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Sample records for stationary night blindness

  1. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... collapse boxes. Description Autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this condition typically have difficulty seeing ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked congenital stationary night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... collapse boxes. Description X-linked congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this condition typically have difficulty seeing ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... collapse boxes. Description Autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this condition typically have difficulty seeing ...

  4. Genotype and Phenotype of 101 Dutch Patients with Congenital Stationary Night Blindness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijveld, M.M.C.; Florijn, R.J.; Bergen, A.A.B.; van den Born, L.I.; Kamermans, M.; Prick, L.; Riemslag, F.C.C.; van Schooneveld, M.J.; Kappers, A.M.L.; van Genderen, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relative frequency of the genetic causes of the Schubert-Bornschein type of congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) and to determine the genotype-phenotype correlations in CSNB1 and CSNB2. Design: Clinic-based, longitudinal, multicenter study. Participants: A total

  5. Identification of a key recombinant which assigns the incomplete congenital stationary night blindness gene proximal to MAOB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, A. A.; Kestelyn, P.; Leys, M.; Meire, F.

    1994-01-01

    The gene for complete congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB1) has been assigned to the Xp11.3 region. However, little evidence has been provided for the assignment of the incomplete congenital stationary night blindness gene (CSNB2). Here we present the clinical and molecular data from a CSNB2

  6. Color vision abnormality as an initial presentation of the complete type of congenital stationary night blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan X

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Xue Tan, Aya Aoki, Yasuo YanagiDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Tokyo School of Medicine, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Patients with the complete form of congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB often have reduced visual acuity, myopia, impaired night vision, and sometimes nystagmus and strabismus, however, they seldom complain of color vision abnormality. A 17-year-old male who was at technical school showed abnormalities in the color perception test for employment, and was referred to our hospital for a detailed examination. He had no family history of color vision deficiency and no other symptoms. During the initial examination, his best-corrected visual acuity was 1.2 in both eyes. His fundus showed no abnormalities except for somewhat yellowish reflex in the fovea of both eyes. Electroretinogram (ERG showed a good response in cone ERG and 30 Hz flicker ERG, however, the bright flash, mixed rod and cone ERG showed a negative type with a reduced b-wave (positive deflection. There was no response in the rod ERG, either. From the findings of the typical ERG, the patient was diagnosed with complete congenital stationary night blindness. This case underscores the importance of ERG in order to diagnose the cause of a color vision anomaly.Keywords: congenital stationary night blindness, CSNB, electroretinogram, ERG, color vision defect

  7. Color vision abnormality as an initial presentation of the complete type of congenital stationary night blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xue; Aoki, Aya; Yanagi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Patients with the complete form of congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) often have reduced visual acuity, myopia, impaired night vision, and sometimes nystagmus and strabismus, however, they seldom complain of color vision abnormality. A 17-year-old male who was at technical school showed abnormalities in the color perception test for employment, and was referred to our hospital for a detailed examination. He had no family history of color vision deficiency and no other symptoms. During the initial examination, his best-corrected visual acuity was 1.2 in both eyes. His fundus showed no abnormalities except for somewhat yellowish reflex in the fovea of both eyes. Electroretinogram (ERG) showed a good response in cone ERG and 30 Hz flicker ERG, however, the bright flash, mixed rod and cone ERG showed a negative type with a reduced b-wave (positive deflection). There was no response in the rod ERG, either. From the findings of the typical ERG, the patient was diagnosed with complete congenital stationary night blindness. This case underscores the importance of ERG in order to diagnose the cause of a color vision anomaly.

  8. Clinical Characteristics, Mutation Spectrum, and Prevalence of Åland Eye Disease/Incomplete Congenital Stationary Night Blindness in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Marianne N; Kilic-Biyik, Kevser Z; Trotter, Alana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess clinical characteristics, foveal structure, mutation spectrum, and prevalence rate of Åland eye disease (AED)/incomplete congenital stationary night blindness (iCSNB). Methods: A retrospective survey included individuals diagnosed with AED at a national low-vision center from...

  9. Lrit3 Deficient Mouse (nob6): A Novel Model of Complete Congenital Stationary Night Blindness (cCSNB)

    OpenAIRE

    Neuillé, Marion; El Shamieh, Said; Orhan, Elise; Michiels, Christelle; Antonio, Aline; Lancelot, Marie-Elise; Condroyer, Christel; Bujakowska, Kinga; Poch, Olivier; Sahel, José-Alain; Audo, Isabelle; Zeitz, Christina

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Mutations in LRIT3, coding for a Leucine-Rich Repeat, immunoglobulin-like and transmembrane domains 3 protein lead to autosomal recessive complete congenital stationary night blindness (cCSNB). The role of the corresponding protein in the ON-bipolar cell signaling cascade remains to be elucidated. Here we genetically and functionally characterize a commercially available Lrit3 knockout mouse, a model to study the function and the pathogenic mechanism of LRIT3. We confi...

  10. Molecular profiling of complete congenital stationary night blindness: a pilot study on an Indian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaichamy, Sivasankar; Sen, Parveen; Sachidanandam, Ramya; Arokiasamy, Tharigopala; Lancelot, Marie Elise; Audo, Isabelle; Zeitz, Christina; Soumittra, Nagasamy

    2014-01-01

    Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a non-progressive retinal disorder that shows genetic and clinical heterogeneity. CSNB is inherited as an autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, or X-linked recessive trait and shows a good genotype-phenotype correlation. Clinically, CSNB is classified as the Riggs type and the Schubert-Bornschein type. The latter form is further sub-classified into complete and incomplete forms based on specific waveforms on the electroretinogram (ERG). There are no molecular genetic data for CSNB in the Indian population. Therefore, we present for the first time molecular profiling of eight families with complete CSNB (cCSNB). The index patients and their other affected family members were comprehensively evaluated for the phenotype, including complete ophthalmic evaluation, ERG, fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, and color vision test. The known gene defects for cCSNB, LRIT3, TRPM1, GRM6, GPR179, and NYX, were screened by PCR direct sequencing. Bioinformatic analyses were performed using SIFT and PolyPhen for the identified missense mutations. All eight affected index patients and affected family members were identified as having cCSNB based on their ERG waveforms. Mutations in the TRPM1 gene were identified in six index patients. The two remaining index patients each carried a GPR179 and GRM6 mutation. Seven of the patients revealed homozygous mutations, while one patient showed a compound heterozygous mutation. Six of the eight mutations identified are novel. This is the first report on molecular profiling of candidate genes in CSNB in an Indian cohort. As shown for other cohorts, TRPM1 seems to be a major gene defect in patients with cCSNB in India.

  11. Localization of a novel X-linked congenital stationary night blindness locus: close linkage to the RP3 type retinitis pigmentosa gene region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, A. A.; ten Brink, J. B.; Riemslag, F.; Schuurman, E. J.; Tijmes, N.

    1995-01-01

    X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (CSNBX) is a non-progressive retinal disorder characterized by decreased visual acuity and loss of night vision. CSNBX is clinically heterogeneous with respect to the involvement of retinal rods and/or cones in the disease. In this study, we localize a

  12. Linkage analysis in a Dutch family with X-linked recessive congenital stationary night blindness (XL-CSNB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, W; van Duijnhoven, G; Pinckers, A; Smits, A; Ropers, H H; Cremers, F

    1995-01-01

    Linkage analysis has been performed in a large Dutch pedigree with X-linked recessive congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) by utilizing 16 DNA markers from the proximal short arm of the human X chromosome (Xp21.1-11.2). Thirteen polymorphic markers are at least partially informative and have enabled pairwise and multipoint linkage analysis. For three loci, i.e. DXS228, the monoamine oxidase B gene and the Norrie disease gene (NDG), multipoint linkage studies have yielded maximum lod scores of > 3.0 at a recombination fraction of zero. Analysis of recombination events has enabled us to rule out the possibility that the underlying defect in this family is allelic to RP3; the gene defect could also be excluded from the proximal part of the region known to carry RP2. Linkage data are consistent with a possible involvement of the NDG but mutations in the open reading frame of this gene have not been found.

  13. Autofluorescence Imaging and Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Incomplete Congenital Stationary Night Blindness and Comparison with Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, ROYCE W. S.; GREENBERG, JONATHAN P.; LAZOW, MARGOT A.; RAMACHANDRAN, RITHU; LIMA, LUIZ H.; HWANG, JOHN C.; SCHUBERT, CARL; BRAUNSTEIN, ALEXANDRA; ALLIKMETS, RANDO; TSANG, STEPHEN H.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To test the hypothesis that the evaluation of retinal structure can have diagnostic value in differentiating between incomplete congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB2) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). To compare retinal thickness differences between patients with CSNB2 and myopic controls. DESIGN Prospective cross-sectional study. METHODS Ten eyes of 5 patients diagnosed with CSNB2 (4 X-linked recessive, 1 autosomal recessive) and 6 eyes of 3 patients with RP (2 autosomal dominant, 1 autosomal recessive) were evaluated with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF). Diagnoses of CSNB2 and RP were confirmed by full-field electroretinography (ERG). Manual segmentation of retinal layers, aided by a computer program, was performed by 2 professional segmenters on SD OCT images of all CSNB2 patients and 4 age-similar, normal myopic controls. Seven patients were screened for mutations with congenital stationary night blindness and RP genotyping arrays. RESULTS Patients with CSNB2 had specific findings on SD OCT and FAF that were distinct from those found in RP. CSNB2 patients showed qualitatively normal SD OCT results with preserved photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction, whereas this junction was lost in RP patients. In addition, CSNB2 patients had normal FAF images, whereas patients with RP demonstrated a ring of increased autofluorescence around the macula. On SD OCT segmentation, the inner and outer retinal layers of both X-linked recessive and autosomal recessive CSNB2 patients were thinner compared with those of normal myopic controls, with means generally outside of normal 95% confidence intervals. The only layers that demonstrated similar thickness between CSNB2 patients and the controls were the retinal nerve fiber layer and, temporal to the fovea, the combined outer segment layer and retinal pigment epithelium. A proband and his 2 affected brothers from a family segregating X-linked recessive

  14. Lrit3 deficient mouse (nob6): a novel model of complete congenital stationary night blindness (cCSNB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuillé, Marion; El Shamieh, Said; Orhan, Elise; Michiels, Christelle; Antonio, Aline; Lancelot, Marie-Elise; Condroyer, Christel; Bujakowska, Kinga; Poch, Olivier; Sahel, José-Alain; Audo, Isabelle; Zeitz, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in LRIT3, coding for a Leucine-Rich Repeat, immunoglobulin-like and transmembrane domains 3 protein lead to autosomal recessive complete congenital stationary night blindness (cCSNB). The role of the corresponding protein in the ON-bipolar cell signaling cascade remains to be elucidated. Here we genetically and functionally characterize a commercially available Lrit3 knock-out mouse, a model to study the function and the pathogenic mechanism of LRIT3. We confirm that the insertion of a Bgeo/Puro cassette in the knock-out allele introduces a premature stop codon, which presumably codes for a non-functional protein. The mouse line does not harbor other mutations present in common laboratory mouse strains or in other known cCSNB genes. Lrit3 mutant mice exhibit a so-called no b-wave (nob) phenotype with lacking or severely reduced b-wave amplitudes in the scotopic and photopic electroretinogram (ERG), respectively. Optomotor tests reveal strongly decreased optomotor responses in scotopic conditions. No obvious fundus auto-fluorescence or histological retinal structure abnormalities are observed. However, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) reveals thinned inner nuclear layer and part of the retina containing inner plexiform layer, ganglion cell layer and nerve fiber layer in these mice. To our knowledge, this is the first time that SD-OCT technology is used to characterize an animal model for CSNB. This phenotype is noted at 6 weeks and at 6 months. The stationary nob phenotype of mice lacking Lrit3, which we named nob6, confirms the findings previously reported in patients carrying LRIT3 mutations and is similar to other cCSNB mouse models. This novel mouse model will be useful for investigating the pathogenic mechanism(s) associated with LRIT3 mutations and clarifying the role of LRIT3 in the ON-bipolar cell signaling cascade.

  15. Lrit3 deficient mouse (nob6: a novel model of complete congenital stationary night blindness (cCSNB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Neuillé

    Full Text Available Mutations in LRIT3, coding for a Leucine-Rich Repeat, immunoglobulin-like and transmembrane domains 3 protein lead to autosomal recessive complete congenital stationary night blindness (cCSNB. The role of the corresponding protein in the ON-bipolar cell signaling cascade remains to be elucidated. Here we genetically and functionally characterize a commercially available Lrit3 knock-out mouse, a model to study the function and the pathogenic mechanism of LRIT3. We confirm that the insertion of a Bgeo/Puro cassette in the knock-out allele introduces a premature stop codon, which presumably codes for a non-functional protein. The mouse line does not harbor other mutations present in common laboratory mouse strains or in other known cCSNB genes. Lrit3 mutant mice exhibit a so-called no b-wave (nob phenotype with lacking or severely reduced b-wave amplitudes in the scotopic and photopic electroretinogram (ERG, respectively. Optomotor tests reveal strongly decreased optomotor responses in scotopic conditions. No obvious fundus auto-fluorescence or histological retinal structure abnormalities are observed. However, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT reveals thinned inner nuclear layer and part of the retina containing inner plexiform layer, ganglion cell layer and nerve fiber layer in these mice. To our knowledge, this is the first time that SD-OCT technology is used to characterize an animal model for CSNB. This phenotype is noted at 6 weeks and at 6 months. The stationary nob phenotype of mice lacking Lrit3, which we named nob6, confirms the findings previously reported in patients carrying LRIT3 mutations and is similar to other cCSNB mouse models. This novel mouse model will be useful for investigating the pathogenic mechanism(s associated with LRIT3 mutations and clarifying the role of LRIT3 in the ON-bipolar cell signaling cascade.

  16. Sorting out co-occurrence of rare monogenic retinopathies: Stargardt disease co-existing with congenital stationary night blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Nancy; Jeffrey, Brett G; Turriff, Amy; Sieving, Paul A; Cukras, Catherine A

    2014-03-01

    Inherited retinal diseases are uncommon, and the likelihood of having more than one hereditary disorder is rare. Here, we report a case of Stargardt disease and congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) in the same patient, and the identification of two novel in-frame deletions in the GRM6 gene. The patient underwent an ophthalmic exam and visual function testing including: visual acuity, color vision, Goldmann visual field, and electroretinography (ERG). Imaging of the retina included fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fundus autofluorescence. Genomic DNA was PCR-amplified for analysis of all coding exons and flanking splice sites of both the ABCA4 and GRM6 genes. A 46-year-old woman presented with recently reduced central vision and clinical findings of characteristic yellow flecks consistent with Stargardt disease. However, ERG testing revealed an ERG phenotype unusual for Stargardt disease but consistent with CSNB1. Genetic testing revealed two previously reported mutations in the ABCA4 gene and two novel deletions in the GRM6 gene. Diagnosis of concurrent Stargardt disease and CSNB was made on the ophthalmic history, clinical examination, ERG, and genetic testing. This case highlights that clinical tests need to be taken in context, and that co-existing retinal dystrophies and degenerations should be considered when clinical impressions and objective data do not correlate.

  17. Mutation in rod PDE6 linked to congenital stationary night blindness impairs the enzyme inhibition by its gamma-subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Khakim G; Granovsky, Alexey E; Artemyev, Nikolai O

    2003-03-25

    Photoreceptor cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE6) is the effector enzyme in the vertebrate visual transduction cascade. The activity of rod PDE6 catalytic alpha- and beta-subunits is blocked in the dark by two inhibitory Pgamma-subunits. The inhibition is released upon light-stimulation of photoreceptor cells. Mutation H258N in PDE6beta has been linked to congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) in a large Danish family (Rambusch pedigree) (Gal, A., Orth, U., Baehr, W., Schwinger, E., and Rosenberg, T. (1994) Nat. Genet. 7, 64-67.) We have analyzed the consequences of this mutation for PDE6 function using a Pgamma-sensitive PDE6alpha'/PDE5 chimera, Chi16. Biochemical analysis of the H257N mutant, an equivalent of PDE6betaH258N, demonstrates that this substitution does not alter the ability of chimeric PDE to dimerize or the enzyme's catalytic properties. The sensitivity of H257N to a competitive inhibitor zaprinast was also unaffected. However, the mutant displayed a significant impairment in the inhibitory interaction with Pgamma, which was apparent from a approximately 20-fold increase in the K(i) value (46 nM) and incomplete maximal inhibition. The inhibitory defect of H257N is not due to perturbation of noncatalytic cGMP binding to the PDE6alpha' GAF domains. The noncatalytic cGMP-binding characteristics of the H257N mutant were similar to those of the parent PDE6alpha'/PDE5 chimera. Since rod PDE6 in the Rambusch CSNB is a catalytic heterodimer of the wild-type PDE6alpha and mutant PDE6beta, Chi16 and H257N were coexpressed, and a heterodimeric PDE, Chi16/H257N, was isolated. It displayed two Pgamma inhibitory sites with the K(i) values of 5 and 57 nM. Our results support the hypothesis that mutation H258N in PDE6beta causes CSNB through incomplete inhibition of PDE6 activity by Pgamma, which leads to desensitization of rod photoreceptors.

  18. Dysregulation of Ca(v)1.4 channels disrupts the maturation of photoreceptor synaptic ribbons in congenital stationary night blindness type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoni; Kerov, Vasily; Haeseleer, Françoise; Majumder, Anurima; Artemyev, Nikolai; Baker, Sheila A; Lee, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding Cav 1.4, CACNA1F, are associated with visual disorders including X-linked incomplete congenital stationary night blindness type 2 (CSNB2). In mice lacking Cav 1.4 channels, there are defects in the development of "ribbon" synapses formed between photoreceptors (PRs) and second-order neurons. However, many CSNB2 mutations disrupt the function rather than expression of Cav 1.4 channels. Whether defects in PR synapse development due to altered Cav 1.4 function are common features contributing to the pathogenesis of CSNB2 is unknown. To resolve this issue, we profiled changes in the subcellular distribution of Cav 1.4 channels and synapse morphology during development in wild-type (WT) mice and mouse models of CSNB2. Using Cav 1.4-selective antibodies, we found that Cav 1.4 channels associate with ribbon precursors early in development and are concentrated at both rod and cone PR synapses in the mature retina. In mouse models of CSNB2 in which the voltage-dependence of Cav 1.4 activation is either enhanced (Cav 1.4I756T) or inhibited (CaBP4 KO), the initial stages of PR synaptic ribbon formation are largely unaffected. However, after postnatal day 13, many PR ribbons retain the immature morphology. This synaptic abnormality corresponds in severity to the defect in synaptic transmission in the adult mutant mice, suggesting that lack of sufficient mature synapses contributes to vision impairment in Cav 1.4I756T and CaBP4 KO mice. Our results demonstrate the importance of proper Cav 1.4 function for efficient PR synapse maturation, and that dysregulation of Cav 1.4 channels in CSNB2 may have synaptopathic consequences.

  19. Night-vision goggles for night-blind subjects : subjective evaluation after 2 years of use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartong, D. T.; Kooijman, A. C.

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of night-vision goggles (NVG) for night-blind subjects after 1 and 2 years of use. Methods: Eleven night-blind subjects with retinitis pigmentosa used NVG for a 2-year period. At the end of each year, they were requested to fill-in two questionnaires regarding

  20. Night blindness in a teenager with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roddy, Marie Frances

    2011-12-01

    This article describes the case of a 16-year-old boy with cystic fibrosis who presented with difficulty seeing in the dark. He had a history of bowel surgery at birth, and he developed cystic fibrosis liver disease and osteopenia during his teenage years. He always had good lung function. When his serum vitamin A level was checked, it was undetectable in sample. He was diagnosed with night blindness and commenced on high-dose vitamin A. His symptoms resolved within 3 days. However, it took over 1 year for his vitamin A level to return to normal. This case emphasizes the importance of monitoring vitamin levels in cystic fibrosis to detect deficiency and prevent long-term consequences, and it highlights the challenges encountered during the course of night blindness treatment.

  1. Spontaneous occurrence of a potentially night blinding disorder in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Julie; Behn, Darren; Simard, Eric; Lachapelle, Pierre

    2003-07-01

    Several hereditary retinal disorders such as retinitis pigmentosa and congenital stationary night blindness compromise, sometimes exclusively, the activity of the rod pathway. Unfortunately, there are few animal models of these disorders that could help us better understand the pathophysiological processes involved. The purpose of this report is to present a pedigree of guinea pigs where, as a result of a consanguineous mating and subsequent selective breeding, we developed a new and naturally occurring animal model of a rod disorder. Analysis of the retinal function with the electroretinogram reveals that the threshold for rod-mediated electroretinograms (ERGs) is significantly increased by more than 2 log-units compared to that of normal guinea pigs. Furthermore, in response to a suprathreshold stimulus, also delivered under scotopic condition, which yield a mixed cone-rod response in normal guinea pigs, the ERG waveform in our mutant guinea pigs is almost identical (amplitude and timing of a- and b-waves) to that evoked in photopic condition. The above would thus suggest either a structural (abnormal development or absence) or a functional deficiency of the rod photoreceptors. We believe that our pedigree possibly represents a new animal model of a night blinding disorder, and that this condition is inherited as anautosomal recessive trait in the guinea pig population.

  2. Noise annoyance from stationary sources: Relationships with exposure metric day-evening-night level (DENL) and their confidence intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.; Vos, H.

    2004-01-01

    Relationships between exposure to noise [metric: day-evening-night levels (DENL)] from stationary sources (shunting yards, a seasonal industry, and other industries) and annoyance are presented. Curves are presented for expected annoyance score, the percentage "highly annoyed" (%HA, cutoff at 72 on

  3. Probabilistic blind deconvolution of non-stationary sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Rasmus Kongsgaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We solve a class of blind signal separation problems using a constrained linear Gaussian model. The observed signal is modelled by a convolutive mixture of colored noise signals with additive white noise. We derive a time-domain EM algorithm `KaBSS' which estimates the source signals...

  4. Vitamin A-rich porridge for Boarding Khalwa students with night blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swar, Mohamed Osman; Alhaj, Ishraga; Osman, Atika Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Khalwa is a non-governmental boarding school specialized in teaching Quran to Sudanese children. Food supply to Khalwa is completely dependent on donations. Students are fed on low cost and low nutritional value diet made of sorghum flour porridge and a stew made of dry okra, onion and oil. The incidence of night blindness among these students is reported by the Nutrition Department of the Federal Ministry of Health, Sudan, in 2005 as 0.9%. In this study we interviewed and examined 453 Khalwa students in Umbada area, however blood sampling for assay of vitamin A level was not acceptable by the Khalwa authorities. Thirty four students (7.5%) showed clinical evidence of Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD), 67.6% of them for a period of less than 6 months which was consistent with their stay in Khalwa. Vitamin A fortified sugar is used in Kenya, Zambia, South Africa and Honduras but it is costly and sugar-containing foods and drinks are not in common use by Khalwa students. To supply students with a good amount of vitamin A, we prepared a new porridge formed of sorghum flour; peeled, chopped and boiled pumpkins in addition to their traditional stew. One meal per student contained 250 grams of sorghum flour and 125 grams of pumpkin which supplies 611μg (10891 I.U.) of vitamin A according to the USDA SR-25 composition tables (>100% Daily Value). Compared to the old porridge, there was significant differences (P <0.05) in vitamin A, carbohydrate, protein, fiber, fat, ash and moisture contents. All students accepted the taste of the new porridge and 91.2% agreed that it is not difficult to prepare. We conclude that adding pumpkins to Khalwa porridge is cost effective and may help preventing VAD and its deleterious effects on vision and health.

  5. PWC-ICA: A Method for Stationary Ordered Blind Source Separation with Application to EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Mullen, Tim; Robbins, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a class of algorithms widely applied to separate sources in EEG data. Most ICA approaches use optimization criteria derived from temporal statistical independence and are invariant with respect to the actual ordering of individual observations. We propose a method of mapping real signals into a complex vector space that takes into account the temporal order of signals and enforces certain mixing stationarity constraints. The resulting procedure, which we call Pairwise Complex Independent Component Analysis (PWC-ICA), performs the ICA in a complex setting and then reinterprets the results in the original observation space. We examine the performance of our candidate approach relative to several existing ICA algorithms for the blind source separation (BSS) problem on both real and simulated EEG data. On simulated data, PWC-ICA is often capable of achieving a better solution to the BSS problem than AMICA, Extended Infomax, or FastICA. On real data, the dipole interpretations of the BSS solutions discovered by PWC-ICA are physically plausible, are competitive with existing ICA approaches, and may represent sources undiscovered by other ICA methods. In conjunction with this paper, the authors have released a MATLAB toolbox that performs PWC-ICA on real, vector-valued signals. PMID:27340397

  6. PWC-ICA: A Method for Stationary Ordered Blind Source Separation with Application to EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kenneth; Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Mullen, Tim; Robbins, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a class of algorithms widely applied to separate sources in EEG data. Most ICA approaches use optimization criteria derived from temporal statistical independence and are invariant with respect to the actual ordering of individual observations. We propose a method of mapping real signals into a complex vector space that takes into account the temporal order of signals and enforces certain mixing stationarity constraints. The resulting procedure, which we call Pairwise Complex Independent Component Analysis (PWC-ICA), performs the ICA in a complex setting and then reinterprets the results in the original observation space. We examine the performance of our candidate approach relative to several existing ICA algorithms for the blind source separation (BSS) problem on both real and simulated EEG data. On simulated data, PWC-ICA is often capable of achieving a better solution to the BSS problem than AMICA, Extended Infomax, or FastICA. On real data, the dipole interpretations of the BSS solutions discovered by PWC-ICA are physically plausible, are competitive with existing ICA approaches, and may represent sources undiscovered by other ICA methods. In conjunction with this paper, the authors have released a MATLAB toolbox that performs PWC-ICA on real, vector-valued signals.

  7. Vision - night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... walking through a dark room, such as a movie theater. These problems are often worse just after ... Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 3, chap 2. Review Date 8/20/2016 Updated by: Franklin W. ...

  8. Night blindness and abnormal cone electroretinogram ON responses in patients with mutations in the GRM6 gene encoding mGluR6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryja, Thaddeus P.; McGee, Terri L.; Berson, Eliot L.; Fishman, Gerald A.; Sandberg, Michael A.; Alexander, Kenneth R.; Derlacki, Deborah J.; Rajagopalan, Aruna S.

    2005-01-01

    We report three unrelated patients with mutations in the GRM6 gene that normally encodes the glutamate receptor mGluR6. This neurotransmitter receptor has been shown previously to be present only in the synapses of the ON bipolar cell dendrites, and it mediates synaptic transmission from rod and cone photoreceptors to this type of second-order neuron. Despite the synaptic defect, best visual acuities were normal or only moderately reduced (20/15 to 20/40). The patients were night blind from an early age, and when maximally dark-adapted, they could perceive lights only with an intensity equal to or slightly dimmer than that normally detected by the cone system (i.e., 2-3 log units above normal). Electroretinograms (ERGs) in response to single brief flashes of light had clearly detectable a-waves, which are derived from photoreceptors, and greatly reduced b-waves, which are derived from the second-order inner retinal neurons. ERGs in response to sawtooth flickering light indicated a markedly reduced ON response and a nearly normal OFF response. There was no subjective delay in the perception of suddenly appearing white vs. black objects on a gray background. These patients exemplify a previously unrecognized, autosomal recessive form of congenital night blindness associated with a negative ERG waveform. PMID:15781871

  9. Antiaging efficacy of melatonin-based day and night creams: a randomized, split-face, assessor-blinded proof-of-concept trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Massimo; Sparavigna, Adele

    2018-01-01

    Skin is a complete and independent melatoninergic system. At the skin level, melatonin (Mel) acts as a relevant antioxidant and cytoprotective substance. Topical application of Mel is considered meaningful, since it can easily penetrate the stratum corneum. Exogenous Mel can be expected to represent a potent antioxidative defense system against skin aging mechanisms. Day and night creams containing Mel, carried in lipospheres (Melatosphere™), have been developed (Nutriage SPF 30 day cream and Nutriage night cream). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a Mel-based cream as antiaging treatment. In a randomized, split-face, assessor-blinded, prospective 3-month study, 22 women (mean age 55 years) with moderate-severe skin aging were enrolled (clinical trial registration number: NCT03276897). Study products were applied in the morning (Nutriage day cream) and evening (Nutriage night cream) on the right or left side of the face. Primary outcomes were: 1) clinical evaluation of wrinkles' grade (crow's feet and nasolabial folds), surface microrelief, skin tonicity (resistance to pinching and traction, recovery after pinching) and skin dryness and 2) instrumental evaluation of skin roughness and 3D photographic documentation (Vectra H1 images system). Assessments of both clinical and instrumental evaluations were performed at baseline and after 1, 2 and 3 months of treatment by an investigator unaware of treatment allocation. All the subjects completed the study. Crow's feet was reduced significantly ( p =0.05) by -15% with the creams in comparison with the non-treated side after 3 months. At the end of the study, surface microrelief (-26.5%), skin profilometry (-13%), skin tonicity (+30%) and skin dryness (-59.5%) significantly improved with active treatment. Both products were well tolerated. In women with skin aging, Mel-based creams improved significantly skin tonicity and skin hydration with a significant reduction in skin roughness, supporting the

  10. Antiaging efficacy of melatonin-based day and night creams: a randomized, split-face, assessor-blinded proof-of-concept trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milani M

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Massimo Milani,1 Adele Sparavigna2 1Medical Department, Cantabria Labs Difa Cooper, Caronno Pertusella, 2Derming, Clinical Research and Bioengineering Institute, Milan, Italy Background: Skin is a complete and independent melatoninergic system. At the skin level, melatonin (Mel acts as a relevant antioxidant and cytoprotective substance. Topical application of Mel is considered meaningful, since it can easily penetrate the stratum corneum. Exogenous Mel can be expected to represent a potent antioxidative defense system against skin aging mechanisms. Day and night creams containing Mel, carried in lipospheres (Melatosphere™, have been developed (Nutriage SPF 30 day cream and Nutriage night cream.Study aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a Mel-based cream as antiaging treatment.Subjects and methods: In a randomized, split-face, assessor-blinded, prospective 3-month study, 22 women (mean age 55 years with moderate–severe skin aging were enrolled (clinical trial registration number: NCT03276897. Study products were applied in the morning (Nutriage day cream and evening (Nutriage night cream on the right or left side of the face. Primary outcomes were: 1 clinical evaluation of wrinkles’ grade (crow’s feet and nasolabial folds, surface microrelief, skin tonicity (resistance to pinching and traction, recovery after pinching and skin dryness and 2 instrumental evaluation of skin roughness and 3D photographic documentation (Vectra H1 images system. Assessments of both clinical and instrumental evaluations were performed at baseline and after 1, 2 and 3 months of treatment by an investigator unaware of treatment allocation.Results: All the subjects completed the study. Crow’s feet was reduced significantly (p=0.05 by –15% with the creams in comparison with the non-treated side after 3 months. At the end of the study, surface microrelief (–26.5%, skin profilometry (–13%, skin tonicity (+30% and skin dryness (–59

  11. Children with complete or incomplete congenital stationary night blindness: ophthalmological findings, standard ERGs and ON-OFF ERGs for differentiation between types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Šuštar

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Distinct electrophysiological characteristics can be used to differentiate between complete and incomplete CSNB. Moreover, ONOFF ERGs are important for precise localization of the retinal bipolar cell dysfunction, and these can also be reliably recorded in children.

