WorldWideScience

Sample records for stationary spherical vortex

  1. Inner Core Rotation from Geomagnetic Westward Drift and a Stationary Spherical Vortex in Earth's Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, C. V.

    1999-01-01

    The idea that geomagnetic westward drift indicates convective leveling of the planetary momentum gradient within Earth's core is pursued in search of a differentially rotating mean state, upon which various oscillations and secular effects might be superimposed. The desired state conforms to roughly spherical boundary conditions, minimizes dissipative interference with convective cooling in the bulk of the core, yet may aide core cooling by depositing heat in the uppermost core and lower mantle. The variational calculus of stationary dissipation applied to a spherical vortex within the core yields an interesting differential rotation profile akin to spherical Couette flow bounded by thin Hartmann layers. Four boundary conditions are required. To concentrate shear induced dissipation near the core-mantle boundary, these are taken to be: (i) no-slip at the core-mantle interface; (ii) geomagnetically estimated bulk westward flow at the base of the core-mantle boundary layer; (iii) no-slip at the inner-outer core interface; and, to describe magnetic locking of the inner core to the deep outer core, (iv) hydrodynamically stress-free at the inner-outer core boundary. By boldly assuming the axial core angular momentum anomaly to be zero, the super-rotation of the inner core is calculated to be at most 1.5 degrees per year.

  2. Stationary two-variable gravitational vortex fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, A.

    1974-01-01

    Some properties of stationary two-variable solutions of the Einstein equations were studied on the basis of rigorous analysis of the nonrelativistic limit of the relativistic gravitation theory. For this case a particular method was developed of determining so-called vortex gravitational fields described by vortex solutions, which in the nonrelativistic limit transform from → infinity to the nonnewtonian type solutions. The main formulae for such fields are derived and a scheme for their calculation is presented. It is shown that under certain conditions the exact stationary solutions of the Papapetrou type for vacuum relativistic equations are vortical. From this fact, first, the presence of particular exact vortical solutions for the Einstein equations is proved, and secondly, a new possibility of a physical interpretation is proposed for the Papapetrou solutions. It is also shown that the nonrelativistic limit of this class of solutions strongly depends on the structure of solution parameters (under certain conditions these solutions may also have the Newtonian limit). 'Multipole' and 'one-variable' partial solutions of the Papapetrou class solution are derived as particular examples of vortical solutions. It is shown that for a specific parameter structure the known NUT solution is also vortical, since it belongs to the Papapetrou class [ru

  3. On the Field of a Stationary Charged Spherical Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroulakis N.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The equations of gravitation related to the field of a spherical charged source imply the existence of an interdependence between gravitation and electricity [5]. The present paper deals with the joint action of gravitation and electricity in the case of a stationary charged spherical source. Let m and " be respectively the mass and the charge of the source, and let k be the gravitational constant. Then the equations of gravitation need specific discussion according as j " j m p k (source strongly charged. In any case the curvature radius of the sphere bounding the matter possesses a strictly positive greatest lower hound, so that the source is necessarily an extended object. Pointwise sources do not exist. In particular, charged black holes do not exist.

  4. Stationary spherical shells around Kerr-Newman naked singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdenek Stuchlik; Stanislav Hledik

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that in the field of some Kerr-Newman naked singularities a stationary spherical shell of charged dust can exist, with the specific charge being the same for all particles of the dusty shell. Gravitational attractions acting on the particles are balanced by electromagnetic repulsion in such a way that the shell is stable against radial perturbations. Particles of the shell move along orbits with constant latitude and radius. Rotation of the shell is differential. The shell is corotating relative to static observers at infinity, but it is counter rotating relative to the family of locally non-rotating observers. No such a shell can exist in the field of Kerr-Newman black holes. (authors)

  5. Cylindrical and spherical solitary waves in an electron-acoustic plasma with vortex electron distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Hilmi; El-Zahar, Essam R.

    2018-04-01

    We consider the nonlinear propagation of electron-acoustic waves in a plasma composed of a cold electron fluid, hot electrons obeying a trapped/vortex-like distribution, and stationary ions. The basic nonlinear equations of the above described plasma are re-examined in the cylindrical (spherical) coordinates by employing the reductive perturbation technique. The modified cylindrical (spherical) KdV equation with fractional power nonlinearity is obtained as the evolution equation. Due to the nature of nonlinearity, this evolution equation cannot be reduced to the conventional KdV equation. A new family of closed form analytical approximate solution to the evolution equation and a comparison with numerical solution are presented and the results are depicted in some 2D and 3D figures. The results reveal that both solutions are in good agreement and the method can be used to obtain a new progressive wave solution for such evolution equations. Moreover, the resulting closed form analytical solution allows us to carry out a parametric study to investigate the effect of the physical parameters on the solution behavior of the modified cylindrical (spherical) KdV equation.

  6. Relation between current sheets and vortex sheets in stationary incompressible MHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Nickeler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic configurations with strong localized current concentrations and vortices play an important role in the dissipation of energy in space and astrophysical plasma. Within this work we investigate the relation between current sheets and vortex sheets in incompressible, stationary equilibria. For this approach it is helpful that the similar mathematical structure of magnetohydrostatics and stationary incompressible hydrodynamics allows us to transform static equilibria into stationary ones. The main control function for such a transformation is the profile of the Alfvén-Mach number MA, which is always constant along magnetic field lines, but can change from one field line to another. In the case of a global constant MA, vortices and electric current concentrations are parallel. More interesting is the nonlinear case, where MA varies perpendicular to the field lines. This is a typical situation at boundary layers like the magnetopause, heliopause, the solar wind flowing around helmet streamers and at the boundary of solar coronal holes. The corresponding current and vortex sheets show in some cases also an alignment, but not in every case. For special density distributions in 2-D, it is possible to have current but no vortex sheets. In 2-D, vortex sheets of field aligned-flows can also exist without strong current sheets, taking the limit of small Alfvén Mach numbers into account. The current sheet can vanish if the Alfvén Mach number is (almost constant and the density gradient is large across some boundary layer. It should be emphasized that the used theory is not only valid for small Alfvén Mach numbers MA MA ≲ 1. Connection to other theoretical approaches and observations and physical effects in space plasmas are presented. Differences in the various aspects of theoretical investigations of current sheets and vortex sheets are given.

  7. Synthetic Landau Levels and Spinor Vortex Matter on a Haldane Spherical Surface with a Magnetic Monopole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang-Fa; Wu, Congjun; Guo, Guang-Can; Wang, Ruquan; Pu, Han; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2018-03-30

    We present a flexible scheme to realize exact flat Landau levels on curved spherical geometry in a system of spinful cold atoms. This is achieved by applying the Floquet engineering of a magnetic quadrupole field to create a synthetic monopole field in real space. The system can be exactly mapped to the electron-monopole system on a sphere, thus realizing Haldane's spherical geometry for fractional quantum Hall physics. This method works for either bosons or fermions. We investigate the ground-state vortex pattern for an s-wave interacting atomic condensate by mapping this system to the classical Thompson's problem. The distortion and stability of the vortex pattern are further studied in the presence of dipolar interaction. Our scheme is compatible with the current experimental setup, and may serve as a promising route of investigating quantum Hall physics and exotic spinor vortex matter on curved space.

  8. Excited eigenmodes in magnetic vortex states of soft magnetic half-spheres and spherical caps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Myoung-Woo; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Sang-Koog, E-mail: sangkoog@snu.ac.kr [National Creative Research Initiative Center for Spin Dynamics and Spin-Wave Devices, Nanospinics Laboratory, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-14

    We studied the magnetization dynamics of excitation modes in special geometrical confinements of soft magnetic half-spheres and spherical caps in magnetic vortex states using finite-element micromagnetic numerical calculations. We found additional fine features of the zeroth- and first-order gyrotropic modes and asymmetric m = +1 and m = −1 azimuthal spin-wave modes, which detailed information is unobtainable from two-dimensional mesh-cell based numerical calculations. Moreover, we examined the perpendicular bias field dependence of the excited eigenmodes, which data provide for an efficient means of control over the excited modes. Such numerical calculations offer additional details or new underlying physics on dynamic features in arbitrary-shape magnetic nano-elements such as half-spheres and spherical caps in magnetic vortex states.

  9. Stationary bound-state massive scalar field configurations supported by spherically symmetric compact reflecting stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2017-12-15

    It has recently been demonstrated that asymptotically flat neutral reflecting stars are characterized by an intriguing no-hair property. In particular, it has been proved that these horizonless compact objects cannot support spatially regular static matter configurations made of scalar (spin-0) fields, vector (spin-1) fields and tensor (spin-2) fields. In the present paper we shall explicitly prove that spherically symmetric compact reflecting stars can support stationary (rather than static) bound-state massive scalar fields in their exterior spacetime regions. To this end, we solve analytically the Klein-Gordon wave equation for a linearized scalar field of mass μ and proper frequency ω in the curved background of a spherically symmetric compact reflecting star of mass M and radius R{sub s}. It is proved that the regime of existence of these stationary composed star-field configurations is characterized by the simple inequalities 1 - 2M/R{sub s} < (ω/μ){sup 2} < 1. Interestingly, in the regime M/R{sub s} << 1 of weakly self-gravitating stars we derive a remarkably compact analytical equation for the discrete spectrum {ω(M,R_s, μ)}{sup n=∞}{sub n=1} of resonant oscillation frequencies which characterize the stationary composed compact-reflecting-star-linearized-massive-scalar-field configurations. Finally, we verify the accuracy of the analytically derived resonance formula of the composed star-field configurations with direct numerical computations. (orig.)

  10. How fast can a black hole eat. [Equation stationary spherically symmetric solutions, Thompson scattering, mass flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafka, P; Meszaros, P [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.)

    1976-11-01

    Stationary spherically symmetric solutions of the equations for accretion of large mass flows onto a black hole, including the interaction of matter and radiation due to Thomson scattering in diffusion approximation are constructed. The relevance of these solutions is discussed with respect to the question of whether the limitation of the luminosity (Eddington limit) also implies an upper bound to the possible rate of mass flow. The question remains open until all instabilities have been studied. At the moment a negative answer is favoured.

  11. Spherical Magnetic Vortex in an External Potential Field: A Dissipative Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solov'ev, A. A.

    2013-09-01

    We consider the dissipative evolution of a spherical magnetic vortex with a force-free internal structure, located in a resistive medium and held in equilibrium by the potential external field. The magnetic field inside the sphere is force-free (the model of Chandrasekhar in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 42, 1, 1956). Topologically, it is a set of magnetic toroids enclosed in spherical layers. A new exact MHD solution has been derived, describing a slow, uniform, radial compression of a magnetic spheroid under the pressure of an ambient field, when the plasma density and pressure are growing inside it. There is no dissipation in the potential field outside the sphere, but inside the sphere, where the current density can be high enough, the magnetic energy is continuously converted into heat. Joule dissipation lowers the magnetic pressure inside the sphere, which balances the pressure of the ambient field. This results in radial contraction of the magnetic sphere with a speed defined by the conductivity of the plasma and the characteristic spatial scale of the magnetic field inside the sphere. Formally, the sphere shrinks to zero within a finite time interval (magnetic collapse). The time of compression can be relatively small, within a day, even for a sphere with a radius of about 1 Mm, if the magnetic helicity trapped initially in the sphere (which is proportional to the number of magnetic toroids in the sphere) is quite large. The magnetic system is open along its axis of symmetry. On this axis, the magnetic and electric fields are strictly radial and sign-variable along the radius, so the plasma will be ejected along the axis of magnetic sphere outwards in both directions (as jets) at a rate much higher than the diffusive one, and the charged particles will be accelerated unevenly, in spurts, creating quasi-regular X-ray spikes. The applications of the solution to solar flares are discussed.

  12. Kinetic theory of a spherical probe in a stationary collision-dominated isothermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brailsford, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    Constitutive equations for the charge carrier fluxes in a stationary collision-dominated isothermal plasma surrounding a spherical electrode are derived, from the Boltzmann equation, by a moment method using a two-stream Maxwellian distribution of the type introduced by Lees. In contrast to previous treatments, the constraint of uniform temperature is imposed and its importance emphasized. This condition, together with particle conservation, is shown to necessitate the use of a four-parameter Lees distribution and leads to generalized hydrodynamic equations. These are shown to reduce to conventional flux equations in terms of diffusion and mobility components only when the fields are spatially slowly varying. In addition, boundary conditions are derived by the same formalism. They are formulated for typical physical processes which may be operative at a real probe surface. As an example, the effect of the nonlinearity on the pure diffusion problem is analyzed in detail in the Appendix. A semiquantitative discussion of the current-voltage characteristics for negative probe potentials is also presented. It is shown that the charge carrier distribution around the probe conforms to the ''free-fall'' model only at low probe voltages. Otherwise, the model proposed by Su and Lam holds. The domain covered by the present analysis is determined by the following conditions on the probe radius r/sub p/, mean free path l, and Debye length lambda: (i) l 3 very-much-less-thanlambda 2 r/sub p/, (ii) (e vertical-barphi/sub p/ vertical-barl/kTr/sub p/) 2 /l 2 for l>lambda, where phi/sub p/ is the probe voltage. Analytic approximations to the current-voltage characteristics in both these regimes are presented

  13. Compensating for the impact of non-stationary spherical air cavities on IMRT dose delivery in transverse magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol, G H; Lagendijk, J J W; Raaymakers, B W

    2015-01-01

    With the development of the 1.5 T MRI linear accelerator and the clinical introduction of the 0.35 T ViewRay™ system, delivering intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in a transverse magnetic field becomes increasingly important. When delivering dose in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, one of the most prominent phenomena occurs around air cavities: the electron return effect (ERE). For stationary, spherical air cavities which are centrally located in the phantom, the ERE can be compensated by using opposing beams configurations in combination with IMRT. In this paper we investigate the effects of non-stationary spherical air cavities, centrally located within the target in a phantom containing no organs at risk, on IMRT dose delivery in 0.35 T and 1.5 T transverse magnetic fields by using Monte Carlo simulations. We show that IMRT can be used for compensating ERE around those air cavities, except for intrafraction appearing or disappearing air cavities. For these cases, gating or plan re-optimization should be used. We also analyzed the option of using IMRT plans optimized at 0 T to be delivered in the presence of 0.35 T and 1.5 T magnetic field. When delivering dose at 0.35 T, IMRT plans optimized at 0 T and 0.35 T perform equally well regarding ERE compensation. Within a 1.5 T environment, the 1.5 T optimized plans perform slightly better for the static and random intra- and interfraction air cavity movement cases than the 0 T optimized plans. For non-stationary spherical air cavities with a baseline shift (intra- and interfraction) the 0 T optimized plans perform better. These observations show the intrinsic ERE compensation by equidistant and opposing beam configurations for spherical air cavities within the target area. IMRT gives some additional compensation, but only in case of correct positioning of the air cavity according to the IMRT compensation. For intrafraction appearing or disappearing air cavities this correct

  14. Scaling laws and accurate small-amplitude stationary solution for the motion of a planar vortex filament in the Cartesian form of the local induction approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gorder, Robert A

    2013-04-01

    We provide a formulation of the local induction approximation (LIA) for the motion of a vortex filament in the Cartesian reference frame (the extrinsic coordinate system) which allows for scaling of the reference coordinate. For general monotone scalings of the reference coordinate, we derive an equation for the planar solution to the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation governing the LIA. We proceed to solve this equation perturbatively in small amplitude through an application of multiple-scales analysis, which allows for accurate computation of the period of the planar vortex filament. The perturbation result is shown to agree strongly with numerical simulations, and we also relate this solution back to the solution obtained in the arclength reference frame (the intrinsic coordinate system). Finally, we discuss nonmonotone coordinate scalings and their application for finding self-intersections of vortex filaments. These self-intersecting vortex filaments are likely unstable and collapse into other structures or dissipate completely.

  15. On the application of the method of turbulent flow to transient and quasi-stationary flow calculations in high temperature reactors with spherical fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefer, I.

    1980-12-01

    For the calculation of flows in high-temperature reactors and of their temperature behavior the equations of the method of turbulent flow in the primitive form are derived for inhomogeneous regions. This system of equations is appropriate for the investigation of transient and quasi-stationary phenomena in pebble beds. By modification of the flow function in parallel arranged reflector channels a parallel flow can be simulated. For simplification the flow in region with a smaller pressure loss is assumed to be a potential flow. For the numerical solution of the time-dependent convective parts of the system of equations a number of explicit and implicit difference methods are compared. If the method using UP-WIND differences is taken to be an interpolation method the introduction of an extension becomes possible, which together with preliminary integration of the fictional terms allows to apply larger time steps. The algebraic system of equations for numerical calculation of a steady flow field also is established by formation of UP-WIND differences for the convective terms. By mathematical verification of some examples the applicability of the mathematical model for flow problems in pebble beds with forced or natural convection is shown. (orig.) [de

  16. Vortex rings

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmetov, D G

    2009-01-01

    This text on vortex rings covers their theoretical foundation, systematic investigations, and practical applications such as the extinction of fires at gushing oil wells. It pays special attention to the formation and motion of turbulent vortex rings.

  17. Three-dimensional parallel vortex rings in Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crasovan, Lucian-Cornel; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Danaila, Ionut; Mihalache, Dumitru; Torner, Lluis

    2004-01-01

    We construct three-dimensional structures of topological defects hosted in trapped wave fields, in the form of vortex stars, vortex cages, parallel vortex lines, perpendicular vortex rings, and parallel vortex rings, and we show that the latter exist as robust stationary, collective states of nonrotating Bose-Einstein condensates. We discuss the stability properties of excited states containing several parallel vortex rings hosted by the condensate, including their dynamical and structural stability

  18. Three-vortex configurations in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seman, J. A.; Henn, E. A. L.; Shiozaki, R. F.; Ramos, E. R. F.; Caracanhas, M.; Castilho, P.; Castelo Branco, C.; Tavares, P. E. S.; Poveda-Cuevas, F. J.; Magalhaes, K. M. F.; Bagnato, V. S.; Haque, M.; Roati, G.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the creation of three-vortex clusters in a 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate by oscillatory excitation of the condensate. This procedure can create vortices of both circulations, so that we are able to create several types of vortex clusters using the same mechanism. The three-vortex configurations are dominated by two types, namely, an equilateral-triangle arrangement and a linear arrangement. We interpret these most stable configurations respectively as three vortices with the same circulation and as a vortex-antivortex-vortex cluster. The linear configurations are very likely experimental signatures of predicted stationary vortex clusters.

  19. Vortex dynamics during blade-vortex interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Di; Gregory, James W.

    2015-05-01

    Vortex dynamics during parallel blade-vortex interactions (BVIs) were investigated in a subsonic wind tunnel using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Vortices were generated by applying a rapid pitch-up motion to an airfoil through a pneumatic system, and the subsequent interactions with a downstream, unloaded target airfoil were studied. The blade-vortex interactions may be classified into three categories in terms of vortex behavior: close interaction, very close interaction, and collision. For each type of interaction, the vortex trajectory and strength variation were obtained from phase-averaged PIV data. The PIV results revealed the mechanisms of vortex decay and the effects of several key parameters on vortex dynamics, including separation distance (h/c), Reynolds number, and vortex sense. Generally, BVI has two main stages: interaction between vortex and leading edge (vortex-LE interaction) and interaction between vortex and boundary layer (vortex-BL interaction). Vortex-LE interaction, with its small separation distance, is dominated by inviscid decay of vortex strength due to pressure gradients near the leading edge. Therefore, the decay rate is determined by separation distance and vortex strength, but it is relatively insensitive to Reynolds number. Vortex-LE interaction will become a viscous-type interaction if there is enough separation distance. Vortex-BL interaction is inherently dominated by viscous effects, so the decay rate is dependent on Reynolds number. Vortex sense also has great impact on vortex-BL interaction because it changes the velocity field and shear stress near the surface.

  20. Vortex methods and vortex statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorin, A.J.

    1993-05-01

    Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible, inviscid, isentropic flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus if the vorticity is known at time t = 0, one can deduce the flow at a later time by simply following it around. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that makes use of this observation. Even more generally, the analysis of vortex methods leads, to problems that are closely related to problems in quantum physics and field theory, as well as in harmonic analysis. A broad enough definition of vortex methods ends up by encompassing much of science. Even the purely computational aspects of vortex methods encompass a range of ideas for which vorticity may not be the best unifying theme. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (''blobs'') and those whose understanding contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Vortex methods for inviscid flow lead to systems of ordinary differential equations that can be readily clothed in Hamiltonian form, both in three and two space dimensions, and they can preserve exactly a number of invariants of the Euler equations, including topological invariants. Their viscous versions resemble Langevin equations. As a result, they provide a very useful cartoon of statistical hydrodynamics, i.e., of turbulence, one that can to some extent be analyzed analytically and more importantly, explored numerically, with important implications also for superfluids, superconductors, and even polymers. In the authors view, vortex ''blob'' methods provide the most promising path to the understanding of these phenomena

  1. Condensational theory of stationary tornadoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarieva, A.M.; Gorshkov, V.G.; Nefiodov, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Using the Bernoulli integral for air streamline with condensing water vapor a stationary axisymmetric tornado circulation is described. The obtained profiles of vertical, radial and tangential velocities are in agreement with observations for the Mulhall tornado, world's largest on record and longest-lived among the three tornadoes for which 3D velocity data are available. Maximum possible vortex velocities are estimated. -- Highlights: → Water vapor condensation causes a logarithmic drop of air pressure towards tornado center. → The first ever theoretical description of tornado velocities is obtained. → The maximum vortex velocity grows logarithmically with decreasing tornado eye radius. → Air motion with high velocities can only develop in sufficiently large condensation areas.

  2. Spherical sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Freeden, Willi; Schreiner, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This book presents, in a consistent and unified overview, results and developments in the field of today´s spherical sampling, particularly arising in mathematical geosciences. Although the book often refers to original contributions, the authors made them accessible to (graduate) students and scientists not only from mathematics but also from geosciences and geoengineering. Building a library of topics in spherical sampling theory it shows how advances in this theory lead to new discoveries in mathematical, geodetic, geophysical as well as other scientific branches like neuro-medicine. A must-to-read for everybody working in the area of spherical sampling.

  3. Vortex transmutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Albert; Zacarés, Mario; García-March, Miguel-Angel; Monsoriu, Juan A; de Córdoba, Pedro Fernández

    2005-09-16

    Using group theory arguments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of changing the vorticity or topological charge of an individual vortex by means of the action of a system possessing a discrete rotational symmetry of finite order. We establish on theoretical grounds a "transmutation pass" determining the conditions for this phenomenon to occur and numerically analyze it in the context of two-dimensional optical lattices. An analogous approach is applicable to the problems of Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials.

  4. Spherical CNNs

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Taco S.; Geiger, Mario; Koehler, Jonas; Welling, Max

    2018-01-01

    Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have become the method of choice for learning problems involving 2D planar images. However, a number of problems of recent interest have created a demand for models that can analyze spherical images. Examples include omnidirectional vision for drones, robots, and autonomous cars, molecular regression problems, and global weather and climate modelling. A naive application of convolutional networks to a planar projection of the spherical signal is destined t...

  5. ABOUT TEMPERATURE FIELDS AND CONDITIONS OF GASEOUS CONDENSATION OF NEBULAES IN THE PLANETARY VORTEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Klyuchinskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New exact solution of the spherically-axissymmetric Eiler's equations, called as plan­etary vortex, is applied to the problem of formation in planetary nebula germs of planets due to the condensation of gases in the areas of vortex instability which calls the rings of planetary vortex. It is shown that the vortex perturbations causes changes in preassure and temperature at which the gases of nebula condense themselves, forming the germs of the planets.

  6. Vortex line topology during vortex tube reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGavin, P.; Pontin, D. I.

    2018-05-01

    This paper addresses reconnection of vortex tubes, with particular focus on the topology of the vortex lines (field lines of the vorticity). This analysis of vortex line topology reveals key features of the reconnection process, such as the generation of many small flux rings, formed when reconnection occurs in multiple locations in the vortex sheet between the tubes. Consideration of three-dimensional reconnection principles leads to a robust measurement of the reconnection rate, even once instabilities break the symmetry. It also allows us to identify internal reconnection of vortex lines within the individual vortex tubes. Finally, the introduction of a third vortex tube is shown to render the vortex reconnection process fully three-dimensional, leading to a fundamental change in the topological structure of the process. An additional interesting feature is the generation of vorticity null points.

  7. Vortex Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, Albert; Garcia-March, Miguel-Angel; Zacares, Mario; Monsoriu, Juan A.; Cordoba, Pedro Fernandez de

    2005-01-01

    Using group theory arguments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of changing the vorticity or topological charge of an individual vortex by means of the action of a system possessing a discrete rotational symmetry of finite order. We establish on theoretical grounds a 'transmutation pass rule' determining the conditions for this phenomenon to occur and numerically analyze it in the context of two-dimensional optical lattices. An analogous approach is applicable to the problems of Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials

  8. Single vortex states in a confined Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komineas, S.; Cooper, N. R.; Papanicolaou, N.

    2005-01-01

    It has been demonstrated experimentally that non-axisymmetric vortices precess around the center of a Bose-Einstein condensate. Two types of single vortex states have been observed, usually referred to as the S vortex and the U vortex. We study theoretically the single vortex excitations in spherical and elongated condensates as a function of the interaction strength. We solve numerically the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and calculate the angular momentum as a function of precession frequency. The existence of two types of vortices means that we have two different precession frequencies for each angular momentum value. As the interaction strength increases the vortex lines bend and the precession frequencies shift to lower values. We establish that for given angular momentum the S vortex has higher energy than the U vortex in a rotating elongated condensate. We show that the S vortex is related to the solitonic vortex, which is a nonlinear excitation in the nonrotating system. For small interaction strengths the S vortex is related to the dark soliton. In the dilute limit a lowest Landau level calculation provides an analytic description of these vortex modes in terms of the harmonic oscillator states

  9. The analysis of flow stability in a vortex furance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anufriev Igor S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of experimental study of the pulsation characteristics of a flow in isothermal model of vortex furnace with vertically oriented nozzles of secondary blast are obtained. With use of laser Doppler measuring system and pressure pulsations analyzer the data about the pressure and velocity pulsations has been received. Spectra of pressure and velocity pulsations at various regime parameters are presented. Absence of non-stationary structures, such as precessing vortex core of a flow, is shown.

  10. Characterisation of vortex flow inside an entrained cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambert, A.; Elcafsi, A.; Gougat, P. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. d' Informatique pour la Mecanique et les Sciences de l' Ingenieur

    2000-07-01

    A number of studies have referred to the existence of a vortex cell within an urban street canyon when ambient winds aloft are perpendicular to the street. The understanding of vortex dynamics or vorticity distribution in a such configuration is of great interest. Vortex structures play an important role in the dynamics of pollutant dispersion. This configuration was simulated by the interaction between a boundary layer and a cavity. Experimental characterisation of the vortex structures evolution was developed by flow velocity measurements inside and out of the cavity. Classical methods like hot wire and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) display only local measurements. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) method based on the optical flow technique permitted global velocity measurements. This technique emphasis the vortex structures inside the cavity which present small scales as well as large scales related to the cavity geometry. These vortices are usually non-stationary. (orig.)

  11. Stagnation zone formation on the axis of a closed vortex flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naumov, I. V.; Okulov, Valery; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2014-01-01

    The features of developing a counterflow zone (bubble-mode vortex breakdown or vortex explosion) at the center of an intensively swirled flow produced in a liquid-filled cylindrical container with a rotating endwall have been studied. The observation showed that the scenario of developing a bubbl......-mode breakdown zone with generation of counterflow is the same for cylinders with low or high aspect ratio, and it remains independent of stationary-nonstationary transition boundary for the main vortex flow....

  12. Spherical galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, J. E.; de Souza, R. E.; Penereiro, J. C.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Presentamos fotometria fotografica de 8 objetos y espectrosco- pla para 3 galaxias, las cuales son buenos candidatos para galaxias esfericas. Los resultados fotometricos se presentan en la forma de iso- fotas y de perfiles radiales promedlo, de los cuales se derivan para- metros estructurales. Estas observaciones combinadas con parametros di- namicos obtenidos de observaciones espectrosc6picas, son consistentes con el plano fundamental derivado por Djorgovski y Davis (1987). ABSTRACT. We present photographic surface photometry for 8 objects and spectroscopy for 3 galaxies which are good candidates for spherical galaxies. Photometric results are presented in the form of isophotes and mean radial profiles from which we derived structural parameters. These observations combined with dynamical parameters obtained from spectroscopic observations are consistent with the fundamental plane derived by Djorgovski and Davis (1987). Keq wo : CALAXIES-ELLIPTICAL

  13. Vortex profiles and vortex interactions at the electroweak crossover

    OpenAIRE

    Chernodub, M. N.; Ilgenfritz, E. -M.; Schiller, A.

    1999-01-01

    Local correlations of Z-vortex operators with gauge and Higgs fields (lattice quantum vortex profiles) as well as vortex two-point functions are studied in the crossover region near a Higgs mass of 100 GeV within the 3D SU(2) Higgs model. The vortex profiles resemble certain features of the classical vortex solutions in the continuum. The vortex-vortex interactions are analogous to the interactions of Abrikosov vortices in a type-I superconductor.

  14. Compressible Vortex Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavarasan, Ramasamy; Arakeri, Jayawant; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

    1999-11-01

    The interaction of a high-speed vortex ring with a shock wave is one of the fundamental issues as it is a source of sound in supersonic jets. The complex flow field induced by the vortex alters the propagation of the shock wave greatly. In order to understand the process, a compressible vortex ring is studied in detail using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and shadowgraphic techniques. The high-speed vortex ring is generated from a shock tube and the shock wave, which precedes the vortex, is reflected back by a plate and made to interact with the vortex. The shadowgraph images indicate that the reflected shock front is influenced by the non-uniform flow induced by the vortex and is decelerated while passing through the vortex. It appears that after the interaction the shock is "split" into two. The PIV measurements provided clear picture about the evolution of the vortex at different time interval. The centerline velocity traces show the maximum velocity to be around 350 m/s. The velocity field, unlike in incompressible rings, contains contributions from both the shock and the vortex ring. The velocity distribution across the vortex core, core diameter and circulation are also calculated from the PIV data.

  15. Simulation of a three-dimensional vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.; Menne, Stefan

    1989-01-01

    The breakdown of a vortex flow in a tube is studied for a slightly diverging tube by means of a numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for a quasi-stationary, incompressible, laminar flow. Numerical results are compared to experiments of Faler and Leibovich. The numerical data display features similar to the experimental results concerning breakdown conditions, location, and structure.

  16. Flow and scour around spherical bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Christoffer

    2003-01-01

    Spherical bodies placed in the marine environment may bury themselves due to the action of the waves and the current on the sediment in their immediate neighborhood. The present study addresses this topic by a numerical and an experimental investigation of the flow and scour around a spherical body...... results except in the critical flow regime. For flow around a near-wall sphere, a weak horseshoe vortex emerges as the gap ratio becomes less than or equal to 0.3. In Chapter 3, a RANS flow solver has been used to compute the bed shear stress for a near-wall sphere. The model results compare well...... 4, an experimental study on the scour around spherical bodies and self-burial in sand for steady current and waves has been carried out. The effect of the contraction of streamlines is found to be the key element in the scour process both for steady current and waves. Furthermore, it is demonstrated...

  17. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Glatz, Andreas; Welp, Ulrich; Kwok, Wai-K.

    2015-03-01

    Unlike illusive magnetic field lines in vacuum, magnetic vortices in superconductors are real physical strings, which interact with the sample surface, crystal structure defects, and with each other. We address the complex and poorly understood process of vortex cutting via a comprehensive set of magneto-optic experiments which allow us to visualize vortex patterns at magnetization of a nearly twin-free YBCO crystal by crossing magnetic fields of different orientations. We observe a pronounced anisotropy in the flux dynamics under crossing fields and the filamentation of induced supercurrents associated with the staircase vortex structure expected in layered cuprates, flux cutting effects, and angular vortex instabilities predicted for anisotropic superconductors. At some field angles, we find formation of the vortex domains following a type-I phase transition in the vortex state accompanied by an abrupt change in the vortex orientation. To clarify the vortex cutting scenario we performed time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau simulations, which confirmed formation of sharp vortex fronts observed in the experiment and revealed a left-handed helical instability responsible for the rotation of vortices. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  18. Cryptanalysis of Vortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aumasson, Jean-Philippe; Dunkelman, Orr; Mendel, Florian

    2009-01-01

    Vortex is a hash function that was first presented at ISC'2008, then submitted to the NIST SHA-3 competition after some modifications. This paper describes several attacks on both versions of Vortex, including collisions, second preimages, preimages, and distinguishers. Our attacks exploit flaws...

  19. Aerodynamically shaped vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Velte, Clara Marika; Øye, Stig

    2016-01-01

    An aerodynamically shaped vortex generator has been proposed, manufactured and tested in a wind tunnel. The effect on the overall performance when applied on a thick airfoil is an increased lift to drag ratio compared with standard vortex generators. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  20. Vortex diode jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Edward D.

    1994-01-01

    A fluid transfer system that combines a vortex diode with a jet ejector to transfer liquid from one tank to a second tank by a gas pressurization method having no moving mechanical parts in the fluid system. The vortex diode is a device that has a high resistance to flow in one direction and a low resistance to flow in the other.

  1. An Organic Vortex Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellinga, Daan; Pietrzyk, Monika E; Glackin, James M E; Wang, Yue; Bansal, Ashu K; Turnbull, Graham A; Dholakia, Kishan; Samuel, Ifor D W; Krauss, Thomas F

    2018-03-27

    Optical vortex beams are at the heart of a number of novel research directions, both as carriers of information and for the investigation of optical activity and chiral molecules. Optical vortex beams are beams of light with a helical wavefront and associated orbital angular momentum. They are typically generated using bulk optics methods or by a passive element such as a forked grating or a metasurface to imprint the required phase distribution onto an incident beam. Since many applications benefit from further miniaturization, a more integrated yet scalable method is highly desirable. Here, we demonstrate the generation of an azimuthally polarized vortex beam directly by an organic semiconductor laser that meets these requirements. The organic vortex laser uses a spiral grating as a feedback element that gives control over phase, handedness, and degree of helicity of the emitted beam. We demonstrate vortex beams up to an azimuthal index l = 3 that can be readily multiplexed into an array configuration.

  2. Particles in spherical electromagnetic radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitter, H.; Thaller, B.

    1984-03-01

    If the time-dependence of a Hamiltonian can be compensated by an appropriate symmetry transformation, the corresponding quantum mechanical problem can be reduced to an effectively stationary one. With this result we investigate the behavior of nonrelativistic particles in a spherical radiation field produced by a rotating source. Then the symmetry transformation corresponds to a rotation. We calculate the transition probabilities in Born approximation. The extension to problems involving an additional Coulomb potential is briefly discussed. (Author)

  3. Spin wave vortex from the scattering on Bloch point solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho-Santos, V.L., E-mail: vagson.carvalho@usach.cl [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Baiano - Campus Senhor do Bonfim, Km 04 Estrada da Igara, 48970-000 Senhor do Bonfim, Bahia (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile and CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Elías, R.G., E-mail: gabriel.elias@usach.cl [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile and CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Nunez, A.S., E-mail: alnunez@dfi.uchile.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 487-3, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-12-15

    The interaction of a spin wave with a stationary Bloch point is studied. The topological non-trivial structure of the Bloch point manifests in the propagation of spin waves endowing them with a gauge potential that resembles the one associated with the interaction of a magnetic monopole and an electron. By pursuing this analogy, we are led to the conclusion that the scattering of spin waves and Bloch points is accompanied by the creation of a magnon vortex. Interference between such a vortex and a plane wave leads to dislocations in the interference pattern that can be measurable by means of magnon holography.

  4. Drift wave coherent vortex structures in inhomogeneous plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, X.N.

    1992-01-01

    Nonlinear drift wave vortex structures in magnetized plasmas are studied theoretically and numerically in the various physical environments. The effects of density and temperature gradients on drift wave vortex dynamics are analyzed using a fully nonlinear model with the Boltzmann density distribution. The equation, based on the full Boltzmann relation, possess no localized monopole solution in the short wavelength (∼ρ s ) region, while in the longer wavelength (∼(ρ s (r) n ) 1/2 ) region the density profile governs the existence of monopole-like solutions. In the longer wavelength regime, however, the monopoles cannot be localized sufficiently to avoid coupling to propagating drift waves due to the inhomogeneity of the plasma. Thus, the monopole vortex is a long lived coherent structure, but it is not precisely a stationary structure since the coupling results in a open-quote flapping close-quote tail. The tail causes energy of the vortex to leak out, but the effect of the temperature gradient is to reduce the leaking of this energy. Nonlinear coherent structures governing by the coupled drift wave-ion acoustic mode equations in sheared magnetic field are studied analytically and numerically. A solitary vortex equation that includes the effects of density and temperature gradients and magnetic shear is derived and analyzed. The results show that for a plasma in a sheared magnetic field, there exist the solitary vortex solutions. The new vortex structures are dipole-like in their symmetry, but not the modon type of dipoles. The numerical simulations are performed in 2-D with the coupled vorticity and parallel mass flow equations. The vortex structures in an unstable drift wave system driven by parallel shear flow are studied. The nonlinear solitary vortex solutions are given and the formation of the vortices from a turbulent state is observed from the numerical simulations

  5. Stationary nonlinear Airy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotti, A.; Faccio, D.; Couairon, A.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S.; Abdollahpour, D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of an additional class of stationary accelerating Airy wave forms that exist in the presence of third-order (Kerr) nonlinearity and nonlinear losses. Numerical simulations and experiments, in agreement with the analytical model, highlight how these stationary solutions sustain the nonlinear evolution of Airy beams. The generic nature of the Airy solution allows extension of these results to other settings, and a variety of applications are suggested.

  6. Vortex and source rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The velocity field, vector potential and velocity gradient of a vortex ring is derived in this chapter. The Biot-Savart law for the vector potential and velocity is expressed in a first section. Then, the flow is derived at specific locations: on the axis, near the axis and in the far field where...... the analogy to a doublet field is made. The following section derive the value of the vector potential and velocity field in the full domain. The expression for the velocity gradient is also provided since it may be relevant in a simulation with vortex particles and vortex rings. Most of this chapter...

  7. Numerical study of the properties of optical vortex array laser tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chun-Fu; Chu, Shu-Chun

    2013-11-04

    Chu et al. constructed a kind of Ince-Gaussian modes (IGM)-based vortex array laser beams consisting of p x p embedded optical vortexes from Ince-Gaussian modes, IG(e)(p,p) modes [Opt. Express 16, 19934 (2008)]. Such an IGM-based vortex array laser beams maintains its vortex array profile during both propagation and focusing, and is applicable to optical tweezers. This study uses the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method to study the properties of the IGM-based vortex array laser tweezers while it traps dielectric particles. This study calculates the resultant force exerted on the spherical dielectric particles of different sizes situated at the IGM-based vortex array laser beam waist. Numerical results show that the number of trapping spots of a structure light (i.e. IGM-based vortex laser beam), is depended on the relation between the trapped particle size and the structure light beam size. While the trapped particle is small comparing to the beam size of the IGM-based vortex array laser beams, the IGM-based vortex array laser beams tweezers are suitable for multiple traps. Conversely, the tweezers is suitable for single traps. The results of this study is useful to the future development of the vortex array laser tweezers applications.

  8. The singing vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, R.; Pennings, P.; Bosschers, J.; van Terwisga, T.

    2015-01-01

    Marine propellers display several forms of cavitation. Of these, propeller-tip vortex cavitation is one of the important factors in propeller design. The dynamic behaviour of the tip vortex is responsible for hull vibration and noise. Thus, cavitation in the vortices trailing from tips of propeller blades has been studied extensively. Under certain circumstances cavitating vortices have been observed to have wave-like disturbances on the surfaces of vapour cores. Intense sound at discrete frequencies can result from a coupling between tip vortex disturbances and oscillating sheet cavitation on the surfaces of the propeller blades. This research article focuses on the dynamics of vortex cavitation and more in particular on the energy and frequency content of the radiated pressures. PMID:26442147

  9. CFD simulation of the combustion process of the low-emission vortex boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, A. A.; Maryandyshev, P. A.; Pankratov, E. V.; Lubov, V. K.

    2017-11-01

    Domestic heat and power engineering needs means and methods for optimizing the existing boiler plants in order to increase their technical, economic and environmental work. The development of modern computer technology, methods of numerical modeling and specialized software greatly facilitates the solution of many emerging problems. CFD simulation allows to obtaine precise results of thermochemical and aerodynamic processes taking place in the furnace of boilers in order to optimize their operation modes and develop directions for their modernization. The paper presents the results of simulation of the combustion process of a low-emission vortex coal boiler of the model E-220/100 using the software package Ansys Fluent. A hexahedral grid with a number of 2 million cells was constructed for the chosen boiler model. A stationary problem with a two-phase flow was solved. The gaseous components are air, combustion products and volatile substances. The solid phase is coal particles at different burnup stages. The Euler-Lagrange approach was taken as a basis. Calculation of the coal particles trajectories was carried out using the Discrete Phase Model which distribution of the size particle of coal dust was accounted for using the Rosin-Rammler equation. Partially Premixed combustion model was used as the combustion model which take into account elemental composition of the fuel and heat analysis. To take turbulence into account, a two-parameter k-ε model with a standard wall function was chosen. Heat transfer by radiation was calculated using the P1-approximation of the method of spherical harmonics. The system of spatial equations was numerically solved by the control volume method using the SIMPLE algorithm of Patankar and Spaulding. Comparison of data obtained during the industrial-operational tests of low-emission vortex boilers with the results of mathematical modeling showed acceptable convergence of the tasks of this level, which confirms the adequacy of the

  10. Instantaneous axial force of a high-order Bessel vortex beam of acoustic waves incident upon a rigid movable sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G; Fellah, Z E A

    2011-08-01

    The present investigation examines the instantaneous force resulting from the interaction of an acoustical high-order Bessel vortex beam (HOBVB) with a rigid sphere. The rigid sphere case is important in fluid dynamics applications because it perfectly simulates the interaction of instantaneous sound waves in a reduced gravity environment with a levitated spherical liquid soft drop in air. Here, a closed-form solution for the instantaneous force involving the total pressure field as well as the Bessel beam parameters is obtained for the case of progressive, stationary and quasi-stationary waves. Instantaneous force examples for progressive waves are computed for both a fixed and a movable rigid sphere. The results show how the instantaneous force per unit cross-sectional surface and unit pressure varies versus the dimensionless frequency ka (k is the wave number in the fluid medium and a is the sphere's radius), the half-cone angle β and the order m of the HOBVB. It is demonstrated here that the instantaneous force is determined only for (m,n) = (0,1) (where n is the partial-wave number), and vanishes for m>0 because of symmetry. In addition, the instantaneous force and normalized amplitude velocity results are computed and compared with those of a rigid immovable (fixed) sphere. It is shown that they differ significantly for ka values below 5. The proposed analysis may be of interest in the analysis of instantaneous forces on spherical particles for particle manipulation, filtering, trapping and drug delivery. The presented solutions may also serve as a method for comparison to other solutions obtained by strictly numerical or asymptotic approaches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of Stationary Crossflow Modulation on Secondary Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Paredes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    A likely scenario for swept wing transition on subsonic aircraft with natural laminar flow involves the breakdown of stationary crossflow vortices via high frequency secondary instability. A majority of the prior research on this secondary instability has focused on crossflow vortices with a single dominant spanwise wavelength. This paper investigates the effects of the spanwise modulation of stationary crossflow vortices at a specified wavelength by a subharmonic stationary mode. Secondary instability of the modulated crossflow pattern is studied using planar, partial-differential-equation based eigenvalue analysis. Computations reveal that weak modulation by the first subharmonic of the input stationary mode leads to mode splitting that is particularly obvious for Y-type secondary modes that are driven by the wall-normal shear of the basic state. Thus, for each Y mode corresponding to the fundamental wavelength of results in unmodulated train of crossflow vortices, the modulated flow supports a pair of secondary modes with somewhat different amplification rates. The mode splitting phenomenon suggests that a more complex stationary modulation such as that induced by natural surface roughness would yield a considerably richer spectrum of secondary instability modes. Even modest levels of subharmonic modulation are shown to have a strong effect on the overall amplification of secondary disturbances, particularly the Z-modes driven by the spanwise shear of the basic state. Preliminary computations related to the nonlinear breakdown of these secondary disturbances provide interesting insights into the process of crossflow transition in the presence of the first subharmonic of the dominant stationary vortex.

  12. Controlling vortex motion and vortex kinetic friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, Franco; Savel'ev, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    We summarize some recent results of vortex motion control and vortex kinetic friction. (1) We describe a device [J.E. Villegas, S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, E.M. Gonzalez, J.V. Anguita, R. Garcia, J.L. Vicent, Science 302 (2003) 1188] that can easily control the motion of flux quanta in a Niobium superconducting film on an array of nanoscale triangular magnets. Even though the input ac current has zero average, the resulting net motion of the vortices can be directed along either one direction, the opposite direction, or producing zero net motion. We also consider layered strongly anisotropic superconductors, with no fixed spatial asymmetry, and show [S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, Nature Materials 1 (2002) 179] how, with asymmetric drives, the ac motion of Josephson and/or pancake vortices can provide a net dc vortex current. (2) In analogy with the standard macroscopic friction, we present [A. Maeda, Y. Inoue, H. Kitano, S. Savel'ev, S. Okayasu, I. Tsukada, F. Nori , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 077001] a comparative study of the friction force felt by vortices in superconductors and charge density waves

  13. Controlling vortex motion and vortex kinetic friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, Franco; Savel'ev, Sergey

    2006-05-01

    We summarize some recent results of vortex motion control and vortex kinetic friction. (1) We describe a device [J.E. Villegas, S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, E.M. Gonzalez, J.V. Anguita, R. Garcìa, J.L. Vicent, Science 302 (2003) 1188] that can easily control the motion of flux quanta in a Niobium superconducting film on an array of nanoscale triangular magnets. Even though the input ac current has zero average, the resulting net motion of the vortices can be directed along either one direction, the opposite direction, or producing zero net motion. We also consider layered strongly anisotropic superconductors, with no fixed spatial asymmetry, and show [S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, Nature Materials 1 (2002) 179] how, with asymmetric drives, the ac motion of Josephson and/or pancake vortices can provide a net dc vortex current. (2) In analogy with the standard macroscopic friction, we present [A. Maeda, Y. Inoue, H. Kitano, S. Savel'ev, S. Okayasu, I. Tsukada, F. Nori , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 077001] a comparative study of the friction force felt by vortices in superconductors and charge density waves.

