks of the pressure-velocity based...
EDITORIAL: CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems
Dodonov, Victor V.; Man'ko, Margarita A.
2010-09-01
Although time-dependent quantum systems have been studied since the very beginning of quantum mechanics, they continue to attract the attention of many researchers, and almost every decade new important discoveries or new fields of application are made. Among the impressive results or by-products of these studies, one should note the discovery of the path integral method in the 1940s, coherent and squeezed states in the 1960-70s, quantum tunneling in Josephson contacts and SQUIDs in the 1960s, the theory of time-dependent quantum invariants in the 1960-70s, different forms of quantum master equations in the 1960-70s, the Zeno effect in the 1970s, the concept of geometric phase in the 1980s, decoherence of macroscopic superpositions in the 1980s, quantum non-demolition measurements in the 1980s, dynamics of particles in quantum traps and cavity QED in the 1980-90s, and time-dependent processes in mesoscopic quantum devices in the 1990s. All these topics continue to be the subject of many publications. Now we are witnessing a new wave of interest in quantum non-stationary systems in different areas, from cosmology (the very first moments of the Universe) and quantum field theory (particle pair creation in ultra-strong fields) to elementary particle physics (neutrino oscillations). A rapid increase in the number of theoretical and experimental works on time-dependent phenomena is also observed in quantum optics, quantum information theory and condensed matter physics. Time-dependent tunneling and time-dependent transport in nano-structures are examples of such phenomena. Another emerging direction of study, stimulated by impressive progress in experimental techniques, is related to attempts to observe the quantum behavior of macroscopic objects, such as mirrors interacting with quantum fields in nano-resonators. Quantum effects manifest themselves in the dynamics of nano-electromechanical systems; they are dominant in the quite new and very promising field of circuit
Asymptotic Theory for the QMLE in GARCH-X Models with Stationary and Non-Stationary Covariates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Han, Heejoon; Kristensen, Dennis
as captured by its long-memory parameter dx; in particular, we allow for both stationary and non-stationary covariates. We show that the QMLE'’s of the regression coefficients entering the volatility equation are consistent and normally distributed in large samples independently of the degree of persistence....... This implies that standard inferential tools, such as t-statistics, do not have to be adjusted to the level of persistence. On the other hand, the intercept in the volatility equation is not identifi…ed when the covariate is non-stationary which is akin to the results of Jensen and Rahbek (2004, Econometric...
Some strange numerical solutions of the non-stationary Navier-Stokes equations in pipes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rummler, B.
2001-07-01
A general class of boundary-pressure-driven flows of incompressible Newtonian fluids in three-dimensional pipes with known steady laminar realizations is investigated. Considering the laminar velocity as a 3D-vector-function of the cross-section-circle arguments, we fix the scale for the velocity by the L{sub 2}-norm of the laminar velocity. The usual new variables are introduced to get dimension-free Navier-Stokes equations. The characteristic physical and geometrical quantities are subsumed in the energetic Reynolds number Re and a parameter {psi}, which involves the energetic ratio and the directions of the boundary-driven part and the pressure-driven part of the laminar flow. The solution of non-stationary dimension-free Navier-Stokes equations is sought in the form u=u{sub L}+u, where u{sub L} is the scaled laminar velocity and periodical conditions in center-line-direction are prescribed for u. An autonomous system (S) of ordinary differential equations for the time-dependent coefficients of the spatial Stokes eigenfunction is got by application of the Galerkin-method to the dimension-free Navier-Stokes equations for u. The finite-dimensional approximations u{sub N({lambda}}{sub )} of u are defined in the usual way. (orig.)
30 CFR 56.14115 - Stationary grinding machines.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines. 56.14115 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14115 Stationary grinding machines. Stationary grinding machines, other than special bit grinders, shall be equipped with— (a) Peripheral hoods capable of...
Investigation of the velocity field in a full-scale model of a cerebral aneurysm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roloff, Christoph; Bordás, Róbert; Nickl, Rosa; Mátrai, Zsolt; Szaszák, Norbert; Szilárd, Szabó; Thévenin, Dominique
2013-01-01
Highlights: • We investigate flow fields inside a phantom model of a full-scale cerebral aneurysm. • An artificial blood fluid is used matching viscosity and density of real blood. • We present Particle Tracking results of fluorescent tracer particles. • Instantaneous model inlet velocity profiles and volume flow rates are derived. • Trajectory fields at three of six measurement planes are presented. -- Abstract: Due to improved and now widely used imaging methods in clinical surgery practise, detection of unruptured cerebral aneurysms becomes more and more frequent. For the selection and development of a low-risk and highly effective treatment option, the understanding of the involved hemodynamic mechanisms is of great importance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), in vivo angiographic imaging and in situ experimental investigations of flow behaviour are powerful tools which could deliver the needed information. Hence, the aim of this contribution is to experimentally characterise the flow in a full-scale phantom model of a realistic cerebral aneurysm. The acquired experimental data will then be used for a quantitative validation of companion numerical simulations. The experimental methodology relies on the large-field velocimetry technique PTV (Particle Tracking Velocimetry), processing high speed images of fluorescent tracer particles added to the flow of a blood-mimicking fluid. First, time-resolved planar PTV images were recorded at 4500 fps and processed by a complex, in-house algorithm. The resulting trajectories are used to identify Lagrangian flow structures, vortices and recirculation zones in two-dimensional measurement slices within the aneurysm sac. The instantaneous inlet velocity distribution, needed as boundary condition for the numerical simulations, has been measured with the same technique but using a higher frame rate of 20,000 fps in order to avoid ambiguous particle assignment. From this velocity distribution, the time
Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heusler Markus
1998-01-01
Full Text Available The spectrum of known black hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has increased in an unexpected way during the last decade. In particular, it has turned out that not all black hole equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black hole space-times ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some of the recent developments and to discuss them in the light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.
Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piotr T. Chruściel
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.
Virtual Stationary Automata for Mobile Networks
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Dolev, Shlomi; Gilbert, Seth; Lahiani, Limor; Lynch, Nancy; Nolte, Tina
2005-01-01
We define a programming abstraction for mobile networks called the Virtual Stationary Automata programming layer, consisting of real mobile clients, virtual timed I/O automata called virtual stationary automata (VSAs...
Stationary spectra in a quasi neutral current-carrying plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vakulenko, M.O.
1992-01-01
The low-frequency short-wave equilibrium spectra of electromagnetic fluctuations are obtained, accounting for cross-field correlations. The statistical analysis shows that a longitudinal current in a dense quasi neutral (α e ≡4πnomec 2 /Bo 2 >>1) plasma destroys the stationary of fluctuation spectra corresponding to zero fluxes of motion invariants, and may alter also the anomalous electron heat conductivity. 2 refs. (author)
Statistical analysis of the velocity and scalar fields in reacting turbulent wall-jets
Pouransari, Z.; Biferale, L.; Johansson, A. V.
2015-02-01
The concept of local isotropy in a chemically reacting turbulent wall-jet flow is addressed using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. Different DNS databases with isothermal and exothermic reactions are examined. The chemical reaction and heat release effects on the turbulent velocity, passive scalar, and reactive species fields are studied using their probability density functions (PDFs) and higher order moments for velocities and scalar fields, as well as their gradients. With the aid of the anisotropy invariant maps for the Reynolds stress tensor, the heat release effects on the anisotropy level at different wall-normal locations are evaluated and found to be most accentuated in the near-wall region. It is observed that the small-scale anisotropies are persistent both in the near-wall region and inside the jet flame. Two exothermic cases with different Damköhler numbers are examined and the comparison revealed that the Damköhler number effects are most dominant in the near-wall region, where the wall cooling effects are influential. In addition, with the aid of PDFs conditioned on the mixture fraction, the significance of the reactive scalar characteristics in the reaction zone is illustrated. We argue that the combined effects of strong intermittency and strong persistency of anisotropy at the small scales in the entire domain can affect mixing and ultimately the combustion characteristics of the reacting flow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iguchi, H.; Ida, K.; Yamada, H.
1994-01-01
Radial particle transport has been experimentally studied in the low-aspect-ratio heliotron/torsatron device CHS. A non-diffusive outward particle flow (inverse pinch) is observed in the magnetic configuration with the magnetic axis shifted outward, while an inward pinch, like in tokamaks, is observed with the magnetic axis shifted inward. This change in the direction of anomalous particle flow is not due to the reversal of temperature gradient nor the radial electric field. The observation suggests that the particle pinch velocity is sensitive to the magnetic field structure. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leerink, S.; Heikkinen, J. A.; Janhunen, S. J.; Kiviniemi, T. P.; Nora, M.; Ogando, F.
2008-01-01
The ELMFIRE gyrokinetic simulation code has been used to perform full f simulations of the FT-2 tokamak. The dynamics of the radial electric field and the creation of poloidal velocity in the presence of turbulence are presented.
Do weak stationary magnetic fields affect the perceived astringency of red wine?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen Wesley Rowcliffe
2018-03-01
Full Text Available To investigate claims that products containing weak stationary magnets can reduce the astringency of tannic red wine, a double- blind randomized trial was carried out, in which 96 paired tastings were conducted of magnetized and non-magnetized samples of a young Nebbiolo. The data showed no association between reported differences in astringency and actual difference in the magnetic treatments given to the wine (χ2=0.135, degrees of freedom=1, P=0.71. This study confirms an earlier work that magnets have no observable effect on red wine.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Je-Eun; Takei, Masahiro; Doh, Deog-Hee; Jo, Hyo-Jae; Hassan, Yassin A.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, Javier
2008-01-01
Currently, wavelet transforms are widely used for the analyses of particle image velocimetry (PIV) velocity vector fields. This is because the wavelet provides not only spatial information of the velocity vectors, but also of the time and frequency domains. In this study, a discrete wavelet transform is applied to real PIV images of bubbly flows. The vector fields obtained by a self-made cross-correlation PIV algorithm were used for the discrete wavelet transform. The performances of the discrete wavelet transforms were investigated by changing the level of power of discretization. The images decomposed by wavelet multi-resolution showed conspicuous characteristics of the bubbly flows for the different levels. A high spatial bubble concentrated area could be evaluated by the constructed discrete wavelet transform algorithm, in which high-leveled wavelets play dominant roles in revealing the flow characteristics
Travagliati, Marco; Girardo, Salvatore; Pisignano, Dario; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco
2013-09-03
Spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS) is a simple and powerful technique, well established as a tool to probe protein dynamics in cells. Recently, its potential as a tool to map velocity fields in lab-on-a-chip systems was discussed. However, the lack of studies on its performance has prevented its use for microfluidics applications. Here, we systematically and quantitatively explore STICS microvelocimetry in microfluidic devices. We exploit a simple experimental setup, based on a standard bright-field inverted microscope (no fluorescence required) and a high-fps camera, and apply STICS to map liquid flow in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels. Our data demonstrates optimal 2D velocimetry up to 10 mm/s flow and spatial resolution down to 5 μm.
Strong Stationary Duality for Diffusion Processes
Fill, James Allen; Lyzinski, Vince
2014-01-01
We develop the theory of strong stationary duality for diffusion processes on compact intervals. We analytically derive the generator and boundary behavior of the dual process and recover a central tenet of the classical Markov chain theory in the diffusion setting by linking the separation distance in the primal diffusion to the absorption time in the dual diffusion. We also exhibit our strong stationary dual as the natural limiting process of the strong stationary dual sequence of a well ch...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bae, In-Ho; Moon, Han Seb
2011-01-01
We present the continuous control of the light group velocity from subluminal to superluminal propagation with an on-resonant standing-wave coupling field in the 5S 1/2 -5P 1/2 transition of the Λ-type system of 87 Rb atoms. When a coupling field was changed from a traveling-wave to a standing-wave field by adjusting the power of a counterpropagating coupling field, the probe pulse propagation continuously transformed from subluminal propagation, due to electromagnetically induced transparency with the traveling-wave coupling field, to superluminal propagation, due to narrow enhanced absorption with the standing-wave coupling field. The group velocity of the probe pulse was measured to be approximately 0.004c to -0.002c as a function of the disparity between the powers of the copropagating and the counterpropagating coupling fields.
A dynamic mean-field glass model with reversible mode coupling and a trivial Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawasaki, Kyozi; Kim, Bongsoo
2002-01-01
Often the current mode coupling theory (MCT) of glass transitions is compared with mean field theories. We explore this possible correspondence. After showing a simple-minded derivation of MCT with some difficulties we give a concise account of our toy model developed to gain more insight into MCT. We then reduce this toy model by adiabatically eliminating rapidly varying velocity-like variables to obtain a Fokker-Planck equation for the slowly varying density-like variables where the diffusion matrix can be singular. This gives room for non-ergodic stationary solutions of the above equation. (author)
Analytical Stationary Acoustic Wave in a Liquid over Which a Moving Pressure Runs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
André Langlet
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study of the stationary response of a liquid loaded on its free surface by an ideal pressure step moving in a constant direction at a constant velocity. The acoustic pressure in the liquid is found, in four different examples, by means of the Fourier Transform. Two loading regimes are considered; subsonic and supersonic. Two configurations of liquid domains are also studied, the first one is a half infinite space while the second one is bounded by a rigid bottom at a finite depth. For the two supersonic cases, a simple reasoning based on the existence of a front of discontinuity in the liquid and on the property of reflection of waves confirms the result of the mathematical investigations. The results obtained for the steady state case are of intererest, even when the loading is not exactly stationary, such as the presure produced by an explosion occurring in the vicinity of the surface of a liquid. Two numerically resolved examples are presented, which confirm this assumption.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gatley, I.; Krisciunas, K.; Jones, T.J.; Hyland, A.R.; Geballe, T.R.; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen
1986-01-01
In an earlier paper the existence of a ring of molecular hydrogen-line emission surrounding the nucleus of the Galaxy was demonstrated. Here are presented the first detailed maps of the surface brightness and the velocity field, made in the upsilon=1-0 S(1) line of molecular hydrogen with a spatial resolution of 18 arcsec and a velocity resolution of 130 km s -1 . It is found that the molecular ring is tilted approximately 20 0 out of the plane of the Galaxy, has a broken and clumpy appearance, rotates at 100 km s -1 in the sense of galactic rotation, and exhibits radial motion at a velocity of 50 km s -1 . (author)
Di Tullio, M.; Nocchi, F.; Camplani, A.; Emanuelli, N.; Nascetti, A.; Crespi, M.
2018-04-01
The glaciers are a natural global resource and one of the principal climate change indicator at global and local scale, being influenced by temperature and snow precipitation changes. Among the parameters used for glacier monitoring, the surface velocity is a key element, since it is connected to glaciers changes (mass balance, hydro balance, glaciers stability, landscape erosion). The leading idea of this work is to continuously retrieve glaciers surface velocity using free ESA Sentinel-1 SAR imagery and exploiting the potentialities of the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform. GEE has been recently released by Google as a platform for petabyte-scale scientific analysis and visualization of geospatial datasets. The algorithm of SAR off-set tracking developed at the Geodesy and Geomatics Division of the University of Rome La Sapienza has been integrated in a cloud based platform that automatically processes large stacks of Sentinel-1 data to retrieve glacier surface velocity field time series. We processed about 600 Sentinel-1 image pairs to obtain a continuous time series of velocity field measurements over 3 years from January 2015 to January 2018 for two wide glaciers located in the Northern Patagonian Ice Field (NPIF), the San Rafael and the San Quintin glaciers. Several results related to these relevant glaciers also validated with respect already available and renown software (i.e. ESA SNAP, CIAS) and with respect optical sensor measurements (i.e. LANDSAT8), highlight the potential of the Big Data analysis to automatically monitor glacier surface velocity fields at global scale, exploiting the synergy between GEE and Sentinel-1 imagery.
The stationary tower notes on a course by W. Hugh Woodin
Larson, Paul B
2004-01-01
The stationary tower is an important method in modern set theory, invented by Hugh Woodin in the 1980s. It is a means of constructing generic elementary embeddings and can be applied to produce a variety of useful forcing effects. Hugh Woodin is a leading figure in modern set theory, having made many deep and lasting contributions to the field, in particular to descriptive set theory and large cardinals. This book is the first detailed treatment of his method of the stationary tower that is generally accessible to graduate students in mathematical logic. By giving complete proofs of all the main theorems and discussing them in context, it is intended that the book will become the standard reference on the stationary tower and its applications to descriptive set theory. The first two chapters are taken from a graduate course Woodin taught at Berkeley. The concluding theorem in the course was that large cardinals imply that all sets of reals in the smallest model of set theory (without choice) containing the re...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. J. Rossi
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Water infiltration and overland flow are relevant in considering water partition among plant life forms, the sustainability of vegetation and the design of sustainable hydrological models and management. In arid and semi-arid regions, these processes present characteristic trends imposed by the prevailing physical conditions of the upper soil as evolved under water-limited climate. A set of plot-scale field experiments at the semi-arid Patagonian Monte (Argentina were performed in order to estimate the effect of depression storage areas and infiltration rates on depths, velocities and friction of overland flows. The micro-relief of undisturbed field plots was characterized at z-scale 1 mm through close-range stereo-photogrammetry and geo-statistical tools. The overland flow areas produced by controlled water inflows were video-recorded and the flow velocities were measured with image processing software. Antecedent and post-inflow moisture were measured, and texture, bulk density and physical properties of the upper soil were estimated based on soil core analyses. Field data were used to calibrate a physically-based, mass balanced, time explicit model of infiltration and overland flows. Modelling results reproduced the time series of observed flow areas, velocities and infiltration depths. Estimates of hydrodynamic parameters of overland flow (Reynolds-Froude numbers are informed. To our knowledge, the study here presented is novel in combining several aspects that previous studies do not address simultaneously: (1 overland flow and infiltration parameters were obtained in undisturbed field conditions; (2 field measurements of overland flow movement were coupled to a detailed analysis of soil microtopography at 1 mm depth scale; (3 the effect of depression storage areas in infiltration rates and depth-velocity friction of overland flows is addressed. Relevance of the results to other similar desert areas is justified by the accompanying
On the dynamics of non-stationary binary stellar systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bekov, A. A.; Bejsekov, A.N.; Aldibaeva, L.T.
2005-01-01
The motion of test body in the external gravitational field of the binary stellar system with slowly variable some physical parameters of radiating components is considered on the base of restricted non-stationary photo-gravitational three and two bodies problem. The family of polar and coplanar solutions are obtained. These solutions give the possibility of the dynamical and structure interpretation of the binary young evolving stars and galaxies. (author)
Dynamics of relaxation to a stationary state for interacting molecular motors
Gomes, Luiza V. F.; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.
2018-01-01
Motor proteins are active enzymatic molecules that drive a variety of biological processes, including transfer of genetic information, cellular transport, cell motility and muscle contraction. It is known that these biological molecular motors usually perform their cellular tasks by acting collectively, and there are interactions between individual motors that specify the overall collective behavior. One of the fundamental issues related to the collective dynamics of motor proteins is the question if they function at stationary-state conditions. To investigate this problem, we analyze a relaxation to the stationary state for the system of interacting molecular motors. Our approach utilizes a recently developed theoretical framework, which views the collective dynamics of motor proteins as a totally asymmetric simple exclusion process of interacting particles, where interactions are taken into account via a thermodynamically consistent approach. The dynamics of relaxation to the stationary state is analyzed using a domain-wall method that relies on a mean-field description, which takes into account some correlations. It is found that the system quickly relaxes for repulsive interactions, while attractive interactions always slow down reaching the stationary state. It is also predicted that for some range of parameters the fastest relaxation might be achieved for a weak repulsive interaction. Our theoretical predictions are tested with Monte Carlo computer simulations. The implications of our findings for biological systems are briefly discussed.
Generation of stationary current in a tokamak by electron cyclotron waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parail, V.V.; Pereverzev, G.V.