  12. Effects of smartphone use with and without blue light at night in healthy adults: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Papakostas, George I; Kim, Min-Ji; Kim, Dong Jun; Chang, Kyung-Ah Judy; Oh, Yunhye; Yu, Bum-Hee; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2017-04-01

    Smartphones deliver light to users through Light Emitting Diode (LED) displays. Blue light is the most potent wavelength for sleep and mood. This study investigated the immediate effects of smartphone blue light LED on humans at night. We investigated changes in serum melatonin levels, cortisol levels, body temperature, and psychiatric measures with a randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled design of two 3-day admissions. Each subject played smartphone games with either conventional LED or suppressed blue light from 7:30 to 10:00PM (150 min). Then, they were readmitted and conducted the same procedure with the other type of smartphone. Serum melatonin levels were measured in 60-min intervals before, during and after use of the smartphones. Serum cortisol levels and body temperature were monitored every 120 min. The Profile of Mood States (POMS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), and auditory and visual Continuous Performance Tests (CPTs) were administered. Among the 22 participants who were each admitted twice, use of blue light smartphones was associated with significantly decreased sleepiness (Cohen's d = 0.49, Z = 43.50, p = 0.04) and confusion-bewilderment (Cohen's d = 0.53, Z = 39.00, p = 0.02), and increased commission error (Cohen's d = -0.59, t = -2.64, p = 0.02). Also, users of blue light smartphones experienced a longer time to reach dim light melatonin onset 50% (2.94 vs. 2.70 h) and had increases in body temperature, serum melatonin levels, and cortisol levels, although these changes were not statistically significant. Use of blue light LED smartphones at night may negatively influence sleep and commission errors, while it may not be enough to lead to significant changes in serum melatonin and cortisol levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel sublingual low-dose zolpidem tablet reduces latency to sleep onset following spontaneous middle-of-the-night awakening in insomnia in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, outpatient study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Thomas; Krystal, Andrew; Steinberg, Frank J; Singh, Nikhilesh N; Moline, Margaret

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate efficacy and safety of 3.5-mg zolpidem tartrate sublingual tablets (ZST) on latency to sleep onset after middle-of-the-night (MOTN) awakenings in patients with insomnia characterized by difficulty returning to sleep after MOTN awakenings. Multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group. Outpatient. There were 295 adults (median age 43 y; 68.1% female) with primary insomnia and difficulty returning to sleep after MOTN awakenings (three or more MOTN awakenings/wk during screening). After a 2-wk, single-blind placebo eligibility period, participants were randomized 1:1 to as-needed MOTN dosing with 3.5 mg ZST or placebo for 28 nights. An interactive voice response system determined if the study drug could be taken and recorded sleep/wake efficacy measures. ZST significantly (P Zolpidem Tartrate Tablet in Adult Patients with Insomnia" http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00466193?spons=%22Transcept+Pharmaceuticals%22&spons_ex=Y&rank=2

  14. A investigação da cegueira noturna no grupo materno-infantil: uma revisão histórica The investigation of night blindness in the mother-child group: a historical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Saunders

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo apresentar uma revisão histórica sobre a cegueira noturna, um indicador funcional da deficiência de vitamina A. Realizou-se uma revisão da literatura científica publicada no período de 1929 a 2005, nas bases de dados Medline, Lilacs, SciELO e dos comitês nacionais e internacionais de saúde e de micronutrientes, utilizando-se os termos night blindness, xerophthalmia, pregnancy, post partum women, newborn, children, vitamin A deficiency, micronutrient, deficiência de vitamina A, micronutriente, cegueira noturna, gestação, xeroftalmia. O reconhecimento da importância do indicador funcional da deficiência de vitamina A foi consagrado em 1996 pela Organização Mundial de Saúde, a partir da recomendação de uma entrevista padronizada para investigação da cegueira noturna. O método se caracteriza por apresentar facilidades operacionais, ser de baixo custo, além de permitir a sua aplicação tanto para o monitoramento do estado nutricional de pessoas e comunidades, quanto para a avaliação da eficácia de programas de intervenção. Entre gestantes e nutrizes, estudos recentes sugerem a utilidade deste indicador no diagnóstico dos casos de deficiência de vitamina A ainda no estágio subclínico da deficiência, sendo grande a sua concordância com indicadores bioquímicos. Ao longo dos anos, verifica-se também o reconhecimento deste indicador como um instrumento importante para a predição do risco de morbimortalidade no grupo materno-infantil.The aim of this study was to provide a historical review of night blindness, a functional indicator of vitamin A deficiency. The scientific literature published in the period from 1929 to 2005 was reviewed, using Medline, Lilacs, SciELO, National and International Health and Micronutrients Comities databases. The key words used were: night blindness, xerophthalmia, pregnancy, postpartum women, newborn, children, vitamin A deficiency, micronutrient. The importance

  15. Condiciones medias de invierno y ondas cuasi-estacionarias de Rossby asociadas a la frecuencia invernal de noches frias y cálidas en Argentina subtropical Mean winter conditions and quasi-stationary Rossby waves associated with the winter frequency of warm and cold nights in subtropical Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A Agosta

    2012-12-01

    nights (TN10 and warm nights (TN90 during winter (JJA over subtropical Argentina, to the north of 40°S and surrounding areas (ASA from meteorological stations and NCEP/DOE AMIP-II and ECMWF ERA-interim reanalysis data. It is found that the frequency of warm nights (Tmin over percentile 90, TN90 is modulated at interannual scales by quasi-stationary wave propagation induced by convection anomalies in the Indic and Pacific. The high frequency of warm nights is associated with anomalous warming over the central equatorial Pacific (positive phase of El Niño-Southern Oscillation, ENSO. The low frequency of warm nights is linked to anomalous convection over the monsoon Indian area and the western tropical southern Indic. Hence quasi-stationary Rossby wave activity propagation is favored over the Indic, Pacific and southern South America. Such a teleconnection favors in turn the high fequency of cold nights (Tmin below percentile 10, TN10. Instead, the low frequency of cold nights is linked to the low-frequency variability of the Southern Hemisphere high-latitude mode (SAM. It is found that winters with high (low frequency of cold (warm nights are characterized by a strengthening (weakening of the subtropical jet over southern South America and adjacent areas. The current remote forcings are related with atmospheric/oceanic processes that are interconnected at seasonal-interseasonal scales, which could allow us to develop statistical-dynamical forecasts for the higher or lower occurrence of warm or cold nights in winter.

  16. Nightmares and Night Terrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... able to tell you what happened in the dream and why it was scary. Your child may have trouble going back to sleep. Your child might have the same dream again on other nights. What are night terrors? ...

  17. Adnyamathanha Night Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curnow, Paul

    2009-06-01

    Aboriginal Australians have been viewing the night skies of Australia for some 45,000 years and possibly much longer. During this time they have been able to develop a complex knowledge of the night sky, the terrestrial environment in addition to seasonal changes. However, few of us in contemporary society have an in-depth knowledge of the nightly waltz of stars above.

  18. Beautiful Black: A Bibliography about the Night for Young Readers from Preschool through Junior High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Mary Ann, Comp.

    This bibliography offers a "magical adventure into the dark and dreamy world of the night." It contains annotations for 146 books, available for free to the blind and disabled, that cover various things associated with the night: dreams, monsters and ghosts, overcoming fear of the dark, nights in other countries that are six months long,…

  19. Diagnosing night sweats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Anthon J; Bond, Michael M; Yates, Scott W

    2003-03-01

    Night sweats are a common outpatient complaint, yet literature on the subject is scarce. Tuberculosis and lymphoma are diseases in which night sweats are a dominant symptom, but these are infrequently found to be the cause of night sweats in modern practice. While these diseases remain important diagnostic considerations in patients with night sweats, other diagnoses to consider include human immunodeficiency virus, gastroesophageal reflux disease, obstructive sleep apnea, hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia, and several less common diseases. Antihypertensives, antipyretics, other medications, and drugs of abuse such as alcohol and heroin may cause night sweats. Serious causes of night sweats can be excluded with a thorough history, physical examination, and directed laboratory and radiographic studies. If a history and physical do not reveal a possible diagnosis, physicians should consider a purified protein derivative, complete blood count, human immunodeficiency virus test, thyroid-stimulating hormone test, erythrocyte sedimentation rate evaluation, chest radiograph, and possibly chest and abdominal computed tomographic scans and bone marrow biopsy.

  20. Night Terrors in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Feferman, Irv

    1988-01-01

    Night terrors are a bizarre sleep disorder that affects young children. The child partially awakes during the night agitated, afraid and terrified, and cannot be consoled. These events, which may be related to emotional turmoil, are self-limiting. Psychiatric evaluation is indicated in certain cases, and drug therapy is almost never necessary. Parents should be reassured that night terrors are not dangerous and do not reflect any serious pathology.

  1. Stationary nonlinear Airy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotti, A.; Faccio, D.; Couairon, A.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S.; Abdollahpour, D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of an additional class of stationary accelerating Airy wave forms that exist in the presence of third-order (Kerr) nonlinearity and nonlinear losses. Numerical simulations and experiments, in agreement with the analytical model, highlight how these stationary solutions sustain the nonlinear evolution of Airy beams. The generic nature of the Airy solution allows extension of these results to other settings, and a variety of applications are suggested.

  2. Night Terrors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you tried. A night terror is a sleep disruption that seems similar to a nightmare , but is ... to: reduce your child's stress create a bedtime routine that's simple and relaxing make sure your child ...

  3. Night Rover Challenge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Night Rover Challenge was to foster innovations in energy storage technology. Specifically, this challenge asked competitors to create an energy...

  4. Night Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Tuncel; Fatma Özlem Orhan

    2009-01-01

    Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, even...

  5. History of the Night

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The definition of the night, as the period between sunset and sunrise, is consistent and unalterable, regardless of culture and time. However the perception of the night and its economic, social, and cultural roles are subject to change. Which parameters determine these changes? What can we learn by studying them about the specific character of a culture? Why do people experience the night in different ways in different historical periods and how did this affect their lives? How do references to nocturnal activities in historical sources (works of art, narratives) reveal what the artists/authors wish to communicate to their audiences? Can the night be a meaningful subject of historical and archaeological enquiry? A study of the source material in the Greek world (ca. 400 BC-ca. AD 400) shows a continuous effort to colonize the night with activities of the day, to make the night safer, more productive, more rational, more efficient. The main motors for this change were social developments and religion, no...

  6. A Midsummer Night's Science

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Last year, the first Science Night attracted nearly 1500 people. Dipping into history for the space of one night? This is the idea of Geneva's Museum of the History of Science, which is organizing its second Science Night, on 7 and 8 July, on the history of science. The first such event, held last year, was a considerable success with almost 15 000 visitors. The second Science Night, to be held in the magnificent setting of the Perle du Lac Park in Geneva, promises to be a winner too. By making science retell its own history, this major event is intended to show how every scientific and technical breakthrough is the culmination of a long period of growth that began hundreds of years in the past. Dozens of activities and events are included in this programme of time travel: visitors can study the night sky through telescopes and see what Galileo first observed, and then go to see a play on the life of the Italian scientist. Another play, commissioned specially for the occasion, will honour Geneva botanist De ...

  7. Blind Separation of Event-Related Brain Responses into Independent Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Makeig, Scott

    1996-01-01

    .... We report here a method for the blind separation of event-related brain responses into spatially stationary and temporally independent subcomponents using an Independent Component Analysis algorithm...

  8. Night Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Tuncel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, and insomnia with awakenings followed by nocturnal food ingestion. Recently night eating syndrome, conceptualized as a delayed circadian intake of food. Sleep-related eating disorder, thought to represent a parasomnia and as such included within the revised International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2, and characterized by nocturnal partial arousals associated with recurrent episodes of involuntary food consumption and altered levels of consciousness. Whether, however, sleep-related eating disorder and night eating syndrome represent different diseases or are part of a continuum is still debated. This review summarizes their characteristics, treatment outcomes and differences between them.

  9. "Twelfth Night" for Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, Lois; Coburn, Christine

    Aimed at primary-age children, this book brings William Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night" to them, recognizing that children, properly guided, will take to Shakespeare's characters and stories like "ducks to water"; in the process they find their inner voices, they collaborate, they improvise, and they communicate. Illustrated with…

  10. A night sky model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpylev, N. P.; Smirnov, M. A.; Bagrov, A. V.

    A night sky model is proposed. It includes different components of light polution, such as solar twilight, moon scattered light, zodiacal light, Milky Way, air glow and artificial light pollution. The model is designed for calculating the efficiency of astronomical installations.

  11. Stationary scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, J.M.

    1980-10-01

    A complementary approach to the time dependent scattering theory for one-body Schroedinger operators is presented. The stationary theory is concerned with objects of quantum theory like scattering waves and amplitudes. In the more recent abstract stationary theory some generalized form of the Lippman-Schwinger equation plays the basic role. Solving this equation leads to a linear map between generalized eigenfunctions of the perturbed and unperturbed operators. This map is the section at fixed energy of the wave-operator from the time dependent theory. Although the radiation condition does not appears explicitely in this formulation it can be shown to hold a posteriori in a variety of situations thus restoring the link with physical theories

  12. Stationary theory of scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, T.

    1977-01-01

    A variant of the stationary methods is described, and it is shown that it is useful in a wide range of problems, including scattering, by long-range potentials, two-space scattering, and multichannel scattering. The method is based on the notion of spectral forms. The paper is restricted to the simplest case of continuous spectral forms defined on a Banach space embedded in the basic Hilbert space. (P.D.)

  13. Night shift fatigue among anaesthesia trainees at a major metropolitan teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancman, B M

    2016-05-01

    Night shifts expose anaesthesia trainees to the risk of fatigue and, potentially, fatigue-related performance impairment. This study examined the workload, fatigue and coping strategies of anaesthesia trainees during night shifts. A blinded survey-based study was undertaken at a major single centre metropolitan teaching hospital in Australia. All ten anaesthesia trainees who worked night shifts participated. The survey collected data on duration of night shifts, workload, and sleep patterns. Fatigue was assessed using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). There were 93 night shifts generating data out of a potential 165. Trainees tended to sleep an increasing amount before their shift as the nights progressed from 1 to 5. Night 1 was identified as an 'at risk' night due to the amount of time spent awake before arriving at work (32% awake for U+003E8 hours); on all other nights trainees were most likely to have slept 6-8 hours. The KSS demonstrated an increase in sleepiness of 3 to 4 points on the scale from commencement to conclusion of a night shift. The Night 1 conclusion sleepiness was markedly worse than any other night with 42% falling into an 'at-risk' category. The findings demonstrate fatigue and inadequate sleep in anaesthesia trainees during night shifts in a major metropolitan teaching hospital. The data obtained may help administrators prepare safer rosters, and junior staff develop improved strategies to reduce the likelihood of fatigue.

  14. Jupiter Night and Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Day and night side narrow angle images taken on January 1, 2001 illustrating storms visible on the day side which are the sources of visible lightning when viewed on the night side. The images have been enhanced in contrast. Note the two day-side occurrences of high clouds, in the upper and lower parts of the image, are coincident with lightning storms seen on the darkside. The storms occur at 34.5 degrees and 23.5 degrees North latitude, within one degree of the latitudes at which similar lightning features were detected by the Galileo spacecraft. The images were taken at different times. The storms' longitudinal separation changes from one image to the next because the winds carrying them blow at different speeds at the two latitudes.

  15. Travelers In The Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Albert D.

    2014-11-01

    Travelers In The Night is an engaging and informative series of two minute radio programs about asteroids, comets, spacecraft, and other objects in space. The pieces are evergreen in that they are current but not dated. They are published on the Public Radio Exchange and carried by a number of radio stations. For teachers, students, and kids of all ages, the script for each piece and the start of a path for further inquiry can be found on the website travelersinthenight.org . The Travelers InThe Night Pieces are written and produced by an observing member of the Catalina Sky Survey Team at the University of Arizona. DPS members are encouraged to submit program ideas which can be developed to feature their research efforts.

  16. Stationary flow near fronts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhold Steinacker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1906, the Austrian scientist Max Margules published a paper on temperature stratification in resting and non-accelerated moving air. The paper derives conditions for stationary slopes of air mass boundaries and was an important forerunner of frontal theories. Its formulation of relations between changes in density and geostrophic wind across the front is basically a discrete version of the thermal wind balance equation. The paper was highly influential and is still being cited to the present day. This paper accompanies an English translation of Margules’ seminal paper. We conclude here our “Classic Papers” series of the Meteorologische Zeitschrift.

  17. The Stationary SQUID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jorge

    2018-06-01

    In the customary mode of operation of a SQUID, the electromagnetic field in the SQUID is an oscillatory function of time. In this situation, electromagnetic radiation is emitted and couples to the sample. This is a back action that can alter the state that we intend to measure. A circuit that could perform as a stationary SQUID consists of a loop of superconducting material that encloses the magnetic flux, connected to a superconducting and to a normal electrode. This circuit does not contain Josephson junctions, or any other miniature feature. We study the evolution of the order parameter and of the electrochemical potential in this circuit; they converge to a stationary regime, and the voltage between the electrodes depends on the enclosed flux. We obtain expressions for the power dissipation and for the heat transported by the electric current; the validity of these expressions does not rely on a particular evolution model for the order parameter. We evaluate the influence of fluctuations. For a SQUID perimeter of the order of 1μ m and temperature 0.9T_c, we obtain a flux resolution of the order of 10^{-5}Φ _0/Hz^{1/2}; the resolution is expected to improve as the temperature is lowered.

  18. Stationary flywheel energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilhaus, A; Hau, E; Gassner, G; Huss, G; Schauberger, H

    1981-01-01

    The aim of this system study is to find out industrial applications of stationary flywheel energy accumulators. The economic value for the consumer and the effects on the power supply grid are investigated. Up to now, stationary flywheel energy accumulators have only been used in a small range. The main reason for thinking of the application in a wider range was the hope that those could be used economically for lowering the maximum output demand of the power supply grid. The possible savings in energy costs, however, proved to be too small for paying back the investment costs. Further benefits are necessary for advantageous application. As to overall economy, compensation of short time maximum power output seems to be more favorable at the power stations. An additional possibility for energy storage by flywheels is given where otherwise lost energy can be used effectively, according to the successful brake energy storage in vehicles. Under this aspect the future use of flywheels in wind-power-plants seems to be promising. Attractive savings of energy can be obtained by introducing modern flywheel technology for emergency power supply units which are employed for instance in telecommunication systems. Especially the application for emergency power supply, in power stations and in combustion with wind energy converters need further investigation.

  19. The Sky at Night

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    For more than 50 years now Sir Patrick Moore has presented the BBC Television series Sky at Night; not a month has been missed – a record for any television series, and a record which may never be broken. Every three years or so a book is published covering the main events in both astronomy and space research. This is the 13th volume, not only a record of the programmes but also of the great advances and discoveries during the period covered - eclipses, comets, and the strange chemical lakes of Titan, for instance, but also anniversaries such as the fifteenth “birthday” of the Hubble Space Telescope, and not forgetting the programme celebrating the Sky at Night’s 50th year, attended by astronaut Piers Sellars and many others who appeared on the programme over the years. All the chapters are self-contained, and fully illustrated. In this new Sky at Night book you will find much to entertain you. It will appeal to amateurs and professionals alike.

  20. Stationary and Transient Response Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Krenk, Steen

    1982-01-01

    The covariance functions for the transient response of a linear MDOF-system due to stationary time limited excitation with an arbitrary frequency content are related directly to the covariance functions of the stationary response. For rational spectral density functions closed form expressions fo...

  1. Paul Graham, American Night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Bernard

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Le photographe britannique Paul Graham (1956- ne jouit pas encore en France de la notoriété de son compatriote Martin Parr et on ne peut, par conséquent, que se féliciter de voir l’une de ses plus puissantes séries — American Night — représentée à la Galerie Les Filles du Calvaire.Connu, avec Parr, pour avoir profondément influencé la photo documentaire anglaise en la faisant passer à la couleur avec virulence, Graham a été révélé il y a une vingtaine d’années par une série d’images prises à...

  2. Nightly Test system migration

    CERN Document Server

    Win-Lime, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The summer student program allows students to participate to the Cern adventure. They can follow several interesting lectures about particle science and participate to the experiment work. As a summer student, I had worked for LHCb experiment. LHCb uses a lot of software to analyze its data. All this software is organized in packages and projects. They are built and tested during the night using an automated system and the results are displayed on a web interface. Actually, LHCb is changing this system. It is looking for a replacement candidate. So I was charged to unify some internal interfaces to permit a swift migration. In this document, I will describe shortly the system used by LHCb, then I will explain what I have done in detail.

  3. Dead of night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, Leon

    2010-07-01

    Dead of Night, the first psychoanalytic horror film, was produced in England in 1945, immediately after the end of World War II--that is, after the English population had suffered systematic Nazi terror from imminent invasion, incessant aerial bombing, and rocket-bombs. This film continued the prewar format of horror films based on themes of the supernatural and the hubris and excesses of science. However, it introduced psychoanalysis as the science in question. The film is structured on two levels: a genteel English country weekend to which witty and urbane guests have been invited; and five horror stories told by the guests. Psychoanalytic insights into this film structure are used here to explain how the film induces horror in the audience.

  4. What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Color Blindness? Who Is at Risk for Color Blindness? Color Blindness Causes Color Blindness Diagnosis and Treatment How Color Blindness Is Tested What Is Color Blindness? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el daltonismo? Written ...

  5. Traffic Light Detection at Night

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bornø; Philipsen, Mark Philip; Bahnsen, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any in- telligent vehicle, it must function both at day and at night. However, the majority of TLR research is focused on day-time scenarios. In this paper we will focus on detection of traffic lights at night and evalu- ate the performance...... of three detectors based on heuristic models and one learning-based detector. Evaluation is done on night-time data from the public LISA Traffic Light Dataset. The learning-based detector out- performs the model-based detectors in both precision and recall. The learning-based detector achieves an average...

  6. AHP 47: A NIGHT DATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phun tshogs dbang rgyal ཕུན་ཚོགས་དབང་རྒྱལ།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The author was born in 1993 in Ska chung (Gaqun Village, Nyin mtha' (Ningmute Township, Rma lho (Henan Mongolian Autonomous County, Rma lho (Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province, PR China. Night dating was popular for teenage boys some years ago. They rode horses and yaks when they went night dating. They generally rode yaks, because horses were important for their families and used for such important tasks as pursuing bandits and going to the county town for grain and supplies. An early experience with night dating is described.

  7. Discover POPSCIENCE on Researchers' Night

    CERN Multimedia

    The POPSCIENCE Team

    2014-01-01

    On Friday 26 September 2014, CERN will be celebrating European Researchers' Night at three venues in Geneva and St. Genis-Pouilly. Inspired by Andy Warhol, this year's theme is “Pop science is for everyone”.     Every year, on the last Friday of September, the European Researchers’ Night takes place in about 300 cities all over Europe, with funding from the EU, to promote research and highlight researchers in engaging and fun ways for the general public. Andy Warhol said, “Pop art is for everyone”. This year, “Pop science is for everyone” is the motto of the Researchers’ Night event organised by CERN and its partners*. The night will offer everyone the opportunity to learn about the latest discoveries in physics and cosmology through poetry, theatre and music. This will be in addition to the event's traditional activities for the general public. To attract new audiences,...

  8. Social Factors Determining the Experience of Blindness among Pregnant Women in Developing Countries: The Case of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan; Collier-Tenison, Shannon; Bodden, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10 million pregnant women around the world develop night blindness annually. In India, one in 11 pregnant women suffers from night blindness. This study used a nationally representative sample of 35,248 women from India between the ages of 15 and 49 who had given birth in the past five years to understand the effect of women's…

  9. The stationary neutron radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, A.A.; Newell, D.L.; Heidel, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    To provide the high intensity neutron beam and support systems necessary for radiography, the Stationary Neutron Radiography System was constructed at McClellan Air Force Base. The Stationary Neutron Radiography System utilizes a one megawatt TRIGA reactor contained in an Aluminium tank surrounded by eight foot thick concrete walls. There are four neutron beam tubes at inclined angles from the reactor core to separate radiography bays. In three of the bays, robotic systems manipulate aircraft components in the neutron beam, while real-time imaging systems provide images concurrent with the irradiation. Film radiography of smaller components is performed in the remaining bay

  10. Night airglow in RGB mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhalev А.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To study dynamics of the upper atmosphere, we consider results of the night sky photometry, using a color CCD camera and taking into account the night airglow and features of its spectral composition. We use night airglow observations for 2010–2015, which have been obtained at the ISTP SB RAS Geophysical Observatory (52° N, 103° E by the camera with KODAK KAI-11002 CCD sensor. We estimate average brightness of the night sky in R, G, B channels of the color camera for eastern Siberia with typical values ranging from ~0.008 to 0.01 erg·cm–2·s–1. Besides, we determine seasonal variations in the night sky luminosities in R, G, B channels of the color camera. In these channels, luminosities decrease in spring, increase in autumn, and have a pronounced summer maximum, which can be explained by scattered light and is associated with the location of the Geophysical Observatory. We consider geophysical phenomena with their optical effects in R, G, B channels of the color camera. For some geophysical phenomena (geomagnetic storms, sudden stratospheric warmings, we demonstrate the possibility of quantitative relationship between enhanced signals in R and G channels and increases in intensities of discrete 557.7 and 630 nm emissions, which are predominant in the airglow spectrum

  11. Blind Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arka Chattopadhyay

    2015-08-01

    There’s no way to know whether he was blind from birth or blindness was something he had picked up from his fights with other cats. He wasn’t an urban cat. He lived in a little village, soaked in the smell of fish with a river running right beside it. Cats like these have stories of a different kind. The two-storied hotel where he lived had a wooden floor. It stood right on the riverbank and had more than a tilt towards the river, as if deliberately leaning on the water.

  12. Stationary measure in the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, Andrei; Vanchurin, Vitaly; Winitzki, Sergei

    2009-01-01

    We study the recently proposed ''stationary measure'' in the context of the string landscape scenario. We show that it suffers neither from the ''Boltzmann brain'' problem nor from the ''youngness'' paradox that makes some other measures predict a high CMB temperature at present. We also demonstrate a good performance of this measure in predicting the results of local experiments, such as proton decay

  13. A night with good vibrations

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    For its third edition, the Museum d'histoire des sciences invites you to a Science Night under the banner of waves and undulations. Scientists, artists and storytellers from more than forty institutes and local or regional associations will show in only one weekend that waves and undulations form an integral part of our daily environment. Telephones, televisions, radios, irons, lighting, music, sun rays, stars, rainbows, earthquakes and other natural phenomena - all produce, emit or receive waves or undulations. The visitors attending the Night will be able to get in contact with the nature of waves through interactive exhibitions on sound and light and through hands-on demonstrations arranged around the Bartholoni villa and in the Park of the Perle du lac. An amusing and distracting way to familiarize yourself with the concepts of wavelength, frequency and interference lengths... In addition to the stands, the Night will offer many other activities: reconstructions of critical experiments, scientific consu...