  14. Globally linked vortex clusters in trapped wave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crasovan, Lucian-Cornel; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel; Torres, Juan P.; Torner, Lluis; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Mihalache, Dumitru

    2002-01-01

    We put forward the existence of a rich variety of fully stationary vortex structures, termed H clusters, made of an increasing number of vortices nested in paraxial wave fields confined by trapping potentials. However, we show that the constituent vortices are globally linked, rather than products of independent vortices. Also, they always feature a monopolar global wave front and exist in nonlinear systems, such as the Bose-Einstein condensates. Clusters with multipolar global wave fronts are nonstationary or, at best, flipping

  15. Vortex mass in a superfluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simula, Tapio

    2018-02-01

    We consider the inertial mass of a vortex in a superfluid. We obtain a vortex mass that is well defined and is determined microscopically and self-consistently by the elementary excitation energy of the kelvon quasiparticle localized within the vortex core. The obtained result for the vortex mass is found to be consistent with experimental observations on superfluid quantum gases and vortex rings in water. We propose a method to measure the inertial rest mass and Berry phase of a vortex in superfluid Bose and Fermi gases.

  16. Vorticity and vortex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jie-Zhi; Zhou, M-D

    2006-01-01

    The importance of vorticity and vortex dynamics has now been well rec- nized at both fundamental and applied levels of ?uid dynamics, as already anticipatedbyTruesdellhalfcenturyagowhenhewrotethe?rstmonograph onthesubject, The Kinematics of Vorticity(1954);andasalsoevidencedby the appearance of several books on this ?eld in 1990s. The present book is characterizedbythefollowingfeatures: 1. A basic physical guide throughout the book. The material is directed by a basic observation on the splitting and coupling of two fundamental processes in ?uid motion, i.e., shearing (unique to ?uid) and compre- ing/expanding.Thevorticityplaysakeyroleintheformer,andavortex isnothingbuta?uidbodywithhighconcentrationofvorticitycompared to its surrounding ?uid. Thus, the vorticity and vortex dynamics is - cordinglyde?nedasthetheoryofshearingprocessanditscouplingwith compressing/expandingprocess. 2. A description of the vortex evolution following its entire life.Thisbegins from the generation of vorticity to the formation of thi...

  17. Magnetic vortex racetrack memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Liwei D.; Jin, Yongmei M.

    2017-02-01

    We report a new type of racetrack memory based on current-controlled movement of magnetic vortices in magnetic nanowires with rectangular cross-section and weak perpendicular anisotropy. Data are stored through the core polarity of vortices and each vortex carries a data bit. Besides high density, non-volatility, fast data access, and low power as offered by domain wall racetrack memory, magnetic vortex racetrack memory has additional advantages of no need for constrictions to define data bits, changeable information density, adjustable current magnitude for data propagation, and versatile means of ultrafast vortex core switching. By using micromagnetic simulations, current-controlled motion of magnetic vortices in cobalt nanowire is demonstrated for racetrack memory applications.

  18. Electric vortex in MHD flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.

    1995-01-01

    An electric vortex is the circulation of electron space charge about a magnetic field line that is transported by ion momentum. In cold, or low β flow the vortex diameter is the minimum length scale of charge neutrality. The distinctive feature of the vortex is its radial electric field which manifests the interplay of electrostatics, magnetism, and motion

  19. Intracavity vortex beam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Darryl; Aït-Ameur, Kamel; Forbes, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we explore vortex beams and in particular the generation of single LG0l modes and superpositions thereof. Vortex beams carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) and this intrinsic property makes them prevalent in transferring this OAM to matter and to be used in quantum information processing. We explore an extra-cavity and intra-cavity approach in LG0l mode generation respectively. The outputs of a Porro-prism resonator are represented by "petals" and we show that through a full modal decomposition, the "petal" fields are a superposition of two LG0l modes.

  20. Uniqueness of solution to a stationary boundary kinetic problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhykharsky, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    The paper treats the question of uniqueness of solution to the boundary kinetic problem. This analysis is based on the accurate solutions to the stationary one-dimensional boundary kinetic problem for the limited plasma system. In the paper a simplified problem statement is used (no account is taken of the external magnetic field, a simplest form of boundary conditions is accepted) which, however, covers all features of the problem considered. Omitting the details of the conclusion we will write a set of Vlasov stationary kinetic equations for the cases of plane, cylindrical and spherical geometry of the problem. (author) 1 ref

  1. Stationary scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, J.M.

    1980-10-01

    A complementary approach to the time dependent scattering theory for one-body Schroedinger operators is presented. The stationary theory is concerned with objects of quantum theory like scattering waves and amplitudes. In the more recent abstract stationary theory some generalized form of the Lippman-Schwinger equation plays the basic role. Solving this equation leads to a linear map between generalized eigenfunctions of the perturbed and unperturbed operators. This map is the section at fixed energy of the wave-operator from the time dependent theory. Although the radiation condition does not appears explicitely in this formulation it can be shown to hold a posteriori in a variety of situations thus restoring the link with physical theories

  2. Stationary theory of scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, T.

    1977-01-01

    A variant of the stationary methods is described, and it is shown that it is useful in a wide range of problems, including scattering, by long-range potentials, two-space scattering, and multichannel scattering. The method is based on the notion of spectral forms. The paper is restricted to the simplest case of continuous spectral forms defined on a Banach space embedded in the basic Hilbert space. (P.D.)

  3. Are Nanoparticles Spherical or Quasi-Spherical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Stanislav V; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Tschulik, Kristina; Fletcher, Stephen; Compton, Richard G

    2015-07-20

    The geometry of quasi-spherical nanoparticles is investigated. The combination of SEM imaging and electrochemical nano-impact experiments is demonstrated to allow sizing and characterization of the geometry of single silver nanoparticles. © 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Spherical neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2006-11-21

    A spherical neutron generator is formed with a small spherical target and a spherical shell RF-driven plasma ion source surrounding the target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) ion plasma is produced by RF excitation in the plasma ion source using an RF antenna. The plasma generation region is a spherical shell between an outer chamber and an inner extraction electrode. A spherical neutron generating target is at the center of the chamber and is biased negatively with respect to the extraction electrode which contains many holes. Ions passing through the holes in the extraction electrode are focused onto the target which produces neutrons by D-D or D-T reactions.

  5. Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerin, Said

    2010-01-01

    Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas. Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies. In this paper, we focus on a…

  6. Magnetic vortex racetrack memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Liwei D.; Jin, Yongmei M., E-mail: ymjin@mtu.edu

    2017-02-01

    We report a new type of racetrack memory based on current-controlled movement of magnetic vortices in magnetic nanowires with rectangular cross-section and weak perpendicular anisotropy. Data are stored through the core polarity of vortices and each vortex carries a data bit. Besides high density, non-volatility, fast data access, and low power as offered by domain wall racetrack memory, magnetic vortex racetrack memory has additional advantages of no need for constrictions to define data bits, changeable information density, adjustable current magnitude for data propagation, and versatile means of ultrafast vortex core switching. By using micromagnetic simulations, current-controlled motion of magnetic vortices in cobalt nanowire is demonstrated for racetrack memory applications. - Highlights: • Advance fundamental knowledge of current-driven magnetic vortex phenomena. • Report appealing new magnetic racetrack memory based on current-controlled magnetic vortices in nanowires. • Provide a novel approach to adjust current magnitude for data propagation. • Overcome the limitations of domain wall racetrack memory.

  7. Stationary flow near fronts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhold Steinacker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1906, the Austrian scientist Max Margules published a paper on temperature stratification in resting and non-accelerated moving air. The paper derives conditions for stationary slopes of air mass boundaries and was an important forerunner of frontal theories. Its formulation of relations between changes in density and geostrophic wind across the front is basically a discrete version of the thermal wind balance equation. The paper was highly influential and is still being cited to the present day. This paper accompanies an English translation of Margules’ seminal paper. We conclude here our “Classic Papers” series of the Meteorologische Zeitschrift.

  8. Clinical impact of quantitative left atrial vortex flow analysis in patients with atrial fibrillation: a comparison with invasive left atrial voltage mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Myung; Hong, Geu-Ru; Pak, Hui-Nam; Shim, Chi Young; Houle, Helene; Vannan, Mani A; Kim, Minji; Chung, Namsik

    2015-08-01

    Recently, left atrial (LA) vortex flow analysis using contrast transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been shown to be feasible and has demonstrated significant differences in vortex flow morphology and pulsatility between normal subjects and patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the relationship between LA vortex flow and electrophysiological properties and the clinical significance of LA vortex flow are unknown. The aims of this study were (1) to compare LA vortex flow parameters with LA voltage and (2) to assess the predictive value of LA vortex flow parameters for the recurrence of AF after radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). Thirty-nine patients with symptomatic non-valvular AF underwent contrast TEE before undergoing RFCA for AF. Quantitative LA vortex flow parameters were analyzed by Omega flow (Siemens Medical Solution, Mountain View, CA, USA). The morphology and pulsatility of LA vortex flow were compared with electrophysiologic parameters that were measured invasively. Hemodynamic, electrophysiological, and vortex flow parameters were compared between patients with and without early recurrence of AF after RFCA. Morphologic parameters, including LA vortex depth, length, width, and sphericity index were not associated with LA voltage or hemodynamic parameters. The relative strength (RS), which represents the pulsatility power of LA, was positively correlated with LA voltage (R = 0.53, p = 0.01) and LA appendage flow velocity (R = 0.73, p vortex flow analysis, especially RS, correlated well with LA voltage. Decreased pulsatility strength in the LA was associated with recurrent AF. LA vortex may have incremental value in predicting the recurrence of AF.

  9. The Stationary SQUID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jorge

    2018-06-01

    In the customary mode of operation of a SQUID, the electromagnetic field in the SQUID is an oscillatory function of time. In this situation, electromagnetic radiation is emitted and couples to the sample. This is a back action that can alter the state that we intend to measure. A circuit that could perform as a stationary SQUID consists of a loop of superconducting material that encloses the magnetic flux, connected to a superconducting and to a normal electrode. This circuit does not contain Josephson junctions, or any other miniature feature. We study the evolution of the order parameter and of the electrochemical potential in this circuit; they converge to a stationary regime, and the voltage between the electrodes depends on the enclosed flux. We obtain expressions for the power dissipation and for the heat transported by the electric current; the validity of these expressions does not rely on a particular evolution model for the order parameter. We evaluate the influence of fluctuations. For a SQUID perimeter of the order of 1μ m and temperature 0.9T_c, we obtain a flux resolution of the order of 10^{-5}Φ _0/Hz^{1/2}; the resolution is expected to improve as the temperature is lowered.

  10. Stationary flywheel energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilhaus, A; Hau, E; Gassner, G; Huss, G; Schauberger, H

    1981-01-01

    The aim of this system study is to find out industrial applications of stationary flywheel energy accumulators. The economic value for the consumer and the effects on the power supply grid are investigated. Up to now, stationary flywheel energy accumulators have only been used in a small range. The main reason for thinking of the application in a wider range was the hope that those could be used economically for lowering the maximum output demand of the power supply grid. The possible savings in energy costs, however, proved to be too small for paying back the investment costs. Further benefits are necessary for advantageous application. As to overall economy, compensation of short time maximum power output seems to be more favorable at the power stations. An additional possibility for energy storage by flywheels is given where otherwise lost energy can be used effectively, according to the successful brake energy storage in vehicles. Under this aspect the future use of flywheels in wind-power-plants seems to be promising. Attractive savings of energy can be obtained by introducing modern flywheel technology for emergency power supply units which are employed for instance in telecommunication systems. Especially the application for emergency power supply, in power stations and in combustion with wind energy converters need further investigation.

  11. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  12. Precessing vortex core in a swirling wake with heat release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunova, A.; Klimov, A.; Molevich, N.; Moralev, I.; Porfiriev, D.; Sugak, S.; Zavershinskii, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Precessing vortex core is left-handed co-rotated bending single-vortex structure. • The precession frequency grows with the heat-source power. • Growth of the heat-source power decreases vortex core oscillations. • The left-handed bending mode is the most unstable mode in the low-density wake. - Abstract: Numerical simulation of the non-stationary three-dimensional swirling flow is presented for an open tube with a paraxial heat source. In the considered type of swirling flows, it is shown that a precessing vortex core (PVC) appears. The obtained PVC is a left-handed co-rotated bending single-vortex structure. The influence of the heat release enhancement on parameters of PVC is investigated. Using various turbulence models (the Spalart–Allmaras, k–ω and SST models), it is shown that an increase in the heat-source power leads to an increase in the PVC frequency and to a decrease in the amplitude of PVC oscillations. Moreover, we conduct the linear stability analysis of the simplified flow model with paraxial heating (the Rankine vortex with the piecewise axial flow and density) and demonstrate that its results correspond to the results of numerical simulations rather well. In particular, we prove that the left-handed bending mode (m = +1) is the most unstable one in the low-density wake and its frequency increases with a decrease of density ratio that is similar to the behavior of precession frequency with an increase of heat-source power.

  13. Soliton on thin vortex filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Kimiaki; Mituhashi, Masahiko; Ichikawa, Y.H.

    1990-12-01

    Showing that one of the equations found by Wadati, Konno and Ichikawa is equivalent to the equation of motion of a thin vortex filament, we investigate solitons on the vortex filament. N vortex soliton solution is given in terms of the inverse scattering method. We examine two soliton collision processes on the filament. Our analysis provides the theoretical foundation of two soliton collision processes observed numerically by Aref and Flinchem. (author)

  14. Aircraft Wake Vortex Deformation in Turbulent Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Hennemann, Ingo; Holzaepfel, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale distortion of aircraft wake vortices appears to play a crucial role for aircraft safety during approach and landing. Vortex distortion is investigated based on large eddy simulations of wake vortex evolution in a turbulent atmosphere. A vortex identification method is developed that can be adapted to the vortex scales of interest. Based on the identified vortex center tracks, a statistics of vortex curvature radii is established. This statistics constitutes the basis for understan...

  15. Detection and direction discrimination of single vortex rings by harbour seals (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Yvonne; Hanke, Wolf; Miersch, Lars; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2018-04-25

    Harbour seals possess highly sensitive vibrissae that enable them to track hydrodynamic trails left behind by a swimming fish. Most of these trails contain vortex rings as a main hydrodynamic component. They may reveal information about their generator as the trails differ depending on the fish species, the fish's body shape, size and swimming style. In addition, fish generate single vortex rings in diverse natural situations. In this study, the ability of blindfolded stationary harbour seals to detect and analyse single vortex rings regarding directional information has been investigated. In three different behavioural experiments, the animals were trained to respond to single artificially generated vortex rings. The results show that harbour seals are able to respond to a variety of different vortex rings upon vibrissal stimulation. The investigation of the minimum hydrodynamically perceivable angle revealed that it is at least as small as 5.7 deg, which was the smallest adjustable angle. Moreover, harbour seals are capable of analysing the travel direction of a vortex ring perceived by the mystacial vibrissae irrespective of whether the vibrissae were stimulated ipsilaterally or contralaterally. In situations in which no complex hydrodynamic trail is available, it is advantageous for a hunting seal to be able to extract information from a single vortex ring. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Identification of vortexes obstructing the dynamo mechanism in laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limone, A.; Hatch, D. R.; Forest, C. B.; Jenko, F.

    2013-06-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic dynamo effect explains the generation of self-sustained magnetic fields in electrically conducting flows, especially in geo- and astrophysical environments. Yet the details of this mechanism are still unknown, e.g., how and to which extent the geometry, the fluid topology, the forcing mechanism, and the turbulence can have a negative effect on this process. We report on numerical simulations carried out in spherical geometry, analyzing the predicted velocity flow with the so-called singular value decomposition, a powerful technique that allows us to precisely identify vortexes in the flow which would be difficult to characterize with conventional spectral methods. We then quantify the contribution of these vortexes to the growth rate of the magnetic energy in the system. We identify an axisymmetric vortex, whose rotational direction changes periodically in time, and whose dynamics are decoupled from those of the large scale background flow, that is detrimental for the dynamo effect. A comparison with experiments is carried out, showing that similar dynamics were observed in cylindrical geometry. These previously unexpected eddies, which impede the dynamo effect, offer an explanation for the experimental difficulties in attaining a dynamo in spherical geometry.

  17. Stationary and Transient Response Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Krenk, Steen

    1982-01-01

    The covariance functions for the transient response of a linear MDOF-system due to stationary time limited excitation with an arbitrary frequency content are related directly to the covariance functions of the stationary response. For rational spectral density functions closed form expressions fo...

  18. The Acoustically Driven Vortex Cannon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Spencer B.; Gee, Kent L.

    2014-01-01

    Vortex cannons have been used by physics teachers for years, mostly to teach the continuity principle. In its simplest form, a vortex cannon is an empty coffee can with a hole cut in the bottom and the lid replaced. More elaborate models can be purchased through various scientific suppliers under names such as "Air Cannon" and…

  19. Vortex lattices in layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokic, V.; Davidovic, D.; Dobrosavljevic-Grujic, L.

    1995-01-01

    We study vortex lattices in a superconductor--normal-metal superlattice in a parallel magnetic field. Distorted lattices, resulting from the shear deformations along the layers, are found to be unstable. Under field variation, nonequilibrium configurations undergo an infinite sequence of continuous transitions, typical for soft lattices. The equilibrium vortex arrangement is always a lattice of isocell triangles, without shear

  20. Magnetic vortex filament flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Manuel; Cabrerizo, Jose L.; Fernandez, Manuel; Romero, Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    We exhibit a variational approach to study the magnetic flow associated with a Killing magnetic field in dimension 3. In this context, the solutions of the Lorentz force equation are viewed as Kirchhoff elastic rods and conversely. This provides an amazing connection between two apparently unrelated physical models and, in particular, it ties the classical elastic theory with the Hall effect. Then, these magnetic flows can be regarded as vortex filament flows within the localized induction approximation. The Hasimoto transformation can be used to see the magnetic trajectories as solutions of the cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation showing the solitonic nature of those

  1. Decreasing vortex flux in channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migaj, V.K.; Nosova, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    A new method for reducing vortex flow losses in power plant channels is suggested. The method is based on vortex splitting in vortex flow areas with transverse barriers placed on the channel walls. The upper barrier ends are at the level of the upper boundary of the vortex area and don't protrude to the active flow beyond this boundary. The effectiveness of the method suggested is illustrated taking as an example the investigation of square and flat channels with abrupt widening in one plane, diffusers with widening in one plane, or a rectangualr bend. It is shown that splitting the vortex areas with transverse barriers in the channels results in reduction of hydraulic losses by 10-25%. The above method is characteristic of an extreme simplicity, its application doesn't require changes in the channel shape nor installation of any devices in the flow

  2. Instability of vortex pair leapfrogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tophøj, Laust; Aref, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Leapfrogging is a periodic solution of the four-vortex problem with two positive and two negative point vortices all of the same absolute circulation arranged as co-axial vortex pairs. The set of co-axial motions can be parameterized by the ratio 0 vortex pair sizes at the time when one...... pair passes through the other. Leapfrogging occurs for α > σ2, where is the silver ratio. The motion is known in full analytical detail since the 1877 thesis of Gröbli and a well known 1894 paper by Love. Acheson ["Instability of vortex leapfrogging," Eur. J. Phys.21, 269-273 (2000...... pairs fly off to infinity, and a "walkabout" mode, where the vortices depart from leapfrogging but still remain within a finite distance of one another. We show numerically that this transition is more gradual, a result that we relate to earlier investigations of chaotic scattering of vortex pairs [L...

  3. On the Gross–Pitaevskii Equation with Pumping and Decay: Stationary States and Their Stability

    KAUST Repository

    Sierra Nunez, Jesus Alfredo; Kasimov, Aslan R.; Markowich, Peter A.; Weishä upl, Rada Maria

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of solutions of the complex Gross–Pitaevskii equation, a model that describes the dynamics of pumped decaying Bose–Einstein condensates. The stationary radially symmetric solutions of the equation are studied, and their linear stability with respect to two-dimensional perturbations is analyzed. Using numerical continuation, we calculate not only the ground state of the system, but also a number of excited states. Accurate numerical integration is employed to study the general nonlinear evolution of the system from the unstable stationary solutions to the formation of stable vortex patterns.

  4. On the Gross–Pitaevskii Equation with Pumping and Decay: Stationary States and Their Stability

    KAUST Repository

    Sierra Nunez, Jesus Alfredo

    2015-02-11

    We investigate the behavior of solutions of the complex Gross–Pitaevskii equation, a model that describes the dynamics of pumped decaying Bose–Einstein condensates. The stationary radially symmetric solutions of the equation are studied, and their linear stability with respect to two-dimensional perturbations is analyzed. Using numerical continuation, we calculate not only the ground state of the system, but also a number of excited states. Accurate numerical integration is employed to study the general nonlinear evolution of the system from the unstable stationary solutions to the formation of stable vortex patterns.

  5. Lift enhancement by trapped vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

  6. Vortex coupling in trailing vortex-wing interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Wang, Z.; Gursul, I.

    2018-03-01

    The interaction of trailing vortices of an upstream wing with rigid and flexible downstream wings has been investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel, using particle image velocimetry, hot-wire, force, and deformation measurements. Counter-rotating upstream vortices exhibit increased meandering when they are close to the tip of the downstream wing. The upstream vortex forms a pair with the vortex shed from the downstream wing and then exhibits large displacements around the wing tip. This coupled motion of the pair has been found to cause large lift fluctuations on the downstream wing. The meandering of the vortex pair occurs at the natural meandering frequency of the isolated vortex, with a low Strouhal number, and is not affected by the frequency of the large-amplitude wing oscillations if the downstream wing is flexible. The displacement of the leading vortex is larger than that of the trailing vortex; however, it causes highly correlated variations of the core radius, core vorticity, and circulation of the trailing vortex with the coupled meandering motion. In contrast, co-rotating vortices do not exhibit any increased meandering.

  7. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar

    2003-01-01

    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...

  8. A Coaxial Vortex Ring Model for Vortex Breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Blackmore, Denis; Brons, Morten; Goullet, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    A simple - yet plausible - model for B-type vortex breakdown flows is postulated; one that is based on the immersion of a pair of slender coaxial vortex rings in a swirling flow of an ideal fluid rotating around the axis of symmetry of the rings. It is shown that this model exhibits in the advection of passive fluid particles (kinematics) just about all of the characteristics that have been observed in what is now a substantial body of published research on the phenomenon of vortex breakdown....

  9. Control of vortex breakdown in a closed cylinder with a small rotating rod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo Jacono, D.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Thompson, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Effective control of vortex breakdown in a cylinder with a rotating lid was achieved with small rotating rods positioned on the stationary lid. After validation with accurate measurements using a novel stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) technique, analysis of numerical simulations using...... a high-order spectral element method has been undertaken. The effect of a finite length rod creates additional source terms of vorticity as the rod rotates. These additional source terms and their spatial locations influence the occurrence of the vortex breakdown....

  10. Vortex-vortex interactions in toroidally trapped Bose-Einstein condensates

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, T.; Santos, L.; Sanpera, A.; Lewenstein, M.

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the vortex dynamics and vortex-vortex interactions in Bose-Einstein condensates confined in toroidal traps. We show that this particular geometry strongly distorts the vortex dynamics. The numerically calculated vortex trajectories are well explained by an analytical calculation based on image method and conformal mapping. Finally, the dissipation effects are discussed.

  11. Cylindrical vortex wake model: right cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel; Gaunaa, Mac

    2015-01-01

    The vortex system consisting of a bound vortex disk, a root vortex and a vortex cylinder as introduced by Joukowski in 1912 is further studied in this paper. This system can be used for simple modeling of rotors (e.g. wind turbines) with infinite number of blades and finite tip-speed ratios....... For each vortex element, the velocity components in all directions and in the entire domain are computed analytically in a novel approach. In particular, the velocity field from the vortex actuator disk is derived for the first time. The induction from the entire vortex system is studied and is seen...

  12. Manipulation of vortex rings for flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Kuniaki; Hiramoto, Riho

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the dynamics of vortex rings and the control of flow by the manipulation of vortex rings. Vortex rings play key roles in many flows; hence, the understanding of the dynamics of vortex rings is crucial for scientists and engineers dealing with flow phenomena. We describe the structures and motions of vortex rings in circular and noncircular jets, which are typical examples of flows evolving into vortex rings. For circular jets the mechanism of evolving, merging and breakdown of vortex rings is described, and for noncircular jets the dynamics of three-dimensional deformation and interaction of noncircular vortex rings under the effect of self- and mutual induction is discussed. The application of vortex-ring manipulation to the control of various flows is reviewed with successful examples, based on the relationship between the vortex ring dynamics and the flow properties. (invited paper)

  13. Phenomenological Model of Vortex Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Westergaard, C.

    1995-01-01

    For some time attempts have been made to improve the power curve of stall regulated wind turbines by using devices like vortex generators VG and Gurney flaps. The vortex produces an additional mixing of the boundary layer and the free stream and thereby increasing the momentum close to the wall......, which again delays separation in adverse pressure gradient regions. A model is needed to include the effect of vortex generators in numerical computations of the viscous flow past rotors. In this paper a simple model is proposed....

  14. Review of Vortex Methods for Simulation of Vortex Breakdown

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levinski, Oleg

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify current developments in the field of vortex breakdown modelling in order to initiate the development of a numerical model for the simulation of F/A-18 empennage buffet...

  15. Melting of heterogeneous vortex matter: The vortex 'nanoliquid'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E ZELDOV2, A SOIBEL3, F de la CRUZ4,CJ van der BEEK5,. M KONCZYKOWSKI5, T ... 2Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot. 76100, Israel ..... heterogeneous nature of the vortex nanoliquid.

  16. Dynamic signatures of driven vortex motion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.; Lopez, D.; Olsson, R. J.; Paulius, L. M.; Petrean, A. M.; Safar, H.

    1999-09-16

    We probe the dynamic nature of driven vortex motion in superconductors with a new type of transport experiment. An inhomogeneous Lorentz driving force is applied to the sample, inducing vortex velocity gradients that distinguish the hydrodynamic motion of the vortex liquid from the elastic and-plastic motion of the vortex solid. We observe elastic depinning of the vortex lattice at the critical current, and shear induced plastic slip of the lattice at high Lorentz force gradients.

  17. Multiple helical modes of vortex breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Naumov, I. V.; Okulov, Valery

    2011-01-01

    Experimental observations of vortex breakdown in a rotating lid-driven cavity are presented. The results show that vortex breakdown for cavities with high aspect ratios is associated with the appearance of stable helical vortex multiplets. By using results from stability theory generalizing Kelvi......’s problem on vortex polygon stability, and systematically exploring the cavity flow, we succeeded in identifying two new stable vortex breakdown states consisting of triple and quadruple helical multiplets....

  18. Vortex cores and vortex motion in superconductors with anisotropic Fermi surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvis, J.A. [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Facultad de ingeniería y Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Central, Bogotá (Colombia); National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Herrera, E.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S. [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada de Altos Campos Magnéticos y Bajas Temperaturas, UAM, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Suderow, H., E-mail: hermann.suderow@uam.es [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada de Altos Campos Magnéticos y Bajas Temperaturas, UAM, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The observation of vortex cores is reviewed, with emphasis in new experiments. • Vortex cores are follow superconducting gap and Fermi surface shapes. • The vortex core shape influences vortex dynamics. - Abstract: Explaning static and dynamic properties of the vortex lattice in anisotropic superconductors requires a careful characterization of vortex cores. The vortex core contains Andreev bound states whose spatial extension depends on the anisotropy of the electronic band-structure and superconducting gap. This might have an impact on the anisotropy of the superconducting properties and on vortex dynamics. Here we briefly summarize basic concepts to understand anisotropic vortex cores and review vortex core imaging experiments. We further discuss moving vortex lattices and the influence of vortex core shape in vortex motion. We find vortex motion in highly tilted magnetic fields. We associate vortex motion to the vortex entry barrier and the screening currents at the surface. We find preferential vortex motion along the main axis of the vortex lattice. After travelling integers of the intervortex distance, we find that vortices move more slowly due to the washboard potential of the vortex lattice.

  19. Vortex cores and vortex motion in superconductors with anisotropic Fermi surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvis, J.A.; Herrera, E.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The observation of vortex cores is reviewed, with emphasis in new experiments. • Vortex cores are follow superconducting gap and Fermi surface shapes. • The vortex core shape influences vortex dynamics. - Abstract: Explaning static and dynamic properties of the vortex lattice in anisotropic superconductors requires a careful characterization of vortex cores. The vortex core contains Andreev bound states whose spatial extension depends on the anisotropy of the electronic band-structure and superconducting gap. This might have an impact on the anisotropy of the superconducting properties and on vortex dynamics. Here we briefly summarize basic concepts to understand anisotropic vortex cores and review vortex core imaging experiments. We further discuss moving vortex lattices and the influence of vortex core shape in vortex motion. We find vortex motion in highly tilted magnetic fields. We associate vortex motion to the vortex entry barrier and the screening currents at the surface. We find preferential vortex motion along the main axis of the vortex lattice. After travelling integers of the intervortex distance, we find that vortices move more slowly due to the washboard potential of the vortex lattice.

  20. Vortex loops and Majoranas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesi, Stefano; Jaffe, Arthur; Loss, Daniel; Pedrocchi, Fabio L.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the role that vortex loops play in characterizing eigenstates of interacting Majoranas. We give some general results and then focus on ladder Hamiltonian examples as a test of further ideas. Two methods yield exact results: (i) A mapping of certain spin Hamiltonians to quartic interactions of Majoranas shows that the spectra of these two examples coincide. (ii) In cases with reflection-symmetric Hamiltonians, we use reflection positivity for Majoranas to characterize vortices in the ground states. Two additional methods suggest wider applicability of these results: (iii) Numerical evidence suggests similar behavior for certain systems without reflection symmetry. (iv) A perturbative analysis also suggests similar behavior without the assumption of reflection symmetry

  1. Vortex gas lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Berschauer, Andrew; Parker, Timothy W.; Vickers, Jesse E.

    1989-01-01

    A vortex gas lens concept is presented. Such a lens has a potential power density capability of 10 to the 9th - 10 to the 10th w/sq cm. An experimental prototype was constructed, and the divergence half angle of the exiting beam was measured as a function of the lens operating parameters. Reasonably good agreement is found between the experimental results and theoretical calculations. The expanded beam was observed to be steady, and no strong, potentially beam-degrading jets were found to issue from the ends of the lens. Estimates of random beam deflection angles to be expected due to boundary layer noise are presented; these angles are very small.

  2. Vortex electronis and squids

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the nature of vortices in high-Tc superconductors is a crucial subject for research on superconductive electronics, especially for superconducting interference devices (SQUIDs), it is also a fundamental problem in condensed-matter physics. Recent technological progress in methods for both direct and indirect observation of vortices, e.g. scanning SQUID, terahertz imaging, and microwave excitation, has led to new insights into vortex physics, the dynamic behavior of vortices in junctions and related questions of noise. This book presents the current status of research activity and provides new information on the applications of SQUIDs, including magnetocardiography, immunoassays, and laser-SQUID microscopes, all of which are close to being commercially available.

  3. Spherical rhenium metal powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, T.; Moore, N.; Hamister, M.

    2001-01-01

    The development of a high-density, spherical rhenium powder (SReP) possessing excellent flow characteristics has enabled the use of advanced processing techniques for the manufacture of rhenium components. The techniques that were investigated were vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), direct-hot isostatic pressing (D-HIP), and various other traditional powder metallurgy processing methods of forming rhenium powder into near-net shaped components. The principal disadvantages of standard rhenium metal powder (RMP) for advanced consolidation applications include: poor flow characteristics; high oxygen content; and low and varying packing densities. SReP will lower costs, reduce processing times, and improve yields when manufacturing powder metallurgy rhenium components. The results of the powder characterization of spherical rhenium powder and the consolidation of the SReP are further discussed. (author)

  4. Spherical proton emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, S.; Semmes, P.B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    1997-01-01

    Various theoretical approaches to proton emission from spherical nuclei are investigated, and it is found that all the methods employed give very similar results. The calculated decay widths are found to be qualitatively insensitive to the parameters of the proton-nucleus potential, i.e., changing the potential parameters over a fairly large range typically changes the decay width by no more than a factor of ∼3. Proton half-lives of observed heavy proton emitters are, in general, well reproduced by spherical calculations with the spectroscopic factors calculated in the independent quasiparticle approximation. The quantitative agreement with experimental data obtained in our study requires that the parameters of the proton-nucleus potential be chosen carefully. It also suggests that deformed proton emitters will provide invaluable spectroscopic information on the angular momentum decomposition of single-proton orbitals in deformed nuclei. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar

    2003-01-01

    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...... a single central section of the object. We use maximum-likelihood-based inference for this purpose and demonstrate the suggested methods on real data....

  6. Vortex-induced vibrations of a DU96-W-180 airfoil at 90° angle of attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Gaunaa, Mac; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of vortex-induced vibrations of a DU96-W-180 airfoil in deep stall at a 90 degrees angle of attack, based on 2D and 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes and 3D Detached Eddy Simulation unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics computations with non-moving, prescribed motion...... and elastically mounted airfoil suspensions. Stationary vortex-shedding frequencies computed in 2D and 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics differed. In the prescribed motion computations, the airfoil oscillated in the direction of the chord line. Negative aerodynamic damping, found in both 2D and 3D Computational...... Fluid Dynamics computations with moving airfoil, showed in the vicinity of the stationary vortex-shedding frequency computed by 2D Computational Fluid Dynamics. A shorter time series was sufficient to verify the sign of the aerodynamic damping in the case of the elastic computations than the prescribed...

  7. Amplitude damping of vortex modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An interferometer, mimicking an amplitude damping channel for vortex modes, is presented. Experimentally the action of the channel is in good agreement with that predicted theoretically. Since we can characterize the action of the channel on orbital...

  8. Effect of longitudinal and transverse vibrations of an upstream square cylinder on vortex shedding behind two inline square cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Pratish P; Tiwari, Shaligram

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of unsteady wakes behind a stationary square cylinder and another upstream vibrating square cylinder have been investigated numerically with the help of a developed computational code. The effect of longitudinal as well as transverse vibrations of the upstream cylinder is studied on the coupled wake between the two cylinders, which is found to control the vortex shedding behavior behind the downstream stationary cylinder. Computations are carried out for a fixed value of Reynolds number (Re = 200) and three different values of excitation frequencies of the upstream cylinder, namely less than, equal to and greater than the natural frequency of vortex shedding corresponding to flow past a stationary square cylinder. The vortex shedding characteristics of the unsteady wakes behind the vibrating and stationary cylinders are found to differ significantly for longitudinal and transverse modes of vibration of the upstream cylinder. The wake of the downstream stationary cylinder is found to depict a synchronization behavior with the upstream cylinder vibration. The spacing between the two cylinders has been identified to be the key parameter influencing the synchronization phenomenon. The effect of cylinder spacing on the wake synchronization and the hydrodynamic forces has been examined. In addition, a comparison of the drag forces for flow past transversely vibrating square and circular cylinders for similar amplitudes and frequencies of cylinder vibration has been presented while employing the tested computational code.

  9. Imaging of artificially induced vortex structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasano, Yanina; Menghini, M.; Cruz, F. de la

    2004-01-01

    The combination of engineered pinning potentials in superconducting crystals, the detection of the liquid-solid vortex transition and the observation of the vortex structure with single vortex sensitivity allow the microscopic analysis of the response of 3D elastic systems to the presence of these potentials. In this work we review recent results obtained by a combination of those techniques studying different vortex structure induced transformations. On the one hand, we have visualized the transformation, along the vortex direction, of a bulk vortex single crystal with hexagonal symmetry into another crystal with square symmetry induced by an engineered Fe-dot lattice deposited on a surface of the vortex single crystal. On the other hand, we found an infrequent first-order phase transition where a vortex liquid under the presence of a random correlated potential (columnar defects) transforms into a vortex solid with no change of topological order

  10. Optical vortex scanning inside the Gaussian beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masajada, J; Leniec, M; Augustyniak, I

    2011-01-01

    We discussed a new scanning method for optical vortex-based scanning microscopy. The optical vortex is introduced into the incident Gaussian beam by a vortex lens. Then the beam with the optical vortex is focused by an objective and illuminates the sample. By changing the position of the vortex lens we can shift the optical vortex position at the sample plane. By adjusting system parameters we can get 30 times smaller shift at the sample plane compared to the vortex lens shift. Moreover, if the range of vortex shifts is smaller than 3% of the beam radius in the sample plane the amplitude and phase distribution around the phase dislocation remains practically unchanged. Thus we can scan the sample topography precisely with an optical vortex

  11. Plasmonic vortex generator without polarization dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Liu, Lixia; Liu, Chunxiang; Li, Xing; Wang, Shuyun; Xu, Qing; Teng, Shuyun

    2018-03-01

    In view of the limitations of vortex generators with polarization dependence at present, we propose a plasmonic vortex generator composed of rectangular holes etched in silver film, in which the optical vortex can be generated under arbitrary linearly polarized light illumination. Two sets of rectangular holes are arranged equidistantly on a circle and rotate in postulate directions. Theoretical analysis provides the design principle for the vortex generator, and numerical simulations give guidance on designating the vortex generator parameters. Experimental measurements verify the performance of the proposed vortex generator. Moreover, two alternative structures for the generation of a plasmonic vortex are also provided in this paper. The resulting perfect vortex, compact structure and flexible illumination conditions will lead to wide applications of this plasmonic vortex generator.

  12. Fundamentals of spherical array processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rafaely, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice of spherical microphone arrays. It is written for graduate students, researchers and engineers who work with spherical microphone arrays in a wide range of applications.   The first two chapters provide the reader with the necessary mathematical and physical background, including an introduction to the spherical Fourier transform and the formulation of plane-wave sound fields in the spherical harmonic domain. The third chapter covers the theory of spatial sampling, employed when selecting the positions of microphones to sample sound pressure functions in space. Subsequent chapters present various spherical array configurations, including the popular rigid-sphere-based configuration. Beamforming (spatial filtering) in the spherical harmonics domain, including axis-symmetric beamforming, and the performance measures of directivity index and white noise gain are introduced, and a range of optimal beamformers for spherical arrays, includi...

  13. Nonlinear vortex structures and Rayleigh instability condition in shear flow plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Q.; Saleem, H.; Mirza, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: It is shown that the shear flow produced by externally applied electric field can unstable the drift waves. Due to shear flow, the Rayleigh instability condition is modified, which is obtained for both electron-ion and electron-positron-ion plasmas. These shear flow driven drift waves can be responsible for large amplitude electrostatic fluctuations in tokamak edges. In the nonlinear regime, the stationary structures may appear in electron-positron-ion plasmas similar to electron-ion plasmas. The nonlinear vortex structures like counter rotating dipole vortices and vortex chains can be formed with the aid of special type of shear flows. The positrons can be used as a probe in laboratory plasmas, which make it a multi-component plasma. The presence of positrons in electron-ion plasma system can affect the speed and amplitude of the nonlinear vortex structures. This investigation can have application in both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. (author)

  14. Tripolar vortex formation in dense quantum plasma with ion-temperature-gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Anisa; Ata-ur-Rahman, Mirza, Arshad M.

    2012-05-01

    We have derived system of nonlinear equations governing the dynamics of low-frequency electrostatic toroidal ion-temperature-gradient mode for dense quantum magnetoplasma. For some specific profiles of the equilibrium density, temperature, and ion velocity gradients, the nonlinear equations admit a stationary solution in the form of a tripolar vortex. These results are relevant to understand nonlinear structure formation in dense quantum plasmas in the presence of equilibrium ion-temperature and density gradients.

  15. Tripolar vortex formation in dense quantum plasma with ion-temperature-gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamar, Anisa; Ata-ur-Rahman [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa 25000 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics Shahdrah Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mirza, Arshad M. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Physics Department, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2012-05-15

    We have derived system of nonlinear equations governing the dynamics of low-frequency electrostatic toroidal ion-temperature-gradient mode for dense quantum magnetoplasma. For some specific profiles of the equilibrium density, temperature, and ion velocity gradients, the nonlinear equations admit a stationary solution in the form of a tripolar vortex. These results are relevant to understand nonlinear structure formation in dense quantum plasmas in the presence of equilibrium ion-temperature and density gradients.

  16. Tripolar vortex formation in dense quantum plasma with ion-temperature-gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, Anisa; Ata-ur-Rahman; Mirza, Arshad M.

    2012-01-01

    We have derived system of nonlinear equations governing the dynamics of low-frequency electrostatic toroidal ion-temperature-gradient mode for dense quantum magnetoplasma. For some specific profiles of the equilibrium density, temperature, and ion velocity gradients, the nonlinear equations admit a stationary solution in the form of a tripolar vortex. These results are relevant to understand nonlinear structure formation in dense quantum plasmas in the presence of equilibrium ion-temperature and density gradients.

  17. Regimes of flow past a vortex generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, V.L.; Naumov, I.V.

    2012-01-01

    A complete parametric investigation of the development of multi-vortex regimes in a wake past simple vortex generator has been carried out. It is established that the vortex structure in the wake is much more complicated than a simple monopole tip vortex. The vortices were studied by stereoscopic...... particle image velocimetry (SPIV). Based on the obtained SPIV data, a map of the regimes of flow past the vortex generator has been constructed. One region with a developed stable multivortex system on this map reaches the vicinity of the optimum angle of attack of the vortex generator....

  18. Holographic Spherically Symmetric Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Michael

    The holographic principle (HP) conjectures, that the maximum number of degrees of freedom of any realistic physical system is proportional to the system's boundary area. The HP has its roots in the study of black holes. It has recently been applied to cosmological solutions. In this article we apply the HP to spherically symmetric static space-times. We find that any regular spherically symmetric object saturating the HP is subject to tight constraints on the (interior) metric, energy-density, temperature and entropy-density. Whenever gravity can be described by a metric theory, gravity is macroscopically scale invariant and the laws of thermodynamics hold locally and globally, the (interior) metric of a regular holographic object is uniquely determined up to a constant factor and the interior matter-state must follow well defined scaling relations. When the metric theory of gravity is general relativity, the interior matter has an overall string equation of state (EOS) and a unique total energy-density. Thus the holographic metric derived in this article can serve as simple interior 4D realization of Mathur's string fuzzball proposal. Some properties of the holographic metric and its possible experimental verification are discussed. The geodesics of the holographic metric describe an isotropically expanding (or contracting) universe with a nearly homogeneous matter-distribution within the local Hubble volume. Due to the overall string EOS the active gravitational mass-density is zero, resulting in a coasting expansion with Ht = 1, which is compatible with the recent GRB-data.

  19. Market response to external events and interventions in spherical minority games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, P; Coolen, A C C

    2008-01-01

    We solve the dynamics of large spherical minority games (MG) in the presence of non-negligible time-dependent external contributions to the overall market bid. The latter represent the actions of market regulators or other major natural or political events that impact on the market. In contrast to non-spherical MGs, the spherical formulation allows one to derive closed dynamical order parameter equations in an explicit form and work out the market's response to such events fully analytically. We focus on a comparison between the response to stationary versus oscillating market interventions, and reveal profound and partially unexpected differences in terms of transition lines and the volatility

  20. The stationary neutron radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, A.A.; Newell, D.L.; Heidel, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    To provide the high intensity neutron beam and support systems necessary for radiography, the Stationary Neutron Radiography System was constructed at McClellan Air Force Base. The Stationary Neutron Radiography System utilizes a one megawatt TRIGA reactor contained in an Aluminium tank surrounded by eight foot thick concrete walls. There are four neutron beam tubes at inclined angles from the reactor core to separate radiography bays. In three of the bays, robotic systems manipulate aircraft components in the neutron beam, while real-time imaging systems provide images concurrent with the irradiation. Film radiography of smaller components is performed in the remaining bay

  1. Green functions of vortex operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, J.; California Univ., Berkeley

    1981-01-01

    We study the euclidean Green functions of the 't Hooft vortex operator, primarly for abelian gauge theories. The operator is written in terms of elementary fields, with emphasis on a form in which it appears as the exponential of a surface integral. We explore the requirement that the Green functions depend only on the boundary of this surface. The Dirac veto problem appears in a new guise. We present a two-dimensional solvable model of a Dirac string, which suggests a new solution of the veto problem. The renormalization of the Green functions of the abelian Wilson loop and abelian vortex operator is studied with the aid of the operator product expansion. In each case, an overall multiplication of the operator makes all Green functions finite; a surprising cancellation of divergences occurs with the vortex operator. We present a brief discussion of the relation between the nature of the vacuum and the cluster properties of the Green functions of the Wilson and vortex operators, for a general gauge theory. The surface-like cluster property of the vortex operator in an abelian Higgs theory is explored in more detail. (orig.)

  2. Point vortex modelling of the wake dynamics behind asymmetric vortex generator arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldacchino, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.; Ragni, D.; van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a simple inviscid point vortex model to study the dynamics of asymmetric vortex rows, as might appear behind misaligned vortex generator vanes. Starting from the existing solution of the in_nite vortex cascade, a numerical model of four base-vortices is chosen to represent

  3. Evolution of the spherical clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdin, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    The possible processes of the Galaxy spherical clusters formation and evolution are described on a popular level. The orbits of spherical cluster motion and their spatial velocities are determined. Given are the distrbutions of spherical cluster stars according to their velocities and the observed distribution of spherical clusters in the area of the Galaxy slow evolution. The dissipation and dynamic friction processes destructing clusters with the mass less than 10 4 of solar mass and bringing about the reduction of clusters in the Galaxy are considered. The paradox of forming mainly X-ray sources in spherical clusters is explained. The schematic image of possible ways of forming X-ray sources in spherical clusters is given

  4. Three-dimensional ray tracing in spherical and elliptical generalized Luneburg lenses for application in the human eye lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Correa, J E; Coello, V; Garza-Rivera, A; Puente, N P; Chávez-Cerda, S

    2016-03-10

    Ray tracing in spherical Luneburg lenses has always been represented in 2D. All propagation planes in a 3D spherical Luneburg lens generate the same ray tracing, due to its radial symmetry. A geometry without radial symmetry generates a different ray tracing. For this reason, a new ray tracing method in 3D through spherical and elliptical Luneburg lenses using 2D methods is proposed. The physics of the propagation is shown here, which allows us to make a ray tracing associated with a vortex beam. A 3D ray tracing in a composite modified Luneburg lens that represents the human eye lens is also presented.

  5. Vortex rings in classical and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenghi, C F; Donnelly, R J

    2009-01-01

    The study of vortex rings has been pursued for decades and is a particularly difficult subject. However, the discovery of quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium has greatly increased interest in vortex rings with very thin cores. While rapid progress has been made in the simulation of quantized vortex rings, there has not been comparable progress in laboratory studies of vortex rings in a viscous fluid such as water. This article overviews the history and current frontiers of classical and quantum vortex rings. After introducing the classical results, this review discusses thin-cored vortex rings in superfluid helium in section 2, and recent progress in understanding vortex rings of very thin cores propagating in water in section 3. (invited paper)

  6. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma] (and others)

    2003-07-01

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  7. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes

    2003-01-01

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  8. Stationary drift-Rossby vortices in shear flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horihata, Satoshi; Irie, Haruyuki; Sato, Masatomo

    1990-01-01

    Starting from Hasegawa-Mima equation with the generalized vorticity q which describes both electrostatic drift waves in plasmas and Rossby waves in the atmosphere of rotating planets, the stationary solutions of this equation in the (x, y) plane were considered assuming that the equilibrium density no depends on x and the electron temperature T 0 is constant. The arbitrary function F(φ) yielded from integration of transformed Hasegawa-Mima equation was taken either linear or nonlinear in φ, where φ is the stream function. When F is linear, vortex solutions were obtained by dividing the entire plane into internal and external regions by a closed boundary curve. Imposing the boundary conditions at the boundary curve, the constants in the solutions φ ex and φ in were determined. 4 examples are figured. When F is nonlinear, isolated (localized) vortex was considered. Deriving the equation to determine F, the equation for ψ, the internal vortical motion beyond the boundary was given. 2 examples are shown. (M.T.)