1982-01-01
Analytical expression for stationary longitudinal current generated in plasma with electron-cyclotron (EC) waves has been derived on the basis of a kinetic equation for electrons with provision for electron-electron and electron- ion collisions. Comparative analysis of efficiency of current excitation with EC and low hybrid (LH) waves has been carried out. It is shown that under similar conditions (for the same introduced powers and the same intervals of interaction of LH waves and electrons) the current value generated with LH waves turns out to be functionally (Vsub(o)/Vsub(e))sup(2) times higher as compared with the current generated with EC waves (vsub(o)-initial velocity of electrons, Vsub(e)-√2Tsub(e)/m) [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondic, N.; Jacobs, A.; Ebert, D.
1983-01-01
In many fields one needs to know the spatial density distribution; two-phase systems are of particular importance. In particular, gas-liquid mixtures play a role in power generation, chemistry, bio-medicine etc. An intrusion into the measured system is frequently undesired or not permitted. Therefore, external, non-invasive instrumentation has definite advantages. Photon-energy discrimination methods, measuring scattered fluxes, can employ stationary equipment; they need partial collimation or only protective shielding. The results are achieved with a higher information/irradiation ratio than is the case with transmission methods. The utilization a mesh of isogonic lines (each of them being characterised by its particular scattering angle) has several advantages when compared with the mesh of straight lines (''pencil beams'') used in tomography. The ultimate experimental arrangement employing Compton scattering has fan/fan beam geometry, i.e., wide angle emitting and receiving of gammas. The direct result of the measurement is a ''scattergram'', i.e., countrate versus scattered energy spectrum. Besides representing the ''signature'' of a two- or three-dimensional density distribution, it also enables the reconstruction of local density values. The report outlines the necessary analysis and presents experimental proof of principle
On absorption of low frequency electromagnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunner, S.; Vaclavik, J.
1993-03-01
The drift kinetic equation (DKE) is used to establish a formula for power absorption of small amplitude, low frequency electromagnetic (EM) fields in a hot toroidal axisymmetric plasma. The stationary plasma is first considered. Electrons and ions are described by local Maxwellian distributions, alpha particles by a local slowing-down distribution. The fluctuating part of the distribution function for each species is then evaluated from the linearized DKE in terms of the EM fields using a perturbation method. The parameter b p =B p /B o , where B p is the poloidal component of the magnetostatic field B o , and the parameter v d /λω, where v d is the magnetic curvature drift, λ the wavelength perpendicular to B o and ω the frequency of the EM fields, are considered to be small. By integrating the resulting distribution function over velocity space, an explicit formula for the power absorbed by each species is obtained. To obtain an expression suitable for direct implementation in an ideal-MHD code, the electric field component parallel to the magnetostatic field is evaluated using the quasi-neutrality equation. (author) 4 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Combes, J.M.
1980-10-01
A complementary approach to the time dependent scattering theory for one-body Schroedinger operators is presented. The stationary theory is concerned with objects of quantum theory like scattering waves and amplitudes. In the more recent abstract stationary theory some generalized form of the Lippman-Schwinger equation plays the basic role. Solving this equation leads to a linear map between generalized eigenfunctions of the perturbed and unperturbed operators. This map is the section at fixed energy of the wave-operator from the time dependent theory. Although the radiation condition does not appears explicitely in this formulation it can be shown to hold a posteriori in a variety of situations thus restoring the link with physical theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
March, N.H.
2006-08-01
Motivated by the theoretical work of Boyer [J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 (2006) 3455] plus the quite recent interferometric experiment of Shinohara, Aoki and Morinaga [Phys. Rev. A66 (2002) 042106] in which the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect was studied, we re-open the extension to neutral particles carrying a magnetic moment and passing through a region of intense electric field, treated theoretically by Aharonov and Casher (AC) and independently by Anandan. An alternative interpretation of results on (a) neutrons and (b) TlF molecules to that afforded by AC is shown to involve only (i) the de Broglie wavelength of matter waves and (ii) the prediction from Maxwell's equations for the change in velocity of a neutral moving magnet as it enters or leaves an electric field. The exquisite sensitivity of experiment (b) allows a fractional change in velocity of order 10 -15 to be quantitatively determined. (author)
Anjos, Pedro H. A.; Lira, Sérgio A.; Miranda, José A.
2018-04-01
We examine the formation of interfacial patterns when a magnetic liquid droplet (ferrofluid, or a magnetorheological fluid), surrounded by a nonmagnetic fluid, is subjected to a radial magnetic field in a Hele-Shaw cell. By using a vortex-sheet formalism, we find exact stationary solutions for the fluid-fluid interface in the form of n -fold polygonal shapes. A weakly nonlinear, mode-coupling method is then utilized to find time-evolving perturbative solutions for the interfacial patterns. The stability of such nonzero surface tension exact solutions is checked and discussed, by trying to systematically approach the exact stationary shapes through perturbative solutions containing an increasingly larger number of participating Fourier modes. Our results indicate that the exact stationary solutions of the problem are stable, and that a good matching between exact and perturbative shape solutions is achieved just by using a few Fourier modes. The stability of such solutions is substantiated by a linearization process close to the stationary shape, where a system of mode-coupling equations is diagonalized, determining the eigenvalues which dictate the stability of a fixed point.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guidarelli, M; Zille, A; Sarao, A [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Natale, M; Nunziata, C [Dipartimento di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Napoli (Italy); Panza, G F [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)
2006-12-15
This chapter summarizes a comparative study of shear-wave velocity models and seismic sources in the Campanian volcanic areas of Vesuvius and Phlegraean Fields. These velocity models were obtained through the nonlinear inversion of surface-wave tomography data, using as a priori constraints the relevant information available in the literature. Local group velocity data were obtained by means of the frequency-time analysis for the time period between 0.3 and 2 s and were combined with the group velocity data for the time period between 10 and 35 s from the regional events located in the Italian peninsula and bordering areas and two station phase velocity data corresponding to the time period between 25 and 100 s. In order to invert Rayleigh wave dispersion curves, we applied the nonlinear inversion method called hedgehog and retrieved average models for the first 30-35 km of the lithosphere, with the lower part of the upper mantle being kept fixed on the basis of existing regional models. A feature that is common to the two volcanic areas is a low shear velocity layer which is centered at the depth of about 10 km, while on the outside of the cone and along a path in the northeastern part of the Vesuvius area this layer is absent. This low velocity can be associated with the presence of partial melting and, therefore, may represent a quite diffused crustal magma reservoir which is fed by a deeper one that is regional in character and located in the uppermost mantle. The study of seismic source in terms of the moment tensor is suitable for an investigation of physical processes within a volcano; indeed, its components, double couple, compensated linear vector dipole, and volumetric, can be related to the movements of magma and fluids within the volcanic system. Although for many recent earthquake events the percentage of double couple component is high, our results also show the presence of significant non-double couple components in both volcanic areas. (author)
Acoustic and streaming velocity components in a resonant waveguide at high acoustic levels.
Daru, Virginie; Reyt, Ida; Bailliet, Hélène; Weisman, Catherine; Baltean-Carlès, Diana
2017-01-01
Rayleigh streaming is a steady flow generated by the interaction between an acoustic wave and a solid wall, generally assumed to be second order in a Mach number expansion. Acoustic streaming is well known in the case of a stationary plane wave at low amplitude: it has a half-wavelength spatial periodicity and the maximum axial streaming velocity is a quadratic function of the acoustic velocity amplitude at antinode. For higher acoustic levels, additional streaming cells have been observed. Results of laser Doppler velocimetry measurements are here compared to direct numerical simulations. The evolution of axial and radial velocity components for both acoustic and streaming velocities is studied from low to high acoustic amplitudes. Two streaming flow regimes are pointed out, the axial streaming dependency on acoustics going from quadratic to linear. The evolution of streaming flow is different for outer cells and for inner cells. Also, the hypothesis of radial streaming velocity being of second order in a Mach number expansion, is not valid at high amplitudes. The change of regime occurs when the radial streaming velocity amplitude becomes larger than the radial acoustic velocity amplitude, high levels being therefore characterized by nonlinear interaction of the different velocity components.
Stationary spherical shells around Kerr-Newman naked singularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zdenek Stuchlik; Stanislav Hledik
1998-01-01
It is shown that in the field of some Kerr-Newman naked singularities a stationary spherical shell of charged dust can exist, with the specific charge being the same for all particles of the dusty shell. Gravitational attractions acting on the particles are balanced by electromagnetic repulsion in such a way that the shell is stable against radial perturbations. Particles of the shell move along orbits with constant latitude and radius. Rotation of the shell is differential. The shell is corotating relative to static observers at infinity, but it is counter rotating relative to the family of locally non-rotating observers. No such a shell can exist in the field of Kerr-Newman black holes. (authors)
Effect of Gas Velocity on the Dust Sediment Layer in the Coupled Field of Corona Plasma and Cyclone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Mingshan; Ma Chaochen; Li Minghua; Danish, S N
2006-01-01
A dust sediment layer was found on the outer tube wall when the ESCP (electrostatic centrifugal precipitator) trapped diesel particulates or ganister sand. The Compton back scatter method was used to measure the sediment thickness during the experiment. The effect of the inlet gas velocity on the dust sediment layer was investigated. PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) was used to measure the velocity field between the inner barb tube wall and the outer tube wall. Experiments showed that the thickness of the sediment increased with time, and the sediment layer at the lower end was much thicker than that at the upper end. The agglomeration on the outer tube wall could be removed when the inlet gas velocity was increased to a certain value
Stationary inﬁnitely divisible processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.
Several recent strands of work has led to the consideration of various types of continuous time stationary and infinitely divisible processes. A review of these types, with some new results, is presented.......Several recent strands of work has led to the consideration of various types of continuous time stationary and infinitely divisible processes. A review of these types, with some new results, is presented....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sampaio, Edson Emanoel Starteri
2014-01-01
The velocity of controlled airborne sources of electromagnetic geophysical surveys plays an additional role in the scattering of the fields by the earth. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate its contribution in the space and time variation of secondary electromagnetic fields. The model of a vertical magnetic dipole moving at a constant speed along a horizontal line in the air and above a homogeneous conductive half-space constitutes a first approach to stress the kinematic aspect and determine the difference between the fields due to an airborne and a static source. The magnetic moment of the source is equal to 10 4 A m 2 , its height is 120 m, and the horizontal and vertical separations between it and the receiver are, respectively, equal to 100 and 50 m: these values of the model are typical of towed-bird airborne TDEM surveys. We employed four values for the common velocities of source and receiver (0, 60, 80, and 100 m s −1 ), four values of the conductivity of the half-space (0.5, 0.1, 0.05, and 0.01 S m −1 ), and two causal source currents (box with periods of 80 and 10 ms and periodic with frequency values of 12.5 and 100 Hz). The results demonstrate that the relative velocity between source and medium yields a measurable variation compared to the static condition. Therefore, it must be taken into consideration by compensating the discrepancy in measured data employing the respective theoretical result. The results also show that it is necessary to adjust the concepts of time and frequency domain for electromagnetic measurements with traveling sources. (paper)
Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling
Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.
2015-06-01
Historical records are an important source of information on extreme and rare floods and fundamental to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historical records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 yr flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (central Spain) was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their contribution within hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc.), epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks) were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations in flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Over the systematic gauge record (1913-2008), an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia) controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a) a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators, and (b) a time-varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS) modelling, which incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index) and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI). Flood frequency
Turbulent structure of thermal plume. Velocity field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guillou, B.; Brahimi, M.; Doan-kim-son
1986-01-01
An experimental investigation and a numerical study of the dynamics of a turbulent plume rising from a strongly heated source are described. This type of flow is met in thermal effluents (air, vapor) from, e.g., cooling towers of thermal power plants. The mean and fluctuating values of the vertical component of the velocity were determined using a Laser-Doppler anemometer. The measurements allow us to distinguish three regions in the plume-a developing region near the source, an intermediate region, and a self-preserving region. The characteristics of each zone have been determined. In the self-preserving zone, especially, the turbulence level on the axis and the entrainment coefficient are almost twice of the values observed in jets. The numerical model proposed takes into account an important phenomenon, the intermittency, observed in the plume. This model, established with the self-preserving hypothesis, brings out analytical laws. These laws and the predicted velocity profile are in agreement with the experimental evolutions [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soria, J; Atkinson, C
2008-01-01
Most unsteady and/or turbulent flows of geophysical and engineering interest have a highly three-dimensional (3D) complex topology and their experimental investigation is in pressing need of quantitative velocity measurement methods that are robust and can provide instantaneous 3C-3D velocity field data over a significant volumetric domain of the flow. This paper introduces and demonstrates a new method that uses multiple digital CCD array cameras to record in-line digital holograms of the same volume of seed particles from multiple orientations. This technique uses the same basic equipment as Tomo-PIV minus the camera lenses, it overcomes the depth-of-field problem of digital in-line holography and does not require the complex optical calibration of Tomo-PIV. The digital sensors can be oriented in an optimal manner to overcome the depth-of-field limitation of in-line holograms recorded using digital CCD or CMOS array cameras, resulting in a 3D reconstruction of the seed particles within the volume of interest, which can subsequently be analysed using 3D cross-correlation PIV analysis to yield a 3C-3D velocity field. A demonstration experiment of Tomo-HPIV using uniform translation with nominally 11 µm diameter seed particles shows that the 3D displacement derived from 3D cross-correlation Tomo-HPIV analysis can be measured within 5% of the imposed uniform translation, where the imposed uniform translation has an estimated standard uncertainty of 4.3%. So this paper proposes a multi-camera digital holographic imaging 3C-3D PIV method, which is identified as tomographic digital holographic PIV or Tomo-HPIV
Boundary between a plasma and a field with particle losses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konkhashbaev, I.K.; Zandman, I.S.; Ilinich, F.R.
1978-01-01
For open magnetic traps with β=1, the formation of plasma-field boundary (skin-layer) and the rate of the magnetic field fiffusion into plasma were investigated through the consideration of an evolution of a wide skin-layer. A large value of the mirror ratio is assumed for the sake of simplicity. The skin-layer structure is formed by two mechanisms: a mutual plasma-field diffusion tending to expand the boundary, and escape of particles trapped in the skin-layer region, along lines of force through the magnetic mirror, which tends to compress the boundary. It is shown that compression of the wide boundary occurs for the time of the order of the ion-ion collision time when the ion and electron temperatures change substantially. The final skin-layer width proved to be larger than a hybrid one, but smaller than the ion Larmour radius and depends slightly on initial temperatures. It has been established that the diffusion of the magnetic field into the plasma of magnetic trap has the character of a stationary wave of a width equal to the ion Larmour radius and of the velocity V approximately Vsub(Ti)/(ωsub(i)tausub(i))(Vsub(Ti) is the thermal ion velocity, ωsub(i), tausub(i) - the ion cyclotron frequency and collision time)
Stationary magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium of toroidal plasma in rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Missiato, O.
1986-01-01
The stationary equations of classical magnetohydrodynamics are utilized to study the toroidal motion of a thermonuclear magnetically - confined plasma with toroidal symmetry (Tokamak). In the present work, we considered a purely toroidal stationary rotation and te problem is reduced to studing a second order partial differencial equation of eliptic type Maschke-Perrin. Assuming that the temperature remains constant on the magnetic surfaces, an analitic solution, valid for low Mach numbers (M ≤ 0 .4), was obtained for the above-mentioned equation by means of a technique developed by Pantuso Sudano. From the solution found, we traced graphs for the quantities which described the equilibrium state of the plasma, namely: mass density, pressure, temperature, electric current density and toroidal magnetic field. Finally we compare this analitical model with others works which utilized differents analitical models and numerical simulations. We conclude that the solutions obtained are in good agreement with the previos results. In addition, however, our model contains the results of Sudano-Goes with the additional advantage of employing much simple analitical expressions. (author) [pt
Analyzing Non Stationary Processes in Radiometers
Racette, Paul
2010-01-01
The lack of well-developed techniques for modeling changing statistical moments in our observations has stymied the application of stochastic process theory for many scientific and engineering applications. Non linear effects of the observation methodology is one of the most perplexing aspects to modeling non stationary processes. This perplexing problem was encountered when modeling the effect of non stationary receiver fluctuations on the performance of radiometer calibration architectures. Existing modeling approaches were found not applicable; particularly problematic is modeling processes across scales over which they begin to exhibit non stationary behavior within the time interval of the calibration algorithm. Alternatively, the radiometer output is modeled as samples from a sequence random variables; the random variables are treated using a conditional probability distribution function conditioned on the use of the variable in the calibration algorithm. This approach of treating a process as a sequence of random variables with non stationary stochastic moments produce sensible predictions of temporal effects of calibration algorithms. To test these model predictions, an experiment using the Millimeter wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) was conducted. The MIR with its two black body calibration references was configured in a laboratory setting to observe a third ultra-stable reference (CryoTarget). The MIR was programmed to sequentially sample each of the three references in approximately a 1 second cycle. Data were collected over a six-hour interval. The sequence of reference measurements form an ensemble sample set comprised of a series of three reference measurements. Two references are required to estimate the receiver response. A third reference is used to estimate the uncertainty in the estimate. Typically, calibration algorithms are designed to suppress the non stationary effects of receiver fluctuations. By treating the data sequence as an ensemble
Laboratory evidence for stationary inertial Alfvén waves
Koepke, M. E.; Finnegan, S. M.; Vincena, S.; Knudsen, D. J.; Nogami, S. H.; Vassiliadis, D.
2016-08-01
Azimuthal convective flow and density-depleted magnetic field-aligned current co-located in the helium plasma produced in the large plasma device (LAPD-U) at UCLA (Gekelman et al 2016 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87 025105) support an Alfvénic perturbation that is static in the laboratory frame. Electrostatic probes measure the flow and static density perturbations in the 72 cm-diameter, 12 m-long, afterglow plasma, wherein a radially segmented electrode creates the convective flow and an off-cylindrical-axis planar-mesh electrode draws current in a channel parallel to the background magnetic field. This stationary ‘wave’ is measured as a fixed (in the laboratory frame) ion density structure.
Ray, L.; Jordan, M.; Arcone, S. A.; Kaluzienski, L. M.; Koons, P. O.; Lever, J.; Walker, B.; Hamilton, G. S.
2017-12-01
The McMurdo Shear Zone (MSZ) is a narrow, intensely crevassed strip tens of km long separating the Ross and McMurdo ice shelves (RIS and MIS) and an important pinning feature for the RIS. We derive local velocity fields within the MSZ from two consecutive annual ground penetrating radar (GPR) datasets that reveal complex firn and marine ice crevassing; no englacial features are evident. The datasets were acquired in 2014 and 2015 using robot-towed 400 MHz and 200 MHz GPR over a 5 km x 5.7 km grid. 100 west-to-east transects at 50 m spacing provide three-dimensional maps that reveal the length of many firn crevasses, and their year-to-year structural evolution. Hand labeling of crevasse cross sections near the MSZ western and eastern boundaries reveal matching firn and marine ice crevasses, and more complex and chaotic features between these boundaries. By matching crevasse features from year to year both on the eastern and western boundaries and within the chaotic region, marine ice crevasses along the western and eastern boundaries are shown to align directly with firn crevasses, and the local velocity field is estimated and compared with data from strain rate surveys and remote sensing. While remote sensing provides global velocity fields, crevasse matching indicates greater local complexity attributed to faulting, folding, and rotation.