  14. A night with good vibrations

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Next week-end, the Geneva Science History Museum invites you to a Science Night under the banner of waves and vibrations. Scientists, artists and storytellers from more than forty institutes and local or regional associations will show that waves and vibrations form an integral part of our environment. You will be able to get in contact with the nature of waves through interactive exhibitions on sound and light and through hands-on demonstrations arranged in the Park of the Perle du Lac. On the CERN stand, you will be able to measure the speed of light with a bar of chocolate, and understand the scattering of waves with plastic ducks. Amazing, no? In addition to the stands, the Night will offer many other activities: reconstructions of experiments, a play, a concert of crystal glasses, an illuminated fountain, a house of spirits. More information Science Night, 6 and 7 July, Park of the Perle du Lac, Geneva

  15. Blind Ambition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    No matter how dedicated they may be, some teachers are daunted by extreme challenges. Carol Agler, music director at the Ohio State School for the Blind (OSSB), is not one of those teachers. Since joining the OSSB staff 11 years ago, Agler has revived the school's long-dormant band program and created its first marching band. Next January, she…

  16. Progress in color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused

  17. Volunteers for Researchers’ Night wanted

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Every year, on the last Friday of September, the European Researchers’ Night (see here) takes place in about 300 cities all over Europe - promoting research in engaging and fun ways for the general public. This year, CERN will be participating once again, hosting dozens of events across the Balexert shopping centre – and we’ll need YOUR help to make the celebration a success.   From film screenings and celebrity Q&A sessions to “Ask a Researcher” and build-your-own LEGO LHC events, this year’s Researchers’ Night is going to be jam-packed! The fun will kick off prior to the night itself with a mock-up of the LHC tunnel installed in the central court of the Balexert shopping centre, 8-12 September*. CERN people will be on hand to speak to shoppers about the LHC, and to encourage them to participate in Researchers’ Night! The CERN organisers are recruiting volunteers and support staff for Researchers’ ...

  18. Virtual Stationary Automata for Mobile Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dolev, Shlomi; Gilbert, Seth; Lahiani, Limor; Lynch, Nancy; Nolte, Tina

    2005-01-01

    We define a programming abstraction for mobile networks called the Virtual Stationary Automata programming layer, consisting of real mobile clients, virtual timed I/O automata called virtual stationary automata (VSAs...

  19. Does Current Scientific Evidence Support a Link Between Light at Night and Breast Cancer Among Female Night-Shift Nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerman, Barbra; Liu, Jianghong

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is increasingly prevalent in industrialized regions of the world, and exposure to light at night (LAN) has been proposed as a potential risk factor. Epidemiological observations have documented an increased breast cancer risk among female night-shift workers, and strong experimental evidence for this relationship has also been found in rodent models. Indirect support for the LAN hypothesis comes from studies involving blind women, sleep duration, bedroom light levels, and community nighttime light levels. This article reviews the literature, discusses possible mechanisms of action, and provides recommendations for occupational health nursing research, practice, and education. Research is needed to further explore the relationship between exposure to LAN and breast cancer risk and elucidate the mechanisms underlying this relationship before interventions can be designed for prevention and mitigation of breast cancer. PMID:22658734

  20. Stationary measure in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linde, Andrei [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Vanchurin, Vitaly; Winitzki, Sergei, E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu, E-mail: vitaly@cosmos2.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: winitzki@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    We study the recently proposed ''stationary measure'' in the context of the string landscape scenario. We show that it suffers neither from the ''Boltzmann brain'' problem nor from the ''youngness'' paradox that makes some other measures predict a high CMB temperature at present. We also demonstrate a good performance of this measure in predicting the results of local experiments, such as proton decay.

  1. Non-stationary Markov chains

    OpenAIRE

    Mallak, Saed

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Mathematics and Institute of Engineering and Sciences of Bilkent University, 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves leaf 29 In thi.s work, we studierl the Ergodicilv of Non-Stationary .Markov chains. We gave several e.xainples with different cases. We proved that given a sec[uence of Markov chains such that the limit of this sec|uence is an Ergodic Markov chain, then the limit of the combination ...

  2. Metaphoric Car Drawings By a 12-Year-Old Congenitally Blind Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hsin-Yi; Kennedy, John M

    2015-12-01

    A 12-year-old congenitally-blind girl drew a car moving, stationary, and braking. For stationary, she put the wheels inside the car and, for braking, drew the wheels as rough rectangles. At the age verbal metaphor is understood (Winner, 1988), the girl invented metaphoric drawings. In these, what is shown is not what is meant. In late childhood, metaphor may be understood similarly in pictures and words and by the sighted and blind. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Acute Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekins, Jessica M

    2015-09-01

    Sudden loss of vision is an ophthalmic emergency with numerous possible causes. Abnormalities may occur at any point within the complex vision pathway, from retina to optic nerve to the visual center in the occipital lobe. This article reviews specific prechiasm (retina and optic nerve) and cerebral cortical diseases that lead to acute blindness. Information regarding specific etiologies, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for vision is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Urban Noise Recorded by Stationary Monitoring Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąkowski, Andrzej; Radziszewski, Leszek; Dekýš, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the analysis results of equivalent sound level recorded by two road traffic noise monitoring stations. The stations were located in Kielce (an example of a medium-size town in Poland) at the roads in the town in the direction of Łódź and Lublin. The measurements were carried out through stationary stations monitoring the noise and traffic of motor vehicles. The RMS values based on A-weighted sound level were recorded every 1 s in the buffer and the results were registered every 1 min over the period of investigations. The registered data were the basis for calculating the equivalent sound level for three time intervals: from 6:00 to 18:00, from 18:00 to 22:00 and from 22:00 to 6:00. Analysis included the values of the equivalent sound level recorded for different days of the week split into 24h periods, nights, days and evenings. The data analysed included recordings from 2013. The agreement of the distribution of the variable under analysis with normal distribution was evaluated. It was demonstrated that in most cases (for both roads) there was sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis at the significance level of 0.05. It was noted that compared with Łódź Road, in the case of Lublin Road data, more cases were recorded for which the null hypothesis could not be rejected. Uncertainties of the equivalent sound level measurements were compared within the periods under analysis. The standard deviation, coefficient of variation, the positional coefficient of variation, the quartile deviation was proposed for performing a comparative analysis of the obtained data scattering. The investigations indicated that the recorded data varied depending on the traffic routes and time intervals. The differences concerned the values of uncertainties and coefficients of variation of the equivalent sound levels.

  5. Altered sleep-wake patterns in blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubin, S.; Gacon, C.; Jennum, P.

    2016-01-01

    discuss variability in the sleep–wake pattern between blind and normal-sighted individuals. Methods Thirty-day actigraphy recordings were collected from 11 blind individuals without residual light perception and 11 age- and sex-matched normal-sighted controls. From these recordings, we extracted...... the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and chronotype, using the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Results Although no group differences were found when averaging over the entire recording period, we found a greater variability throughout the 30-days in both sleep efficiency and timing of the night-time sleep...

  6. Hot Flashes amd Night Sweats (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Hot Flashes and Night Sweats (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview ... quality of life in many patients with cancer. Hot flashes and night sweats may be side effects ...

  7. White Nights rebuts Pravda claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that another Russo-foreign joint venture under attack in the Moscow press has denied charges of impropriety and mismanagement in its operations. The White Nights joint venture last month came under scathing attack from Moscow newspaper Pravda, which alleged the venture has reneged on its promises, is virtually bankrupt, and mistreats Russian employees. White Nights is a joint venture owned 50% by Varyeganneftegaz (VNG), a Russian oil and gas enterprise, and 50% by Salomon Inc. unit Phibro Energy Inc., Greenwich, Conn., and Anglo-Suisse (U.S.S.R.) Ltd., a subsidiary of Anglo-Suisse Inc., Houston. The venture started operations Apr. 1, 1991, with a program of workovers, redevelopment, and horizontal wells in West Varyegan and Tagrinsk oil fields in western Siberia

  8. Climatic feedbacks between stationary and transient eddies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branscome, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    Stationary eddies make a significant contribution to poleward heat transport during Northern Hemisphere winter, equaling the transport by transient eddies. On the other hand, stationary eddy transport during the summer is negligible. The effect of topography on time-mean stationary waves and low-frequency variability has been widely studied. In contrast, little attention has been given to the climatic feedbacks associated with stationary eddies. Furthermore, the relationship between stationary and transient eddies in the context of global and regional climate is not well understood. The response of the climate system to anthropogenic forcing is likely to have some dependence on stationary wave transport and its interaction with transient eddies. Some early GCM simulations and observational analyses indicate a strong feedback between the meridional heat fluxes of stationary and transient eddies

  9. Quantum cosmology and stationary states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, T.

    1983-01-01

    A model for quantum gravity, in which the conformal part of the metric is quantized using the path integral formalism, is presented. Einstein's equations can be suitably modified to take into account the effects of quantum conformal fluctuations. A closed Friedman model can be described in terms of well-defined stationary states. The ''ground state'' sets a lower bound (at Planck length) to the scale factor preventing the collapse. A possible explanation for matter creation and quantum nature of matter is suggested. (author)

  10. popscience - European Researchers Night 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    Jeanneret, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Vendredi 26 septembre 2014, le CERN célèbrera la Nuit européenne des chercheurs à Genève et à St-Genis-Pouilly. Le thème de l’édition 2014 est inspiré d’Andy Warhol : « Pop science is for everyone ». On Friday 26 September 2014, CERN will be celebrating European Researchers' Night at three venues in Geneva and St. Genis-Pouilly. Inspired by Andy Warhol, this year's theme is “Pop science is for everyone”.

  11. Sleep, ageing and night work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.N. Pires

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that the frequency or worsening of sleep disorders tends to increase with age and that the ability to perform circadian adjustments tends to decrease in individuals who work the night shift. This condition can cause consequences such as excessive sleepiness, which are often a factor in accidents that occur at work. The present study investigated the effects of age on the daytime and nighttime sleep patterns using polysomnography (PSG of long-haul bus drivers working fixed night or day shifts. A total of 124 drivers, free of sleep disorders and grouped according to age (<45 years, N = 85, and ≥45 years, N = 39 and PSG timing (daytime (D PSG, N = 60; nighttime (N PSG, N = 64 participated in the study. We observed a significant effect of bedtime (D vs N and found that the length of daytime sleep was shorter [D: <45 years (336.10 ± 73.75 min vs N: <45 years (398 ± 78.79 min and D: ≥45 years (346.57 ± 43.17 min vs N: ≥45 years (386.44 ± 52.92 min; P ≤ 0.05]. Daytime sleep was less efficient compared to nighttime sleep [D: <45 years (78.86 ± 13.30% vs N: <45 years (86.45 ± 9.77% and D: ≥45 years (79.89 ± 9.45% and N: ≥45 years (83.13 ± 9.13%; P ≤ 0.05]. An effect of age was observed for rapid eye movement sleep [D: <45 years (18.05 ± 6.12% vs D: ≥45 years (15.48 ± 7.11% and N: <45 years (23.88 ± 6.75% vs N: ≥45 years (20.77 ± 5.64%; P ≤ 0.05], which was greater in younger drivers. These findings are inconsistent with the notion that older night workers are more adversely affected than younger night workers by the challenge of attempting to rest during the day.

  12. Strong Stationary Duality for Diffusion Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fill, James Allen; Lyzinski, Vince

    2014-01-01

    We develop the theory of strong stationary duality for diffusion processes on compact intervals. We analytically derive the generator and boundary behavior of the dual process and recover a central tenet of the classical Markov chain theory in the diffusion setting by linking the separation distance in the primal diffusion to the absorption time in the dual diffusion. We also exhibit our strong stationary dual as the natural limiting process of the strong stationary dual sequence of a well ch...

  13. Condensational theory of stationary tornadoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarieva, A.M.; Gorshkov, V.G.; Nefiodov, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Using the Bernoulli integral for air streamline with condensing water vapor a stationary axisymmetric tornado circulation is described. The obtained profiles of vertical, radial and tangential velocities are in agreement with observations for the Mulhall tornado, world's largest on record and longest-lived among the three tornadoes for which 3D velocity data are available. Maximum possible vortex velocities are estimated. -- Highlights: → Water vapor condensation causes a logarithmic drop of air pressure towards tornado center. → The first ever theoretical description of tornado velocities is obtained. → The maximum vortex velocity grows logarithmically with decreasing tornado eye radius. → Air motion with high velocities can only develop in sufficiently large condensation areas.

  14. Night shift work and modifiable lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepłońska, Beata; Burdelak, Weronika; Krysicka, Jolanta; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Sobala, Wojciech; Klimecka-Muszyńska, Dorota; Rybacki, Marcin

    2014-10-01

    Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more) - 434 individuals currently working night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity) was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22) among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029). This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.

  15. Night shift work and modifiable lifestyle factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pepłońska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. Material and Methods: The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more - 434 individuals currently wor­king night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI, number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Results: Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22 among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029. Conclusions: This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.

  16. Channel by Day and Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 17 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of a small channel. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 19.8, Longitude 141.5 East (218.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project

  17. Melas Chasma, Day and Night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of day and night infrared images of Melas Chasma taken by the camera system on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The daytime temperature images are shown in black and white, superimposed on the martian topography. A single nighttime temperature image is superimposed in color. The daytime temperatures range from approximately -35 degrees Celsius (-31 degrees Fahrenheit) in black to -5 degrees Celsius (23 degrees Fahrenheit) in white. Overlapping landslides and individual layers in the walls of Melas Chasma can be seen in this image. The landslides flowed over 100 kilometers (62 miles) across the floor of Melas Chasma, producing deposits with ridges and grooves of alternating warm and cold materials that can still be seen. The temperature differences in the daytime images are due primarily to lighting effects, where sunlit slopes are warm (bright) and shadowed slopes are cool (dark). The nighttime temperature differences are due to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay relatively warm (red). Fine grained dust and sand (blue) cools off more rapidly at night. These images were acquired using the thermal infrared imaging system infrared Band 9, centered at 12.6 micrometers.Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. Additional science partners are located at the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL. Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National Laboratories

  18. Lomonosov Crater, Day and Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 16 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Lomonosov Crater. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 64.9, Longitude 350.7 East (9.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project

  19. Night vision: changing the way we drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapper, Stuart H.; Kyle, Robert J. S.; Nicklin, Robert L.; Kormos, Alexander L.

    2001-03-01

    A revolutionary new Night Vision System has been designed to help drivers see well beyond their headlights. From luxury automobiles to heavy trucks, Night Vision is helping drivers see better, see further, and react sooner. This paper describes how Night Vision Systems are being used in transportation and their viability for the future. It describes recent improvements to the system currently in the second year of production. It also addresses consumer education and awareness, cost reduction, product reliability, market expansion and future improvements.

  20. Oxidative DNA damage during night shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Parveen; Mirick, Dana K; Randolph, Timothy W; Gong, Jicheng; Buchanan, Diana Taibi; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Davis, Scott

    2017-09-01

    We previously reported that compared with night sleep, day sleep among shift workers was associated with reduced urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), potentially reflecting a reduced ability to repair 8-OH-dG lesions in DNA. We identified the absence of melatonin during day sleep as the likely causative factor. We now investigate whether night work is also associated with reduced urinary excretion of 8-OH-dG. For this cross-sectional study, 50 shift workers with the largest negative differences in night work versus night sleep circulating melatonin levels (measured as 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in urine) were selected from among the 223 shift workers included in our previous study. 8-OH-dG concentrations were measured in stored urine samples using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Mixed effects models were used to compare night work versus night sleep 8-OH-dG levels. Circulating melatonin levels during night work (mean=17.1 ng/mg creatinine/mg creatinine) were much lower than during night sleep (mean=51.7 ng/mg creatinine). In adjusted analyses, average urinary 8-OH-dG levels during the night work period were only 20% of those observed during the night sleep period (95% CI 10% to 30%; psleep, is associated with reduced repair of 8-OH-dG lesions in DNA and that the effect is likely driven by melatonin suppression occurring during night work relative to night sleep. If confirmed, future studies should evaluate melatonin supplementation as a means to restore oxidative DNA damage repair capacity among shift workers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Stationary and non-stationary occurrences of miniature end plate potentials are well described as stationary and non-stationary Poisson processes in the mollusc Navanax inermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, M S; Spray, D C; Bennett, M V

    1988-06-28

    Protractor muscles in the gastropod mollusc Navanax inermis exhibit typical spontaneous miniature end plate potentials with mean amplitude 1.71 +/- 1.19 (standard deviation) mV. The evoked end plate potential is quantized, with a quantum equal to the miniature end plate potential amplitude. When their rate is stationary, occurrence of miniature end plate potentials is a random, Poisson process. When non-stationary, spontaneous miniature end plate potential occurrence is a non-stationary Poisson process, a Poisson process with the mean frequency changing with time. This extends the random Poisson model for miniature end plate potentials to the frequently observed non-stationary occurrence. Reported deviations from a Poisson process can sometimes be accounted for by the non-stationary Poisson process and more complex models, such as clustered release, are not always needed.

  2. Noise Diagnostics of Stationary and Non-Stationary Reactor Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunde, Carl

    2007-04-15

    This thesis concerns the application of noise diagnostics on different problems in the area of reactor physics involving both stationary and non-stationary core processes. Five different problems are treated, divided into three different parts. The first problem treated in the first part is the classification of two-phase flow regimes from neutron radiographic and visible light images with a neuro-wavelet algorithm. The algorithm consists of wavelet pre-processing and of an artificial neural network. The result indicates that the wavelet pre-processing is improving the training of the neural network. Next, detector tubes which are suspected of impacting on nearby fuel-assemblies in a boiling water reactor (BWR) are identified by both a classical spectral method and wavelet-based methods. It was found that there is good agreement between the different methods as well as with visual inspections of detector tube and fuel assembly damage made during the outage at the plant. The third problem addresses the determination of the decay ratio of a BWR from the auto-correlation function (ACF). Here wavelets are used, with some success, both for de-trending and de-nosing of the ACF and also for direct estimation of the decay ratio from the ACF. The second part deals with the analysis of beam-mode and shell-mode core-barrel vibrations in pressurised water reactors (PWRs). The beam-mode vibrations are analysed by using parameters of the vibration peaks, in spectra from ex core detectors. A trend analysis of the peak amplitude shows that the peak amplitude is changing during the fuel cycle. When it comes to the analysis of the shell-mode vibration, 1-D analytical and numerical calculations are performed in order to calculate the neutron noise induced in the core. The two calculations are in agreement and show that a large local noise component is present in the core which could be used to classify the shell-mode vibrations. However, a measurement made in the PWR Ringhals-3 shows

  3. Noise Diagnostics of Stationary and Non-Stationary Reactor Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunde, Carl

    2007-01-01

    This thesis concerns the application of noise diagnostics on different problems in the area of reactor physics involving both stationary and non-stationary core processes. Five different problems are treated, divided into three different parts. The first problem treated in the first part is the classification of two-phase flow regimes from neutron radiographic and visible light images with a neuro-wavelet algorithm. The algorithm consists of wavelet pre-processing and of an artificial neural network. The result indicates that the wavelet pre-processing is improving the training of the neural network. Next, detector tubes which are suspected of impacting on nearby fuel-assemblies in a boiling water reactor (BWR) are identified by both a classical spectral method and wavelet-based methods. It was found that there is good agreement between the different methods as well as with visual inspections of detector tube and fuel assembly damage made during the outage at the plant. The third problem addresses the determination of the decay ratio of a BWR from the auto-correlation function (ACF). Here wavelets are used, with some success, both for de-trending and de-nosing of the ACF and also for direct estimation of the decay ratio from the ACF. The second part deals with the analysis of beam-mode and shell-mode core-barrel vibrations in pressurised water reactors (PWRs). The beam-mode vibrations are analysed by using parameters of the vibration peaks, in spectra from ex core detectors. A trend analysis of the peak amplitude shows that the peak amplitude is changing during the fuel cycle. When it comes to the analysis of the shell-mode vibration, 1-D analytical and numerical calculations are performed in order to calculate the neutron noise induced in the core. The two calculations are in agreement and show that a large local noise component is present in the core which could be used to classify the shell-mode vibrations. However, a measurement made in the PWR Ringhals-3 shows

  4. Stationary black holes as holographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, Istvan [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-01 (Japan); MTA KFKI, Reszecske- es Magfizikai Kutatointezet, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33 (Hungary)

    2007-11-21

    Smooth spacetimes possessing a (global) one-parameter group of isometries and an associated Killing horizon in Einstein's theory of gravity are investigated. No assumption concerning the asymptotic structure is made; thereby, the selected spacetimes may be considered as generic distorted stationary black holes. First, spacetimes of arbitrary dimension, n {>=} 3, with matter satisfying the dominant energy condition and allowing a non-zero cosmological constant are investigated. In this part, complete characterization of the topology of the event horizon of 'distorted' black holes is given. It is shown that the topology of the event horizon of 'distorted' black holes is allowed to possess a much larger variety than that of the isolated black hole configurations. In the second part, four-dimensional (non-degenerate) electrovac distorted black hole spacetimes are considered. It is shown that the spacetime geometry and the electromagnetic field are uniquely determined in the black hole region once the geometry of the bifurcation surface and one of the electromagnetic potentials are specified there. Conditions guaranteeing the same type of determinacy, in a neighbourhood of the event horizon, on the domain of outer communication side are also investigated. In particular, they are shown to be satisfied in the analytic case.

  5. The additional value of a night splint to eccentric exercises in chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, R. J.; Weir, A.; Visser, R. J. A.; de Winter, ThC; Tol, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    To assess whether the use of a night splint is of added benefit on functional outcome in treating chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. This was a single-blind, prospective, single centre, randomised controlled trial set in the Sports Medical Department, The Hague Medical Centre, The

  6. How do different definitions of night shift affect the exposure assessment of night work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Johnni; Kolstad, Henrik A

    2016-01-01

    the reference definition (at least 3 h of work between 24:00 and 05:00) and definitions using a period during the night. The overlap with definitions based on starting and ending time was less pronounced (64-71 %). The proportion of classified night shifts differs little when night shifts are based...

  7. Working night shifts affects surgeons' biological rhythm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, Ilda; Andersen, Lærke T; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic sleep deprivation combined with work during the night is known to affect performance and compromise residents' own safety. The aim of this study was to examine markers of circadian rhythm and the sleep-wake cycle in surgeons working night shifts. METHODS: Surgeons were monitor...

  8. Definitions of night eating in adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Striegel-Moore, RH; Thompson, D; Franko, DL; Barton, B; Affenito, S; Schreiber, GB; Daniels, [No Value

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of night eating in a community cohort of black and white girls, using different definitions of night eating as described in the literature. Research Methods and Procedures: Three-day food diaries collected as part of the National Growth and Health Study were

  9. Representing vision and blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Patrick L; Cox, Alexander P; Jensen, Mark; Allen, Travis; Duncan, William; Diehl, Alexander D

    2016-01-01

    There have been relatively few attempts to represent vision or blindness ontologically. This is unsurprising as the related phenomena of sight and blindness are difficult to represent ontologically for a variety of reasons. Blindness has escaped ontological capture at least in part because: blindness or the employment of the term 'blindness' seems to vary from context to context, blindness can present in a myriad of types and degrees, and there is no precedent for representing complex phenomena such as blindness. We explore current attempts to represent vision or blindness, and show how these attempts fail at representing subtypes of blindness (viz., color blindness, flash blindness, and inattentional blindness). We examine the results found through a review of current attempts and identify where they have failed. By analyzing our test cases of different types of blindness along with the strengths and weaknesses of previous attempts, we have identified the general features of blindness and vision. We propose an ontological solution to represent vision and blindness, which capitalizes on resources afforded to one who utilizes the Basic Formal Ontology as an upper-level ontology. The solution we propose here involves specifying the trigger conditions of a disposition as well as the processes that realize that disposition. Once these are specified we can characterize vision as a function that is realized by certain (in this case) biological processes under a range of triggering conditions. When the range of conditions under which the processes can be realized are reduced beyond a certain threshold, we are able to say that blindness is present. We characterize vision as a function that is realized as a seeing process and blindness as a reduction in the conditions under which the sight function is realized. This solution is desirable because it leverages current features of a major upper-level ontology, accurately captures the phenomenon of blindness, and can be

  10. Dampers for Stationary Labyrinth Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Aini, Yehia; Mitchell, William; Roberts, Lawrence; Montgomery, Stuart; Davis, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Vibration dampers have been invented that are incorporated as components within the stationary labyrinth seal assembly. These dampers are intended to supplement other vibration-suppressing features of labyrinth seals in order to reduce the incidence of high-cycle-fatigue failures, which have been known to occur in the severe vibratory environments of jet engines and turbopumps in which labyrinth seals are typically used. A vibration damper of this type includes several leaf springs and/or a number of metallic particles (shot) all held in an annular seal cavity by a retaining ring. The leaf springs are made of a spring steel alloy chosen, in conjunction with design parameters, to maintain sufficient preload to ensure effectiveness of damping at desired operating temperatures. The cavity is vented via a small radial gap between the retaining ring and seal housing. The damping mechanism is complex. In the case of leaf springs, the mechanism is mainly friction in the slippage between the seal housing and individual dampers. In the case of a damper that contains shot, the damping mechanism includes contributions from friction between individual particles, friction between particles and cavity walls, and dissipation of kinetic energy of impact. The basic concept of particle/shot vibration dampers has been published previously; what is new here is the use of such dampers to suppress traveling-wave vibrations in labyrinth seals. Damping effectiveness depends on many parameters, including, but not limited to, coefficient of friction, mode shape, and frequency and amplitude of vibrational modes. In tests, preloads of the order of 6 to 15 lb (2.72 to 6.8 kilograms) per spring damper were demonstrated to provide adequate damping levels. Effectiveness of shot damping of vibrations having amplitudes from 20 to 200 times normal terrestrial gravitational acceleration (196 to 1,960 meters per square second) and frequencies up to 12 kHz was demonstrated for shot sizes from 0.032 to

  11. Stationary axisymmetric Einstein--Maxwell field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catenacci, R.; Diaz Alonso, J.

    1976-01-01

    We show the existence of a formal identity between Einstein's and Ernst's stationary axisymmetric gravitational field equations and the Einstein--Maxwell and the Ernst equations for the electrostatic and magnetostatic axisymmetric cases. Our equations are invariant under very simple internal symmetry groups, and one of them appears to be new. We also obtain a method for associating two stationary axisymmetric vacuum solutions with every electrostatic known

  12. Stationary infinitely divisible processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.

    Several recent strands of work has led to the consideration of various types of continuous time stationary and infinitely divisible processes. A review of these types, with some new results, is presented.......Several recent strands of work has led to the consideration of various types of continuous time stationary and infinitely divisible processes. A review of these types, with some new results, is presented....

  13. Organization and management of ATLAS nightly builds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luehring, F; Obreshkov, E; Quarrie, D; Rybkine, G; Undrus, A

    2010-01-01

    The automated multi-platform software nightly build system is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation and code approval schemes. Code developers from ATLAS participating Institutes spread all around the world use about 30 branches of nightly releases for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers. The nightly releases lead up to, and are the basis of, stable software releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS nightly builds are managed by the fully automated NICOS framework on the computing farm with 44 powerful multiprocessor nodes. The ATN test tool is embedded within the nightly system and provides results shortly after full compilations complete. Other test frameworks are synchronized with NICOS jobs and run larger scale validation jobs using the nightly releases. NICOS web pages dynamically provide information about the progress and results of the builds. For faster feedback, E-mail notifications about nightly releases problems are automatically distributed to the developers responsible.

  14. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Won Sik; Grandy, Andrew; Boroski, Andrew; Krajtl, Lubomir; Johnson, Terry

    2015-01-01

    For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel

  15. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won Sik [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Grandy, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Boroski, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krajtl, Lubomir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Johnson, Terry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel

  16. Night sky a falcon field guide

    CERN Document Server

    Nigro, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Night Sky: A Falcon Field Guide covers both summer and winter constellations, planets, and stars found in the northern hemisphere. Conveniently sized to fit in a pocket and featuring detailed photographs, this informative guide makes it easy to identify objects in the night sky even from one's own backyard. From information on optimal weather conditions, preferred viewing locations, and how to use key tools of the trade, this handbook will help you adeptly navigate to and fro the vast and dynamic nighttime skies, and you'll fast recognize that the night sky's the limit.

  17. Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.

  18. Melatonin treatment of pediatric residents for adaptation to night shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Anita; Ris, M Douglas; Succop, Paul; Jaskiewicz, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Night float rotations are used in residency training programs to reduce residents' sleep deprivation. Night shift work, however, is accompanied by deleterious effects on sleep, mood, and attention. To test whether melatonin reduces the deleterious effects of night shift work on sleep, mood, and attention in pediatric residents during night float rotation. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover. Participants took melatonin (3 mg) or a placebo before bedtime in the morning after night shift; completed a sleep diary and an adverse-effects questionnaire daily; and completed the Profile of Mood States and the Conners Continuous Performance Test 3 times in each study week to test mood and attention, respectively. A university-affiliated, tertiary-care pediatric hospital. Healthy second-year pediatric residents working 2 night float rotations. Standardized measures of sleep, mood, and attention. Twenty-eight residents completed both treatments; 17 completed 1 treatment (10 placebo, 7 melatonin). There was not a statistically significant difference in measures of sleep, mood, and 5 of 6 measures of attention during melatonin and placebo treatment. One measure of attention, the number of omission errors, was significantly lower on melatonin (3.0 +/- 9.6) than on placebo (4.5 +/- 17.5) (z = -2.12, P = .03). The isolated finding of improvement of 1 single measure of attention in a test situation during melatonin treatment was not sufficiently robust to demonstrate a beneficial effect of melatonin in the dose used. Other strategies need to be considered to help residents in adaptation to night shift work.