  9. Backreaction of excitations on a vortex

    OpenAIRE

    Arodz, Henryk; Hadasz, Leszek

    1996-01-01

    Excitations of a vortex are usually considered in a linear approximation neglecting their backreaction on the vortex. In the present paper we investigate backreaction of Proca type excitations on a straightlinear vortex in the Abelian Higgs model. We propose exact Ansatz for fields of the excited vortex. From initial set of six nonlinear field equations we obtain (in a limit of weak excitations) two linear wave equations for the backreaction corrections. Their approximate solutions are found ...

  10. Stationary measure in the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, Andrei; Vanchurin, Vitaly; Winitzki, Sergei

    2009-01-01

    We study the recently proposed ''stationary measure'' in the context of the string landscape scenario. We show that it suffers neither from the ''Boltzmann brain'' problem nor from the ''youngness'' paradox that makes some other measures predict a high CMB temperature at present. We also demonstrate a good performance of this measure in predicting the results of local experiments, such as proton decay

  11. Spherical grating spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh; Clemens, J. Christopher

    2014-07-01

    We describe designs for spectrometers employing convex dispersers. The Offner spectrometer was the first such instrument; it has almost exclusively been employed on satellite platforms, and has had little impact on ground-based instruments. We have learned how to fabricate curved Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings and, in contrast to the planar gratings of traditional spectrometers, describe how such devices can be used in optical/infrared spectrometers designed specifically for curved diffraction gratings. Volume Phase Holographic gratings are highly efficient compared to conventional surface relief gratings; they have become the disperser of choice in optical / NIR spectrometers. The advantage of spectrometers with curved VPH dispersers is the very small number of optical elements used (the simplest comprising a grating and a spherical mirror), as well as illumination of mirrors off axis, resulting in greater efficiency and reduction in size. We describe a "Half Offner" spectrometer, an even simpler version of the Offner spectrometer. We present an entirely novel design, the Spherical Transmission Grating Spectrometer (STGS), and discuss exemplary applications, including a design for a double-beam spectrometer without any requirement for a dichroic. This paradigm change in spectrometer design offers an alternative to all-refractive astronomical spectrometer designs, using expensive, fragile lens elements fabricated from CaF2 or even more exotic materials. The unobscured mirror layout avoids a major drawback of the previous generation of catadioptric spectrometer designs. We describe laboratory measurements of the efficiency and image quality of a curved VPH grating in a STGS design, demonstrating, simultaneously, efficiency comparable to planar VPH gratings along with good image quality. The stage is now set for construction of a prototype instrument with impressive performance.

  12. Vortex dynamics in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, M.; Krane, B.; Pecseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.

    1998-01-01

    Low frequency dynamics of electrostatic fluctuations in strongly magnetized plasmas have been studied. It was found that perturbations in density and potential can be very localized, indicating the applicability of an approximate description based on a finite number of vortices. A model based on a few isolated vortical structures is discussed, with particular attention to vortex collapse, where three vortices merge together within a finite time, or to the converse process, i.e. a vortex explosion. Details of these particular types of vortex dynamics depend on the actual model used for describing the electrons, the presence of a Debye shielding in particular. A ''boomerang''-type of evolution was found, where three shielded vortices expand initially, just as their unshielded counterparts, but eventually the expansion is arrested, and they start converging to collapse ultimately. The study is extended by a numerical simulation where the point model is relaxed to a continuous, but localized, vorticity distribution with finite size vortices. (orig.)

  13. Non-Abelian vortex lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarita, Gianni; Peterson, Adam

    2018-04-01

    We perform a numerical study of the phase diagram of the model proposed in [M. Shifman, Phys. Rev. D 87, 025025 (2013)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.87.025025], which is a simple model containing non-Abelian vortices. As per the case of Abrikosov vortices, we map out a region of parameter space in which the system prefers the formation of vortices in ordered lattice structures. These are generalizations of Abrikosov vortex lattices with extra orientational moduli in the vortex cores. At sufficiently large lattice spacing the low energy theory is described by a sum of C P (1 ) theories, each located on a vortex site. As the lattice spacing becomes smaller, when the self-interaction of the orientational field becomes relevant, only an overall rotation in internal space survives.

  14. Magnetic Vortex Based Transistor Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Barman, S.; Barman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Transistors constitute the backbone of modern day electronics. Since their advent, researchers have been seeking ways to make smaller and more efficient transistors. Here, we demonstrate a sustained amplification of magnetic vortex core gyration in coupled two and three vortices by controlling their relative core polarities. This amplification is mediated by a cascade of antivortex solitons travelling through the dynamic stray field. We further demonstrated that the amplification can be controlled by switching the polarity of the middle vortex in a three vortex sequence and the gain can be controlled by the input signal amplitude. An attempt to show fan–out operation yielded gain for one of the symmetrically placed branches which can be reversed by switching the core polarity of all the vortices in the network. The above observations promote the magnetic vortices as suitable candidates to work as stable bipolar junction transistors (BJT). PMID:24531235

  15. Vortex breakdown incipience: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Stanley A.; Erlebacher, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    The sensitivity of the onset and the location of vortex breakdowns in concentrated vortex cores, and the pronounced tendency of the breakdowns to migrate upstream have been characteristic observations of experimental investigations; they have also been features of numerical simulations and led to questions about the validity of these simulations. This behavior seems to be inconsistent with the strong time-like axial evolution of the flow, as expressed explicitly, for example, by the quasi-cylindrical approximate equations for this flow. An order-of-magnitude analysis of the equations of motion near breakdown leads to a modified set of governing equations, analysis of which demonstrates that the interplay between radial inertial, pressure, and viscous forces gives an elliptic character to these concentrated swirling flows. Analytical, asymptotic, and numerical solutions of a simplified non-linear equation are presented; these qualitatively exhibit the features of vortex onset and location noted above.

  16. Calculation of Pressure Distribution at Rotary Body Surface with the Vortex Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Dergachev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vortex element method allows to simulate unsteady hydrodynamic processes in incompressible environment, taking into account the evolution of the vortex sheet, including taking into account the deformation or moving of the body or part of construction.For the calculation of the hydrodynamic characteristics of the method based on vortex element software package was developed MVE3D. Vortex element (VE in program is symmetrical Vorton-cut. For satisfying the boundary conditions at the surface used closed frame of vortons.With this software system modeled incompressible flow around a cylindrical body protection elongation L / D = 13 with a front spherical blunt with the angle of attack of 10 °. We analyzed the distribution of the pressure coefficient on the body surface of the top and bottom forming.The calculate results were compared with known Results of experiment.Considered design schemes with different number of Vorton framework. Also varied radius of VE. Calculation make possible to establish the degree of sampling surface needed to produce close to experiment results. It has been shown that an adequate reproducing the pressure distribution in the transition region spherical cylindrical surface, on the windward side requires a high degree of sampling.Based on these results Can be possible need to improve on the design scheme of body's surface, allowing more accurate to describe the flow vorticity in areas with abrupt changes of geometry streamlined body.

  17. A note on integral vortex strength

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2010), s. 23-28 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : circulation * unsteady Taylor vortex * vortex intensity * vortex strength * vorticity * vorticity decomposition Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.553, year: 2010

  18. Vortex ice in nanostructured superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, Andras J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex ice states that are analogous to square and kagome ice. The system can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local ice rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the ice rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square ice, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome ice, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex system offers significant advantages over other artificial ice systems.

  19. Vortex configuration and vortex-vortex interaction in nano-structured superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masaru; Niwa, Yuhei; Suematsu, Hisataka; Ishida, Takekazu

    2012-01-01

    We study the vortex structures and quasi-particle structures in nano-structured superconductors. We used the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation and the finite element method and obtained stable magnetic flux structures and the quasi-particle states. We found the vortex configurations are affected by the interference of the quasi-particle bound states around the vortices. In order to clarify the interference between the quasi-particle wave-functions around two vortices we have developed a numerical method using the elliptic coordinates and the Mathieu functions. We apply this method to two singly quantized vortex state in a conventional s-wave superconductor and a pair of half-quantum vortices in a chiral p-wave superconductor.

  20. Stationary states and rotational properties of spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates held under a toroidal trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhang-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Kato, Masaya; Han, Wei; Saito, Hiroki

    2018-06-01

    We consider a pseudospin-1/2 Bose-Einstein condensate with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a two-dimensional toroidal trap. By solving the damped Gross-Pitaevskii equations for this system, we show that the system exhibits a rich variety of stationary states, such as vehicle wheel and flower-petal stripe patterns. These stationary states are stable against perturbation with thermal energy and can survive for a long time. In the presence of rotation, our results show that the rotating systems have exotic vortex configurations. These phenomenon originates from the interplay among spin-orbit coupling, trap geometry, and rotation.

  1. First results of spherical GEMs

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Serge Duarte; Brock, Ian; Croci, Gabriele; David, Eric; de Oliveira, Rui; Ropelewski, Leszek; van Stenis, Miranda; Taureg, Hans; Villa, Marco

    2010-01-01

    We developed a method to make GEM foils with a spherical geometry. Tests of this procedure and with the resulting spherical GEMs are presented. Together with a spherical drift electrode, a spherical conversion gap can be formed. This eliminates the parallax error for detection of x-rays, neutrons or UV photons when a gaseous converter is used. This parallax error limits the spatial resolution at wide scattering angles. Besides spherical GEMs, we have developed curved spacers to maintain accurate spacing, and a conical field cage to prevent edge distortion of the radial drift field up to the limit of the angular acceptance of the detector. With these components first tests are done in a setup with a spherical entrance window but a planar readout structure; results will be presented and discussed. A flat readout structure poses difficulties, however. Therefore we will show advanced plans to make a prototype of an entirely spherical double-GEM detector, including a spherical 2D readout structure. This detector w...

  2. Spherical Torus Center Stack Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Kessel; M. Ono; M. Peng; J. Schmidt; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2002-01-01

    The low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) configuration requires that the center stack design be optimized within a limited available space, using materials within their established allowables. This paper presents center stack design methods developed by the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Project Team during the initial design of NSTX, and more recently for studies of a possible next-step ST (NSST) device

  3. The interaction of counter-rotating strained vortex pairs with a third vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Keith; Ooi, Andrew; Chong, M S; Ruetten, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The vortex dynamics caused by the interaction of counter-rotating Burgers vortex pairs with a third Burgers vortex in a straining flow is investigated numerically. These interactions blend vortex merging and cancellation effects, and the aim is to investigate how the third vortex might influence the evolution of the vortex pair. Many different choices of initial conditions for the pair and third vortex exist, so attention is restricted to a class of initial conditions in which the vortex pair initially moves in the general direction of vortex 3, and the distance from vortex 3 to the line of free propagation of the vortex pair is the 'offset' parameter δ. A series of calculations with 0≤δ≤4 reveals three types of intermediate-time vortex dynamics that are called merging, swapping and switching. The evolution of the vortex core separation and core vorticity level diagnostics are used to determine the points of transition from merging to swapping and switching. In the longer term, vortex merging, cancellation and straining reduces the three vortices to a single vortex. Other diagnostics of interest are also monitored, including the spatial distributions of the rate of viscous dissipation and terms contributing to the vorticity transport equation. During the merging phase for the case with δ=0, double-peak and double-trough structures are observed in the dissipation-rate contours. In addition, the diffusion of vorticity dominates the vortex-stretching effect near vortex 1 during its absorbtion by vortex 3. Finally, the dynamics of the three vortices are also examined by computing a co-rotating angular velocity and stream function. A series of peaks in the co-rotating angular velocity is found to be associated with the conservation of angular momentum and interactions with a 'ghost' vortex in the co-rotating stream function.

  4. Maximal slicing of D-dimensional spherically symmetric vacuum spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Ken-ichi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Yoshino, Hirotaka; Shibata, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    We study the foliation of a D-dimensional spherically symmetric black-hole spacetime with D≥5 by two kinds of one-parameter families of maximal hypersurfaces: a reflection-symmetric foliation with respect to the wormhole slot and a stationary foliation that has an infinitely long trumpetlike shape. As in the four-dimensional case, the foliations by the maximal hypersurfaces avoid the singularity irrespective of the dimensionality. This indicates that the maximal slicing condition will be useful for simulating higher-dimensional black-hole spacetimes in numerical relativity. For the case of D=5, we present analytic solutions of the intrinsic metric, the extrinsic curvature, the lapse function, and the shift vector for the foliation by the stationary maximal hypersurfaces. These data will be useful for checking five-dimensional numerical-relativity codes based on the moving puncture approach.

  5. Virtual Stationary Automata for Mobile Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dolev, Shlomi; Gilbert, Seth; Lahiani, Limor; Lynch, Nancy; Nolte, Tina

    2005-01-01

    We define a programming abstraction for mobile networks called the Virtual Stationary Automata programming layer, consisting of real mobile clients, virtual timed I/O automata called virtual stationary automata (VSAs...

  6. Some exact Bradlow vortex solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudnason, Sven Bjarke [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lanzhou 730000 (China); Nitta, Muneto [Department of Physics, and Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University,Hiyoshi 4-1-1, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan)

    2017-05-08

    We consider the Bradlow equation for vortices which was recently found by Manton and find a two-parameter class of analytic solutions in closed form on nontrivial geometries with non-constant curvature. The general solution to our class of metrics is given by a hypergeometric function and the area of the vortex domain by the Gaussian hypergeometric function.

  7. 150 Years of vortex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    An IUTAM symposium with the title of this paper was held on October 12-16, 2008, in Lyngby and Copenhagen, Denmark, to mark the sesquicentennial of publication of Helmholtz's seminal paper on vortex dynamics. This volume contains the proceedings of the Symposium. The present paper provides...

  8. Anatomy of a Bathtub Vortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Stenum, Bjarne

    2003-01-01

    We present experiments and theory for the "bathtub vortex," which forms when a fluid drains out of a rotating cylindrical container through a small drain hole. The fast down-flow is found to be confined to a narrow and rapidly rotating "drainpipe" from the free surface down to the drain hole...

  9. Vortex dynamics in inhomogeneous plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, V.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of vortical structures in magnetized plasmas with nonuniform density is investigated numerically. In particular the dynamics of monopolar vortices is considered and the results are discussed in terms of the conservation of potential vorticity. It is found that individual vortex...

  10. Spherical Casimir pistons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowker, J S, E-mail: dowker@man.ac.uk [Theory Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-07

    A piston is introduced into a spherical lune Casimir cavity turning it into two adjacent lunes separated by the (hemispherical) piston. On the basis of zeta-function regularization, the vacuum energy of the arrangement is finite for conformal propagation in spacetime. For even spheres this energy is independent of the angle of the lune. For odd dimensions it is shown that for all Neumann, or all Dirichlet, boundary conditions the piston is repelled or attracted by the nearest wall if d = 3, 7, ... or if d = 1, 5, ... , respectively. For hybrid N-D conditions these requirements are switched. If a mass is added, divergences arise which render the model suspect. The analysis, however, is relatively straightforward and involves the Barnes zeta function. The extension to finite temperatures is made and it is shown that for the 3, 7, ... series of odd spheres, the repulsion by the walls continues but that, above a certain temperature, the free energy acquires two minima symmetrically placed about the midpoint.

  11. Spherical Casimir pistons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowker, J S

    2011-01-01

    A piston is introduced into a spherical lune Casimir cavity turning it into two adjacent lunes separated by the (hemispherical) piston. On the basis of zeta-function regularization, the vacuum energy of the arrangement is finite for conformal propagation in spacetime. For even spheres this energy is independent of the angle of the lune. For odd dimensions it is shown that for all Neumann, or all Dirichlet, boundary conditions the piston is repelled or attracted by the nearest wall if d = 3, 7, ... or if d = 1, 5, ... , respectively. For hybrid N-D conditions these requirements are switched. If a mass is added, divergences arise which render the model suspect. The analysis, however, is relatively straightforward and involves the Barnes zeta function. The extension to finite temperatures is made and it is shown that for the 3, 7, ... series of odd spheres, the repulsion by the walls continues but that, above a certain temperature, the free energy acquires two minima symmetrically placed about the midpoint.

  12. Experiments concerning the theories of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panton, Ronald L.; Stifle, Kirk E.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental project was undertaken to investigate the character of vortex breakdown with particular regard to the stagnation and wave guide theories of vortex breakdown. Three different wings were used to produce a trailing vortex which convected downstream without undergoing breakdown. Disturbances were then introduced onto the vortex using a moving wire to 'cut' the vortex. The development of upstream and downstream propagating disturbance waves was observed and the propagation velocities measured. A downstream traveling wave was observed to produce a structure similar in appearance to a vortex breakdown. An upstream traveling wave produced a moving turbulent region. The upstream disturbance moved into an axial velocity profile that had a wake-like defect while the downstream moving vortex breakdown moved against a jet-like overshoot. The longitudinal and swirl velocity profiles were documented by LDV measurement. Wave velocities, swirl angles, and swirl parameters are reported.

  13. A vortex dynamics perspective on stratospheric sudden warmings

    OpenAIRE

    Matthewman, N. J.

    2009-01-01

    A vortex dynamics approach is used to study the underlying mechanisms leading to polar vortex breakdown during stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs). Observational data are used in chapter 2 to construct climatologies of the Arctic polar vortex structure during vortex-splitting and vortex-displacement SSWs occurring between 1958 and 2002. During vortex-splitting SSWs, polar vortex breakdown is shown to be typically independent of height (barotropic), whereas breakdown during vor...

  14. Stationary measure in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linde, Andrei [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Vanchurin, Vitaly; Winitzki, Sergei, E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu, E-mail: vitaly@cosmos2.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: winitzki@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    We study the recently proposed ''stationary measure'' in the context of the string landscape scenario. We show that it suffers neither from the ''Boltzmann brain'' problem nor from the ''youngness'' paradox that makes some other measures predict a high CMB temperature at present. We also demonstrate a good performance of this measure in predicting the results of local experiments, such as proton decay.

  15. Non-stationary Markov chains

    OpenAIRE

    Mallak, Saed

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Mathematics and Institute of Engineering and Sciences of Bilkent University, 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves leaf 29 In thi.s work, we studierl the Ergodicilv of Non-Stationary .Markov chains. We gave several e.xainples with different cases. We proved that given a sec[uence of Markov chains such that the limit of this sec|uence is an Ergodic Markov chain, then the limit of the combination ...

  16. Strong-pinning regimes by spherical inclusions in anisotropic type-II superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willa, R.; Koshelev, A. E.; Sadovskyy, I. A.; Glatz, A.

    2017-11-27

    The current-carrying capacity of type-II superconductors is decisively determined by how well material defect structures can immobilize vortex lines. In order to gain deeper insights into intrinsic pinning mechanisms, we have explored the case of vortex trapping by randomly distributed spherical inclusions using large-scale simulations of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations. We find that for a small density of particles having diameters of two coherence lengths, the vortex lattice preserves its structure and the critical current jc decays with the magnetic field following a power-law B-a with a ~ 0:66, which is consistent with predictions of strong pinning theory. For higher density of particles and/or larger inclusions, the lattice becomes progressively more disordered and the exponent smoothly decreases down to a ~ 0:3. At high magnetic fields, all inclusions capture a vortex and the critical current decays faster than B-1 as would be expected by theory. In the case of larger inclusions with diameter of four coherence length, the magnetic-field dependence of the critical current is strongly affected by the ability of inclusions to capture multiple vortex lines. We found that at small densities, the fraction of inclusions trapping two vortex lines rapidly grows within narrow field range leading to a shallow peak in jc(B)-dependence within this range. With increasing inclusion density, this peak transforms into a plateau, which then smooths out. Using the insights gained from simulations, we determine the limits of applicability of strong pinning theory and provide different routes to describe vortex pinning beyond those bounds.

  17. Fluid Fuel Fluctuations in the Spherical Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many authors tried to solve a task concerning small fluctuations of the incompressible ideal liquid, which partially fills a stationary tank of any shape. There is a long list of references to this subject. The article presents a task solution on own fluctuations of liquid in spherical capacity, with boundary conditions on a free surface and a surface with a resistance – drain surface. Relevance of problem consists in assessment of influence of intra tank devices (measuring, intaking, damping devices, etc. on the liquid fuel fluctuations. The special attention is paid to finding the own values and frequencies of the equations of disturbed flow fluctuations with dissipation available on the boundary surfaces. In contrast to the previous examples, the lowering speed and the free surface area at undisturbed state are variable.The article also considers a variation formulation of the auxiliary boundary tasks. In solution of variation tasks, the attached Legendre's functions were used as coordinate functions. Further, after substitution of the variation tasks solution in the boundary conditions and the subsequent mathematical operations the characteristic equation was obtained. To obtain solutions of the cubic characteristic equation Cardano formulas were used. The article also considers the task on the own motions of liquid filling a capacity between two concentric spheres and flowing out via the intake in case there is a free surface. Reliability of the obtained numerical results is confirmed by comparison with calculation results of frequencies resulting from solutions of a task on the own fluctuations of liquid in the spherical capacity with the constant depth of liquid. All numerical calculations were performed using the Matlab environment.

  18. Shock/vortex interaction and vortex-breakdown modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, H. A.; Liu, C. H.

    1992-01-01

    Computational simulation and study of shock/vortex interaction and vortex-breakdown modes are considered for bound (internal) and unbound (external) flow domains. The problem is formulated using the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations which are solved using an implicit, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. For the bound flow domain, a supersonic swirling flow is considered in a configured circular duct and the problem is solved for quasi-axisymmetric and three-dimensional flows. For the unbound domain, a supersonic swirling flow issued from a nozzle into a uniform supersonic flow of lower Mach number is considered for quasi-axisymmetric and three-dimensional flows. The results show several modes of breakdown; e.g., no-breakdown, transient single-bubble breakdown, transient multi-bubble breakdown, periodic multi-bubble multi-frequency breakdown and helical breakdown.

  19. Evolution of optical vortex distributions in stochastic vortex fields

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available simple decay process to restore equilibrium. More complicated dynamics are involved, which requires deeper investigations. REFERENCES [1] Nye, J. F. and Berry, M. V., ?Dislocations in wave trains,? Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 336, 165?190 (1974). [2] Dennis..., J., Zambrini, R., Dennis, M., and Vasnetsov, M., ?Angular momentum of optical vortex arrays,? Opt. Express 14, 938?949 (2006). [27] Berry, M. V., ?Disruption of wavefronts: statistics of dislocations in incoherent gaussian random waves,? J. Phys...

  20. Interaction of Vortex Ring with Cutting Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musta, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of a vortex ring impinging on a thin cutting plate was made experimentally using Volumetric 3-component Velocitmetry (v3v) technique. The vortex rings were generated with piston-cylinder vortex ring generator using piston stroke-to-diameter ratios and Re at 2-3 and 1500 - 3000, respectively. The cutting of vortex rings below center line leads to the formation of secondary vortices on each side of the plate which is look like two vortex rings, and a third vortex ring propagates further downstream in the direction of the initial vortex ring, which is previously showed by flow visualization study of Weigand (1993) and called ``trifurcation''. Trifurcation is very sensitive to the initial Reynolds number and the position of the plate with respect to the vortex ring generator pipe. The present work seeks more detailed investigation on the trifurcation using V3V technique. Conditions for the formation of trifurcation is analyzed and compared with Weigand (1993). The formed secondary vortex rings and the propagation of initial vortex ring in the downstream of the plate are analyzed by calculating their circulation, energy and trajectories.

  1. Climatic feedbacks between stationary and transient eddies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branscome, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    Stationary eddies make a significant contribution to poleward heat transport during Northern Hemisphere winter, equaling the transport by transient eddies. On the other hand, stationary eddy transport during the summer is negligible. The effect of topography on time-mean stationary waves and low-frequency variability has been widely studied. In contrast, little attention has been given to the climatic feedbacks associated with stationary eddies. Furthermore, the relationship between stationary and transient eddies in the context of global and regional climate is not well understood. The response of the climate system to anthropogenic forcing is likely to have some dependence on stationary wave transport and its interaction with transient eddies. Some early GCM simulations and observational analyses indicate a strong feedback between the meridional heat fluxes of stationary and transient eddies

  2. JUST: Joint Upgraded Spherical Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizov, E.A.; Dvorkin, N.Ya.; Filatov, O.G.

    1997-01-01

    The main goals, ideas and the programme of JUST, spherical tokamak (ST) for the plasma burn investigation, are presented. The place and prospects of JUST in thermonuclear investigations are discussed. (author)

  3. Vortex ring state by full-field actuator disc model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, J.N.; Shen, W.Z.; Munduate, X. [DTU, Dept. of Energy Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    One-dimensional momentum theory provides a simple analytical tool for analysing the gross flow behavior of lifting propellers and rotors. Combined with a blade-element strip-theory approach, it has for many years been the most popular model for load and performance predictions of wind turbines. The model works well at moderate and high wind velocities, but is not reliable at small wind velocities, where the expansion of the wake is large and the flow field behind the rotor dominated by turbulent mixing. This is normally referred to as the turbulent wake state or the vortex ring state. In the vortex ring state, momentum theory predicts a decrease of thrust whereas the opposite is found from experiments. The reason for the disagreement is that recirculation takes place behind the rotor with the consequence that the stream tubes past the rotor becomes effectively chocked. This represents a condition at which streamlines no longer carry fluid elements from far upstream to far downstream, hence one-dimensional momentum theory is invalid and empirical corrections have to be introduced. More sophisticated analytical or semi-analytical rotor models have been used to describe stationary flow fields for heavily loaded propellers. In recent years generalized actuator disc models have been developed, but up to now no detailed computations of the turbulent wake state or the vortex ring state have been performed. In the present work the phenomenon is simulated by direct simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, where the influence of the rotor on the flow field is modelled simply by replacing the blades by an actuator disc with a constant normal load. (EG) 13 refs.

  4. Load estimation from planar PIV measurement in vortex dominated flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jeffrey; Yarusevych, Serhiy

    2017-11-01

    Control volume-based loading estimates are employed on experimental and synthetic numerical planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data of a stationary cylinder and a cylinder undergoing one degree-of-freedom (1DOF) Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV). The results reveal the necessity of including out of plane terms, identified from a general formulation of the control volume momentum balance, when evaluating loads from planar measurements in three-dimensional flows. Reynolds stresses from out of plane fluctuations are shown to be significant for both instantaneous and mean force estimates when the control volume encompasses vortex dominated regions. For planar measurement, invoking a divergence-free assumption allows accurate estimation of half the identified terms. Towards evaluating the fidelity of PIV-based loading estimates for obtaining the forcing function unobtrusively in VIV experiments, the accuracy of the control volume-based loading methodology is evaluated using the numerical data with synthetically generated experimental PIV error, and a comparison is made between experimental PIV-based estimates and simultaneous force balance measurements.

  5. A numerical study of viscous vortex rings using a spectral method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanaway, S. K.; Cantwell, B. J.; Spalart, Philippe R.

    1988-01-01

    Viscous, axisymmetric vortex rings are investigated numerically by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using a spectral method designed for this type of flow. The results presented are axisymmetric, but the method is developed to be naturally extended to three dimensions. The spectral method relies on divergence-free basis functions. The basis functions are formed in spherical coordinates using Vector Spherical Harmonics in the angular directions, and Jacobi polynomials together with a mapping in the radial direction. Simulations are performed of a single ring over a wide range of Reynolds numbers (Re approximately equal gamma/nu), 0.001 less than or equal to 1000, and of two interacting rings. At large times, regardless of the early history of the vortex ring, it is observed that the flow approaches a Stokes solution that depends only on the total hydrodynamic impulse, which is conserved for all time. At small times, from an infinitely thin ring, the propagation speeds of vortex rings of varying Re are computed and comparisons are made with the asymptotic theory by Saffman. The results are in agreement with the theory; furthermore, the error is found to be smaller than Saffman's own estimate by a factor square root ((nu x t)/R squared) (at least for Re=0). The error also decreases with increasing Re at fixed core-to-ring radius ratio, and appears to be independent of Re as Re approaches infinity). Following a single ring, with Re=500, the vorticity contours indicate shedding of vorticity into the wake and a settling of an initially circular core to a more elliptical shape, similar to Norbury's steady inviscid vortices. Finally, we consider the case of leapfrogging vortex rings with Re=1000. The results show severe straining of the inner vortex core in the first pass and merging of the two cores during the second pass.

  6. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, G.O.; Del Bosco, E.; Ferreira, J.G.; Berni, L.A.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Ueda, M.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J.; Barbosa, L.F.W.; Patire Junior, H.; The high-power microwave sources group

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  7. Miniaturization of Spherical Magnetodielectric Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Troels Vejle

    ; Arbitrary order of the spherical wave, arbitrary radius of the spherical antenna, as well as arbitrarily large core permeability and/or permittivity, given an inversely proportional frequency variation of the imaginary part(s) and an arbitrary dispersion of the real part(s) - thus describing both lossless...... with a magnetic loss tangent of 1 and relative permeability of 300 yield Q/e equal 65% of the Chu lower bound, with a simultaneous e of 71%....

  8. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, G.O.; Del Bosco, E.; Ferreira, J.G.; Berni, L.A.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Ueda, M.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma; Barbosa, L.F.W. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Patire Junior, H. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Mecanica Espacial e Controle; The high-power microwave sources group

    2003-12-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  9. Quantum cosmology and stationary states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, T.

    1983-01-01

    A model for quantum gravity, in which the conformal part of the metric is quantized using the path integral formalism, is presented. Einstein's equations can be suitably modified to take into account the effects of quantum conformal fluctuations. A closed Friedman model can be described in terms of well-defined stationary states. The ''ground state'' sets a lower bound (at Planck length) to the scale factor preventing the collapse. A possible explanation for matter creation and quantum nature of matter is suggested. (author)

  10. Analytical model of the optical vortex microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płocinniczak, Łukasz; Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Masajada, Jan; Szatkowski, Mateusz

    2016-04-20

    This paper presents an analytical model of the optical vortex scanning microscope. In this microscope the Gaussian beam with an embedded optical vortex is focused into the sample plane. Additionally, the optical vortex can be moved inside the beam, which allows fine scanning of the sample. We provide an analytical solution of the whole path of the beam in the system (within paraxial approximation)-from the vortex lens to the observation plane situated on the CCD camera. The calculations are performed step by step from one optical element to the next. We show that at each step, the expression for light complex amplitude has the same form with only four coefficients modified. We also derive a simple expression for the vortex trajectory of small vortex displacements.

  11. Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

    2014-01-01

    Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

  12. Some observations of tip-vortex cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, R. E. A.; Arakeri, V. H.; Higuchi, H.

    1991-08-01

    Cavitation has been observed in the trailing vortex system of an elliptic platform hydrofoil. A complex dependence on Reynolds number and gas content is noted at inception. Some of the observations can be related to tension effects associated with the lack of sufficiently large-sized nuclei. Inception measurements are compared with estimates of pressure in the vortex obtained from LDV measurements of velocity within the vortex. It is concluded that a complete correlation is not possible without knowledge of the fluctuating levels of pressure in tip-vortex flows. When cavitation is fully developed, the observed tip-vortex trajectory flows. When cavitation is fully developed, the observed tip-vortex trajectory shows a surprising lack of dependence on any of the physical parameters varied, such as angle of attack, Reynolds number, cavitation number, and dissolved gas content.

  13. ProFile Vortex and Vortex Blue Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments after Clinical Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Zhou, Huimin; Coil, Jeffrey M; Aljazaeri, Bassim; Buttar, Rene; Wang, Zhejun; Zheng, Yu-feng; Haapasalo, Markus

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence and mode of ProFile Vortex and Vortex Blue instrument defects after clinical use in a graduate endodontic program and to examine the impact of clinical use on the instruments' metallurgical properties. A total of 330 ProFile Vortex and 1136 Vortex Blue instruments from the graduate program were collected after each had been used in 3 teeth. The incidence and type of instrument defects were analyzed. The lateral surfaces and fracture surfaces of the fractured files were examined by using scanning electron microscopy. Unused and used instruments were examined by full and partial differential scanning calorimetry. No fractures were observed in the 330 ProFile Vortex instruments, whereas 20 (6.1%) revealed bent or blunt defects. Only 2 of the 1136 Vortex Blue files fractured during clinical use. The cause of fracture was shear stress. The fractures occurred at the tip end of the spirals. Only 1.8% (21 of 1136) of the Vortex Blue files had blunt tips. Austenite-finish temperatures were very similar for unused and used ProFile Vortex files and were all greater than 50°C. The austenite-finish temperatures of used and unused Vortex Blue files (38.5°C) were lower than those in ProFile Vortex instruments (P Vortex Blue files had an obvious 2-stage transformation, martensite-to-R phase and R-to-austenite phase. The trends of differential scanning calorimetry plots of unused Vortex Blue instruments and clinically used instruments were very similar. The risk of ProFile Vortex and Vortex Blue instrument fracture is very low when instruments are discarded after clinical use in the graduate endodontic program. The Vortex Blue files have metallurgical behavior different from ProFile Vortex instruments. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Obstacle-induced spiral vortex breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Pasche, Simon; Gallaire, François; Dreyer, Matthieu; Farhat, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation on vortex breakdown dynamics is performed. An adverse pressure gradient is created along the axis of a wing-tip vortex by introducing a sphere downstream of an elliptical hydrofoil. The instrumentation involves high-speed visualizations with air bubbles used as tracers and 2D Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV). Two key parameters are identified and varied to control the onset of vortex breakdown: the swirl number, defined as the maximum azimuthal velocity divided by...

  15. Quantum Kinematics of Bosonic Vortex Loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldin, G.A.; Owczarek, R.; Sharp, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Poisson structure for vortex filaments (loops and arcs) in 2D ideal incompressible fluid is analyzed in detail. Canonical coordinates and momenta on coadjoint orbits of the area-preserving diffeomorphism group, associated with such vortices, are found. The quantum space of states in the simplest case of ''bosonic'' vortex loops is built within a geometric quantization approach to the description of a quantum fluid. Fock-like structure and non-local creation and annihilation operators of quantum vortex filaments are introduced

  16. Distributed amplifier using Josephson vortex flow transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, D.P.; Beyer, J.B.; Nordman, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    A wide-band traveling wave amplifier using vortex flow transistors is proposed. A vortex flow transistor is a long Josephson junction used as a current controlled voltage source. The dual nature of this device to the field effect transistor is exploited. A circuit model of this device is proposed and a distributed amplifier utilizing 50 vortex flow transistors is predicted to have useful gain to 100 GHz

  17. The bathtub vortex in a rotating container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Stenum, B.

    2006-01-01

    We study the time-independent free-surface flow which forms when a fluid drains out of a container, a so-called bathtub vortex. We focus on the bathtub vortex in a rotating container and describe the free-surface shape and the complex flow structure using photographs of the free surface, flow...... expansion approximation of the central vortex core and reduce the model to a single first-order equation. We solve the equation numerically and find that the axial velocity depends linearly on height whereas the azimuthal velocity is almost independent of height. We discuss the model of the bathtub vortex...

  18. Leapfrogging of multiple coaxial viscous vortex rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, M.; Lou, J.; Lim, T. T.

    2015-01-01

    A recent theoretical study [Borisov, Kilin, and Mamaev, “The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging, choreographies and the stability problem,” Regular Chaotic Dyn. 18, 33 (2013); Borisov et al., “The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging in an ideal and viscous fluid,” Fluid Dyn. Res. 46, 031415 (2014)] shows that when three coaxial vortex rings travel in the same direction in an incompressible ideal fluid, each of the vortex rings alternately slips through (or leapfrogs) the other two ahead. Here, we use a lattice Boltzmann method to simulate viscous vortex rings with an identical initial circulation, radius, and separation distance with the aim of studying how viscous effect influences the outcomes of the leapfrogging process. For the case of two identical vortex rings, our computation shows that leapfrogging can be achieved only under certain favorable conditions, which depend on Reynolds number, vortex core size, and initial separation distance between the two rings. For the case of three coaxial vortex rings, the result differs from the inviscid model and shows that the second vortex ring always slips through the leading ring first, followed by the third ring slipping through the other two ahead. A simple physical model is proposed to explain the observed behavior

  19. ASRS Reports on Wake Vortex Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.; Taube, Elisa Ann; Drew, Charles Robert; Barclay, Tommy Earl

    2010-01-01

    ASRS is conducting a structured callback research project of wake vortex incidents reported to the ASRS at all US airports, as well as wake encounters in the enroute environment. This study has three objectives: (1) Utilize the established ASRS supplemental data collection methodology and provide ongoing analysis of wake vortex encounter reports; (2) Document event dynamics and contributing factors underlying wake vortex encounter events; and (3) Support ongoing FAA efforts to address pre-emptive wake vortex risk reduction by utilizing ASRS reporting contributions.

  20. Ring vortex solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briedis, D.; Petersen, D.E.; Edmundson, D.

    2005-01-01

    We study the formation and propagation of two-dimensional vortex solitons, i.e. solitons with a phase singularity, in optical materials with a nonlocal focusing nonlinearity. We show that nonlocality stabilizes the dynamics of an otherwise unstable vortex beam. This occurs for either single...... or higher charge fundamental vortices as well as higher order (multiple ring) vortex solitons. Our results pave the way for experimental observation of stable vortex rings in other nonlocal nonlinear systems including Bose-Einstein condensates with pronounced long-range interparticle interaction....

  1. Vortex Ring Dynamics in Radially Confined Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kelley; Niebel, Casandra; Jung, Sunghwan; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2010-11-01

    Vortex ring dynamics have been studied extensively in semi-infinite quiescent volumes. However, very little is known about vortex-ring formation in wall-bounded domains where vortex wall interaction will affect both the vortex ring pinch-off and propagation velocity. This study addresses this limitation and studies vortex formation in radially confined domains to analyze the affect of vortex-ring wall interaction on the formation and propagation of the vortex ring. Vortex rings were produced using a pneumatically driven piston cylinder arrangement and were ejected into a long cylindrical tube which defined the confined downstream domain. A range of confinement domains were studied with varying confinement diameters Velocity field measurements were performed using planar Time Resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (TRDPIV) and were processed using an in-house developed cross-correlation PIV algorithm. The experimental analysis was used to facilitate the development of a theoretical model to predict the variations in vortex ring circulation over time within confined domains.

  2. Vectorial structures of linear-polarized Butterfly-Gauss vortex beams in the far zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ke; Zhou, Yan; Lu, Gang; Yao, Na; Zhong, Xianqiong

    2018-05-01

    By introducing the Butterfly catastrophe to optics, the far-zone vectorial structures of Butterfly-Gauss beam with vortex and non-vortex are studied using the angular spectrum representation and stationary phase method. The influence of topological charge, linear-polarized angle, off-axis distance and scaling length on the far-zone vectorial structures, especially in the Poynting vector and angular momentum density of the corresponding beam is emphasized. The results show that the embedded optical vortex at source plane lead to special dark zones in the far zone, where the number of dark zone equals the absolute value of topological charge of optical vortex. Furthermore, the symmetry and direction of the special dark zones can be controlled by off-axis distance and scaling length, respectively. The linear-polarized angle adjusts only the Poynting vectors of TE and TM terms, but it does not affect those of whole beam. Finally, the vectorial expressions also indicate that the total angular momentum density is certainly zero owing to the far-zone stable structures rather than rotation behaviors.

  3. Strong Stationary Duality for Diffusion Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fill, James Allen; Lyzinski, Vince

    2014-01-01

    We develop the theory of strong stationary duality for diffusion processes on compact intervals. We analytically derive the generator and boundary behavior of the dual process and recover a central tenet of the classical Markov chain theory in the diffusion setting by linking the separation distance in the primal diffusion to the absorption time in the dual diffusion. We also exhibit our strong stationary dual as the natural limiting process of the strong stationary dual sequence of a well ch...

  4. Fingering patterns in magnetic fluids: Perturbative solutions and the stability of exact stationary shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Pedro H. A.; Lira, Sérgio A.; Miranda, José A.

    2018-04-01

    We examine the formation of interfacial patterns when a magnetic liquid droplet (ferrofluid, or a magnetorheological fluid), surrounded by a nonmagnetic fluid, is subjected to a radial magnetic field in a Hele-Shaw cell. By using a vortex-sheet formalism, we find exact stationary solutions for the fluid-fluid interface in the form of n -fold polygonal shapes. A weakly nonlinear, mode-coupling method is then utilized to find time-evolving perturbative solutions for the interfacial patterns. The stability of such nonzero surface tension exact solutions is checked and discussed, by trying to systematically approach the exact stationary shapes through perturbative solutions containing an increasingly larger number of participating Fourier modes. Our results indicate that the exact stationary solutions of the problem are stable, and that a good matching between exact and perturbative shape solutions is achieved just by using a few Fourier modes. The stability of such solutions is substantiated by a linearization process close to the stationary shape, where a system of mode-coupling equations is diagonalized, determining the eigenvalues which dictate the stability of a fixed point.

  5. Secondary Instability of Stationary Crossflow Vortices in Mach 6 Boundary Layer Over a Circular Cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Paredes-Gonzalez, Pedro; Duan, Lian

    2015-01-01

    Hypersonic boundary layer flows over a circular cone at moderate incidence can support strong crossflow instability. Due to more efficient excitation of stationary crossflow vortices by surface roughness, such boundary layer flows may transition to turbulence via rapid amplification of the high-frequency secondary instabilities of finite amplitude stationary crossflow vortices. The amplification characteristics of these secondary instabilities are investigated for crossflow vortices generated by an azimuthally periodic array of roughness elements over a 7-degree half-angle circular cone in a Mach 6 free stream. Depending on the local amplitude of the stationary crossflow mode, the most unstable secondary disturbances either originate from the second (i.e., Mack) mode instabilities of the unperturbed boundary layer or correspond to genuine secondary instabilities that reduce to stable disturbances at sufficiently small amplitudes of the stationary crossflow vortex. The predicted frequencies of dominant secondary disturbances are similar to those measured during wind tunnel experiments at Purdue University and the Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany.

  6. Spherical Demons: Fast Surface Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, B.T. Thomas; Sabuncu, Mert; Vercauteren, Tom; Ayache, Nicholas; Fischl, Bruce; Golland, Polina

    2009-01-01

    We present the fast Spherical Demons algorithm for registering two spherical images. By exploiting spherical vector spline interpolation theory, we show that a large class of regularizers for the modified demons objective function can be efficiently implemented on the sphere using convolution. Based on the one parameter subgroups of diffeomorphisms, the resulting registration is diffeomorphic and fast – registration of two cortical mesh models with more than 100k nodes takes less than 5 minutes, comparable to the fastest surface registration algorithms. Moreover, the accuracy of our method compares favorably to the popular FreeSurfer registration algorithm. We validate the technique in two different settings: (1) parcellation in a set of in-vivo cortical surfaces and (2) Brodmann area localization in ex-vivo cortical surfaces. PMID:18979813

  7. Magnetic vortex state and multi-domain pattern in electrodeposited hemispherical nanogranular nickel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samardak, Alexander; Sukovatitsina, Ekaterina; Ognev, Alexey; Stebliy, Maksim; Davydenko, Alexander; Chebotkevich, Ludmila; Keun Kim, Young; Nasirpouri, Forough; Janjan, Seyed-Mehdi; Nasirpouri, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic states of nickel nanogranular films were studied in two distinct structures of individual and agglomerated granules electrodeposited on n-type Si(1 1 1) surface from a modified Watts bath at a low pH of 2. Magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations revealed three-dimensional out-of-plane magnetic vortex states in stand-alone hemispherical granules and their arrays, and multi-domain patterns in large agglomerates and integrated films. Once the granules coalesce into small chains or clusters, the coercivity values increased due to the reduction of inter-granular spacing and strengthening of the magnetostatic interaction. Further growth leads to the formation of a continuous granulated film which strongly affected the coercivity and remanence. This was characterized by the domain wall nucleation and propagation leading to a stripe domain pattern. Magnetoresistance measurements as a function of external magnetic field are indicative of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) for the continuous films electrodeposited on Si substrate. - Highlights: • Magnetic states of electrodeposited nickel in isolated spherical and agglomerated nanogranules, and a continuous film. • Preferential magnetization reversal mechanism in isolated granules is vortex state. • Micromagnetic simulations confirm the three-dimensional vortex. • Transition between the vortex state and multi-domain magnetic pattern causes a significant decrease in the coercive force. • Continuous nickel films electrodeposited on silicon substrate exhibit AMR whose magnitude increases with the film thickness

  8. Vortex capturing vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zannetti, L; Gallizio, F; Ottino, G

    2007-01-01

    An analytical-numerical study is presented for an innovative lift vertical axis turbine whose blades are designed with vortex trapping cavities that act as passive flow control devices. The unsteady flow field past one-bladed and two-bladed turbines is described by a combined analytical and numerical method based on conformal mapping and on a blob vortex method

  9. An investigation of the vortex method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, Jr., Duaine Wright [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The vortex method is a numerical scheme for solving the vorticity transport equation. Chorin introduced modern vortex methods. The vortex method is a Lagrangian, grid free method which has less intrinsic diffusion than many grid schemes. It is adaptive in the sense that elements are needed only where the vorticity is non-zero. Our description of vortex methods begins with the point vortex method of Rosenhead for two dimensional inviscid flow, and builds upon it to eventually cover the case of three dimensional slightly viscous flow with boundaries. This section gives an introduction to the fundamentals of the vortex method. This is done in order to give a basic impression of the previous work and its line of development, as well as develop some notation and concepts which will be used later. The purpose here is not to give a full review of vortex methods or the contributions made by all the researchers in the field. Please refer to the excellent review papers in Sethian and Gustafson, chapters 1 Sethian, 2 Hald, 3 Sethian, 8 Chorin provide a solid introduction to vortex methods, including convergence theory, application in two dimensions and connection to statistical mechanics and polymers. Much of the information in this review is taken from those chapters, Chorin and Marsden and Batchelor, the chapters are also useful for their extensive bibliographies.

  10. Revealing the radial modes in vortex beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sephton, Bereneice C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Light beams that carry orbital angular momentum are often approximated by modulating an initial beam, usually Gaussian, with an azimuthal phase variation to create a vortex beam. Such vortex beams are well defined azimuthally, but the radial profile...

  11. Formation of Ion Phase-Space Vortexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Trulsen, J.; Armstrong, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of ion phase space vortexes in the ion two stream region behind electrostatic ion acoustic shocks are observed in a laboratory experiment. A detailed analysis demonstrates that the evolution of such vortexes is associated with ion-ion beam instabilities and a nonlinear equation for ...