Feasibility study of segmented-parallel-hole collimator for stationary cardiac SPECT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mao, Yanfei [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Center for Advanced Imaging Research (UCAIR); Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Bioengineering; Zeng, Gengsheng L. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Center for Advanced Imaging Research (UCAIR)
2011-07-01
The goal of this research is to propose a stationary cardiac SPECT system using the segmented parallel-beam collimator and to perform some computer simulations to test the feasibility. A stationary system has a benefit of acquiring temporally consistent projections. The most challenging issue in building a stationary system is to provide sufficient projection view-angles. A 2-detector, multi-segment collimator system with 14 view-angles over 180 in the transaxial direction and 3 view-angles in the axial directions was designed, where the two detectors are configured 90 apart in an L-shape. We applied the parallel-beam imaging geometry and used segmented parallel-hole collimator to acquire SPECT data. To improve the system condition due to data truncation, we measured more rays within the field-of-view (FOV) of the detector by using a relatively small detector bin-size. In image reconstruction, we used the maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (ML-EM) algorithm. The criterion for evaluating the system is the summed pixel-to-pixel distance that measures the discrepancy between the 3D gold-standard image and the reconstructed 3D region of interest (ROI) with truncated data. Effects of limited number of view-angles, data truncation, varying body habitus, attenuation, and noise were considered in the system design. As a result, our segmented-parallel-beam stationary cardiac SPECT system is able to acquire sufficient data for cardiac imaging and has a high sensitivity gain. (orig.)
Demaria, E. M.; Goodrich, D. C.; Keefer, T.
2017-12-01
Observed sub-daily precipitation intensities from contrasting hydroclimatic environments in the USA are used to evaluate temporal trends and to develop Intensity-Duration Frequency (IDF) curves under stationary and nonstationary climatic conditions. Analyses are based on observations from two United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) experimental watersheds located in a semi-arid and a temperate environment. We use an Annual Maximum Series (AMS) and a Partial Duration Series (PDS) approach to identify temporal trends in maximum intensities for durations ranging from 5- to 1440-minutes. A Bayesian approach with Monte Carlo techniques is used to incorporate the effect of non-stationary climatic assumptions in the IDF curves. The results show increasing trends in observed AMS sub-daily intensities in both watersheds whereas trends in the PDS observations are mostly positive in the semi-arid site and a mix of positive and negative in the temperate site. Stationary climate assumptions lead to much lower estimated sub-daily intensities than those under non-stationary assumptions with larger absolute differences found for shorter durations and smaller return periods. The risk of failure (R) of a hydraulic structure is increased for non-stationary effects over those of stationary effects, with absolute differences of 25% for a 100-year return period (T) and a project life (n) of 100 years. The study highlights the importance of considering non-stationarity, due to natural variability or to climate change, in storm design.
Stationary flow in magnetic tubes of force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engvold, O.; Jensen, E.
1976-01-01
For one particular set of boundary conditions Pikel'ner obtained a stationary solution displaying a condensation, which he applied to quiescent prominences. Calculations in the stationary case for a range of parameters have been carried out, after some modifications of the basic equations. These modifications involved a complete non-LTE formulation of the ionization equilibrium, an improved radiative loss-function and more accurate values of the thermodynamic parameters. The calculations were carried out for a hydrogen helium mixture with B = 10 and for a pure hydrogen gas. The solutions were terminated where the optical thickness in lyα along the tube exceeded unity, corresponding to T approx.equal to 20 000K. The solutions are strongly dependent upon the geometry of the tube of force. Condensations may be made to appear on the ascending as well as on the descending branch of the magnetic arch by varying the parameters. Solutions also depend strongly upon the energy input into the tube at the footpoint, mainly determined by the injection velocity and the starting value of the temperature gradient. The radiative loss is of less importance for the values of the gas pressure close to the Pikel'ner case. Recent observational data indicate gas pressure in the chromosphere corona transition region as much as 4 times the boundary pressure assumed by Pikel'ner. Such a high initial pressure, however, produce no condensation. In the temperature range 1.2x10 5 K > T > 5x10 4 K the temperature gradients in the condensations are in fair agreement with observations of the CIII lines in the EUV-region. For higher temperatures 5x10 5 K > T > 2x10 5 K our temperature gradients are much smaller than those indicated by observations. (Auth.)
Measurements of 3D velocity and scalar field for a film-cooled airfoil trailing edge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benson, Michael J.; Elkins, Christopher J.; Eaton, John K. [Stanford University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford, CA (United States)
2011-08-15
The 3D velocity and concentration fields have been measured for flow in a pressure side cutback trailing edge film cooling geometry consisting of rectangular film cooling slots separated by tapered lands. The velocity field was measured using conventional magnetic resonance velocimetry, and the concentration distribution was measured with a refined magnetic resonance concentration technique that yields experimental uncertainties for the concentration between 5 and 6%. All experiments were performed in water. A separation bubble behind the slot lip entrains coolant and promotes rapid turbulent mixing at the upper edge of the coolant jet. Vortices from inside the slot feed channel and on the upper sides of the lands rapidly distort the initially rectangular shape of the coolant stream and sweep mainstream flow toward the airfoil surface. The vortices also prevent any coolant from reaching the upper surfaces of the land. At the trailing edge, a second separation region exists in the blunt trailing edge wake. The flow forms suction side streaks behind the land tips, as well as streaks behind the slot centers on the pressure side. The peak coolant concentrations in the streaks remain above 25% through the end of the measurement domain, over 30 slot heights downstream. (orig.)
A review on prognostic techniques for non-stationary and non-linear rotating systems
Kan, Man Shan; Tan, Andy C. C.; Mathew, Joseph
2015-10-01
The field of prognostics has attracted significant interest from the research community in recent times. Prognostics enables the prediction of failures in machines resulting in benefits to plant operators such as shorter downtimes, higher operation reliability, reduced operations and maintenance cost, and more effective maintenance and logistics planning. Prognostic systems have been successfully deployed for the monitoring of relatively simple rotating machines. However, machines and associated systems today are increasingly complex. As such, there is an urgent need to develop prognostic techniques for such complex systems operating in the real world. This review paper focuses on prognostic techniques that can be applied to rotating machinery operating under non-linear and non-stationary conditions. The general concept of these techniques, the pros and cons of applying these methods, as well as their applications in the research field are discussed. Finally, the opportunities and challenges in implementing prognostic systems and developing effective techniques for monitoring machines operating under non-stationary and non-linear conditions are also discussed.
Stationary closed strings in five-dimensional flat spacetime
Igata, Takahisa; Ishihara, Hideki; Nishiwaki, Keisuke
2012-11-01
We investigate stationary rotating closed Nambu-Goto strings in five-dimensional flat spacetime. The stationary string is defined as a world sheet that is tangent to a timelike Killing vector. The Nambu-Goto equation of motion for the stationary string is reduced to the geodesic equation on the orbit space of the isometry group action generated by the Killing vector. We take a linear combination of a time-translation vector and space-rotation vectors as the Killing vector, and explicitly construct general solutions of stationary rotating closed strings in five-dimensional flat spacetime. We show a variety of their configurations and properties.
Handbook of differential equations stationary partial differential equations
Chipot, Michel
2006-01-01
This handbook is volume III in a series devoted to stationary partial differential quations. Similarly as volumes I and II, it is a collection of self contained state-of-the-art surveys written by well known experts in the field. The topics covered by this handbook include singular and higher order equations, problems near critically, problems with anisotropic nonlinearities, dam problem, T-convergence and Schauder-type estimates. These surveys will be useful for both beginners and experts and speed up the progress of corresponding (rapidly developing and fascinating) areas of mathematics. Ke
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abarzhi, S.I.
1996-01-01
The stationary solutions of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability for spatially periodic flows with general symmetry are investigated here for the first time. The existence of a set of stationary solutions is established. The question of its dimensionality in function space is resolved on the basis of an analysis of the symmetry of the initial perturbation. The interrelationship between the dimensionality of the solution set and the symmetry of the flow is found. The dimensionality of the solution set is established for flows invariant with respect to one of five symmorphic two-dimensional groups. The nonuniversal character of the set of stationary solutions of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is demonstrated. For flows in a tube, on the contrary, universality of the solution set, along with its independence of the symmetry of the initial perturbation, is assumed. The problem of the free boundary in the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is solved in the first two approximations, and their convergence is investigated. The dependence of the velocity and Fourier harmonics on the parameters of the problem is found. Possible symmetry violations of the flow are analyzed. Limits to previously studied cases are investigated, and their accuracy is established. Questions of the stability of the solutions obtained and the possibility of a physically correct statement of the problem are discussed
Dynamics of the solar magnetic field. V. Velocities associated with changing magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levine, R.H.; Nakagawa, Y.
1975-01-01
Methods of determining horizontal velocities from the magnetic induction equation on the basis of a time series of magnetogram observations are discussed. For the flare of 1972 August 7, it is shown that a previously developed method of predicting positions of likely flare activity provides reasonable agreement with observations. Limitations to this type of solution of the magnetic induction equation are pointed out, and unambiguous solutions, corresponding to phenomenological determinations of velocity patterns under various physical circumstances, are presented for simple magnetic configurations. Implications for the analysis of changes in a series of magnetogram observations are discussed
Leading-Edge Velocities and Lifted Methane Jet Flame Stability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Wang
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Current interest exists in understanding reaction-zone dynamics and mechanisms with respect to how they counterpropagate against incoming reactants. Images of flame position and flow-field morphology are presented from flame chemiluminescence and particle image velocimetry (PIV measurements. In the present study, PIV experiments were carried out to measure the methane jet lifted-flame flow-field velocities in the vicinity of the flame leading edge. Specifically, velocity fields within the high-temperature zone were examined in detail, which complements previous studies, whose prime focus is the flow-field upstream of the high-temperature boundary. PIV data is used not only to determine the velocities, but, along with chemiluminescence images, to also indicate the approximate location of the reaction zone (further supported by/through the leading-edge flame velocity distributions. The velocity results indirectly support the concept that the flame is anchored primarily through the mechanism of partially premixed flame propagation.
Search for auroral belt Eparallel fields with high-velocity barium ion injections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heppner, J.P.; Ledley, B.G.; Miller, M.L.; Marionni, P.A.; Pongratz, M.B.; Slater, D.W.; Hallinan, T.J.; Rees, D.
1989-01-01
Four high-velocity shaped charge Ba + injections were conducted from two Black Brant-10 rockets at collision-free altitudes (770-975 km) over northern Alaska (L = 7.4-10.6) in April 1984 under active auroral and magnetic disturbance (Kp 4+ and 5) conditions. The motions of the Ba + pencil beams from these injections were accurately triangulated to altitudes ranging from 9,000 to 14,000 km from multistation image observations. Well-defined initial conditions and improved software for predicting the unperturbed. E = 0, trajectories in the presence of convection, E perpendicular , fields permitted an accurate detection of changes in the motion which could be attributed to E parallel fields. Large (> 1 keV) potential changes that might be anticipated from double-layer or V-, U- and S-shaped potential structures were not encountered even though the Ba + rays were clearly located on auroral arc flux tubes on at least several occasions and were at various times in close proximity to auroral flux tubes for many minutes. Abnormally intense E perpendicular fields that might also indicate that the above potential structures were also not observed. Transient accelerations and/or decelerations involving magnetic field-aligned energy changes ≤ 375 eV were, however, encountered by each of the seven principal Ba + rays tracked to high altitudes. Acceleration events were only slightly more frequent than deceleration events. Interpretation, taking into account limits on the duration of the events and simultaneous auroral conditions, favors explanation in terms of propagating waves, soliton trains, or other pulse forms provided that the propagation is primarily field-aligned
Measuring Average Angular Velocity with a Smartphone Magnetic Field Sensor
Pili, Unofre; Violanda, Renante
2018-01-01
The angular velocity of a spinning object is, by standard, measured using a device called a tachometer. However, by directly using it in a classroom setting, the activity is likely to appear as less instructive and less engaging. Indeed, some alternative classroom-suitable methods for measuring angular velocity have been presented. In this paper,…
Gómez-García, C.; Brenguier, F.; Boué, P.; Shapiro, N. M.; Droznin, D. V.; Droznina, S. Ya; Senyukov, S. L.; Gordeev, E. I.
2018-05-01
Continuous noise-based monitoring of seismic velocity changes provides insights into volcanic unrest, earthquake mechanisms and fluid injection in the sub-surface. The standard monitoring approach relies on measuring travel time changes of late coda arrivals between daily and reference noise cross-correlations, usually chosen as stacks of daily cross-correlations. The main assumption of this method is that the shape of the noise correlations does not change over time or, in other terms, that the ambient-noise sources are stationary through time. These conditions are not fulfilled when a strong episodic source of noise, such as a volcanic tremor for example, perturbs the reconstructed Green's function. In this paper we propose a general formulation for retrieving continuous time series of noise-based seismic velocity changes without the requirement of any arbitrary reference cross-correlation function. Instead, we measure the changes between all possible pairs of daily cross-correlations and invert them using different smoothing parameters to obtain the final velocity change curve. We perform synthetic tests in order to establish a general framework for future applications of this technique. In particular, we study the reliability of velocity change measurements versus the stability of noise cross-correlation functions. We apply this approach to a complex dataset of noise cross-correlations at Klyuchevskoy volcanic group (Kamchatka), hampered by loss of data and the presence of highly non-stationary seismic tremors.
Teaching geographical hydrology in a non-stationary world
Hendriks, Martin R.; Karssenberg, Derek
2010-05-01
Understanding hydrological processes in a non-stationary world requires knowledge of hydrological processes and their interactions. Also, one needs to understand the (non-linear) relations between the hydrological system and other parts of our Earth system, such as the climate system, the socio-economic system, and the ecosystem. To provide this knowledge and understanding we think that three components are essential when teaching geographical hydrology. First of all, a student needs to acquire a thorough understanding of classical hydrology. For this, knowledge of the basic hydrological equations, such as the energy equation (Bernoulli), flow equation (Darcy), continuity (or water balance) equation is needed. This, however, is not sufficient to make a student fully understand the interactions between hydrological compartments, or between hydrological subsystems and other parts of the Earth system. Therefore, secondly, a student also needs to be knowledgeable of methods by which the different subsystems can be coupled; in general, numerical models are used for this. A major disadvantage of numerical models is their complexity. A solution may be to use simpler models, provided that a student really understands how hydrological processes function in our real, non-stationary world. The challenge for a student then lies in understanding the interactions between the subsystems, and to be able to answer questions such as: what is the effect of a change in vegetation or land use on runoff? Thirdly, knowledge of field hydrology is of utmost importance. For this a student needs to be trained in the field. Fieldwork is very important as a student is confronted in the field with spatial and temporal variability, as well as with real life uncertainties, rather than being lured into believing the world as presented in hydrological textbooks and models, e.g. the world under study is homogeneous, isotropic, or lumped (averaged). Also, students in the field learn to plan and
Stationary shear flows in CGL anisotropic toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pastukhov, V.P.; Ilgisonis, V.I.
1996-01-01
Recently a general structure of stationary shear flows in toroidal plasmas was obtained in the frame of ideal isotropic-pressure MHD model. The structure of the stationary plasma flows was shown to be determined by a hidden symmetry of MHD equations inherent in the toroidal systems with nested magnetic surfaces. However, the characteristic frequencies of the stationary plasma motion can considerably exceed the collisional frequencies in real plasma experiments. In this case the CGL collisionless MHD model seems to be more adequate than the simplified isotropic-pressure MHD model to describe the stationary plasma flows. In this paper we have generalized our approach to analyze the stationary plasma flows in the frame of the collisionless CGL model. We have found again that the hidden symmetry inherent in the toroidal topology results in two integral invariants which depend on two independent surface functions. The structure of stationary flows for CGL model is still the same as for isotropic MHD, however, the pressure tensor components satisfy a appreciably modifies the steady state force-balance equation. These results are applied to analyze the generalized equilibrium in axisymmetric (tokamak-like) magnetic confinement systems
30 CFR 75.1723 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective....1723 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than... the wheel. (3) Safety washers. (b) Grinding wheels shall be operated within the specifications of the...
The application of unattended ground sensors to stationary targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sleefe, G.E.; Peglow, S.; Hamrick, R.
1997-01-01
The unattended sensing of stationary (i.e. non-mobile) targets is important in applications ranging from counter-proliferation to law enforcement. With stationary targets, sources of seismic, acoustic, and electro-magnetic emissions can potentially be used to detect, identify, and locate the target. Stationary targets have considerably different sensing requirements than the traditional mobile-target unattended ground sensor applications. This paper presents the novel features and requirements of a system for sensing stationary targets. In particular, issues associated with long-listen time signal processing for signal detection, and array processing techniques for signal localization are presented. Example data and signal processing outputs from a stationary target will be used to illustrate these issues. The impact on sensor, electronic signal processing, battery subsystem, and communication requirements will also be discussed. The paper will conclude with a detailed comparison between mobile-target and stationary-target unattended ground sensor architectures
Ion velocities in a micro-cathode arc thruster
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhuang Taisen; Shashurin, Alexey; Keidar, Michael; Beilis, Isak
2012-01-01
Ion velocities in the plasma jet generated by the micro-cathode arc thruster are studied by means of time-of-flight method using enhanced ion detection system (EIDS). The EIDS triggers perturbations (spikes) on arc current waveform, and the larger current in the spike generates denser plasma bunches propagating along with the mainstream plasma. The EIDS utilizes double electrostatic probes rather than single probes. The average Ti ion velocity is measured to be around 2×10 4 m/s without a magnetic field. It was found that the application of a magnetic field does not change ion velocities in the interelectrode region while leads to ion acceleration in the free expanding plasma plume by a factor of about 2. Ion velocities of about 3.5×10 4 m/s were detected for the magnetic field of about 300 mT at distance of about 100–200 mm from the cathode. It is proposed that plasma is accelerated due to Lorentz force. The average thrust is calculated using the ion velocity measurements and the cathode mass consumption rate, and its increase with the magnetic field is demonstrated.
Stability and instability of stationary solutions for sublinear parabolic equations
Kajikiya, Ryuji
2018-01-01
In the present paper, we study the initial boundary value problem of the sublinear parabolic equation. We prove the existence of solutions and investigate the stability and instability of stationary solutions. We show that a unique positive and a unique negative stationary solutions are exponentially stable and give the exact exponent. We prove that small stationary solutions are unstable. For one space dimensional autonomous equations, we elucidate the structure of stationary solutions and study the stability of all stationary solutions.
Velocity Vector Field Visualization of Flow in Liquid Acquisition Device Channel
McQuillen, John B.; Chao, David F.; Hall, Nancy R.; Zhang, Nengli
2012-01-01
A capillary flow liquid acquisition device (LAD) for cryogenic propellants has been developed and tested in NASA Glenn Research Center to meet the requirements of transferring cryogenic liquid propellants from storage tanks to an engine in reduced gravity environments. The prototypical mesh screen channel LAD was fabricated with a mesh screen, covering a rectangular flow channel with a cylindrical outlet tube, and was tested with liquid oxygen (LOX). In order to better understand the performance in various gravity environments and orientations at different liquid submersion depths of the screen channel LAD, a series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of LOX flow through the LAD screen channel was undertaken. The resulting velocity vector field visualization for the flow in the channel has been used to reveal the gravity effects on the flow in the screen channel.
30 CFR 77.401 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.401 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped with...
4. Workshop - Measurement techniques of stationary and transient multiphase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prasser, H.M.