  19. Fair quantum blind signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian-Yin, Wang; Qiao-Yan, Wen

    2010-01-01

    We present a new fair blind signature scheme based on the fundamental properties of quantum mechanics. In addition, we analyse the security of this scheme, and show that it is not possible to forge valid blind signatures. Moreover, comparisons between this scheme and public key blind signature schemes are also discussed. (general)

  20. Analyzing Non Stationary Processes in Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The lack of well-developed techniques for modeling changing statistical moments in our observations has stymied the application of stochastic process theory for many scientific and engineering applications. Non linear effects of the observation methodology is one of the most perplexing aspects to modeling non stationary processes. This perplexing problem was encountered when modeling the effect of non stationary receiver fluctuations on the performance of radiometer calibration architectures. Existing modeling approaches were found not applicable; particularly problematic is modeling processes across scales over which they begin to exhibit non stationary behavior within the time interval of the calibration algorithm. Alternatively, the radiometer output is modeled as samples from a sequence random variables; the random variables are treated using a conditional probability distribution function conditioned on the use of the variable in the calibration algorithm. This approach of treating a process as a sequence of random variables with non stationary stochastic moments produce sensible predictions of temporal effects of calibration algorithms. To test these model predictions, an experiment using the Millimeter wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) was conducted. The MIR with its two black body calibration references was configured in a laboratory setting to observe a third ultra-stable reference (CryoTarget). The MIR was programmed to sequentially sample each of the three references in approximately a 1 second cycle. Data were collected over a six-hour interval. The sequence of reference measurements form an ensemble sample set comprised of a series of three reference measurements. Two references are required to estimate the receiver response. A third reference is used to estimate the uncertainty in the estimate. Typically, calibration algorithms are designed to suppress the non stationary effects of receiver fluctuations. By treating the data sequence as an ensemble

  1. Stationary radiation of objects with scattering media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, Inna A

    2001-01-01

    The radiation observed inside or outside a stationary radiator with a scattering medium is a sum of components, each being determined by, first, the primary radiation from some part of the radiator and, second, the probability of this radiation reaching the region where it is observed. In this review, general and rather simple relations between these components are discussed. These relations, unlike the components themselves, are independent of the specific optical characteristics of the object as well as of its geometry, inhomogeneity, etc. In deriving the relations, the situations in which geometrical optics is either applicable or inapplicable to radiation in a scattering medium are considered. For the case where geometrical optics does apply, stationary relations are derived from the probabilistic stationarity condition for radiation passing through the medium, i.e., from the fact that all radiation emitted in a stationary regime disappears with probability unity. Equilibrium relations are derived from the stationary relations in the particular case of a thermal radiator in an isothermal cavity. To derive the stationary relations in the geometrical optics approximation, we obtain general solutions of the linear equation of transfer using the Green function approach. If geometrical optics cannot be applied to a scattering and radiating medium, only relations for the components of outgoing thermal radiation are obtained, and the generalized Kirchhoff law, obtained by Levin and Rytov using statistical radio-physics methods, is employed. In this case, stationary relations are also derived from a probabilistic stationarity condition; the equilibrium relations follow from the stationary ones as well as from the equilibrium condition for radiation in the isothermal cavity. The quantities involved in all the relations obtained are a subject of experimental and computational spectroscopic studies. Examples of current and potential applications are given. The relations

  2. TBT recommends : Courtney Pine. Hansa disco night

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Inglise jazzsaksofonisti Courtney Pine heliplaadi "Resistance" esitluskontserdist 15. dets. Rock Cafés Tallinnas. Inglise laulja Chris Norman läti ansamblitega üritusel "Hansa disco night Nr.4" 9. dets. Kipsala Hallis Riias

  3. Train-the-Trainer Video on the Deliberate Night Attack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dyer, Jean

    1998-01-01

    .... Night and day photography illustrate the training sequence needed to master the individual and buddy team skills, battle drills, and situational training exercises that support the night attack...

  4. Solar Neutrino Day-Night Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Ohlsson, Tommy; Snellman, Hakan

    2005-01-01

    We summarize the results of Ref. [M. Blennow, T. Ohlsson and H. Snellman, Phys. Rev. D 69 (2004) 073006, hep-ph/0311098] in which we determine the effects of three flavor mixing on the day-night asymmetry in the flux of solar neutrinos. Analytic methods are used to determine the difference in the day and night solar electron neutrino survival probabilities and numerical methods are used to determine the effect of three flavor mixing at detectors

  5. Minor Characters in William Shakespeare's Twelfth Night and A Midsummer Night's Dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraa Adnan Baqer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing the role of the minor characters in William Shakespeare's Twelfth Night and A Midsummer Night's Dream. The study assumes that without the first group of minor characters, associated with Olivia, the play Twelfth Night would lose much of its humor, and without the second group, associated with Sebastian, the play would fall apart. On the other hand, in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream minor characters play important roles, without them, the action dose not ran smoothly, or does not ran at all. The paper falls into three sections. Section one deals with the role of each minor character in Twelfth Night.  Section two focuses on the minor characters in A Midsummer Night's Dream. Section three is a conclusion which sums up the findings of the study.

  6. Menstrual characteristics and night work among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Bente E; Baste, Valborg; Morken, Tone; Alsaker, Kjersti; Pallesen, Ståle; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    Night work has been associated with adverse effects in terms of reproductive health. Specifically, menstruation has been suggested to be negatively impacted by night work, which again may influence fertility. This study investigated whether working nights is related to menstrual characteristics and if there is a relationship between shift work disorder (SWD) and menstruation. The study was cross-sectional, response rate 38%. The sample comprised female nurses who were members of the Norwegian Nurses Association; below 50 yr of age, who were not pregnant, did not use hormonal pills or intrauterine devices and who had not reached menopause (n=766). The nurses answered a postal survey including questions about night work and menstrual characteristics. Fifteen per cent reported to have irregular menstruations. Thirty-nine per cent of the nurses were classified as having SWD. Logistic regression analyses concerning the relationship between irregular menstruations and night work did not show any associations. Furthermore, no associations were found between cycle length or bleeding period and night work parameters. No associations were found between menstrual characteristics and SWD.

  7. Night shift work exposure profile and obesity: Baseline results from a Chinese night shift worker cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenting; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Liuzhuo; Wu, Zijun; Li, Zhimin; Zhang, Bo; He, Yonghua; Xie, Shaohua; Li, Mengjie; Fok, Joan P. C.; Tse, Gary; Wong, Martin C. S.; Tang, Jin-ling; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Evans, Greg; Vermeulen, Roel; Tse, Lap Ah

    2018-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to evaluate the associations between types of night shift work and different indices of obesity using the baseline information from a prospective cohort study of night shift workers in China. Methods A total of 3,871 workers from five companies were recruited from the baseline survey. A structured self-administered questionnaire was employed to collect the participants’ demographic information, lifetime working history, and lifestyle habits. Participants were grouped into rotating, permanent and irregular night shift work groups. Anthropometric parameters were assessed by healthcare professionals. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between night shift work and different indices of obesity. Results Night shift workers had increased risk of overweight and obesity, and odds ratios (ORs) were 1.17 (95% CI, 0.97–1.41) and 1.27 (95% CI, 0.74–2.18), respectively. Abdominal obesity had a significant but marginal association with night shift work (OR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.01–1.43). A positive gradient between the number of years of night shift work and overweight or abdominal obesity was observed. Permanent night shift work showed the highest odds of being overweight (OR = 3.94, 95% CI, 1.40–11.03) and having increased abdominal obesity (OR = 3.34, 95% CI, 1.19–9.37). Irregular night shift work was also significantly associated with overweight (OR = 1.56, 95% CI, 1.13–2.14), but its association with abdominal obesity was borderline (OR = 1.26, 95% CI, 0.94–1.69). By contrast, the association between rotating night shift work and these parameters was not significant. Conclusion Permanent and irregular night shift work were more likely to be associated with overweight or abdominal obesity than rotating night shift work. These associations need to be verified in prospective cohort studies. PMID:29763461

  8. Night shift work exposure profile and obesity: Baseline results from a Chinese night shift worker cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miaomiao; Feng, Wenting; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Liuzhuo; Wu, Zijun; Li, Zhimin; Zhang, Bo; He, Yonghua; Xie, Shaohua; Li, Mengjie; Fok, Joan P C; Tse, Gary; Wong, Martin C S; Tang, Jin-Ling; Wong, Samuel Y S; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Evans, Greg; Vermeulen, Roel; Tse, Lap Ah

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the associations between types of night shift work and different indices of obesity using the baseline information from a prospective cohort study of night shift workers in China. A total of 3,871 workers from five companies were recruited from the baseline survey. A structured self-administered questionnaire was employed to collect the participants' demographic information, lifetime working history, and lifestyle habits. Participants were grouped into rotating, permanent and irregular night shift work groups. Anthropometric parameters were assessed by healthcare professionals. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between night shift work and different indices of obesity. Night shift workers had increased risk of overweight and obesity, and odds ratios (ORs) were 1.17 (95% CI, 0.97-1.41) and 1.27 (95% CI, 0.74-2.18), respectively. Abdominal obesity had a significant but marginal association with night shift work (OR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.01-1.43). A positive gradient between the number of years of night shift work and overweight or abdominal obesity was observed. Permanent night shift work showed the highest odds of being overweight (OR = 3.94, 95% CI, 1.40-11.03) and having increased abdominal obesity (OR = 3.34, 95% CI, 1.19-9.37). Irregular night shift work was also significantly associated with overweight (OR = 1.56, 95% CI, 1.13-2.14), but its association with abdominal obesity was borderline (OR = 1.26, 95% CI, 0.94-1.69). By contrast, the association between rotating night shift work and these parameters was not significant. Permanent and irregular night shift work were more likely to be associated with overweight or abdominal obesity than rotating night shift work. These associations need to be verified in prospective cohort studies.

  9. Variability of road traffic noise recorded by stationary monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąkowski, Andrzej; Radziszewski, Leszek

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents the analysis results of equivalent sound level recorded by two road traffic noise monitoring stations. The stations were located in Kielce (an example of a medium-size town in Poland) at the roads out of the town in the direction of Kraków and Warszawa. The measurements were carried out through stationary stations monitoring the noise and traffic of motor vehicles. The RMS values based on A-weighted sound level were recorded every 1 s in the buffer and the results were registered every 1 min over the period of investigations. The registered data were the basis for calculating the equivalent sound level for three time intervals: from 6:00 to 18:00, from 18:00 to 22:00 and from 22:00 to 6:00. Analysis included the values of the equivalent sound level recorded for different days of the week split into 24h periods, nights, days and evenings. The data analysed included recordings from 2013. The coefficient of variation and positional variation were proposed for performing comparative analysis of the obtained data scattering. The investigations indicated that the recorded data varied depending on the traffic routes. The differences concerned the values of coefficients of variation of the equivalent sound levels.

  10. Night-to-night arousal variability and interscorer reliability of arousal measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo, J S; Clausen, J L; Ancoli-Israel, S; Dimsdale, J E

    1999-11-01

    Measurement of arousals from sleep is clinically important, however, their definition is not well standardized, and little data exist on reliability. The purpose of this study is to determine factors that affect arousal scoring reliability and night-to-night arousal variability. The night-to-night arousal variability and interscorer reliability was assessed in 20 subjects with and without obstructive sleep apnea undergoing attended polysomnography during two consecutive nights. Five definitions of arousal were studied, assessing duration of electroencephalographic (EEG) frequency changes, increases in electromyographic (EMG) activity and leg movement, association with respiratory events, as well as the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) definition of arousals. NA. NA. NA. Interscorer reliability varied with the definition of arousal and ranged from an Intraclass correlation (ICC) of 0.19 to 0.92. Arousals that included increases in EMG activity or leg movement had the greatest reliability, especially when associated with respiratory events (ICC 0.76 to 0.92). The ASDA arousal definition had high interscorer reliability (ICC 0.84). Reliability was lowest for arousals consisting of EEG changes lasting <3 seconds (ICC 0.19 to 0.37). The within subjects night-to-night arousal variability was low for all arousal definitions In a heterogeneous population, interscorer arousal reliability is enhanced by increases in EMG activity, leg movements, and respiratory events and decreased by short duration EEG arousals. The arousal index night-to-night variability was low for all definitions.

  11. Global data on blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thylefors, B.; Négrel, A. D.; Pararajasegaram, R.; Dadzie, K. Y.

    1995-01-01

    Globally, it is estimated that there are 38 million persons who are blind. Moreover, a further 110 million people have low vision and are at great risk of becoming blind. The main causes of blindness and low vision are cataract, trachoma, glaucoma, onchocerciasis, and xerophthalmia; however, insufficient data on blindness from causes such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration preclude specific estimations of their global prevalence. The age-specific prevalences of the major causes of blindness that are related to age indicate that the trend will be for an increase in such blindness over the decades to come, unless energetic efforts are made to tackle these problems. More data collected through standardized methodologies, using internationally accepted (ICD-10) definitions, are needed. Data on the incidence of blindness due to common causes would be useful for calculating future trends more precisely. PMID:7704921

  12. Stability and instability of stationary solutions for sublinear parabolic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikiya, Ryuji

    2018-01-01

    In the present paper, we study the initial boundary value problem of the sublinear parabolic equation. We prove the existence of solutions and investigate the stability and instability of stationary solutions. We show that a unique positive and a unique negative stationary solutions are exponentially stable and give the exact exponent. We prove that small stationary solutions are unstable. For one space dimensional autonomous equations, we elucidate the structure of stationary solutions and study the stability of all stationary solutions.

  13. Towards Gravitating Discs around Stationary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semerák, Oldřich

    This article outlines the search for an exact general relativistic description of the exterior(vacuum) gravitational field of a rotating spheroidal black hole surrounded by a realistic axially symmetric disc of matter. The problem of multi-body stationary spacetimes is first exposed from the perspective of the relativity theory (section 1) and astrophysics (section 2), listing the basic methods employed and results obtained. Then (in section 3) basic formulas for stationary axisymmetric solutions are summarized. Sections 4 and 5 review what we have learnt with Miroslav Žáček and Tomáš Zellerin about certain static and stationary situations recently. Concluding remarks are given in section 6. Although the survey part is quite general, the list of references cannot be complete.Our main desideratum was the informative value rather than originality — novelties have been preferred, mainly reviews and those with detailed introductions.

  14. Stationary Double Layers in a Collisionless Magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noriyoshi, Sato; Mieno, Tetsu; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    1983-01-01

    of the plate on the low-potential side, being accompanied with current limitation. This localized potential drop moves along the plasma column, but finally stops and results in the formation of the stationary double layer in the presence of sufficient plasma supply from the plate on the high-potential side.......Stationary double layers are generated in a magnetoplasma by applying potential differences between two heated plates on which the plasma is produced by surface ionization. By measuring the double-layer formation process, a localized potential drop is found to be formed initially in front...

  15. Supportive leadership in Swedish community night nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Christine; Fagerberg, Ingegerd; Asp, Margareta

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the support night nurses' give to staff in community night nursing. Studies have shown that support given to staff is one of night registered nurses' (RNs') experiences of the meaning of caring. This support, that community RNs display for staff in night-time care, is sparsely described. All community night-duty nurses in a medium-sized municipal in Sweden participated in the present study. Thematic content analysis was used to analyse data from observations. The support given by RNs to staff is described using three themes: (1) a conditional supporting stance, (2) preparing propitious conditions for caring and (3) confidence in the abilities of individual staff members and adaptation to their individual needs. The results reveal that RNs consider support to staff in terms of nursing leadership. Out of 'concern for the staff' the RNs try to be there for them, which corresponds to nursing leadership. Such concern also arises from the RNs' awareness that by giving support to staff this affects the staffs' caring for older people. The current municipal social care organization of community nursing of older people in which RNs have extensive responsibilities with insufficient control, is a working condition with a risk for decreased quality of care and a high risk for work-related stress syndrome. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. [Shift and night work and mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancini, Angela; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Capozzella, Assunta; Corbosiero, Paola; Fiaschetti, Maria; Caciari, Tiziana; Cetica, Carlotta; Scimitto, Lara; Ponticiello, Barnaba Giuseppina; Tasciotti, Zaira; Schifano, Maria Pia; Andreozzit, Giorgia; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    Aim of our study was to evaluate the influence that shift work and night work could have on mental health. A review of literary articles from 1990 to 2011 on shift work and night work was carried out. The results of this review confirmed that the shift work and night work affect mental health with the onset of neuropsychological disorders such as mood disorders, anxiety, nervousness, depressive anxiety syndromes, chronic fatigue and chronic insomnia irritability, sleep disturbances, reduction in levels of attention, cognitive impairments, alteration of circadian rhythm. Night work and shift work cause severe desynchronization of the cronobiological rhythms and a disruption of social life with negative effects on performance at work, on health and on social relationships. In the light of these results and recognizing shift work and night work as risk factors for the health of workers is necessary to implement preventive and periodic health checks by the occupational doctor to ensure the health and safety of workers taking account of the different environmental and individual factors.

  17. Main principles of development stationary training facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiptsyura, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The designation of stationary training facilities is shown and the main requirements for them are formulated. When considering the above-mentioned requirements, special attention was paid to obligatory correspondence between training experience and practical skill of an operator. It is shown, that the switchboard block is the major unit of the training facility, which should develop skills and habits of an operator

  18. Stationary solutions and asymptotic flatness I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiris, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In general relativity, a stationary isolated system is defined as an asymptotically flat (AF) stationary spacetime with compact material sources. Other definitions that are less restrictive on the type of asymptotic could in principle be possible. Between this article and its sequel, we show that under basic assumptions, asymptotic flatness indeed follows as a consequence of Einstein's theory. In particular, it is proved that any vacuum stationary spacetime-end whose (quotient) manifold is diffeomorphic to R 3 minus a ball and whose Killing field has its norm bounded away from zero, is necessarily AF with Schwarzschildian fall off. The ‘excised’ ball would contain (if any) the actual material body, but this information is unnecessary to reach the conclusion. In this first article, we work with weakly asymptotically flat (WAF) stationary ends, a notion that generalizes as much as possible that of the AF end, and prove that WAF ends are AF with Schwarzschildian fall off. Physical and mathematical implications are also discussed. (paper)

  19. Stone Stability under Stationary Nonuniform Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, Remco; Hofland, B.; Paarlberg, Andries; Smale, Alfons; Huthoff, Fredrik; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.

    2016-01-01

    A stability parameter for rock in bed protections under nonuniform stationary flow is derived. The influence of the mean flow velocity, turbulence, and mean acceleration of the flow are included explicitly in the parameter. The relatively new notion of explicitly incorporating the mean acceleration

  20. New interval forecast for stationary autoregressive models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we proposed a new forecasting interval for stationary Autoregressive, AR(p) models using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) function. Ordinarily, the AIC function is used to determine the order of an AR(p) process. In this study however, AIC forecast interval compared favorably with the theoretical forecast ...

  1. Relativistic elasticity of stationary fluid branes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armas, J.; Obers, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    under certain conditions that a given stationary fluid configuration living on a dynamical surface of vanishing thickness and satisfying locally the first law of thermodynamics will behave like an elastic brane when the surface is subject to small deformations. These results, which are independent...

  2. Characterization of Stationary Distributions of Reflected Diffusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    operations research to finance and mathemat- ical physics , and their stationary distributions often serve to characterize or approximate important...REFERENCES [1] Atar , R., Budhiraja, A. and Dupuis, P. (2001). On positive recurrence of constrained diffusion processes. Ann. Probab., 29 No. 2, 979-1000

  3. The stationary states of interacting fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frazer, W.R.; Hove, Léon van

    1958-01-01

    As an application of a time-independent perturbation formalism developed earlier for systems with many degrees of freedom, we give in terms of diagrams the general perturbation expressions for the exact stationary states of interacting fields. The physical vacuum is obtained by applying to the bare

  4. Calendar Year 2016 Stationary Source Emissions Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The City of Albuquerque (COA) Environmental Health Department Air Quality Program has issued stationary source permits and registrations the Department of Energy/Sandia Field Office for operations at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. This emission inventory report meets the annual reporting compliance requirements for calendar year (CY) 2016 as required by the COA.

  5. Postictal blindness in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeh, M; Goldhammer, Y; Kuritsky, A

    1983-01-01

    Cortical blindness following grand mal seizures occurred in five adult patients. The causes of seizures included idiopathic epilepsy, vascular accident, brain cyst, acute encephalitis and chronic encephalitis. Blindness was permanent in one patients, but the others recovered within several days. Since most of the patients were either unaware of or denied their blindness, it is possible that this event often goes unrecognised. Cerebral hypoxia is considered the most likely mechanism.

  6. What is the preferred number of consecutive night shifts?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jensen, Marie Aarrebo; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-01-01

    % preferred '2 + 2' and 26% preferred '7 + 7'. Participants, who preferred longer spells of night work experienced that night work was less demanding, found it easier to sleep at different times of the day, and were more frequently evening types compared with participants who preferred shorter spells of night...... the longer spells of night work found night work less demanding, found it easier to sleep at different times of the day, and were more frequently evening types....

  7. Chaotic Bohmian trajectories for stationary states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesa, Alexandre; Martin, John; Struyve, Ward

    2016-01-01

    In Bohmian mechanics, the nodes of the wave function play an important role in the generation of chaos. However, so far, most of the attention has been on moving nodes; little is known about the possibility of chaos in the case of stationary nodes. We address this question by considering stationary states, which provide the simplest examples of wave functions with stationary nodes. We provide examples of stationary wave functions for which there is chaos, as demonstrated by numerical computations, for one particle moving in three spatial dimensions and for two and three entangled particles in two dimensions. Our conclusion is that the motion of the nodes is not necessary for the generation of chaos. What is important is the overall complexity of the wave function. That is, if the wave function, or rather its phase, has a complex spatial variation, it will lead to complex Bohmian trajectories and hence to chaos. Another aspect of our work concerns the average Lyapunov exponent, which quantifies the overall amount of chaos. Since it is very hard to evaluate the average Lyapunov exponent analytically, which is often computed numerically, it is useful to have simple quantities that agree well with the average Lyapunov exponent. We investigate possible correlations with quantities such as the participation ratio and different measures of entanglement, for different systems and different families of stationary wave functions. We find that these quantities often tend to correlate to the amount of chaos. However, the correlation is not perfect, because, in particular, these measures do not depend on the form of the basis states used to expand the wave function, while the amount of chaos does. (paper)

  8. Multitudes attend the Night of Science

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Night of Science, which took place in the Parc de la Perle du Lac in Geneva last weekend, was a great success, with 30 000 visitors attending according to the organisers. Many curious people flocked to the stands and animations until late on Saturday night and all afternoon on Sunday. The CERN stand (photo) received a great amount of interest from participants. Both kids and adults discovered the activities of the Laboratory and the data-processing revolution initiated by CERN, from the Web to the Computing Grid. Hats off to the CERN collaborators in the Communication Group and IT Department who made this event a success.

  9. Sira Nights as a Recreational Tourism Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Barakazı, Mahmut; Önçel, Sibel

    2017-01-01

    In terms of culture, art and gastronomy, Urfa sira nights are the basis for an important recreational activity. Recreational activities in these regions provide tourism awareness, as well as the benefits of introducing local Urfa cuisine, which is very rich in culinary culture, and Gastronomy leads to the recognition of tourism in the region. The aim of this research is to encourage recreational activities by promoting recreational activities such as Urfa sira 'nights' effects on ga...

  10. Do weak stationary magnetic fields affect the perceived astringency of red wine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wesley Rowcliffe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate claims that products containing weak stationary magnets can reduce the astringency of tannic red wine, a double- blind randomized trial was carried out, in which 96 paired tastings were conducted of magnetized and non-magnetized samples of a young Nebbiolo. The data showed no association between reported differences in astringency and actual difference in the magnetic treatments given to the wine (χ2=0.135, degrees of freedom=1, P=0.71. This study confirms an earlier work that magnets have no observable effect on red wine.

  11. Do weak stationary magnetic fields affect the perceived astringency of red wine?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Wesley Rowcliffe

    2018-01-01

    To investigate claims that products containing weak stationary magnets can reduce the astringency of tannic red wine, a double- blind randomized trial was carried out, in which 96 paired tastings were conducted of magnetized and non-magnetized samples of a young Nebbiolo. The data showed no association between reported differences in astringency and actual difference in the magnetic treatments given to the wine (χ2=0.135, degrees of freedom=1, P=0.71). This study confirms an earlier work that...

  12. Blind Analysis in Particle Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roodman, A

    2003-01-01

    A review of the blind analysis technique, as used in particle physics measurements, is presented. The history of blind analyses in physics is briefly discussed. Next the dangers of and the advantages of a blind analysis are described. Three distinct kinds of blind analysis in particle physics are presented in detail. Finally, the BABAR collaboration's experience with the blind analysis technique is discussed

  13. Night-life of Bryde's whales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi, Sahar; Johnson, Mark; Aguilar de Soto, Natacha

    2018-01-01

    logging tags on resident Bryde'swhales in a busy gulf to study their daily activity patterns. We found that, while whales were active during daytime making energetic lunges to capture tonnes of plankton, they dedicated much of the night to rest. This suggests that whales may rely on vision to find prey...

  14. Sirius brightest diamond in the night sky

    CERN Document Server

    Holberg, Jay B

    2007-01-01

    This book describes why Sirius has been regarded as an important fixture of the night sky since the beginnings of history. It also examines the part that Sirius has played in how we came to achieve our current scientific understanding of stars.

  15. Why Is the Sky Dark at Night?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The puzzle as to just why the sky is dark at night, given that there are so many stars, has been around at least since Newton. This article summarizes six cosmological models that have been used to attempt to give an account of this puzzle including the Copernican universe, the Newton-Halley universe, the nineteenth century "one galaxy"…

  16. Portable real-time color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We developed a simple and fast lookup-table based method to derive and apply natural daylight colors to multi-band night-time images. The method deploys an optimal color transformation derived from a set of samples taken from a daytime color reference image. The colors in the resulting colorized

  17. Cellular phone use while driving at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivoda, Jonathon M; Eby, David W; St Louis, Renée M; Kostyniuk, Lidia P

    2008-03-01

    Use of a cellular phone has been shown to negatively affect one's attention to the driving task, leading to an increase in crash risk. At any given daylight hour, about 6% of US drivers are actively talking on a hand-held cell phone. However, previous surveys have focused only on cell phone use during the day. Driving at night has been shown to be a riskier activity than driving during the day. The purpose of the current study was to assess the rate of hand-held cellular phone use while driving at night, using specialized night vision equipment. In 2006, two statewide direct observation survey waves of nighttime cellular phone use were conducted in Indiana utilizing specialized night vision equipment. Combined results of driver hand-held cellular phone use from both waves are presented in this manuscript. The rates of nighttime cell phone use were similar to results found in previous daytime studies. The overall rate of nighttime hand-held cellular phone use was 5.8 +/- 0.6%. Cellular phone use was highest for females and for younger drivers. In fact, the highest rate observed during the study (of 11.9%) was for 16-to 29-year-old females. The high level of cellular phone use found within the young age group, coupled with the increased crash risk associated with cellular phone use, nighttime driving, and for young drivers in general, suggests that this issue may become an important transportation-related concern.

  18. Family Literacy Night: A Celebration of Reading!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Becky; Morton, Shirley; Rumschlag, Hella

    2011-01-01

    Family Literacy Night is an exciting way to engage students and their parents in meaningful literacy activities while building community spirit and strengthening the partnership between school and home. It is an opportunity for students to show their parents what they do in school; how they create in the computer lab, how they work in the art…

  19. Science by night – it's magic!

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The control rooms of the LHC and its experiments threw open their doors to 150 youngsters on European Researchers Night and the place was buzzing with excitement all evening!    It's just possible that a few scientists' vocations were born last Friday night, as the sixth European Researchers Night took place across Europe. CERN was taking part for the first time and invited young people aged from 12 to 19 into the control rooms of the LHC machine and five experiments. From 5.00 in the afternoon until 1.00 in the morning, 150 youngsters and physics teachers got the opportunity to sit with scientists at the controls of the accelerator and experiments. This meeting of minds went down very well for all concerned, the scientists being only too happy to wax lyrical about their passion. The youngsters were thrilled with their visit and amazed at being allowed so close to the controls of these mighty machines. The night-time setting added an extra touch of magic to the whole event. Some just could...

  20. Early Birds by Light at Night

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, De Maaike; Caro, Samuel P.; Gienapp, Phillip; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Visser, Marcel E.