  12. Vortex Dynamics around Pitching Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-29

    electrical signals are A/D converted in an ATI NetBox interface and recorded using a Java application, and are filtered in three steps. The first is a low...the plate while staying attached to the corners of the leading edge. During this process, a second vortex loop, created by the quick angular ...is a spike in CL centered around t = 0 due to non-circulatory6 effects from the angular acceleration of the wing. The amplitude of the peak is

  13. Mathematical aspects of vortex dynamics; Proceedings of the Workshop, Leesburg, VA, Apr. 25-27, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caflisch, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on the mathematical aspects of vortex dynamics are presented. Individual topics addressed include: mathematical analysis of vortex dynamics, improved vortex methods for three-dimensional flows, the relation between thin vortex layer and vortex sheets, computations of broadband instabilities in a class of closed-streamline flows, vortex-sheet dynamics and hyperfunction theory, free surface vortex method with weak viscous effects, iterative method for computing steady vortex flow systems, invariant measures for the two-dimensional Euler flow, similarity flows containing two-branched vortex sheets, strain-induced vortex stripping, convergence of the vortex method for vortex sheets, boundary conditions and deterministic vortex methods for the Navier-Stokes equations, vorticity creation boundary conditions, vortex dynamics of stratified flows, vortex breakdown, numerical studies of vortex reconnection, vortex lattices in theory and practice, dynamics of vortex structures in the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer, and energy of a vortex lattice configuration

  14. Back reaction of excitations on a vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arodz, H.; Hadasz, L.

    1997-01-01

    Excitations of a vortex are usually considered in a linear approximation neglecting their back reaction on the vortex. In the present paper we investigate back reaction of Proca-type excitations on a straight linear vortex in the Abelian Higgs model. We propose an exact ansatz for fields of the excited vortex. From an initial set of six nonlinear field equations we obtain (in a limit of weak excitations) two linear wave equations for the back reaction corrections. Their approximate solutions are found in the cases of plane wave and wave-packet-type excitations. We find that the excited vortex radiates the vector field and that the Higgs field has a very broad oscillating component. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  15. Back reaction of excitations on a vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arodź, Henryk; Hadasz, Leszek

    1997-01-01

    Excitations of a vortex are usually considered in a linear approximation neglecting their back reaction on the vortex. In the present paper we investigate back reaction of Proca-type excitations on a straight linear vortex in the Abelian Higgs model. We propose an exact ansatz for fields of the excited vortex. From an initial set of six nonlinear field equations we obtain (in a limit of weak excitations) two linear wave equations for the back reaction corrections. Their approximate solutions are found in the cases of plane wave and wave-packet-type excitations. We find that the excited vortex radiates the vector field and that the Higgs field has a very broad oscillating component.

  16. Bifurcation and instability problems in vortex wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, Hassan; Brøns, Morten; Stremler, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    A number of instability and bifurcation problems related to the dynamics of vortex wake flows are addressed using various analytical tools and approaches. We discuss the bifurcations of the streamline pattern behind a bluff body as a vortex wake is produced, a theory of the universal Strouhal......-Reynolds number relation for vortex wakes, the bifurcation diagram for "exotic" wake patterns behind an oscillating cylinder first determined experimentally by Williamson & Roshko, and the bifurcations in topology of the streamlines pattern in point vortex streets. The Hamiltonian dynamics of point vortices...... in a periodic strip is considered. The classical results of von Kármán concerning the structure of the vortex street follow from the two-vortices-in-a-strip problem, while the stability results follow largely from a four-vortices-in-a-strip analysis. The three-vortices-in-a-strip problem is argued...

  17. High Magnetic Field Vortex Microscopy by NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, V. F.; Sigmund, E. E.; Bachman, H. N.; Halperin, W. P.; Reyes, A. P.; Kuhns, P.; Moulton, W. G.

    2001-03-01

    At low temperatures the ^17O NMR spectrum of HTS exhibits a characteristic vortex lattice line shape. Measurements of spin-lattice relaxation rate, T_1-1, across the vortex spectrum represent a probe of low-energy quasiparticle excitations as a function of distance from the vortex core. We report ^17O(2,3) T_1-1 measurements of YBa_2Cu_3O7 at low temperatures in magnetic fields up to 37 T. We find that the rate increases on approaching the vortex core. In the vortex core region at 37 T we observe an additional increase in the relaxation rate. The temperature dependence of the rate will also be discussed. Work at Northwestern University is supported by the NSF (DMR 91-20000) through the Science and Technology Center for Superconductivity.

  18. Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Flow from a Periodically Pitched Airfoil Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Mankbadi, Mina

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation of tip vortex flow from a NACA0012 airfoil, pitched periodically at various frequencies, is conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Initially, data for stationary airfoil held fixed at various angles-of-attack are gathered. Flow visualization pictures as well as detailed cross-sectional properties areobtained at various streamwise locations using hot-wire anemometry. Data include mean velocity, streamwise vorticity as well as various turbulent stresses. Preliminary data are also acquired for periodically pitched airfoil. These results are briefly presented in this extended abstract.

  19. New diffusion-like solutions of one-speed transport equations in spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahni, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    Stationary, one-speed, spherically symmetric transport equations are considered in a conservative medium. Closed-form expressions are obtained for the angular flux ψ(r, μ) that yield a total flux varying as 1/r by using Sonine transforms. Properties of this solution are studied and it is shown that the solution can not be identified as a diffusion mode solution of the transport equation. Limitations of the Sonine transform technique are noted. (author)

  20. Trapped surfaces in spherical stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizon, P.; Malec, E.; O'Murchadha, N.

    1988-01-01

    We give necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of trapped surfaces in spherically symmetric spacetimes. These conditions show that the formation of trapped surfaces depends on both the degree of concentration and the average flow of the matter. The result can be considered as a partial validation of the cosmic-censorship hypothesis

  1. Spherical Pendulum, Actions, and Spin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, Peter H.; Dullin, Holger R.; Waalkens, Holger; Wiersig, Jan

    1996-01-01

    The classical and quantum mechanics of a spherical pendulum are worked out, including the dynamics of a suspending frame with moment of inertia θ. The presence of two separatrices in the bifurcation diagram of the energy-momentum mapping has its mathematical expression in the hyperelliptic nature of

  2. Introduction to Vortex Lattice Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Pinzón

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Panel methods have been widely used in industry and are well established since the 1970s for aerodynamic analysis and computation. The Vortex Lattice Panel Method presented in this study comes across a sophisticated method that provides a quick solution time, allows rapid changes in geometry and suits well for aerodynamic analysis. The aerospace industry is highly competitive in design efficiency, and perhaps one of the most important factors on airplane design and engineering today is multidisciplinary optimization.  Any cost reduction method in the design cycle of a product becomes vital in the success of its outcome. The subsequent sections of this article will further explain in depth the theory behind the vortex lattice method, and the reason behind its selection as the method for aerodynamic analysis during preliminary design work and computation within the aerospace industry. This article is analytic in nature, and its main objective is to present a mathematical summary of this widely used computational method in aerodynamics.

  3. Stationary and non-stationary occurrences of miniature end plate potentials are well described as stationary and non-stationary Poisson processes in the mollusc Navanax inermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, M S; Spray, D C; Bennett, M V

    1988-06-28

    Protractor muscles in the gastropod mollusc Navanax inermis exhibit typical spontaneous miniature end plate potentials with mean amplitude 1.71 +/- 1.19 (standard deviation) mV. The evoked end plate potential is quantized, with a quantum equal to the miniature end plate potential amplitude. When their rate is stationary, occurrence of miniature end plate potentials is a random, Poisson process. When non-stationary, spontaneous miniature end plate potential occurrence is a non-stationary Poisson process, a Poisson process with the mean frequency changing with time. This extends the random Poisson model for miniature end plate potentials to the frequently observed non-stationary occurrence. Reported deviations from a Poisson process can sometimes be accounted for by the non-stationary Poisson process and more complex models, such as clustered release, are not always needed.

  4. PREFACE: Special section on vortex rings Special section on vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2009-10-01

    This special section of Fluid Dynamics Research includes five articles on vortex rings in both classical and quantum fluids. The leading scientists of the field describe the trends in and the state-of-the-art development of experiments, theories and numerical simulations of vortex rings. The year 2008 was the 150th anniversary of 'vortex motion' since Hermann von Helmholtz opened up this field. In 1858, Helmholtz published a paper in Crelle's Journal which put forward the concept of 'vorticity' and made the first analysis of vortex motion. Fluid mechanics before that was limited to irrotational motion. In the absence of vorticity, the motion of an incompressible homogeneous fluid is virtually equivalent to a rigid-body motion in the sense that the fluid motion is determined once the boundary configuration is specified. Helmholtz proved, among other things, that, without viscosity, a vortex line is frozen into the fluid. This Helmholtz's law immediately implies the preservation of knots and links of vortex lines and its implication is enormous. One of the major trends of fluid mechanics since the latter half of the 20th century is to clarify the topological meaning of Helmholtz's law and to exploit it to develop theoretical and numerical methods to find the solutions of the Euler equations and to develop experimental techniques to gain an insight into fluid motion. Vortex rings are prominent coherent structures in a variety of fluid motions from the microscopic scale, through human and mesoscale to astrophysical scales, and have attracted people's interest. The late professor Philip G Saffman (1981) emphasized the significance of studies on vortex rings. One particular motion exemplifies the whole range of problems of vortex motion and is also a commonly known phenomenon, namely the vortex ring or smoke ring. Vortex rings are easily produced by dropping drops of one liquid into another, or by puffing fluid out of a hole, or by exhaling smoke if one has the skill

  5. Laplacian eigenmodes for spherical spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachieze-Rey, M; Caillerie, S

    2005-01-01

    The possibility that our space is multi-rather than singly-connected has gained renewed interest after the discovery of the low power for the first multipoles of the CMB by WMAP. To test the possibility that our space is a multi-connected spherical space, it is necessary to know the eigenmodes of such spaces. Except for lens and prism space, and to some extent for dodecahedral space, this remains an open problem. Here we derive the eigenmodes of all spherical spaces. For dodecahedral space, the demonstration is much shorter, and the calculation method much simpler than before. We also apply our method to tetrahedric, octahedric and icosahedric spaces. This completes the knowledge of eigenmodes for spherical spaces, and opens the door to new observational tests of the cosmic topology. The vector space V k of the eigenfunctions of the Laplacian on the 3-sphere S 3 , corresponding to the same eigenvalue λ k = -k(k + 2), has dimension (k + 1) 2 . We show that the Wigner functions provide a basis for such a space. Using the properties of the latter, we express the behaviour of a general function of V k under an arbitrary rotation G of SO(4). This offers the possibility of selecting those functions of V k which remain invariant under G. Specifying G to be a generator of the holonomy group of a spherical space X, we give the expression of the vector space V x k of the eigenfunctions of X. We provide a method to calculate the eigenmodes up to an arbitrary order. As an illustration, we give the first modes for the spherical spaces mentioned

  6. Noise Diagnostics of Stationary and Non-Stationary Reactor Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunde, Carl

    2007-04-15

    This thesis concerns the application of noise diagnostics on different problems in the area of reactor physics involving both stationary and non-stationary core processes. Five different problems are treated, divided into three different parts. The first problem treated in the first part is the classification of two-phase flow regimes from neutron radiographic and visible light images with a neuro-wavelet algorithm. The algorithm consists of wavelet pre-processing and of an artificial neural network. The result indicates that the wavelet pre-processing is improving the training of the neural network. Next, detector tubes which are suspected of impacting on nearby fuel-assemblies in a boiling water reactor (BWR) are identified by both a classical spectral method and wavelet-based methods. It was found that there is good agreement between the different methods as well as with visual inspections of detector tube and fuel assembly damage made during the outage at the plant. The third problem addresses the determination of the decay ratio of a BWR from the auto-correlation function (ACF). Here wavelets are used, with some success, both for de-trending and de-nosing of the ACF and also for direct estimation of the decay ratio from the ACF. The second part deals with the analysis of beam-mode and shell-mode core-barrel vibrations in pressurised water reactors (PWRs). The beam-mode vibrations are analysed by using parameters of the vibration peaks, in spectra from ex core detectors. A trend analysis of the peak amplitude shows that the peak amplitude is changing during the fuel cycle. When it comes to the analysis of the shell-mode vibration, 1-D analytical and numerical calculations are performed in order to calculate the neutron noise induced in the core. The two calculations are in agreement and show that a large local noise component is present in the core which could be used to classify the shell-mode vibrations. However, a measurement made in the PWR Ringhals-3 shows

  7. Noise Diagnostics of Stationary and Non-Stationary Reactor Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunde, Carl

    2007-01-01

    This thesis concerns the application of noise diagnostics on different problems in the area of reactor physics involving both stationary and non-stationary core processes. Five different problems are treated, divided into three different parts. The first problem treated in the first part is the classification of two-phase flow regimes from neutron radiographic and visible light images with a neuro-wavelet algorithm. The algorithm consists of wavelet pre-processing and of an artificial neural network. The result indicates that the wavelet pre-processing is improving the training of the neural network. Next, detector tubes which are suspected of impacting on nearby fuel-assemblies in a boiling water reactor (BWR) are identified by both a classical spectral method and wavelet-based methods. It was found that there is good agreement between the different methods as well as with visual inspections of detector tube and fuel assembly damage made during the outage at the plant. The third problem addresses the determination of the decay ratio of a BWR from the auto-correlation function (ACF). Here wavelets are used, with some success, both for de-trending and de-nosing of the ACF and also for direct estimation of the decay ratio from the ACF. The second part deals with the analysis of beam-mode and shell-mode core-barrel vibrations in pressurised water reactors (PWRs). The beam-mode vibrations are analysed by using parameters of the vibration peaks, in spectra from ex core detectors. A trend analysis of the peak amplitude shows that the peak amplitude is changing during the fuel cycle. When it comes to the analysis of the shell-mode vibration, 1-D analytical and numerical calculations are performed in order to calculate the neutron noise induced in the core. The two calculations are in agreement and show that a large local noise component is present in the core which could be used to classify the shell-mode vibrations. However, a measurement made in the PWR Ringhals-3 shows

  8. Stationary black holes as holographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, Istvan [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-01 (Japan); MTA KFKI, Reszecske- es Magfizikai Kutatointezet, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33 (Hungary)

    2007-11-21

    Smooth spacetimes possessing a (global) one-parameter group of isometries and an associated Killing horizon in Einstein's theory of gravity are investigated. No assumption concerning the asymptotic structure is made; thereby, the selected spacetimes may be considered as generic distorted stationary black holes. First, spacetimes of arbitrary dimension, n {>=} 3, with matter satisfying the dominant energy condition and allowing a non-zero cosmological constant are investigated. In this part, complete characterization of the topology of the event horizon of 'distorted' black holes is given. It is shown that the topology of the event horizon of 'distorted' black holes is allowed to possess a much larger variety than that of the isolated black hole configurations. In the second part, four-dimensional (non-degenerate) electrovac distorted black hole spacetimes are considered. It is shown that the spacetime geometry and the electromagnetic field are uniquely determined in the black hole region once the geometry of the bifurcation surface and one of the electromagnetic potentials are specified there. Conditions guaranteeing the same type of determinacy, in a neighbourhood of the event horizon, on the domain of outer communication side are also investigated. In particular, they are shown to be satisfied in the analytic case.

  9. On the self-induced motion of a helical vortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, J.; Wood, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    The velocity field in the immediate vicinity of a curved vortex comprises a circulation around the vortex, a component due to the vortex curvature, and a ‘remainder’ due to the more distant parts of the vortex. The first two components are relatively well understood but the remainder is known only

  10. The observation of a triangular vortex in a rotating fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, M.; Heijst, van G.J.F.

    1998-01-01

    A dye visualization study of a triangular vortex in a rotating fluid is presented. The emergence and subsequent break-up of the vortex structure are described. Soon after the generation of the triangular vortex it becomes unstable: two satellite vortices merge and pair with the core vortex into an

  11. Development of vortex model with realistic axial velocity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kei; Ezure, Toshiki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    A vortex is considered as one of significant phenomena which may cause gas entrainment (GE) and/or vortex cavitation in sodium-cooled fast reactors. In our past studies, the vortex is assumed to be approximated by the well-known Burgers vortex model. However, the Burgers vortex model has a simple but unreal assumption that the axial velocity component is horizontally constant, while in real the free surface vortex has the axial velocity distribution which shows large gradient in radial direction near the vortex center. In this study, a new vortex model with realistic axial velocity distribution is proposed. This model is derived from the steady axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equation as well as the Burgers vortex model, but the realistic axial velocity distribution in radial direction is considered, which is defined to be zero at the vortex center and to approach asymptotically to zero at infinity. As the verification, the new vortex model is applied to the evaluation of a simple vortex experiment, and shows good agreements with the experimental data in terms of the circumferential velocity distribution and the free surface shape. In addition, it is confirmed that the Burgers vortex model fails to calculate accurate velocity distribution with the assumption of uniform axial velocity. However, the calculation accuracy of the Burgers vortex model can be enhanced close to that of the new vortex model in consideration of the effective axial velocity which is calculated as the average value only in the vicinity of the vortex center. (author)

  12. Vortex Ring Interaction with a Heated Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason; Krueger, Paul S.

    2008-11-01

    Previous examinations of vortex rings impinging on porous screens has shown the reformation of the vortex ring with a lower velocity after passing through the screen, the creation of secondary vortices, and mixing. A heated screen could, in principle, alter the vortex-screen interaction by changing the local liquid viscosity and density. In the present investigation, a mechanical piston-cylinder vortex ring generator was used to create vortex rings in an aqueous sucrose solution. The rings impinged on a screen of horizontal wires that were heated using electrical current. The flow was visualized with food color and video imaging. Tests with and without heat were conducted at a piston stroke-to-jet diameter ratio of 4 and a jet Reynolds number (Re) of 1000. The vortex rings slowed after passing through the screen, but in tests with heat, they maintained a higher fraction of their before-screen velocity due to reduction in fluid viscosity near the wires. In addition, small ``fingers'' that developed on the front of the vortex rings as they passed through the screen exhibited positive buoyancy effects in the heated case.

  13. Microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Hua-Zhou; Li, Ying; Li, Bo; Ma, Ren-Min

    2016-12-01

    A microscale vortex laser is a new type of coherent light source with small footprint that can directly generate vector vortex beams. However, a microscale laser with controlled topological charge, which is crucial for virtually any of its application, is still unrevealed. Here we present a microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge. The vortex laser eigenmode was synthesized in a metamaterial engineered non-Hermitian micro-ring cavity system at exceptional point. We also show that the vortex laser cavity can operate at exceptional point stably to lase under optical pumping. The microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge can serve as a unique and general building block for next-generation photonic integrated circuits and coherent vortex beam sources. The method we used here can be employed to generate lasing eigenmode with other complex functionalities. Project supported by the “Youth 1000 Talent Plan” Fund, Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 201421) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574012 and 61521004).

  14. Phase diagram of a lattice of pancake vortex molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Crisan, A.; Shivagan, D.D.; Iyo, A.; Shirage, P.M.; Tokiwa, K.; Watanabe, T.; Terada, N.

    2009-01-01

    On a superconducting bi-layer with thickness much smaller than the penetration depth, λ, a vortex molecule might form. A vortex molecule is composed of two fractional vortices and a soliton wall. The soliton wall can be regarded as a Josephson vortex missing magnetic flux (degenerate Josephson vortex) due to an incomplete shielding. The magnetic energy carried by fractional vortices is less than in the conventional vortex. This energy gain can pay a cost to form a degenerate Josephson vortex. The phase diagram of the vortex molecule is rich because of its rotational freedom.

  15. Vortex dynamics in superconducting Corbino disk at zero field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Y.; Ohta, M.

    2007-01-01

    We study the radial current driven vortex dynamics in the Corbino disk sample at zero field, by using a logarithmically interacting point vortex model involving effect of temperature, random pinning centers, and disk wall confinement force. We also take into account both the current induced vortex pair nucleation and the vortex pair annihilation processes in the model. Simulation results demonstrate that the vortex motion induced voltage exhibits almost periodic pulse behavior in time, observed experimentally, for a certain range of the model parameters. Such an anomalous behavior is thought to originate from large fluctuations of the vortex number due to the collective dynamics of this vortex system

  16. New scanning technique for the optical vortex microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Ireneusz; Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Masajada, Jan; Drobczyński, Sławomir

    2012-04-01

    In the optical vortex microscopy the focused Gaussian beam with optical vortex scans a sample. An optical vortex can be introduced into a laser beam with the use of a special optical element--a vortex lens. When moving the vortex lens, the optical vortex changes its position inside the spot formed by a focused laser beam. This effect can be used as a new precise scanning technique. In this paper, we study the optical vortex behavior at the sample plane. We also estimate if the new scanning technique results in observable effects that could be used for a phase object detection.

  17. Structures of single vortex and vortex lattice in a d-wave superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Ren, Y.; Ting, C.

    1996-01-01

    The structures of a single vortex and vortex lattice in a superconductor with d x 2 -y 2 symmetry are studied self-consistently employing a recently developed Ginzburg-Landau theory. Near a single vortex, we found that an s-wave component of the order parameter is always induced, and it causes the local magnetic-field distribution and the d-wave order parameter to have a fourfold anisotropy. It is shown that there is a strong correlation between the structure of a single vortex and the shape of the vortex lattice. Our numerical calculation indicates that the structure of the vortex lattice is always oblique except for temperatures very close to T c where it becomes triangular. The possible connection of the result with experiment is also discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. RANS computations of tip vortex cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaix, Jean; Balarac, Guillaume; Dreyer, Matthieu; Farhat, Mohamed; Münch, Cécile

    2015-12-01

    The present study is related to the development of the tip vortex cavitation in Kaplan turbines. The investigation is carried out on a simplified test case consisting of a NACA0009 blade with a gap between the blade tip and the side wall. Computations with and without cavitation are performed using a R ANS modelling and a transport equation for the liquid volume fraction. Compared with experimental data, the R ANS computations turn out to be able to capture accurately the development of the tip vortex. The simulations have also highlighted the influence of cavitation on the tip vortex trajectory.

  19. Vortex breakdown in a supersonic jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Andrew D.; Levey, Brian S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports a study of a vortex breakdown in a supersonic jet. A supersonic vortical jets were created by tangential injection and acceleration through a convergent-divergent nozzle. Vortex circulation was varied, and the nature of the flow in vortical jets was investigated using several types of flow visualization, including focusing schlieren and imaging of Rayleigh scattering from a laser light sheet. Results show that the vortical jet mixed much more rapidly with the ambient air than a comparable straight jet. When overexpanded, the vortical jet exhibited considerable unsteadiness and showed signs of vortex breakdown.

  20. Vortex dynamics in ferromagnetic/superconducting bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieplak, M.Z.; Adamus, Z. [Polish Acad Sci, Inst Phys, PL-02668 Warsaw, (Poland); Konczykowski, M. [CEA, DSM, DRECAM, Lab Solides Irradies, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS-UMR 7642, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Zhu, L.Y.; Chien, C.L. [Johns Hopkins Univ, Dept Phys and Astron, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The dependence of vortex dynamics on the geometry of magnetic domain pattern is studied in the superconducting/ferromagnetic bilayers, in which niobium is a superconductor, and Co/Pt multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy serves as a ferromagnetic layer. Magnetic domain patterns with different density of domains per surface area and different domain size, w, are obtained for Co/Pt with different thickness of Pt. The dense patterns of domains with the size comparable to the magnetic penetration depth (w {>=} {lambda}) produce large vortex pinning and smooth vortex penetration, while less dense patterns with larger domains (w {>=}{>=} {lambda}) enhance pinning less effectively and result in flux jumps during flux motion. (authors)

  1. Developement of Spherical Polyurethane Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Maeda; H. Ohmori; H. Gyotoku

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Results and Discussion We established a new method to produce the spherical polyurethane beads which have narrower distribution of particle size. This narrower distribution was achieved by the polyurethane prepolymer which contains ketimine as a blocked chain-extending agent. Firstly, the prepolymer is dispersed into the aqueous solution containing surfactant. Secondaly, water comes into the inside of prepolymer as oil phase. Thirdly, ketimine is hydrolyzed to amine, and amine reacts with prepolymer immediately to be polyurethane.Our spherical polyurethane beads are very suitable for automotive interior parts especially for instrument panel cover sheet producing under the slush molding method, because of good process ability, excellent durability to the sunlight and mechanical properties at low temperature. See Fig. 1 ,Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 (Page 820).

  2. Contractions of affine spherical varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhantsev, I V

    1999-01-01

    The language of filtrations and contractions is used to describe the class of G-varieties obtainable as the total spaces of the construction of contraction applied to affine spherical varieties, which is well-known in invariant theory. These varieties are local models for arbitrary affine G-varieties of complexity 1 with a one-dimensional categorical quotient. As examples, reductive algebraic semigroups and three-dimensional SL 2 -varieties are considered

  3. Spherical subsystem of galactic radiosources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorshkov, A G; Popov, M V [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Gosudarstvennyj Astronomicheskij Inst. ' ' GAISh' '

    1975-05-01

    The concentration of statistically complete sampling radiosources of the Ohiof scanning with plane spectra towards the Galaxy centre has been discovered. Quantitative calculations have showed that the sources form a spheric subsystem, which is close in parameters to such old formations in the Galaxy as globular clusters and the RRLsub(YR) type stars. The luminosity of the galaxy spheric subsystem object equals 10/sup 33/ erg/sec, the total number of objects being 7000. The existence of such a subsystem explains s the anomalously by low incline of statistics lgN-lgS in HF scanning PKS (..gamma..-2700Mgz) and the Michigan University scanning (..gamma..=8000Mgz) because the sources of galaxy spheric subsystem make up a considerable share in the total number of sources, especially at high frequencies (50% of sources with a flux greater than a unit of flux per 8000Mgz). It is very probable that the given subsystem consists of the representatives of one of the following class of objects: a) heat sources - the H2H regions with T=10/sup 40/K, Nsub(e)=10/sup 3/, l=1 ps b) supermass black holes with mass M/Mo approximately 10/sup 5/.

  4. Vortex formation and instability in the left ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trung Bao; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Coffey, Dane; Keefe, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    We study the formation of the mitral vortex ring during early diastolic filling in a patient-specific left ventricle (LV) using direct numerical simulation. The geometry of the left ventricle is reconstructed from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data of a healthy human subject. The left ventricular kinematics is modeled via a cell-based activation methodology, which is inspired by cardiac electro-physiology and yields physiologic LV wall motion. In the fluid dynamics videos, we describe in detail the three-dimensional structure of the mitral vortex ring, which is formed during early diastolic filling. The ring starts to deform as it propagates toward the apex of the heart and becomes inclined. The trailing secondary vortex tubes are formed as the result of interaction between the vortex ring and the LV wall. These vortex tubes wrap around the circumference and begin to interact with and destabilize the mitral vortex ring. At the end of diastole, the vortex ring impinges on the LV wall and the large-scale intraventricular flow rotates in clockwise direction. We show for the first time that the mitral vortex ring evolution is dominated by a number of vortex-vortex and vortex-wall interactions, including lateral straining and deformation of vortex ring, the interaction of two vortex tubes with unequal strengths, helicity polarization of vortex tubes and twisting instabilities of the vortex cores.

  5. Moving vortex matter with coexisting vortices and anti-vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Gilson

    2009-01-01

    Moving vortex matter, driven by transport currents independent of time, in which vortices and anti-vortices coexist is investigated theoretically in thin superconducting films with nanostructured defects. A simple London model is proposed for the vortex dynamics in films with periodic arrays of nanomagnets or cylindrical holes (antidots). Common to these films is that vortex anti-vortex pairs may be created in the vicinity of the defects by relatively small transport currents, because it adds to the current generated by the defects - the nanomagnets screening current, or the antidots backflow current - and may exceed locally the critical value for vortex anti-vortex pair creation. The model assumes that vortex matter dynamics is governed by Langevin equations, modified to account for creation and annihilation of vortex anti-vortex pairs. For pair creation, it is assumed that whenever the total current at some location exceeds a critical value, equal to that needed to separate a vortex from an anti-vortex by a vortex core diameter, a pair is created instantaneously around this location. Pair annihilation occurs by vortex anti-vortex collisions. The model is applied to films at zero external magnetic field and low temperatures. It is found that several moving vortex matter steady-states with equal numbers of vortices and anti-vortices are possible.

  6. Vortex flow in acoustically levitated drops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Z.L.; Xie, W.J. [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2011-08-29

    The internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops is investigated experimentally. This study reveals a kind of vortex flow which rotates in the meridional plane of the levitated drop. The magnitude of fluid velocity is nearly vanishing at the drop center, whereas it increases toward the free surface of a levitated drop until the maximum value of about 80 mm/s. A transition of streamline shapes from concentric circles to ellipses takes place at the distance of about 1.2 mm from the drop center. The fluid velocity distribution is plotted as a function of polar angle for seven characteristic streamlines. -- Highlights: → We experimentally observe the internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops. → We present a fascinating structure of vortex flow inside the levitated water drop. → This vortex flow rotates around the drop center in the meridional plane. → Velocity distribution information of this vortex flow is quantitatively analyzed.

  7. Vortex flow in acoustically levitated drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Z.L.; Xie, W.J.; Wei, B.

    2011-01-01

    The internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops is investigated experimentally. This study reveals a kind of vortex flow which rotates in the meridional plane of the levitated drop. The magnitude of fluid velocity is nearly vanishing at the drop center, whereas it increases toward the free surface of a levitated drop until the maximum value of about 80 mm/s. A transition of streamline shapes from concentric circles to ellipses takes place at the distance of about 1.2 mm from the drop center. The fluid velocity distribution is plotted as a function of polar angle for seven characteristic streamlines. -- Highlights: → We experimentally observe the internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops. → We present a fascinating structure of vortex flow inside the levitated water drop. → This vortex flow rotates around the drop center in the meridional plane. → Velocity distribution information of this vortex flow is quantitatively analyzed.

  8. On plasma flows along vortex lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagewadi, C.S.; Prasanna Kumar, K.N.

    1989-01-01

    The plasma flows are discussed and various intrinsic relations along the vortex lines and their principal normals and binormals are obtained. The effects of rotations on Bernoulli surfaces are also studied. (M.K.V.)

  9. Vortex sorter for Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, Graeme; Veitch, John; Courtial, Johannes; Oehberg, Patrik

    2004-01-01

    We have designed interferometers that sort Bose-Einstein condensates into their vortex components. The Bose-Einstein condensates in the two arms of the interferometer are rotated with respect to each other through fixed angles; different vortex components then exit the interferometer in different directions. The method we use to rotate the Bose-Einstein condensates involves asymmetric phase imprinting and is itself new. We have modeled rotation through fixed angles and sorting into vortex components with even and odd values of the topological charge of two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates in a number of states (pure or superposition vortex states for different values of the scattering length). Our scheme may have applications for quantum information processing

  10. Free wake models for vortex methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, K. [Technical Univ. Berlin, Aerospace Inst. (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    The blade element method works fast and good. For some problems (rotor shapes or flow conditions) it could be better to use vortex methods. Different methods for calculating a wake geometry will be presented. (au)

  11. Aircraft Vortex Wake Decay Near the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    A multi-faceted experimental and analytical research program was carried out to explore the details of aircraft wake vortex breakdown under conditions representative of those which prevail at low altitudes in the vicinity of airports. Three separate ...

  12. Vortex structure and characterization of quasiperiodic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dana, Itzhack; Chernov, Vladislav E

    2002-01-01

    Quasiperiodic functions (QPFs) are characterized by their full vortex structure in one unit cell. This characterization is much finer and more sensitive than the topological one given by the total vorticity per unit cell (the 'Chern index'). It is shown that QPFs with an arbitrarily prescribed vortex structure exist by constructing explicitly such a 'standard' QPF. Two QPFs with the same vortex structure are equivalent, in the sense that their ratio is a function which is strictly periodic, nonvanishing and at least continuous. A general QPF can then be approximately reconstructed from its vortex structure on the basis of the standard QPF and the equivalence concept. As another application of this concept, a simple method is proposed for calculating the quasiperiodic eigenvectors of periodic matrices. Possible applications to the quantum-chaos problem on a phase-space torus are briefly discussed

  13. A Retrospective on Modulated Wavy Vortex Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, Michael; Swinney, Harry

    2009-01-01

    A fluid dynamics video of the Modulated Wavy Vortex Flow state of Taylor-Couette flow with the outer cylinder fixed is presented. This state precedes the transition to turbulence, which is more gradual than that for other fluid systems.

  14. Superconducting coherence in a vortex line liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.; Teitel, S.

    1995-01-01

    We carry out simulations of the anisotropic uniformly frustrated 3d XY model, as a model for vortex line fluctuations in high T c superconductors. We compute the phase diagram as a function of temperature and anisotropy, for a fixed applied magnetic field B. We find two distinct phase transitions. Upon heating, there is first a lower T c perpendicular where the vortex line lattice melts and super-conducting coherence perpendicular to the applied magnetic field vanishes. At a higher T cz , within the vortex line liquid, superconducting coherence parallel to the applied magnetic field vanishes. For finite anisotropy, both T c perpendicular and T cz lie well below the crossover from the vortex line liquid to the normal state

  15. Dampers for Stationary Labyrinth Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Aini, Yehia; Mitchell, William; Roberts, Lawrence; Montgomery, Stuart; Davis, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Vibration dampers have been invented that are incorporated as components within the stationary labyrinth seal assembly. These dampers are intended to supplement other vibration-suppressing features of labyrinth seals in order to reduce the incidence of high-cycle-fatigue failures, which have been known to occur in the severe vibratory environments of jet engines and turbopumps in which labyrinth seals are typically used. A vibration damper of this type includes several leaf springs and/or a number of metallic particles (shot) all held in an annular seal cavity by a retaining ring. The leaf springs are made of a spring steel alloy chosen, in conjunction with design parameters, to maintain sufficient preload to ensure effectiveness of damping at desired operating temperatures. The cavity is vented via a small radial gap between the retaining ring and seal housing. The damping mechanism is complex. In the case of leaf springs, the mechanism is mainly friction in the slippage between the seal housing and individual dampers. In the case of a damper that contains shot, the damping mechanism includes contributions from friction between individual particles, friction between particles and cavity walls, and dissipation of kinetic energy of impact. The basic concept of particle/shot vibration dampers has been published previously; what is new here is the use of such dampers to suppress traveling-wave vibrations in labyrinth seals. Damping effectiveness depends on many parameters, including, but not limited to, coefficient of friction, mode shape, and frequency and amplitude of vibrational modes. In tests, preloads of the order of 6 to 15 lb (2.72 to 6.8 kilograms) per spring damper were demonstrated to provide adequate damping levels. Effectiveness of shot damping of vibrations having amplitudes from 20 to 200 times normal terrestrial gravitational acceleration (196 to 1,960 meters per square second) and frequencies up to 12 kHz was demonstrated for shot sizes from 0.032 to

  16. Stationary axisymmetric Einstein--Maxwell field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catenacci, R.; Diaz Alonso, J.

    1976-01-01

    We show the existence of a formal identity between Einstein's and Ernst's stationary axisymmetric gravitational field equations and the Einstein--Maxwell and the Ernst equations for the electrostatic and magnetostatic axisymmetric cases. Our equations are invariant under very simple internal symmetry groups, and one of them appears to be new. We also obtain a method for associating two stationary axisymmetric vacuum solutions with every electrostatic known

  17. Stationary infinitely divisible processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.

    Several recent strands of work has led to the consideration of various types of continuous time stationary and infinitely divisible processes. A review of these types, with some new results, is presented.......Several recent strands of work has led to the consideration of various types of continuous time stationary and infinitely divisible processes. A review of these types, with some new results, is presented....

  18. Applications of 2D helical vortex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we show how the assumption of helical symmetry in the context of 2D helical vortices can be exploited to analyse and to model various cases of rotating flows. From theory, examples of three basic applications of 2D dynamics of helical vortices embedded in flows with helical symmetry...... of the vorticity field are addressed. These included some of the problems related to vortex breakdown, instability of far wakes behind rotors and vortex theory of ideal rotors....

  19. Towards a string formulation of vortex dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsebeth Schroeder; Ola Toernkvist

    1998-01-01

    We derive an exact equation of motion for a non-relativistic vortex in two- and three-dimensional models with a complex field. The velocity is given in terms of gradients of the complex field at the vortex position. We discuss the problem of reducing the field dynamics to a closed dynamical system with non-locally interacting strings as the fundamental degrees of freedom

  20. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Won Sik; Grandy, Andrew; Boroski, Andrew; Krajtl, Lubomir; Johnson, Terry

    2015-01-01

    For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel

  1. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won Sik [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Grandy, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Boroski, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krajtl, Lubomir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Johnson, Terry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel

  2. Superconductivity and vortex properties in various multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koorevaar, P.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis three qualitatively different type of superconducting multilayers are studied. We discuss the vortex lattice structure in Nb/NbZr multilayers, a system where both type of constituting layers are superconducting. At certain temperatures and for parallel fields close to H c2parallel , the Nb/NbZr system has a strongly modulated order parameter, and in this aspect resembles the high-Tc materials. By lowering the field the modulation decreases, having important consequences for the vortex lattice structure. By studying the transport critical currents we show that in the case of strong modulation the vortex lattice has a kinked structure, but at weaker modulations the vortices are straight, and the change in modulation actually results in a vortex lattice transition. Our study confirms the picture of the existence of kinked vortex lattices, but it is rather surprising that these kinked structures can exist in a system which in itself is not at all that anisotropic. It indicates the relevance of other parameters governing the vortex lattice structure. (orig.)

  3. Aperiodicity Correction for Rotor Tip Vortex Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Manikandan; Paetzel, Ryan; Bhagwat, Mahendra J.

    2011-01-01

    The initial roll-up of a tip vortex trailing from a model-scale, hovering rotor was measured using particle image velocimetry. The unique feature of the measurements was that a microscope was attached to the camera to allow much higher spatial resolution than hitherto possible. This also posed some unique challenges. In particular, the existing methodologies to correct for aperiodicity in the tip vortex locations could not be easily extended to the present measurements. The difficulty stemmed from the inability to accurately determine the vortex center, which is a prerequisite for the correction procedure. A new method is proposed for determining the vortex center, as well as the vortex core properties, using a least-squares fit approach. This approach has the obvious advantage that the properties are derived from not just a few points near the vortex core, but from a much larger area of flow measurements. Results clearly demonstrate the advantage in the form of reduced variation in the estimated core properties, and also the self-consistent results obtained using three different aperiodicity correction methods.

  4. Crossflow-Vortex Breakdown on Swept Wings: Correlation of Nonlinear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, R. D.; Streett, C. L.

    1994-01-01

    The spatial evolution of cross flow-vortex packets in a laminar boundary layer on a swept wing are computed by the direct numerical simulation of the incompressible Navier- Stokes equations. A wall-normal velocity distribution of steady suction and blowing at the wing surface is used to generate a strip of equally spaced and periodic disturbances along the span. Three simulations are conducted to study the effect of initial amplitude on the disturbance evolution, to determine the role of traveling cross ow modes in transition, and to devise a correlation function to guide theories of transition prediction. In each simulation, the vortex packets first enter a chordwise region of linear independent growth, then, the individual packets coalesce downstream and interact with adjacent packets, and, finally, the vortex packets nonlinearly interact to generate inflectional velocity profiles. As the initial amplitude of the disturbance is increased, the length of the evolution to breakdown decreases. For this pressure gradient, stationary modes dominate the disturbance evolution. A two-coeffcient function was devised to correlate the simulation results. The coefficients, combined with a single simulation result, provide sufficient information to generate the evolution pattern for disturbances of any initial amplitude.

  5. Vortex core structure and global properties of rapidly rotating Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baym, Gordon; Pethick, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    We develop an approach for calculating stationary states of rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in harmonic traps which is applicable for arbitrary ratios of the rotation frequency to the transverse frequency of the trap ω perpendicular . Assuming the number of vortices to be large, we write the condensate wave function as the product of a function that describes the structure of individual vortices times an envelope function varying slowly on the scale of the vortex spacing. By minimizing the energy, we derive Gross-Pitaevskii equations that determine the properties of individual vortices and the global structure of the cloud. For low rotation rates, the structure of a vortex is that of an isolated vortex in a uniform medium, while for rotation rates approaching the frequency of the trap (the mean-field lowest-Landau-level regime), the structure is that of the lowest p-wave state of a particle in a harmonic trap with frequency ω perpendicular . The global structure of the cloud is determined by minimizing the energy with respect to variations of the envelope function; for conditions appropriate to most experimental investigations to date, we predict that the transverse density profile of the cloud will be of the Thomas-Fermi form, rather than the Gaussian structure predicted on the assumption that the wave function consists only of components in the lowest Landau level for a regular array of vortices

  6. Acceleration factor for propagation of a stationary wave in its wave medium: movement of energy in the 3-D space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Shigeto

    2013-01-01

    According to the formerly reported 4-D spherical model of the time and universe, any energy in the 3-dimensional space is a vibration of the intrinsic space energy. There is a special frame stationary to the space energy and the principle of relativity is no longer valid. Accordingly, abandonment of the Special Relativity and then introduction of a factor of acceleration for energy in the 3-D space are proposed.

  7. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  8. Cooperative effects in spherical spasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    A fully analytical semiclassical theory of cooperative optical processes which occur in an ensemble of molecules embedded in a spherical core-shell nanoparticle is developed from first principles. Both the plasmonic Dicke effect and spaser generation are investigated for the designs in which...... a shell/core contains an arbitrarily large number of active molecules in the vicinity of a metallic core/shell. An essential aspect of the theory is an ab initio account of the feedback from the core/shell boundaries which significantly modifies the molecular dynamics. The theory provides rigorous, albeit...

  9. Spherical bodies of constant width

    OpenAIRE

    Lassak, Marek; Musielak, Michał

    2018-01-01

    The intersection $L$ of two different non-opposite hemispheres $G$ and $H$ of a $d$-dimensional sphere $S^d$ is called a lune. By the thickness of $L$ we mean the distance of the centers of the $(d-1)$-dimensional hemispheres bounding $L$. For a hemisphere $G$ supporting a %spherical convex body $C \\subset S^d$ we define ${\\rm width}_G(C)$ as the thickness of the narrowest lune or lunes of the form $G \\cap H$ containing $C$. If ${\\rm width}_G(C) =w$ for every hemisphere $G$ supporting $C$, we...

  10. Photons in a spherical cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu-Pallas, N.; Vlad, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    The spectrum of black body radiation at the absolute temperature T, in an ideal spherical cavity of radius R, is studied. The departures from the classical predictions of Planck's theory, due to the discrete energies of the radiation quanta confined inside the cavity, depend on the adiabatic invariant RT and are significant for RT≤ 1 cm K. Special attention was paid to evidence sudden changes in the spectrum intensities, forbidden bands of frequency, as well as major modifications of the total energy for RT≤ 1 cm K. Similar effects were present in case of a cubic cavity too. (authors)

  11. Propeller and inflow vortex interaction : vortex response and impact on the propeller performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Zhou, T; Sciacchitano, A.; Veldhuis, L.L.M.; Eitelberg, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aerodynamic operating conditions of a propeller can include complex situations where vorticity from sources upstream can enter the propeller plane. In general, when the vorticity enters in a concentrated form of a vortex, the interaction between the vortex and blade is referred to as

  12. Spectral analysis of point-vortex dynamics : first application to vortex polygons in a circular domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speetjens, M.F.M.; Meleshko, V.V.; Heijst, van G.J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses the classical problem of the dynamics and stability of a cluster of N point vortices of equal strength arranged in a polygonal configuration ("N-vortex polygons"). In unbounded domains, such N-vortex polygons are unconditionally stable for N

  13. Analyzing Non Stationary Processes in Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The lack of well-developed techniques for modeling changing statistical moments in our observations has stymied the application of stochastic process theory for many scientific and engineering applications. Non linear effects of the observation methodology is one of the most perplexing aspects to modeling non stationary processes. This perplexing problem was encountered when modeling the effect of non stationary receiver fluctuations on the performance of radiometer calibration architectures. Existing modeling approaches were found not applicable; particularly problematic is modeling processes across scales over which they begin to exhibit non stationary behavior within the time interval of the calibration algorithm. Alternatively, the radiometer output is modeled as samples from a sequence random variables; the random variables are treated using a conditional probability distribution function conditioned on the use of the variable in the calibration algorithm. This approach of treating a process as a sequence of random variables with non stationary stochastic moments produce sensible predictions of temporal effects of calibration algorithms. To test these model predictions, an experiment using the Millimeter wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) was conducted. The MIR with its two black body calibration references was configured in a laboratory setting to observe a third ultra-stable reference (CryoTarget). The MIR was programmed to sequentially sample each of the three references in approximately a 1 second cycle. Data were collected over a six-hour interval. The sequence of reference measurements form an ensemble sample set comprised of a series of three reference measurements. Two references are required to estimate the receiver response. A third reference is used to estimate the uncertainty in the estimate. Typically, calibration algorithms are designed to suppress the non stationary effects of receiver fluctuations. By treating the data sequence as an ensemble

  14. Stationary radiation of objects with scattering media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, Inna A

    2001-01-01

    The radiation observed inside or outside a stationary radiator with a scattering medium is a sum of components, each being determined by, first, the primary radiation from some part of the radiator and, second, the probability of this radiation reaching the region where it is observed. In this review, general and rather simple relations between these components are discussed. These relations, unlike the components themselves, are independent of the specific optical characteristics of the object as well as of its geometry, inhomogeneity, etc. In deriving the relations, the situations in which geometrical optics is either applicable or inapplicable to radiation in a scattering medium are considered. For the case where geometrical optics does apply, stationary relations are derived from the probabilistic stationarity condition for radiation passing through the medium, i.e., from the fact that all radiation emitted in a stationary regime disappears with probability unity. Equilibrium relations are derived from the stationary relations in the particular case of a thermal radiator in an isothermal cavity. To derive the stationary relations in the geometrical optics approximation, we obtain general solutions of the linear equation of transfer using the Green function approach. If geometrical optics cannot be applied to a scattering and radiating medium, only relations for the components of outgoing thermal radiation are obtained, and the generalized Kirchhoff law, obtained by Levin and Rytov using statistical radio-physics methods, is employed. In this case, stationary relations are also derived from a probabilistic stationarity condition; the equilibrium relations follow from the stationary ones as well as from the equilibrium condition for radiation in the isothermal cavity. The quantities involved in all the relations obtained are a subject of experimental and computational spectroscopic studies. Examples of current and potential applications are given. The relations

  15. Transverse force on a moving vortex with the acoustic geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengming; Cao Liming; Duan Yishi; Zhong Chengkui

    2004-01-01

    We consider the transverse force on a moving vortex with the acoustic metric using the phi-mapping topological current theory. In the frame of effective space-time geometry the vortex appear naturally by virtue of the vortex tensor in the Lorentz space-time and we show that it is just the vortex derived with the order parameter in the condensed matter. With the usual Lagrangian we obtain the equation of motion for the vortex. At last, we show that the transverse force on the moving vortex in our equation is just the usual Magnus force in a simple model

  16. Formation of quasistationary vortex and transient hole patterns through vortex merger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, R.; Lee, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Collection of point-like intense vortices arranged symmetrically outside of a uniform circular vortex patch, both enclosed in a free-slip circular boundary, are numerically time evolved for up to 10-15 patch turnover times. These patterns are found to merge with the patch by successively inducing nonlinear dispersive modes (V-states) on the surface of the patch, draw off fingers of vorticity (filamentation), trap the irrotational regions as the fingers symmetrize under the shear flow of the patch and point-like vortices (wave breaking) followed by the vortex-hole capture. While the hole patterns are observed to break up over several turnover periods the vortex patterns appear to evolve into quasistationary patterns for some cases of an initial number of point-like vortices N pv . The bounded V-states, filamentation, and vortex (hole) pattern formation are discussed in some detail and their possible connection to recently observed vortex 'crystals' is pointed out

  17. Stationary Magnetohydrodynamic Models of Three-Dimensional Rigidly Rotating Magnetized Coronae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salti, Nasser; Neukirch, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Example solutions of a theory for stationary 3D non-potential solutions of the MHD equations (in the co-rotating frame of reference) are presented. As a first step we present solutions for the mathematically simpler case of a massive central cylinder, but the theory can also be applied to spherical bodies. The fundamental equation of the theory is linear and in the cylindrical case it can be solved using standard methods. Possible application is the structure of coronae of (fast) rotating stars.