2001-05-01
In November 2000, the 4th Workshop on Measurement Techniques for Stationary and Transient Multiphase Flows took place in Rossendorf. Three previous workshops of this series were national meetings; this time participants from different countries took part. The programme comprised 14 oral presentations, 9 of which are included in these proceedings in full length. A special highlight of the meeting was the main lecture ''Ultrasonic doppler method for bubbly flow measurement'' of Professor Masanori Aritomi, Dr. Hiroshige Kikura and Dr. Yumiko Suzuki. The workshop again dealt with high-resolution phase distribution and phase velocity measurement techniques based on electrical conductivity, ultrasound, laser light and high-speed cinematography. A number of presentations were dedicated to the application of wire-mesh sensors developed by FZR for different applications used by the Technical Universities of Delft and Munich and the Tokyo Institute of Technology. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trewin, Richard R.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → CCFL in the hot leg of a PWR with ECC Injection. → Three-Field Model of counter flowing water film and entrained droplets. → Flow of steam can cause a hydraulic jump in the supercritical flow of water. → Condensation of steam on subcooled water increases the required flow for hydraulic jump. → Better agreement with UPTF experimental data than Wallis-type correlation. - Abstract: A one-dimensional three-field model was developed to predict the flow of liquid and vapor that results from countercurrent flow of water injected into the hot leg of a PWR and the oncoming steam flowing from the upper plenum. The model solves the conservation equations for mass, momentum, and energy in a continuous-vapor field, a continuous-liquid field, and a dispersed-liquid (entrained-droplet) field. Single-effect experiments performed in the upper plenum test facility (UPTF) of the former SIEMENS KWU (now AREVA) at Mannheim, Germany, were used to validate the countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL) model in case of emergency core cooling water injection into the hot legs. Subcooled water and saturated steam flowed countercurrent in a horizontal pipe with an inside diameter of 0.75 m. The flow of injected water was varied from 150 kg/s to 400 kg/s, and the flow of steam varied from 13 kg/s to 178 kg/s. The subcooling of the liquid ranged from 0 K to 104 K. The velocity of the water at the injection point was supercritical (greater than the celerity of a gravity wave) for all the experiments. The three-field model was successfully used to predict the experimental data, and the results from the model provide insight into the mechanisms that influence the flows of liquid and vapor during countercurrent flow in a hot leg. When the injected water was saturated and the flow of steam was small, all or most of the injected water flowed to the upper plenum. Because the velocity of the liquid remained supercritical, entrainment of droplets was suppressed. When the injected
Localization and stationary phase approximation on supermanifolds
Zakharevich, Valentin
2017-08-01
Given an odd vector field Q on a supermanifold M and a Q-invariant density μ on M, under certain compactness conditions on Q, the value of the integral ∫Mμ is determined by the value of μ on any neighborhood of the vanishing locus N of Q. We present a formula for the integral in the case where N is a subsupermanifold which is appropriately non-degenerate with respect to Q. In the process, we discuss the linear algebra necessary to express our result in a coordinate independent way. We also extend the stationary phase approximation and the Morse-Bott lemma to supermanifolds.
Exploitation of a microporous organic polymer as a stationary phase for capillary gas chromatography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Cuiming; Liu, Shuqin; Xu, Jianqiao; Ding, Yajuan; Ouyang, Gangfeng
2016-01-01
Microporous organic polymers (MOPs) have emerged as a new class of functional porous materials with unique characteristics and potential uses in diverse areas. However, the field of MOPs for gas chromatographic (GC) separations has not been well explored. Herein, a MOP namely KAPs-1 was dynamic coated onto a capillary column for the first time. The fabricated column exhibited a nonpolar nature and the column efficiency for n-dodecane was up to 7769 plates m"−"1. The KAPs-1 coated column showed high GC separation performance for a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including the challenging ethylbenzene and xylene isomers, which could not be resolved at baseline on the commercial 5% phenyl polysiloxane stationary phase. Moreover, the relative standard deviations for five replicate determinations of the studied analytes were 0.0–0.6%, 0.9–3.2%, 1.1–5.9%, 0.8–3.7% for retention time, peak area, peak height and peak width, respectively. To investigate the interaction between some analytes and the stationary phase, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were also evaluated. The results of this study show it is very promising to utilize MOPs as stationary phases for capillary GC. - Highlights: • A microporous organic polymer was explored as a novel stationary phase for capillary GC. • The column showed high separation performance for VOCs including the challenging ethylbenzene and xylene isomers. • Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for BTEXs were determined to study the analyte-stationary phase interaction.
Propagation of the Semidiurnal Internal Tide: Phase Velocity Versus Group Velocity
Zhao, Zhongxiang
2017-12-01
The superposition of two waves of slightly different wavelengths has long been used to illustrate the distinction between phase velocity and group velocity. The first-mode M2 and S2 internal tides exemplify such a two-wave model in the natural ocean. The M2 and S2 tidal frequencies are 1.932 and 2 cycles per day, respectively, and their superposition forms a spring-neap cycle in the semidiurnal band. The spring-neap cycle acts like a wave, with its frequency, wave number, and phase being the differences of the M2 and S2 internal tides. The spring-neap cycle and energy of the semidiurnal internal tide propagate at the group velocity. Long-range propagation of M2 and S2 internal tides in the North Pacific is observed by satellite altimetry. Along a 3,400 km beam spanning 24°-54°N, the M2 and S2 travel times are 10.9 and 11.2 days, respectively. For comparison, it takes the spring-neap cycle 21.1 days to travel over this distance. Spatial maps of the M2 phase velocity, the S2 phase velocity, and the group velocity are determined from phase gradients of the corresponding satellite observed internal tide fields. The observed phase and group velocities agree with theoretical values estimated using the World Ocean Atlas 2013 annual-mean ocean stratification.
Combined measurements on stationary flow of helium II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ijsselstein, R.R.
1979-01-01
Transport phenomena in helium II can in principle be described by a two fluid model. One of the fluids, the superfluid component, carries no entropy and has no viscosity while its velocity field is curl free. The other, the normal component, behaves like an ordinary fluid and carries the entropy of the whole liquid. In measuring flow two different methods are required because of the two independent velocity fields. This thesis describes an experiment where both techniques are applied to flow through a capillary of 0.62 mm, enabling direct comparison. The apparatus is described, and details of the measuring techniques are reported. An extended treatment of second-sound phenomena in a Helmholtz resonator is given. The results of the measurements are reported and discussed. (Auth.)
Velocity of large bubble in liquid-solid mixture in a vertical tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamaguchi, H.; Sakaguchi, T.
1995-01-01
The upward movement of a large bubble in a stationary mixture of liquid and solid is one of the most fundamental phenomena of gas-liquid-solid three phase slug flow in a vertical tube. The purpose of this study is to make clear the characteristic of the rising velocity of this fundamental flow experimentally. The rising velocity of a large bubble V in a liquid-solid mixture was measured and compared with the velocity V o in a liquid (without solid). The experimental results were correlated using a non-dimensional velocity V * (=V/V o ), and the following results were obtained. It was found that the characteristic of the rising velocity differs according to the tube diameter and the liquid viscosity, or the Galileo number in the non-dimensional expression. It can be classified into two regimes. (i) When the liquid viscosity is large (or the tube diameter is small), V * decreases linearly against the volumetric solid fraction ε of the mixture. (ii) When the viscosity is small, on the other hand, the relation between V * and ε is not linear. This classification can be explained by the results in the previous papers by the authors dealing with a large bubble in a liquid
Velocity of large bubble in liquid-solid mixture in a vertical tube
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamaguchi, H.; Sakaguchi, T. [Kobe Univ., Kobe (Japan)
1995-09-01
The upward movement of a large bubble in a stationary mixture of liquid and solid is one of the most fundamental phenomena of gas-liquid-solid three phase slug flow in a vertical tube. The purpose of this study is to make clear the characteristic of the rising velocity of this fundamental flow experimentally. The rising velocity of a large bubble V in a liquid-solid mixture was measured and compared with the velocity V{sub o} in a liquid (without solid). The experimental results were correlated using a non-dimensional velocity V{sup *}(=V/V{sub o}), and the following results were obtained. It was found that the characteristic of the rising velocity differs according to the tube diameter and the liquid viscosity, or the Galileo number in the non-dimensional expression. It can be classified into two regimes. (i) When the liquid viscosity is large (or the tube diameter is small), V{sup *} decreases linearly against the volumetric solid fraction {epsilon} of the mixture. (ii) When the viscosity is small, on the other hand, the relation between V{sup *} and {epsilon} is not linear. This classification can be explained by the results in the previous papers by the authors dealing with a large bubble in a liquid.
On whistler-mode group velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sazhin, S.S.
1986-01-01
An analytical of the group velocity of whistler-mode waves propagating parallel to the magnetic field in a hot anisotropic plasma is presented. Some simple approximate formulae, which can be used for the magnetospheric applications, are derived. These formulae can predict some properties of this group velocity which were not previously recognized or were obtained by numerical methods. In particular, it is pointed out that the anisotropy tends to compensate for the influence of the electron temperature on the value of the group velocity when the wave frequency is well below the electron gyrofrequency. It is predicted, that under conditions at frequencies near the electron gyrofrequency, this velocity tends towards zero
Dynamics in stationary, non-globally hyperbolic spacetimes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seggev, Itai [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 S Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
2004-06-07
Classically, the dynamics of a scalar field in a non-globally hyperbolic spacetime is ill-posed. Previously, a prescription was given for defining dynamics in static spacetimes in terms of a second-order operator acting on a Hilbert space defined on static slices. The present work extends this result by giving a similar prescription for defining dynamics in stationary spacetimes obeying certain mild assumptions. The prescription is defined in terms of a first-order operator acting on a different Hilbert space from that used in the static prescription. It preserves the important properties of the earlier prescription: the formal solution agrees with the Cauchy evolution within the domain of dependence, and smooth data of compact support always give rise to smooth solutions. In the static case, the first-order formalism agrees with the second-order formalism (using specifically the Friedrichs extension). Applications to field quantization are also discussed.
Pulsar velocity observations: Correlations, interpretations, and discussion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helfand, D.J.; Tademaru, E.
1977-01-01
From an examination of the current sample of 12 pulsars with measured proper motions and the z-distribution of the much larger group of over 80 sources with measured period derivatives, we develop a self-consistent picture of pulsar evolution. The apparent tendency of pulsars to move parallel to the galactic plane is explained as the result of various selection effects. A method for calculating the unmeasurable radial velocity of a pulsar is presented; it is shown that the total space velocities thus obtained are consistent with the assumption of an extreme Population I origin for pulsars which subsequently move away from the plane with a large range of velocities. The time scale for pulsar magnetic field decay is derived from dynamical considerations. A strong correlation of the original pulsar field strength with the magnitude of pulsar velocity is discussed. This results in the division of pulsars into two classes: Class A sources characterized by low space velocities, a small scale height, and low values of P 0 P 0 ; and Class B sources with a large range of velocities (up to 1000 km s -1 ), a much greater scale height, and larger values of initial field strength. It is postulated that Class A sources originate in tight binaries where their impulse acceleration at birth is insufficient to remove them from the system, while the Class B sources arise from single stars or loosely bound binaries and are accelerated to high velocities by their asymmetric radiation force. The evolutionary picture which is developed is shown to be consistent with a number of constraints imposed by supernova rates, the relative frequency of massive binaries and Class A sources, theoretical field-decay times, and the overall pulsar galactic distribution
Remote Numerical Simulations of the Interaction of High Velocity Clouds with Random Magnetic Fields
Santillan, Alfredo; Hernandez--Cervantes, Liliana; Gonzalez--Ponce, Alejandro; Kim, Jongsoo
The numerical simulations associated with the interaction of High Velocity Clouds (HVC) with the Magnetized Galactic Interstellar Medium (ISM) are a powerful tool to describe the evolution of the interaction of these objects in our Galaxy. In this work we present a new project referred to as Theoretical Virtual i Observatories. It is oriented toward to perform numerical simulations in real time through a Web page. This is a powerful astrophysical computational tool that consists of an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and a database produced by numerical calculations. In this Website the user can make use of the existing numerical simulations from the database or run a new simulation introducing initial conditions such as temperatures, densities, velocities, and magnetic field intensities for both the ISM and HVC. The prototype is programmed using Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP (LAMP), based on the open source philosophy. All simulations were performed with the MHD code ZEUS-3D, which solves the ideal MHD equations by finite differences on a fixed Eulerian mesh. Finally, we present typical results that can be obtained with this tool.
Electron velocity distributions near collisionless shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feldman, W.C.
1984-01-01
Recent studies of the amount of electron heating and of the shapes of electron velocity distributions across shocks near the earth are reviewed. It is found that electron heating increases with increasing shock strength but is always less than the ion heating. The scale length of electron heating is also less than that for the ions. Electron velocity distributions show characteristic shapes which depend on the strength of the shocks. At the weaker shocks, electron heating is mostly perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, bar B, and results in Gaussian-shaped velocity distributions at low-to-moderate energies. At the stronger shocks, parallel heating predominates resulting in flat-topped velocity distributions. A reasonable interpretation of these results indicates that at the weaker shocks electron heating is dominated by a tendency toward conservation of the magnetic moment. At the stronger fast-mode shocks, this heating is thought to be dominated by an acceleration parallel to bar B produced by the macroscopic shock electric field followed by beam driven plasma instabilities. Some contribution to the heating at the stronger shocks from conservation of the magnetic moment and cross-field current-driven instabilities cannot be ruled out. Although the heating at slow-mode shocks is also dominated by instabilities driven by magnetic field-aligned electron beams, their acceleration mechanism is not yet established
The Most Ancient Spiral Galaxy: A 2.6-Gyr-old Disk with a Tranquil Velocity Field
Yuan, Tiantian; Richard, Johan; Gupta, Anshu; Federrath, Christoph; Sharma, Soniya; Groves, Brent A.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Cen, Renyue; Birnboim, Yuval; Fisher, David B.
2017-11-01
We report an integral-field spectroscopic (IFS) observation of a gravitationally lensed spiral galaxy A1689B11 at redshift z = 2.54. It is the most ancient spiral galaxy discovered to date and the second kinematically confirmed spiral at z≳ 2. Thanks to gravitational lensing, this is also by far the deepest IFS observation with the highest spatial resolution (˜400 pc) on a spiral galaxy at a cosmic time when the Hubble sequence is about to emerge. After correcting for a lensing magnification of 7.2 ± 0.8, this primitive spiral disk has an intrinsic star formation rate of 22 ± 2 M ⊙ yr-1, a stellar mass of {10}9.8+/- 0.3 M ⊙, and a half-light radius of {r}1/2=2.6+/- 0.7 {kpc}, typical of a main-sequence star-forming galaxy at z˜ 2. However, the Hα kinematics show a surprisingly tranquil velocity field with an ordered rotation ({V}{{c}}=200+/- 12 km s-1) and uniformly small velocity dispersions ({V}σ ,{mean}=23 +/- 4 km s-1 and {V}σ ,{outer - {disk}}=15+/- 2 km s-1). The low gas velocity dispersion is similar to local spiral galaxies and is consistent with the classic density wave theory where spiral arms form in dynamically cold and thin disks. We speculate that A1689B11 belongs to a population of rare spiral galaxies at z≳ 2 that mark the formation epoch of thin disks. Future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope will greatly increase the sample of these rare galaxies and unveil the earliest onset of spiral arms.
A regularized stationary mean-field game
Yang, Xianjin
2016-01-01
In the thesis, we discuss the existence and numerical approximations of solutions of a regularized mean-field game with a low-order regularization. In the first part, we prove a priori estimates and use the continuation method to obtain the existence of a solution with a positive density. Finally, we introduce the monotone flow method and solve the system numerically.
A regularized stationary mean-field game
Yang, Xianjin
2016-04-19
In the thesis, we discuss the existence and numerical approximations of solutions of a regularized mean-field game with a low-order regularization. In the first part, we prove a priori estimates and use the continuation method to obtain the existence of a solution with a positive density. Finally, we introduce the monotone flow method and solve the system numerically.
Farolfi, Gregorio; Del Ventisette, Chiara
2016-04-01
A new horizontal crustal velocity field of Alpine Mediterranean area was determined by continuous long time series (6.5 years) of 113 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) permanent stations. The processing was performed using state-of-the-art absolute antenna phase center correction model and recomputed precise IGS orbits available since April 2014. Moreover, a new more accurate tropospheric mapping function for geodetic applications was adopted. Results provide a new detailed map of the kinematics throughout the entire study area. This area is characterized by a complex tectonic setting driven by the interaction of Eurasian and African plates. The eastern Alps, Corsica, Sardinia and the Tyrrhenian Sea (which is covered only by interpolation data) show small velocity residuals with respect to the Eurasian plate. The whole Apennines axis discriminates two different velocity patterns, the Adriatic and the Tyrrhenian area. The area around Messina Strait, which separates peninsular Italy and Sicily, represents a poorly understood region. Results identify an important boundary zone between two different domains, Calabria and Sicily, which are characterized by different crustal motions. The northeastern part of Sicily and Calabria move like Adriatic area, whilst the rest of Sicily, Malta and Lampedusa are dominated by African motion.
Vector velocity estimation using directional beam forming and cross-correlation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2000-01-01
The two-dimensional velocity vector using a pulsed ultrasound field can be determined with the invention. The method uses a focused ultrasound field along the velocity direction for probing the moving medium under investigation. Several pulses are emitted and the focused received fields along...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bocek, M.; Armas, I.
1982-01-01
It was the aim of the present investigation to examine how the recovery rate in creep is influenced by a non-stationary stress. For purposes of phenomenological analysis it is postulated that, irrespective of whether the applied stress is stationary or not, for large strains the mean internal stress sigmasub(i) approaches a stationary value sigmasub(i,s). The stationary recovery rate Rsub(s) for constant load creep turns out be governed by the applied stress indicating that the recovery mechanism is dynamic in nature. For sigma-ramp loading, Rsub(s) is dependent on the stress rate sigma. In tensional stress cycling, Rsub(s) is governed by the maximum stress sigmasub(M) and is also dependent on the ratio of sigmasub(M) to the minimum stress sigma 0 . TEM examination of Zircaloy-4 specimens crept at 800 0 C at constant and cycling load respectively could not reveal any differences in the deformation substructure for the two loading types. Subgrain formation did not appear, individual dislocations were observed only rarely. However, typical networks were formed as well as pileups which perhaps are responsible for the back stress in high temperature plasticity (HTP). (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Jun; Miyakoshi, Hiroyuki; Kamide, Hideki
2009-01-01
A sodium cooled fast reactor is designed to attain a high burn-up core in a feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems. In high burn-up fuel subassemblies, deformation of fuel pin due to the swelling and thermal bowing may decrease local flow velocity via change of flow area in the subassembly and influence the heat removal capability. Therefore, it is of importance to obtain the flow velocity distribution in a wire wrapped pin bundle. A 2.5 times enlarged 7-pin bundle water model was applied to investigate the detailed velocity distribution in an inner subchannel surrounded by 3 pins with wrapping wire. The test section consisted of a hexagonal acrylic duct tube and fluorinated resin pins which had nearly the same refractive index with that of water and a high light transmission rate. The velocity distribution in an inner subchannel with the wrapping wire was measured by PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) through the front and lateral sides of the duct tube. In the vertical velocity distribution in a narrow space between the pins, the wrapping wire decreased the velocity downstream of the wire and asymmetric flow distribution was formed between the pin and wire. In the horizontal velocity distribution, swirl flow around the wrapping wire was obviously observed. The measured velocity data are useful for code validation of pin bundle thermalhydraulics. (author)
Dutton, Andrew William
1993-12-01
A combined numerical and experimental system for tissue heat transfer analysis was developed. The goal was to develop an integrated set of tools for studying the problem of providing accurate temperature estimation for use in hyperthermia treatment planning in a clinical environment. The completed system combines (1) Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) to non-destructively measure the velocity field in situ, (2) the Streamwise Upwind Petrov-Galerkin finite element solution to the 3D steady state convective energy equation (CEE), (3) a medical image based automatic 3D mesh generator, and (4) a Gaussian type estimator to determine unknown thermal model parameters such as thermal conductivity, blood perfusion, and blood velocities from measured temperature data. The system was capable of using any combination of three thermal models (1) the Convective Energy Equation (CEE), (2) the Bioheat Transfer Equation (BHTE), and (3) the Effective Thermal Conductivity Equation (ETCE) Incorporation of the theoretically correct CEE was a significant theoretical advance over approximate models made possible by the use of MRA to directly measure the 3D velocity field in situ. Experiments were carried out in a perfused alcohol fixed canine liver with hyperthermia induced through scanned focused ultrasound Velocity fields were measured using Phase Contrast Angiography. The complete system was then used to (1) develop a 3D finite element model based upon user traced outlines over a series of MR images of the liver and (2) simulate temperatures at steady state using the CEE, BHTE, and ETCE thermal models in conjunction with the gauss estimator. Results of using the system on an in vitro liver preparation indicate the need for improved accuracy in the MRA scans and accurate spatial registration between the thermocouple junctions, the measured velocity field, and the scanned ultrasound power No individual thermal model was able to meet the desired accuracy of 0.5 deg C, the resolution
Stationary radiation of objects with scattering media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasil'eva, Inna A
2001-01-01
The radiation observed inside or outside a stationary radiator with a scattering medium is a sum of components, each being determined by, first, the primary radiation from some part of the radiator and, second, the probability of this radiation reaching the region where it is observed. In this review, general and rather simple relations between these components are discussed. These relations, unlike the components themselves, are independent of the specific optical characteristics of the object as well as of its geometry, inhomogeneity, etc. In deriving the relations, the situations in which geometrical optics is either applicable or inapplicable to radiation in a scattering medium are considered. For the case where geometrical optics does apply, stationary relations are derived from the probabilistic stationarity condition for radiation passing through the medium, i.e., from the fact that all radiation emitted in a stationary regime disappears with probability unity. Equilibrium relations are derived from the stationary relations in the particular case of a thermal radiator in an isothermal cavity. To derive the stationary relations in the geometrical optics approximation, we obtain general solutions of the linear equation of transfer using the Green function approach. If geometrical optics cannot be applied to a scattering and radiating medium, only relations for the components of outgoing thermal radiation are obtained, and the generalized Kirchhoff law, obtained by Levin and Rytov using statistical radio-physics methods, is employed. In this case, stationary relations are also derived from a probabilistic stationarity condition; the equilibrium relations follow from the stationary ones as well as from the equilibrium condition for radiation in the isothermal cavity. The quantities involved in all the relations obtained are a subject of experimental and computational spectroscopic studies. Examples of current and potential applications are given. The relations
Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon
1997-01-01
We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....