    2017-01-01

    Artificial light at night disturbs the daily rhythms of many organisms. To what extent this disturbance depends on the intensity and spectral composition of light remain obscure. Here, we measured daily activity patterns of captive blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) exposed to similar intensities of

  1. Night Vision Manual for the Flight Surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    macula and fovea centralis. 4. Duality theory of vision-extends sensitivity of vision over 100,000 times (Fig. 12). ~Im Uilting Ullmlrage WVIVIWCentral...lowered night vision capa- bilities due to disease or degenerations . F. Hypoxia 1. Decrement of central vision due to 02 lack is quite small; such as, at

  2. Night eating among veterans with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorflinger, Lindsey M; Ruser, Christopher B; Masheb, Robin M

    2017-10-01

    The obesity rate is higher among veterans than the general population, yet few studies have examined their eating behaviors, and none have examined the presence of night eating and related comorbidities. This study examines night eating syndrome (NES) among veterans seeking weight management treatment, and relationships between NES and weight, insomnia, disordered eating, and psychological variables. The sample consisted of 110 veterans referred to a weight management program at VA Connecticut Healthcare System. More than one out of ten veterans screened positive for NES, and one-third screened positive for insomnia. Most individuals screening positive for NES also screened positive for insomnia. Night eating was associated with higher BMI, and with higher scores on measures of binge eating, emotional overeating, and eating disorder symptomatology. Veterans screening positive for NES were also significantly more likely to screen positive for depression and PTSD. When controlling for insomnia, only the relationships between night eating and binge and emotional eating remained significant. Those screening positive for PTSD were more likely to endorse needing to eat to return to sleep. Findings suggest that both NES and insomnia are common among veterans seeking weight management services, and that NES is a marker for additional disordered eating behavior, specifically binge eating and overeating in response to emotions. Additional studies are needed to further delineate the relationships among NES, insomnia, and psychological variables, as well as to examine whether specifically addressing NES within behavioral weight management interventions can improve weight outcomes and problematic eating behaviors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Behavioral management of night eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berner LA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Laura A Berner,1 Kelly C Allison2 1Department of Psychology, Drexel University, 2Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Night eating syndrome (NES is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat. As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 as a “Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified,” more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed. Keywords: night eating syndrome, cognitive-behavioral treatment, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss, behavior therapy

  4. Artificial night lighting inhibits feeding in moths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, Van Frank; Grunsven, Van Roy H.A.; Veenendaal, Elmar M.; Fijen, Thijs P.M.

    2017-01-01

    One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is nocturnal light pollution, which strongly alters habitats of nocturnally active species. Artificial night lighting is often considered as driving force behind rapid moth population declines in severely illuminated countries. To understand

  5. Blinding for unanticipated signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Chaum (David)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractPreviously known blind signature systems require an amount of computation at least proportional to the number of signature types, and also that the number of such types be fixed in advance. These requirements are not practical in some applications. Here, a new blind signature technique

  6. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  7. Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This revision of the 2011 report, Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, evaluates biogenic CO2 emissions from stationary sources, including a detailed study of the scientific and technical issues associated with assessing biogenic carbon dioxide...

  8. Models for the blind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Jan-Eric

    2014-01-01

    person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical......When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind...... background to the tactile objects of the blind. When did they appear as a specific category of pedagogical aid and how did they help determine the relation between blindness, vision, and touch? Second, I address the tactile objects from the point of view of empirical sources and historical evidence. Material...

  9. Evolution of the ATLAS Nightly Build System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undrus, A

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Build and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, testing, and creation of distribution kits. The ATN testing framework of the Nightly System runs unit and integration tests in parallel suites, fully utilizing the resources of multi-core machines, and provides the first results even before compilations complete. The NICOS error detection system is based on several techniques and classifies the compilation and test errors according to their severity. It is periodically tuned to place greater emphasis on certain software defects by highlighting the problems on NICOS web pages and sending automatic e-mail notifications to responsible developers. These and other recent developments will be presented and future plans will be described.

  10. Learning Markov models for stationary system behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yingke; Mao, Hua; Jaeger, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    to a single long observation sequence, and in these situations existing automatic learning methods cannot be applied. In this paper, we adapt algorithms for learning variable order Markov chains from a single observation sequence of a target system, so that stationary system properties can be verified using......Establishing an accurate model for formal verification of an existing hardware or software system is often a manual process that is both time consuming and resource demanding. In order to ease the model construction phase, methods have recently been proposed for automatically learning accurate...... the learned model. Experiments demonstrate that system properties (formulated as stationary probabilities of LTL formulas) can be reliably identified using the learned model....

  11. Stationary nonimaging lenses for solar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsidas, Panagiotis; Chatzi, Eleni; Modi, Vijay

    2010-09-20

    A novel approach for the design of refractive lenses is presented, where the lens is mounted on a stationary aperture and the Sun is tracked by a moving solar cell. The purpose of this work is to design a quasi-stationary concentrator by replacing the two-axis tracking of the Sun with internal motion of the miniaturized solar cell inside the module. Families of lenses are designed with a variation of the simultaneous multiple surface technique in which the sawtooth genetic algorithm is implemented to optimize the geometric variables of the optic in order to produce high fluxes for a range of incidence angles. Finally, we show examples of the technique for lenses with 60° and 30° acceptance half-angles, with low to medium attainable concentrations.

  12. Relativistic elasticity of stationary fluid branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A.

    2013-02-01

    Fluid mechanics can be formulated on dynamical surfaces of arbitrary codimension embedded in a background space-time. This has been the main object of study of the blackfold approach in which the emphasis has primarily been on stationary fluid configurations. Motivated by this approach we show under certain conditions that a given stationary fluid configuration living on a dynamical surface of vanishing thickness and satisfying locally the first law of thermodynamics will behave like an elastic brane when the surface is subject to small deformations. These results, which are independent of the number of space-time dimensions and of the fluid arising from a gravitational dual, reveal the (electro)elastic character of (charged) black branes when considering extrinsic perturbations.

  13. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Illerup, J. B.

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are: SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins and PAH. Since 1990 the fuel consumption...... in stationary combustion has increased by 12% - the fossil fuel consumption however only by 6%. Despite the increased fuel consumption the emission of several pollutants have decreased due to the improved flue gas cleaning technology, improved burner technology and the change of fuel type used. A considerable...... plants. The emission of PAH increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential boilers and stoves. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated....

  14. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Illerup, J. B.

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO2, NOX, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins and PAH. Since 1990 the fuel consumption...... in stationary combustion has increased by 14% - the fossil fuel consumption however only by 8%. Despite the increased fuel consumption the emission of several pollutants has decreased due to the improved flue gas cleaning technology, improved burner technology and the change of fuel type used. A considerable...... plants. The emission of PAH increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential boilers and stoves. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated...

  15. Blinded by Irrelevance: Pure Irrelevance Induced "Blindness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitam, Baruch; Yeshurun, Yaffa; Hassan, Kinneret

    2013-01-01

    To what degree does our representation of the immediate world depend solely on its relevance to what we are currently doing? We examined whether relevance per se can cause "blindness," even when there is no resource limitation. In a novel paradigm, people looked at a colored circle surrounded by a differently colored ring--the task relevance of…

  16. The Postural Responses to a Moving Environment of Adults Who Are Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Ito, Kiyohide; Hove, Philip; Yank, Jane Redfield; Bardy, Benoit G.

    2010-01-01

    Adults who are blind stood in a room that could be moved around them. A sound source moved with the room, simulating the acoustic consequences of body sway. Body sway was greater when the room moved than when it was stationary, suggesting that sound may have been used to control stance. (Contains 1 figure.)

  17. Solar radiation on Mars: Stationary photovoltaic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, J.; Sherman, I.; Landis, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Solar energy is likely to be an important power source for surface-based operation on Mars. Photovoltaic cells offer many advantages. In this article we have presented analytical expressions and solar radiation data for stationary flat surfaces (horizontal and inclined) as a function of latitude, season and atmospheric dust load (optical depth). The diffuse component of the solar radiation on Mars can be significant, thus greatly affecting the optimal inclination angle of the photovoltaic surface.

  18. Covariance matrix estimation for stationary time series

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Han; Wu, Wei Biao

    2011-01-01

    We obtain a sharp convergence rate for banded covariance matrix estimates of stationary processes. A precise order of magnitude is derived for spectral radius of sample covariance matrices. We also consider a thresholded covariance matrix estimator that can better characterize sparsity if the true covariance matrix is sparse. As our main tool, we implement Toeplitz [Math. Ann. 70 (1911) 351–376] idea and relate eigenvalues of covariance matrices to the spectral densities or Fourier transforms...

  19. Quantum field theory in stationary coordinate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfautsch, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Quantum field theory is examined in stationary coordinate systems in Minkowski space. Preliminary to quantization of the scalar field, all of the possible stationary coordinate systems in flat spacetime are classified and explicitly constructed. Six distinct classes of such systems are found. Of these six, three have (identical) event horizons associated with them and five have Killing horizons. Two classes have distinct Killing and event horizons, with an intervening region analogous to the ergosphere in rotating black holes. Particular representatives of each class are selected for subsequent use in the quantum field theory. The scalar field is canonically quantized and a vacuum defined in each of the particular coordinate systems chosen. The vacuum states can be regarded as adapted to the six classes of stationary motions. There are only two vacuum states found, the Minkowski vacuum in those coordinate systems without event horizons and the Fulling vacuum in those with event horizons. The responses of monopole detectors traveling along stationary world lines are calculated in both the Minkowski and Fulling vacuums. The responses for each class of motions are distinct from those for every other class. A vacuum defined by the response of a detector must therefore not be equivalent in general to a vacuum defined by canonical quantization. Quantization of the scalar field within a rotating wedge is examined. It has not been possible to construct mode functions satisfying appropriate boundary conditions on the surface of the wedge. The asymptotic form of the renormalized stress tensor near the surfaces had been calculated and is found to include momentum terms which represent a circulation of energy within the wedge

  20. Stationary black holes: large D analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    We consider the effective theory of large D stationary black holes. By solving the Einstein equations with a cosmological constant using the 1/D expansion in near zone of the black hole we obtain the effective equation for the stationary black hole. The effective equation describes the Myers-Perry black hole, bumpy black holes and, possibly, the black ring solution as its solutions. In this effective theory the black hole is represented as an embedded membrane in the background, e.g., Minkowski or Anti-de Sitter spacetime and its mean curvature is given by the surface gravity redshifted by the background gravitational field and the local Lorentz boost. The local Lorentz boost property of the effective equation is observed also in the metric itself. In fact we show that the leading order metric of the Einstein equation in the 1/D expansion is generically regarded as a Lorentz boosted Schwarzschild black hole. We apply this Lorentz boost property of the stationary black hole solution to solve perturbation equations. As a result we obtain an analytic formula for quasinormal modes of the singly rotating Myers-Perry black hole in the 1/D expansion.

  1. Generating stationary entangled states in superconducting qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jing; Liu Yuxi; Li Chunwen; Tarn, T.-J.; Nori, Franco

    2009-01-01

    When a two-qubit system is initially maximally entangled, two independent decoherence channels, one per qubit, would greatly reduce the entanglement of the two-qubit system when it reaches its stationary state. We propose a method on how to minimize such a loss of entanglement in open quantum systems. We find that the quantum entanglement of general two-qubit systems with controllable parameters can be controlled by tuning both the single-qubit parameters and the two-qubit coupling strengths. Indeed, the maximum fidelity F max between the stationary entangled state, ρ ∞ , and the maximally entangled state, ρ m , can be about 2/3≅max(tr(ρ ∞ ρ m ))=F max , corresponding to a maximum stationary concurrence, C max , of about 1/3≅C(ρ ∞ )=C max . This is significant because the quantum entanglement of the two-qubit system can be produced and kept, even for a long time. We apply our proposal to several types of two-qubit superconducting circuits and show how the entanglement of these two-qubit circuits can be optimized by varying experimentally controllable parameters.

  2. Stationary stochastic processes theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lindgren, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Some Probability and Process BackgroundSample space, sample function, and observablesRandom variables and stochastic processesStationary processes and fieldsGaussian processesFour historical landmarksSample Function PropertiesQuadratic mean propertiesSample function continuityDerivatives, tangents, and other characteristicsStochastic integrationAn ergodic resultExercisesSpectral RepresentationsComplex-valued stochastic processesBochner's theorem and the spectral distributionSpectral representation of a stationary processGaussian processesStationary counting processesExercisesLinear Filters - General PropertiesLinear time invariant filtersLinear filters and differential equationsWhite noise in linear systemsLong range dependence, non-integrable spectra, and unstable systemsThe ARMA-familyLinear Filters - Special TopicsThe Hilbert transform and the envelopeThe sampling theoremKarhunen-Loève expansionClassical Ergodic Theory and MixingThe basic ergodic theorem in L2Stationarity and transformationsThe ergodic th...

  3. Backset-stationary and during car driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Bertil; Stenlund, Hans; Björnstig, Ulf

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to measure and analyze backset, defined as the horizontal distance between the back of the occupant's head and a point located on the ventral/top aspect of the sewn rim of the head restraint, with the car stationary and during driving, in the driver's position in a modern car. A population of 65 subjects, 35 males and 30 females, was studied in a Volvo V70 car, model year 2007. The subjects were studied in the driver's position, in a self-selected posture. Stationary backset was measured with the technique described by Jonsson et al. (2007) and backset during driving with video analysis. Descriptive data were calculated, and variability and correlation analyses were performed. A t-test was used to test differences of means. Significance level was set to 0.05. In comparison to stationary backset, mean backset during driving was 43 mm greater in males and 41 mm greater in females. Driving backset was 44 mm larger in males than in females. Driving backset was moderately correlated (0.37-0.43) to stature, seated height, and seat back angle in males and moderately correlated (0.44-0.52) to hip width, waist circumference, and weight in females. The overall intraclass correlation coefficient for backset during driving was 0.81 (CI: 0.75-0.86). These results may be of use in designing future updates of test protocols/routines for geometric backset, such as RCAR and RCAR-IIWPG.

  4. 30 CFR 57.14115 - Stationary grinding machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines. 57.14115 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14115 Stationary grinding machines. Stationary grinding machines, other than special bit grinders, shall be equipped with— (a) Peripheral hoods...

  5. 30 CFR 77.401 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.401 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped with...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1723 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective....1723 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than... the wheel. (3) Safety washers. (b) Grinding wheels shall be operated within the specifications of the...

  7. 30 CFR 56.14115 - Stationary grinding machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines. 56.14115 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14115 Stationary grinding machines. Stationary grinding machines, other than special bit grinders, shall be equipped with— (a) Peripheral hoods capable of...

  8. A Low-Cost "Stationary Eye" in the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, R.; Lande, K.; Mitchell, R.; Wildenhain, P.; Hoang, N.; Langford, J.

    1997-12-01

    We are developing a stationary, near the top of the atmosphere, astronomical observing system. The platform is a high altitude robotic aircraft (THESEUS) flying in anti-sense to Earth's rotation at a latitude where the plane's speed closely matches the local ground spin velocity. Thus, either an extended day or night viewing program of a given object can be achieved. Our intention here concentrates on astronomical targets. The system consists of the following components. (1) A low cost robotic aircraft that can fly at an altitude of about 25 km. for 30 to 40 hours with differential GPS navigation. Real time control of the aircraft and the observing instruments is either by on-board computer or from the ground via low altitude, commercial satellite communications systems (Iridium, Teledesic, etc.). (2) A siderostat-fed telescope of small f-ratio is attached to the aircraft via critically damped mechanical isolators. An electronic camera at the prime focus looks at a chosen astronomical target. (3) Image smear due to aircraft engine vibration will be eliminated by a combination of critically damped mechanical isolators and electronic CCD pixel jogging. Very precise piezo- electric driven transverse translation of the CCD camera will be used to compensate for wind induced drift of the image on the focal plane. Bright field stars will be used to drive the stabilizing system. (4) Data are stored on high capacity ruggedized hard drives similar to that used by the Mars Lander. The Aurora THESEUS aircraft, whose design is based upon earlier models, is under development. The image stabilizing system components have been identified. An off-the-shelf data-storage device has been chosen. A first prototype telescope has been built and tested. Other optical configurations are possible and collaborators will be welcomed.

  9. The blind hens’ challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Hocking, Paul M.; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    about breeding blind hens. But we also argue that alternative views, which (for example) claim that it is important to respect the telos or rights of an animal, do not offer a more convincing solution to questions raised by the possibility of disenhancing animals for their own benefit.......Animal ethicists have recently debated the ethical questions raised by disenhancing animals to improve their welfare. Here, we focus on the particular case of breeding blind hens for commercial egg-laying systems, in order to benefit their welfare. Many people find breeding blind hens intuitively...

  10. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Koert G.; van Eck, Emiel; de Boer, Rens A.; van Grunsven, Roy H.A.; Salis, Lucia; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M.

    2015-01-01

    * Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,

  11. The feast "STAR NIGHT 2009" in Shumen, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyurkchieva, Diana P.

    Information about the preparation and realization of the attractive program for the "Star Night" on September 25, 2009, in Shumen, is presented. Its goal is popularization of the European initiative "Research Night" in Bulgaria.

  12. Geneva motorway bypass closed for two nights

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The carriageways heading towards France on the airport section of the motorway will be closed from 8.30 p.m. to 5.00 a.m. in the night of 1 to 2 October and those heading towards Lausanne during the same hours in the night of 2 to 3 October. This is to allow dry-surface road-marking and signage work to be performed. The work will be postponed in the event of bad weather, in which case the new date will be announced on Radio RSR and Radio Lac as well as on the telephone traffic news service 163. Diversions will be in operation. Thank you in advance for your understanding. For further information, tel. 163 or www.autoroute-aeroport.ch Civil Engineering Department, DCTI, State of Geneva

  13. Multi-channel automotive night vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gang; Wang, Li-jun; Zhang, Yi

    2013-09-01

    A four-channel automotive night vision system is designed and developed .It is consist of the four active near-infrared cameras and an Mulit-channel image processing display unit,cameras were placed in the automobile front, left, right and rear of the system .The system uses near-infrared laser light source,the laser light beam is collimated, the light source contains a thermoelectric cooler (TEC),It can be synchronized with the camera focusing, also has an automatic light intensity adjustment, and thus can ensure the image quality. The principle of composition of the system is description in detail,on this basis, beam collimation,the LD driving and LD temperature control of near-infrared laser light source,four-channel image processing display are discussed.The system can be used in driver assistance, car BLIS, car parking assist system and car alarm system in day and night.

  14. The volunteer programme ‘Night Ravens’:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Østergaard; Kleif, Helle Bendix; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The volunteer programme ‘Night Ravens’ (NR) was founded in Sweden in 1987 and has, over the years, developed into a Scandinavian concept covering large areas of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The NR programme is a crime prevention initiative with adults walking...... the streets at night in identifiable ‘uniforms’ in areas with high activity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of the NR programme in Denmark based on a volunteer set-up with a less intrusive approach to situational crime prevention than, for instance, hot spot policing. The analyses...... are based on a longitudinal data set containing socio-demographic information on all 585 postcode districts in Denmark and quarterly records of six different categories of reported crimes in the years 2001–2010.We apply a difference-in-difference design and compare development in crime rates in districts...

  15. CMS Virtual Visit - Researchers Night in Portugal

    CERN Multimedia

    Abreu, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Researchers Night at Planetarium Calouste Gulbenkian - Ciência Viva Centre in Lisbon. Organised by researchers from LIP (Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas) and including CMS Virtual Visit during which André David Tinoco Mendes and José Rasteiro da Silva, based at Cessy, France, "virtually" discussed science and technology behind the CMS detector with the audience in Lisbon.

  16. The Mythology of the Night Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, David E.

    The word "planet" comes from the Latin word planeta and the Greek word planes, which means "wanderer." When the ancient Greeks studied the night sky they noticed that most of the stars remained in the same position relative to all the other stars, but a few stars seem to move in the sky from day to day, week to week, and month to month. The Greeks called these rogue stars "wanderers" because they wandered through the starry background.

  17. Stationary and non-stationary extreme value modeling of extreme temperature in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Husna; Salleh, Nur Hanim Mohd; Kassim, Suraiya

    2014-09-01

    Extreme annual temperature of eighteen stations in Malaysia is fitted to the Generalized Extreme Value distribution. Stationary and non-stationary models with trend are considered for each station and the Likelihood Ratio test is used to determine the best-fitting model. Results show that three out of eighteen stations i.e. Bayan Lepas, Labuan and Subang favor a model which is linear in the location parameter. A hierarchical cluster analysis is employed to investigate the existence of similar behavior among the stations. Three distinct clusters are found in which one of them consists of the stations that favor the non-stationary model. T-year estimated return levels of the extreme temperature are provided based on the chosen models.

  18. Dry eye signs and symptoms in night-time workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Makateb; Hamed Torabifard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of night-time working on dry eye signs and symptoms. Methods: A total of 50 healthy subjects completed a dry eye questionnaire and underwent clinical examinations including basic Schirmer's test and tear breakup time (TBUT) test on two consecutive days, before and after the night shift (12-hrs night-shift). Results: All dry eye symptoms were aggravated significantly after the night shift (P 

  19. Is global warming mostly at night?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukla, G.; Quayle, R.G.; Karl, T.

    1994-01-01

    The release of greenhouse gases is expected to lead to substantial future warming. The global mean temperature has indeed risen in recent decades. The causes of the observed warming, and its relation to the greenhouse gas buildup are, however, still debated. One important aspect of the observed temperature change relates to its asymmetry during the day and night. The day-night temperature difference over land in North America, most of Eurasia, Oceania, and portions of Africa and Australia shows a decrease since about 1950. The changes of the daily mean temperature in these areas are principally due to the rising night or early morning temperature, and are accompanied by increasing cloudiness. Their results support the notion that the increase of cloud cover, possibly due to industrial sulfur emissions, mitigates the greenhouse warming. The causes of the changing diurnal temperature range and of the increasing cloudiness will have to be clarified and the future SO 2 emissions reliably projected before any trustworthy prediction of future climates can be made. 37 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Agomelatine Efficacy in the Night Eating Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Milano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Night eating syndrome (NES is a nosographic entity included among the forms not otherwise specified (EDNOS in eating disorders (ED of the DSM IV. It is characterized by a reduced food intake during the day, evening hyperphagia, and nocturnal awakenings associated with conscious episodes of compulsive ingestion of food. Frequently, NES patients show significant psychopathology comorbidity with affective disorders. This paper describes a case report of an NES patient treated with agomelatine, an antidepressant analogue of melatonin, which acts by improving not only the mood but also by regulating sleep cycles and appetite. After three months of observation, the use of Agomelatine not only improved the mood of our NES patient (assessed in the HAM-D scores but it was also able to reduce the night eating questionnaire, by both reducing the number of nocturnal awakenings with food intake, the time of snoring, the minutes of movement during night sleep (assessed at polysomnography, and the weight (−5.5 kg and optimizing blood glucose and lipid profile. In our clinical case report, agomelatine was able both to reduce the NES symptoms and to significantly improve the mood of our NES patient without adverse side effects during the duration of treatment. Therefore, our case report supports the rationale for further studies on the use of Agomelatine in the NES treatment.

  1. Mothers' night work and children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Crosby, Danielle A; Su, Jessica Houston

    2013-10-01

    Many mothers work in jobs with nonstandard schedules (i.e., schedules that involve work outside of the traditional 9-5, Monday through Friday schedule); this is particularly true for economically disadvantaged mothers. In the present article, we used longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (n = 2,367 mothers of children ages 3-5 years) to examine the associations between maternal nonstandard work and children's behavior problems, with a particular focus on mothers' night shift work. We employed 3 analytic strategies with various approaches to adjusting for observed and unobserved selection factors; these approaches provided an upper and lower bound on the true relationship between night shift work and children's behavior. Taken together, the results provide suggestive evidence for modest associations between exposure to maternal night shift work and higher levels of aggressive and anxious or depressed behavior in children compared with children whose mothers who are not working, those whose mothers work other types of nonstandard shifts, and, for aggressive behavior, those whose mothers work standard shifts.

  2. Persepsi Wisatawan Terhadap Night Life Attraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hary Hermawan

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT Cabaret is a term performances of music, comedy, dance, drama, and other special mix of art perfomed by men who dressed in women (ladyboy on stage. Cabaret performances in Oyot Godhong Restaurant intended as new tourist attraction that is expected to increase the interest of tourists to visit Malioboro in Yogyakarta, especially to Oyot Godhong Restaurants. Based descriptive study shows that the characteristics travelers who viewed Kabaret show is very diverse, each of which has perceptions and motivations are different. Cabaret performances have qualified to become the cultural attractions are staged at night (night atraction in the city of Yogyakarta. Based on traveler perception indicates that the cabaret performances have beauty or aesthetics, uniqueness, and values that match the criteria criteria of the standard as a tourist attraction. Performances Cabaret in Oyot Godhong Restaurants able to increase the sale value. Oyot Godhong Restaurants previously only form of tourism facilities (amenities, but is now a restaurant that has a tourist attraction (atraction.   Keywords: Cabaret show, night life attractions, tourism attraction, tourists perception, tourism marketing

  3. Blind loop syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001146.htm Blind loop syndrome To use the sharing features on ... Clinical Professor of Medicine, The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC. Also reviewed by David ...

  4. Day and night grazing by cattle in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayantunde, A.A.; Fernandez-Rivera, S.; Hiernaux, P.H.; Keulen, van H.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of night grazing on feeding behavior, nutrition and performance of cattle was studied. Twenty-four steers weighing 367 kg (SD = 76) grazed either from 0900 to 1900 (day grazers), 2100 to 0700 (night grazers) or 0900 to 1900 and 2400 to 0400 (day-and-night grazers) during 13 weeks. Four

  5. 5 CFR 532.505 - Night shift differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Night shift differentials. 532.505... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Premium Pay and Differentials § 532.505 Night shift differentials. (a) Employees shall be entitled to receive night shift differentials in accordance with section 5343 of title 5...

  6. Localization and stationary phase approximation on supermanifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharevich, Valentin

    2017-08-01

    Given an odd vector field Q on a supermanifold M and a Q-invariant density μ on M, under certain compactness conditions on Q, the value of the integral ∫Mμ is determined by the value of μ on any neighborhood of the vanishing locus N of Q. We present a formula for the integral in the case where N is a subsupermanifold which is appropriately non-degenerate with respect to Q. In the process, we discuss the linear algebra necessary to express our result in a coordinate independent way. We also extend the stationary phase approximation and the Morse-Bott lemma to supermanifolds.

  7. Non-stationary compositions of Anosov diffeomorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenlund, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by non-equilibrium phenomena in nature, we study dynamical systems whose time-evolution is determined by non-stationary compositions of chaotic maps. The constituent maps are topologically transitive Anosov diffeomorphisms on a two-dimensional compact Riemannian manifold, which are allowed to change with time—slowly, but in a rather arbitrary fashion. In particular, such systems admit no invariant measure. By constructing a coupling, we prove that any two sufficiently regular distributions of the initial state converge exponentially with time. Thus, a system of this kind loses memory of its statistical history rapidly

  8. Stationary stochastic processes for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Lindgren, Georg; Sandsten, Maria

    2013-01-01

    ""This book is designed for a first course in stationary stochastic processes in science and engineering and does a very good job in introducing many concepts and ideas to students in these fields. … the book has probably been tested in the classroom many times, which also manifests itself in its virtual lack of typos. … Another great feature of the book is that it contains a wealth of worked example from many different fields. These help clarify concepts and theorems and I believe students will appreciate them-I certainly did. … The book is well suited for a one-semester course as it contains

  9. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heusler Markus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has increased in an unexpected way during the last decade. In particular, it has turned out that not all black hole equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black hole space-times ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some of the recent developments and to discuss them in the light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  10. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr T. Chruściel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  11. Population inversion in a stationary recombining plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, M.

    1980-01-01

    Population inversion, which occurs in a recombining plasma when a stationary He plasma is brought into contact with a neutral gas, is examined. With hydrogen as a contact gas, noticeable inversion between low-lying levels of H as been found. The overpopulation density is of the order of 10 8 cm -3 , which is much higher then that (approx. =10 5 cm -3 ) obtained previously with He as a contact gas. Relations between these experimental results and the conditions for population inversion are discussed with the CR model

  12. Improved circadian sleep-wake cycle in infants fed a day/night dissociated formula milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero, J; Narciso, D; Aparicio, S; Garau, C; Valero, V; Rivero, M; Esteban, S; Rial, R; Rodríguez, A B; Barriga, C

    2006-06-01

    On the basis of the circadian nutritional variations present in breast milk, and of the implications for the sleep/wake cycle of the nutrients present in infant formula milks, we designed a formula milk nutritionally dissociated into a Day/Night composition. The goal was to improve the bottle-fed infant's sleep/wake circadian rhythm. A total of 21 infants aged 4-20 weeks with sleeping difficulties were enrolled in the three-week duration study. The sleep analysis was performed using an actimeter (Actiwatch) placed on an ankle of each infant to uninterruptedly record movements during the three weeks. The dissociated Day milk, designed to be administered from 06:00 to 18:00, contained low levels of tryptophan (1.5g/100g protein) and carbohydrates, high levels of proteins, and the nucleotides Cytidine 5 monophosphate, Guanosine 5 monophosphate and Inosine 5 monophosphate. The dissociated Night milk, designed to be administered from 18.00 to 06.00, contained high levels of tryptophan (3.4g/100g protein) and carbohydrates, low levels of protein, and the nucleotides Adenosine 5 monophosphate and Uridine 5 monophosphate. Three different milk-feeding experiments were performed in a double-blind procedure covering three weeks. In week 1 (control), the infants received both by day and by night a standard formula milk; in week 2 (inverse control), they received the dissociated milk inversely (Night/Day instead of Day/Night); and in week 3, they received the Day/Night dissociated formula concordant with the formula design. When the infants were receiving the Day/Night dissociated milk in concordance with their environment, they showed improvement in all the nocturnal sleep parameters analyzed: total hours of sleep, sleep efficiency, minutes of nocturnal immobility, nocturnal awakenings, and sleep latency. In conclusion, the use of a chronobiologically adjusted infant formula milk seems to be effective in improving the consolidation of the circadian sleep/wake cycle in bottle

  13. The city at night (the case of Maribor, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Drozg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the city at night. The distinctive aspect of the discussed topic is the time dimension of spaces and areas – places that “live” at night. The night has economic, cultural, social and formal elements; and it is these elements that underpin how we see and come to know the city at night. A range of topics have been explored: places of retailing and consumption, workplaces, places of entertainment, places that embody the night image of the city and places of socially unacceptable, delinquent behaviour. In the empirical part, we examined the city of Maribor, Slovenia.