  18. Numerical simulation of fire vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barannikova, D. D.; Borzykh, V. E.; Obukhov, A. G.

    2018-05-01

    The article considers the numerical simulation of the swirling flow of air around the smoothly heated vertical cylindrical domain in the conditions of gravity and Coriolis forces action. The solutions of the complete system of Navie-Stocks equations are numerically solved at constant viscosity and heat conductivity factors. Along with the proposed initial and boundary conditions, these solutions describe the complex non-stationary 3D flows of viscous compressible heat conducting gas. For various instants of time of the initial flow formation stage using the explicit finite-difference scheme the calculations of all gas dynamics parameters, that is density, temperature, pressure and three velocity components of gas particles, have been run. The current instant lines corresponding to the trajectories of the particles movement in the emerging flow have been constructed. A negative direction of the air flow swirling occurred in the vertical cylindrical domain heating has been defined.

  19. Vortex shedding from tandem cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md. Mahbub; Elhimer, Mehdi; Wang, Longjun; Jacono, David Lo; Wong, C. W.

    2018-03-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted on the flow around tandem cylinders for ranges of diameter ratio d/ D = 0.25-1.0, spacing ratio L/ d = 5.5-20, and Reynolds number Re = 0.8 × 104-2.42 × 104, where d and D are the diameters of the upstream and downstream cylinders, respectively, L is the distance from the upstream cylinder center to the forward stagnation point of the downstream one. The focus is given on examining the effects of d/ D, L/ d and Re on Strouhal number St, flow structures and fluid forces measured using hotwire, particle image velocimetry (PIV) and load cell measurement techniques, respectively. Changes in d/ D and L/ d in the ranges examined lead to five flow regimes, namely lock-in, intermittent lock-in, no lock-in, subharmonic lock-in and shear-layer reattachment regimes. Time-mean drag coefficient ( C D) and fluctuating drag and lift coefficients ({C^'D} and {C^'L}) are more sensitive to L/ d than d/ D. The scenario is opposite for St where d/ D is more prominent than L/ d to change the St. The detailed facet of the dependence on d/ D and L/ d of C D, {C^'D}, {C^'L} and St is discussed based on shear-layer velocity, approaching velocity, vortex formation length, and wake width.

  20. Optical vortex beams: Generation, propagation and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen

    An optical vortex (also known as a screw dislocation or phase singularity) is one type of optical singularity that has a spiral phase wave front around a singularity point where the phase is undefined. Optical vortex beams have a lot of applications in areas such as optical communications, LADAR (laser detection and ranging) system, optical tweezers, optical trapping and laser beam shaping. The concepts of optical vortex beams and methods of generation are briefly discussed. The properties of optical vortex beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence have been studied. A numerical modeling is developed and validated which has been applied to study the high order properties of optical vortex beams propagating though a turbulent atmosphere. The simulation results demonstrate the advantage that vectorial vortex beams may be more stable and maintain beam integrity better when they propagate through turbulent atmosphere. As one important application of optical vortex beams, the laser beam shaping is introduced and studied. We propose and demonstrate a method to generate a 2D flat-top beam profile using the second order full Poincare beams. Its applications in two-dimensional flat-top beam shaping with spatially variant polarization under low numerical aperture focusing have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. A novel compact flat-top beam shaper based on the proposed method has been designed, fabricated and tested. Experimental results show that high quality flat-top profile can be obtained with steep edge roll-off. The tolerance to different input beam sizes of the beam shaper is also verified in the experimental demonstration. The proposed and experimentally verified LC beam shaper has the potential to become a promising candidate for compact and low-cost flat-top beam shaping in areas such as laser processing/machining, lithography and medical treatment.

  1. Modeling of aerodynamics in vortex furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anufriev, I.; Krasinsky, D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics; Salomatov, V.; Anikin, Y.; Sharypov, O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics; Novosibirsk State Univ. (Russian Federation); Enkhjargal, Kh. [Mongol Univ. of Science and Technology, Ulan Bator (Mongolia)

    2013-07-01

    At present, the torch burning technology of pulverized-coal fuel in vortex flow is one of the most prospective and environmentally-friendly combustion technologies of low-grade coals. Appropriate organization of aerodynamics may influence stability of temperature and heat flux distributions, increase slag catching, and reduce toxic emissions. Therefore, from scientific point of view it is interesting to investigate aerodynamics in the devices aiming at justification of design and operating parameters for new steam generators with vortex furnace, and upgrade of existing boiler equipment. The present work is devoted to physical and mathematical modeling of interior aerodynamics of vortex furnace of steam generator of thermal power plants. Research was carried out on the air isothermal model which geometry was similar to one section of the experimental- industrial boiler TPE-427 of Novosibirsk TPS-3. Main elements of vortex furnace structure are combustion chamber, diffuser, and cooling chamber. The model is made from organic glass; on the front wall two rectangular nozzles (through which compressed air is injected) are placed symmetrically at 15 to the horizon. The Laser Doppler Velocimeter LAD-05 was used for non-contact measurement of vortex flow characteristics. Two velocity components in the XY-plane (in different cross- sections of the model) were measured in these experiments. Reynolds number was 3.10{sup 5}. Numerical simulation of 3-D turbulent isothermal flow was performed with the use of CFD package FLUENT. Detailed structure of the flow in vortex furnace model has been obtained in predictions. The distributions of main flow characteristics (pressure, velocity and vorticity fields, turbulent kinetic energy) are presented. The obtained results may be used at designing boilers with vortex furnace. Computations were performed using the supercomputer NKS-160.

  2. Intraventricular vortex properties in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Yolanda; Alhama, Marta; Yotti, Raquel; Martínez-Legazpi, Pablo; del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Pérez-David, Esther; González-Mansilla, Ana; Santa-Marta, Cristina; Barrio, Alicia; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; del Álamo, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Vortices may have a role in optimizing the mechanical efficiency and blood mixing of the left ventricle (LV). We aimed to characterize the size, position, circulation, and kinetic energy (KE) of LV main vortex cores in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) and analyze their physiological correlates. We used digital processing of color-Doppler images to study flow evolution in 61 patients with NIDCM and 61 age-matched control subjects. Vortex features showed a characteristic biphasic temporal course during diastole. Because late filling contributed significantly to flow entrainment, vortex KE reached its maximum at the time of the peak A wave, storing 26 ± 20% of total KE delivered by inflow (range: 1–74%). Patients with NIDCM showed larger and stronger vortices than control subjects (circulation: 0.008 ± 0.007 vs. 0.006 ± 0.005 m2/s, respectively, P = 0.02; KE: 7 ± 8 vs. 5 ± 5 mJ/m, P = 0.04), even when corrected for LV size. This helped confining the filling jet in the dilated ventricle. The vortex Reynolds number was also higher in the NIDCM group. By multivariate analysis, vortex KE was related to the KE generated by inflow and to chamber short-axis diameter. In 21 patients studied head to head, Doppler measurements of circulation and KE closely correlated with phase-contract magnetic resonance values (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.82 and 0.76, respectively). Thus, the biphasic nature of filling determines normal vortex physiology. Vortex formation is exaggerated in patients with NIDCM due to chamber remodeling, and enlarged vortices are helpful for ameliorating convective pressure losses and facilitating transport. These findings can be accurately studied using ultrasound. PMID:24414062

  3. Vortex operators in gauge field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, J.

    1980-07-01

    Several related aspects of the 't Hooft vortex operator are studied. The current picture of the vacuum of quantum chromodynamics, the idea of dual field theories, and the idea of the vortex operator are reviewed first. The Abelian vortex operator written in terms of elementary fields and the calculation of its Green's functions are considered. A two-dimensional solvable model of a Dirac string is presented. The expression of the Green's functions more neatly in terms of Wu and Yang's geometrical idea of sections is addressed. The renormalization of the Green's functions of two kinds of Abelian looplike operators, the Wilson loop and the vortex operator, is studied; for both operators only an overall multiplicative renormalization is needed. In the case of the vortex this involves a surprising cancellation. Next, the dependence of the Green's functions of the Wilson and 't Hooft operators on the nature of the vacuum is discussed. The cluster properties of the Green's functions are emphasized. It is seen that the vortex operator in a massive Abelian theory always has surface-like clustering. The form of Green's functions in terms of Feynman graphs is the same in Higgs and symmetric phases; the difference appears in the sum over all tadpole trees. Finally, systems having fields in the fundamental representation are considered. When these fields enter only weakly into the dynamics, a vortex-like operator is anticipated. Any such operator can no longer be local looplike, but must have commutators at long range. A U(1) lattice gauge theory with two matter fields, one singly charged (fundamental) and one doubly charged (adjoint), is examined. When the fundamental field is weakly coupled, the expected phase transitions are found. When it is strongly coupled, the operator still appears to be a good order parameter, a discontinuous change in its behavior leads to a new phase transition. 18 figures

  4. Interactions between charged spherical macroions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.J.; Falk, M.L.; Robbins, M.O.

    1996-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to study the screened interactions between charged spherical macroions surrounded by discrete counterions, and to test previous theories of screening. The simulations were performed in the primitive cell of the bcc lattice, and in the spherical Wigner endash Seitz cell that is commonly used in approximate calculations. We found that the Wigner endash Seitz approximation is valid even at high volume fractions φ and large macroion charges Z, because the macroion charge becomes strongly screened. Pressures calculated from Poisson endash Boltzmann theory and local density functional theory deviate from MC values as φ and Z increase, but continue to provide upper and lower bounds for the MC results. While Debye endash Hueckel (DH) theory fails badly when the bare charge is used, MC pressures can be fit with an effective DH charge, Z DH , that is nearly independent of volume fraction. As Z diverges, Z DH saturates at zψ max R m /λ, where z is the counterion charge, R m is the macroion radius, λ is the Bjerrum length, and ψ max is a constant of order 10. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masayuki Ono

    2000-01-01

    The main aim of National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the innovative spherical torus (ST) concept. Physics outcome of the NSTX research program is relevant to near-term applications such as the Volume Neutron Source (VNS) and burning plasmas, and future applications such as the pilot and power plants. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current was successfully ramped up to the design value of 1 million amperes (MA) on December 14, 1999. The CHI (Coaxial Helicity Injection) and HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) experiments have also started. Stable CHI discharges of up to 133 kA and 130-msec duration have been produced using 20 kA of injected current. Using eight antennas connected to two transmitters, up to 2 MW of HHFW power was successfully coupled to the plasma. The Neutral-beam Injection (NBI) heating system and associated NBI-based diagnostics such as the Charge-exchange Recombination Spectrometer (CHERS) will be operational in October 2000

  6. Casimir effect in spherical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The analytic regularization method is applied to study the Casimir effect for spherical cavities. Although many works have been presented in the past few years, problems related to the elimination of the regulator parameter still remain. A way to calculate the zero point energy of a perfectly conducting spherical shell which is a miscellaneous of those presented early is here proposed, How a cancelation of divergent terms occurs and how a finite parte is obtained after the elimination of the regulator parameter is shown. As a by-product the zero point energy of the interior vibration modes is obtained and this has some relevance to the quarks bag model. This relev ance is also discussed. The calculation of the energy fom the density view is also discussed. Some works in this field are criticized. The logarithmic divergent terms in the zero point energy are studied when the interior and exterior of the sphere are considered as a medium not dispersive and characterized by a dielectric constants ε 1 and ε 2 and peermeability constants μ 1 and μ 2 respectivelly. The logarithmic divergent terms are not present in the case of ε i μ i =K, with K some constant and i=1,2. (author) [pt

  7. Evolution of a Network of Vortex Loops in He-II: Exact Solution of the Rate Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskii, Sergey K.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of a network of vortex loops in He-II due to the fusion and breakdown of vortex loops is studied. We perform investigation on the base of the ''rate equation'' for the distribution function n(l) of number of loops of length l. By use of the special ansatz we have found the exact powerlike solution of the rate equation in a stationary case. That solution is the famous equilibrium distribution n(l)∝l -5/2 obtained earlier from thermodynamic arguments. Our result, however, is not equilibrium; it describes the state with two mutual fluxes of the length (or energy) in l space. Analyzing this solution we drew several results on the structure and dynamics of the vortex tangle in the superfluid turbulent helium. In particular, we obtained that the mean radius of the curvature is of the order of interline space and that the decay of the vortex tangle obeys the Vinen equation. We also evaluated the full rate of reconnection

  8. Evolution of a network of vortex loops in He-II: exact solution of the rate equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovskii, Sergey K

    2006-01-13

    The evolution of a network of vortex loops in He-II due to the fusion and breakdown of vortex loops is studied. We perform investigation on the base of the "rate equation" for the distribution function n(l) of number of loops of length l. By use of the special ansatz we have found the exact power-like solution of the rate equation in a stationary case. That solution is the famous equilibrium distribution n(l) proportional l(-5/2) obtained earlier from thermodynamic arguments. Our result, however, is not equilibrium; it describes the state with two mutual fluxes of the length (or energy) in l space. Analyzing this solution we drew several results on the structure and dynamics of the vortex tangle in the superfluid turbulent helium. In particular, we obtained that the mean radius of the curvature is of the order of interline space and that the decay of the vortex tangle obeys the Vinen equation. We also evaluated the full rate of reconnection.

  9. Second-order spherical optoelectronic detector for 3D multi-particles wave emission and propagation in space time domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Francesco; Cimmino, Rosario F.

    2017-09-01

    This paper concerns a feasibility study on a 2nd order spherical, or three-dimensional, angular momentum and linear momentum detector for photonic radiation applications. It has been developed in order to obtain a paraxial approximation of physical events observed under Coulomb gauge condition, which is essential to compute both the longitudinal and transverse rotational components of the observed 3-D vortex field, generally neglected by conventional detection systems under current usage. Since light and laser beams are neither full transversal or rotational phenomena, to measure directly and in the same time both the energy, mainly not-rotational, related to the relevant part of the linear momentum and the potential solenoidal energy (vortex), related to the angular momentum, 2nd order spherical, or 3-D, detector techniques are required. In addition, direct 2nd order measure techniques enable development of TEM + DEM [17] studies, therefore allowing for monochromatic complex wave detection with a paraxial accuracy in the relativistic time-space domain. Light and optic or Electromagnetic 2nd order 3-D AnM energy may usefully be used in tre-dimensional optical TEM, noTEM, DEM vortex or laser communications The paper illustrates an innovative quadratic order 3-D spherical model detector applied to directly measure a light source power spectrum and compares the performances of this innovative technique with those obtained with a traditional 1st order system. Results from a number of test experiments conducted in cooperation with INAF Observatories of ArcetriFlorence and Medicina-Bologna (Italy), and focused on telescopic observations of the inter-stellar electromagnetic radiations, are also summarized. The innovative quadratic-order spherical detector turns out to be optimal for optical and/or radio telescopes application, optical and optoelectronic sensors development and gravitational wave 2nd order detectors implementation. Although the proposed method is very

  10. Progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give a review of our theoretical and experimental progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study. From our theoretical study, the octahedral spherical hohlraums with 6 Laser Entrance Holes (LEHs of octahedral symmetry have robust high symmetry during the capsule implosion at hohlraum-to-capsule radius ratio larger than 3.7. In addition, the octahedral spherical hohlraums also have potential superiority on low backscattering without supplementary technology. We studied the laser arrangement and constraints of the octahedral spherical hohlraums, and gave a design on the laser arrangement for ignition octahedral hohlraums. As a result, the injection angle of laser beams of 50°–60° was proposed as the optimum candidate range for the octahedral spherical hohlraums. We proposed a novel octahedral spherical hohlraum with cylindrical LEHs and LEH shields, in order to increase the laser coupling efficiency and improve the capsule symmetry and to mitigate the influence of the wall blowoff on laser transport. We studied on the sensitivity of the octahedral spherical hohlraums to random errors and compared the sensitivity among the octahedral spherical hohlraums, the rugby hohlraums and the cylindrical hohlraums, and the results show that the octahedral spherical hohlraums are robust to these random errors while the cylindrical hohlraums are the most sensitive. Up till to now, we have carried out three experiments on the spherical hohlraum with 2 LEHs on Shenguang(SG laser facilities, including demonstration of improving laser transport by using the cylindrical LEHs in the spherical hohlraums, spherical hohlraum energetics on the SGIII prototype laser facility, and comparisons of laser plasma instabilities between the spherical hohlraums and the cylindrical hohlraums on the SGIII laser facility.

  11. A dissipative model of solar system and stability of stationary rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilke, V. G.

    2009-04-01

    In classical model of Solar system the planets are represented by the material points cooperating under the law of universal gravitation. This model remains fair if planet to consider as absolutely rigid spheres with spherical distribution of density. The gravitational potential of such body coincides with potential of a material point, and rotation of each sphere concerning his centre of mass occurs to constant angular velocity. The motion of the centers of mass of spherical planets identically to motion in the appropriate problem of points. Let's notice, that forms of planets of Solar system are close to spherical as dominant forces at formation of planets are gravitational forces to which forces of molecular interaction in substance of a planet counteract. The model of the isolated Solar system submitted in a not indignant condition by homogeneous viscoelastic spheres is considered. Under action of own rotation and tidal gravitational forces the spherical planet changes the shape: there is "flattening" of a planet in a direction of a vector of its angular velocity and formation of tidal bulgs on the lines connecting the centre of a planet with the centers of other planets. From a variational principle of Hamilton the full system of the equations describing movements of the centers of mass of planets, rotations of systems of coordinates, by integrated image connected with planets, and deformations of planets be relative these of systems of coordinates has been obtained. It is supposed, that tidal gravitational, centrifugal and elastic forces result in small change of the spherical form of a planet. In system there are small parameters - inversely proportional of the Young modules of materials of the planets, providing small deformations of planets at influence on them of the centrifugal forces produced by own rotation of planets, and the small tidal deformations arising under influence of gradients of gravitational forces. The method of division of movements

  12. The Effect of Forward-Facing Steps on Stationary Crossflow Instability Growth and Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppink, Jenna L.

    2018-01-01

    The e?ect of a forward-facing step on stationary cross?ow transition was studied using standard stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) and time-resolved PIV. Step heights ranging from 53 to 71% of the boundary-layer thickness were studied in detail. The steps above a critical step height of approximately 60% of the boundary-layer thickness had a signi?cant impact on the stationary cross?ow growth downstream of the step. For the critical cases, the stationary cross?ow amplitude grew suddenly downstream of the step, decayed for a short region, then grew again. The adverse pressure gradient upstream of the step resulted in a region of cross?ow reversal. A secondary set of vortices, rotating in the opposite direction to the primary vortices, developed underneath the uplifted primary vortices. The wall-normal velocity disturbance (V' ) created by these secondary vortices impacted the step, and is believed to feed into the strong vortex that developed downstream of the step. A large but very short negative cross?ow region formed for a short region downstream of the step due to a sharp inboard curvature of the streamlines near the wall. For the larger step height cases, a cross?ow-reversal region formed just downstream of the strong negative cross?ow region. This cross?ow reversal region is believed to play an important role in the growth of the stationary cross?ow vortices downstream of the step, and may be a good indication of the critical forward-facing step height.

  13. Stability and instability of stationary solutions for sublinear parabolic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikiya, Ryuji

    2018-01-01

    In the present paper, we study the initial boundary value problem of the sublinear parabolic equation. We prove the existence of solutions and investigate the stability and instability of stationary solutions. We show that a unique positive and a unique negative stationary solutions are exponentially stable and give the exact exponent. We prove that small stationary solutions are unstable. For one space dimensional autonomous equations, we elucidate the structure of stationary solutions and study the stability of all stationary solutions.

  14. Nonlinear Binormal Flow of Vortex Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Scott; Carr, Lincoln

    2015-11-01

    With the current advances in vortex imaging of Bose-Einstein condensates occurring at the Universities of Arizona, São Paulo and Cambridge, interest in vortex filament dynamics is experiencing a resurgence. Recent simulations, Salman (2013), depict dissipative mechanisms resulting from vortex ring emissions and Kelvin wave generation associated with vortex self-intersections. As the local induction approximation fails to capture reconnection events, it lacks a similar dissipative mechanism. On the other hand, Strong&Carr (2012) showed that the exact representation of the velocity field induced by a curved segment of vortex contains higher-order corrections expressed in powers of curvature. This nonlinear binormal flow can be transformed, Hasimoto (1972), into a fully nonlinear equation of Schrödinger type. Continued transformation, Madelung (1926), reveals that the filament's square curvature obeys a quasilinear scalar conservation law with source term. This implies a broader range of filament dynamics than is possible with the integrable linear binormal flow. In this talk we show the affect higher-order corrections have on filament dynamics and discuss physical scales for which they may be witnessed in future experiments. Partially supported by NSF.

  15. Vortex Shedding Inside a Baffled Air Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Common in the operation of both segmented and un-segmented large solid rocket motors is the occurrence of vortex shedding within the motor chamber. A portion of the energy within a shed vortex is converted to acoustic energy, potentially driving the longitudinal acoustic modes of the motor in a quasi-discrete fashion. This vortex shedding-acoustic mode excitation event occurs for every Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) operation, giving rise to subsequent axial thrust oscillations. In order to better understand this vortex shedding/acoustic mode excitation phenomena, unsteady CFD simulations were run for both a test geometry and the full scale RSRM geometry. This paper covers the results from the subscale geometry runs, which were based on work focusing on the RSRM hydrodynamics. Unsteady CFD simulation parameters, including boundary conditions and post-processing returns, are reviewed. The results were further post-processed to identify active acoustic modes and vortex shedding characteristics. Probable locations for acoustic energy generation, and subsequent acoustic mode excitation, are discussed.

  16. Phenomena, dynamics and instabilities of vortex pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, C H K; Asselin, D J; Leweke, T; Harris, D M

    2014-01-01

    Our motivation for studying the dynamics of vortex pairs stems initially from an interest in the trailing wake vortices from aircraft and the dynamics of longitudinal vortices close to a vehicle surface. However, our motivation also comes from the fact that vortex–vortex interactions and vortex–wall interactions are fundamental to many turbulent flows. The intent of the paper is to present an overview of some of our recent work concerning the formation and structure of counter-rotating vortex pairs. We are interested in the long-wave and short-wave three-dimensional instabilities that evolve for an isolated vortex pair, but also we would like to know how vortex pairs interact with a wall, including both two-dimensional interactions, and also the influence of the surface on the three-dimensional instabilities. The emphasis of this presentation is on physical mechanisms by which vortices interact with each other and with surfaces, principally from an experimental approach, but also coupled with analytical studies. (paper)

  17. Vortices and vortex lattices in quantum ferrofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A M; Marchant, N G; Parker, N G; O’Dell, D H J

    2017-01-01

    The experimental realization of quantum-degenerate Bose gases made of atoms with sizeable magnetic dipole moments has created a new type of fluid, known as a quantum ferrofluid, which combines the extraordinary properties of superfluidity and ferrofluidity. A hallmark of superfluids is that they are constrained to rotate through vortices with quantized circulation. In quantum ferrofluids the long-range dipolar interactions add new ingredients by inducing magnetostriction and instabilities, and also affect the structural properties of vortices and vortex lattices. Here we give a review of the theory of vortices in dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates, exploring the interplay of magnetism with vorticity and contrasting this with the established behaviour in non-dipolar condensates. We cover single vortex solutions, including structure, energy and stability, vortex pairs, including interactions and dynamics, and also vortex lattices. Our discussion is founded on the mean-field theory provided by the dipolar Gross–Pitaevskii equation, ranging from analytic treatments based on the Thomas–Fermi (hydrodynamic) and variational approaches to full numerical simulations. Routes for generating vortices in dipolar condensates are discussed, with particular attention paid to rotating condensates, where surface instabilities drive the nucleation of vortices, and lead to the emergence of rich and varied vortex lattice structures. We also present an outlook, including potential extensions to degenerate Fermi gases, quantum Hall physics, toroidal systems and the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition. (topical review)

  18. Vortices and vortex lattices in quantum ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. M.; Marchant, N. G.; O'Dell, D. H. J.; Parker, N. G.

    2017-03-01

    The experimental realization of quantum-degenerate Bose gases made of atoms with sizeable magnetic dipole moments has created a new type of fluid, known as a quantum ferrofluid, which combines the extraordinary properties of superfluidity and ferrofluidity. A hallmark of superfluids is that they are constrained to rotate through vortices with quantized circulation. In quantum ferrofluids the long-range dipolar interactions add new ingredients by inducing magnetostriction and instabilities, and also affect the structural properties of vortices and vortex lattices. Here we give a review of the theory of vortices in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates, exploring the interplay of magnetism with vorticity and contrasting this with the established behaviour in non-dipolar condensates. We cover single vortex solutions, including structure, energy and stability, vortex pairs, including interactions and dynamics, and also vortex lattices. Our discussion is founded on the mean-field theory provided by the dipolar Gross-Pitaevskii equation, ranging from analytic treatments based on the Thomas-Fermi (hydrodynamic) and variational approaches to full numerical simulations. Routes for generating vortices in dipolar condensates are discussed, with particular attention paid to rotating condensates, where surface instabilities drive the nucleation of vortices, and lead to the emergence of rich and varied vortex lattice structures. We also present an outlook, including potential extensions to degenerate Fermi gases, quantum Hall physics, toroidal systems and the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition.

  19. Towards Gravitating Discs around Stationary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semerák, Oldřich

    This article outlines the search for an exact general relativistic description of the exterior(vacuum) gravitational field of a rotating spheroidal black hole surrounded by a realistic axially symmetric disc of matter. The problem of multi-body stationary spacetimes is first exposed from the perspective of the relativity theory (section 1) and astrophysics (section 2), listing the basic methods employed and results obtained. Then (in section 3) basic formulas for stationary axisymmetric solutions are summarized. Sections 4 and 5 review what we have learnt with Miroslav Žáček and Tomáš Zellerin about certain static and stationary situations recently. Concluding remarks are given in section 6. Although the survey part is quite general, the list of references cannot be complete.Our main desideratum was the informative value rather than originality — novelties have been preferred, mainly reviews and those with detailed introductions.

  20. Generation of high-order Bessel vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum using multilayer amplitude-phase-modulated surfaces in radiofrequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Na; Yu, Shixing; Li, Long

    2017-01-01

    A high-order Bessel vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) is generated by using multilayer amplitude-phase-modulated surfaces (APMSs) at 10 GHz. The APMS transmitarray is composed of four-layer conformal square-loop (FCSL) surfaces with both amplitude and phase modulation. The APMS can transform a quasi-spherical wave emitted from the feeding source into a pseudo non-diffractive high-order Bessel vortex beam with OAM. The APMS for a second-order Bessel beam carrying OAM in the n = 2 mode is designed, fabricated, and measured. Full-wave simulation and measurement results confirm that Bessel vortex beams with OAM can be effectively generated using the proposed APMS transmitarray.

  1. High-frequency instabilities of stationary crossflow vortices in a hypersonic boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan; Paredes, Pedro; Duan, Lian

    2016-09-01

    Hypersonic boundary layer flows over a circular cone at moderate incidence angle can support strong crossflow instability in between the windward and leeward rays on the plane of symmetry. Due to more efficient excitation of stationary crossflow vortices by surface roughness, such boundary layer flows may transition to turbulence via rapid amplification of the high-frequency secondary instabilities of finite-amplitude stationary crossflow vortices. The amplification characteristics of these secondary instabilities are investigated for crossflow vortices generated by an azimuthally periodic array of roughness elements over a 7° half-angle circular cone in a Mach 6 free stream. The analysis is based on both quasiparallel stability theory in the form of a partial-differential-equation-based eigenvalue analysis and plane marching parabolized stability equations that account for the effects of the nonparallel basic state on the growth of secondary disturbances. Depending on the local amplitude of the stationary crossflow mode, the most unstable high-frequency disturbances either originate from the second (i.e., Mack) mode instabilities of the unperturbed boundary layer or correspond to genuine secondary instabilities that reduce to stable disturbances at sufficiently small amplitudes of the stationary crossflow vortex. The predicted frequencies of the dominant secondary disturbances of either type are similar to those measured during wind tunnel experiments at Purdue University and the Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany. Including transverse surface curvature within the quasiparallel predictions does not alter the topology of the unstable modes; however, the resulting changes in both mode shape and disturbance growth rate are rather significant and curvature can be either stabilizing or destabilizing depending on the disturbance frequency and mode type. Nonparallel effects are shown to be strongly destabilizing for secondary instabilities originating from

  2. Vortex Filaments in Grids for Scalable, Fine Smoke Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhang; Weixin, Si; Yinling, Qian; Hanqiu, Sun; Jing, Qin; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Vortex modeling can produce attractive visual effects of dynamic fluids, which are widely applicable for dynamic media, computer games, special effects, and virtual reality systems. However, it is challenging to effectively simulate intensive and fine detailed fluids such as smoke with fast increasing vortex filaments and smoke particles. The authors propose a novel vortex filaments in grids scheme in which the uniform grids dynamically bridge the vortex filaments and smoke particles for scalable, fine smoke simulation with macroscopic vortex structures. Using the vortex model, their approach supports the trade-off between simulation speed and scale of details. After computing the whole velocity, external control can be easily exerted on the embedded grid to guide the vortex-based smoke motion. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of using the proposed scheme for a visually plausible smoke simulation with macroscopic vortex structures.

  3. Dynamic Control of Collapse in a Vortex Airy Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui-Pin; Chew, Khian-Hooi; He, Sailing

    2013-01-01

    Here we study systematically the self-focusing dynamics and collapse of vortex Airy optical beams in a Kerr medium. The collapse is suppressed compared to a non-vortex Airy beam in a Kerr medium due to the existence of vortex fields. The locations of collapse depend sensitively on the initial power, vortex order, and modulation parameters. The collapse may occur in a position where the initial field is nearly zero, while no collapse appears in the region where the initial field is mainly distributed. Compared with a non-vortex Airy beam, the collapse of a vortex Airy beam can occur at a position away from the area of the initial field distribution. Our study shows the possibility of controlling and manipulating the collapse, especially the precise position of collapse, by purposely choosing appropriate initial power, vortex order or modulation parameters of a vortex Airy beam. PMID:23518858

  4. Suppression of vortex shedding around a square cylinder using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    control of vortex shedding of square cylinders using blowing or suction. ... also showed complete suppression of vortex shedding if suction velocity falls between 0.40 .... equations such that mass balance (continuity) is satisfied simultaneously.

  5. The ETE spherical Tokamak project. IAEA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Del Bosco, E.; Berni, L.A.; Ferreira, J.G.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J.; Patire Junior, H. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma]. E-mail: ludwig@plasma.inpe.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the historical development of the ETE (Spherical Tokamak Experiment) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of October, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  6. Spherical sila- and germa-homoaromaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongfang; Hirsch, Andreas; Nagase, Shigeru; Thiel, Walter; Schleyer, Paul von Ragué

    2003-12-17

    Guided by the 2(N + 1)2 electron-counting rule for spherical aromatic molecules, we have designed various spherical sila- and germa-homoaromatic systems rich in group 14 elements. Their aromaticity is revealed by density-functional computations of their structures and the nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS). Besides the formerly used endohedral inclusion strategy, spherical homoaromaticity is another way to stabilize silicon and germanium clusters.

  7. Universal statistics of vortex lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Adam; Chalker, J T

    2012-03-01

    We study the vortex lines that are a feature of many random or disordered three-dimensional systems. These show universal statistical properties on long length scales, and geometrical phase transitions analogous to percolation transitions but in distinct universality classes. The field theories for these problems have not previously been identified, so that while many numerical studies have been performed, a framework for interpreting the results has been lacking. We provide such a framework with mappings to simple supersymmetric models. Our main focus is on vortices in short-range-correlated complex fields, which show a geometrical phase transition that we argue is described by the CP(k|k) model (essentially the CP(n-1) model in the replica limit n→1). This can be seen by mapping a lattice version of the problem to a lattice gauge theory. A related field theory with a noncompact gauge field, the 'NCCP(k|k) model', is a supersymmetric extension of the standard dual theory for the XY transition, and we show that XY duality gives another way to understand the appearance of field theories of this type. The supersymmetric descriptions yield results relevant, for example, to vortices in the XY model and in superfluids, to optical vortices, and to certain models of cosmic strings. A distinct but related field theory, the RP(2l|2l) model (or the RP(n-1) model in the limit n→1) describes the unoriented vortices that occur, for instance, in nematic liquid crystals. Finally, we show that in two dimensions, a lattice gauge theory analogous to that discussed in three dimensions gives a simple way to see the known relation between two-dimensional percolation and the CP(k|k) σ model with a θ term.

  8. Stationary Double Layers in a Collisionless Magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noriyoshi, Sato; Mieno, Tetsu; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    1983-01-01

    of the plate on the low-potential side, being accompanied with current limitation. This localized potential drop moves along the plasma column, but finally stops and results in the formation of the stationary double layer in the presence of sufficient plasma supply from the plate on the high-potential side.......Stationary double layers are generated in a magnetoplasma by applying potential differences between two heated plates on which the plasma is produced by surface ionization. By measuring the double-layer formation process, a localized potential drop is found to be formed initially in front...

  9. Front propagation in a regular vortex lattice: Dependence on the vortex structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvier, E; Bodea, S; Pocheau, A

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the dependence on the vortex structure of the propagation of fronts in stirred flows. For this, we consider a regular set of vortices whose structure is changed by varying both their boundary conditions and their aspect ratios. These configurations are investigated experimentally in autocatalytic solutions stirred by electroconvective flows and numerically from kinematic simulations based on the determination of the dominant Fourier mode of the vortex stream function in each of them. For free lateral boundary conditions, i.e., in an extended vortex lattice, it is found that both the flow structure and the front propagation negligibly depend on vortex aspect ratios. For rigid lateral boundary conditions, i.e., in a vortex chain, vortices involve a slight dependence on their aspect ratios which surprisingly yields a noticeable decrease of the enhancement of front velocity by flow advection. These different behaviors reveal a sensitivity of the mean front velocity on the flow subscales. It emphasizes the intrinsic multiscale nature of front propagation in stirred flows and the need to take into account not only the intensity of vortex flows but also their inner structure to determine front propagation at a large scale. Differences between experiments and simulations suggest the occurrence of secondary flows in vortex chains at large velocity and large aspect ratios.

  10. Spectral analysis of point-vortex dynamics: first application to vortex polygons in a circular domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speetjens, M F M; Meleshko, V V; Van Heijst, G J F

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses the classical problem of the dynamics and stability of a cluster of N-point vortices of equal strength arranged in a polygonal configuration (‘N-vortex polygons’). In unbounded domains, such N-vortex polygons are unconditionally stable for N⩽7. Confinement in a circular domain tightens the stability conditions to N⩽6 and a maximum polygon size relative to the domain radius. This work expands on existing studies on stability and integrability by a first giving an exploratory spectral analysis of the dynamics of N vortex polygons in circular domains. Key to this is that the spectral signature of the time evolution of vortex positions reflects their qualitative behaviour. Expressing vortex motion by a generic evolution operator (the so-called Koopman operator) provides a rigorous framework for such spectral analyses. This paves the way to further differentiation and classification of point-vortex behaviour beyond stability and integrability. The concept of Koopman-based spectral analysis is demonstrated for N-vortex polygons. This reveals that conditional stability can be seen as a local form of integrability and confirms an important generic link between spectrum and dynamics: discrete spectra imply regular (quasi-periodic) motion; continuous (sub-)spectra imply chaotic motion. Moreover, this exposes rich nonlinear dynamics as intermittency between regular and chaotic motion and quasi-coherent structures formed by chaotic vortices. (ss 1)

  11. Spherical collapse in chameleon models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Ph.; Rosenfeld, R.; Steer, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the gravitational collapse of an overdensity of nonrelativistic matter under the action of gravity and a chameleon scalar field. We show that the spherical collapse model is modified by the presence of a chameleon field. In particular, we find that even though the chameleon effects can be potentially large at small scales, for a large enough initial size of the inhomogeneity the collapsing region possesses a thin shell that shields the modification of gravity induced by the chameleon field, recovering the standard gravity results. We analyse the behaviour of a collapsing shell in a cosmological setting in the presence of a thin shell and find that, in contrast to the usual case, the critical density for collapse in principle depends on the initial comoving size of the inhomogeneity

  12. Spherical collapse in chameleon models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, Ph. [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA 2306, F-91191Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Rosenfeld, R. [Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz, 271, 01140-070, São Paulo (Brazil); Steer, D.A., E-mail: brax@spht.saclay.cea.fr, E-mail: rosenfel@ift.unesp.br, E-mail: daniele.steer@apc.univ-paris7.fr [APC, UMR 7164, CNRS, Université Paris 7, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2010-08-01

    We study the gravitational collapse of an overdensity of nonrelativistic matter under the action of gravity and a chameleon scalar field. We show that the spherical collapse model is modified by the presence of a chameleon field. In particular, we find that even though the chameleon effects can be potentially large at small scales, for a large enough initial size of the inhomogeneity the collapsing region possesses a thin shell that shields the modification of gravity induced by the chameleon field, recovering the standard gravity results. We analyse the behaviour of a collapsing shell in a cosmological setting in the presence of a thin shell and find that, in contrast to the usual case, the critical density for collapse in principle depends on the initial comoving size of the inhomogeneity.

  13. Spherical Collapse in Chameleon Models

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Ph; Steer, D A

    2010-01-01

    We study the gravitational collapse of an overdensity of nonrelativistic matter under the action of gravity and a chameleon scalar field. We show that the spherical collapse model is modified by the presence of a chameleon field. In particular, we find that even though the chameleon effects can be potentially large at small scales, for a large enough initial size of the inhomogeneity the collapsing region possesses a thin shell that shields the modification of gravity induced by the chameleon field, recovering the standard gravity results. We analyse the behaviour of a collapsing shell in a cosmological setting in the presence of a thin shell and find that, in contrast to the usual case, the critical density for collapse depends on the initial comoving size of the inhomogeneity.

  14. Accelerating particles in general relativity (stationary C-metric)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhoosh, H.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study the physical and geometrical properties of uniformly accelerating particles in the general theory of relativity and it consists of four main parts. In the first part the structure of the Killing horizons in the static vacuum C-metric which represents the gravitational field of a uniformly accelerating Schwarzschild like particle (non-rotating and spherically symmetric) is studied. In the second part these results are generalized to include the effects of the rotation of the source. For small acceleration and small rotation this solution reveals the existance of three Killing horizons. Two the these horizons are the Schwarzschild and the Rindler surfaces which are mainly due to the mass and the acceleration of the particle, respectively. In part three the radial geodesic and non-geodesic motions in the static vacuum C-metric (non-rotating case) are investigated. The effect of the dragging of the inertial frame is also shown in this part. In part four the radiative behavior of the stationary charged C-metric representing the electro-gravitational field of a uniformly accelerating and rotating charged particle with magnetic monopole and the NUT-parameter are investigated. The physical quantities - the news function, mass loss, mass, charge and the multipole moments - are calculated. It is also shown in this part that the magnetic monopole in the presence of rotation and acceleration affects the electric charge

  15. Relativistic fluids in spherically symmetric space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dipankar, R.

    1977-12-01

    Some of McVittie and Wiltshire's (1977) solutions of Walker's (1935) isotropy conditions for relativistic perfect fluid spheres are generalized. Solutions are spherically symmetric and conformally flat

  16. Theory of vortex flows in partially ionized magnetoplasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, D.; Shukla, P.K

    2004-06-07

    A complete theory for vortex flows in partially ionized magnetoplasmas is presented. Accurate analytical and numerical results are obtained concerning the structure of a Burger's vortex and a tripolar vortex. A novel type of rotating tripolar vortices with elliptic cores are found in the systems dominated by the convection in incompressible flows, but whose generation is triggered by the diffusive and compressible effects. Our vortex flow models successfully explain recent observations from laboratory magnetoplasmas and geophysical flows.

  17. Vortex pinning by point defect in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Hongyin; Zhou Shiping; Du Haochen

    2003-01-01

    We apply the periodic time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model to study vortex distribution in type-II superconductors with a point-like defect and square pinning array. A defect site will pin vortices, and a periodic pinning array with right geometric parameters, which can be any form designed in advance, shapes the vortex pattern as external magnetic field varies. The maximum length over which an attractive interaction between a pinning centre and a vortex extends is estimated to be about 6.0ξ. We also derive spatial distribution expressions for the order parameter, vector potential, magnetic field and supercurrent induced by a point defect. Theoretical results and numerical simulations are compared with each other and they are consistent

  18. Inertial mass of the Abrikosov vortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, E M; Kuklov, A B

    2003-08-08

    We show that a large contribution to the inertial mass of the Abrikosov vortex comes from transversal displacements of the crystal lattice. The corresponding part of the mass per unit length of the vortex line is M(l)=(m(2)(e)c(2)/64 pi alpha(2)mu lambda(4)(L))ln((lambda(L)/xi), where m(e) is the bare electron mass, c is the speed of light, alpha=e(2)/Planck's over 2 pi c approximately 1/137 is the fine structure constant, mu is the shear modulus of the solid, lambda(L) is the London penetration length, and xi is the coherence length. In conventional superconductors, this mass can be comparable to or even greater than the vortex core mass computed by Suhl [Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 226 (1965)

  19. Sphagnum moss disperses spores with vortex rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Dwight L; Edwards, Joan

    2010-07-23

    Sphagnum spores, which have low terminal velocities, are carried by turbulent wind currents to establish colonies many kilometers away. However, spores that are easily kept aloft are also rapidly decelerated in still air; thus, dispersal range depends strongly on release height. Vascular plants grow tall to lift spores into sufficient wind currents for dispersal, but nonvascular plants such as Sphagnum cannot grow sufficiently high. High-speed videos show that exploding capsules of Sphagnum generate vortex rings to efficiently carry spores high enough to be dispersed by turbulent air currents. Spores launched ballistically at similar speeds through still air would travel a few millimeters and not easily reach turbulent air. Vortex rings are used by animals; here, we report vortex rings generated by plants.

  20. Vortex rings from Sphagnum moss capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Dwight; Strassman, Sam; Cha, Jung; Chang, Emily; Guo, Xinyi; Edwards, Joan

    2010-11-01

    The capsules of Sphagnum moss use vortex rings to disperse spores to suitable habitats many kilometers away. Vortex rings are created by the sudden release of pressurized air when the capsule ruptures, and are an efficient way to carry the small spores with low terminal velocities to heights where they can be carried by turbulent wind currents. We will present our computational model of these explosions, which are carried out using a 2-D large eddy simulation (LES) on FLUENT. Our simulations can reproduce the observed motion of the spore clouds observed from moss capsules with high-speed videos, and we will discuss the roles of bursting pressure, cap mass, and capsule morphology on the formation and quality of vortex rings created by this plant.

  1. Elementary pinning force for a superconducting vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, O.B.; Finnemore, D.K.; Schwartzkopf, L.; Clem, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The elementary pinning force f/sub p/ has been measured for a single vortex trapped in one of the superconducting layers of a cross-strip Josephson junction. At temperatures close to the transition temperature the vortex can be pushed across the junction by a transport current. The vortex is found to move in a small number of discrete steps before it exits the junction. The pinning force for each site is found to be asymmetric and to have a value of about 10/sup -6/ N/m at the reduced temperature, t = T/T/sub c/ = 0.95. As a function of temperature, f/sub p/ is found to vary approximately as (1-t)/sup 3/2/. .AE

  2. Active Control of Vortex Induced Vibrations of a Tethered Sphere in a Uniform Air Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hout, Rene; Greenblatt, David; Zvi Katz, Amit

    2011-11-01

    VIV of two heavy tethered spheres (D = 40 mm, m* = msphere/ ρfVsphere = 21 and 67, L* = L / D = 2.50) were studied in a wind tunnel under uniform free stream velocities up to U* = U /fn D = 15.9, with and without acoustic control. Control was achieved using two speakers mounted on either side of the spheres and driven in-phase at f= 35Hz (f* = 22.3). In the non-controlled case, the bifurcation map of transverse sphere oscillation amplitude, Ay, showed stationary motion as well as periodic and non-stationary oscillations with increasing U*. For m* = 21, Aymax was about twice as large as for m* = 67. Acoustic control dampened Aymax in the periodic region (m* = 67) and increased Aymax in the non-stationary region for both spheres. Sphere boundary layer dynamics in the three different bifurcation regions were studied using time resolved PIV with a horizontal laser sheet positioned at the center of the sphere. The field of view was 55 × 55 mm2 containing one quarter of the sphere. Results will be presented on the vortex dynamics near the sphere's surface with and without acoustic control.