On the extraction of pressure fields from PIV velocity measurements in turbines
Villegas, Arturo; Diez, Fancisco J.
2012-11-01
In this study, the pressure field for a water turbine is derived from particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Measurements are performed in a recirculating water channel facility. The PIV measurements include calculating the tangential and axial forces applied to the turbine by solving the integral momentum equation around the airfoil. The results are compared with the forces obtained from the Blade Element Momentum theory (BEMT). Forces are calculated by using three different methods. In the first method, the pressure fields are obtained from PIV velocity fields by solving the Poisson equation. The boundary conditions are obtained from the Navier-Stokes momentum equations. In the second method, the pressure at the boundaries is determined by spatial integration of the pressure gradients along the boundaries. In the third method, applicable only to incompressible, inviscid, irrotational, and steady flow, the pressure is calculated using the Bernoulli equation. This approximated pressure is known to be accurate far from the airfoil and outside of the wake for steady flows. Additionally, the pressure is used to solve for the force from the integral momentum equation on the blade. From the three methods proposed to solve for pressure and forces from PIV measurements, the first one, which is solved by using the Poisson equation, provides the best match to the BEM theory calculations.
Jalil, Abdul; Li, Yiping; Du, Wei; Wang, Wencai; Wang, Jianwei; Gao, Xiaomeng; Khan, Hafiz Osama Sarwar; Pan, Baozhu; Acharya, Kumud
2018-01-01
Wind induced flow velocity patterns and associated thermal destratification can drive to hypoxia reduction in large shallow lakes. The effects of wind induced hydrodynamic changes on destratification and hypoxia reduction were investigated at the Meiling bay (N 31° 22' 56.4″, E 120° 9' 38.3″) of Lake Taihu, China. Vertical flow velocity profile analysis showed surface flow velocities consistency with the wind field and lower flow velocity profiles were also consistent (but with delay response time) when the wind speed was higher than 6.2 m/s. Wind field and temperature found the control parameters for hypoxia reduction and for water quality conditions at the surface and bottom profiles of lake. The critical temperature for hypoxia reduction at the surface and the bottom profile was ≤24.1C° (below which hypoxic conditions were found reduced). Strong prevailing wind field (onshore wind directions ESE, SE, SSE and E, wind speed ranges of 2.4-9.1 m/s) reduced the temperature (22C° to 24.1C°) caused reduction of hypoxia at the near surface with a rise in water levels whereas, low to medium prevailing wind field did not supported destratification which increased temperature resulting in increased hypoxia. Non-prevailing wind directions (offshore) were not found supportive for the reduction of hypoxia in study area due to less variable wind field. Daytime wind field found more variable (as compared to night time) which increased the thermal destratification during daytime and found supportive for destratification and hypoxia reduction. The second order exponential correlation found between surface temperature and Chlorophyll-a (R 2 : 0.2858, Adjusted R-square: 0.2144 RMSE: 4.395), Dissolved Oxygen (R 2 : 0.596, Adjusted R-square: 0.5942, RMSE: 0.3042) concentrations. The findings of the present study reveal the driving mechanism of wind induced thermal destratification and hypoxic conditions, which may further help to evaluate the wind role in eutrophication
Dmitriev, S. S.; Vasil'ev, K. E.; Mokhamed, S. M. S. O.; Gusev, A. A.; Barbashin, A. V.
2017-11-01
In modern combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT), when designing the reducers from the output diffuser of a gas turbine to a boiler-utilizer, wide-angle diffusers are used, in which practically from the input a flow separation and transition to jet stream regime occurs. In such channels, the energy loss in the field of velocities sharply rise and the field of velocities in the output from them is characterized by considerable unevenness that worsens the heat transfer process in the first by motion tube bundles of the boiler-utilizer. The results of experimental research of the method for reducing the energy loss and alignment of the field of velocities at the output from a flat asymmetrical diffuser channel with one deflecting wall with the opening angle of 40° by means of placing inside the channel the flat plate parallel to the deflecting wall are presented in the paper. It is revealed that, at this placement of the plate in the channel, it has a chance to reduce the energy loss by 20%, considerably align the output field of velocities, and decrease the dynamic loads on the walls in the output cross-section. The studied method of resistance reduction and alignment of the fields of velocities in the flat diffuser channels was used for optimization of the reducer from the output diffuser of the gas turbine to the boiler-utilizer of CCGT of PGU-450T type of Kaliningrad Thermal Power Plant-2. The obtained results are evidence that the configuration of the reducer installed in the PGU-450T of Kaliningrad Thermal Power Plant-2 is not optimal. It follows also from the obtained data that working-off the reducer should be necessarily conducted by the test results of the channel consisting of the model of reducer with the model of boiler-utilizer installed behind it. Application of the method of alignment of output field of velocities and reducing the resistance in the wide-angle diffusers investigated in the work made it possible—when using the known model of diffusion
Micro-seismicity and seismic moment release within the Coso Geothermal Field, California
Kaven, Joern; Hickman, Stephen H.; Davatzes, Nicholas C.
2014-01-01
We relocate 16 years of seismicity in the Coso Geothermal Field (CGF) using differential travel times and simultaneously invert for seismic velocities to improve our knowledge of the subsurface geologic and hydrologic structure. We expand on our previous results by doubling the number of relocated events from April 1996 through May 2012 using a new field-wide 3-D velocity model. Relocated micro-seismicity sharpens in many portions of the active geothermal reservoir, likely defining large-scale fault zones and fluid pressure compartment boundaries. However, a significant fraction of seismicity remains diffuse and does not cluster into sharply defined structures, suggesting that permeability is maintained within the reservoir through distributed brittle failure. The seismic velocity structure reveals heterogeneous distributions of compressional (Vp) and shear (Vs) wave speed, with Vs generally higher in the Main Field and East Flank and Vp remaining relatively uniform across the CGF, but with significant local variations. The Vp/Vs ratio appears to outline the two main producing compartments of the reservoir at depths below mean ground level of approximately 1 to 2.5 km, with a ridge of relatively high Vp/Vs separating the Main Field from the East Flank. Detailed analyses of spatial and temporal variations in earthquake relocations and cumulative seismic moment release in the East Flank reveal three regions with persistently high rates of seismic activity. Two of these regions exhibit sharp, stationary boundaries at the margins of the East Flank that likely represent barriers to fluid flow and advective heat transport. However, seismicity and moment release in a third region at the northern end of the East Flank spread over time to form an elongated NE to SW structure, roughly parallel both to an elongated cluster of seismicity at the southern end of the East Flank and to regional fault traces mapped at the surface. Our results indicate that high
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakakita, Hajime; Craig, Darren; Anderson, Jay K.; Chapman, Brett E.; Den-Hartog, Daniel J.; Prager, Stewart C.; Biewer, Ted M.; Terry, Stephen D.
2003-01-01
We report on passive measurements of impurity ion velocities during the pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch. During PPCD, the electron temperature increased and a sudden reduction of magnetic fluctuations was observed. For this change, we have studied whether plasma velocity is affected. Plasma rotation is observed to decrease during PPCD. From measurements of line intensities for several impurities at 10 poloidal chords, it is found that the impurity line emission shifts outward. The ion temperature of impurities is reasonably connected to that measured by charge exchange recombination spectroscopy from core to edge. (author)
McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Lohman, Rowena B.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Goldman, Mark R.
2015-01-01
The Salton Sea Geothermal Field is one of the most geothermally and seismically active areas in California and presents an opportunity to study the effect of high-temperature metamorphism on the properties of seismogenic faults. The area includes numerous active tectonic faults that have recently been imaged with active source seismic reflection and refraction. We utilize the active source surveys, along with the abundant microseismicity data from a dense borehole seismic network, to image the 3-D variations in seismic velocity in the upper 5 km of the crust. There are strong velocity variations, up to ~30%, that correlate spatially with the distribution of shallow heat flow patterns. The combination of hydrothermal circulation and high-temperature contact metamorphism has significantly altered the shallow sandstone sedimentary layers within the geothermal field to denser, more feldspathic, rock with higher P wave velocity, as is seen in the numerous exploration wells within the field. This alteration appears to have a first-order effect on the frictional stability of shallow faults. In 2005, a large earthquake swarm and deformation event occurred. Analysis of interferometric synthetic aperture radar data and earthquake relocations indicates that the shallow aseismic fault creep that occurred in 2005 was localized on the Kalin fault system that lies just outside the region of high-temperature metamorphism. In contrast, the earthquake swarm, which includes all of the M > 4 earthquakes to have occurred within the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in the last 15 years, ruptured the Main Central Fault (MCF) system that is localized in the heart of the geothermal anomaly. The background microseismicity induced by the geothermal operations is also concentrated in the high-temperature regions in the vicinity of operational wells. However, while this microseismicity occurs over a few kilometer scale region, much of it is clustered in earthquake swarms that last from
DEPENDENCE OF THE TURBULENT VELOCITY FIELD ON GAS DENSITY IN L1551
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Atsushi; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Shimajiri, Yoshito; Kawabe, Ryohei
2010-01-01
We have carried out mapping observations of the entire L1551 molecular cloud with about 2 pc x 2 pc size in the 12 CO(1-0) line with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope at the high effective resolution of 22'' (corresponding to 0.017 pc at the distance of 160 pc), and analyzed the 12 CO data together with the 13 CO(1-0) and C 18 O(1-0) data from the Nobeyama Radio Observatory database. We derived the new non-thermal line width-size relations, σ NT ∝ L γ , for the three molecular lines, corrected for the effect of optical depth and the line-of-sight integration. To investigate the characteristic of the intrinsic turbulence, the effects of the outflows were removed. The derived relations are (σ NT /km s -1 ) = (0.18 ± 0.010)(L/pc) 0.45±0.095 , (0.20 ± 0.020)(L/pc) 0.48±0.091 , and (0.22 ± 0.050) (L/pc) 0.54±0.21 for the 12 CO, 13 CO, and C 18 O lines, respectively, suggesting that the line width-size relation of the turbulence very weakly depends on our observed molecular lines, i.e., the relation does not change between the density ranges of 10 2 -10 3 and 10 3 -10 4 cm -3 . In addition, the relations indicate that incompressible turbulence is dominant at the scales smaller than 0.6 pc in L1551. The power spectrum indices converted from the relations, however, seem to be larger than that of the Kolmogorov spectrum for incompressible flow. The disagreement could be explained by the anisotropy in the turbulent velocity field in L1551, as expected in MHD turbulence. Actually, the autocorrelation functions of the centroid velocity fluctuations show larger correlation along the direction of the magnetic field measured for the whole Taurus cloud, which is consistent with the results of numerical simulations for incompressible MHD flow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernard-Michel, G.
2001-01-01
This work follows previous experiments from Nicolai et al. (95), Peysson and Guazzelli (98) and Segre et al. (97), which consisted in measures of the velocity of particles sedimenting in a liquid at low particular Reynolds numbers. Our goal, introduced in the first part with a bibliographic study, is to determinate the particles velocity fluctuations properties. The fluctuations are indeed of the same order as the mean velocity. We are proceeding with PIV Eulerian measures. The method is described in the second part. Its originality comes from measures obtained in a thin laser light sheet, from one side to the other of the cells, with a square section: the measures are therefore spatially localised. Four sets of cells and three sets of particles were used, giving access to ratios 'cell width over particle radius' ranging from about 50 up to 800. In the third part, we present the results concerning the velocity fluctuations structure and their spatial distribution. The intrinsic convection between to parallel vertical walls is also studied. The velocity fluctuations are organised in eddy structures. Their size (measured with correlation length) is independent of the volume fraction, contradicting the results of Segre et al. (97). The results concerning the velocity fluctuations spatial profiles - from one side to the other of the cell - confirm those published by Peysson and Guazzelli (98) in the case of stronger dilution. The evolution of the spatial mean velocity fluctuations confirms the results obtained by Segre et al. (97). The intrinsic convection is also observed in the case of strong dilutions. (author)
Chaotic Bohmian trajectories for stationary states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cesa, Alexandre; Martin, John; Struyve, Ward
2016-01-01
In Bohmian mechanics, the nodes of the wave function play an important role in the generation of chaos. However, so far, most of the attention has been on moving nodes; little is known about the possibility of chaos in the case of stationary nodes. We address this question by considering stationary states, which provide the simplest examples of wave functions with stationary nodes. We provide examples of stationary wave functions for which there is chaos, as demonstrated by numerical computations, for one particle moving in three spatial dimensions and for two and three entangled particles in two dimensions. Our conclusion is that the motion of the nodes is not necessary for the generation of chaos. What is important is the overall complexity of the wave function. That is, if the wave function, or rather its phase, has a complex spatial variation, it will lead to complex Bohmian trajectories and hence to chaos. Another aspect of our work concerns the average Lyapunov exponent, which quantifies the overall amount of chaos. Since it is very hard to evaluate the average Lyapunov exponent analytically, which is often computed numerically, it is useful to have simple quantities that agree well with the average Lyapunov exponent. We investigate possible correlations with quantities such as the participation ratio and different measures of entanglement, for different systems and different families of stationary wave functions. We find that these quantities often tend to correlate to the amount of chaos. However, the correlation is not perfect, because, in particular, these measures do not depend on the form of the basis states used to expand the wave function, while the amount of chaos does. (paper)
Exploitation of a microporous organic polymer as a stationary phase for capillary gas chromatography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu, Cuiming; Liu, Shuqin; Xu, Jianqiao; Ding, Yajuan; Ouyang, Gangfeng, E-mail: cesoygf@mail.sysu.edu.cn
2016-01-01
Microporous organic polymers (MOPs) have emerged as a new class of functional porous materials with unique characteristics and potential uses in diverse areas. However, the field of MOPs for gas chromatographic (GC) separations has not been well explored. Herein, a MOP namely KAPs-1 was dynamic coated onto a capillary column for the first time. The fabricated column exhibited a nonpolar nature and the column efficiency for n-dodecane was up to 7769 plates m{sup −1}. The KAPs-1 coated column showed high GC separation performance for a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including the challenging ethylbenzene and xylene isomers, which could not be resolved at baseline on the commercial 5% phenyl polysiloxane stationary phase. Moreover, the relative standard deviations for five replicate determinations of the studied analytes were 0.0–0.6%, 0.9–3.2%, 1.1–5.9%, 0.8–3.7% for retention time, peak area, peak height and peak width, respectively. To investigate the interaction between some analytes and the stationary phase, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were also evaluated. The results of this study show it is very promising to utilize MOPs as stationary phases for capillary GC. - Highlights: • A microporous organic polymer was explored as a novel stationary phase for capillary GC. • The column showed high separation performance for VOCs including the challenging ethylbenzene and xylene isomers. • Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for BTEXs were determined to study the analyte-stationary phase interaction.
Thin accretion disks in stationary axisymmetric wormhole spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we study the physical properties and the equilibrium thermal radiation emission characteristics of matter forming thin accretion disks in stationary axially symmetric wormhole spacetimes. The thin disk models are constructed by taking different values of the wormhole's angular velocity, and the time averaged energy flux, the disk temperature, and the emission spectra of the accretion disks are obtained. Comparing the mass accretion in a rotating wormhole geometry with the one of a Kerr black hole, we verify that the intensity of the flux emerging from the disk surface is greater for wormholes than for rotating black holes with the same geometrical mass and accretion rate. We also present the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation, and show that the rotating wormholes provide a much more efficient engine for the transformation of the accreting mass into radiation than the Kerr black holes. Therefore specific signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum of thin disks around rotating wormholes, thus leading to the possibility of distinguishing wormhole geometries by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.
Non-stationary and relaxation phenomena in cavity-assisted quantum memories
Veselkova, N. G.; Sokolov, I. V.
2017-12-01
We investigate the non-stationary and relaxation phenomena in cavity-assisted quantum memories for light. As a storage medium we consider an ensemble of cold atoms with standard Lambda-scheme of working levels. Some theoretical aspects of the problem were treated previously by many authors, and recent experiments stimulate more deep insight into the ultimate ability and limitations of the device. Since quantum memories can be used not only for the storage of quantum information, but also for a substantial manipulation of ensembles of quantum states, the speed of such manipulation and hence the ability to write and retrieve the signals of relatively short duration becomes important. In our research we do not apply the so-called bad cavity limit, and consider the memory operation of the signals whose duration is not much larger than the cavity field lifetime, accounting also for the finite lifetime of atomic coherence. In our paper we present an effective approach that makes it possible to find the non-stationary amplitude and phase behavior of strong classical control field, that matches the desirable time profile of both the envelope and the phase of the retrieved quantized signal. The phase properties of the retrieved quantized signals are of importance for the detection and manipulation of squeezing, entanglement, etc by means of optical mixing and homodyning.
A constant velocity Moessbauer spectrometer free of long-term instrumental drifts in the count rate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarma, P.R.; Sharma, A.K.; Tripathi, K.C.
1979-01-01
Two new control circuits to be used with a constant velocity Moessbauer spectrometer with a loud-speaker drive have been described. The wave-forms generated in the circuits are of the stair-case type instead of the usual square wave-form, so that in each oscillation of the source it remains stationary for a fraction of the time-period. The gamma-rays counted during this period are monitored along with the positive and negative velocity counts and are used to correct any fluctuation in the count rate by feeding these pulses into the timer. The associated logic circuits have been described and the statistical errors involved in the circuits have been computed. (auth.)
A Low-Cost "Stationary Eye" in the Sky
Koch, R.; Lande, K.; Mitchell, R.; Wildenhain, P.; Hoang, N.; Langford, J.