  14. The night sky brightness at McDonald Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, J. K.; Roosen, R. G.; Brandt, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Baseline observations of the night sky brightness in B and V are presented for McDonald Observatory. In agreement with earlier work by Elvey and Rudnick (1937) and Elvey (1943), significant night-to-night and same-night variations in sky brightness are found. Possible causes for these variations are discussed. The largest variation in sky brightness found during a single night is approximately a factor of two, a value which corresponds to a factor-of-four variation in airglow brightness. The data are used to comment on the accuracy of previously published surface photometry of M 81.

  15. Ionic liquid stationary phases for gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Colin F; Poole, Salwa K

    2011-04-01

    This article provides a summary of the development of ionic liquids as stationary phases for gas chromatography beginning with early work on packed columns that established details of the retention mechanism and established working methods to characterize selectivity differences compared with molecular stationary phases through the modern development of multi-centered cation and cross-linked ionic liquids for high-temperature applications in capillary gas chromatography. Since there are many reviews on ionic liquids dealing with all aspects of their chemical and physical properties, the emphasis in this article is placed on the role of gas chromatography played in the design of ionic liquids of low melting point, high thermal stability, high viscosity, and variable selectivity for separations. Ionic liquids provide unprecedented opportunities for extending the selectivity range and temperature-operating range of columns for gas chromatography, an area of separation science that has otherwise been almost stagnant for over a decade. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Eddy current inspection of stationary blade rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzywosz, K.J.; Hastings, S.N.

    1994-01-01

    Stationary turbine blade rings in a US power plant have experienced chloride-induced cracking. Failure analysis determined two types of cracking mechanisms: corrosion fatigue cracking confined to the leading edge of the outer shroud; and stress corrosion cracking present all over the blade surface. Fluorescent dye penetrant is typically used to detect and size cracks. However, it requires cleaning the blade rings by sandblasting to obtain reliable inspection results. Sand blasting in turn requires sealing the lower half of the turbine housing to prevent sand from contaminating the rest of the power plant components. Furthermore, both the penetrant examination and the removal of the sand are time consuming and costly. An alternative NDE technique is desirable which requires no pre-cleaning of the blade and a quick go/no-go inspection with the capability of estimating the crack length. This paper presents an innovative eddy current technique which meets the desired objectives by incorporating the use of specially designed contoured scanners equipped with an array of pancake coils. A set of eddy current pancake coils housed in three different scanners is used to manually scan and inspect the convex side of the stationary blade rings. The pancake coils are operated in a transmit/receive mode using two separate eddy current instruments. This paper presents the inspection concept, including scanner and probe designs, and test results from the various stages of multiple blade rings

  17. Concentration and limit behaviors of stationary measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Ji, Min; Liu, Zhenxin; Yi, Yingfei

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study limit behaviors of stationary measures of the Fokker-Planck equations associated with a system of ordinary differential equations perturbed by a class of multiplicative noise including additive white noise case. As the noises are vanishing, various results on the invariance and concentration of the limit measures are obtained. In particular, we show that if the noise perturbed systems admit a uniform Lyapunov function, then the stationary measures form a relatively sequentially compact set whose weak∗-limits are invariant measures of the unperturbed system concentrated on its global attractor. In the case that the global attractor contains a strong local attractor, we further show that there exists a family of admissible multiplicative noises with respect to which all limit measures are actually concentrated on the local attractor; and on the contrary, in the presence of a strong local repeller in the global attractor, there exists a family of admissible multiplicative noises with respect to which no limit measure can be concentrated on the local repeller. Moreover, we show that if there is a strongly repelling equilibrium in the global attractor, then limit measures with respect to typical families of multiplicative noises are always concentrated away from the equilibrium. As applications of these results, an example of stochastic Hopf bifurcation and an example with non-decomposable ω-limit sets are provided. Our study is closely related to the problem of noise stability of compact invariant sets and invariant measures of the unperturbed system.

  18. Stationary two-variable gravitational vortex fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, A.

    1974-01-01

    Some properties of stationary two-variable solutions of the Einstein equations were studied on the basis of rigorous analysis of the nonrelativistic limit of the relativistic gravitation theory. For this case a particular method was developed of determining so-called vortex gravitational fields described by vortex solutions, which in the nonrelativistic limit transform from → infinity to the nonnewtonian type solutions. The main formulae for such fields are derived and a scheme for their calculation is presented. It is shown that under certain conditions the exact stationary solutions of the Papapetrou type for vacuum relativistic equations are vortical. From this fact, first, the presence of particular exact vortical solutions for the Einstein equations is proved, and secondly, a new possibility of a physical interpretation is proposed for the Papapetrou solutions. It is also shown that the nonrelativistic limit of this class of solutions strongly depends on the structure of solution parameters (under certain conditions these solutions may also have the Newtonian limit). 'Multipole' and 'one-variable' partial solutions of the Papapetrou class solution are derived as particular examples of vortical solutions. It is shown that for a specific parameter structure the known NUT solution is also vortical, since it belongs to the Papapetrou class [ru

  19. Night Work and the Risk of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerer, Peter; Schmook, Renate; Elfantel, Irina; Li, Jian

    2017-07-16

    Working the night shift interferes with the circadian chronobiological rhythm, causing sleep disturbances, fatigue, and diminished wellbeing, and increases the risk of serious disease. The question whether night work increases the risk of depression has not been adequately studied to date. We carried out a systematic, broadly conceived literature search in the PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and PSYNDEX databases and the Medpilot search portal on the topic of nighttime shift work and mental illness. The search yielded 5682 hits, which were narrowed down by predefined selection criteria to 11 high-quality longitudinal studies on the relationship between nighttime shift work and depressive illness. Only these 11 studies were subjected to further analysis. 3 of 4 studies on nighttime shift work in the health professions (almost exclusively nursing) revealed no association with depression over an observation period of two years. On the other hand, 5 studies on nighttime shift work in occupations outside the health sector, with observation periods of two or more years, yielded evidence of an elevated risk of depression after several years of nighttime shift work, but not in any uniform pattern. A supplementary meta-analysis of 5 of the studies revealed a 42% increase of the risk of depression among persons working the night shift (95% confidence interval [0.92; 2.19]). Psychosocial working conditions that have a negative influence on health partially account for these associations. Although there is evidence that nighttime shift work (at least, in occupations outside the health sector) does increase the risk of depression, this evidence is not strong enough to sustain a general medical recommendation against shift work for employees with depressive conditions. It would seem appropriate to address this question on an individual basis, with strong support from physicians and close attention to the deleterious psychosocial factors associated with shift work.

  20. The stargazer's guide to the night sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lisle, Jason, Dr

    2012-01-01

    Explore the night sky, identify stars, constellations, and even planets. Stargaze with a telescope, binoculars, or even your naked eye. Allow Dr. Jason Lisle, a research scientist with a masters and PhD in astrophysics, to guide you in examining the beauty of God's Creation with 150 full color star-charts. Learn the best ways and optimal times to observe planets and stars with easy to use illustrations. Create or expand the hobby of stargazing; an outdoor, educational hobby to enjoy with friends or family.

  1. Domiciliary night nursing service: luxury or necessity?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, M H; Ishino, M

    1981-01-01

    The nursing records of the 242 patients who used the domiciliary night nursing care service in Newham Health District showed that three distinct groups of patients were nursed during 1979 at a cost of 8.8 pounds a day. Forty-three elderly chronically sick and five disabled patients aged under 50 received care for more than 28 days, 63 patients had terminal cancer, and 131 needed short-term care or observation. Data were also collected from a one-day survey of patients receiving care. This dom...

  2. Regression models describing Rosa hybrida response to day/night temperature and photosynthetic photon flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, D.A.; Hammer, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    A central composite rotatable design was used to estimate quadratic equations describing the relationship of irradiance, as measured by photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and day (DT) and night (NT) temperatures to the growth and development of Rosa hybrida L. in controlled environments. Plants were subjected to 15 treatment combinations of the PPF, DT, and NT according to the coding of the design matrix. Day and night length were each 12 hours. Environmental factor ranges were chosen to include conditions representative of winter and spring commercial greenhouse production environments in the midwestern United States. After an initial hard pinch, 11 plant growth characteristics were measured every 10 days and at flowering. Four plant characteristics were recorded to describe flower bud development. Response surface equations were displayed as three-dimensional plots, with DT and NT as the base axes and the plant character on the z-axis while PPF was held constant. Response surfaces illustrated the plant response to interactions of DT and NT, while comparisons between plots at different PPF showed the overall effect of PPF. Canonical analysis of all regression models revealed the stationary point and general shape of the response surface. All stationary points of the significant models were located outside the original design space, and all but one surface was a saddle shape. Both the plots and analysis showed greater stem diameter, as well as higher fresh and dry weights of stems, leaves, and flower buds to occur at flowering under combinations of low DT (less than or equal to 17C) and low NT (less than or equal to 14C). However, low DT and NT delayed both visible bud formation and development to flowering. Increased PPF increased overall flower stem quality by increasing stem diameter and the fresh and dry weights of all plant parts at flowering, as well as decreased time until visible bud formation and flowering. These results summarize measured development at

  3. The application of unattended ground sensors to stationary targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleefe, G.E.; Peglow, S.; Hamrick, R.

    1997-01-01

    The unattended sensing of stationary (i.e. non-mobile) targets is important in applications ranging from counter-proliferation to law enforcement. With stationary targets, sources of seismic, acoustic, and electro-magnetic emissions can potentially be used to detect, identify, and locate the target. Stationary targets have considerably different sensing requirements than the traditional mobile-target unattended ground sensor applications. This paper presents the novel features and requirements of a system for sensing stationary targets. In particular, issues associated with long-listen time signal processing for signal detection, and array processing techniques for signal localization are presented. Example data and signal processing outputs from a stationary target will be used to illustrate these issues. The impact on sensor, electronic signal processing, battery subsystem, and communication requirements will also be discussed. The paper will conclude with a detailed comparison between mobile-target and stationary-target unattended ground sensor architectures

  4. Stationary closed strings in five-dimensional flat spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igata, Takahisa; Ishihara, Hideki; Nishiwaki, Keisuke

    2012-11-01

    We investigate stationary rotating closed Nambu-Goto strings in five-dimensional flat spacetime. The stationary string is defined as a world sheet that is tangent to a timelike Killing vector. The Nambu-Goto equation of motion for the stationary string is reduced to the geodesic equation on the orbit space of the isometry group action generated by the Killing vector. We take a linear combination of a time-translation vector and space-rotation vectors as the Killing vector, and explicitly construct general solutions of stationary rotating closed strings in five-dimensional flat spacetime. We show a variety of their configurations and properties.

  5. Lacanian Reading of Marsha Norman's Night, Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Taherifard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a Lacanian/feminist reading of Night, Mother by the American playwright Marsha Norman. The play Night, Mother will be read according to Lacan’s point of view and the concepts of identity and identity formation are studied in this paper. The play will be analyzed based on the Lacanian concepts of the contrast between the Imaginary Order and the Symbolic Order, and the notion of Death Drive, suggesting that in the play Jessie represents the Symbolic Order and her mother, Thelma, represents the Imaginary Order. The notion of Death Drive and its omnipresence in Jessie’s psyche is discussed and emphasized. Thelma functions as the Other for Jessie, while her father functions as the Mother, a reversal of gender roles in the Lacanian reading. Moreover, the relationship between some of the concepts are explained. It will be explicated how the play can be brought in line with a feminist reading of Lacan by reversing the stereotypical gender roles and subsequently getting close to post-feminist authors.

  6. Night sleep in patients with vegetative state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Yuri G; Gais, Steffen; Müller, Friedemann; Schönauer, Monika; Schäpers, Barbara; Born, Jan; Kotchoubey, Boris

    2017-10-01

    Polysomnographic recording of night sleep was carried out in 15 patients with the diagnosis vegetative state (syn. unresponsive wakefulness syndrome). Sleep scoring was performed by three raters, and confirmed by means of a spectral power analysis of the electroencephalogram, electrooculogram and electromyogram. All patients but one exhibited at least some signs of sleep. In particular, sleep stage N1 was found in 13 patients, N2 in 14 patients, N3 in nine patients, and rapid eye movement sleep in 10 patients. Three patients exhibited all phenomena characteristic for normal sleep, including spindles and rapid eye movements. However, in all but one patient, sleep patterns were severely disturbed as compared with normative data. All patients had frequent and long periods of wakefulness during the night. In some apparent rapid eye movement sleep episodes, no eye movements were recorded. Sleep spindles were detected in five patients only, and their density was very low. We conclude that the majority of vegetative state patients retain some important circadian changes. Further studies are necessary to disentangle multiple factors potentially affecting sleep pattern of vegetative state patients. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  7. Being a researcher for one night

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    On 24 September from 5 p.m. to 1 a.m., European Researchers Night will give some 100 young students from local schools the opportunity to sit side by side with scientists and operators in the LHC control rooms. At the same time, a live webcast will connect CERN with various institutes around Europe participating in the Being a European Scientist Today (BEST) project. You are all invited to take part!   Copyright Frascati Scienza The European Researchers Night is an EU initiated and funded initiative, which aims at highlighting the appeal of being a researcher. Meeting scientists in a ‘fun’ and festive context gives the public, especially the young, the opportunity to get to know the job better and be inspired to pursue a career in research. “CERN scientists already took part in last year’s event, but only through a web connection with Frascati in Italy”, explains Paola Catapano, a member of the Communication group and organiser of the activities t...

  8. Effective Complexity of Stationary Process Realizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleta Szkoła

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of effective complexity of an object as the minimal description length of its regularities has been initiated by Gell-Mann and Lloyd. The regularities are modeled by means of ensembles, which is the probability distributions on finite binary strings. In our previous paper [1] we propose a definition of effective complexity in precise terms of algorithmic information theory. Here we investigate the effective complexity of binary strings generated by stationary, in general not computable, processes. We show that under not too strong conditions long typical process realizations are effectively simple. Our results become most transparent in the context of coarse effective complexity which is a modification of the original notion of effective complexity that needs less parameters in its definition. A similar modification of the related concept of sophistication has been suggested by Antunes and Fortnow.

  9. Quantum teleportation between stationary macroscopic objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Xiao-Hui; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Pan, Jian-Wei [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Xu, Xiao-Fan [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Li, Che-Ming [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Physics, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2010-07-01

    Quantum teleportation is a process to transfer a quantum state of an object without transferring the state carrier itself. So far, most of the teleportation experiments realized are within the photonic regime. For the teleportation of stationary states, the largest system reported is a single ion. We are now performing an experiment to teleport the state of an macroscopic atomic cloud which consists about 10{sup 6} single atoms. In our experiment two atomic ensembles are utilized. In the first ensemble A we prepare the collective atomic state to be teleported using the quantum feedback technique. The second ensemble B is utilized to generate entanglement between it collective state with a scattered single-photon. Teleportation is realized by converting the atomic state of A to a single-photon and making a Bell state measurement with the scattered single-photon from ensemble B.

  10. Landau superfluids as nonequilibrium stationary states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wreszinski, Walter F.

    2015-01-01

    We define a superfluid state to be a nonequilibrium stationary state (NESS), which, at zero temperature, satisfies certain metastability conditions, which physically express that there should be a sufficiently small energy-momentum transfer between the particles of the fluid and the surroundings (e.g., pipe). It is shown that two models, the Girardeau model and the Huang-Yang-Luttinger (HYL) model, describe superfluids in this sense and, moreover, that, in the case of the HYL model, the metastability condition is directly related to Nozières’ conjecture that, due to the repulsive interaction, the condensate does not suffer fragmentation into two (or more) parts, thereby assuring its quantum coherence. The models are rigorous examples of NESS in which the system is not finite, but rather a many-body system

  11. Modified method of perturbed stationary states. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, T.A.

    1978-10-01

    The reaction coordinate approach of Mittleman is used to generalize the method of Perturbed Stationary States. A reaction coordinate is defined for each state in the scattering expansion in terms of parameters which depend on the internuclear separation. These are to be determined from a variational principle described by Demkov. The variational result agrees with that of Bates and McCarroll in the limit of separated atoms, but is generally different elsewhere. The theory is formulated for many-electron systems, and the construction of the scattering expansion is discussed for simple one-, two-, and three-electron systsm. The scattering expansion and the Lagrangian for the radial scattering functions are given in detail for a heteronuclear one-electron system. 2 figures

  12. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, NH3, particulate matter, heavy metals, PCDD/F, HCB and PAH. The CO2 emission in 2011...... of decreased emissions from large power plants and waste incineration plants. The combustion of wood in residential plants has increased considerably until 2007 resulting in increased emission of PAH and particulate matter. The emission of NMVOC has increased since 1990 as a result of both the increased...... combustion of wood in residential plants and the increased emission from lean-burn gas engines. The PCDD/F emission decreased since 1990 due to flue gas cleaning on waste incineration plants....

  13. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, NH3, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins, HCB and PAH. The CO2 emission in 2008...... incineration plants. The combustion of wood in residential plants has increased considerably in recent years resulting in increased emission of PAH, particulate matter and CO. The emission of NMVOC has increased since 1990 as a result of both the increased combustion of wood in residential plants...... and the increased emission from lean-burn gas engines. The dioxin emission decreased since 1990 due to flue gas cleaning on waste incineration plants. However in recent years the emission has increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential plants....

  14. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins, HCB and PAH. The CO2 emission in 2007 was 10...... incineration plants. The combustion of wood in residential plants has increased considerably in recent years resulting in increased emission of PAH, particulate matter and CO. The emission of NMVOC has increased since 1990 as a result of both the increased combustion of wood in residential plants...... and the increased emission from lean-burn gas engines. The dioxin emission decreased since 1990 due to flue gas cleaning on waste incineration plants. However in recent years the emission has increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential plants....

  15. Stationary spiral flow in polytropic stellar models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekeris, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that, in addition to the static Emden solution, a self-gravitating polytropic gas has a dynamic option in which there is stationary flow along spiral trajectories wound around the surfaces of concentric tori. The motion is obtained as a solution of a partial differential equation which is satisfied by the meridional stream function, coupled with Poisson's equation and a Bernoulli-type equation for the pressure (density). The pressure is affected by the whole of the Bernoulli term rather than by the centrifugal part only, which acts for a rotating model, and it may be reduced down to zero at the center. The spiral type of flow is illustrated for an incompressible fluid (n = 0), for which an exact solution is obtained. The features of the dynamic constant-density model are discussed as a basis for future comparison with the solution for compressible models. PMID:16592825

  16. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.

    2015-06-01

    Historical records are an important source of information on extreme and rare floods and fundamental to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historical records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 yr flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (central Spain) was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their contribution within hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc.), epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks) were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations in flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Over the systematic gauge record (1913-2008), an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia) controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a) a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators, and (b) a time-varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS) modelling, which incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index) and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI). Flood frequency

  17. A stationary evacuated collector with integrated concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snail, K.A.; O' Gallagher, J.J.; Winston, R.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive set of experimental tests and detailed optical and thermal models are presented for a newly developed solar thermal collector. The new collector has an optical efficiency of 65 per cent and achieves thermal efficiencies of better than 50 per cent at fluid temperatures of 200/sup 0/C without tracking the sun. The simultaneous features of high temperature operation and a fully stationary mount are made possible by combining vacuum insulation, spectrally selective coatings, and nonimaging concentration in a novel way. These 3 design elements are ''integrated'' together in a self containe unit by shaping the outer glass envelope of a conventional evacuated tube into the profile of a nonimaging CPC-type concentrator. This permits the use of a first surface mirror and eliminates the need for second cover glazing. The new collector has been given the name ''Integrated Stationary Evacuated Concentrator'', or ISEC collector. Not only is the peak thermal efficiency of the ISEC comparable to that of commercial tracking parabolic troughs, but projections of the average yearly energy delivery also show competitive performance with a net gain for temperatures below 200/sup 0/C. In addition, the ISEC is less subject to exposure induced degradation and could be mass produced with assembly methods similar to those used with fluorescent lamps. Since no tracking or tilt adjustments are ever required and because its sensitive optical surfaces are protected from the environment, the ISEC collector provides a simple, easily maintained solar thermal collector for the range 100-300/sup 0/C which is suitable for most climates and atmospheric conditions. Potential applications include space heating, air conditioning, and industrial process heat.

  18. Stationary flow in magnetic tubes of force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvold, O.; Jensen, E.

    1976-01-01

    For one particular set of boundary conditions Pikel'ner obtained a stationary solution displaying a condensation, which he applied to quiescent prominences. Calculations in the stationary case for a range of parameters have been carried out, after some modifications of the basic equations. These modifications involved a complete non-LTE formulation of the ionization equilibrium, an improved radiative loss-function and more accurate values of the thermodynamic parameters. The calculations were carried out for a hydrogen helium mixture with B = 10 and for a pure hydrogen gas. The solutions were terminated where the optical thickness in lyα along the tube exceeded unity, corresponding to T approx.equal to 20 000K. The solutions are strongly dependent upon the geometry of the tube of force. Condensations may be made to appear on the ascending as well as on the descending branch of the magnetic arch by varying the parameters. Solutions also depend strongly upon the energy input into the tube at the footpoint, mainly determined by the injection velocity and the starting value of the temperature gradient. The radiative loss is of less importance for the values of the gas pressure close to the Pikel'ner case. Recent observational data indicate gas pressure in the chromosphere corona transition region as much as 4 times the boundary pressure assumed by Pikel'ner. Such a high initial pressure, however, produce no condensation. In the temperature range 1.2x10 5 K > T > 5x10 4 K the temperature gradients in the condensations are in fair agreement with observations of the CIII lines in the EUV-region. For higher temperatures 5x10 5 K > T > 2x10 5 K our temperature gradients are much smaller than those indicated by observations. (Auth.)

  19. Oplysningens blinde vinkler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    manipulation og fordrejning, til at påvirke menneskers overvejelser, beslutninger og handlinger, både individuelt og kollektivt, hvilket i sidste ende kan få betydning for de demokratiske processer. Oplysningens blinde vinkler gennemgår en række informationsfænomener, som optræder i vores dagligdag, og den...

  20. Leading Causes of Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have cataracts. They are the leading cause of blindness in the world. By age 80, more than half of all people in the United States either will have a cataract or have had cataract surgery. Common symptoms are: Blurry vision Colors that seem faded Glare Not being able to ...

  1. Blind Loop Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or scleroderma involving the small intestine History of radiation therapy to the abdomen Diabetes Diverticulosis of the small intestine Complications A blind loop can cause escalating problems, including: Poor absorption of fats. Bacteria in your small intestine break down the bile ...

  2. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei; Gregson, James; Heide, Felix; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non

  3. Evaluation of stationary and non-stationary geostatistical models for inferring hydraulic conductivity values at Aespoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Pointe, P.R.

    1994-11-01

    This report describes the comparison of stationary and non-stationary geostatistical models for the purpose of inferring block-scale hydraulic conductivity values from packer tests at Aespoe. The comparison between models is made through the evaluation of cross-validation statistics for three experimental designs. The first experiment consisted of a 'Delete-1' test previously used at Finnsjoen. The second test consisted of 'Delete-10%' and the third test was a 'Delete-50%' test. Preliminary data analysis showed that the 3 m and 30 m packer test data can be treated as a sample from a single population for the purposes of geostatistical analyses. Analysis of the 3 m data does not indicate that there are any systematic statistical changes with depth, rock type, fracture zone vs non-fracture zone or other mappable factor. Directional variograms are ambiguous to interpret due to the clustered nature of the data, but do not show any obvious anisotropy that should be accounted for in geostatistical analysis. Stationary analysis suggested that there exists a sizeable spatially uncorrelated component ('Nugget Effect') in the 3 m data, on the order of 60% of the observed variance for the various models fitted. Four different nested models were automatically fit to the data. Results for all models in terms of cross-validation statistics were very similar for the first set of validation tests. Non-stationary analysis established that both the order of drift and the order of the intrinsic random functions is low. This study also suggests that conventional cross-validation studies and automatic variogram fitting are not necessarily evaluating how well a model will infer block scale hydraulic conductivity values. 20 refs, 20 figs, 14 tabs

  4. Arsia Mons by Day and Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 22 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Arsia Mons. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -19.6, Longitude 241.9 East (118.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project

  5. Albor Tholus by Day and Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 21 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Albor Tholus. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 17.6, Longitude 150.3 East (209.7 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project

  6. Noctus Labyrinthus by Day and Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 25 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Noctus Labyrinthus. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -9.6, Longitude 264.5 East (95.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  7. Crater Ejecta by Day and Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 24 June 2004 This pair of images shows a crater and its ejecta. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -9, Longitude 164.2 East (195.8 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project

  8. Meridiani Crater in Day and Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 14 June 2004 This pair of images shows crater ejecta in the Terra Meridiani region. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -1.6, Longitude 4.1 East (355.9 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in

  9. Ius Chasma by Day and Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 18 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Ius Chasma. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -1, Longitude 276 East (84 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at

  10. Gusev Crater by Day and Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 23 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Gusev Crater. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -14.5, Longitude 175.5 East (184.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project

  11. Day And Night In Terra Meridiani

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 11 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of the Terra Meridiani region. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 1.3, Longitude 0.5 East (359.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  12. Airborne Use of Night Vision Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mepham, S.

    1990-04-01

    Mission Management Department of the Royal Aerospace Establishment has won a Queen's Award for Technology, jointly with GEC Sensors, in recognition of innovation and success in the development and application of night vision technology for fixed wing aircraft. This work has been carried out to satisfy the operational needs of the Royal Air Force. These are seen to be: - Operations in the NATO Central Region - To have a night as well as a day capability - To carry out low level, high speed penetration - To attack battlefield targets, especially groups of tanks - To meet these objectives at minimum cost The most effective way to penetrate enemy defences is at low level and survivability would be greatly enhanced with a first pass attack. It is therefore most important that not only must the pilot be able to fly at low level to the target but also he must be able to detect it in sufficient time to complete a successful attack. An analysis of the average operating conditions in Central Europe during winter clearly shows that high speed low level attacks can only be made for about 20 per cent of the 24 hours. Extending this into good night conditions raises the figure to 60 per cent. Whilst it is true that this is for winter conditions and in summer the situation is better, the overall advantage to be gained is clear. If our aircraft do not have this capability the potential for the enemy to advance his troops and armour without hinderance for considerable periods is all too obvious. There are several solutions to providing such a capability. The one chosen for Tornado GR1 is to use Terrain Following Radar (TFR). This system is a complete 24 hour capability. However it has two main disadvantages, it is an active system which means it can be jammed or homed into, and is useful in attacking pre-planned targets. Second it is an expensive system which precludes fitting to other than a small number of aircraft.

  13. Postural control in blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Antonio Vinicius; Oliveira, Cláudia Silva Remor de; Knabben, Rodrigo José; Domenech, Susana Cristina; Borges Junior, Noe Gomes

    2011-12-01

    To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  14. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  15. The observer's year 366 nights in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    This is a night by night account of the stars. For every night of the year Sir Patrick Moore gives the reader details of interesting objects that can be seen from earth. It is a book for people with a wide interest in astronomy, those who may not have specialised in a specific area of astronomy and wish to expand their knowledge in all areas. This second edition is updated for astronomical events through until 2010.

  16. Childhood night terrors and sleepwalking: diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sachin Ratan Gedam; Pradeep S. Patil; Imran Ali Shivji

    2017-01-01

    Night terrors and sleepwalking are arousal disorders that occur during the first third of night. Combined existence of sleep disorders are rare phenomenon and found to be associated with behavioural and emotional problems. It becomes difficult to diagnose among sleep disorders and epilepsy is an important differential diagnosis. Management with combined approach of pharmacotherapy and psychological counselling is safe and effective. Here, we present a case of night terrors and sleepwalking to...