  3. Vortex operators in gauge field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    We study several related aspects of the t Hooft vortex operator. The first chapter reviews the current picture of the vacuum of quantum chromodynamics, the idea of dual field theories, and the idea of the vortex operator. The second chapter deals with the Abelian vortex operator written in terms of elementary fields and with the calculation of its Green's functions. The Dirac veto problem appears in a new guise. We present a two dimensional solvable model of a Dirac string. This leads us to a new solution of the veto problem; we discuss its extension to four dimensions. We then show how the Green's functions can be expressed more neatly in terms of Wu and Yang's geometrical idea of sections. In the third chapter we discuss the dependence of the Green's functions of the Wilson and t Hooft operators on the nature of the vacuum. In the fourth chapter we consider systems which have fields in the fundamental representation, so that there are no vortex operators. When these fields enter only weakly into the dynamics, as is the case in QCD and in real superconductors, we would expect to be able to define a vortex-like operator. We show that any such operator can no longer be local looplike, but must have commutators at long range. We can still find an operator with useful properties, its cluster property, though more complicated than that of the usual vortex operator, still appears to distinguish Higgs, confining and perturbative phases. To test this, we consider a U(1) lattice gauge theory with two matter fields, one singly charged (fundamental) and one doubly charged (adjoint)

  4. A vortex ring interacting with a vortex filament and its deformation near the two-dimensional stagnation point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiya, M.; Sato, T.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper the interaction between vortex filaments and vortex rings and the deformation of vortex rings near the two-dimensional stagnation point are simulated by a three-dimensional vortex method. The two problems are respectively concerned with the effect of free-stream turbulence on turbulent plane mixing layers and the production of turbulence by the vortex stretching near saddles associated with large-scale coherent structures. The authors assume that the first step to understand the free-stream turbulence effect is to study the interaction between a vortex ring and a vortex filament and that the process of deformation of a vortex ring gives us a clue to understand physical processes occurring near the saddles

  5. Numerical simulations of the internal flow pattern of a vortex pump compared to the Hamel-Oseen vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, Angela; Preuss, Enrico; Thamsen, Paul Uwe; Lykholt-Ustrup, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    We did a numerical study of the internal flow field of a vortex pump. Five operating points were considered and validated through a measured characteristic curve. The internal flow pattern of a vortex pump was analyzed and compared to the Hamel-Oseen vortex model. The calculated flow field was assessed with respect to the circumferential velocity, the vorticity and the axial velocity. Whereas the trajectories of the circumferential velocity were largely in line with the Hamel-Oseen vortex model, the opposite was true for vorticity. Only the vorticity at strong part load was in line with the predictions of the Hamel-Oseen vortex model. We therefore compared the circumferential velocity and vorticity for strong part load operation to the analytical predictions of the Hamel-Oseen vortex model. The simulated values were below the analytical values. The study therefore suggests that a vortex similar to the Hamel-Oseen vortex is only present at the strong part load operation

  6. Numerical simulations of the internal flow pattern of a vortex pump compared to the Hamel-Oseen vortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, Angela; Preuss, Enrico; Thamsen, Paul Uwe [Institute of Fluid System Dynamics, Technische Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Lykholt-Ustrup, Flemming [Grundfos Holding A/S, Bjerringbro (Denmark)

    2017-04-15

    We did a numerical study of the internal flow field of a vortex pump. Five operating points were considered and validated through a measured characteristic curve. The internal flow pattern of a vortex pump was analyzed and compared to the Hamel-Oseen vortex model. The calculated flow field was assessed with respect to the circumferential velocity, the vorticity and the axial velocity. Whereas the trajectories of the circumferential velocity were largely in line with the Hamel-Oseen vortex model, the opposite was true for vorticity. Only the vorticity at strong part load was in line with the predictions of the Hamel-Oseen vortex model. We therefore compared the circumferential velocity and vorticity for strong part load operation to the analytical predictions of the Hamel-Oseen vortex model. The simulated values were below the analytical values. The study therefore suggests that a vortex similar to the Hamel-Oseen vortex is only present at the strong part load operation.

  7. Theory of pairing symmetry in the vortex states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokoyama, Takehito; Ichioka, Yukio; Yanaka, Yukio; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch

    2010-01-01

    We investigate pairing symmetry in an Abrikosov vortex and vortex lattice. It is shown that the Cooper pair wave function at the center of an Abrikosov vortex with vorticity m has a different parity with respect to frequency from that in the bulk if m is an odd number, while it has the same parity

  8. Vortex deformation and reduction of the Lorentz force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorio, M.

    1977-01-01

    A vortex of an extreme II-type superconductor is considered in the presence of a transport current. The equivalence of Magnus and Lorentz forces in a static vortex is discussed and the effect of vortex deformation is included in calculating corrections to the conventional expression of the Lorentz force. (author)

  9. First and second order vortex dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoonbai; Lee, Kimyeong

    2002-01-01

    The low energy dynamics of vortices in self-dual Abelian Higgs theory in (2+1)-dimensional spacetime is of second order in vortex velocity and characterized by the moduli space metric. When the Chern-Simons term with a small coefficient is added to the theory, we show that a term linear in vortex velocity appears and can be consistently added to the second order expression. We provide an additional check of the first and second order terms by studying the angular momentum in field theory

  10. Integrable Abelian vortex-like solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contatto, Felipe, E-mail: felipe.contatto@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasília, DF 70040-020 (Brazil)

    2017-05-10

    We propose a modified version of the Ginzburg–Landau energy functional admitting static solitons and determine all the Painlevé-integrable cases of its Bogomolny equations of a given class of models. Explicit solutions are determined in terms of the third Painlevé transcendents, allowing us to calculate physical quantities such as the vortex number and the vortex strength. These solutions can be interpreted as the usual Abelian-Higgs vortices on surfaces of non-constant curvature with conical singularity.

  11. Integrable Abelian vortex-like solitons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Contatto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a modified version of the Ginzburg–Landau energy functional admitting static solitons and determine all the Painlevé-integrable cases of its Bogomolny equations of a given class of models. Explicit solutions are determined in terms of the third Painlevé transcendents, allowing us to calculate physical quantities such as the vortex number and the vortex strength. These solutions can be interpreted as the usual Abelian-Higgs vortices on surfaces of non-constant curvature with conical singularity.

  12. Inertial mass of a superconducting vortex

    OpenAIRE

    Chudnovsky, E. M.; Kuklov, A. B.

    2003-01-01

    We show that a large contribution to the inertial mass of a moving superconducting vortex comes from transversal displacements of the crystal lattice. The corresponding part of the mass per unit length of the vortex line is $M_{l} = ({\\rm m}_e^2c^{2}/64{\\pi}{\\alpha}^{2}{\\mu}{\\lambda}_{L}^{4})\\ln({\\lambda}_{L}/{\\xi})$ , where ${\\rm m}_{e}$ is the the bare electron mass, $c$ is the speed of light, ${\\alpha}=e^{2}/{\\hbar}c {\\approx} 1/137$ is the fine structure constant, ${\\mu}$ is the shear mod...

  13. Flow induced by a skewed vortex cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The velocity field induced by a skewed vortex cylinder of longitudinal and tangential vorticity is derived in this chapter by direct integration of the Biot– Savart law. The derivation steps are provided in details. The results of Castles and Durham for the skewed semi-infinite cylinder....... The content of this chapter is based on the publication of the author entitled "Cylindrical vortex wake model: skewed cylinder, application to yawed or tilted rotors" [1]. Results from this chapter are applied: in Chap. 21 to model a wind turbine (or rotor) in yaw, in Chap. 22 to derive a new yaw...

  14. Multi-Model Ensemble Wake Vortex Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Stephan; Holzaepfel, Frank; Ahmad, Nash'at N.

    2015-01-01

    Several multi-model ensemble methods are investigated for predicting wake vortex transport and decay. This study is a joint effort between National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt to develop a multi-model ensemble capability using their wake models. An overview of different multi-model ensemble methods and their feasibility for wake applications is presented. The methods include Reliability Ensemble Averaging, Bayesian Model Averaging, and Monte Carlo Simulations. The methodologies are evaluated using data from wake vortex field experiments.

  15. Comment on ''Negative temperature of vortex motion''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, K.; Campbell, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    In a recent Brief Report and subsequently [Phys. Rev. A 43, 2050 (1991); 44, 8439 (1991)], Berdichevsky, Kunin, and Hussain claim that the ''Boltzmann temperature'' of a bounded point vortex system is always positive, and that the spatial inhomogeneities that evolve at high energies in such a system are incompatible with ergodicity of the dynamics. The argument given to support these claims neglected the presence of the fluid boundary. We prove that the Boltzmann temperature is in fact always negative, and present evidence that the vortex clumping that has been observed in simulations is consistent with ergodic dynamics

  16. Decoding algorithm for vortex communications receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupferman, Judy; Arnon, Shlomi

    2018-01-01

    Vortex light beams can provide a tremendous alphabet for encoding information. We derive a symbol decoding algorithm for a direct detection matrix detector vortex beam receiver using Laguerre Gauss (LG) modes, and develop a mathematical model of symbol error rate (SER) for this receiver. We compare SER as a function of signal to noise ratio (SNR) for our algorithm and for the Pearson correlation algorithm. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive treatment of a decoding algorithm of a matrix detector for an LG receiver.

  17. Chaos in body-vortex interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    of a circle is integrable. As the body is made slightly elliptic, a chaotic region grows from an unstable relative equilibrium of the circle-vortex case. The case of a cylindrical body of any shape moving in fluid otherwise at rest is also integrable. A second transition to chaos arises from the limit between...... rocking and tumbling motion of the body known in this case. In both instances, the chaos may be detected both in the body motion and in the vortex motion. The effect of increasing body mass at a fixed body shape is to damp the chaos....

  18. Vortex-Peierls States in Optical Lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkov, A.A.; Demler, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    We show that vortices, induced in cold atom superfluids in optical lattices, may order in a novel vortex-Peierls ground state. In such a state vortices do not form a simple lattice but arrange themselves in clusters, within which the vortices are partially delocalized, tunneling between classically degenerate configurations. We demonstrate that this exotic quantum many-body state is selected by an order-from-disorder mechanism for a special combination of the vortex filling and lattice geometry that has a macroscopic number of classically degenerate ground states

  19. Intra-cavity vortex beam generation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available at exploring the methods of generating optical vortex beams. We will discuss a typical extra-cavity approach that harnesses digital holography through the use of a SLM. We consider vortex beam generation as the fundamental mode of a monolithic microchip laser...-cavity phase diffractive elements can result in the desired mode as the fundamental mode of the cavity with pure modal quality. This approach, although very attractive is insufficient for the generation of these modes in monolithic microchip lasers. A...

  20. Analysis and model-tests on vortex-induced oscillation of bridges; Kyoryo no uzu reishin ni kansuru sanjigen oto kaiseki to fudo jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, N. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan); Ogasawara, M. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Shiraishi, N. [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Nanjo, M.

    1996-07-21

    In order to predict the three-dimensional response to vortex-induced oscillation of bridges, a model was investigated using the aerodynamic force coefficient including vortex-induced and self-excited forces, and the nonlinear response coefficient expressing constancy of response to vortex-induced oscillation. In the analysis, change of frequency in wind by the self-excited force, aerodynamic damping term, effect of the mode, and correlation of the vortex-induced force along member axis were taken into account. The aerodynamic force and nonlinear response coefficients were identified from the homogeneous and turbulent flow results of wind tunnel tests using a two-dimensional spring support rigid body model with varied damping factor. The aerodynamic damping term can be estimated from the nonlinear aerodynamic force coefficient, but it was enough to calculate it from the quasi-stationary coefficient in general bridge profiles. The correlation of the vortex-induced force was obtained from measurements of the vertical variation components of trailing flow under the resonance state, or the pressure distribution of the member surface. When comparing to the wind tunnel test of three-dimensional model of cable-stayed bridge, the response amplitude by the present analysis method was consistent well with the test results rather than by the method in which the amplitude of two-dimensional model was corrected. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Main principles of development stationary training facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiptsyura, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The designation of stationary training facilities is shown and the main requirements for them are formulated. When considering the above-mentioned requirements, special attention was paid to obligatory correspondence between training experience and practical skill of an operator. It is shown, that the switchboard block is the major unit of the training facility, which should develop skills and habits of an operator

  2. Stationary solutions and asymptotic flatness I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiris, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In general relativity, a stationary isolated system is defined as an asymptotically flat (AF) stationary spacetime with compact material sources. Other definitions that are less restrictive on the type of asymptotic could in principle be possible. Between this article and its sequel, we show that under basic assumptions, asymptotic flatness indeed follows as a consequence of Einstein's theory. In particular, it is proved that any vacuum stationary spacetime-end whose (quotient) manifold is diffeomorphic to R 3 minus a ball and whose Killing field has its norm bounded away from zero, is necessarily AF with Schwarzschildian fall off. The ‘excised’ ball would contain (if any) the actual material body, but this information is unnecessary to reach the conclusion. In this first article, we work with weakly asymptotically flat (WAF) stationary ends, a notion that generalizes as much as possible that of the AF end, and prove that WAF ends are AF with Schwarzschildian fall off. Physical and mathematical implications are also discussed. (paper)

  3. Stone Stability under Stationary Nonuniform Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, Remco; Hofland, B.; Paarlberg, Andries; Smale, Alfons; Huthoff, Fredrik; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.

    2016-01-01

    A stability parameter for rock in bed protections under nonuniform stationary flow is derived. The influence of the mean flow velocity, turbulence, and mean acceleration of the flow are included explicitly in the parameter. The relatively new notion of explicitly incorporating the mean acceleration

  4. New interval forecast for stationary autoregressive models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we proposed a new forecasting interval for stationary Autoregressive, AR(p) models using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) function. Ordinarily, the AIC function is used to determine the order of an AR(p) process. In this study however, AIC forecast interval compared favorably with the theoretical forecast ...

  5. Relativistic elasticity of stationary fluid branes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armas, J.; Obers, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    under certain conditions that a given stationary fluid configuration living on a dynamical surface of vanishing thickness and satisfying locally the first law of thermodynamics will behave like an elastic brane when the surface is subject to small deformations. These results, which are independent...

  6. Characterization of Stationary Distributions of Reflected Diffusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    operations research to finance and mathemat- ical physics , and their stationary distributions often serve to characterize or approximate important...REFERENCES [1] Atar , R., Budhiraja, A. and Dupuis, P. (2001). On positive recurrence of constrained diffusion processes. Ann. Probab., 29 No. 2, 979-1000

  7. The stationary states of interacting fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frazer, W.R.; Hove, Léon van

    1958-01-01

    As an application of a time-independent perturbation formalism developed earlier for systems with many degrees of freedom, we give in terms of diagrams the general perturbation expressions for the exact stationary states of interacting fields. The physical vacuum is obtained by applying to the bare

  8. Calendar Year 2016 Stationary Source Emissions Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The City of Albuquerque (COA) Environmental Health Department Air Quality Program has issued stationary source permits and registrations the Department of Energy/Sandia Field Office for operations at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. This emission inventory report meets the annual reporting compliance requirements for calendar year (CY) 2016 as required by the COA.

  9. Vortex dynamics in Josephson junctions arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalom, Diego Edgar

    2005-01-01

    In this work we study the dynamics of vortices in two-dimensional overdamped Josephson Junctions Arrays (JJA) driven by dc current in a wide range of conditions varying magnetic field and temperature using experiments, numerical simulations and analytic studies.We develop the Fixed Phase method, a variation of numeric relaxation techniques in which we fix and control the phase of some islands, adjacent to the vortex center, while allowing all other phases in the system to relax.In this way we are able to pull and push the vortex uphill, as we are forcing the center of rotation of the vortex currents to be in a defined location, allowing us to calculate the potential energy of a vortex located in any arbitrary position.We use this method to study the potential energy of a vortex in a variety of situations in homogeneous and non-homogeneous JJA, such as arrays with defects, channel arrays and ratchets.We study the finite size effects in JJA by means of analytic and numerical tools.We implement the rings model, in which we replace the two-dimensional square array by a series of square, concentric, uncoupled rings. This is equivalent to disregarding the radial junctions that couple consecutive rings.In spite of its extreme simplicity, this model holds the main ingredients of the magnetic dependence of the energy.We combine this model with other terms that take into account the dependence in the position of the vortex to obtain a general expression for the potential energy of a vortex in a finite JJA with applied magnetic field.We also present an expression for the first critical field, corresponding to the value of the magnetic field in which the entrance of the first vortex becomes energetically favorable.We build and study JJA modulated to form periodic and asymmetrical potentials for the vortices, named ratchet potentials.The experimental results clearly show the existence of a rectification in the motion of vortices in these potentials.Under certain conditions we

  10. Dynamics of Inhomogeneous Shell Systems Under Non-Stationary Loading (Survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugovoi, P. Z.; Meish, V. F.

    2017-09-01

    Experimental works on the determination of dynamics of smooth and stiffened cylindrical shells contacting with a soil medium under various non-stationary loading are reviewed. The results of studying three-layer shells of revolution whose motion equations are obtained within the framework of the hypotheses of the Timoshenko geometrically nonlinear theory are stated. The numerical results for shells with a piecewise or discrete filler enable the analysis of estimation of the influence of geometrical and physical-mechanical parameters of structures on their dynamics and reveal new mechanical effects. Basing on the classical theory of shells and rods, the effect of the discrete arrangement of ribs and coefficients of the Winkler or Pasternak elastic foundation on the normal frequencies and modes of rectangular planar cylindrical and spherical shells is studied. The number and shape of dispersion curves for longitudinal harmonic waves in a stiffened cylindrical shell are determined. The equations of vibrations of ribbed shells of revolution on Winkler or Pasternak elastic foundation are obtained using the geometrically nonlinear theory and the Timoshenko hypotheses. On applying the integral-interpolational method, numerical algorithms are developed and the corresponding non-stationary problems are solved. The special attention is paid to the statement and solution of coupled problems on the dynamical interaction of cylindrical or spherical shells with the soil water-saturated medium of different structure.

  11. Stability Results, Almost Global Generalized Beltrami Fields and Applications to Vortex Structures in the Euler Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, Alberto; Poyato, David; Soler, Juan

    2018-05-01

    Strong Beltrami fields, that is, vector fields in three dimensions whose curl is the product of the field itself by a constant factor, have long played a key role in fluid mechanics and magnetohydrodynamics. In particular, they are the kind of stationary solutions of the Euler equations where one has been able to show the existence of vortex structures (vortex tubes and vortex lines) of arbitrarily complicated topology. On the contrary, there are very few results about the existence of generalized Beltrami fields, that is, divergence-free fields whose curl is the field times a non-constant function. In fact, generalized Beltrami fields (which are also stationary solutions to the Euler equations) have been recently shown to be rare, in the sense that for "most" proportionality factors there are no nontrivial Beltrami fields of high enough regularity (e.g., of class {C^{6,α}}), not even locally. Our objective in this work is to show that, nevertheless, there are "many" Beltrami fields with non-constant factor, even realizing arbitrarily complicated vortex structures. This fact is relevant in the study of turbulent configurations. The core results are an "almost global" stability theorem for strong Beltrami fields, which ensures that a global strong Beltrami field with suitable decay at infinity can be perturbed to get "many" Beltrami fields with non-constant factor of arbitrarily high regularity and defined in the exterior of an arbitrarily small ball, and a "local" stability theorem for generalized Beltrami fields, which is an analogous perturbative result which is valid for any kind of Beltrami field (not just with a constant factor) but only applies to small enough domains. The proof relies on an iterative scheme of Grad-Rubin type. For this purpose, we study the Neumann problem for the inhomogeneous Beltrami equation in exterior domains via a boundary integral equation method and we obtain Hölder estimates, a sharp decay at infinity and some compactness

  12. Chaotic Bohmian trajectories for stationary states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesa, Alexandre; Martin, John; Struyve, Ward

    2016-01-01

    In Bohmian mechanics, the nodes of the wave function play an important role in the generation of chaos. However, so far, most of the attention has been on moving nodes; little is known about the possibility of chaos in the case of stationary nodes. We address this question by considering stationary states, which provide the simplest examples of wave functions with stationary nodes. We provide examples of stationary wave functions for which there is chaos, as demonstrated by numerical computations, for one particle moving in three spatial dimensions and for two and three entangled particles in two dimensions. Our conclusion is that the motion of the nodes is not necessary for the generation of chaos. What is important is the overall complexity of the wave function. That is, if the wave function, or rather its phase, has a complex spatial variation, it will lead to complex Bohmian trajectories and hence to chaos. Another aspect of our work concerns the average Lyapunov exponent, which quantifies the overall amount of chaos. Since it is very hard to evaluate the average Lyapunov exponent analytically, which is often computed numerically, it is useful to have simple quantities that agree well with the average Lyapunov exponent. We investigate possible correlations with quantities such as the participation ratio and different measures of entanglement, for different systems and different families of stationary wave functions. We find that these quantities often tend to correlate to the amount of chaos. However, the correlation is not perfect, because, in particular, these measures do not depend on the form of the basis states used to expand the wave function, while the amount of chaos does. (paper)

  13. Stability of the spherical form of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, A.A.

    1976-08-01

    An extension of the mass formula for a spherical nucleus in the drop model to include a largely deformed nucleus of different forms is investigated. It is found that although the spherical form is stable under small deformations from equilibrium, there exists for heavier nuclei another more favourable stable form, which can be approximated by two, or three touching prolate ellipsoids of revolution

  14. How Spherical Is a Cube (Gravitationally)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, Jeff; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    An important concept that is presented in the discussion of Newton's law of universal gravitation is that the gravitational effect external to a spherically symmetric mass distribution is the same as if all of the mass of the distribution were concentrated at the center. By integrating over ring elements of a spherical shell, we show that the…

  15. Spherical Tensor Calculus for Local Adaptive Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisert, Marco; Burkhardt, Hans

    In 3D image processing tensors play an important role. While rank-1 and rank-2 tensors are well understood and commonly used, higher rank tensors are rare. This is probably due to their cumbersome rotation behavior which prevents a computationally efficient use. In this chapter we want to introduce the notion of a spherical tensor which is based on the irreducible representations of the 3D rotation group. In fact, any ordinary cartesian tensor can be decomposed into a sum of spherical tensors, while each spherical tensor has a quite simple rotation behavior. We introduce so called tensorial harmonics that provide an orthogonal basis for spherical tensor fields of any rank. It is just a generalization of the well known spherical harmonics. Additionally we propose a spherical derivative which connects spherical tensor fields of different degree by differentiation. Based on the proposed theory we present two applications. We propose an efficient algorithm for dense tensor voting in 3D, which makes use of tensorial harmonics decomposition of the tensor-valued voting field. In this way it is possible to perform tensor voting by linear-combinations of convolutions in an efficient way. Secondly, we propose an anisotropic smoothing filter that uses a local shape and orientation adaptive filter kernel which can be computed efficiently by the use spherical derivatives.

  16. High-charge and multiple-star vortex coronagraphy from stacked vector vortex phase masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksanyan, Artur; Brasselet, Etienne

    2018-02-01

    Optical vortex phase masks are now installed at many ground-based large telescopes for high-contrast astronomical imaging. To date, such instrumental advances have been restricted to the use of helical phase masks of the lowest even order, while future giant telescopes will require high-order masks. Here we propose a single-stage on-axis scheme to create high-order vortex coronagraphs based on second-order vortex phase masks. By extending our approach to an off-axis design, we also explore the implementation of multiple-star vortex coronagraphy. An experimental laboratory demonstration is reported and supported by numerical simulations. These results offer a practical roadmap to the development of future coronagraphic tools with enhanced performances.

  17. DNS of droplet-vortex interaction with a Karman vortex street

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, M.; Schmehl, R.; Koch, R.; Wittig, S.; Bauer, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    Predicting fuel spray interaction with large scale vortex structures still is a major challenge for state-of-the-art CFD codes. In order to elucidate the mechanisms involved, a fundamental study has been carried out in which the interaction of water droplets with a Karman vortex street is investigated. The disperse two-phase flow around a cylinder has been computed taking into account the mass, momentum and heat transfer between both phases. Flow conditions are chosen such that large scale vortices are generated by periodic flow separations of the well known Karman vortex street. A homogeneous distribution of water droplets is injected into the hot air up-stream of the computational domain. The mixing process as well as the impact of the droplets on the gas phase instabilities is analyzed in the downstream region where large scale vortex structures are present

  18. Tunable magnetic vortex resonance in a potential well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnicke, P.; Wohlhüter, P.; Suszka, A. K.; Stevenson, S. E.; Heyderman, L. J.; Raabe, J.

    2017-11-01

    We use frequency-resolved x-ray microscopy to fully characterize the potential well of a magnetic vortex in a soft ferromagnetic permalloy square. The vortex core is excited with magnetic broadband pulses and simultaneously displaced with a static magnetic field. We observe a frequency increase (blueshift) in the gyrotropic mode of the vortex core with increasing bias field. Supported by micromagnetic simulations, we show that this frequency increase is accompanied by internal deformation of the vortex core. The ability to modify the inner structure of the vortex core provides a mechanism to control the dynamics of magnetic vortices.

  19. Examples of Applications of Vortex Methods to Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The current chapter presents wind-energy simulations obtained with the vortex code OmniVor (described in Chap. 44 ) and compared to BEM, CFD and measurements. The chapter begins by comparing rotor loads obtained with vortex methods, BEM and actuator-line simulations of wind turbines under uniform...... and yawed inflows. The second section compares wakes and flow fields obtained by actuator-disk simulations and a free-wake vortex code that uses vortex segments and vortex particles. The third section compares different implementations of viscous diffusion models and investigate their effects...

  20. Vortex Thermometry for Turbulent Two-Dimensional Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszek, Andrew J; Davis, Matthew J; Paganin, David M; Helmerson, Kristian; Simula, Tapio P

    2018-01-19

    We introduce a new method of statistical analysis to characterize the dynamics of turbulent fluids in two dimensions. We establish that, in equilibrium, the vortex distributions can be uniquely connected to the temperature of the vortex gas, and we apply this vortex thermometry to characterize simulations of decaying superfluid turbulence. We confirm the hypothesis of vortex evaporative heating leading to Onsager vortices proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 165302 (2014)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.165302, and we find previously unidentified vortex power-law distributions that emerge from the dynamics.

  1. Interaction of a strong vortex with decaying turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of a localized, axially symmetric vortex under the action of shear stresses associated with decaying two-dimensional turbulent vorticity which is inhomogeneous in the presence of the vortex is studied analytically. For a vortex which is sufficiently strong relative to the coefficient of turbulent eddy viscosity, it is shown that turbulent fluctuations in the vortex interior and diffusion of coherent vorticity by the turbulence localize to the vortex periphery. It is also found that the coefficient of diffusion is small compared to the coefficient of eddy viscosity. 8 refs

  2. Vortex molecule in a nanoscopic square superconducting plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suematsu, Hisataka; Kato, Masaru; Ishida, Takekazu; Koyama, Tomio; Machida, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    Using the finite element method and solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation, we have investigated magnetic field dependence of the stable vortex structures in a mesoscopic superconducting plate at low temperature (T = 0.1T c ). Because of the compactness of vortex configuration, there is interference between bound states around vortices and such quasi-particle structure affects the vortex configuration. Especially in two-vortices state, vortices form a molecule-like state, where bound states of each vortex form molecular orbital like bonding and anti-bonding states. The vortex configuration is different from that, which is expected from the repulsive interaction between vortices. (author)

  3. Hybrid Vortex Method for the Aerodynamic Analysis of Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vortex method, in which vortex panel method is combined with the viscous-vortex particle method (HPVP, was established to model the wind turbine aerodynamic and relevant numerical procedure program was developed to solve flow equations. The panel method was used to calculate the blade surface vortex sheets and the vortex particle method was employed to simulate the blade wake vortices. As a result of numerical calculations on the flow over a wind turbine, the HPVP method shows significant advantages in accuracy and less computation resource consuming. The validation of the aerodynamic parameters against Phase VI wind turbine experimental data is performed, which shows reasonable agreement.

  4. Metamorphosis of a Hairpin Vortex into a Young Turbulent Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Bart A.; Joslin, Ronald D.

    1995-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation was used to study the formation and growth of a hairpin vortex in a flat-plate boundary layer and its later development into a young turbulent spot. Fluid injection through a slit in the wall triggered the initial vortex. The legs of the vortex were stretched into a hairpin shape as it traveled downstream. Multiple hairpin vortex heads developed between the stretched legs. New vortices formed beneath the streamwise-elongated vortex legs. The continued development of additional vortices resulted in the formation of a traveling region of highly disturbed ow with an arrowhead shape similar to that of a turbulent spot.

  5. Vortex properties of mesoscopic superconducting samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Leonardo R.E. [Laboratorio de Supercondutividade e Materiais Avancados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife 50670-901 (Brazil); Barba-Ortega, J. [Grupo de Fi' sica de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Souza Silva, C.C. de [Laboratorio de Supercondutividade e Materiais Avancados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife 50670-901 (Brazil); Albino Aguiar, J., E-mail: albino@df.ufpe.b [Laboratorio de Supercondutividade e Materiais Avancados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife 50670-901 (Brazil)

    2010-10-01

    In this work we investigated theoretically the vortex properties of mesoscopic samples of different geometries, submitted to an external magnetic field. We use both London and Ginzburg-Landau theories and also solve the non-linear Time Dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations to obtain vortex configurations, equilibrium states and the spatial distribution of the superconducting electron density in a mesoscopic superconducting triangle and long prisms with square cross-section. For a mesoscopic triangle with the magnetic field applied perpendicularly to sample plane the vortex configurations were obtained by using Langevin dynamics simulations. In most of the configurations the vortices sit close to the corners, presenting twofold or three-fold symmetry. A study of different meta-stable configurations with same number of vortices is also presented. Next, by taking into account de Gennes boundary conditions via the extrapolation length, b, we study the properties of a mesoscopic superconducting square surrounded by different metallic materials and in the presence of an external magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the square surface. It is determined the b-limit for the occurrence of a single vortex in a mesoscopic square of area d{sup 2}, for 4{xi}(0){<=}d{<=}10{xi}(0).

  6. Vortex in the chiral quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek

    1995-02-01

    We construct the classical vortex solution in the model of chiral field interacting with the non-Abelian SU(2) gauge field. This solution is topologically nontrivial and well localized. We discuss its relevance for effective hadron models based on the flux-tube picture and the possibility of its extension to the higher symmetry gauge groups SU(N).

  7. The Vortex Oscillations and Abelian Higgs Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karkowski, J.; Swierczynski, Z.

    2000-01-01

    The excitations of the vortex in Abelian Higgs model with small ratio of vector and Higgs particle masses are considered. Three main modes encountered in numerical computations are described in detail. They are also compared to analytic results obtained recently by Arodz and Hadasz in Phys. Rev. D54, 4004 (1996). (author)

  8. Flow regimes in a trapped vortex cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagna, D.; Iuso, G.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents results of an experimental investigation on the flow in a trapped vortex cell, embedded into a flat plate, and interacting with a zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer. The objective of the work is to describe the flow features and elucidate some of the governing physical mechanisms, in the light of recent investigations on flow separation control using vortex cells. Hot-wire velocity measurements of the shear layer bounding the cell and of the boundary layers upstream and downstream are reported, together with spectral and correlation analyses of wall-pressure fluctuation measurements. Smoke flow visualisations provide qualitative insight into some relevant features of the internal flow, namely a large-scale flow unsteadiness and possible mechanisms driving the rotation of the vortex core. Results are presented for two very different regimes: a low-Reynolds-number case where the incoming boundary layer is laminar and its momentum thickness is small compared to the cell opening, and a moderately high-Reynolds-number case, where the incoming boundary layer is turbulent and the ratio between the momentum thickness and the opening length is significantly larger than in the first case. Implications of the present findings to flow control applications of trapped vortex cells are also discussed.

  9. Vortex identification: new requirements and limitations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Václav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2007), s. 638-652 ISSN 0142-727X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2060302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : vortex identification * vorticity decomposition * decomposition of motion Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2007

  10. Hexatic vortex glass in disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that interaction of the flux-line lattice with randomly arranged pinning centers should destroy the long-range positional order in the lattice, but not the long-range orientational order. A new phase: hexatic vortex glass, is suggested for the mixed state of disordered, type-II superconductors. Relevance to amorphous and high-T c superconductors is discussed

  11. Vortex breakdown in a truncated conical bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    . It is found that the sidewall convergence (divergence) from the top to the bottom stimulates (suppresses) the development of vortex breakdown (VB) in both water and air. At α = 60°, the flow topology changes eighteen times as Hw varies. The changes are due to (a) competing effects of AMF (the air meridional...

  12. Vortex Cloud Street during AMTEX 75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Agee, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    Strong northerly flow across Cheju Island, Korea, during the 1975 Air Mass Transformation Experiment (AMTEX 75) resulted in a pronounced vortex cloud street to the lee of the island on February 17 1975. This pattern has been studied and explained in terms of classical von Karman eddies shed...

  13. Point vortex dynamics: A classical mathematics playground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, Hassan

    2007-01-01

    the integrability of the three-vortex problem, the interplay of relative equilibria of identical vortices and the roots of certain polynomials, addition formulas for the cotangent and the Weierstrass zeta function, projective geometry, and other topics. The hope and intent of the article is to garner further...

  14. Vortex precession in thin elliptical ferromagnetic nanodisks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaspel, C.E., E-mail: craig.zaspel@umwestern.edu

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • A general form for the magnetostatic energy is calculated for the vortex state in a ferromagnetic ellipse. • The ellipse magnetostatic energy is minimized by conformal mapping the circular disk onto the ellipse. • The gyrotropic precession frequency is obtained in general for a range of ellipticities. - Abstract: The magnetostatic energy is calculated for a magnetic vortex in a noncircular elliptical nanodisk. It is well-known that the energy of a vortex in the circular disk is minimized though an ansatz that eliminates the magnetostatic charge at the disk edge. Beginning with this ansatz for the circular disk, a conformal mapping of a circle interior onto the interior of an ellipse results in the magnetization of the elliptical disk. This magnetization in the interior of an ellipse also has no magnetostatic charge at the disk edge also minimizing the magnetostatic energy. As expected the energy has a quadratic dependence on the displacement of the vortex core from the ellipse center, but reflecting the lower symmetry of the ellipse. Through numerical integration of the magnetostatic integral a general expression for the energy is obtained for ellipticity values from 1.0 to about 0.3. Finally a general expression for the gyrotropic frequency as described by the Thiele equation is obtained.

  15. Iterative Brinkman penalization for remeshed vortex methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Leonard, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We introduce an iterative Brinkman penalization method for the enforcement of the no-slip boundary condition in remeshed vortex methods. In the proposed method, the Brinkman penalization is applied iteratively only in the neighborhood of the body. This allows for using significantly larger time...

  16. Three-dimensional supersonic vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional supersonic vortex-breakdown problems in bound and unbound domains are solved. The solutions are obtained using the time-accurate integration of the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. The computational scheme is an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. Two vortex-breakdown applications are considered in the present paper. The first is for a supersonic swirling jet which is issued from a nozzle into a supersonic uniform flow at a lower Mach number than that of the swirling jet. The second is for a supersonic swirling flow in a configured circular duct. In the first application, an extensive study of the effects of grid fineness, shape and grid-point distribution on the vortex breakdown is presented. Four grids are used in this study and they show a substantial dependence of the breakdown bubble and shock wave on the grid used. In the second application, the bubble-type and helix-type vortex breakdown have been captured.

  17. On open-quotes Vortex breakdownclose quotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmyglevskii, Yu.D.

    1995-01-01

    The well-known investigations of vortex breakdown are supplemented with an exact analytic representation of this phenomenon on the basis of the complete Navier-Stokes equations for the case of a potential swirl of the input flow about the axis of symmetry

  18. Vortex lattice melting, pinning and kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doniach, S.; Ryu, S.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenology of the high T c superconductors is discussed both at the level of the thermodynamics of melting of the Abrikosov flux lattice and in terms of the melting and kinetics of the flux lattice for a pinned system. The authors review results on 3D melting obtained by a Monte Carlo simulation approach in which the 2D open-quotes pancakeclose quotes vortices are treated as statistical variables. The authors discuss pinning in the context of the strong pinning regime in which the vortex density given in terms of the applied field B is small compared to that represented by an effective field B pin measuring the pinning center density. The authors introduce a new criterion for the unfreezing of a vortex glass on increase of magnetic field or temperature, in the strong pinning, small field unit. The authors model this limit in terms of a single flux line interacting with a columnar pin. This model is studied both analytically and by computer simulation. By applying a tilt potential, the authors study the kinetics of the vortex motion in an external current and show that the resulting current-voltage characteristic follows a basic vortex glass-like scaling relation in the vicinity of the depinning transition

  19. Vortex wakes of a flapping foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnipper, Teis; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental study of a symmetric foil performing pitching oscillations in a vertically flowing soap film. By varying the frequency and amplitude of the oscillation we visualize a variety of wakes with up to 46 vortices per oscillation period, including von Karman vortex street...

  20. Wake Vortex Avoidance System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Knight, Howard K. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A wake vortex avoidance system includes a microphone array configured to detect low frequency sounds. A signal processor determines a geometric mean coherence based on the detected low frequency sounds. A display displays wake vortices based on the determined geometric mean coherence.

  1. Quantum oscillations in vortex-liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sumilan; Zhang, Shizhong; Randeria, Mohit

    2012-02-01

    Motivated by observations of quantum oscillations in underdoped cuprates [1], we examine the electronic density of states (DOS) in a vortex-liquid state, where long-range phase coherence is destroyed by an external magnetic field H but the local pairing amplitude survives. We note that this regime is distinct from that studied in most of the recent theories, which have focused on either a Fermi liquid with a competing order parameter or on a d-wave vortex lattice. The cuprate experiments are very likely in a resistive vortex-liquid state. We generalize the s-wave analysis of Maki and Stephen [2] to d-wave pairing and examine various regimes of the chemical potential, gap and field. We find that the (1/H) oscillations of the DOS at the chemical potential in a d-wave vortex-liquid are much more robust, i.e., have a reduced damping, compared to the s-wave case. We critically investigate the conventional wisdom relating the observed frequency to the area of an underlying Fermi surface. We also show that the oscillations in the DOS cross over to a √H behavior in the low field limit, in agreement with the recent specific heat measurements. [1] L. Taillefer, J. Phys. Cond. Mat. 21, 164212 (2009). [2] M. J. Stephen, Phys. Rev. B 45, 5481 (1992).

  2. Impact of pulsations on vortex flowmeters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M.C.A.M.; Bokhorst, E. van; Limpens, C.H.L.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of imposed pulsations on the output of five 3”-industrial vortex flow meters with a triangular bluff body and various type of sensors was experimentally investigated in a gas flow over a wide range of frequencies from 20 Hz to 400 Hz and amplitudes ranging from 1% to 30% rms of the

  3. Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, David; Brücker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times.

  4. Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hess

    Full Text Available Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times.

  5. Fermions and non-Abelian vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, E.R.B. de.

    1986-01-01

    Some aspectos of the fermion-non-Abelian vortex system are discussed. It is shown that this system presents properties analogous to the fermion-non-Abelian magnetic monopole one. But, differrently from the fermion-monopole case, this system does not present fermion condensate V = 0. (Author) [pt

  6. Electrical properties of spherical syncytia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, R S; Barcilon, V; Mathias, R T

    1979-01-01

    Syncytial tissues consist of many cells whose intracellular spaces are electrically coupled one to another. Such tissues typically include narrow, tortuous extracellular space and often have specialized membranes at their outer surface. We derive differential equations to describe the potentials induced when a sinusoidal or steady current is applied to the intracellular space with a microelectrode. We derive solutions for spherical preparations with isotropic properties or with a particular anisotropy in effective extracellular and intracellular resistivities. Solutions are presented in an approximate form with a simple physical interpretation. The leading term in the intracellular potential describes an "isopotential" cell in which there is no spatial variation of intracellular potential. The leading term in the extracellular potential, and thus the potential across the inner membranes, varies with radial position, even at zero frequency. The next term of the potentials describes the direct effects of the point source of current and, for the parameters given here, acts as a series resistance producing a large local potential drop essentially independent of frequency. A lumped equivalent circuit describes the "low frequency" behavior of the syncytium, and a distributed circuit gives a reasonably accurate general description. Graphs of the spatial variation and frequency dependence of intracellular, extracellular, and transmembrane potential are given, the response to sinusoidal currents is used to calculate numerically the response to a step function of current.

  7. Intrinsic cylindrical and spherical waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlow, I K

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsic waveforms associated with cylindrical and spherical Bessel functions are obtained by eliminating the factors responsible for the inverse radius and inverse square radius laws of wave power per unit area of wavefront. The resulting expressions are Riccati-Bessel functions for both cases and these can be written in terms of amplitude and phase functions of order v and wave variable z. When z is real, it is shown that a spatial phase angle of the intrinsic wave can be defined and this, together with its amplitude function, is systematically investigated for a range of fixed orders and varying z. The derivatives of Riccati-Bessel functions are also examined. All the component functions exhibit different behaviour in the near field depending on the order being less than, equal to or greater than 1/2. Plots of the phase angle can be used to display the locations of the zeros of the general Riccati-Bessel functions and lead to new relations concerning the ordering of the real zeros of Bessel functions and the occurrence of multiple zeros when the argument of the Bessel function is fixed

  8. Alfven Eigenmodes in spherical tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznevich, Mikhail P.; Sharapov, Sergei E.; Berk, Herbert L.; Pinches, Simon D.

    2005-01-01

    Electromagnetic instabilities are often excited by fast super-Alfvenic ions produced by neutral beam injection (NBI) in plasmas of the spherical tokamaks START and MAST (toroidal magnetic confinement devices in which the minor a and major R 0 radii of the torus are comparable, R 0 /a≅1.2/1.8). These instabilities are seen as discrete weakly-damped toroidal and elliptical Alfven Eigenmodes (TAEs and EAEs) with frequencies tracing in time the Alfven scaling with the equilibrium magnetic field and plasma density, or as energetic particle modes (EPMs) whose frequencies don't start from TAE-frequency and sweep down in time faster than the equilibrium parameters change. In some discharges the beam drives Aflvenic-type modes that start from the TAE frequency and sweep in both up- and down- directions. Such electromagnetic perturbations are interpreted as 'hole-clump' long-living nonlinear fluctuations of the fast ion distribution function predicted by Berk-Breizman-Petviashvili [Phys. Lett. A238 (1998) 408]. It is found on both START and MAST that the Alfven instabilities weaken in their mode amplitude and in the number of unstable modes as the pressure of the thermal plasma increases, in agreement with increased thermal ion Landau damping and the pressure effect on core-localised TAEs. (author)

  9. Spherically symmetric charged compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Jaypee Institute of Information Technology University, Department of Mathematics, Noida, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Chowdhury, Sourav Roy [Seth Anandaram Jaipuria College, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2015-08-15

    In this article we consider the static spherically symmetric metric of embedding class 1. When solving the Einstein-Maxwell field equations we take into account the presence of ordinary baryonic matter together with the electric charge. Specific new charged stellar models are obtained where the solutions are entirely dependent on the electromagnetic field, such that the physical parameters, like density, pressure etc. do vanish for the vanishing charge. We systematically analyze altogether the three sets of Solutions I, II, and III of the stellar models for a suitable functional relation of ν(r). However, it is observed that only the Solution I provides a physically valid and well-behaved situation, whereas the Solutions II and III are not well behaved and hence not included in the study. Thereafter it is exclusively shown that the Solution I can pass through several standard physical tests performed by us. To validate the solution set presented here a comparison has also been made with that of the compact stars, like RX J 1856 - 37, Her X - 1, PSR 1937+21, PSRJ 1614-2230, and PSRJ 0348+0432, and we have shown the feasibility of the models. (orig.)

  10. Uniqueness of flat spherically symmetric spacelike hypersurfaces admitted by spherically symmetric static spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beig, Robert; Siddiqui, Azad A.

    2007-11-01

    It is known that spherically symmetric static spacetimes admit a foliation by flat hypersurfaces. Such foliations have explicitly been constructed for some spacetimes, using different approaches, but none of them have proved or even discussed the uniqueness of these foliations. The issue of uniqueness becomes more important due to suitability of flat foliations for studying black hole physics. Here, flat spherically symmetric spacelike hypersurfaces are obtained by a direct method. It is found that spherically symmetric static spacetimes admit flat spherically symmetric hypersurfaces, and that these hypersurfaces are unique up to translation under the timelike Killing vector. This result guarantees the uniqueness of flat spherically symmetric foliations for such spacetimes.

  11. Vortex and half-vortex dynamics in a nonlinear spinor quantum fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Lorenzo; Dagvadorj, Galbadrakh; Fellows, Jonathan M; Ballarini, Dario; De Giorgi, Milena; Marchetti, Francesca M; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Bramati, Alberto; Gigli, Giuseppe; Szymańska, Marzena H; Sanvitto, Daniele

    2015-12-01

    Vortices are archetypal objects that recur in the universe across the scale of complexity, from subatomic particles to galaxies and black holes. Their appearance is connected with spontaneous symmetry breaking and phase transitions. In Bose-Einstein condensates and superfluids, vortices are both point-like and quantized quasiparticles. We use a two-dimensional (2D) fluid of polaritons, bosonic particles constituted by hybrid photonic and electronic oscillations, to study quantum vortex dynamics. Polaritons benefit from easiness of wave function phase detection, a spinor nature sustaining half-integer vorticity, strong nonlinearity, and tuning of the background disorder. We can directly generate by resonant pulsed excitations a polariton condensate carrying either a full or half-integer vortex as initial condition and follow their coherent evolution using ultrafast imaging on the picosecond scale. The observations highlight a rich phenomenology, such as the spiraling of the half-vortex and the joint path of the twin charges of a full vortex, until the moment of their splitting. Furthermore, we observe the ordered branching into newly generated secondary couples, associated with the breaking of radial and azimuthal symmetries. This allows us to devise the interplay of nonlinearity and sample disorder in shaping the fluid and driving the vortex dynamics. In addition, our observations suggest that phase singularities may be seen as fundamental particles whose quantized events span from pair creation and recombination to 2D+t topological vortex strings.

  12. Vortex generation and wave-vortex interaction over a concave plate with roughness and suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolotti, Fabio

    1993-01-01

    The generation and amplification of vortices by surface homogeneities, both in the form of surface waviness and of wall-normal velocity, is investigated using the nonlinear parabolic stability equations. Transients and issues of algebraic growth are avoided through the use of a similarity solution as initial condition for the vortex. In the absence of curvature, the vortex decays as the square root of 1/x when flowing over streamwise aligned riblets of constant height, and grows as the square root of x when flowing over a corresponding streamwise aligned variation of blowing/suction transpiration velocity. However, in the presence of wall inhomogeneities having both streamwise and spanwise periodicity, the growth of the vortex can be much larger. In the presence of curvature, the vortex develops into a Gortler vortex. The 'direct' and 'indirect' interaction mechanisms possible in wave-vortex interaction are presented. The 'direct' interaction does not lead to strong resonance with the flow conditions investigated. The 'indirect' interaction leads to K-type transition.

  13. On the evolution of vortex rings with swirl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitoh, Takashi; Okura, Nobuyuki; Gotoh, Toshiyuki; Kato, Yusuke

    2014-01-01

    A laminar vortex ring with swirl, which has the meridional velocity component inside the vortex core, was experimentally generated by the brief fluid ejection from a rotating outlet. The evolution of the vortex ring was investigated with flow visualizations and particle image velocimetry measurements in order to find the influence of swirling flow in particular upon the transition to turbulence. Immediately after the formation of a vortex ring with swirl, a columnar strong vortex along the symmetric axis is observed in all cases of the present experiment. Then the characteristic fluid discharging from a vortex ring with swirl referred to as “peeling off” appears. The amount of discharging fluid due to the “peeling off” increases with the angular velocity of the rotating outlet. We conjectured that the mechanism generating the “peeling off” is related to the columnar strong vortex by close observations of the spatio-temporal development of the vorticity distribution and the cutting 3D images constructed from the successive cross sections of a vortex ring. While a laminar vortex ring without swirl may develop azimuthal waves around its circumference at some later time and the ring structure subsequently breaks, the swirling flow in a vortex ring core reduces the amplification rate of the azimuthal wavy deformation and preserved its ring structure. Then the traveling distance of a vortex ring can be extended using the swirl flow under certain conditions

  14. Experimental Study of Shock Generated Compressible Vortex Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debopam; Arakeri, Jaywant H.; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

    2000-11-01

    Formation of a compressible vortex ring and generation of sound associated with it is studied experimentally. Impulse of a shock wave is used to generate a vortex ring from the open end of a shock-tube. Vortex ring formation process has been studied in details using particle image Velocimetry (PIV). As the shock wave exits the tube it diffracts and expands. A circular vortex sheet forms at the edge and rolls up into a vortex ring. Far field microphone measurement shows that the acoustic pressure consists of a spike due to shock wave followed by a low frequency pressure wave of decaying nature, superimposed with high frequency pressure wave. Acoustic waves consist of waves due to expansion, waves formed in the tube during diaphragm breakage and waves associated with the vortex ring and shear-layer vortices. Unsteady evolution of the vortex ring and shear-layer vortices in the jet behind the ring is studied by measuring the velocity field using PIV. Corresponding vorticity field, circulation around the vortex core and growth rate of the vortex core is calculated from the measured velocity field. The velocity field in a compressible vortex ring differs from that of an incompressible ring due to the contribution from both shock and vortex ring.