1997-12-01
We are developing a stationary, near the top of the atmosphere, astronomical observing system. The platform is a high altitude robotic aircraft (THESEUS) flying in anti-sense to Earth's rotation at a latitude where the plane's speed closely matches the local ground spin velocity. Thus, either an extended day or night viewing program of a given object can be achieved. Our intention here concentrates on astronomical targets. The system consists of the following components. (1) A low cost robotic aircraft that can fly at an altitude of about 25 km. for 30 to 40 hours with differential GPS navigation. Real time control of the aircraft and the observing instruments is either by on-board computer or from the ground via low altitude, commercial satellite communications systems (Iridium, Teledesic, etc.). (2) A siderostat-fed telescope of small f-ratio is attached to the aircraft via critically damped mechanical isolators. An electronic camera at the prime focus looks at a chosen astronomical target. (3) Image smear due to aircraft engine vibration will be eliminated by a combination of critically damped mechanical isolators and electronic CCD pixel jogging. Very precise piezo- electric driven transverse translation of the CCD camera will be used to compensate for wind induced drift of the image on the focal plane. Bright field stars will be used to drive the stabilizing system. (4) Data are stored on high capacity ruggedized hard drives similar to that used by the Mars Lander. The Aurora THESEUS aircraft, whose design is based upon earlier models, is under development. The image stabilizing system components have been identified. An off-the-shelf data-storage device has been chosen. A first prototype telescope has been built and tested. Other optical configurations are possible and collaborators will be welcomed.
Relatores, Nicole C.; Newman, Andrew B.; Simon, Joshua D.; Ellis, Richard; Truong, Phuongmai N.; Blitz, Leo
2018-01-01
We present high quality Hα velocity fields for a sample of nearby dwarf galaxies (log M/M⊙ = 8.4-9.8) obtained as part of the Dark Matter in Dwarf Galaxies survey. The purpose of the survey is to investigate the cusp-core discrepancy by quantifying the variation of the inner slope of the dark matter distributions of 26 dwarf galaxies, which were selected as likely to have regular kinematics. The data were obtained with the Palomar Cosmic Web Imager, located on the Hale 5m telescope. We extract rotation curves from the velocity fields and use optical and infrared photometry to model the stellar mass distribution. We model the total mass distribution as the sum of a generalized Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo along with the stellar and gaseous components. We present the distribution of inner dark matter density profile slopes derived from this analysis. For a subset of galaxies, we compare our results to an independent analysis based on CO observations. In future work, we will compare the scatter in inner density slopes, as well as their correlations with galaxy properties, to theoretical predictions for dark matter core creation via supernovae feedback.
4. Workshop - Measurement techniques of stationary and transient multiphase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prasser, H.M. (ed.)
2001-05-01
In November 2000, the 4th Workshop on Measurement Techniques for Stationary and Transient Multiphase Flows took place in Rossendorf. Three previous workshops of this series were national meetings; this time participants from different countries took part. The programme comprised 14 oral presentations, 9 of which are included in these proceedings in full length. A special highlight of the meeting was the main lecture ''Ultrasonic doppler method for bubbly flow measurement'' of Professor Masanori Aritomi, Dr. Hiroshige Kikura and Dr. Yumiko Suzuki. The workshop again dealt with high-resolution phase distribution and phase velocity measurement techniques based on electrical conductivity, ultrasound, laser light and high-speed cinematography. A number of presentations were dedicated to the application of wire-mesh sensors developed by FZR for different applications used by the Technical Universities of Delft and Munich and the Tokyo Institute of Technology. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanderson, T.K. [Future Energy Solutions, Harwell (United Kingdom)
2005-07-01
This report presents updated conclusions of the Department of Trade and Industry's research and development programme to assess the commercial prospects for advanced fuel cells in stationary power and combined heat and power (CHP) systems. The programme has focussed on low temperature solid polymer fuel cells (SPFCs) for transport and combined heat and power (CHP)/distributed power and high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) for CHP/distributed power. As well as assessing the prospects for SPFCs and SOFCs in stationary power and CHP applications, the report examines those for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) and phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs). The report provides an assessment of the status of technology development for these different types of fuel cells in terms of applications to stationary power and CHP, and offers estimates of market potential for SOFCs in CHP markets, SPFCs in CHP markets and SOFCs in distributed power generation markets. Both large SPFC and SOFC CHP systems require further development to deliver the necessary cost reductions in materials and manufacturing processes before pre-commercial sales can begin. The routes taken by different manufacturers and their choice of preferred technology are explained. A discussion of the prospects and barriers for fuel cell cars concludes that while cost reduction is a major barrier to the successful commercialisation of fuel cells, there are insufficient data available from operating fuel cells systems (other than PAFC) in stationary power and CHP applications to assess the economic attractiveness of fuel cells compared with existing systems. More field trials are required to confirm energy and environmental performance in such applications and to evaluate operational and economic performance under commercial operating conditions. Such field trials could also provide a focus for the required developments in fuel cells for stationary power/CHP systems.
Evaluation of StereoPIV Measurement of Droplet Velocity in an Effervescent Spray
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sina Ghaemi
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Particle image velocimetry (PIV is a well known technique for measuring the instantaneous velocity field of flows. However, error may be introduced when measuring the velocity field of sprays using this technique when the spray droplets are used as the seed particles. In this study, the effect of droplet number density, droplet velocity profile, and droplet size distribution of a spray produced by an effervescent atomizer on velocity measurement using a StereoPIV has been investigated. A shadowgraph-particle tracking velocimetry (S-PTV system provided measurement of droplet size and velocity for comparison. This investigation demonstrated that the StereoPIV under-estimates velocity at near-field dense spray region where measurement accuracy is limited by multi-scattering of the laser sheet. In the dilute far-field region of the spray, StereoPIV measurement is mostly in agreement with velocity of the droplet size-class which is close to the mean diameter based on droplet number frequency times droplet cross sectional area.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Revai, Janos.
1988-10-01
A model was attempted to construct which, on one hand, is flexible enough to imitate certain physical properties of real systems and, on the other hand, allows exact solution of its time dependent dynamics. This double goal is proposed to achieve by using separable interactions. A particle moving in an external field consisting of a stationary attractive and a time dependent repulsive part is proposed for the model in question. Due to the use of separable interactions, the time evolution dynamics can be solved exactly, and the model can be applied for studying time evolution of quasi-stationary states. (R.P.) 7 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van de Wyer, Nicolas; Schram, Christophe [von Karman Institute For Fluids Dynamic (Belgium); Van Dyck, Dries; Dierckx, Marc [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (Belgium)
2015-07-01
SCK.CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Center, is developing MYRRHA, a generation IV liquid metal cooled nuclear research reactor. As the liquid metal coolant is opaque to light, normal visual feedback during fuel manipulations is not available and must therefore be replaced by a system that is not hindered by the opacity of the coolant. In this respect ultrasonic based instrumentation is under development at SCK.CEN to provide feedback during operations under liquid metal. One of the tasks that will be tackled using ultrasound is the detection and localization of a potentially lost fuel assembly. In this application, the distance between ultrasonic sensor and target may be as large as 2.5 m. At these distances, non uniform velocity and temperature fields in the liquid metal potentially influence the propagation of the ultrasonic signals, affecting the performance of the ultrasonic systems. In this paper, we investigate how relevant temperature and velocity gradients inside the liquid metal influence the propagation of ultrasonic waves. The effect of temperature and velocity gradients are simulated by means of a newly developed numerical ray-tracing model. The performance of the model is validated by dedicated water experiments. The setup is capable of creating velocity and temperature gradients representative for MYRRHA conditions. Once validated in water, the same model is used to make predictions for the effect of gradients in the MYRRHA liquid metal environment. (authors)
Force-free magnetic fields - The magneto-frictional method
Yang, W. H.; Sturrock, P. A.; Antiochos, S. K.
1986-01-01
The problem under discussion is that of calculating magnetic field configurations in which the Lorentz force j x B is everywhere zero, subject to specified boundary conditions. We choose to represent the magnetic field in terms of Clebsch variables in the form B = grad alpha x grad beta. These variables are constant on any field line so that each field line is labeled by the corresponding values of alpha and beta. When the field is described in this way, the most appropriate choice of boundary conditions is to specify the values of alpha and beta on the bounding surface. We show that such field configurations may be calculated by a magneto-frictional method. We imagine that the field lines move through a stationary medium, and that each element of magnetic field is subject to a frictional force parallel to and opposing the velocity of the field line. This concept leads to an iteration procedure for modifying the variables alpha and beta, that tends asymptotically towards the force-free state. We apply the method first to a simple problem in two rectangular dimensions, and then to a problem of cylindrical symmetry that was previously discussed by Barnes and Sturrock (1972). In one important respect, our new results differ from the earlier results of Barnes and Sturrock, and we conclude that the earlier article was in error.
Linear spin-zero quantum fields in external gravitational and scalar fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kay, B.S.
1977-10-01
Mathematically rigorous results are given on the quantization of the covariant Klein-Gordon field with an external stationary scalar interaction in a stationary curved space-time. It is shown how, following Segal, Weinless etc., the problem reduces to finding a ''one-particle structure'' for the corresponding classical system. The main result is an existence theorem for such a one-particle structure for a precisely specified class of stationary space-times. Byproducts of our approach are (1)a discussion of when the equal-time hypersurfaces in a given stationary space-time are Cauchy; (2)a proof that when a one-particle structure exists it is unique a result of general interest for the quantization of linear systems; (3)a modification and extension of the methods of Chernoff [3] for proving the essential self-adjointness of ceratin partial differential operators
The stationary neutron radiography system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weeks, A.A.; Newell, D.L.; Heidel, C.C.
1990-01-01
To provide the high intensity neutron beam and support systems necessary for radiography, the Stationary Neutron Radiography System was constructed at McClellan Air Force Base. The Stationary Neutron Radiography System utilizes a one megawatt TRIGA reactor contained in an Aluminium tank surrounded by eight foot thick concrete walls. There are four neutron beam tubes at inclined angles from the reactor core to separate radiography bays. In three of the bays, robotic systems manipulate aircraft components in the neutron beam, while real-time imaging systems provide images concurrent with the irradiation. Film radiography of smaller components is performed in the remaining bay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiori, E.
2010-12-01
Magnetic moments can provide deep insight for nuclear structure and of the wave function composition, particularly when the single particle character of the nucleus is dominating. For this reason, the magnetic moment of the first excited state of the radioactive neutron-rich 72 Zn was measured at the GANIL facility (Caen, France). The result of the experiment confirmed the trend predicted by the shell model calculations, even if the error on the measurement did not allow for a rigorous constraint of the theories. The measurement was performed using the transient field (TF) technique and the nuclei of interest were produced in a fragmentation reaction. Before this experiment, the high-velocity TF (HVTF) technique had been used only with projectile up to Z = 24. It was the first time that a magnetic moment of an heavy ion with Z > 24 was measured in the high velocity regime. To further develop the technique and to gather information about the hyperfine interaction between the polarized electrons and the nucleons, two experiments were performed at LNS (Catania, Italy). In this thesis the development of the high-velocity TF technique for the experiments on g(2 + ; 72 Zn) and field strength B TF (Kr, Ge) is presented. The analysis of the results and their interpretation is then discussed. It was demonstrated that the HVTF technique, combined with Coulomb excitation, can be used for the measurement of g-factors of very short-lived states, with lifetimes of the order of tens of ps and lower, of heavy ions (A ∼ 80) traveling with intermediate relativistic speeds, β ∼ 0.25. The standard TF technique at low velocities (a few percent of the speed of light) has been used for a long time to provide the strong magnetic field necessary for the measurement of g-factors of very short-lived states. The breakthrough of the present development is the different velocity regime of the higher mass projectile under which the experiment is carried out
Velocity field in the wake of a hydropower farm equipped with Achard turbines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Georgescu, A-M; Cosoiu, C I; Alboiu, N; Hamzu, Al; Georgescu, S C
2010-01-01
The study consists of experimental and numerical investigations related to the water flow in the wake of a hydropower farm, equipped with three Achard turbines. The Achard turbine is a French concept of vertical axis cross-flow marine current turbine, with three vertical delta-blades, which operates irrespective of the water flow direction. A farm model built at 1:5 scale has been tested in a water channel. The Achard turbines run in stabilized current, so the flow can be assumed to be almost unchanged in horizontal planes along the vertical z-axis, thus allowing 2D numerical modelling, for different farm configurations: the computational domain is a cross-section of all turbines at a certain z-level. The two-dimensional numerical model of that farm has been used to depict the velocity field in the wake of the farm, with COMSOL Multiphysics and FLUENT software, to compute numerically the overall farm efficiency. The validation of the numerical models with experimental results is performed via the measurement of velocity distribution, by Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry, in the wake of the middle turbine within the farm. Three basic configurations were studied experimentally and numerically, namely: with all turbines aligned on a row across the upstream flow direction; with turbines in an isosceles triangular arrangement pointing downstream; with turbines in an isosceles triangular arrangement pointing upstream. As long as the numerical flow in the wake fits the experiments, the numerical results for the power coefficient (turbine efficiency) are trustworthy. The farm configuration with all turbines aligned on a same row leads to lower values of the experimental velocities than the numerical ones, while the farm configurations where the turbines are in isosceles triangular arrangement, pointing downstream or upstream, present a better match between numerical and experimental data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muehlbauer, P.
1981-08-01
Experience is described gained with the application of computer code VELASCO in calculating the velocity field in fast reactor fuel assemblies taking into account configuration disturbances due to fuel pin displacement. Theoretical results are compared with the results of experiments conducted by UJV on aerodynamic models HEM-1 (model of the fuel assembly central part) and HEM-2 (model of the fuel assembly peripheral part). The results are reported of calculating the distribution of shear stress in wetted rod surfaces and in the assembly wall (model HEM-2) and the corresponding experimental results are shown. The shear stress distribution in wetted surfaces obtained using the VELASCO code allowed forming an opinion on the code capability of comprising local parameters of turbulent flow through a fuel rod bundle. The applicability was also tested of the code for calculating mean velocities in the individual zones, eg., in elementary cells. (B.S.)
A Result on the Existence and Uniqueness of Stationary Solutions for a Bioconvective Flow Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aníbal Coronel
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In this note, we prove the existence and uniqueness of weak solutions for the boundary value problem modelling the stationary case of the bioconvective flow problem. The bioconvective model is a boundary value problem for a system of four equations: the nonlinear Stokes equation, the incompressibility equation, and two transport equations. The unknowns of the model are the velocity of the fluid, the pressure of the fluid, the local concentration of microorganisms, and the oxygen concentration. We derive some appropriate a priori estimates for the weak solution, which implies the existence, by application of Gossez theorem, and the uniqueness by standard methodology of comparison of two arbitrary solutions.
The Ring of Fire for in-Field Sport Aerodynamic Investigation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Spoelstra
2018-02-01
Full Text Available A novel measurement system, the Ring of Fire, is deployed which enables the aerodynamic drag estimation of transiting cyclists. The system relies upon the use of large-scale stereoscopic PIV and the conservation of momentum within a control volume in a frame of reference moving with the athlete. The rider cycles at a velocity of approximately 8 m/s, corresponding to a torso based Reynolds number of 3.2 × 105. The measurements upstream and in the wake of the athlete are conducted at a rate of 2 kHz within a measurement plane of approximately 1000 × 1700 mm2. The non-dimensional, ensemble-averaged streamwise velocity fields compare well to literature and the ensemble-averaged drag area shows a rather constant value along the wake with an uncertainty of 5%. A comparison with wind tunnel force balance measurements shows discrepancies which may be partly attributed to the bike supports and stationary floor in the wind tunnel measurements. The 25% drag difference measured between a rider in upright and time-trial position, however, matches literature well.
A generalized formulation for noise-based seismic velocity change measurements
Gómez-García, C.; Brenguier, F.; Boué, P.; Shapiro, N.; Droznin, D.; Droznina, S.; Senyukov, S.; Gordeev, E.
2017-12-01
The observation of continuous seismic velocity changes is a powerful tool for detecting seasonal variations in crustal structure, volcanic unrest, co- and post-seismic evolution of stress in fault areas or the effects of fluid injection. The standard approach for measuring such velocity changes relies on comparison of travel times in the coda of a set of seismic signals, usually noise-based cross-correlations retrieved at different dates, and a reference trace, usually a averaged function over dates. A good stability in both space and time of the noise sources is then the main assumption for reliable measurements. Unfortunately, these conditions are often not fulfilled, as it happens when ambient-noise sources are non-stationary, such as the emissions of low-frequency volcanic tremors.We propose a generalized formulation for retrieving continuous time series of noise-based seismic velocity changes without any arbitrary reference cross-correlation function. We set up a general framework for future applications of this technique performing synthetic tests. In particular, we study the reliability of the retrieved velocity changes in case of seasonal-type trends, transient effects (similar to those produced as a result of an earthquake or a volcanic eruption) and sudden velocity drops and recoveries as the effects of transient local source emissions. Finally, we apply this approach to a real dataset of noise cross-correlations. We choose the Klyuchevskoy volcanic group (Kamchatka) as a case study where the recorded wavefield is hampered by loss of data and dominated by strongly localized volcanic tremor sources. Despite the mentioned wavefield contaminations, we retrieve clear seismic velocity drops associated with the eruptions of the Klyuchevskoy an the Tolbachik volcanoes in 2010 and 2012, respectively.
Near field acoustic holography with particle velocity transducers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Finn; Liu, Yang
2005-01-01
of the pressure measured in a plane further away, high spatial frequency components corresponding to evanescent modes are not only amplified by the distance but also by the wave number ratio (kz/k). By contrast, when the pressure is predicted close to the source on the basis of the particle velocity measured...
Diagnostics of a stationary MPD-type plasma jet with a HCN laser interferometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graser, W.; Hoffmann, P.
1975-01-01
A HCN laser interferometer of the Ashby-Jephcott type operating at a wavelength of 337 μm was used to measure spatially resolved electron densities in a stationary MPD-type plasma jet with non-LTE behavior. Experiments were performed with and without superimposed magnetic fields up to 0.1 T at the exit of the plasma accelerator. Electron densities were obtained within the limits of 5times10 12 and 10 15 cm -3 with an accuracy better than 10%. Within the axially symmetric expanding plasma of about 15-cm average diameter and 50-cm length the radial resolving power came to less than 1 cm. So this technique has proved to be suitable to fill a gap in the diagnostics of stationary magnetized plasmas in the mean range of electron densities. (auth)
Cosmological streaming velocities and large-scale density maxima
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peacock, J.A.; Lumsden, S.L.; Heavens, A.F.
1987-01-01
The statistical testing of models for galaxy formation against the observed peculiar velocities on 10-100 Mpc scales is considered. If it is assumed that observers are likely to be sited near maxima in the primordial field of density perturbations, then the observed filtered velocity field will be biased to low values by comparison with a point selected at random. This helps to explain how the peculiar velocities (relative to the microwave background) of the local supercluster and the Rubin-Ford shell can be so similar in magnitude. Using this assumption to predict peculiar velocities on two scales, we test models with large-scale damping (i.e. adiabatic perturbations). Allowed models have a damping length close to the Rubin-Ford scale and are mildly non-linear. Both purely baryonic universes and universes dominated by massive neutrinos can account for the observed velocities, provided 0.1 ≤ Ω ≤ 1. (author)
Vector blood velocity estimation in medical ultrasound
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gran, Fredrik; Udesen, Jesper
2006-01-01
Two methods for making vector velocity estimation in medical ultrasound are presented. All of the techniques can find both the axial and transverse velocity in the image and can be used for displaying both the correct velocity magnitude and direction. The first method uses a transverse oscillation...... in the ultrasound field to find the transverse velocity. In-vivo examples from the carotid artery are shown, where complex turbulent flow is found in certain parts of the cardiac cycle. The second approach uses directional beam forming along the flow direction to estimate the velocity magnitude. Using a correlation...... search can also yield the direction, and the full velocity vector is thereby found. An examples from a flow rig is shown....