  17. Increased and Mistimed Sex Hormone Production in Night Shift Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Papantoniou, K; Pozo, OJ; Espinosa, A; Marcos, J; Castano-Vinyals, G; Basagana, X; Juanola Pages, E; Mirabent, J; Martin, J; Such Faro, P; Gasco Aparici, A; Middleton, B; Skene, DJ; Kogevinas, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Night shift work has been associated with an increased risk for breast and prostate cancer. The effect of circadian disruption on sex steroid production is a possible underlying mechanism, underinvestigated in humans. We have assessed daily rhythms of sex hormones and melatonin in night and day shift workers of both sexes. METHODS: We recruited 75 night and 42 day workers, ages 22 to 64 years, in different working settings. Participants collected urine samples from all voids over ...

  18. Analysis of stress and deformation in non-stationary creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijoo, R.A.; Taroco, E.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.

    1980-12-01

    A variational method and its algorithm are presented; they permit the analysis of stress and deformation in non-stationary creep. This algorithm is applied to an infinite cylinder submitted to an internal pressure. The solution obtained is compared with the solution of non-stationary creep problems [pt

  19. Stationary states of two-level open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardas, Bartlomiej; Puchala, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    A problem of finding stationary states of open quantum systems is addressed. We focus our attention on a generic type of open system: a qubit coupled to its environment. We apply the theory of block operator matrices and find stationary states of two-level open quantum systems under certain conditions applied on both the qubit and the surrounding.

  20. Researchers' Night: science at the shops

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2015-01-01

    On 25 September, as part of European Researchers’ Night, CERN and POPScience joined forces to welcome the public at the Balexert shopping centre in Geneva. The Bulletin presents its gallery of photographs from the exciting and educational event.   Science through comic strips, games, cinema and television: POPScience approaches scientific questions through popular culture, with great success! Around 500 children attended the sessions for schools at Balexert's multiplex cinema, and 600 spectators flocked to the public screenings.  Using the big screen, scientists, directors and authors were on hand to disentangle truth from untruths and science from science fiction. The guests, some of whom appeared in person and others via video link, included Jorge Cham, author of PhD Comics and the spin-off film; David Saltzberg, physicist at CMS and scientific consultant for the television series The Big Bang Theory; Kip Thorne, scientific consultant for the film Interstellar; Lawrence ...

  1. STARS4ALL Night Sky Brightness Photometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Zamorano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the main features of TESS-W, the first version of a series of inexpensive but reliable photometers that will be used to measure night sky brightness. The bandpass is extended to the red with respect of that of the Sky Quality Meter (SQM. TESS-W connects to a router via WIFI and it sends automatically the brightness values to a data repository using Internet of Things protocols. The device includes an infrared sensor to estimate the cloud coverage. It is designed for fixed stations to monitor the evolution of the sky brightness. The photometer could also be used in local mode connected to a computer or tablet to gather data from a moving vehicle. The photometer is being developed within STARS4ALL project, a collective awareness platform for promoting dark skies in Europe, funded by the EU. We intend to extend the existing professional networks to a citizen-based network of photometers. 

  2. Night lights and regional income inequality in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mveyange, Anthony Francis

    Estimating regional income inequality in Africa has been challenging due to the lack of reliable and consistent sub-national income data. I employ night lights data to circumvent this limitation. I find significant and positive associations between regional inequality visible through night lights...... and income in Africa. Thus, in the absence of income data, we can construct regional inequality proxies using night lights data. Further investigation on the night lights-based regional inequality trends reveals two main findings: first, increasing regional inequality trends between 1992 and 2003; and second......, declining regional inequality trends between 2004 and 2012....

  3. Sign of the day-night asymmetry for solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Wolfenstein, Lincoln

    2001-01-01

    A qualitative understanding of the day-night asymmetry for solar neutrinos is provided. The greater night flux in ν e is seen to be a consequence of the fact that the matter effect in the Sun and that in the Earth have the same sign. It is shown in the adiabatic approximation for the Sun and constant density for the Earth that, for all values of the mixing angle θ V between 0 and π/2, the night flux of neutrinos is greater than the day flux. Only for small values of θ V where the adiabatic approximation badly fails does the sign of the day-night asymmetry reverse

  4. Dim Light at Night Increases Body Mass of Female Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Aubrecht, Taryn G.; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J.

    2014-01-01

    During the past century the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16h light at ~150 lux/8h dark at ~0 lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16h light at ~150 lux/8h dim light at ~5 lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rat...

  5. Modeling stationary and moving pebbles in a pebble bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiang; Montgomery, Trent; Zhang, Sijun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The stationary and moving pebbles in a PBR are numerically studied by DEM. • The packing structure of stationary pebbles is simulated by a filling process. • The packing structural properties are obtained and analyzed. • The dynamic behavior of pebbles is predicted and discussed. - Abstract: This paper presents a numerical study of the stationary and moving pebbles in a pebble bed reactor (PBR) by means of discrete element method (DEM). The packing structure of stationary pebbles is simulated by a filling process that terminates with the settling of the pebbles into a PBR. The packing structural properties are obtained and analyzed. Subsequently, when the outlet of the PBR is opened during the operation of the PBR, the stationary pebbles start to flow downward and are removed at the bottom of the PBR. The dynamic behavior of pebbles is predicted and discussed. Our results indicate the DEM can offer both macroscopic and microscopic information for PBR design calculations and safety assessment

  6. Direct imaging of slow, stored and stationary EIT polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Geoff T.; Cho, Young-Wook; Su, Jian; Everett, Jesse; Robins, Nicholas; Lam, Ping Koy; Buchler, Ben

    2017-09-01

    Stationary and slow light effects are of great interest for quantum information applications. Using laser-cooled Rb87 atoms, we performed side imaging of our atomic ensemble under slow and stationary light conditions, which allows direct comparison with numerical models. The polaritons were generated using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), with stationary light generated using counter-propagating control fields. By controlling the power ratio of the two control fields, we show fine control of the group velocity of the stationary light. We also compare the dynamics of stationary light using monochromatic and bichromatic control fields. Our results show negligible difference between the two situations, in contrast to previous work in EIT-based systems.

  7. Haptic cues for orientation and postural control in sighted and blind individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeka, J. J.; Easton, R. D.; Bentzen, B. L.; Lackner, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Haptic cues from fingertip contact with a stable surface attenuate body sway in subjects even when the contact forces are too small to provide physical support of the body. We investigated how haptic cues derived from contact of a cane with a stationary surface at low force levels aids postural control in sighted and congenitally blind individuals. Five sighted (eyes closed) and five congenitally blind subjects maintained a tandem Romberg stance in five conditions: (1) no cane; (2,3) touch contact (postural sway in all subjects, compared to the no-cane condition. A slanted cane was far more effective in reducing postural sway than was a perpendicular cane. Cane use also decreased head displacement of sighted subjects far more than that of blind subjects. These results suggest that head movement control is linked to postural control through gaze stabilization reflexes in sighted subjects; such reflexes are absent in congenitally blind individuals and may account for their higher levels of head displacement.

  8. Night and day in the VA: associations between night shift staffing, nurse workforce characteristics, and length of stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cordova, Pamela B; Phibbs, Ciaran S; Schmitt, Susan K; Stone, Patricia W

    2014-04-01

    In hospitals, nurses provide patient care around the clock, but the impact of night staff characteristics on patient outcomes is not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the association between night nurse staffing and workforce characteristics and the length of stay (LOS) in 138 veterans affairs (VA) hospitals using panel data from 2002 through 2006. Staffing in hours per patient day was higher during the day than at night. The day nurse workforce had more educational preparation than the night workforce. Nurses' years of experience at the unit, facility, and VA level were greater at night. In multivariable analyses controlling for confounding variables, higher night staffing and a higher skill mix were associated with reduced LOS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The blind leading the blind: use and misuse of blinding in randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry E; Stewart, Morgan E

    2011-03-01

    The use of blinding strengthens the credibility of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by minimizing bias. However, there is confusion surrounding the definition of blinding as well as the terms single, double, and triple blind. It has been suggested that these terms should be discontinued due to their broad misinterpretation. We recommend that, instead of abandoning the use of these terms, explicit definitions of blinding should be adopted. We address herein the concept of blinding, propose standard definitions for the consistent use of these terms, and detail when different types of blinding should be utilized. Standardizing the definition of blinding and utilizing proper blinding methods will improve the quality and clarity of reporting in RCTs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stepping backwards with disability humor? The case of NY Gov. David Paterson’s representation on ‘Saturday Night Live’

    OpenAIRE

    Beth Haller; Amy Bree Becker

    2014-01-01

    In the modern era, discerning TV viewers know the shows that trade in cheap laughs by making fun of people with disabilities are not tapping into much creativity. So it was a surprise in 2008 when the highly regarded comedy show Saturday Night Live (SNL) stooped to that level by ridiculing the blind governor of New York, David Paterson, in a series of sketches lasting two years. This article analyzes the way humor narratives about a high-profile blind politician on television, like those depi...

  11. Light at Night Markup Language (LANML): XML Technology for Light at Night Monitoring Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craine, B. L.; Craine, E. R.; Craine, E. M.; Crawford, D. L.

    2013-05-01

    Light at Night Markup Language (LANML) is a standard, based upon XML, useful in acquiring, validating, transporting, archiving and analyzing multi-dimensional light at night (LAN) datasets of any size. The LANML standard can accommodate a variety of measurement scenarios including single spot measures, static time-series, web based monitoring networks, mobile measurements, and airborne measurements. LANML is human-readable, machine-readable, and does not require a dedicated parser. In addition LANML is flexible; ensuring future extensions of the format will remain backward compatible with analysis software. The XML technology is at the heart of communicating over the internet and can be equally useful at the desktop level, making this standard particularly attractive for web based applications, educational outreach and efficient collaboration between research groups.

  12. Secondary instabilities of hypersonic stationary crossflow waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Joshua B.

    A sharp, circular 7° half-angle cone was tested in the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel at 6° angle of attack. Using a variety of roughness configurations, measurements were made using temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) and fast pressure sensors. High-frequency secondary instabilities of the stationary crossflow waves were detected near the aft end of the cone, from 110° to 163° from the windward ray. At least two frequency bands of the secondary instabilities were measured. The secondary instabilities have high coherence between upstream and downstream sensor pairs. In addition, the amplitudes of the instabilities increase with the addition of roughness elements near the nose of the cone. Two of the measured instabilities were captured over a range of axial Reynolds numbers of about 1 - 2 million, with amplitudes ranging from low to turbulent breakdown. For these instabilities, the wave speed and amplitude growth can be calculated. The wave speeds were all near the edge velocity. Measured growth before breakdown for the two instabilities are between e3 and e4 from background noise levels. The initial linear growth rates for the instabilities are near 50 /m. Simultaneous measurement of two frequency bands of the secondary instabilities was made during a single run. It was found that each mode was spatially confined within a small azimuthal region, and that the regions of peak amplitude for one mode correspond to regions of minimal amplitude for the other.

  13. Stationary intraoral tomosynthesis for dental imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inscoe, Christina R.; Wu, Gongting; Soulioti, Danai E.; Platin, Enrique; Mol, Andre; Gaalaas, Laurence R.; Anderson, Michael R.; Tucker, Andrew W.; Boyce, Sarah; Shan, Jing; Gonzales, Brian; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2017-03-01

    Despite recent advances in dental radiography, the diagnostic accuracies for some of the most common dental diseases have not improved significantly, and in some cases remain low. Intraoral x-ray is the most commonly used x-ray diagnostic tool in dental clinics. It however suffers from the typical limitations of a 2D imaging modality including structure overlap. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) uses high radiation dose and suffers from image artifacts and relatively low resolution. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of developing a stationary intraoral tomosynthesis (s-IOT) using spatially distributed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray array technology, and to evaluate its diagnostic accuracy compared to conventional 2D intraoral x-ray. A bench-top s-IOT device was constructed using a linear CNT based X-ray source array and a digital intraoral detector. Image reconstruction was performed using an iterative reconstruction algorithm. Studies were performed to optimize the imaging configuration. For evaluation of s-IOT's diagnostic accuracy, images of a dental quality assurance phantom, and extracted human tooth specimens were acquired. Results show s-IOT increases the diagnostic sensitivity for caries compared to intraoral x-ray at a comparable dose level.

  14. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  15. Growth of microalgae in autotrophic stationary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cunha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the growth of nine marine microalgae species (Nannochloropsis oculata, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Isochrysis galbana, Tetraselmis suecica, Tetraselmis chuii, Chaetoceros muelleri, Thalassiosira fluviatilis and Isochrysis sp. and one freshwater species (Chlorella vulgaris under stationary autotrophy conditions, using erlenmeyers fl asks with 800mL of culture medium exposed to constant light intensities providing a photon flux density of about 150μmol.m-2.s-1 and 25±2oC temperature and constant air flow. The experiment was carried out in a controlled environment considering a block delineating randomized over time with three replicates. The Nannochloropsis oculata showed the highest value of maximum cellular density, but with a longer period of time and a lower growth rate. This was probably due to its tiny cell size, demanding a large number of cells per volume to attain its optimum conditions for light, nutrients, water and atmospheric carbon dioxide. In addition, in spite of showing one of the lowest values of maximum cellular density, Thalassiosira fluviatilis was the species that reached its maximum in a short period of time at the highest growth rate. Chlorella vulgaris was the only freshwater species tested and it showed the poorest performance for all the variables analyzed in the current study.

  16. Stationary quenching wave in magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikhanov, S.G.; Glushkov, I.S.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of a magnetized hot plasma (ωsub(e)tau sub(e)>>1) with cold plasma or a gas leads to the appearanci of a cooling wave. The transition layer between hot and cold plasma is the main source of radiation losses which should be compensated by a heat flow from the hot region. A stationary state is considered, equations are written in the system in which temperature and magnetic field profiles are steady, and the plasma flux with magnetic field passes through the cooling wave. Calculations, have been carried out on a computer. The dependence of the magnetized plasma flux velocity Vsub(r) on the ratio p/Hsub(r) is shown, where p is the pressure, Hsub(r) is the magnetic field in the hot reqion. The dependence of the characteristic dimension of the cooling wave on the magnetic field is determined for the hot plasma region. A considerable fraction of the rediation losses is shown to fall to the region of (ωsub(e)tausub(e)< or approximately)1

  17. Stationary black holes with stringy hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Jens; Frolov, Valeri P.

    2018-01-01

    We discuss properties of black holes which are pierced by special configurations of cosmic strings. For static black holes, we consider radial strings in the limit when the number of strings grows to infinity while the tension of each single string tends to zero. In a properly taken limit, the stress-energy tensor of the string distribution is finite. We call such matter stringy matter. We present a solution of the Einstein equations for an electrically charged static black hole with the stringy matter, with and without a cosmological constant. This solution is a warped product of two metrics. One of them is a deformed 2-sphere, whose Gaussian curvature is determined by the energy density of the stringy matter. We discuss the embedding of a corresponding distorted sphere into a three-dimensional Euclidean space and formulate consistency conditions. We also found a relation between the square of the Weyl tensor invariant of the four-dimensional spacetime of the stringy black holes and the energy density of the stringy matter. In the second part of the paper, we discuss test stationary strings in the Kerr geometry and in its Kerr-NUT-(anti-)de Sitter generalizations. Explicit solutions for strings that are regular at the event horizon are obtained. Using these solutions, the stress-energy tensor of the stringy matter in these geometries is calculated. Extraction of the angular momentum from rotating black holes by such strings is also discussed.

  18. Relationship between thyroid stimulating hormone and night shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, So-Hyun; Lee, Bum-Joon; Kim, Seong-Jin; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Night shift work has well-known adverse effects on health. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between thyroid diseases and night shift work. This study aimed to examine night shift workers and their changes in thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH) levels over time. Medical check-up data (2011-2015) were obtained from 967 female workers at a university hospital in Incheon, Korea. Data regarding TSH levels were extracted from the records, and 2015 was used as a reference point to determine night shift work status. The relationships between TSH levels and night shift work in each year were analyzed using the general linear model (GLM). The generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to evaluate the repeated measurements over the 5-year period. The GEE analysis revealed that from 2011 to 2015, night shift workers had TSH levels that were 0.303 mIU/L higher than the levels of non-night shift workers (95 % CI: 0.087-0.519 mIU/L, p  = 0.006) after adjusting for age and department. When we used TSH levels of 4.5 ≥ mIU/L to identify subclinical hypothyroidism, night shift workers exhibited a 1.399 fold higher risk of subclinical hypothyroidism (95 % CI: 1.050-1.863, p  = 0.022), compared to their non-night shift counterparts. This result of this study suggests that night shift workers may have an increased risk of thyroid diseases, compared to non-night shift workers.

  19. Night-Time Light Dynamics during the Iraqi Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyzed the night-time light dynamics in Iraq over the period 2012–2017 by using Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS monthly composites. The data quality of VIIRS images was improved by repairing the missing data, and the Night-time Light Ratio Indices (NLRIs, derived from urban extent map and night-time light images, were calculated for different provinces and cities. We found that when the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS attacked or occupied a region, the region lost its light rapidly, with the provinces of Al-Anbar, At-Ta’min, Ninawa, and Sala Ad-din losing 63%, 73%, 88%, and 56%, of their night-time light, respectively, between December 2013 and December 2014. Moreover, the light returned after the Iraqi Security Forces (ISF recaptured the region. In addition, we also found that the night-time light in the Kurdish Autonomous Region showed a steady decline after 2014, with the Arbil, Dihok, and As-Sulaymaniyah provinces losing 47%, 18%, and 31% of their night-time light between December 2013 and December 2016 as a result of the economic crisis in the region. The night-time light in Southern Iraq, the region controlled by Iraqi central government, has grown continuously; for example, the night-time light in Al Basrah increased by 75% between December 2013 and December 2017. Regions formerly controlled by ISIS experienced a return of night-time light during 2017 as the ISF retook almost all this territory in 2017. This indicates that as reconstruction began, electricity was re-supplied in these regions. Our analysis shows the night-time light in Iraq is directly linked to the socioeconomic dynamics of Iraq, and demonstrates that the VIIRS monthly night-time light images are an effective data source for tracking humanitarian disasters in that country.

  20. INTRODUCTION Childhood blindness is increasingly becoming a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    number of blind years resulting from blindness in children is also equal to the number of blind years due to age related cataract.10 The burden of disability in terms of blind years in these children represents a major. CAUSES OF BLINDNESS AND VISUAL IMPAIRMENT AT THE SCHOOL FOR THE. BLIND OWO, NIGERIA.

  1. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2015-05-13

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  2. Gender Roles and Night-Sky Watching among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William E.; McGee, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between gender roles and night-sky watching in a sample of college students (N=161). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Noctcaelador Inventory (NI) were used to investigate the differences between gender role groups for night-sky watching. The results supported the hypothesis that androgynous…

  3. Heart rate variability changes in physicians working on night call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Birgitta; Persson, Roger; Flisberg, Per; Ørbaek, Palle

    2011-03-01

    Adverse effects by night-call duty have become an important occupational health issue. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the heart rate variability (HRV) differed during recovery from day work and night-call duty between distinct physician specialities. We studied the impact of a 16-h night-call duty on autonomic balance, measured by HRV, among two physician groups differing with respect to having to deal with life-threatening conditions while on call. Nineteen anaesthesiologists (ANEST) and 16 paediatricians and ear, nose and throat surgeons (PENT) were monitored by ambulatory digital Holter electrocardiogram (ECG). Heart rate variability was analysed between 21:00 and 22:00 after an ordinary workday, on night call and in the evening post-call. Absolute and normalized high-frequency power (HF, HFnu) were the main outcome variables, expressing parasympathetic influence on the heart. ANEST had lower HF power than PENT while on night call and post-daytime work (p work compared with post-night-call duty (p balance and did not differ between specialities. However, the less dynamic HRV after daytime work and during night-call duty in the ANEST group may indicate a higher physiological stress level. These results may contribute to the improvement of night-call schedules within the health care sector.

  4. Deliverance from the "Dark Night of the Soul"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnier, Richard T.; Dixon, Andrea L.; Scheidegger, Corey; Lindberg, Brent

    2009-01-01

    For many individuals, spiritual inspiration, clarity, or epiphany is often preceded by a "dark night of the soul". St. John of the Cross, a Spanish mystic of the 16th century, first described the concept. Today, the phrase "dark night of the soul" is usually associated with the crisis part of the journey to enlightenment. This article defines and…

  5. 46 CFR 9.5 - Night, Sunday, and holiday defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Night, Sunday, and holiday defined. 9.5 Section 9.5... COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.5 Night, Sunday, and holiday defined. (a) For the purpose of this part... term holiday shall mean only national legal public holidays, viz., January 1, February 22, May 30, July...

  6. 78 FR 19742 - Centennial Challenges: 2014 Night Rover Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-032] Centennial Challenges: 2014 Night... Centennial Challenges 2014 Night Rover Challenge. SUMMARY: This notice is issued in accordance with 51 U.S.C.... Centennial Challenges is a program of prize competitions to stimulate innovation in technologies of interest...

  7. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, van K.G.; Eck, van E.; Boer, de R.; Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Salis, F.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    1.Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,

  8. Do wild great tits avoid exposure to light at night?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, M.; Ouyang, Jenny; van Grunsven, Roy H. A.; Visser, M.E.; Spoelstra, K.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of wild populations have provided important insights into the effects of artificial light at night on organisms, populations and ecosystems. However, in most studies the exact amount of light at night individuals are exposed to remains unknown. Individuals can potentially control their

  9. Do wild great tits avoid exposure to light at night?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, De Maaike; Ouyang, Jenny Q.; Grunsven, van Roy H.A.; Visser, Marcel E.; Spoelstra, Kamiel

    2016-01-01

    Studies of wild populations have provided important insights into the effects of artificial light at night on organisms, populations and ecosystems. However, in most studies the exact amount of light at night individuals are exposed to remains unknown. Individuals can potentially control their

  10. INVIS : Integrated night vision surveillance and observation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Dijk, J.; Son, R. van

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and first field trial results of the all-day all-weather INVIS Integrated Night Vision surveillance and observation System. The INVIS augments a dynamic three-band false-color nightvision image with synthetic 3D imagery in a real-time display. The night vision sensor suite

  11. Psyche and Society in Sendak's "In the Night Kitchen"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rebecca V. L.; Rabkin, Eric S.

    2007-01-01

    While "Where the Wild Things Are" may be Maurice Sendak's most popular book, "In the Night Kitchen" is arguably the greater work. Though his journey in "Wild Things" shares many of the elements of Mickey's adventure in "Night Kitchen"--swinging between the protagonist's initiatory verbal assertions and silent, completely pictorial spreads that…

  12. 'Irrigation by night' in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... tions in irrigation systems in the night: 'It is common place that the night is the time ..... roads and rainwater tanks ('JoJo's') to water the gardens. The ..... drainage system throughout the home garden, but also directly from the ...

  13. Nonelective surgery at night and in-hospital mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zaane, Bas; van Klei, Wilton A; Buhre, Wolfgang F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that sleep deprivation associated with night-time working may adversely affect performance resulting in a reduction in the safety of surgery and anaesthesia. OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective was to evaluate an association between nonelective night-time surgery and in...

  14. The simulation of stationary and non-stationary regime operation of heavy water production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculea, M.; Beca, T.; Constantinescu, D.M.; Dumitrescu, M.; Dimulescu, A.; Isbasescu, G.; Stefanescu, I.; Mihai, M.; Dogaru, C.; Marinescu, M.; Olariu, S.; Constantin, T.; Necula, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper refers to testing procedures of the production capacity of heavy water production pilot, industrial scale plants and of heavy water reconcentration facilities. Simulation codes taking into account the mass and heat transfers inside the exchange columns were developed. These codes provided valuable insight about the isotope build-up of the installation which allowed estimating the time of reaching the stationary regime. Also transient regimes following perturbations in the operating parameters (i.e. temperature, pressure, fluid rates) of the installation were simulated and an optimal rate of routine inspections and adjustments was thus established

  15. Stationary phases for superheated water chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Shikha

    2002-01-01

    This project focused on the comparison of conventional liquid chromatography and superheated water chromatography. It examined the differences in efficiency and retention of a range of different stationary phases. Alkyl aryl ketones and eight aromatic compounds were separated on PBD-zirconia, Xterra RP 18, Luna C 18 (2) and Oasis HLB columns using conventional LC and superheated water chromatography system. The retention indices were determined in the different eluents. On changing the organic component of the eluent from methanol to acetonitrile to superheated water considerable improvements were found in the peak shapes and column efficiencies on the PBD-zirconia and Oasis HLB columns. PS-DVB, PBD-zirconia and Xterra RP 18 columns have been used in efficiency studies. It was found that simply elevating the column temperature did not increase the efficiency of a separation in superheated water chromatography. The efficiency depended on flow rate, injection volume and also mobile phase preheating system. Although high efficiencies were not achieved with superheated water on PS-DVB and Xterra RP 18 columns, a higher efficiency was achieved on a PBD-zirconia column with superheated water than with 25-35% ACN at room temperature. The proposed theoretical increases in u opt were measured on three columns using superheated water as the mobile phase. The application of the superheated water chromatographic method to the separation of the pungent constituents of ginger by superheated water chromatography-NMR coupling system was studied. The coupling of superheated water chromatography using deuterium oxide to NMR spectroscopy for the separation of dry ginger extract was successful, although the NMR sensitivity in on-line mode coupling system was low. However, four compounds were identified in the ginger extract by stop-flow mode on superheated water chromatography-UV-NMR detection system. (author)

  16. Modeling stationary and dynamic pebbles in a pebble bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiang; Montgomery, Trent; Zhang, Sijun

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of the stationary and dynamic pebbles in a pebble bed reactor (PBR) by means of discrete element method (DEM). At first, the packing structure of stationary pebbles is simulated by filling process until the settling of pebbles into PBR. The packing structural properties are obtained and analyzed. Subsequently, when the outlet of PBR is open during the operational maintenance of PBR, the stationary pebbles start to flow downward and are removed at the bottom of PBR. The dynamic behavior of pebbles is predicted and discussed. Our results indicate the DEM can offer both macroscopic and microscopic information for PBR design calculations and safety assessment. (author)

  17. Cosmological red shift in the Seeliger-Einstein stationary Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropotkin, P.N.

    1988-01-01

    A problem of Seeliger-Einstein stationary Universe is considered. Simple empirical relations between cosmological and physical constants to which attention was paid by Stanukovich K., Dikke R., Dirac P. testify to the supposition on stationary Universe. The Universe expansion being absent, a hypothesis of ''photon aging'' suggested in 1929 by Belopolskij A. and Zwicky F. must be accepted for explanation of Hubble effect. It is stated that abandon the Seeliger-Einstein stationary cosmological model would be premature. Study and comparison of different mechanisms suggested for validation of photon aging hypothesis is necessary

  18. Membrane oscillations in the channel of a stationary plasma motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugrova, A.I.; Lipatov, A.S.; Morozov, A.I.; Kharchevnikov, V.K.

    1999-01-01

    Results of measuring the ion flux density in the channel of the stationary plasma drive are presented. Two plane easters move both along and transverse to the plasma flux. During the experiment, the strong low-frequency oscillations (∼ 35 kHz) are observed in the channel of the stationary plasma drive. It is found that membrane oscillations are accompanied by oscillations of the electron temperature. These membrane oscillations affect the divergence of the output plasma jet and the erosion of the output part of the channel of the stationary plasma drive [ru

  19. Artificial light at night alters trophic interactions of intertidal invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Charlotte N; Davies, Thomas W; Queirós, Ana M

    2017-07-01

    Despite being globally widespread in coastal regions, the impacts of light pollution on intertidal ecosystems has received little attention. Intertidal species exhibit many night-time-dependent ecological strategies, including feeding, reproduction, orientation and predator avoidance, which are likely negatively affected by shifting light regimes, as has been observed in terrestrial and aquatic taxa. Coastal lighting may shape intertidal communities through its influence on the nocturnal foraging activity of dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus), a widespread predatory mollusc that structures biodiversity in temperate rocky shores. In the laboratory, we investigated whether the basal and foraging activity of this predator was affected by exposure to night-time lighting both in the presence and absence of olfactory predator cues (Carcinus maenas, common shore crab). Assessments of dogwhelks' behavioural responses to night-time white LED lighting were performed on individuals that had been acclimated to night-time white LED lighting conditions for 16 days and individuals that had not previously been exposed to artificial light at night. Dogwhelks acclimated to night-time lighting exhibited natural refuge-seeking behaviour less often compared to control animals, but were more likely to respond to and handle prey irrespective of whether olfactory predator cues were present. These responses suggest night-time lighting likely increased the energetic demand of dogwhelks through stress, encouraging foraging whenever food was available, regardless of potential danger. Contrastingly, whelks not acclimated under night-time lighting were more likely to respond to the presence of prey under artificial light at night when olfactory predator cues were present, indicating an opportunistic shift towards the use of visual instead of olfactory cues in risk evaluation. These results demonstrate that artificial night-time lighting influences the behaviour of intertidal fauna such that the

  20. What's crucial in night vision goggle simulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Frank L.; Toet, Alexander

    2005-05-01

    Training is required to correctly interpret NVG imagery. Training night operations with simulated intensified imagery has great potential. Compared to direct viewing with the naked eye, intensified imagery is relatively easy to simulate and the cost of real NVG training is high (logistics, risk, civilian sleep deprivation, pollution). On the surface NVG imagery appears to have a structure similar to daylight imagery. However, in actuality its characteristics differ significantly from those of daylight imagery. As a result, NVG imagery frequently induces visual illusions. To achieve realistic training, simulated NVG imagery should at least reproduce the essential visual limitations of real NVG imagery caused by reduced resolution, reduced contrast, limited field-of-view, the absence of color, and the systems sensitivity to nearby infrared radiation. It is particularly important that simulated NVG imagery represents essential NVG visual characteristics, such as the high reflection of chlorophyll and halos. Current real-time simulation software falls short for training purposes because of an incorrect representation of shadow effects. We argue that the development of shading and shadowing merits priority to close the gap between real and simulated NVG flight conditions. Visual conspicuity can be deployed as an efficient metric to measure the 'perceptual distance' between the real NVG and the simulated NVG image.