  15. On the evolution of vortex rings with swirl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naitoh, Takashi, E-mail: naitoh.takashi@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Engineering Physics, Electronics and Mechanics, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Okura, Nobuyuki, E-mail: ohkura@meijo-u.ac.jp [Department of Vehicle and Mechanical Engineering, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8502 (Japan); Gotoh, Toshiyuki, E-mail: gotoh.toshiyuki@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Scientific and Engineering Simulation, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kato, Yusuke [Controller Business Unit Engineering Division 1, Engineering Department 3, Denso Wave Incorporated, 1 Yoshiike Kusagi Agui-cho, Chita-gun Aichi 470-2297 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    A laminar vortex ring with swirl, which has the meridional velocity component inside the vortex core, was experimentally generated by the brief fluid ejection from a rotating outlet. The evolution of the vortex ring was investigated with flow visualizations and particle image velocimetry measurements in order to find the influence of swirling flow in particular upon the transition to turbulence. Immediately after the formation of a vortex ring with swirl, a columnar strong vortex along the symmetric axis is observed in all cases of the present experiment. Then the characteristic fluid discharging from a vortex ring with swirl referred to as “peeling off” appears. The amount of discharging fluid due to the “peeling off” increases with the angular velocity of the rotating outlet. We conjectured that the mechanism generating the “peeling off” is related to the columnar strong vortex by close observations of the spatio-temporal development of the vorticity distribution and the cutting 3D images constructed from the successive cross sections of a vortex ring. While a laminar vortex ring without swirl may develop azimuthal waves around its circumference at some later time and the ring structure subsequently breaks, the swirling flow in a vortex ring core reduces the amplification rate of the azimuthal wavy deformation and preserved its ring structure. Then the traveling distance of a vortex ring can be extended using the swirl flow under certain conditions.

  16. Motion of a single quantized vortex in an orifice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    Discrete phase-slip events are observed when superfluid 4 He moves through a microscopic orifice. In order to understand such behavior, one must know (a) how a quantized vortex is introduced into the orifice, and (b) how such a vortex evolves fluid dynamically so as to absorb energy from the applied flow field. To begin the study of the latter question, the authors present calculations done with an idealized orifice geometry. It is found that vortex loops larger than a critical size are carried out of the orifice and stretched by the diverging flow. As it stretches, such a vortex will cross the orifice, the energy required to stretch the vortex being absorbed from the flow field. Both a vortex loop introduced directly into the orifice and a remanent vortex extending to infinity will be discussed

  17. Non-coaxial superposition of vector vortex beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadhi, A; Vaity, Pravin; Chithrabhanu, P; Reddy, Salla Gangi; Prabakar, Shashi; Singh, R P

    2016-02-10

    Vector vortex beams are classified into four types depending upon spatial variation in their polarization vector. We have generated all four of these types of vector vortex beams by using a modified polarization Sagnac interferometer with a vortex lens. Further, we have studied the non-coaxial superposition of two vector vortex beams. It is observed that the superposition of two vector vortex beams with same polarization singularity leads to a beam with another kind of polarization singularity in their interaction region. The results may be of importance in ultrahigh security of the polarization-encrypted data that utilizes vector vortex beams and multiple optical trapping with non-coaxial superposition of vector vortex beams. We verified our experimental results with theory.

  18. Specific features of time-dependent Psub(N) approximations in spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltzer, P.; Pucker, N.

    1979-01-01

    Approximations to the time-dependent linear transport equation can result in more serious distortions in the description of the actual physical situation than in the stationary problem. This is demonstrated in detail for the case of a neutron pulse in spherical geometry, treated within a P 1 approximation. One has to pay special attention to the singularity at r = 0 and to the effect of the boundary conditions. Effects similar to those shown here are also to be expected in connection with Psub(N) approximations of higher order. (Auth.)

  19. Spherical grand-canonical minority games with and without score discounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladon, Alex; Richardson, Thomas; Galla, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    We present a spherical version of the grand-canonical minority game (GCMG) and solve its dynamics in the stationary state. The model displays several types of transitions between multiple ergodic phases and one non-ergodic phase. We derive analytical solutions, including exact expressions for the volatility, throughout all ergodic phases and compute the phase behaviour of the system. In contrast to conventional GCMGs, where the introduction of memory loss precludes analytical approaches, the spherical model can also be solved when exponential discounting is taken into account. For the case of homogeneous incentives to trade ε and memory-loss rates ρ, an efficient phase is found only if ρ = ε = 0. Allowing for heterogeneous memory-loss rates we find that efficiency can be achieved as long as there is any finite fraction of agents which is not subject to memory loss

  20. A New Dark Vortex on Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael H.; Tollefson, Joshua; Hsu, Andrew I.; de Pater, Imke; Simon, Amy A.; Hueso, Ricardo; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín; Sromovsky, Lawrence; Fry, Patrick; Luszcz-Cook, Statia; Hammel, Heidi; Delcroix, Marc; de Kleer, Katherine; Orton, Glenn S.; Baranec, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    An outburst of cloud activity on Neptune in 2015 led to speculation about whether the clouds were convective in nature, a wave phenomenon, or bright companions to an unseen dark vortex (similar to the Great Dark Spot studied in detail by Voyager 2). The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) finally answered this question by discovering a new dark vortex at 45 degrees south planetographic latitude, named SDS-2015 for “southern dark spot discovered in 2015.” SDS-2015 is only the fifth dark vortex ever seen on Neptune. In this paper, we report on imaging of SDS-2015 using HST’s Wide Field Camera 3 across four epochs: 2015 September, 2016 May, 2016 October, and 2017 October. We find that the size of SDS-2015 did not exceed 20 degrees of longitude, more than a factor of two smaller than the Voyager dark spots, but only slightly smaller than previous northern-hemisphere dark spots. A slow (1.7–2.5 deg/year) poleward drift was observed for the vortex. Properties of SDS-2015 and its surroundings suggest that the meridional wind shear may be twice as strong at the deep level of the vortex as it is at the level of cloud-tracked winds. Over the 2015–2017 period, the dark spot’s contrast weakened from about -7 % to about -3 % , while companion clouds shifted from offset to centered, a similar evolution to some historical dark spots. The properties and evolution of SDS-2015 highlight the diversity of Neptune’s dark spots and the need for faster cadence dark spot observations in the future.

  1. Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This revision of the 2011 report, Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, evaluates biogenic CO2 emissions from stationary sources, including a detailed study of the scientific and technical issues associated with assessing biogenic carbon dioxide...

  2. Modeling mantle convection in the spherical annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernlund, John W.; Tackley, Paul J.

    2008-12-01

    Most methods for modeling mantle convection in a two-dimensional (2D) circular annular domain suffer from innate shortcomings in their ability to capture several characteristics of the spherical shell geometry of planetary mantles. While methods such as rescaling the inner and outer radius to reduce anomalous effects in a 2D polar cylindrical coordinate system have been introduced and widely implemented, such fixes may have other drawbacks that adversely affect the outcome of some kinds of mantle convection studies. Here we propose a new approach that we term the "spherical annulus," which is a 2D slice that bisects the spherical shell and is quantitatively formulated at the equator of a spherical polar coordinate system after neglecting terms in the governing equations related to variations in latitude. Spherical scaling is retained in this approximation since the Jacobian function remains proportional to the square of the radius. We present example calculations to show that the behavior of convection in the spherical annulus compares favorably against calculations performed in other 2D annular domains when measured relative to those in a fully three-dimensional (3D) spherical shell.

  3. Persistence of metastable vortex lattice domains in MgB2 in the presence of vortex motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastovski, C; Schlesinger, K J; Gannon, W J; Dewhurst, C D; DeBeer-Schmitt, L; Zhigadlo, N D; Karpinski, J; Eskildsen, M R

    2013-09-06

    Recently, extensive vortex lattice metastability was reported in MgB2 in connection with a second-order rotational phase transition. However, the mechanism responsible for these well-ordered metastable vortex lattice phases is not well understood. Using small-angle neutron scattering, we studied the vortex lattice in MgB2 as it was driven from a metastable to the ground state through a series of small changes in the applied magnetic field. Our results show that metastable vortex lattice domains persist in the presence of substantial vortex motion and directly demonstrate that the metastability is not due to vortex pinning. Instead, we propose that it is due to the jamming of counterrotated vortex lattice domains which prevents a rotation to the ground state orientation.

  4. Propagation of optical vortex beams and nucleation of vortex-antivortex pairs in disordered nonlinear photonic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yeong-Kwon; Kim, Ki-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The propagation of optical vortex beams through disordered nonlinear photonic lattices is numerically studied. The vortex beams are generated by using a superposition of several Gaussian laser beams arranged in a radially-symmetric manner. The paraxial nonlinear Schroedinger equation describing the longitudinal propagation of the beam array through nonlinear triangular photonic lattices with two-dimensional disorder is solved numerically by using the split-step Fourier method. We find that due to the spatial disorder, the vortex beam is destabilized after propagating a finite distance and new vortex-antivortex pairs are nucleated at the positions of perfect destructive interference. We also find that in the presence of a self-focusing nonlinearity, the vortex-antivortex pair nucleation is suppressed and the vortex beam becomes more stable, while a self-defocusing nonlinearity enhances the vortex-antivortex pair nucleation.

  5. Averaging in spherically symmetric cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coley, A. A.; Pelavas, N.

    2007-01-01

    The averaging problem in cosmology is of fundamental importance. When applied to study cosmological evolution, the theory of macroscopic gravity (MG) can be regarded as a long-distance modification of general relativity. In the MG approach to the averaging problem in cosmology, the Einstein field equations on cosmological scales are modified by appropriate gravitational correlation terms. We study the averaging problem within the class of spherically symmetric cosmological models. That is, we shall take the microscopic equations and effect the averaging procedure to determine the precise form of the correlation tensor in this case. In particular, by working in volume-preserving coordinates, we calculate the form of the correlation tensor under some reasonable assumptions on the form for the inhomogeneous gravitational field and matter distribution. We find that the correlation tensor in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background must be of the form of a spatial curvature. Inhomogeneities and spatial averaging, through this spatial curvature correction term, can have a very significant dynamical effect on the dynamics of the Universe and cosmological observations; in particular, we discuss whether spatial averaging might lead to a more conservative explanation of the observed acceleration of the Universe (without the introduction of exotic dark matter fields). We also find that the correlation tensor for a non-FLRW background can be interpreted as the sum of a spatial curvature and an anisotropic fluid. This may lead to interesting effects of averaging on astrophysical scales. We also discuss the results of averaging an inhomogeneous Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution as well as calculations of linear perturbations (that is, the backreaction) in an FLRW background, which support the main conclusions of the analysis

  6. Learning Markov models for stationary system behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yingke; Mao, Hua; Jaeger, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    to a single long observation sequence, and in these situations existing automatic learning methods cannot be applied. In this paper, we adapt algorithms for learning variable order Markov chains from a single observation sequence of a target system, so that stationary system properties can be verified using......Establishing an accurate model for formal verification of an existing hardware or software system is often a manual process that is both time consuming and resource demanding. In order to ease the model construction phase, methods have recently been proposed for automatically learning accurate...... the learned model. Experiments demonstrate that system properties (formulated as stationary probabilities of LTL formulas) can be reliably identified using the learned model....

  7. Stationary nonimaging lenses for solar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsidas, Panagiotis; Chatzi, Eleni; Modi, Vijay

    2010-09-20

    A novel approach for the design of refractive lenses is presented, where the lens is mounted on a stationary aperture and the Sun is tracked by a moving solar cell. The purpose of this work is to design a quasi-stationary concentrator by replacing the two-axis tracking of the Sun with internal motion of the miniaturized solar cell inside the module. Families of lenses are designed with a variation of the simultaneous multiple surface technique in which the sawtooth genetic algorithm is implemented to optimize the geometric variables of the optic in order to produce high fluxes for a range of incidence angles. Finally, we show examples of the technique for lenses with 60° and 30° acceptance half-angles, with low to medium attainable concentrations.

  8. Relativistic elasticity of stationary fluid branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A.

    2013-02-01

    Fluid mechanics can be formulated on dynamical surfaces of arbitrary codimension embedded in a background space-time. This has been the main object of study of the blackfold approach in which the emphasis has primarily been on stationary fluid configurations. Motivated by this approach we show under certain conditions that a given stationary fluid configuration living on a dynamical surface of vanishing thickness and satisfying locally the first law of thermodynamics will behave like an elastic brane when the surface is subject to small deformations. These results, which are independent of the number of space-time dimensions and of the fluid arising from a gravitational dual, reveal the (electro)elastic character of (charged) black branes when considering extrinsic perturbations.

  9. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Illerup, J. B.

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are: SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins and PAH. Since 1990 the fuel consumption...... in stationary combustion has increased by 12% - the fossil fuel consumption however only by 6%. Despite the increased fuel consumption the emission of several pollutants have decreased due to the improved flue gas cleaning technology, improved burner technology and the change of fuel type used. A considerable...... plants. The emission of PAH increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential boilers and stoves. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated....

  10. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Illerup, J. B.

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO2, NOX, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins and PAH. Since 1990 the fuel consumption...... in stationary combustion has increased by 14% - the fossil fuel consumption however only by 8%. Despite the increased fuel consumption the emission of several pollutants has decreased due to the improved flue gas cleaning technology, improved burner technology and the change of fuel type used. A considerable...... plants. The emission of PAH increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential boilers and stoves. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated...

  11. Solar radiation on Mars: Stationary photovoltaic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, J.; Sherman, I.; Landis, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Solar energy is likely to be an important power source for surface-based operation on Mars. Photovoltaic cells offer many advantages. In this article we have presented analytical expressions and solar radiation data for stationary flat surfaces (horizontal and inclined) as a function of latitude, season and atmospheric dust load (optical depth). The diffuse component of the solar radiation on Mars can be significant, thus greatly affecting the optimal inclination angle of the photovoltaic surface.

  12. Covariance matrix estimation for stationary time series

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Han; Wu, Wei Biao

    2011-01-01

    We obtain a sharp convergence rate for banded covariance matrix estimates of stationary processes. A precise order of magnitude is derived for spectral radius of sample covariance matrices. We also consider a thresholded covariance matrix estimator that can better characterize sparsity if the true covariance matrix is sparse. As our main tool, we implement Toeplitz [Math. Ann. 70 (1911) 351–376] idea and relate eigenvalues of covariance matrices to the spectral densities or Fourier transforms...

  13. Quantum field theory in stationary coordinate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfautsch, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Quantum field theory is examined in stationary coordinate systems in Minkowski space. Preliminary to quantization of the scalar field, all of the possible stationary coordinate systems in flat spacetime are classified and explicitly constructed. Six distinct classes of such systems are found. Of these six, three have (identical) event horizons associated with them and five have Killing horizons. Two classes have distinct Killing and event horizons, with an intervening region analogous to the ergosphere in rotating black holes. Particular representatives of each class are selected for subsequent use in the quantum field theory. The scalar field is canonically quantized and a vacuum defined in each of the particular coordinate systems chosen. The vacuum states can be regarded as adapted to the six classes of stationary motions. There are only two vacuum states found, the Minkowski vacuum in those coordinate systems without event horizons and the Fulling vacuum in those with event horizons. The responses of monopole detectors traveling along stationary world lines are calculated in both the Minkowski and Fulling vacuums. The responses for each class of motions are distinct from those for every other class. A vacuum defined by the response of a detector must therefore not be equivalent in general to a vacuum defined by canonical quantization. Quantization of the scalar field within a rotating wedge is examined. It has not been possible to construct mode functions satisfying appropriate boundary conditions on the surface of the wedge. The asymptotic form of the renormalized stress tensor near the surfaces had been calculated and is found to include momentum terms which represent a circulation of energy within the wedge

  14. Elastic interaction between surface and spherical pore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeev, G.Z.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Kislitsyn, S.B.; Turkebaev, T.Eh.

    2000-01-01

    The energy of elastic interaction of a gas-filled spherical cavity with a boundary of an elastic isotropic half-space is determined. The elastic field of a system of a spherical cavity - boundary is represented as an expansion in series of potential functions. The factors of expansions are determined by boundary conditions on a free surface of an elastic half-space and on a spherical surface of a cavity with pressure of gas P. Function of a Tresca-Miesesa on a surface of elastic surface is defined additionally with purpose creep condition determination caused by gas pressure in the cavity. (author)

  15. Stationary black holes: large D analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    We consider the effective theory of large D stationary black holes. By solving the Einstein equations with a cosmological constant using the 1/D expansion in near zone of the black hole we obtain the effective equation for the stationary black hole. The effective equation describes the Myers-Perry black hole, bumpy black holes and, possibly, the black ring solution as its solutions. In this effective theory the black hole is represented as an embedded membrane in the background, e.g., Minkowski or Anti-de Sitter spacetime and its mean curvature is given by the surface gravity redshifted by the background gravitational field and the local Lorentz boost. The local Lorentz boost property of the effective equation is observed also in the metric itself. In fact we show that the leading order metric of the Einstein equation in the 1/D expansion is generically regarded as a Lorentz boosted Schwarzschild black hole. We apply this Lorentz boost property of the stationary black hole solution to solve perturbation equations. As a result we obtain an analytic formula for quasinormal modes of the singly rotating Myers-Perry black hole in the 1/D expansion.

  16. Generating stationary entangled states in superconducting qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jing; Liu Yuxi; Li Chunwen; Tarn, T.-J.; Nori, Franco

    2009-01-01

    When a two-qubit system is initially maximally entangled, two independent decoherence channels, one per qubit, would greatly reduce the entanglement of the two-qubit system when it reaches its stationary state. We propose a method on how to minimize such a loss of entanglement in open quantum systems. We find that the quantum entanglement of general two-qubit systems with controllable parameters can be controlled by tuning both the single-qubit parameters and the two-qubit coupling strengths. Indeed, the maximum fidelity F max between the stationary entangled state, ρ ∞ , and the maximally entangled state, ρ m , can be about 2/3≅max(tr(ρ ∞ ρ m ))=F max , corresponding to a maximum stationary concurrence, C max , of about 1/3≅C(ρ ∞ )=C max . This is significant because the quantum entanglement of the two-qubit system can be produced and kept, even for a long time. We apply our proposal to several types of two-qubit superconducting circuits and show how the entanglement of these two-qubit circuits can be optimized by varying experimentally controllable parameters.

  17. Stationary stochastic processes theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lindgren, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Some Probability and Process BackgroundSample space, sample function, and observablesRandom variables and stochastic processesStationary processes and fieldsGaussian processesFour historical landmarksSample Function PropertiesQuadratic mean propertiesSample function continuityDerivatives, tangents, and other characteristicsStochastic integrationAn ergodic resultExercisesSpectral RepresentationsComplex-valued stochastic processesBochner's theorem and the spectral distributionSpectral representation of a stationary processGaussian processesStationary counting processesExercisesLinear Filters - General PropertiesLinear time invariant filtersLinear filters and differential equationsWhite noise in linear systemsLong range dependence, non-integrable spectra, and unstable systemsThe ARMA-familyLinear Filters - Special TopicsThe Hilbert transform and the envelopeThe sampling theoremKarhunen-Loève expansionClassical Ergodic Theory and MixingThe basic ergodic theorem in L2Stationarity and transformationsThe ergodic th...

  18. Backset-stationary and during car driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Bertil; Stenlund, Hans; Björnstig, Ulf

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to measure and analyze backset, defined as the horizontal distance between the back of the occupant's head and a point located on the ventral/top aspect of the sewn rim of the head restraint, with the car stationary and during driving, in the driver's position in a modern car. A population of 65 subjects, 35 males and 30 females, was studied in a Volvo V70 car, model year 2007. The subjects were studied in the driver's position, in a self-selected posture. Stationary backset was measured with the technique described by Jonsson et al. (2007) and backset during driving with video analysis. Descriptive data were calculated, and variability and correlation analyses were performed. A t-test was used to test differences of means. Significance level was set to 0.05. In comparison to stationary backset, mean backset during driving was 43 mm greater in males and 41 mm greater in females. Driving backset was 44 mm larger in males than in females. Driving backset was moderately correlated (0.37-0.43) to stature, seated height, and seat back angle in males and moderately correlated (0.44-0.52) to hip width, waist circumference, and weight in females. The overall intraclass correlation coefficient for backset during driving was 0.81 (CI: 0.75-0.86). These results may be of use in designing future updates of test protocols/routines for geometric backset, such as RCAR and RCAR-IIWPG.

  19. 30 CFR 57.14115 - Stationary grinding machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines. 57.14115 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14115 Stationary grinding machines. Stationary grinding machines, other than special bit grinders, shall be equipped with— (a) Peripheral hoods...

  20. 30 CFR 77.401 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.401 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped with...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1723 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective....1723 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than... the wheel. (3) Safety washers. (b) Grinding wheels shall be operated within the specifications of the...

  2. 30 CFR 56.14115 - Stationary grinding machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines. 56.14115 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14115 Stationary grinding machines. Stationary grinding machines, other than special bit grinders, shall be equipped with— (a) Peripheral hoods capable of...

  3. Comparison of Computed and Measured Vortex Evolution for a UH-60A Rotor in Forward Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Jasim Uddin; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Kao, David L.

    2013-01-01

    A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation using the Navier-Stokes equations was performed to determine the evolutionary and dynamical characteristics of the vortex flowfield for a highly flexible aeroelastic UH-60A rotor in forward flight. The experimental wake data were acquired using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) during a test of the fullscale UH-60A rotor in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The PIV measurements were made in a stationary cross-flow plane at 90 deg rotor azimuth. The CFD simulation was performed using the OVERFLOW CFD solver loosely coupled with the rotorcraft comprehensive code CAMRAD II. Characteristics of vortices captured in the PIV plane from different blades are compared with CFD calculations. The blade airloads were calculated using two different turbulence models. A limited spatial, temporal, and CFD/comprehensive-code coupling sensitivity analysis was performed in order to verify the unsteady helicopter simulations with a moving rotor grid system.

  4. On vortex shedding and prediction of vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Karl Henning

    1998-12-31

    In offshore installations, many crucial components can be classified as slender marine structures: risers, mooring lines, umbilicals and cables, pipelines. This thesis studies the vortex shedding phenomenon and the problem of predicting vortex-induced vibrations of such structures. As the development of hydrocarbons move to deeper waters, the importance of accurately predicting the vortex-induced response has increased and so the need for proper response prediction methods is large. This work presents an extensive review of existing research publications about vortex shedding from circular cylinders and the vortex-induced vibrations of cylinders and the different numerical approaches to modelling the fluid flow. The response predictions from different methods are found to disagree, both in response shapes and in vibration amplitudes. This work presents a prediction method that uses a fully three-dimensional structural finite element model integrated with a laminar two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solution modelling the fluid flow. This solution is used to study the flow both around a fixed cylinder and in a flexibly mounted one-degree-of-freedom system. It is found that the vortex-shedding process (in the low Reynolds number regime) is well described by the computer program, and that the vortex-induced vibration of the flexibly mounted section do reflect the typical dynamic characteristics of lock-in oscillations. However, the exact behaviour of the experimental results found in the literature was not reproduced. The response of the three-dimensional structural model is larger than the expected difference between a mode shape and a flexibly mounted section. This is due to the use of independent hydrodynamic sections along the cylinder. The predicted response is not unrealistic, and the method is considered a powerful tool. 221 refs., 138 figs., 36 tabs.

  5. On vortex shedding and prediction of vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Karl Henning

    1997-12-31

    In offshore installations, many crucial components can be classified as slender marine structures: risers, mooring lines, umbilicals and cables, pipelines. This thesis studies the vortex shedding phenomenon and the problem of predicting vortex-induced vibrations of such structures. As the development of hydrocarbons move to deeper waters, the importance of accurately predicting the vortex-induced response has increased and so the need for proper response prediction methods is large. This work presents an extensive review of existing research publications about vortex shedding from circular cylinders and the vortex-induced vibrations of cylinders and the different numerical approaches to modelling the fluid flow. The response predictions from different methods are found to disagree, both in response shapes and in vibration amplitudes. This work presents a prediction method that uses a fully three-dimensional structural finite element model integrated with a laminar two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solution modelling the fluid flow. This solution is used to study the flow both around a fixed cylinder and in a flexibly mounted one-degree-of-freedom system. It is found that the vortex-shedding process (in the low Reynolds number regime) is well described by the computer program, and that the vortex-induced vibration of the flexibly mounted section do reflect the typical dynamic characteristics of lock-in oscillations. However, the exact behaviour of the experimental results found in the literature was not reproduced. The response of the three-dimensional structural model is larger than the expected difference between a mode shape and a flexibly mounted section. This is due to the use of independent hydrodynamic sections along the cylinder. The predicted response is not unrealistic, and the method is considered a powerful tool. 221 refs., 138 figs., 36 tabs.

  6. Rewritable ferroelectric vortex pairs in BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Jin, Yaming; Lu, Xiaomei; Yang, Jan-Chi; Chu, Ying-Hao; Huang, Fengzhen; Zhu, Jinsong; Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2017-08-01

    Ferroelectric vortex in multiferroic materials has been considered as a promising alternative to current memory cells for the merit of high storage density. However, the formation of regular natural ferroelectric vortex is difficult, restricting the achievement of vortex memory device. Here, we demonstrated the creation of ferroelectric vortex-antivortex pairs in BiFeO3 thin films by using local electric field. The evolution of the polar vortex structure is studied by piezoresponse force microscopy at nanoscale. The results reveal that the patterns and stability of vortex structures are sensitive to the poling position. Consecutive writing and erasing processes cause no influence on the original domain configuration. The Z4 proper coloring vortex-antivortex network is then analyzed by graph theory, which verifies the rationality of artificial vortex-antivortex pairs. This study paves a foundation for artificial regulation of vortex, which provides a possible pathway for the design and realization of non-volatile vortex memory devices and logical devices.

  7. Computational investigation of the temperature separation in vortex chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anish, S.; Setoguchi, T.; Kim, H. D.

    2014-01-01

    The vortex chamber is a mechanical device, without any moving parts that separates compressed gas into a high temperature region and a low temperature region. Functionally vortex chamber is similar to a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube (RVHT), but it is a simpler and compact structure. The objective of the present study is to investigate computationally the physical reasoning behind the energy separation mechanism inside a vortex chamber. A computational analysis has been performed using three-dimensional compressible Navier Stokes equations. A fully implicit finite volume scheme was used to solve the governing equations. A commercial software ANSYS CFX is used for this purpose. The computational predictions were validated with existing experimental data. The results obtained show that the vortex chamber contains a large free vortex zone and a comparatively smaller forced vortex region. The physical mechanism that causes the heating towards periphery of the vortex chamber is identified as the work done by the viscous force. The cooling at the center may be due to expansion of the flow. The extent of temperature separation greatly depends on the outer diameter of the vortex chamber. A small amount of compression is observed towards the periphery of the vortex chamber when the outer diameter is reduced.

  8. Dynamically controlled energy dissipation for fast magnetic vortex switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, R.; Berezovsky, J.

    2017-09-01

    Manipulation of vortex states in magnetic media provides new routes towards information storage and processing technology. The typical slow relaxation times (˜100 ns) of magnetic vortex dynamics may present an obstacle to the realization of these applications. Here, we investigate how a vortex state in a ferromagnetic microdisk can be manipulated in a way that translates the vortex core while enhancing energy dissipation to rapidly damp the vortex dynamics. We use time-resolved differential magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy to measure the motion of the vortex core in response to applied magnetic fields. We first map out how the vortex core becomes sequentially trapped by pinning sites as it translates across the disk. After applying a fast magnetic field step to translate the vortex from one pinning site to another, we observe long-lived dynamics of the vortex as it settles to the new equilibrium. We then demonstrate how the addition of a short (<10 ns) magnetic field pulse can induce additional energy dissipation, strongly damping the long-lived dynamics. A model of the vortex dynamics using the Thiele equation of motion explains the mechanism behind this effect.

  9. Monodromy in the quantum spherical pendulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemin, V.; Uribe, A.

    1989-01-01

    In this article we show that monodromy in the quantum spherical pendulum can be interpreted as a Maslov effect: i.e. as multi-valuedness of a certain generating function of the quantum energy levels. (orig.)

  10. Transformation of Real Spherical Harmonics under Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Z.; Krukowski, St.; Jalbout, A. F.

    2008-08-01

    The algorithm rotating the real spherical harmonics is presented. The convenient and ready to use formulae for l = 0, 1, 2, 3 are listed. The rotation in R3 space is determined by the rotation axis and the rotation angle; the Euler angles are not used. The proposed algorithm consists of three steps. (i) Express the real spherical harmonics as the linear combination of canonical polynomials. (ii) Rotate the canonical polynomials. (iii) Express the rotated canonical polynomials as the linear combination of real spherical harmonics. Since the three step procedure can be treated as a superposition of rotations, the searched rotation matrix for real spherical harmonics is a product of three matrices. The explicit formulae of matrix elements are given for l = 0, 1, 2, 3, what corresponds to s, p, d, f atomic orbitals.

  11. Optical properties of spherical gold mesoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evlyukhin, A. B.; Kuznetsov, A. I.; Novikov, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Optical properties of spherical gold particles with diameters of 150-650 nm (mesoparticles) are studied by reflectance spectroscopy. Particles are fabricated by laser-induced transfer of metallic droplets onto metal and dielectric substrates. Contributions of higher multipoles (beyond...

  12. Spiral CT manifestations of spherical pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohong; Yang Hongwei; Xu Chunmin; Qin Xiu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the Spiral CT manifestations and differential diagnosis of spherical pneumonia. Methods: 18 cases of spherical pneumonia and 20 cases of peripheral pulmonary carcinoma were selected, both of them were confirmed by clinic and/or pathology. The SCT findings of both groups were compared retrospectively. Results: Main spiral CT findings of spherical pneumonia were showed as followings: square or triangular lesions adjacent to pleura; with irregular shape, blurry, slightly lobulated margin, sometimes with halo sign. Small inflammatory patches and intensified vascular markings around the lesions were seen. Lesions became smaller or vanished after short-term anti-inflammatory treatment. Conclusion: Spherical pneumonia showed some characteristics on Spiral CT scan, which are helpful in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this disease. (authors)

  13. FY 2006 Miniature Spherical Retroreflectors Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Krishnaswami, Kannan

    2006-12-28

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniature spherical retroreflectors using the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to reduce both performance limiting spherical aberrations. The optimized optical performance will provide efficient signal retroreflection that enables a broad range of remote detection scenarios for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. Miniature spherical retroreflectors can be developed to aid in the detection of signatures of nuclear proliferation or other chemical vapor or radiation signatures. Miniature spherical retroreflectors are not only well suited to traditional LIDAR methods for chemical plume detection and identification, but could enable remote detection of difficult semi-volatile chemical materials or low level radiation sources.

  14. Feasibility study for the Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, E.A.; Attenberger, S.E.; Baylor, L.R.

    1985-10-01

    The design of the Spherical Torus Experiment (STX) is discussed. The physics of the plasma are given in a magnetohydrodynamic model. The structural aspects and instrumentation of the device are described. 19 refs., 103 figs

  15. Deflection and trapping of a counter-rotating vortex pair by a flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Monika

    2017-12-01

    The interaction of a counter-rotating vortex pair (dipole) with a flat plate in its path is studied numerically. The vortices are initially separated by a distance D (dipole size) and placed far upstream of a plate of length L . The plate is centered on the dipole path and inclined relative to it at an incident angle βi. At first, the plate is held fixed in place. The vortices approach the plate, travel around it, and then leave as a dipole with unchanged velocity but generally a different travel direction, measured by a transmitted angle βt. For certain plate angles the transmitted angle is highly sensitive to changes in the incident angle. The sensitivity increases as the dipole size decreases relative to the plate length. In fact, for sufficiently small values of D /L , singularities appear: near critical values of βi, the dipole trajectory undergoes a topological discontinuity under changes of βi or D /L . The discontinuity is characterized by a jump in the winding number of one vortex around the plate, and in the time that the vortices take to leave the plate. The jumps occur repeatedly in a self-similar, fractal fashion, within a region near the critical values of βi, showing the existence of incident angles that trap the vortices, which never leave the plate. The number of these trapping regions increases as the parameter D /L decreases, and the dependence of the motion on βi becomes increasingly complex. The simulations thus show that even in this apparently simple scenario, the inviscid dynamics of a two-point-vortex system interacting with a stationary wall is surprisingly rich. The results are then applied to separate an incoming stream of dipoles by an oscillating plate.

  16. Effect of the Initial Vortex Size on Intensity Change in the WRF-ROMS Coupled Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Chan, Johnny C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the tropical cyclone (TC) induced sea surface temperature (SST) cooling strongly depends on the preexisting oceanic condition and TC characteristics. However, very few focused on the correlation of SST cooling and the subsequent intensity with TC size. Therefore, a series of idealized numerical experiments are conducted using the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) model to understand how the vortex size is related to SST cooling and subsequent intensity changes of a stationary TC-like vortex. In the uncoupled experiments, the radius of maximum wind (RMW) and size (radius of gale-force wind (R17)) both depend on the initial size within the 72 h simulation. The initially small vortex is smaller than the medium and large vortices throughout its life cycle and is the weakest. In other words, thermodynamic processes do not contribute as much to the R17 change as the dynamic processes proposed (e.g., angular momentum transport) in previous studies. In the coupled experiments, the area-averaged SST cooling induced by medium and large TCs within the inner-core region is comparable due to the similar surface winds and thus mixing in the ocean. Although a stronger SST cooling averaged within a larger region outside the inner-core is induced by the larger TC, the intensity of the larger TC is more intense. This is because that the enthalpy flux in the inner-core region is higher in the larger TC than that in the medium and small TCs.

  17. Wake reconfiguration downstream of an inclined flexible cylinder at the onset of vortex-induced vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguet, Remi; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Slender flexible cylinders immersed in flow are common in nature (e.g. plants and trees in wind) and in engineering applications, for example in the domain of offshore engineering, where risers and mooring lines are exposed to ocean currents. Vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) naturally develop when the cylinder is placed at normal incidence but they also appear when the body is inclined in the current, including at large angles. In a previous work concerning a flexible cylinder inclined at 80 degrees, we found that the occurrence of VIV is associated with a profound alteration of the flow dynamics: the wake exhibits a slanted vortex shedding pattern in the absence of vibration, while the vortices are shed parallel to the body once the large-amplitude VIV regime is reached. The present study aims at bridging the gap between these two extreme configurations. On the basis of direct numerical simulations, we explore the intermediate states of the flow-structure system. We identify two dominant components of the flow: a high-frequency component that relates to the stationary body wake and a low-frequency component synchronized with body motion. We show that the scenario of flow reconfiguration is driven by the opposite trends of these two component contributions.

  18. 3D Printing Electrically Small Spherical Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations.......3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations....

  19. Method of producing spherical lithium aluminate particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Medico, R.R.; Baugh, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Spherical particles of lithium aluminate are formed by initially producing aluminium hydroxide spheroids, and immersing the spheroids in a lithium ion-containing solution to infuse lithium ions into the spheroids. The lithium-infused spheroids are rinsed to remove excess lithium ion from the surface, and the rinsed spheroids are soaked for a period of time in a liquid medium, dried and sintered to form lithium aluminate spherical particles. (author)

  20. START: the creation of a spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, Alan

    1992-01-01

    The START (Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak) plasma fusion experiment is now operational at AEA Fusion's Culham Laboratory. It is the world's first experiment to explore an extreme limit of the tokamak - the Spherical Tokamak - which theoretical studies predict may have substantial advantages in the search for economic fusion power. The Head of the START project, describes the concept, some of the initial experimental results and the possibility of developing a spherical tokamak power reactor. (author)

  1. Ozone and water vapour in the austral polar stratospheric vortex and sub-vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Peet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In-situ measurements of ozone and water vapour, in the Antarctic lower stratosphere, were made as part of the APE-GAIA mission in September and October 1999. The measurements show a distinct difference above and below the 415K isentrope. Above 415K, the chemically perturbed region of low ozone and water vapour is clearly evident. Below 415K, but still above the tropopause, no sharp meridional gradients in ozone and water vapour were observed. The observations are consistent with analyses of potential vorticity from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, which show smaller radial gradients at 380K than at 450K potential temperature. Ozone loss in the chemically perturbed region above 415K averages 5ppbv per day for mid-September to mid-October. Apparent ozone loss rates in the sub-vortex region are greater, at 7ppbv per day. The data support, therefore, the existence of a sub-vortex region in which meridional transport is more efficient than in the vortex above. The low ozone mixing ratios in the sub-vortex region may be due to in-situ chemical destruction of ozone or transport of ozone-poor air out of the bottom of the vortex. The aircraft data we use cannot distinguish between these two processes. Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics polar meteorology – Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere–composition and chemistry

  2. Meissner effects, vortex core states, and the vortex glass phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ming.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis covers three topics involving Meissner effects and the resulting defect structures. The first is a study of Meissner effects in superconductivity and in systems with broken translational symmetry. The Meissner effect in the superconductors is a rigidity against external magnetic field caused by the breaking of the gauge symmetry. Other condensed matter systems also exhibit rigidities like this: The breaking of the translational symmetry in a cubic-liquid-crystal causes the system to expel twist deformations and the breaking of the translational symmetry in a nematic liquid crystal gives it a tendency to expel twist and bend deformations. In this thesis, the author studies these generalized Meissner effects in detail. The second is a study of the quasiparticle states bound to the vortex defect in superconductors. Scanning-tunneling-microscope measurements by Harald Hess et al. of the local density of states in a vortex core show a pronounced peak at small bias. These measurements contradict with previous theoretical calculations. Here, he solves the Bogoliubov equations to obtain the local density of states in the core and satisfactorily explain the experimental observations. He also predicted additional structure in the local density of states which were later observed in experiments. The third is a study of vortex dynamics in the presence of disorder. A mean field theory is developed for the recently proposed normal to superconducting vortex glass transition. Using techniques developed to study the critical dynamics of spin glasses, he calculates the mean field vortex glass phase boundary and the critical exponents

  3. Numerical study of the vortex tube reconnection using vortex particle method on many graphics cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudela, Henryk; Kosior, Andrzej

    2014-08-01

    Vortex Particle Methods are one of the most convenient ways of tracking the vorticity evolution. In the article we presented numerical recreation of the real life experiment concerning head-on collision of two vortex rings. In the experiment the evolution and reconnection of the vortex structures is tracked with passive markers (paint particles) which in viscous fluid does not follow the evolution of vorticity field. In numerical computations we showed the difference between vorticity evolution and movement of passive markers. The agreement with the experiment was very good. Due to problems with very long time of computations on a single processor the Vortex-in-Cell method was implemented on the multicore architecture of the graphics cards (GPUs). Vortex Particle Methods are very well suited for parallel computations. As there are myriads of particles in the flow and for each of them the same equations of motion have to be solved the SIMD architecture used in GPUs seems to be perfect. The main disadvantage in this case is the small amount of the RAM memory. To overcome this problem we created a multiGPU implementation of the VIC method. Some remarks on parallel computing are given in the article.

  4. Numerical study of the vortex tube reconnection using vortex particle method on many graphics cards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudela, Henryk; Kosior, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Vortex Particle Methods are one of the most convenient ways of tracking the vorticity evolution. In the article we presented numerical recreation of the real life experiment concerning head-on collision of two vortex rings. In the experiment the evolution and reconnection of the vortex structures is tracked with passive markers (paint particles) which in viscous fluid does not follow the evolution of vorticity field. In numerical computations we showed the difference between vorticity evolution and movement of passive markers. The agreement with the experiment was very good. Due to problems with very long time of computations on a single processor the Vortex-in-Cell method was implemented on the multicore architecture of the graphics cards (GPUs). Vortex Particle Methods are very well suited for parallel computations. As there are myriads of particles in the flow and for each of them the same equations of motion have to be solved the SIMD architecture used in GPUs seems to be perfect. The main disadvantage in this case is the small amount of the RAM memory. To overcome this problem we created a multiGPU implementation of the VIC method. Some remarks on parallel computing are given in the article.

  5. Spherical cows in dark matter indirect detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, Nicolás [Centro de Investigaciones, Universidad Antonio Nariño, Cra 3 Este # 47A-15, Bogotá (Colombia); Necib, Lina; Slatyer, Tracy R., E-mail: nicolas.bernal@uan.edu.co, E-mail: lnecib@mit.edu, E-mail: tslatyer@mit.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Dark matter (DM) halos have long been known to be triaxial, but in studies of possible annihilation and decay signals they are often treated as approximately spherical. In this work, we examine the asymmetry of potential indirect detection signals of DM annihilation and decay, exploiting the large statistics of the hydrodynamic simulation Illustris. We carefully investigate the effects of the baryons on the sphericity of annihilation and decay signals for both the case where the observer is at 8.5 kpc from the center of the halo (exemplified in the case of Milky Way-like halos), and for an observer situated well outside the halo. In the case of Galactic signals, we find that both annihilation and decay signals are expected to be quite symmetric, with axis ratios very different from 1 occurring rarely. In the case of extragalactic signals, while decay signals are still preferentially spherical, the axis ratio for annihilation signals has a much flatter distribution, with elongated profiles appearing frequently. Many of these elongated profiles are due to large subhalos and/or recent mergers. Comparing to gamma-ray emission from the Milky Way and X-ray maps of clusters, we find that the gamma-ray background appears less spherical/more elongated than the expected DM signal from the large majority of halos, and the Galactic gamma ray excess appears very spherical, while the X-ray data would be difficult to distinguish from a DM signal by elongation/sphericity measurements alone.

  6. Strings, vortex rings, and modes of instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven S. Gubser

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We treat string propagation and interaction in the presence of a background Neveu–Schwarz three-form field strength, suitable for describing vortex rings in a superfluid or low-viscosity normal fluid. A circular vortex ring exhibits instabilities which have been recognized for many years, but whose precise boundaries we determine for the first time analytically in the small core limit. Two circular vortices colliding head-on exhibit stronger instabilities which cause splitting into many small vortices at late times. We provide an approximate analytic treatment of these instabilities and show that the most unstable wavelength is parametrically larger than a dynamically generated length scale which in many hydrodynamic systems is close to the cutoff. We also summarize how the string construction we discuss can be derived from the Gross–Pitaevskii Lagrangian, and also how it compares to the action for giant gravitons.

  7. Vortex sheet approximation of boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorin, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    a grid free method for approximating incomprssible boundary layers is introduced. The computational elements are segments of vortex sheets. The method is related to the earlier vortex method; simplicity is achieved at the cost of replacing the Navier-Stokes equations by the Prandtl boundary layer equations. A new method for generating vorticity at boundaries is also presented; it can be used with the earlier voartex method. The applications presented include (i) flat plate problems, and (ii) a flow problem in a model cylinder- piston assembly, where the new method is used near walls and an improved version of the random choice method is used in the interior. One of the attractive features of the new method is the ease with which it can be incorporated into hybrid algorithms

  8. Spectroscopy of fractional Josephson vortex molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldobin, Edward; Gaber, Tobias; Buckenmaier, Kai; Kienzle, Uta; Sickinger, Hanna; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [Physikalisches Institut - Experimentalphysik II, Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Using tiny current injectors we create {kappa} discontinuities of the Josephson phase in a long Josephson junction. The junction reacts at the discontinuities by creating fractional Josephson vortices of size {lambda}{sub J} pinned at them. Such vortices carry the flux {phi}, which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}{approx}2.07 x 10{sup -15} Wb. Being pinned, a fractional vortex has an eigenfrequency (localized mode), which depends on {kappa} and applied bias current, and which lays within the plasma gap. If one considers a molecule consisting of several coupled fractional vortices, the eigenfrequency will split into several modes. We report on spectroscopy of a fractional vortex molecule performed in the thermal regime.

  9. Three-Phased Wake Vortex Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; Switzer, George S.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed parametric study is conducted that examines vortex decay within turbulent and stratified atmospheres. The study uses a large eddy simulation model to simulate the out-of-ground effect behavior of wake vortices due to their interaction with atmospheric turbulence and thermal stratification. This paper presents results from a parametric investigation and suggests improvements for existing fast-time wake prediction models. This paper also describes a three-phased decay for wake vortices. The third phase is characterized by a relatively slow rate of circulation decay, and is associated with the ringvortex stage that occurs following vortex linking. The three-phased decay is most prevalent for wakes imbedded within environments having low-turbulence and near-neutral stratification.

  10. Vortex Generators to Control Boundary Layer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinsky, Holger (Inventor); Loth, Eric (Inventor); Lee, Sang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Devices for generating streamwise vorticity in a boundary includes various forms of vortex generators. One form of a split-ramp vortex generator includes a first ramp element and a second ramp element with front ends and back ends, ramp surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends, and vertical surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends adjacent the ramp surfaces. A flow channel is between the first ramp element and the second ramp element. The back ends of the ramp elements have a height greater than a height of the front ends, and the front ends of the ramp elements have a width greater than a width of the back ends.

  11. Dipolar vortex structures in magnetized rotating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jixing

    1990-01-01

    Dipolar solitary vortices of both electrostatic and electromagnetic character in low-β, in homogeneous rotating plasma confined in a constant external magnetic field were systematically presented. The main stimulus to this investigation is the expectation to apply this coherent structure as a candidate constituent of plasma turbulance to understand the anomalous transport phenomena in confined plasma. The electrostatic vortices have similar structure and properties as the Rossby vortices in rotating fluids, the electromagnetic vortices obtained here have no analogy in hydrodynamics and hence are intrinsic to magnetized plasma. It is valuably remarked that the intrinsic electromagnetic vortices presented here have no discontinuity of perturbed magnetic field δB and parallel current j(parallel) on the border of vortex core. The existence region of the new type of vortex is found much narrower than the Rossby type one. (M.T.)

  12. Supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    An extensive computational study of supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex breakdown in a configured circular duct is presented. The unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are used. The NS equations are solved for the quasi-axisymmetric flows using an implicit, upwind, flux difference splitting, finite volume scheme. The quasi-axisymmetric solutions are time accurate and are obtained by forcing the components of the flowfield vector to be equal on two axial planes, which are in close proximity of each other. The effect of Reynolds number, for laminar flows, on the evolution and persistence of vortex breakdown, is studied. Finally, the effect of swirl ration at the duct inlet is investigated.