Fernandez, M. A.; Covey, Kevin R.; De Lee, Nathan; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Nidever, David; Ballantyne, Richard; Cottaar, Michiel; Da Rio, Nicola; Foster, Jonathan B.; Majewski, Steven R.; Meyer, Michael R.; Reyna, A. M.; Roberts, G. W.; Skinner, Jacob; Stassun, Keivan; Tan, Jonathan C.; Troup, Nicholas; Zasowski, Gail
2017-08-01
We present radial velocity measurements for 70 high confidence, and 34 potential binary systems in fields containing the Perseus Molecular Cloud, Pleiades, NGC 2264, and the Orion A star-forming region. Eighteen of these systems have been previously identified as binaries in the literature. Candidate double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2s) are identified by analyzing the cross-correlation functions (CCFs) computed during the reduction of each APOGEE spectrum. We identify sources whose CCFs are well fit as the sum of two Lorentzians as likely binaries, and provide an initial characterization of the system based on the radial velocities indicated by that dual fit. For systems observed over several epochs, we present mass ratios and systemic velocities; for two systems with observations on eight or more epochs, and which meet our criteria for robust orbital coverage, we derive initial orbital parameters. The distribution of mass ratios for multi-epoch sources in our sample peaks at q = 1, but with a significant tail toward lower q values. Tables reporting radial velocities, systemic velocities, and mass ratios are provided online. We discuss future improvements to the radial velocity extraction method we employ, as well as limitations imposed by the number of epochs currently available in the APOGEE database. The Appendix contains brief notes from the literature on each system in the sample, and more extensive notes for select sources of interest.
New lube oil for stationary heavy fuel engines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-12-01
An extensively field-tested diesel engine lubricating oil for medium speed, heavy fuel stationary engine applications has been introduced by Caltex Petroleum, in Dallas, Texas. The new oil is similar to a product developed and marketed for marine medium speed heavy fuel propulsion and auxillary engine applications by one of its two parent companies, Chevron. Detailed are results of two field evaluations in Caterpillar 3600 series engines installed at Kimberly Clark (KCPI) and Sime Darby (SDPI), both in the Philippines. Both were one year, 7000-plus hour field evaluations of a new, 40 BN trunk piston engine oil (TPEO), identified as Caltex Delo 3400, SAE 40 engine lube oil. The oil uses the new Phenalate additive technology developed by Chevron Chemical Company`s Oronite Additives Division. This technology is designed to improve engine cleanliness in regard to soft black sludge and piston deposits. The focus of the field evaluations was the performance of the lubricating oil. During controlled tests at Sime Darby, the most noticeable improvement over another technology was in the control of sludge deposits. This improvement was seen in all areas where black sludge forms, such as the rocker cover, crankcase cover and valve assemblies. 4 figs.
Governing equations for a seriated continuum: an unequal velocity model for two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solbrig, C.W.; Hughes, E.D.
1975-05-01
The description of the flow of two-phase fluids is important in many engineering devices. Unexpected transient conditions which occur in these devices cannot, in general, be treated with single-component momentum equations. Instead, the use of momentum equations for each phase is necessary in order to describe the varied transient situations which can occur. These transient conditions can include phases moving in the opposite directions, such as steam moving upward and liquid moving downward, as well as phases moving in the same direction. The derivation of continuity and momentum equations for each phase and an overall energy equation for the mixture are presented. Terms describing interphase forces are described. A seriated (series of) continuum is distinguished from an interpenetrating medium by the representation of interphase friction with velocity differences in the former and velocity gradients in the latter. The seriated continuum also considers imbedded stationary solid surfaces such as occur in nuclear reactor cores. These stationary surfaces are taken into account with source terms. Sufficient constitutive equations are presented to form a complete set of equations. Methods are presented to show that all these coefficients are determinable from microscopic models and well known experimental results. Comparison of the present deviation with previous work is also given. The equations derived here may also be employed in certain multiphase, multicomponent flow applications. (U.S.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Johan Debayle
2011-05-01
Full Text Available An image analysis method has been developed in order to compute the velocity field of a granular medium (sand grains, mean diameter 600 μm submitted to different kinds of mechanical stresses. The differential method based on optical flow conservation consists in describing a dense motion field with vectors associated to each pixel. A multiscale, coarse-to-fine, analytical approach through tailor sized windows yields the best compromise between accuracy and robustness of the results, while enabling an acceptable computation time. The corresponding algorithmis presented and its validation discussed through different tests. The results of the validation tests of the proposed approach show that the method is satisfactory when attributing specific values to parameters in association with the size of the image analysis window. An application in the case of vibrated sand has been studied. An instrumented laboratory device provides sinusoidal vibrations and enables external optical observations of sand motion in 3D transparent boxes. At 50 Hz, by increasing the relative acceleration G, the onset and development of two convective rolls can be observed. An ultra fast camera records the grain avalanches, and several pairs of images are analysed by the proposed method. The vertical velocity profiles are deduced and allow to precisely quantify the dimensions of the fluidized region as a function of G.
Non-stationary condition monitoring through event alignment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Larsen, Jan
2004-01-01
We present an event alignment framework which enables change detection in non-stationary signals. change detection. Classical condition monitoring frameworks have been restrained to laboratory settings with stationary operating conditions, which are not resembling real world operation....... In this paper we apply the technique for non-stationary condition monitoring of large diesel engines based on acoustical emission sensor signals. The performance of the event alignment is analyzed in an unsupervised probabilistic detection framework based on outlier detection with either Principal Component...... Analysis or Gaussian Processes modeling. We are especially interested in the true performance of the condition monitoring performance with mixed aligned and unaligned data, e.g. detection of fault condition of unaligned examples versus false alarms of aligned normal condition data. Further, we expect...
A novel model and behavior analysis for a swarm of multi-agent systems with finite velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Liang-Shun; Wu Zhi-Hai
2014-01-01
Inspired by the fact that in most existing swarm models of multi-agent systems the velocity of an agent can be infinite, which is not in accordance with the real applications, we propose a novel swarm model of multi-agent systems where the velocity of an agent is finite. The Lyapunov function method and LaSalle's invariance principle are employed to show that by using the proposed model all of the agents eventually enter into a bounded region around the swarm center and finally tend to a stationary state. Numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Huang, Weilin; Wang, Runqiu; Chen, Yangkang
2018-05-01
Microseismic signal is typically weak compared with the strong background noise. In order to effectively detect the weak signal in microseismic data, we propose a mathematical morphology based approach. We decompose the initial data into several morphological multiscale components. For detection of weak signal, a non-stationary weighting operator is proposed and introduced into the process of reconstruction of data by morphological multiscale components. The non-stationary weighting operator can be obtained by solving an inversion problem. The regularized non-stationary method can be understood as a non-stationary matching filtering method, where the matching filter has the same size as the data to be filtered. In this paper, we provide detailed algorithmic descriptions and analysis. The detailed algorithm framework, parameter selection and computational issue for the regularized non-stationary morphological reconstruction (RNMR) method are presented. We validate the presented method through a comprehensive analysis through different data examples. We first test the proposed technique using a synthetic data set. Then the proposed technique is applied to a field project, where the signals induced from hydraulic fracturing are recorded by 12 three-component geophones in a monitoring well. The result demonstrates that the RNMR can improve the detectability of the weak microseismic signals. Using the processed data, the short-term-average over long-term average picking algorithm and Geiger's method are applied to obtain new locations of microseismic events. In addition, we show that the proposed RNMR method can be used not only in microseismic data but also in reflection seismic data to detect the weak signal. We also discussed the extension of RNMR from 1-D to 2-D or a higher dimensional version.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
La Pointe, P.R.
1994-11-01
This report describes the comparison of stationary and non-stationary geostatistical models for the purpose of inferring block-scale hydraulic conductivity values from packer tests at Aespoe. The comparison between models is made through the evaluation of cross-validation statistics for three experimental designs. The first experiment consisted of a 'Delete-1' test previously used at Finnsjoen. The second test consisted of 'Delete-10%' and the third test was a 'Delete-50%' test. Preliminary data analysis showed that the 3 m and 30 m packer test data can be treated as a sample from a single population for the purposes of geostatistical analyses. Analysis of the 3 m data does not indicate that there are any systematic statistical changes with depth, rock type, fracture zone vs non-fracture zone or other mappable factor. Directional variograms are ambiguous to interpret due to the clustered nature of the data, but do not show any obvious anisotropy that should be accounted for in geostatistical analysis. Stationary analysis suggested that there exists a sizeable spatially uncorrelated component ('Nugget Effect') in the 3 m data, on the order of 60% of the observed variance for the various models fitted. Four different nested models were automatically fit to the data. Results for all models in terms of cross-validation statistics were very similar for the first set of validation tests. Non-stationary analysis established that both the order of drift and the order of the intrinsic random functions is low. This study also suggests that conventional cross-validation studies and automatic variogram fitting are not necessarily evaluating how well a model will infer block scale hydraulic conductivity values. 20 refs, 20 figs, 14 tabs
Bartelmus, Walter; Chaari, Fakher; Zimroz, Radoslaw; Haddar, Mohamed
2012-01-01
Condition monitoring of machines in non-stationary operations (CMMNO) can be seen as the major challenge for research in the field of machinery diagnostics. Condition monitoring of machines in non-stationary operations is the title of the presented book and the title of the Conference held in Hammamet - Tunisia March 26 – 28, 2012. It is the second conference under this title, first took place in Wroclaw - Poland , March 2011. The subject CMMNO comes directly from industry needs and observation of real objects. Most monitored and diagnosed objects used in industry works in non-stationary operations condition. The non-stationary operations come from fulfillment of machinery tasks, for which they are designed for. All machinery used in different kind of mines, transport systems, vehicles like: cars, buses etc, helicopters, ships and battleships and so on work in non-stationary operations. The papers included in the book are shaped by the organizing board of the conference and authors of the papers. The papers...
Influence of Stationary Crossflow Modulation on Secondary Instability
Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Paredes, Pedro
2016-01-01
A likely scenario for swept wing transition on subsonic aircraft with natural laminar flow involves the breakdown of stationary crossflow vortices via high frequency secondary instability. A majority of the prior research on this secondary instability has focused on crossflow vortices with a single dominant spanwise wavelength. This paper investigates the effects of the spanwise modulation of stationary crossflow vortices at a specified wavelength by a subharmonic stationary mode. Secondary instability of the modulated crossflow pattern is studied using planar, partial-differential-equation based eigenvalue analysis. Computations reveal that weak modulation by the first subharmonic of the input stationary mode leads to mode splitting that is particularly obvious for Y-type secondary modes that are driven by the wall-normal shear of the basic state. Thus, for each Y mode corresponding to the fundamental wavelength of results in unmodulated train of crossflow vortices, the modulated flow supports a pair of secondary modes with somewhat different amplification rates. The mode splitting phenomenon suggests that a more complex stationary modulation such as that induced by natural surface roughness would yield a considerably richer spectrum of secondary instability modes. Even modest levels of subharmonic modulation are shown to have a strong effect on the overall amplification of secondary disturbances, particularly the Z-modes driven by the spanwise shear of the basic state. Preliminary computations related to the nonlinear breakdown of these secondary disturbances provide interesting insights into the process of crossflow transition in the presence of the first subharmonic of the dominant stationary vortex.
Sabiniarz, Patrick; Kropp, Wolfgang
2010-07-01
Although tyre/road noise has been a research subject for more than three decades, there is still no consensus in the literature as to which waves on a tyre are mainly responsible for the radiation of sound during rolling. Even the free vibrational behaviour of a stationary (non-rotating) tyre, not in contact with the ground, is still not well understood in the mid- and high-frequency ranges. Thus, gaining an improved understanding of this behaviour is a natural first step towards illuminating the question of which waves on a rolling tyre contribute to sound radiation. This is the topic of the present paper, in which a model based on the waveguide finite element method (WFEM) is used to study free wave propagation, on a stationary tyre, in the range 0-1500 Hz. In the low-frequency region (0-300 Hz), wave propagation is found to be rather straightforward, with two main wave-types present. Both have cross-section modes involving a nearly rigid motion of the belt. For higher frequencies (300-1500 Hz) the behaviour is more complex, including phenomena such as 'curve veering' and waves for which the phase speed and group speed have opposite signs. Wave-types identified in this region include (i) waves involving mainly sidewall deformation, (ii) belt bending waves, (iii) a wave with significant extensional deformation of the central belt region and (iv) a wave with a 'breathing' cross-section mode. The phase speed corresponding to found waves is computed and their radiation efficiency is discussed, assuming free-field conditions. In a future publication, the tyre model will be used in conjunction with a contact model and a radiation model to investigate the contribution of these waves to radiated sound during rolling.
Steady electric fields and currents elementary electromagnetic theory
Chirgwin, B H; Kilmister, C W
2013-01-01
Steady Electric Fields and Currents, Volume 1 is an introductory text to electromagnetism and potential theory. This book starts with the fields associated with stationary charges and unravels the stationary condition to allow consideration of the flow of steady currents in closed circuits. The opening chapter discusses the experimental results that require mathematical explanation and discussion, particularly those referring to phenomena that question the validity of the simple Newtonian concepts of space and time. The subsequent chapters consider steady-state fields, electrostatics, dielectr
Electron drift velocity in SF{sub 6} in strong electric fields determined from rf breakdown curves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lisovskiy, V; Yegorenkov, V [Department of Physics and Technology, Kharkov National University, Svobody sq.4, Kharkov 61077 (Ukraine); Booth, J-P [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau 91128 (France); Landry, K [Unaxis Displays Division France SAS, 5, Rue Leon Blum, Palaiseau 91120 (France); Douai, D [Physical Sciences Division, Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research, CEA Centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Cassagne, V, E-mail: lisovskiy@yahoo.co [Developpement Photovoltaique Couches Minces, Total, 2, place Jean Millier, La Defense 6, 92400 Courbevoie (France)
2010-09-29
This paper presents measurements of the electron drift velocity V{sub dr} in SF{sub 6} gas for high reduced electric fields (E/N = 330-5655 Td (1 Td = 10{sup -17} V cm{sup 2})). The drift velocities were obtained using the method of Lisovskiy and Yegorenkov (1998 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 31 3349) based on the determination of the pressure and voltage of the turning points of rf capacitive discharge breakdown curves for a range of electrode spacings. The V{sub dr} values thus obtained were in good agreement with those calculated from the cross-sections of Phelps and Van Brunt (1988 J. Appl. Phys. 64 4269) using the BOLSIG code. The validity of the Lisovskiy-Yegorenkov method is discussed and we show that it is applicable over the entire E/N range where rf discharge ignition at breakdown occurs for rf frequencies of 13.56 MHz or above.
Morphology and velocity field of the large flare on the solar disc on July 14, 1980
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xuan, J.; Li, Z.
1982-01-01
The active region morphology and the features of solar radio bursts and the sight-line velocity distribution of a flare of importance 3B on the solar disk (AR 2562) on July 14, 1980, are discussed. The preliminary analysis made here suggests that measurement of the velocity fields of active regions is important in treating flare mechanisms. It is noted that a few hours before the eruption of the flare, the penumbral fibers of the sunspots on the corresponding photospheric part under the flare rapidly attenuated. It is thought that the instability of the flare may derive from the rapid changes occurring in the magnetic boundary conditions of the photosphere. These in turn denote the rapid emergence, subsidence, or dissipation of the magnetic flux. The spectra of the active filament in the later period of the flare are seen as indicating that most of the ejection matter was rolling, in addition to ascending or descending
Algebraic structure of general electromagnetic fields and energy flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hacyan, Shahen
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Algebraic structure of general electromagnetic fields in stationary spacetime. → Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the electomagnetic field tensor. → Energy-momentum in terms of eigenvectors and Killing vector. → Explicit form of reference frame with vanishing Poynting vector. → Application of formalism to Bessel beams. - Abstract: The algebraic structures of a general electromagnetic field and its energy-momentum tensor in a stationary space-time are analyzed. The explicit form of the reference frame in which the energy of the field appears at rest is obtained in terms of the eigenvectors of the electromagnetic tensor and the existing Killing vector. The case of a stationary electromagnetic field is also studied and a comparison is made with the standard short-wave approximation. The results can be applied to the general case of a structured light beams, in flat or curved spaces. Bessel beams are worked out as example.
Gillard, Frédéric; Ferrec, Yann; Guérineau, Nicolas; Rommeluère, Sylvain; Taboury, Jean; Chavel, Pierre
2012-06-01
Stationary Fourier transform spectrometry is an interesting concept for building reliable field or embedded spectroradiometers, especially for the mid- and far- IR. Here, a very compact configuration of a cryogenic stationary Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectrometer is investigated, where the interferometer is directly integrated in the focal plane array (FPA). We present a theoretical analysis to explain and describe the fringe formation inside the FTIR-FPA structure when illuminated by an extended source positioned at a finite distance from the detection plane. The results are then exploited to propose a simple front lens design compatible with a handheld package.
An improved estimation and focusing scheme for vector velocity estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Munk, Peter
1999-01-01
to reduce spatial velocity dispersion. Examples of different velocity vector conditions are shown using the Field II simulation program. A relative accuracy of 10.1 % is obtained for the lateral velocity estimates for a parabolic velocity profile for a flow perpendicular to the ultrasound beam and a signal...
Characterizing the original ejection velocity field of the Koronis family
Carruba, V.; Nesvorný, D.; Aljbaae, S.
2016-06-01
An asteroid family forms as a result of a collision between an impactor and a parent body. The fragments with ejection speeds higher than the escape velocity from the parent body can escape its gravitational pull. The cloud of escaping debris can be identified by the proximity of orbits in proper element, or frequency, domains. Obtaining estimates of the original ejection speed can provide valuable constraints on the physical processes occurring during collision, and used to calibrate impact simulations. Unfortunately, proper elements of asteroids families are modified by gravitational and non-gravitational effects, such as resonant dynamics, encounters with massive bodies, and the Yarkovsky effect, such that information on the original ejection speeds is often lost, especially for older, more evolved families. It has been recently suggested that the distribution in proper inclination of the Koronis family may have not been significantly perturbed by local dynamics, and that information on the component of the ejection velocity that is perpendicular to the orbital plane (vW), may still be available, at least in part. In this work we estimate the magnitude of the original ejection velocity speeds of Koronis members using the observed distribution in proper eccentricity and inclination, and accounting for the spread caused by dynamical effects. Our results show that (i) the spread in the original ejection speeds is, to within a 15% error, inversely proportional to the fragment size, and (ii) the minimum ejection velocity is of the order of 50 m/s, with larger values possible depending on the orbital configuration at the break-up.
MAGNETIZED GAS IN THE SMITH HIGH VELOCITY CLOUD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, Alex S.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M.; Mao, S. A.; Benjamin, Robert A.; Lockman, Felix J.
2013-01-01
We report the first detection of magnetic fields associated with the Smith High Velocity Cloud. We use a catalog of Faraday rotation measures toward extragalactic radio sources behind the Smith Cloud, new H I observations from the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, and a spectroscopic map of Hα from the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper Northern Sky Survey. There are enhancements in rotation measure (RM) of ≈100 rad m –2 which are generally well correlated with decelerated Hα emission. We estimate a lower limit on the line-of-sight component of the field of ≈8 μG along a decelerated filament; this is a lower limit due to our assumptions about the geometry. No RM excess is evident in sightlines dominated by H I or Hα at the velocity of the Smith Cloud. The smooth Hα morphology of the emission at the Smith Cloud velocity suggests photoionization by the Galactic ionizing radiation field as the dominant ionization mechanism, while the filamentary morphology and high (≈1 Rayleigh) Hα intensity of the lower-velocity magnetized ionized gas suggests an ionization process associated with shocks due to interaction with the Galactic interstellar medium. The presence of the magnetic field may contribute to the survival of high velocity clouds like the Smith Cloud as they move from the Galactic halo to the disk. We expect these data to provide a test for magnetohydrodynamic simulations of infalling gas
Relativistic kinematics of the electromagnetic fields of a guided mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rivlin, Lev A
2000-01-01
It is shown that during the observation of a wave in a waveguide from a comoving reference system travelling at a velocity equal to the group velocity of the wave, the wave propagation is halted and the electromagnetic energy contained in the waveguide proves to be stationary. The nonzero rest mass of the photons in the waveguide is equivalent to this rest energy and is identical with the rest mass measured in dynamic experiments. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
STABLE STATIONARY STATES OF NON-LOCAL INTERACTION EQUATIONS
FELLNER, KLEMENS
2010-12-01
In this paper, we are interested in the large-time behaviour of a solution to a non-local interaction equation, where a density of particles/individuals evolves subject to an interaction potential and an external potential. It is known that for regular interaction potentials, stable stationary states of these equations are generically finite sums of Dirac masses. For a finite sum of Dirac masses, we give (i) a condition to be a stationary state, (ii) two necessary conditions of linear stability w.r.t. shifts and reallocations of individual Dirac masses, and (iii) show that these linear stability conditions imply local non-linear stability. Finally, we show that for regular repulsive interaction potential Wε converging to a singular repulsive interaction potential W, the Dirac-type stationary states ρ̄ ε approximate weakly a unique stationary state ρ̄ ∈ L∞. We illustrate our results with numerical examples. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimmer, J.