  13. ''Soft'' Anharmonic Vortex Glass in Ferromagnetic Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radzihovsky, Leo; Ettouhami, A. M.; Saunders, Karl; Toner, John

    2001-01-01

    Ferromagnetic order in superconductors can induce a spontaneous vortex (SV) state. For external field H=0 , rotational symmetry guarantees a vanishing tilt modulus of the SV solid, leading to drastically different behavior than that of a conventional, external-field-induced vortex solid. We show that quenched disorder and anharmoinc effects lead to elastic moduli that are wave-vector dependent out to arbitrarily long length scales, and non-Hookean elasticity. The latter implies that for weak external fields H , the magnetic induction scales universally like B(H)∼B(0)+cH α , with α∼0.72 . For weak disorder, we predict the SV solid is a topologically ordered glass, in the ''columnar elastic glass'' universality class

  14. Coherent vortex structures in fluids and plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Tur, Anatoli

    2017-01-01

    This monograph introduces readers to the hydrodynamics of vortex formation, and reviews the last decade of active research in the field, offering a unique focus on research topics at the crossroads of traditional fluids and plasmas. Vortices are responsible for the process of macroscopic transport of momentum, energy and mass, and are formed as the result of spontaneous self-organization. Playing an important role in nature and technology, localized, coherent vortices are regularly observed in shear flows, submerged jets, afterbody flows and in atmospheric boundary layers, sometimes taking on the form of vortex streets. In addition, the book addresses a number of open issues, including but not limited to: which singularities are permitted in a 2D Euler equation besides point vortices? Which other, even more complex, localized vortices could be contained in the Euler equation? How do point vortices interact with potential waves?

  15. Dynamics and Instabilities of Vortex Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leweke, Thomas; Le Dizès, Stéphane; Williamson, Charles H. K.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the characteristics and behavior of counter-rotating and corotating vortex pairs, which are seemingly simple flow configurations yet immensely rich in phenomena. Since the reviews in this journal by Widnall (1975) and Spalart (1998) , who studied the fundamental structure and dynamics of vortices and airplane trailing vortices, respectively, there have been many analytical, computational, and experimental studies of vortex pair flows. We discuss two-dimensional dynamics, including the merging of same-sign vortices and the interaction with the mutually induced strain, as well as three-dimensional displacement and core instabilities resulting from this interaction. Flows subject to combined instabilities are also considered, in particular the impingement of opposite-sign vortices on a ground plane. We emphasize the physical mechanisms responsible for the flow phenomena and clearly present the key results that are useful to the reader for predicting the dynamics and instabilities of parallel vortices.

  16. Vortex dynamics in superconducting transition edge sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, S.; Maehata, K.; Iyomoto, N.; Asano, T.; Shinozaki, B.

    2018-02-01

    The temperature dependence of the electrical resistance (R-T) and the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics has been measured and analyzed in a 40 nm thick Ti thin film, which is used as a transition edge sensor (TES). The analyses of the I-V characteristics with the vortex-antivortex pair dissociation model indicate the possible existence of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition in two-dimensional superconducting Ti thin films. We investigated the noise due to the vortices' flow in TESs. The values of the current noise spectral density in the TESs were estimated by employing the vortex dynamics caused by the BKT transition in the Ti thin films. The estimated values of the current noise spectral density induced by the vortices' flow were in respectable agreement with the values of excess noise experimentally observed in the TESs with Ti/Au bilayer.

  17. Statistical behaviour of optical vortex fields

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available ) Density limitation→ effective profile for point vortex (remove evanescent field) . – p.10/37 Scintillated optical beams Optical beam in a turbulent atmosphere: → index variations cause random phase modulations → leads to distortion of the optical beam.... Weak scintillation→ continuous phase distortions that can be corrected by an adaptive optical system: Wavefront sensor Beam splitter Scintillated beam Corrected beam Deformable mirror Control signal . – p.11/37 Strong scintillation Strong scintillation...

  18. A nonabelian particle–vortex duality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Murugan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We define a nonabelian particle–vortex duality as a 3-dimensional analogue of the usual 2-dimensional worldsheet nonabelian T-duality. The transformation is defined in the presence of a global SU(2 symmetry and, although derived from a string theoretic setting, we formulate it generally. We then apply it to so-called “semilocal strings” in an SU(2G×U(1L gauge theory, originally discovered in the context of cosmic string physics.

  19. Quantum vortex fluid in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    It is argued that in two dimensions the high-field zero-temperature phase of a type-II superconductor can be quantum vortex fluid. The average intervortex spacing in this phase takes discrete values, leading to macroscopic steps in the total flux through the superconductor on the applied magnetic field. In the absence of dissipation, the Hall conductivity is quantized in units of 4e 2 /πℎ

  20. X-29 vortex flow control tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Regis; Fullerton, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    A joint Air Force/NASA X-29 aircraft program to improve yaw control at high angle of attack using vortex flow control (VFC) is described. Directional VFC blowing proved to a be a powerful yaw moment generator and was very effective in overriding natural asymmetries, but was essentially ineffective in suppressing wing rock. Symmetric aft blowing also had little effect on suppressing wing rock.

  1. Three-dimensional simulation of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvila, G.; Salas, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    The integral form of the complete, unsteady, compressible, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the conservation form, cast in generalized coordinate system, are solved, numerically, to simulate the vortex breakdown phenomenon. The inviscid fluxes are discretized using Roe's upwind-biased flux-difference splitting scheme and the viscous fluxes are discretized using central differencing. Time integration is performed using a backward Euler ADI (alternating direction implicit) scheme. A full approximation multigrid is used to accelerate the convergence to steady state.

  2. Numerical investigation of tip leakage vortex

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksen, Vegard

    2017-01-01

    The Kaplan turbine has a small clearance gap between the blade tip and casing to allow the blades to rotate freely. This clearance gap is the cause of an undesirable Tip Leakage Vortex (TLV). A TLV might reduce the turbine efficiency, erode the turbine blades or cause instabilities for the power output. A literature study indicated that the tip clearance gap was a critical parameter affecting the behavior of the TLV. A research gap was observed for an operating Kaplan turbine where the ...

  3. Vortex induced vibrations in gapped restrainted pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, P. de A.A.; Loula, A.F.D.

    1984-01-01

    The vortex induced vibration problem of gapped restrained piping is solved numerically. The model proposed by Skop-Griffin is used to describe the pipe-fluid interaction. The variational formulation is obtained modeling the gapped restraints as non-linear elastic springs. The regularized problem is solved using a finite element discretization for the spatial domain. In the time domain a finite difference discretization is used for the lift coefficient equatin and a Newmark discretization for the equation of motion. (Author) [pt

  4. Vortex formation during rf heating of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motley, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on a test plasma show that the linear theory of waveguide coupling to slow plasma waves begins to break down if the rf power flux exceeds approx. 30 W/cm 2 . Probe measurements reveal that within 30 μs an undulation appears in the surface plasma near the mouth of the twin waveguide. This surface readjustment is part of a vortex, or off-center convective cell, driven by asymmetric rf heating of the plasma column

  5. Stationary and non-stationary extreme value modeling of extreme temperature in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Husna; Salleh, Nur Hanim Mohd; Kassim, Suraiya

    2014-09-01

    Extreme annual temperature of eighteen stations in Malaysia is fitted to the Generalized Extreme Value distribution. Stationary and non-stationary models with trend are considered for each station and the Likelihood Ratio test is used to determine the best-fitting model. Results show that three out of eighteen stations i.e. Bayan Lepas, Labuan and Subang favor a model which is linear in the location parameter. A hierarchical cluster analysis is employed to investigate the existence of similar behavior among the stations. Three distinct clusters are found in which one of them consists of the stations that favor the non-stationary model. T-year estimated return levels of the extreme temperature are provided based on the chosen models.

  6. On the submerging of a spherical intruder into granular beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chuan-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular materials are complex systems and their mechanical behaviours are determined by the material properties of individual particles, the interaction between particles and the surrounding media, which are still incompletely understood. Using an advanced discrete element method (DEM, we simulate the submerging process of a spherical projectile (an intruder into granular materials of various properties with a zero penetration velocity (i.e. the intruder is touching the top surface of the granular bed and released from stationary and examine its settling behaviour. By systematically changing the density and size of the intruder and the particle density (i.e. the density of the particles in the granular bed, we find that the intruder can sink deep into the granular bed even with a zero penetration velocity. Furthermore, we confirm that under certain conditions the granular bed can behave like a Newtonian liquid and the submerging intruder can reach a constant velocity, i.e. the terminal velocity, identical to the settling of a sphere in a liquid, as observed experimentally. A mathematical model is also developed to predict the maximum penetration depth of the intruder. The model predictions are compared with experimental data reported in the literature,good agreement was obtained, demonstrating the model can accurately predict the submerging behaviour of the intruder in the granular media.

  7. Vortex Lattices in the Bose-Fermi Superfluid Mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuzhu; Qi, Ran; Shi, Zhe-Yu; Zhai, Hui

    2017-02-24

    In this Letter we show that the vortex lattice structure in the Bose-Fermi superfluid mixture can undergo a sequence of structure transitions when the Fermi superfluid is tuned from the BCS regime to the BEC regime. This is due to the difference in the vortex core structure of a Fermi superfluid in the BCS regime and in the BEC regime. In the BCS regime the vortex core is nearly filled, while the density at the vortex core gradually decreases until it empties out in the BEC regime. Therefore, with the density-density interaction between the Bose and the Fermi superfluids, interaction between the two sets of vortex lattices gets stronger in the BEC regime, which yields the structure transition of vortex lattices. In view of the recent realization of this superfluid mixture and vortices therein, our theoretical predication can be verified experimentally in the near future.

  8. Vortex-line fluctuations in model high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Teitel, S.

    1993-01-01

    We carry out Monte Carlo simulations of the uniformly frustrated three-dimensional XY model, as a model for vortex-line fluctuations in a high-T c superconductor in an external magnetic field. A density of vortex lines of f=1/25 is considered. We find two sharp phase transitions. The low-T superconducting phase is an ordered vortex-line lattice. The high-T normal phase is a vortex-line liquid, with much entangling, cutting, and loop excitations. An intermediate phase is found, which is characterized as a vortex-line liquid of disentangled, approximately straight, lines. In this phase, the system displays superconducting properties in the direction parallel to the magnetic field, but normal behavior in planes perpendicular to the field. A detailed analysis of the vortex structure function is carried out

  9. Origin and dynamics of vortex rings in drop splashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji San; Park, Su Ji; Lee, Jun Ho; Weon, Byung Mook; Fezzaa, Kamel; Je, Jung Ho

    2015-09-04

    A vortex is a flow phenomenon that is very commonly observed in nature. More than a century, a vortex ring that forms during drop splashing has caught the attention of many scientists due to its importance in understanding fluid mixing and mass transport processes. However, the origin of the vortices and their dynamics remain unclear, mostly due to the lack of appropriate visualization methods. Here, with ultrafast X-ray phase-contrast imaging, we show that the formation of vortex rings originates from the energy transfer by capillary waves generated at the moment of the drop impact. Interestingly, we find a row of vortex rings along the drop wall, as demonstrated by a phase diagram established here, with different power-law dependencies of the angular velocities on the Reynolds number. These results provide important insight that allows understanding and modelling any type of vortex rings in nature, beyond just vortex rings during drop splashing.

  10. Square vortex lattice in p-wave superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, J.

    1999-01-01

    Making use of the Ginzburg Landau equation for isotropic p-wave superconductors, we construct the single vortex solution in part analytically. The fourfold symmetry breaking term arising from the tetragonal symmetry distortion of the Fermi surface is crucial, since this term indicates a fourfold distortion of the vortex core somewhat similar to the one found in d-wave superconductors. This fourfold distortion of the vortex core in turn favors the square vortex lattice as observed recently by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiment from Sr 2 RuO 4 . We find that the hexagonal vortex lattice at H = H c1 transforms into the square one for H = H cr = 0.26 H c2 . On the other hand the SANS data does not reveal such transition. The square vortex covers everywhere studied by the SANS implying H cr is very close to H c1 . Therefore some improvement in the present model is certainly desirable. (orig.)

  11. Vortex Dynamics of Asymmetric Heave Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Curtis; Maurer, Benjamin; Polagye, Brian

    2017-11-01

    Heave plates can be used to provide reaction forces for wave energy converters, which harness the power in ocean surface waves to produce electricity. Heave plate inertia includes both the static mass of the heave plate, as well as the ``added mass'' of surrounding water accelerated with the object. Heave plate geometries may be symmetric or asymmetric, with interest in asymmetric designs driven by the resulting hydrodynamic asymmetry. Limited flow visualization has been previously conducted on symmetric heave plates, but flow visualization of asymmetric designs is needed to understand the origin of observed hydrodynamic asymmetries and their dependence on the Keulegan-Carpenter number. For example, it is hypothesized that the time-varying added mass of asymmetric heave plates is caused by vortex shedding, which is related to oscillation amplitude. Here, using direct flow visualization, we explore the relationship between vortex dynamics and time-varying added mass and drag. These results suggest potential pathways for more advanced heave plate designs that can exploit vortex formation and shedding to achieve more favorable hydrodynamic properties for wave energy converters.

  12. Vortex jamming in superconductors and granular rheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Hajime; Nogawa, Tomoaki; Kim, Bongsoo

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that a highly frustrated anisotropic Josephson junction array (JJA) on a square lattice exhibits a zero-temperature jamming transition, which shares much in common with those in granular systems. Anisotropy of the Josephson couplings along the horizontal and vertical directions plays roles similar to normal load or density in granular systems. We studied numerically static and dynamic response of the system against shear, i.e. injection of external electric current at zero temperature. Current-voltage curves at various strength of the anisotropy exhibit universal scaling features around the jamming point much as do the flow curves in granular rheology, shear-stress versus shear-rate. It turns out that at zero temperature the jamming transition occurs right at the isotropic coupling and anisotropic JJA behaves as exotic fragile vortex matter: it behaves as a superconductor (vortex glass) in one direction, whereas it is a normal conductor (vortex liquid) in the other direction even at zero temperature. Furthermore, we find a variant of the theoretical model for the anisotropic JJA quantitatively reproduces universal master flow-curves of the granular systems. Our results suggest an unexpected common paradigm stretching over seemingly unrelated fields-the rheology of soft materials and superconductivity.

  13. Nonlinear tearing mode and vortex chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, D.; Vranjes, J.

    1996-01-01

    We study the nonlinear stage of a tearing mode, whose island width exceeds the tearing layer thickness, and the wavelength is of the order of collisionless skin depth. A coherent solution is found in the form of a moving vortex chain. It is the result of a self-organization process, which adjusts the profile of the sheared poloidal magnetic field and excites a localized perpendicular sheared plasma flow, consisting of three counterstreaming jets. A numerical solution shows a twin chain of plasma vortices, coupled with a single chain of magnetic islands, whose width is of the order of collisionless skin depth. Adiabatic evolution of the vortex chain in the presence of small viscosity reveals its finite lifetime. The chain destruction may occur either directly, or through a sequence of bifurcations (corresponding to abrupt changes of the vortex chain parameters) to magnetic field stochastization within a layer of the collisionless skin depth scale, which occurs before the magnetic island overlapping takes place. This provides a new mechanism for the anomalous transport. (orig.)

  14. Monopole-antimonopole and vortex rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, Rosy; Wong, Khai-Ming

    2005-01-01

    The SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory supports the existence of monopoles, antimonopoles, and vortex rings. In this paper, we would like to present new exact static antimonopole-monopole-antimonopole (A-M-A) configurations. The net magnetic charge of these configurations is always -1, while the net magnetic charge at the origin is always +1 for all positive integer values of the solution's parameter m. However, when m increases beyond 1, vortex rings appear coexisting with these AMA configurations. The number of vortex rings increases proportionally with the value of m. They are located in space where the Higgs field vanishes along rings. We also show that a single-point singularity in the Higgs field does not necessarily correspond to a structureless 1-monopole at the origin but to a zero-size monopole-antimonopole-monopole (MAM) structure when the solution's parameter m is odd. This monopole is the Wu-Yang-type monopole and it possesses the Dirac string potential in the Abelian gauge. These exact solutions are a different kind of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) solutions as they satisfy the first-order Bogomol'nyi equation but possess infinite energy due to a point singularity at the origin of the coordinate axes. They are all axially symmetrical about the z-axis

  15. From vortex reconnections to quantum turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipniacki, T.

    2001-01-01

    An alternative approach to quantum turbulence is proposed in order to derive the evolution equation for vortex line-length density. Special attention is paid to reconnections of vortex lines. The summed line-length change ΔS of two vortex lines resulting from the reconnection (in the presence of counterflow V ns ) can be approximated in the form: δS=-at 1/2 +bV ns 2 t 3/2 , with a>0, b≥0, at least until δS≤0. For steady-state turbulence, the average line-length change left angle ΔS right angle between reconnections has to be zero. If, for a given value of the counterflow, the line density is smaller than the equilibrium one, the reconnections occur less frequently and left angle ΔS right angle becomes positive and the line density grows until the equilibrium is restored. When the line-density is too large, the reconnections are more frequent, the lines shorten between reconnections and the line density gets smaller. The time derivative of the total line density is proportional to the reconnection frequency multiplied by the average line-length change due to a single reconnection. The evolution equation obtained in the proposed approach resembles the alternative Vinen equation. (orig.)

  16. Preparation and Optical Properties of Spherical Inverse Opals by Liquid Phase Deposition Using Spherical Colloidal Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoi, Y; Tominaga, T

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) inverse opals in spherical shape were prepared by liquid phase deposition (LPD) using spherical colloidal crystals as templates. Spherical colloidal crystals were produced by ink-jet drying technique. Aqueous emulsion droplets that contain polystyrene latex particles were ejected into air and dried. Closely packed colloidal crystals with spherical shape were obtained. The obtained spherical colloidal crystals were used as templates for the LPD. The templates were dispersed in the deposition solution of the LPD, i.e. a mixed solution of ammonium hexafluorotitanate and boric acid and reacted for 4 h at 30 °C. After the LPD process, the interstitial spaces of the spherical colloidal crystals were completely filled with titanium oxide. Subsequent heat treatment resulted in removal of templates and spherical titanium dioxide inverse opals. The spherical shape of the template was retained. SEM observations indicated that the periodic ordered voids were surrounded by titanium dioxide. The optical reflectance spectra indicated that the optical properties of the spherical titanium dioxide inverse opals were due to Bragg diffractions from the ordered structure. Filling in the voids of the inverse opals with different solvents caused remarkable changes in the reflectance peak.

  17. The Vortex and the Line: Performative Gestures in Allen Ginsberg's ‘Wichita Vortex Sutra’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    and their identity politics… Queering the straight lines of Modernism, Allen Ginsberg suggests in his long poem about America and the Vietnam War, ‘Wichita Vortex Sutra’, that lying media discourses and corrupt political and military statements about the necessity of participation in the war may be cancelled out...... by a poet performing the simple, yet impossible speech act of declaring the end of the war, and in doing so queering the original declaratory speech act of the executive power. The poet must enter intrepidly the vortex of lies told by the voices disseminated by the media on behalf of politicians, authority...... to provide the reader of the Sutra with the possibility of Enlightenment. While the poet may be forced to travel along straight lines to penetrate the vortex, he should at any given opportunity queer these lines as much as possible....

  18. Criterion for vortex breakdown on shock wave and streamwise vortex interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiejima, Toshihiko

    2014-05-01

    The interactions between supersonic streamwise vortices and oblique shock waves are theoretically and numerically investigated by three-dimensional (3D) Navier-Stokes equations. Based on the two inequalities, a criterion for shock-induced breakdown of the streamwise vortex is proposed. The simple breakdown condition depends on the Mach number, the swirl number, the velocity deficit, and the shock angle. According to the proposed criterion, the breakdown region expands as the Mach number increases. In numerical simulations, vortex breakdown appeared under conditions of multiple pressure increases and the helicity disappeared behind the oblique shock wave along the line of the vortex center. The numerical results are consistent with the predicted breakdown condition at Mach numbers 2.0 and 3.0. This study also found that the axial velocity deficit is important for classifying the breakdown configuration.

  19. Vorticity budget of a tornado-like vortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassa, Koji; Takemura, Saki, E-mail: sassa@kochi-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Science, Kochi University (Japan)

    2011-12-22

    We evaluated the vorticity budget of a tornado-like vortex by measuring vertical and horizontal circulations of it. Though spiral horizontal vortices are clearly observed to converge and tilted into the tornado-like vortex, their circulation is quite small. The conversion of the vertical vorticity concentrated at the side of the spiral horizontal vortices was found to mainly contribute to the maintenance of the tornado-like vortex.

  20. Controlling vortex chirality and polarity by geometry in magnetic nanodots

    OpenAIRE

    Agramunt Puig, Sebastià

    2014-01-01

    The independent control of both vortex chirality and polarity is a significant challenge in magnetic devices based on nano-sized magnetic vortex structures. By micromagnetic simulations here, we show that in soft ferromagnetic nanodots with an adequate modulated thickness, the desired combination of chirality and polarity can be achieved just by changing the direction of the in-plane applied magnetic field. Despite the complex behavior, the vortex chirality and polarity control can be summari...

  1. Electromagnetic Radiation from Vortex Flow in Type-II Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulaevskii, L. N.; Chudnovsky, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We show that a moving vortex lattice, as it comes to a crystal edge, radiates into a free space the harmonics of the washboard frequency, ω 0 =2πv/a, up to a superconducting gap, Δ/(ℎ/2π). Here v is the velocity of the vortex lattice and a is the intervortex spacing. We compute radiation power and show that this effect can be used for the generation of terahertz radiation and for characterization of moving vortex lattices

  2. Electromagnetic radiation from vortex flow in type-II superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Bulaevskii, L. N.; Chudnovsky, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We show that a moving vortex lattice, as it comes to a crystal edge, radiates into a free space the harmonics of the washboard frequency, $\\omega_0=2\\pi v/a$, up to a superconducting gap, $\\Delta/\\hbar$. Here $v$ is the velocity of the vortex lattice and $a$ is the intervortex spacing. We compute radiation power and show that this effect can be used for generation of terahertz radiation and for characterization of moving vortex lattices.

  3. Statistics of optical vortex wander on propagation through atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yalong

    2013-04-01

    The transverse position of an optical vortex on propagation through atmospheric turbulence is studied. The probability density of the optical vortex position on a transverse plane in the atmosphere is formulated in weak turbulence by using the Born approximation. With these formulas, the effect of aperture averaging on topological charge detection is investigated. These results provide quantitative guidelines for the design of an optimal detector of topological charge, which has potential application in optical vortex communication systems.

  4. Reactive Flow Control of Delta Wing Vortex (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    wing aircraft. A substantial amount of research has been dedicated to the control of aerodynamic flows using both passive and active control mechanisms...Passive vortex control devices such as vortex generators and winglets attach to the wing and require no energy input. Passive vortex control...leading edges is also effective for changing the aerodynamic characteristics of delta wings [2] [3]. Gutmark and Guillot [5] proposed controlling

  5. Numerical simulation and physical aspects of supersonic vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.; Kandil, O. A.; Kandil, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    Existing numerical simulations and physical aspects of subsonic and supersonic vortex-breakdown modes are reviewed. The solution to the problem of supersonic vortex breakdown is emphasized in this paper and carried out with the full Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flows. Numerical simulations of vortex-breakdown modes are presented in bounded and unbounded domains. The effects of different types of downstream-exit boundary conditions are studied and discussed.

  6. Z2 vortex strings in grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, D.; Turok, N.

    1982-01-01

    Spontaneously broken gauge theories may display distinct vortex string solutions for the disconnected components of the exact gauge symmetry group. A type of Higgs mechanism thought to apply in grand unified theories as being responsible for fermion masses yields Z 2 vortex lines, irrespectively of the group. These could seed galaxy formation if the corresponding fermion masses are superheavy. More generally a Higgs mechanism producing Zsub(n) vortex strings is presented. (orig.)

  7. Vortex (particle) and antivortex (hole) doping into superconducting network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Takekazu; Shimizu, Makoto; Matsushima, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Masahiko; Ebisawa, Hiromichi; Sato, Osamu; Kato, Masaru; Satoh, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    Superconducting finite-sized Pb square networks with 10 x 10 square holes fabricated by electron beam lithography have been investigated in view of particle (vortex) doping into superconducting networks. Vortex image observations were carried out by a SQUID microscope to compare with predictions from the Ginzburg-Landau theory. We found the exactly reversed pattern between the vortex-doping x and the antivortex doping 1 - x into the fully occupied network (x = 1/4)

  8. Localization and stationary phase approximation on supermanifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharevich, Valentin

    2017-08-01

    Given an odd vector field Q on a supermanifold M and a Q-invariant density μ on M, under certain compactness conditions on Q, the value of the integral ∫Mμ is determined by the value of μ on any neighborhood of the vanishing locus N of Q. We present a formula for the integral in the case where N is a subsupermanifold which is appropriately non-degenerate with respect to Q. In the process, we discuss the linear algebra necessary to express our result in a coordinate independent way. We also extend the stationary phase approximation and the Morse-Bott lemma to supermanifolds.

  9. Non-stationary compositions of Anosov diffeomorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenlund, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by non-equilibrium phenomena in nature, we study dynamical systems whose time-evolution is determined by non-stationary compositions of chaotic maps. The constituent maps are topologically transitive Anosov diffeomorphisms on a two-dimensional compact Riemannian manifold, which are allowed to change with time—slowly, but in a rather arbitrary fashion. In particular, such systems admit no invariant measure. By constructing a coupling, we prove that any two sufficiently regular distributions of the initial state converge exponentially with time. Thus, a system of this kind loses memory of its statistical history rapidly

  10. Stationary stochastic processes for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Lindgren, Georg; Sandsten, Maria

    2013-01-01

    ""This book is designed for a first course in stationary stochastic processes in science and engineering and does a very good job in introducing many concepts and ideas to students in these fields. … the book has probably been tested in the classroom many times, which also manifests itself in its virtual lack of typos. … Another great feature of the book is that it contains a wealth of worked example from many different fields. These help clarify concepts and theorems and I believe students will appreciate them-I certainly did. … The book is well suited for a one-semester course as it contains

  11. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heusler Markus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has increased in an unexpected way during the last decade. In particular, it has turned out that not all black hole equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black hole space-times ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some of the recent developments and to discuss them in the light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  12. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr T. Chruściel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  13. Population inversion in a stationary recombining plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, M.

    1980-01-01

    Population inversion, which occurs in a recombining plasma when a stationary He plasma is brought into contact with a neutral gas, is examined. With hydrogen as a contact gas, noticeable inversion between low-lying levels of H as been found. The overpopulation density is of the order of 10 8 cm -3 , which is much higher then that (approx. =10 5 cm -3 ) obtained previously with He as a contact gas. Relations between these experimental results and the conditions for population inversion are discussed with the CR model

  14. Wake Vortex Inverse Model User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, David; Delisi, Donald

    2008-01-01

    NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an inverse model for inverting landing aircraft vortex data. The data used for the inversion are the time evolution of the lateral transport position and vertical position of both the port and starboard vortices. The inverse model performs iterative forward model runs using various estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Forward model predictions of lateral transport and altitude are then compared with the observed data. Differences between the data and model predictions guide the choice of vortex parameter values, crosswind profile and circulation evolution in the next iteration. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Currently, the inverse model is set to stop when the improvement in the rms deviation between the data and model predictions is less than 1 percent for two consecutive iterations. The forward model used in this inverse model is a modified version of the Shear-APA model. A detailed description of this forward model, the inverse model, and its validation are presented in a different report (Lai, Mellman, Robins, and Delisi, 2007). This document is a User's Guide for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model. Section 2 presents an overview of the inverse model program. Execution of the inverse model is described in Section 3. When executing the inverse model, a user is requested to provide the name of an input file which contains the inverse model parameters, the various datasets, and directories needed for the inversion. A detailed description of the list of parameters in the inversion input file is presented in Section 4. A user has an option to save the inversion results of each lidar track in a mat-file (a condensed data file in Matlab format). These saved mat-files can be used for post-inversion analysis. A description of the contents of the saved files is given in Section 5. An example of an inversion input

  15. Preliminary Dynamic Feasibility and Analysis of a Spherical, Wind-Driven (Tumbleweed), Martian Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flick, John J.; Toniolo, Matthew D.

    2005-01-01

    The process and findings are presented from a preliminary feasibility study examining the dynamics characteristics of a spherical wind-driven (or Tumbleweed) rover, which is intended for exploration of the Martian surface. The results of an initial feasibility study involving several worst-case mobility situations that a Tumbleweed rover might encounter on the surface of Mars are discussed. Additional topics include the evaluation of several commercially available analysis software packages that were examined as possible platforms for the development of a Monte Carlo Tumbleweed mission simulation tool. This evaluation lead to the development of the Mars Tumbleweed Monte Carlo Simulator (or Tumbleweed Simulator) using the Vortex physics software package from CM-Labs, Inc. Discussions regarding the development and evaluation of the Tumbleweed Simulator, as well as the results of a preliminary analysis using the tool are also presented. Finally, a brief conclusions section is presented.

  16. Topological dynamics of vortex-line networks in hexagonal manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fei; Wang, Nan; Wang, Xueyun; Ji, Yanzhou; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Chen, Long-Qing

    2018-01-01

    The two-dimensional X Y model is the first well-studied system with topological point defects. On the other hand, although topological line defects are common in three-dimensional systems, the evolution mechanism of line defects is not fully understood. The six domains in hexagonal manganites converge to vortex lines in three dimensions. Using phase-field simulations, we predicted that during the domain coarsening process, the vortex-line network undergoes three types of basic topological changes, i.e., vortex-line loop shrinking, coalescence, and splitting. It is shown that the vortex-antivortex annihilation controls the scaling dynamics.

  17. Radiation from an excited vortex in the Abelian Higgs model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arodź, H.; Hadasz, L.

    1996-09-01

    An excited vortex in the Abelian Higgs model is investigated with the help of a polynomial approximation. The excitation consists of the longitudinal component of a vector field trapped by the vortex. The energy and profile of the excitation as well as its back reaction on the vortex are found in the case of small κ. It turns out that the width of the excited vortex oscillates in time. Moreover, the vector field has a radiative long range component. Also, an upper bound on the amplitude of the excitation is found.

  18. Radiation from an excited vortex in the Abelian Higgs model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arodz, H.; Hadasz, L.

    1996-01-01

    An excited vortex in the Abelian Higgs model is investigated with the help of a polynomial approximation. The excitation consists of the longitudinal component of a vector field trapped by the vortex. The energy and profile of the excitation as well as its back reaction on the vortex are found in the case of small κ. It turns out that the width of the excited vortex oscillates in time. Moreover, the vector field has a radiative long range component. Also, an upper bound on the amplitude of the excitation is found. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  19. Stability of barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Ik; Sakajo, Takashi; Kim, Sun-Chul

    2018-02-01

    We study the stability of a barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere, as a simple model of jet streams. The flow is approximated by a piecewise-continuous vorticity distribution by zonal bands of uniform vorticity. The linear stability analysis shows that the vortex strip becomes stable as the strip widens or the rotation speed increases. When the vorticity constants in the upper and the lower regions of the vortex strip have the same positive value, the inner flow region of the vortex strip becomes the most unstable. However, when the upper and the lower vorticity constants in the polar regions have different signs, a complex pattern of instability is found, depending on the wavenumber of perturbations, and interestingly, a boundary far away from the vortex strip can be unstable. We also compute the nonlinear evolution of the vortex strip on the rotating sphere and compare with the linear stability analysis. When the width of the vortex strip is small, we observe a good agreement in the growth rate of perturbation at an early time, and the eigenvector corresponding to the unstable eigenvalue coincides with the most unstable part of the flow. We demonstrate that a large structure of rolling-up vortex cores appears in the vortex strip after a long-time evolution. Furthermore, the geophysical relevance of the model to jet streams of Jupiter, Saturn and Earth is examined.

  20. Alteration of helical vortex core without change in flow topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    2011-01-01

    topology. The helical symmetry as such is preserved, although the characteristic parameters of helical symmetry of the vortex core transfer from a smooth linear variation to a different trend under the influence of a non-uniform pressure gradient, causing an increase in helical pitch without changing its......The abrupt expansion of the slender vortex core with changes in flow topology is commonly known as vortex breakdown. We present new experimental observations of an alteration of the helical vortex core in wall bounded turbulent flow with abrupt growth in core size, but without change in flow...

  1. Rotation of a single vortex in dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jia; Feng Fan; Liu Fu-Cheng; He Ya-Feng

    2017-01-01

    A single vortex is obtained in radio-frequency capacitive discharge in argon gas. The dust subsystem is confined in the horizontal plane with an asymmetrical saw structure placed on the lower electrode. The vortex rotates as a whole along the long side of the saw-teeth. Asymmetry of the saw structure plays an important role in the rotation of the vortex. Nonzero curl of the total force resulting from the local ion flow and the electric field in the plasma sheath could be attributed to the persistent rotation of vortex. (paper)

  2. Helicity conservation under quantum reconnection of vortex rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccher, Simone; Ricca, Renzo L

    2015-12-01

    Here we show that under quantum reconnection, simulated by using the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation, self-helicity of a system of two interacting vortex rings remains conserved. By resolving the fine structure of the vortex cores, we demonstrate that the total length of the vortex system reaches a maximum at the reconnection time, while both writhe helicity and twist helicity remain separately unchanged throughout the process. Self-helicity is computed by two independent methods, and topological information is based on the extraction and analysis of geometric quantities such as writhe, total torsion, and intrinsic twist of the reconnecting vortex rings.

  3. Three-wave electron vortex lattices for measuring nanofields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, C; Boothroyd, C B; Chang, S L Y; Dunin-Borkowski, R E

    2015-01-01

    It is demonstrated how an electron-optical arrangement consisting of two electron biprisms can be used to generate three-wave vortex lattices with effective lattice spacings between 0.1 and 1 nm. The presence of vortices in these lattices was verified by using a third biprism to perform direct phase measurements via off-axis electron holography. The use of three-wave lattices for nanoscale electromagnetic field measurements via vortex interferometry is discussed, including the accuracy of vortex position measurements and the interpretation of three-wave vortex lattices in the presence of partial spatial coherence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stability of barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Ik; Sakajo, Takashi; Kim, Sun-Chul

    2018-02-01

    We study the stability of a barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere, as a simple model of jet streams. The flow is approximated by a piecewise-continuous vorticity distribution by zonal bands of uniform vorticity. The linear stability analysis shows that the vortex strip becomes stable as the strip widens or the rotation speed increases. When the vorticity constants in the upper and the lower regions of the vortex strip have the same positive value, the inner flow region of the vortex strip becomes the most unstable. However, when the upper and the lower vorticity constants in the polar regions have different signs, a complex pattern of instability is found, depending on the wavenumber of perturbations, and interestingly, a boundary far away from the vortex strip can be unstable. We also compute the nonlinear evolution of the vortex strip on the rotating sphere and compare with the linear stability analysis. When the width of the vortex strip is small, we observe a good agreement in the growth rate of perturbation at an early time, and the eigenvector corresponding to the unstable eigenvalue coincides with the most unstable part of the flow. We demonstrate that a large structure of rolling-up vortex cores appears in the vortex strip after a long-time evolution. Furthermore, the geophysical relevance of the model to jet streams of Jupiter, Saturn and Earth is examined.

  5. Experimental and numerical studies in a vortex tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Chang Hyun; Kim, Chang Soo; Gowda, B. H. L Lakshmana; Jung, Ui Hyun

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the study of the internal flow phenomena of the counter-flow type vortex tube using experimental testing and numerical simulation. Visualization was carried out using the surface tracing method, injecting dye on the vortex tube wall using a needle. Vortex tube is made of acrylic to visualize the surface particle tracing and the input air pressure was varied from 0.1 MPa to 0.3 MPa. The experimentally visualized results on the tube show that there is an apparent sudden changing of the trajectory on the vortex tube wall which was observed in every experimental test case. This may indicate the stagnation position of the vortex flow. The visualized stagnation position moves towards the vortex generator with increase in cold flow ratio and input pressure. Three-dimensional computational study is also conducted to obtain more detailed flow information in the vortex tube. Calculated total pressure, static pressure and total temperature distributions in the vortex tube were in good agreement with the experimental data. The computational particle trace on the vortex tube wall is very similar to that observed in experiments

  6. Trailing Vortex-Induced Loads During Close Encounters in Cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Michael R.; Lesieutre, Daniel J; Kelly, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The trailing vortex induced aerodynamic loads on a Falcon 20G business jet flying in the wake of a DC-8 are predicted to provide a preflight estimate of safe trail distances during flight test measurements in the wake. Static and dynamic loads on the airframe flying in the near wake are shown at a matrix of locations, and the dynamic motion of the Falcon 20G during traverses of the DC-8 primary trailing vortex is simulated. Safe trailing distances for the test flights are determined, and optimum vortex traverse schemes are identified to moderate the motion of the trailing aircraft during close encounters with the vortex wake.

  7. Vortex rope instabilities in a model of conical draft tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripkin, Sergey; Tsoy, Mikhail; Kuibin, Pavel; Shtork, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    We report on experimental studies of the formation of vortex ropes in a laboratory simplified model of hydroturbine draft tube. Work is focused on the observation of various flow patterns at the different rotational speed of turbine runner at fixed flow rate. The measurements involve high-speed visualization and pressure pulsations recordings. Draft tube wall pressure pulsations are registered by pressure transducer for different flow regimes. Vortex rope precession frequency were calculated using FFT transform. The experiments showed interesting features of precessing vortex rope like twin spiral and formation of vortex ring.

  8. Vortex rope instabilities in a model of conical draft tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skripkin Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on experimental studies of the formation of vortex ropes in a laboratory simplified model of hydroturbine draft tube. Work is focused on the observation of various flow patterns at the different rotational speed of turbine runner at fixed flow rate. The measurements involve high-speed visualization and pressure pulsations recordings. Draft tube wall pressure pulsations are registered by pressure transducer for different flow regimes. Vortex rope precession frequency were calculated using FFT transform. The experiments showed interesting features of precessing vortex rope like twin spiral and formation of vortex ring.

  9. Vortex Ring Interaction With a Coaxially Aligned Cylinderical Rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Jaywant H.; Rajmanoharan, P.; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr

    1998-11-01

    We present results of experiments of a fully developed vortex ring interacting with a cylinderical rod, having a rounded nose, placed coaxially in line with the motion of the ring. The pressure field of the translating ring causes unsteady boundary layer separation and results in the formation of one or more ( secondary ) vortex rings, that subsequently interact. The nature and strength of the interaction depends on the ratio of the cylinder diameter to the ring diameter. For the larger diameter cylinders the vortex ring travels a few ring diameters before it breaks up. For the smaller diameter cylinders the vortex ring speed decreases slowly and, simultaneously, its diameter increases.

  10. Anomalous Josephson effect controlled by an Abrikosov vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, S.; Goldobin, E.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.; Tamarat, Ph.; Lounis, B.; Buzdin, A.

    2017-12-01

    The possibility of a fast and precise Abrikosov vortex manipulation by a focused laser beam opens the way to create laser-driven Josephson junctions. We theoretically demonstrate that a vortex pinned in the vicinity of the Josephson junction generates an arbitrary ground state phase which can be equal not only to 0 or π but to any desired φ0 value in between. Such φ0 junctions have many peculiar properties and may be effectively controlled by the optically driven Abrikosov vortex. Also we theoretically show that the Josephson junction with the embedded vortex can serve as an ultrafast memory cell operating at sub THz frequencies.

  11. Vortex dynamics and correlated disorder in high-{Tc} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinokur, V.M.

    1993-08-01

    We develop a theory for the vortex motion in the presence of correlated disorder in the form of the twin boundaries and columnar defects. Mapping vortex trajectories onto boson world lines enables us to establish the duality of the vortex transport in the systems with correlated disorder and hopping conductivity of charged particles in 2D systems. A glassy-like dynamics of the vortex lines with zero linear-resistivity and strongly nonlinear current-voltage behavior as V {proportional_to} exp[{minus} const/J{sup {mu}}] in a Bose glass state is predicted.

  12. Simulations of a single vortex ring using an unbounded, regularized particle-mesh based vortex method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Spietz, Henrik J.; Walther, Jens Honore

    2014-01-01

    , unbounded particle-mesh based vortex method is used to simulate the instability, transition to turbulence and eventual destruction of a single vortex ring. From the simulation data a novel method on analyzing the dynamics of the enstrophy is presented based on the alignment of the vorticity vector...... with the principal axis of the strain rate tensor. We find that the dynamics of the enstrophy density is dominated by the local flow deformation and axis of rotation, which is used to infer some concrete tendencies related to the topology of the vorticity field....

  13. Morphological and quantitative changes in mitochondria, plastids, and peroxisomes during the log-to-stationary transition of the growth phase in cultured tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyooka, Kiminori; Sato, Mayuko; Wakazaki, Mayumi; Matsuoka, Ken

    2016-01-01

    We developed a wide-range and high-resolution transmission electron microscope acquisition system and obtained giga-pixel images of tobacco BY-2 cells during the log and stationary phases of cell growth. We demonstrated that the distribution and ultrastructure of compartments involved in membrane traffic (i.e., Golgi apparatus, multivesicular body, and vesicle cluster) change during the log-to-stationary transition. Mitochondria, peroxisomes, and plastids were also enumerated. Electron densities of mitochondria and peroxisomes were altered during the growth-phase shift, while their numbers were reduced by nearly half. Plastid structure dramatically changed from atypical to spherical with starch granules. Nearly the same number of plastids was observed in both log and stationary phases. These results indicate that mechanisms regulating organelle populations differ from organelle to organelle.

  14. Longitudinal vortex control - Techniques and applications (The 32nd Lanchester Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    A summary is presented of vortex control applications and current techniques for the control of longitudinal vortices produced by bodies, leading edges, tips and intersections. Vortex control has up till now been performed by many approaches in an empirical fashion, assisted by the essentially inviscid nature of much of longitudinal vortex behavior. Attention is given to Reynolds number sensitivities, vortex breakdown and interactions, vortex control on highly swept wings, and vortex control in juncture flows.

  15. Ionic liquid stationary phases for gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Colin F; Poole, Salwa K

    2011-04-01

    This article provides a summary of the development of ionic liquids as stationary phases for gas chromatography beginning with early work on packed columns that established details of the retention mechanism and established working methods to characterize selectivity differences compared with molecular stationary phases through the modern development of multi-centered cation and cross-linked ionic liquids for high-temperature applications in capillary gas chromatography. Since there are many reviews on ionic liquids dealing with all aspects of their chemical and physical properties, the emphasis in this article is placed on the role of gas chromatography played in the design of ionic liquids of low melting point, high thermal stability, high viscosity, and variable selectivity for separations. Ionic liquids provide unprecedented opportunities for extending the selectivity range and temperature-operating range of columns for gas chromatography, an area of separation science that has otherwise been almost stagnant for over a decade. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Eddy current inspection of stationary blade rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzywosz, K.J.; Hastings, S.N.

    1994-01-01

    Stationary turbine blade rings in a US power plant have experienced chloride-induced cracking. Failure analysis determined two types of cracking mechanisms: corrosion fatigue cracking confined to the leading edge of the outer shroud; and stress corrosion cracking present all over the blade surface. Fluorescent dye penetrant is typically used to detect and size cracks. However, it requires cleaning the blade rings by sandblasting to obtain reliable inspection results. Sand blasting in turn requires sealing the lower half of the turbine housing to prevent sand from contaminating the rest of the power plant components. Furthermore, both the penetrant examination and the removal of the sand are time consuming and costly. An alternative NDE technique is desirable which requires no pre-cleaning of the blade and a quick go/no-go inspection with the capability of estimating the crack length. This paper presents an innovative eddy current technique which meets the desired objectives by incorporating the use of specially designed contoured scanners equipped with an array of pancake coils. A set of eddy current pancake coils housed in three different scanners is used to manually scan and inspect the convex side of the stationary blade rings. The pancake coils are operated in a transmit/receive mode using two separate eddy current instruments. This paper presents the inspection concept, including scanner and probe designs, and test results from the various stages of multiple blade rings

  17. Concentration and limit behaviors of stationary measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Ji, Min; Liu, Zhenxin; Yi, Yingfei

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study limit behaviors of stationary measures of the Fokker-Planck equations associated with a system of ordinary differential equations perturbed by a class of multiplicative noise including additive white noise case. As the noises are vanishing, various results on the invariance and concentration of the limit measures are obtained. In particular, we show that if the noise perturbed systems admit a uniform Lyapunov function, then the stationary measures form a relatively sequentially compact set whose weak∗-limits are invariant measures of the unperturbed system concentrated on its global attractor. In the case that the global attractor contains a strong local attractor, we further show that there exists a family of admissible multiplicative noises with respect to which all limit measures are actually concentrated on the local attractor; and on the contrary, in the presence of a strong local repeller in the global attractor, there exists a family of admissible multiplicative noises with respect to which no limit measure can be concentrated on the local repeller. Moreover, we show that if there is a strongly repelling equilibrium in the global attractor, then limit measures with respect to typical families of multiplicative noises are always concentrated away from the equilibrium. As applications of these results, an example of stochastic Hopf bifurcation and an example with non-decomposable ω-limit sets are provided. Our study is closely related to the problem of noise stability of compact invariant sets and invariant measures of the unperturbed system.

  18. Dynamics of a nonlinear dipole vortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesthaven, J.S.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Nielsen, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    A localized stationary dipole solution to the Euler equations with a relationship between the vorticity and streamfunction given as omega=-psi+psi(3) is presented. By numerical integration of the Euler equations this dipole is shown to be unstable. However, the initially unstable dipole reorganiz...

  19. ELSA- The European Levitated Spherical Actruator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Serin, J.; Telteu-Nedelcu, D.; De La Vallee Poussin, H.; Onillon, E.; Rossini, L.

    2014-08-01

    The reaction sphere is a magnetic bearing spherical actuator consisting of a permanent magnet spherical rotor that can be accelerated in any direction. It consists of an 8-pole permanent magnet spherical rotor that is magnetically levitated and can be accelerated about any axis by a 20-pole stator with electromagnets. The spherical actuator is proposed as a potential alternative to traditional momentum exchange devices such as reaction wheels (RWs) or control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). This new actuator provides several benefits such as reduced mass and power supply allocated to the attitude and navigation unit, performance gain, and improved reliability due to the absence of mechanical bearings. The paper presents the work done on the levitated spherical actuator and more precisely the electrical drive including its control unit and power parts. An elegant breadboard is currently being manufactured within the frame of an FP7 project. This project also comprises a feasibility study to show the feasibility of integrating such a system on a flight platform and to identify all the challenges to be solved in terms of technology or components to be developed.

  20. Statistical Mechanics of Thin Spherical Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Košmrlj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore how thermal fluctuations affect the mechanics of thin amorphous spherical shells. In flat membranes with a shear modulus, thermal fluctuations increase the bending rigidity and reduce the in-plane elastic moduli in a scale-dependent fashion. This is still true for spherical shells. However, the additional coupling between the shell curvature, the local in-plane stretching modes, and the local out-of-plane undulations leads to novel phenomena. In spherical shells, thermal fluctuations produce a radius-dependent negative effective surface tension, equivalent to applying an inward external pressure. By adapting renormalization group calculations to allow for a spherical background curvature, we show that while small spherical shells are stable, sufficiently large shells are crushed by this thermally generated “pressure.” Such shells can be stabilized by an outward osmotic pressure, but the effective shell size grows nonlinearly with increasing outward pressure, with the same universal power-law exponent that characterizes the response of fluctuating flat membranes to a uniform tension.