1986-09-01
The computation of three dimensional trajectories is described in this report. Since measurements of the position and velocity of individual fluid parcels are difficult to be carried out and analytic solutions applicable to the trajectory problem are not available, trajectories have to be calculated by successive observations of the corresponding velocity fields using a method of successive approximation. The application is restricted to cartesian grid coordinate system with equidistant grid points. This model was developed for meteorological purposes (transport of pollutants) but can also be used for other fluids and scales. (orig./PW) [de
Qian, Ming; Niu, Lili; Wang, Yanping; Jiang, Bo; Jin, Qiaofeng; Jiang, Chunxiang; Zheng, Hairong
2010-10-21
Determining a multidimensional velocity field within microscale opaque fluid flows is needed in areas such as microfluidic devices, biofluid mechanics and hemodynamics research in animal studies. The ultrasonic particle image velocimetry (EchoPIV) technique is appropriate for measuring opaque flows by taking advantage of PIV and B-mode ultrasound contrast imaging. However, the use of clinical ultrasound systems for imaging flows in small structures or animals has limitations associated with spatial resolution. This paper reports on the development of a high-resolution EchoPIV technique (termed as micro-EPIV) and its application in measuring flows in small vessel-mimic phantoms and vessels of small animals. Phantom experiments demonstrate the validity of the technique, providing velocity estimates within 4.1% of the analytically derived values with regard to the flows in a small straight vessel-mimic phantom, and velocity estimates within 5.9% of the computationally simulated values with regard to the flows in a small stenotic vessel-mimic phantom. Animal studies concerning arterial and venous flows of living rats and rabbits show that the micro-EPIV-measured peak velocities within several cardiac cycles are about 25% below the values measured by the ultrasonic spectral Doppler technique. The micro-EPIV technique is able to effectively measure the flow fields within microscale opaque fluid flows.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qian Ming; Niu Lili; Jiang Bo; Jin Qiaofeng; Jiang Chunxiang; Zheng Hairong; Wang Yanping
2010-01-01
Determining a multidimensional velocity field within microscale opaque fluid flows is needed in areas such as microfluidic devices, biofluid mechanics and hemodynamics research in animal studies. The ultrasonic particle image velocimetry (EchoPIV) technique is appropriate for measuring opaque flows by taking advantage of PIV and B-mode ultrasound contrast imaging. However, the use of clinical ultrasound systems for imaging flows in small structures or animals has limitations associated with spatial resolution. This paper reports on the development of a high-resolution EchoPIV technique (termed as micro-EPIV) and its application in measuring flows in small vessel-mimic phantoms and vessels of small animals. Phantom experiments demonstrate the validity of the technique, providing velocity estimates within 4.1% of the analytically derived values with regard to the flows in a small straight vessel-mimic phantom, and velocity estimates within 5.9% of the computationally simulated values with regard to the flows in a small stenotic vessel-mimic phantom. Animal studies concerning arterial and venous flows of living rats and rabbits show that the micro-EPIV-measured peak velocities within several cardiac cycles are about 25% below the values measured by the ultrasonic spectral Doppler technique. The micro-EPIV technique is able to effectively measure the flow fields within microscale opaque fluid flows.
Ortiz-Villanueva, Elena; Tauler, Romà
2017-01-01
Metabolomics is a powerful and widely used approach that aims to screen endogenous small molecules (metabolites) of different families present in biological samples. The large variety of compounds to be determined and their wide diversity of physical and chemical properties have promoted the development of different types of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) stationary phases. However, the selection of the most suitable HILIC stationary phase is not straightforward. In this work, four different HILIC stationary phases have been compared to evaluate their potential application for the analysis of a complex mixture of metabolites, a situation similar to that found in non-targeted metabolomics studies. The obtained chromatographic data were analyzed by different chemometric methods to explore the behavior of the considered stationary phases. ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS) were used to explore the experimental factors affecting the stationary phase performance, the main similarities and differences among chromatographic conditions used (stationary phase and pH) and the molecular descriptors most useful to understand the behavior of each stationary phase. PMID:29064436
Exponentially Stable Stationary Solutions for Stochastic Evolution Equations and Their Perturbation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caraballo, Tomas; Kloeden, Peter E.; Schmalfuss, Bjoern
2004-01-01
We consider the exponential stability of stochastic evolution equations with Lipschitz continuous non-linearities when zero is not a solution for these equations. We prove the existence of anon-trivial stationary solution which is exponentially stable, where the stationary solution is generated by the composition of a random variable and the Wiener shift. We also construct stationary solutions with the stronger property of attracting bounded sets uniformly. The existence of these stationary solutions follows from the theory of random dynamical systems and their attractors. In addition, we prove some perturbation results and formulate conditions for the existence of stationary solutions for semilinear stochastic partial differential equations with Lipschitz continuous non-linearities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chougule, Abhijit S.; Mann, Jakob; Kelly, Mark C.
2017-01-01
A spectral tensor model is presented for turbulent fluctuations of wind velocity components and temperature, assuming uniform vertical gradients in mean temperature and mean wind speed. The model is built upon rapid distortion theory (RDT) following studies by Mann and by Hanazaki and Hunt, using...... the eddy lifetime parameterization of Mann to make the model stationary. The buoyant spectral tensor model is driven via five parameters: the viscous dissipation rate epsilon, length scale of energy-containing eddies L, a turbulence anisotropy parameter Gamma, gradient Richardson number (Ri) representing...
Cross-beam energy transfer: On the accuracy of linear stationary models in the linear kinetic regime
Debayle, A.; Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Ruyer, C.; Casanova, M.; Loiseau, P.
2018-05-01
We present an extensive numerical study by means of particle-in-cell simulations of the energy transfer that occurs during the crossing of two laser beams. In the linear regime, when ions are not trapped in the potential well induced by the laser interference pattern, a very good agreement is obtained with a simple linear stationary model, provided the laser intensity is sufficiently smooth. These comparisons include different plasma compositions to cover the strong and weak Landau damping regimes as well as the multispecies case. The correct evaluation of the linear Landau damping at the phase velocity imposed by the laser interference pattern is essential to estimate the energy transfer rate between the laser beams, once the stationary regime is reached. The transient evolution obtained in kinetic simulations is also analysed by means of a full analytical formula that includes 3D beam energy exchange coupled with the ion acoustic wave response. Specific attention is paid to the energy transfer when the laser presents small-scale inhomogeneities. In particular, the energy transfer is reduced when the laser inhomogeneities are comparable with the Landau damping characteristic length of the ion acoustic wave.
Characteristic wave velocities in spherical electromagnetic cloaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yaghjian, A D; Maci, S; Martini, E
2009-01-01
We investigate the characteristic wave velocities in spherical electromagnetic cloaks, namely, phase, ray, group and energy-transport velocities. After deriving explicit expressions for the phase and ray velocities (the latter defined as the phase velocity along the direction of the Poynting vector), special attention is given to the determination of group and energy-transport velocities, because a cursory application of conventional formulae for local group and energy-transport velocities can lead to a discrepancy between these velocities if the permittivity and permeability dyadics are not equal over a frequency range about the center frequency. In contrast, a general theorem can be proven from Maxwell's equations that the local group and energy-transport velocities are equal in linear, lossless, frequency dispersive, source-free bianisotropic material. This apparent paradox is explained by showing that the local fields of the spherical cloak uncouple into an E wave and an H wave, each with its own group and energy-transport velocities, and that the group and energy-transport velocities of either the E wave or the H wave are equal and thus satisfy the general theorem.
Exact simulation of Brown-Resnick random fields at a finite number of locations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dieker, Ton; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin
2015-01-01
We propose an exact simulation method for Brown-Resnick random fields, building on new representations for these stationary max-stable fields. The main idea is to apply suitable changes of measure.......We propose an exact simulation method for Brown-Resnick random fields, building on new representations for these stationary max-stable fields. The main idea is to apply suitable changes of measure....
A stationary bulk planar ideal flow solution for the double shearing model
Lyamina, E. A.; Kalenova, N. V.; Date, P. P.
2018-04-01
This paper provides a general ideal flow solution for the double shearing model of pressure-dependent plasticity. This new solution is restricted to a special class of stationary planar flows. A distinguished feature of this class of solutions is that one family of characteristic lines is straight. The solution is analytic. The mapping between Cartesian and principal lines based coordinate systems is given in parametric form with characteristic coordinates being the parameters. A simple relation that connects the scale factor for one family of coordinate curves of the principal lines based coordinate system and the magnitude of velocity is derived. The original ideal flow theory is widely used as the basis for inverse methods for the preliminary design of metal forming processes driven by minimum plastic work. The new theory extends this area of application to granular materials.
Mode dynamics and confinement in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunsell, P.R.; Bergsaker, H.; Brzozowski, J.H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J.R.; Malmberg, J.-A.; Scheffel, J.; Schnack, D.D.
2001-01-01
Tearing mode dynamics and toroidal plasma flow in the RFP has been experimentally studied in the Extrap T2 device. A toroidally localised, stationary magnetic field perturbation, the 'slinky mode' is formed in nearly all discharges. There is a tendency of increased phase alignment of different toroidal Fourier modes, resulting in higher localised mode amplitudes, with higher magnetic fluctuation level. The fluctuation level increases slightly with increasing plasma current and plasma density. The toroidal plasma flow velocity and the ion temperature has been measured with Doppler spectroscopy. Both the toroidal plasma velocity and the ion temperature clearly increase with I/N. Initial, preliminary experimental results obtained very recently after a complete change of the Extrap T2 front-end system (first wall, shell, TF coil), show that an operational window with mode rotation most likely exists in the rebuilt device, in contrast to the earlier case discussed above. A numerical code DEBSP has been developed to simulate the behaviour of RFP confinement in realistic geometry, including essential transport physics. Resulting scaling laws are presented and compared with results from Extrap T2 and other RFP experiments. (author)
Jacobson, Bert H; Conchola, Eric C; Smith, Doug B; Akehi, Kazuma; Glass, Rob G
2016-08-01
Jacobson, BH, Conchola, EC, Smith, DB, Akehi, K, and Glass, RG. Relationship between selected strength and power assessments to peak and average velocity of the drive block in offensive line play. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2202-2205, 2016-Typical strength training for football includes the squat and power clean (PC) and routinely measured variables include 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squat and 1RM PC along with the vertical jump (VJ) for power. However, little research exists regarding the association between the strength exercises and velocity of an actual on-the-field performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of peak velocity (PV) and average velocity (AV) of the offensive line drive block to 1RM squat, 1RM PC, the VJ, body mass (BM), and body composition. One repetition maximum assessments for the squat and PC were recorded along with VJ height, BM, and percent body fat. These data were correlated with PV and AV while performing the drive block. Peal velocity and AV were assessed using a Tendo Power and Speed Analyzer as the linemen fired, from a 3-point stance into a stationary blocking dummy. Pearson product analysis yielded significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlations between PV and AV and the VJ, the squat, and the PC. A significant inverse association was found for both PV and AV and body fat. These data help to confirm that the typical exercises recommended for American football linemen is positively associated with both PV and AV needed for the drive block effectiveness. It is recommended that these exercises remain the focus of a weight room protocol and that ancillary exercises be built around these exercises. Additionally, efforts to reduce body fat are recommended.
Numerical Analysis of Surge Phenomena, Currents, and Pollution Transport in the Sea of Azov
Ivanov, V. A.; Shul'ga, T. Ya.
2018-04-01
Dynamic processes and features of transformation of pollution in the Sea of Azov, caused by the action of a real wind and atmospheric pressure in the presence of stationary currents, are studied using a three-dimensional nonlinear hydrodynamic model. On the basis of numerical calculations, conclusions are reached about the influence of the velocities of stationary background currents on maximal deviations and the velocities of nonstationary currents generated by wind fields in the SKIRON model. It is shown that the combined effect of the constant wind and wind in the SKIRON atmospheric model leads to a significant expansion of the polluted area and to a longer dispersion time compared to the effects of solely stationary currents.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Geetha
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Gate wrap around field effect transistor is preferred for its good channel control. To study the high frequency behaviour of the device, parameters like cut-off frequency, transit or delay time, velocity are calculated and plotted. Double-walled and array of channels are considered in this work for enhanced output and impedance matching of the device with the measuring equipment terminal respectively. The perfomance of double-walledcarbon nanotube is compared with single-walled carbon nanotube and found that the device with double-wall shows appreciable improvement in its characteristics. Analysis of these parameters are done with various values of source/drain length, gate length, tube diameters and channel densities. The maximum cut-off frequency is found to be 72.3 THz with corresponding velocity as 5x106 m/s for channel density as 3 and gate length as 11nm. The number of channel is varied from 3 to 21 and found that the perfromance of the device containing double-walled carbon nano tube is better for channel number lesser than or equal to 12. The proposed modelling can be used for designing devices to handle high speed applications of future generation.
Linkmann, Moritz; Buzzicotti, Michele; Biferale, Luca
2018-06-01
We provide analytical and numerical results concerning multi-scale correlations between the resolved velocity field and the subgrid-scale (SGS) stress-tensor in large eddy simulations (LES). Following previous studies for Navier-Stokes equations, we derive the exact hierarchy of LES equations governing the spatio-temporal evolution of velocity structure functions of any order. The aim is to assess the influence of the subgrid model on the inertial range intermittency. We provide a series of predictions, within the multifractal theory, for the scaling of correlation involving the SGS stress and we compare them against numerical results from high-resolution Smagorinsky LES and from a-priori filtered data generated from direct numerical simulations (DNS). We find that LES data generally agree very well with filtered DNS results and with the multifractal prediction for all leading terms in the balance equations. Discrepancies are measured for some of the sub-leading terms involving cross-correlation between resolved velocity increments and the SGS tensor or the SGS energy transfer, suggesting that there must be room to improve the SGS modelisation to further extend the inertial range properties for any fixed LES resolution.
Cosmological red shift in the Seeliger-Einstein stationary Universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kropotkin, P.N.
1988-01-01
A problem of Seeliger-Einstein stationary Universe is considered. Simple empirical relations between cosmological and physical constants to which attention was paid by Stanukovich K., Dikke R., Dirac P. testify to the supposition on stationary Universe. The Universe expansion being absent, a hypothesis of ''photon aging'' suggested in 1929 by Belopolskij A. and Zwicky F. must be accepted for explanation of Hubble effect. It is stated that abandon the Seeliger-Einstein stationary cosmological model would be premature. Study and comparison of different mechanisms suggested for validation of photon aging hypothesis is necessary
Thermal particle image velocity estimation of fire plume flow
Xiangyang Zhou; Lulu Sun; Shankar Mahalingam; David R. Weise
2003-01-01
For the purpose of studying wildfire spread in living vegetation such as chaparral in California, a thermal particle image velocity (TPIV) algorithm for nonintrusively measuring flame gas velocities through thermal infrared (IR) imagery was developed. By tracing thermal particles in successive digital IR images, the TPIV algorithm can estimate the velocity field in a...
Stationary states of two-level open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gardas, Bartlomiej; Puchala, Zbigniew
2011-01-01
A problem of finding stationary states of open quantum systems is addressed. We focus our attention on a generic type of open system: a qubit coupled to its environment. We apply the theory of block operator matrices and find stationary states of two-level open quantum systems under certain conditions applied on both the qubit and the surrounding.
Modeling stationary and moving pebbles in a pebble bed reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Xiang; Montgomery, Trent; Zhang, Sijun
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The stationary and moving pebbles in a PBR are numerically studied by DEM. • The packing structure of stationary pebbles is simulated by a filling process. • The packing structural properties are obtained and analyzed. • The dynamic behavior of pebbles is predicted and discussed. - Abstract: This paper presents a numerical study of the stationary and moving pebbles in a pebble bed reactor (PBR) by means of discrete element method (DEM). The packing structure of stationary pebbles is simulated by a filling process that terminates with the settling of the pebbles into a PBR. The packing structural properties are obtained and analyzed. Subsequently, when the outlet of the PBR is opened during the operation of the PBR, the stationary pebbles start to flow downward and are removed at the bottom of the PBR. The dynamic behavior of pebbles is predicted and discussed. Our results indicate the DEM can offer both macroscopic and microscopic information for PBR design calculations and safety assessment
Calculation of the stationary mass velocity of steam mixtures and of the recoil forces occurring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pana, P.
1976-11-01
The best known theories for steam flow (e.g. after pipe rupture within the primary coolant loop of a nuclear power plant) are deeply discussed, the theory of the modified-Bernoulli-equation for the subcooled region, the Moody theory and the homogenious euquilibrium theory for the steam-water region, and the theory of the perfect gas for the superheated region. The calculated mass velocity and thrust coefficient is shown for the whole h-s chart, including various initial pressures and Zeta values as parameter. The comparison of the results leads to important conclusions, concerning conservatism and appropreateness of the considered theories, for friction and frictionless flow. (orig./HP) [de
Sergeev, D. A.; Kandaurov, A. A.; Troitskaya, Yu I.
2017-11-01
In this paper we describe PIV-system specially designed for the study of the hydrophysical processes in large-scale benchmark setup of promising fast reactor. The system allows the PIV-measurements for the conditions of complicated configuration of the reactor benchmark, reflections and distortions section of the laser sheet, blackout, in the closed volume. The use of filtering techniques and method of masks images enabled us to reduce the number of incorrect measurement of flow velocity vectors by an order. The method of conversion of image coordinates and velocity field in the reference model of the reactor using a virtual 3D simulation targets, without loss of accuracy in comparison with a method of using physical objects in filming area was released. The results of measurements of velocity fields in various modes, both stationary (workers), as well as in non-stationary (emergency).
Magnetic-Flux Pumping in High-Performance, Stationary Plasmas with Tearing Modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petty, C. C.; Austin, M. E.; Holcomb, C. T.; Jayakumar, R. J.; La Haye, R. J.; Luce, T. C.; Makowski, M. A.; Politzer, P. A.; Wade, M. R.
2009-01-01
Analysis of the change in the magnetic field pitch angles during edge localized mode events in high performance, stationary plasmas on the DIII-D tokamak shows rapid (<1 ms) broadening of the current density profile, but only when a m/n=3/2 tearing mode is present. This observation of poloidal magnetic-flux pumping explains an important feature of this scenario, which is the anomalous broadening of the current density profile that beneficially maintains the safety factor above unity and forestalls the sawtooth instability
Auditory Perception in Open Field: Distance Estimation
2013-07-01
geocentric judgments, are based on the external frame of reference and are independent of the actual location of the observer. The location of one...viewing distance increases approaching an asymptotic ceiling (Gogel, 1993; Loomis and Philbeck, 1999). Sedgwick (1986) conducted an extensive...hypothesized that in the case of a sound source spherically radiating sound and approaching the stationary listener with a constant velocity in an open