  1. PARTICLE-larly Enriching Night at CERN!

    CERN Multimedia

    Yves-Marie Ducimetière

    2010-01-01

    After the 2010 European Researchers' Night, a contest was organised for its participants, asking them to write about their experience. We are now pleased to announce the winner: Yves-Marie Ducimetière, a 14-year-old student at the Lycée International de Ferney-Voltaire.    Yves-Marie Ducimetière. The visit began for me around 20.30, as we all joined our respective groups to board a CERN shuttle to our final destination, which was LHCb in my case. I was heading into the unknown! On leaving, I knew nothing about this place, and the discovery made it all the more interesting. Upon arriving, a woman explained that their research looked at antimatter, or rather, the reason why it disappeared from our Universe – she then accompanied us inside. Amazingly, I found the place to be both friendly and serious. One physicist spoke passionately about the purpose of LHCb, in short: colliding particles in order to understand the Big Bang, the origin of t...

  2. Night eating syndrome: How to treat it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thisciane Ferreira Pinto

    Full Text Available Summary Night eating syndrome (NES is characterized by caloric intake ≥ 25% of total daily after dinner and/or by two or more weekly nocturnal awakenings accompanied by food ingestion. Causes of NES are not entirely clear and seem to involve a desynchronization between the circadian rhythms of food ingestion and sleep, resulting in a delayed pattern of food intake. Estimates of the prevalence of NES in the general population are around 1.5%, and although much higher frequencies have been described in obese individuals, a causal relationship between NES and obesity is not clearly established. Since the first NES reports, several treatment modalities have been proposed, although, in many cases, the evidence is still insufficient and there is no consensus on the ideal approach. In order to conduct a critical review of proposed treatments for NES since its original description, a systematic search of articles published in journals indexed in Medline/Pubmed database in the period 1955-2015 was performed. Seventeen articles addressing non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies met the selection criteria. Based on the articles analyzed, we conclude that serotonergic agents and psychological interventions, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy, have been shown to be effective for the treatment of NES. A combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies must be considered in future studies on the treatment of these patients.

  3. Krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica) swim faster at night

    KAUST Repository

    Klevjer, Thor A.

    2011-05-01

    Krill are key members in marine food webs, and measurement of swimming speed is vital to assess their bioenergetic budgets, feeding, and encounters with predators. We document a consistent and marked diel signal in swimming speed of krill in their natural habitat that is not related to diel vertical migration. The results were obtained using a bottom-mounted, upward-looking echo sounder at 150-m depth in the Oslofjord, Norway, spanning 5 months from late autumn to spring at a temporal resolution of ~1–2 records s−1. Swimming speed was assessed using acoustic target tracking of individual krill. At the start of the registration period, both daytime and nocturnal average swimming speeds of Meganyctiphanes norvegica were ~ 3.5 cm s−1 (~ 1 body lengths ([bl] s−1) in waters with oxygen concentrations of ~ 15–20% O2 saturation. Following intrusion of more oxygenated water, nocturnal average swimming speeds increased to ~ 10 cm s−1 (~ 3 bl s−1), i.e., more than double that of daytime swimming speeds in the same period. We hypothesize that krill activity during the first period was limited by oxygen, and the enhanced swimming at night subsequent to the water renewal is due to increased feeding activity under lessened danger of predation in darkness.

  4. Visualization on the Day Night Year Globe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Božić, Mirjana; Vušković, Leposava; Popović, Svetozar; Popović, Jelena; Marković-Topalović, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    The story about a properly oriented outdoor globe in the hands and minds of Eratosthenes, Jefferson, Milanković and science educators is presented. Having the same orientation in space as the Earth, the Day Night Year Globe (DING) shows in real time the pattern of illumination of the Earth’s surface and its diurnal and seasonal variations. It is an ideal object for the visualization of knowledge and increase in knowledge about: the form of the Earth, Earth’s rotation, Earth’s revolution around the Sun, the length of seasons, solstices, equinoxes, the longitude problem, the distribution of the Sun’s radiation over the Earth, the impact of this radiation on Earth’s climate, and how to use it efficiently. By attaching a movable vane to the poles, or adding pins around the equator to read time, DING becomes a spherical/globe-shaped sundial. So, the DING is simultaneously useful for teaching physics, geophysics, astronomy, use of solar energy and promoting an inquiry-based learning environment for students and the public. (paper)

  5. Krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica) swim faster at night

    KAUST Repository

    Klevjer, Thor A.; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2011-01-01

    Krill are key members in marine food webs, and measurement of swimming speed is vital to assess their bioenergetic budgets, feeding, and encounters with predators. We document a consistent and marked diel signal in swimming speed of krill in their natural habitat that is not related to diel vertical migration. The results were obtained using a bottom-mounted, upward-looking echo sounder at 150-m depth in the Oslofjord, Norway, spanning 5 months from late autumn to spring at a temporal resolution of ~1–2 records s−1. Swimming speed was assessed using acoustic target tracking of individual krill. At the start of the registration period, both daytime and nocturnal average swimming speeds of Meganyctiphanes norvegica were ~ 3.5 cm s−1 (~ 1 body lengths ([bl] s−1) in waters with oxygen concentrations of ~ 15–20% O2 saturation. Following intrusion of more oxygenated water, nocturnal average swimming speeds increased to ~ 10 cm s−1 (~ 3 bl s−1), i.e., more than double that of daytime swimming speeds in the same period. We hypothesize that krill activity during the first period was limited by oxygen, and the enhanced swimming at night subsequent to the water renewal is due to increased feeding activity under lessened danger of predation in darkness.

  6. Popular actions: For the right at night

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Alfredo

    1999-01-01

    In 1997 a teacher of the school The Deer of Tauramena established a popular action against the companies that exploit the petroleum of the field Cusiana. Maria Ninfa Diaz and her husband Eleodoro Torres, a couple of peasants tormented behind from years by the presence in their sidewalk of gigantic firebrands that they burn natural gas as forced part of the oil activity. Burdened by the permanent noise of something like that as an enormous torch. Gone mad by the splendor in the nights of minuscule industrial suns. Tired by the increase of the temperature in their corner of the prairie. The life became less pleasant. Before the only sound was fluttering of the bats and the step of the livestock, actors of a time that became past in the immense green sea, when the plain was flat. Perhaps from the optics of the demanded companies this it is an ordinary litigation; it should be won to all coast, so much but when the companies needs to sit down a precedent that is already common place in the plain; doesn't enter with the oil companies and so that they didn't enter with the oil companies the defendants hired an lawyers office that gets paid per hours and they wait, eagerly, to rob Maria Ninfa Diaz of the property where she lives. The author continues relating the impasse between the peasant and the oil multinational company in Colombia

  7. Perception of blindness and blinding eye conditions in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashaye, Adeyinka; Ajuwon, Ademola Johnson; Adeoti, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the causes and management of blindness and blinding eye conditions as perceived by rural dwellers of two Yoruba communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. METHODS: Four focus group discussions were conducted among residents of Iddo and Isale Oyo, two rural Yoruba communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Participants consisted of sighted, those who were partially or totally blind and community leaders. Ten patent medicine sellers and 12 traditional healers were also interviewed on their perception of the causes and management of blindness in their communities. FINDINGS: Blindness was perceived as an increasing problem among the communities. Multiple factors were perceived to cause blindness, including germs, onchocerciasis and supernatural forces. Traditional healers believed that blindness could be cured, with many claiming that they had previously cured blindness in the past. However, all agreed that patience was an important requirement for the cure of blindness. The patent medicine sellers' reports were similar to those of the traditional healers. The barriers to use of orthodox medicine were mainly fear, misconception and perceived high costs of care. There was a consensus of opinion among group discussants and informants that there are severe social and economic consequences of blindness, including not been able to see and assess the quality of what the sufferer eats, perpetual sadness, loss of sleep and dependence on other persons for daily activities. CONCLUSION: Local beliefs associated with causation, symptoms and management of blindness and blinding eye conditions among rural Yoruba communities identified have provided a bridge for understanding local perspectives and basis for implementing appropriate primary eye care programs. PMID:16775910

  8. Automatic detection of whole night snoring events using non-contact microphone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliran Dafna

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although awareness of sleep disorders is increasing, limited information is available on whole night detection of snoring. Our study aimed to develop and validate a robust, high performance, and sensitive whole-night snore detector based on non-contact technology. DESIGN: Sounds during polysomnography (PSG were recorded using a directional condenser microphone placed 1 m above the bed. An AdaBoost classifier was trained and validated on manually labeled snoring and non-snoring acoustic events. PATIENTS: Sixty-seven subjects (age 52.5 ± 13.5 years, BMI 30.8 ± 4.7 kg/m(2, m/f 40/27 referred for PSG for obstructive sleep apnea diagnoses were prospectively and consecutively recruited. Twenty-five subjects were used for the design study; the validation study was blindly performed on the remaining forty-two subjects. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: To train the proposed sound detector, >76,600 acoustic episodes collected in the design study were manually classified by three scorers into snore and non-snore episodes (e.g., bedding noise, coughing, environmental. A feature selection process was applied to select the most discriminative features extracted from time and spectral domains. The average snore/non-snore detection rate (accuracy for the design group was 98.4% based on a ten-fold cross-validation technique. When tested on the validation group, the average detection rate was 98.2% with sensitivity of 98.0% (snore as a snore and specificity of 98.3% (noise as noise. CONCLUSIONS: Audio-based features extracted from time and spectral domains can accurately discriminate between snore and non-snore acoustic events. This audio analysis approach enables detection and analysis of snoring sounds from a full night in order to produce quantified measures for objective follow-up of patients.

  9. Asymptotic Theory for the QMLE in GARCH-X Models with Stationary and Non-Stationary Covariates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Heejoon; Kristensen, Dennis

    as captured by its long-memory parameter dx; in particular, we allow for both stationary and non-stationary covariates. We show that the QMLE'’s of the regression coefficients entering the volatility equation are consistent and normally distributed in large samples independently of the degree of persistence....... This implies that standard inferential tools, such as t-statistics, do not have to be adjusted to the level of persistence. On the other hand, the intercept in the volatility equation is not identifi…ed when the covariate is non-stationary which is akin to the results of Jensen and Rahbek (2004, Econometric...

  10. STABLE STATIONARY STATES OF NON-LOCAL INTERACTION EQUATIONS

    KAUST Repository

    FELLNER, KLEMENS

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we are interested in the large-time behaviour of a solution to a non-local interaction equation, where a density of particles/individuals evolves subject to an interaction potential and an external potential. It is known that for regular interaction potentials, stable stationary states of these equations are generically finite sums of Dirac masses. For a finite sum of Dirac masses, we give (i) a condition to be a stationary state, (ii) two necessary conditions of linear stability w.r.t. shifts and reallocations of individual Dirac masses, and (iii) show that these linear stability conditions imply local non-linear stability. Finally, we show that for regular repulsive interaction potential Wε converging to a singular repulsive interaction potential W, the Dirac-type stationary states ρ̄ ε approximate weakly a unique stationary state ρ̄ ∈ L∞. We illustrate our results with numerical examples. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  11. Acoustic Characterization of a Stationary Field Synchronous Motor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woodward, E

    2001-01-01

    .... We investigate the gross acoustic signature of a notional stationary field synchronous motor utilized as a marine propulsion motor in a naval combatant using the following methodology: (1) model the forces...

  12. New source review for stationary sources of air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Changes in New Source Review Programs for Stationary Sources of Air Pollution, National Research Council

    2006-01-01

    The Clean Air Act established a pair of programsâ€"known as New Source Review (NSR)â€"that regulate large stationary sources of air pollution, such as factories and electricity-generating facilities...

  13. Vacillations induced by interference of stationary and traveling planetary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salby, Murry L.; Garcia, Rolando R.

    1987-01-01

    The interference pattern produced when a traveling planetary wave propagates over a stationary forced wave is explored, examining the interference signature in a variety of diagnostics. The wave field is first restricted to a diatomic spectrum consisting of two components: a single stationary wave and a single monochromatic traveling wave. A simple barotropic normal mode propagating over a simple stationary plane wave is considered, and closed form solutions are obtained. The wave fields are then restricted spatially, providing more realistic structures without sacrificing the advantages of an analytical solution. Both stationary and traveling wave fields are calculated numerically with the linearized Primitive Equations in a realistic basic state. The mean flow reaction to the fluctuating eddy forcing which results from interference is derived. Synoptic geopotential behavior corresponding to the combined wave and mean flow fields is presented, and the synoptic signature in potential vorticity on isentropic surfaces is examined.

  14. Dark nights reverse metabolic disruption caused by dim light at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonken, L K; Weil, Z M; Nelson, R J

    2013-06-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity and related metabolic disorders coincides with increasing exposure to light at night. Previous studies report that mice exposed to dim light at night (dLAN) develop symptoms of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated whether mice returned to dark nights after dLAN exposure recover metabolic function. Male Swiss-Webster mice were assigned to either: standard light-dark (LD) conditions for 8 weeks (LD/LD), dLAN for 8 weeks (dLAN/dLAN), LD for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of dLAN (LD/dLAN), and dLAN for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of LD (dLAN/LD). After 4 weeks in their respective lighting conditions both groups initially placed in dLAN increased body mass gain compared to LD mice. Half of the dLAN mice (dLAN/LD) were then transferred to LD and vice versa (LD/dLAN). Following the transfer dLAN/dLAN and LD/dLAN mice gained more weight than LD/LD and dLAN/LD mice. At the conclusion of the study dLAN/LD mice did not differ from LD/LD mice with respect to weight gain and had lower fat pad mass compared to dLAN/dLAN mice. Compared to all other groups dLAN/dLAN mice decreased glucose tolerance as indicated by an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test at week 7, indicating that dLAN/LD mice recovered glucose metabolism. dLAN/dLAN mice also increased MAC1 mRNA expression in peripheral fat as compared to both LD/LD and dLAN/LD mice, suggesting peripheral inflammation is induced by dLAN, but not sustained after return to LD. These results suggest that re-exposure to dark nights ameliorates metabolic disruption caused by dLAN exposure. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  15. [Light and blindness in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Rosso, Ana

    2010-01-01

    In Ancient Egypt, light and fire, which were closely related to the Sun God Ra, were the sources of life and well-being, while the dark meant danger and death. Similar to death, darkness drops on human beings in deep sleep and they enter a space inhabited by shadows. Dreams were believed to reveal an unknown world, to give the sleeper a glimpse into the future. Vision attracts distant objects and their light, on the other hand, can hurt the eyes like a burning flame. Eyes were the most important organ in Egyptian thought, as they allowed perception of the real world. Their importance has been immortalised in the myth of the Eye of Horus that explains the role of either eye. One represents the moonlight, which disperses the darkness of the night, and the other represents the sunshine, which creates life, and both could also represents the power of human intellect. Blindness, in turn, congenital or disease-related, was considered a divine punishment. A man, thus handicapped, would sink in a state of uncertainty and darkness. To protect the eyes from blindness, people used drops and ointments, which were believed to chase away all kinds of insects and demons that threatened with a variety of eye infections. Egyptian eye doctors or physicians, carried a special kit that contained green chrysocolla and a black kohl makeup, highly appreciated as prophylaxis because they personified Osiris' humours or body fluids. These products were offered to Gods to restore the brightness of divine glance and incite sun and moon to spread their beneficial light.

  16. Expansions of general stationary stochastic optical fields: general formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Herrero, R.; Mejias, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    A new expansion of a general stationary stochastic optical field is derived. Each term of the series is seen to represent a recently defined new class of optical fields, the so-called spectrally quasi-factorizable fields. Alternative expansion in terms of nonstationary fields that obey the wave equation is also shown. A relationship between temporal and spatial features of stationary free optical fields is discussed

  17. Stationary Density Variation Produced by a Standing Plasma Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    Measurements are presented of a stationary density modulation produced by a standing electron plasma wave. The experimental results are well explained by taking into account the ponderomotive forces on the electrons exerted by the high frequency field.......Measurements are presented of a stationary density modulation produced by a standing electron plasma wave. The experimental results are well explained by taking into account the ponderomotive forces on the electrons exerted by the high frequency field....

  18. Similarity flows between a rotating and a stationary disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmann, J.H.; Qassim, R.Y.

    1981-07-01

    The radial distribution of fluid pressure on a stationary disk coaxial with a rotating disk is determined experimentally for various inter-disc spacings. The results show that similarity flows are only possible for both small and large values of this distance. In the former case, the flow faraway from the stationary disk appears to be that suggested by Batchelor, while in the latter case, the flow turns out to be in accordance with the assumption of Stewartson. (Author) [pt

  19. The computation of stationary distributions of Markov chains through perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery J. Hunter

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithmic procedure for the determination of the stationary distribution of a finite, m-state, irreducible Markov chain, that does not require the use of methods for solving systems of linear equations, is presented. The technique is based upon a succession of m, rank one, perturbations of the trivial doubly stochastic matrix whose known steady state vector is updated at each stage to yield the required stationary probability vector.

  20. Costationarity of Locally Stationary Time Series Using costat

    OpenAIRE

    Cardinali, Alessandro; Nason, Guy P.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the R package costat. This package enables a user to (i) perform a test for time series stationarity; (ii) compute and plot time-localized autocovariances, and (iii) to determine and explore any costationary relationship between two locally stationary time series. Two locally stationary time series are said to be costationary if there exists two time-varying combination functions such that the linear combination of the two series with the functions produces another time...

  1. Pushing concentration of stationary solar concentrators to the limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Zhang, Weiya

    2010-04-26

    We give the theoretical limit of concentration allowed by nonimaging optics for stationary solar concentrators after reviewing sun- earth geometry in direction cosine space. We then discuss the design principles that we follow to approach the maximum concentration along with examples including a hollow CPC trough, a dielectric CPC trough, and a 3D dielectric stationary solar concentrator which concentrates sun light four times (4x), eight hours per day year around.

  2. Geophysics-based method of locating a stationary earth object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, Michael R [Albuquerque, NM; Rohde, Steven B [Corrales, NM; Novak, James L [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-05-20

    A geophysics-based method for determining the position of a stationary earth object uses the periodic changes in the gravity vector of the earth caused by the sun- and moon-orbits. Because the local gravity field is highly irregular over a global scale, a model of local tidal accelerations can be compared to actual accelerometer measurements to determine the latitude and longitude of the stationary object.

  3. Tightly localized stationary pulses in a multilevel atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiong-Jun; Oh, C. H.; Liu, Xin; Liu, Zheng-Xin; Kwek, L. C.

    2007-01-01

    We show that the pulse matching phenomenon can be obtained in the general multilevel system with electromagnetically induced transparency. For this we find a different way to create tightly localized stationary pulses by using counterpropagating pump fields. The present process is a spatial compression of excitation so that it allows us to shape and further intensify the localized stationary pulses, without using standing waves of pump fields or spatially modulated pump fields

  4. Motor development of blind toddler

    OpenAIRE

    Likar, Petra

    2013-01-01

    For blind toddlers, development of motor skills enables possibilities for learning and exploring the environment. The purpose of this graduation thesis is to systematically mark the milestones in development of motor skills in blind toddlers, to establish different factors which affect this development, and to discover different ways for teachers for visually impaired and parents to encourage development of motor skills. It is typical of blind toddlers that they do not experience a wide varie...

  5. Xerostomia: A day and night difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkema, Tim; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Braam, Pètra M.; Roesink, Judith M.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Terhaard, Chris H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare patient-reported xerostomia during daytime and during nighttime with objectively measured parotid and submandibular gland function in a cohort of head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with RT. Materials and methods: A cohort of 138 HNC patients underwent objective measurements of parotid (PF) and submandibular (SMF) gland function and completed a xerostomia questionnaire (XQ) before RT, at 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after RT. No attempt was made to spare the submandibular gland(s). The XQ contained specific questions concerning the sensation of dry mouth during day- (XD) and nighttime (XN), scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Patients with no or mild (grade 1–3) xerostomia and patients with more severe (grade 4–5) complaints were grouped together. Results: Before RT, no association existed between dry mouth complaints and PF or SMF. At 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after RT; 37%, 51% and 36% had grade 4–5 XD and 65%, 64% and 56% had grade 4–5 XN, respectively. Patients with grade 4–5 XD and XN had significantly worse SMF at all time points after RT compared to patients with grade 1–3 XD and XN, while PF was significantly worse only at 6 weeks after RT. In multivariate analyses, SMF was consistently the most important factor related to XN after treatment. PF significantly influenced XD at 6 weeks and 1 year after RT. Conclusions: Differentiating between complaints during day- and nighttime in xerostomia research is necessary. Dry mouth at night is a frequent problem after (parotid-sparing) RT for HNC and is explained by submandibular gland dysfunction. Sparing of the contralateral submandibular gland, in addition to parotid gland sparing, may result in improved patient-reported xerostomia.

  6. Influence of Stationary Crossflow Modulation on Secondary Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Paredes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    A likely scenario for swept wing transition on subsonic aircraft with natural laminar flow involves the breakdown of stationary crossflow vortices via high frequency secondary instability. A majority of the prior research on this secondary instability has focused on crossflow vortices with a single dominant spanwise wavelength. This paper investigates the effects of the spanwise modulation of stationary crossflow vortices at a specified wavelength by a subharmonic stationary mode. Secondary instability of the modulated crossflow pattern is studied using planar, partial-differential-equation based eigenvalue analysis. Computations reveal that weak modulation by the first subharmonic of the input stationary mode leads to mode splitting that is particularly obvious for Y-type secondary modes that are driven by the wall-normal shear of the basic state. Thus, for each Y mode corresponding to the fundamental wavelength of results in unmodulated train of crossflow vortices, the modulated flow supports a pair of secondary modes with somewhat different amplification rates. The mode splitting phenomenon suggests that a more complex stationary modulation such as that induced by natural surface roughness would yield a considerably richer spectrum of secondary instability modes. Even modest levels of subharmonic modulation are shown to have a strong effect on the overall amplification of secondary disturbances, particularly the Z-modes driven by the spanwise shear of the basic state. Preliminary computations related to the nonlinear breakdown of these secondary disturbances provide interesting insights into the process of crossflow transition in the presence of the first subharmonic of the dominant stationary vortex.

  7. Stationary shear flows in CGL anisotropic toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastukhov, V.P.; Ilgisonis, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    Recently a general structure of stationary shear flows in toroidal plasmas was obtained in the frame of ideal isotropic-pressure MHD model. The structure of the stationary plasma flows was shown to be determined by a hidden symmetry of MHD equations inherent in the toroidal systems with nested magnetic surfaces. However, the characteristic frequencies of the stationary plasma motion can considerably exceed the collisional frequencies in real plasma experiments. In this case the CGL collisionless MHD model seems to be more adequate than the simplified isotropic-pressure MHD model to describe the stationary plasma flows. In this paper we have generalized our approach to analyze the stationary plasma flows in the frame of the collisionless CGL model. We have found again that the hidden symmetry inherent in the toroidal topology results in two integral invariants which depend on two independent surface functions. The structure of stationary flows for CGL model is still the same as for isotropic MHD, however, the pressure tensor components satisfy a appreciably modifies the steady state force-balance equation. These results are applied to analyze the generalized equilibrium in axisymmetric (tokamak-like) magnetic confinement systems

  8. Light at Night and Breast Cancer Risk Among California Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Susan; Goldberg, Debbie; Nelson, David; Hertz, Andrew; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Bernstein, Leslie; Reynolds, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Background There is convincing evidence that circadian disruption mediated by exposure to light at night promotes mammary carcinogenesis in rodents. The role that light at night plays in human breast cancer etiology remains unknown. We evaluated the relationship between estimates of indoor and outdoor light at night and the risk of breast cancer among members of the California Teachers Study. Methods Indoor light-at-night estimates were based on questionnaire data regarding sleep habits and use of night time lighting while sleeping. Estimates of outdoor light at night were derived from imagery data obtained from the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program assigned to geocoded addresses of study participants. Analyses were conducted among 106,731 California Teachers Study members who lived in California, had no prior history of breast cancer, and provided information on lighting while sleeping. 5,095 cases of invasive breast cancer diagnosed 1995–2010 were identified via linkage to the California Cancer Registry. We used age-stratified Cox proportional hazard models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for breast cancer risk factors and neighborhood urbanization and socioeconomic class. Results An increased risk was found for women living in areas with the highest quintile of outdoor light at night exposure estimates (HR=1.12 [95% CI=1.00 – 1.26], test for trend, P=0.06). While more pronounced among premenopausal women (HR=1.34 [95% CI=1.07 – 1.69], test for trend, P=0.04), the associations did not differ statistically by menopausal status (test for interaction, P=0.34). Conclusions Women living in areas with high levels of ambient light at night may be at an increased risk of breast cancer. Future studies that integrate quantitative measurements of indoor and outdoor light at night are warranted. PMID:25061924

  9. Students' educational experiences and interaction with residents on night shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Jocelyn; Sokoloff, Max; Tendhar, Chosang; Schmidt, John; Christner, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to investigate whether increased night shifts for students on paediatric rotations had any negative impact on their overall quality of educational experiences in light of the implementation of duty-hour restrictions. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 30 students on paediatric rotations during the academic year 2011/12. Students completed two questionnaires, one in response to their experiences during the day shifts and another in response to their experiences during the night shifts. Only 25 cases were retained for the final analyses. The non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyse the quantitative data, and constant comparative thematic analyses, as described by Creswell, were used to analyse the qualitative data. [Do] increased nights shifts for students … [have] any negative impact on their overall quality of educational experiences[?] RESULTS: The results indicated that students' perceived quality of experiences during the night shifts was greater, compared with their day shifts. Students reported having more time to socialise during the night shifts. They further reported that informal ways of learning, such as impromptu teaching and spontaneous discussions on clinical problems, were more beneficial, and these often occurred in abundance during the night shifts as opposed to the scheduled didactic teaching sessions that occur during the day shifts. This study documented many unanticipated benefits of night shifts. The feeling of cohesiveness of the night team deserves further exploration, as this can be linked to better performance outcomes. More consideration should be given to implementing night shifts as a regular feature of clerkships. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  10. Increased and mistimed sex hormone production in night shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Pozo, Oscar J; Espinosa, Ana; Marcos, Josep; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Basagaña, Xavier; Juanola Pagès, Elena; Mirabent, Joan; Martín, Jordi; Such Faro, Patricia; Gascó Aparici, Amparo; Middleton, Benita; Skene, Debra J; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2015-05-01

    Night shift work has been associated with an increased risk for breast and prostate cancer. The effect of circadian disruption on sex steroid production is a possible underlying mechanism, underinvestigated in humans. We have assessed daily rhythms of sex hormones and melatonin in night and day shift workers of both sexes. We recruited 75 night and 42 day workers, ages 22 to 64 years, in different working settings. Participants collected urine samples from all voids over 24 hours on a working day. Urinary concentrations of 16 sex steroid hormones and metabolites (estrogens, progestagens, and androgens) and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin were measured in all samples. Mean levels and peak time of total and individual metabolite production were compared between night and day workers. Night workers had higher levels of total progestagens [geometric mean ratio (GMR) 1.65; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.17-2.32] and androgens (GMR: 1.44; 95% CI, 1.03-2.00), compared with day workers, after adjusting for potential confounders. The increased sex hormone levels among night shift workers were not related to the observed suppression of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. Peak time of androgens was significantly later among night workers, compared with day workers (testosterone: 12:14 hours; 10:06-14:48 vs. 08:35 hours; 06:52-10:46). We found increased levels of progestagens and androgens as well as delayed peak androgen production in night shift workers compared with day workers. The increase and mistiming of sex hormone production may explain part of the increased risk for hormone-related cancers observed in night shift workers. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Blind Quantum Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvail, Louis; Arrighi, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of "having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input". Say Alice wants Bob to compute some known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x. The situa......We investigate the possibility of "having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input". Say Alice wants Bob to compute some known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x....... The situation arises for instance if client Alice has limited computational resources in comparison with mistrusted server Bob, or if x is an inherently mobile piece of data. Could there be a protocol whereby Bob is forced to compute f(x) "blindly", i.e. without observing x? We provide such a blind computation...... protocol for the class of functions which admit an efficient procedure to generate random input-output pairs, e.g. factorization. The cheat-sensitive security achieved relies only upon quantum theory being true. The security analysis carried out assumes the eavesdropper performs individual attacks....

  12. The Voices of Women in the Night: Veronica and Judith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Walker

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available quite often leave the radio playing all night on the bedside table; my only company in an all too empty house. It shuts out the noises of the night: the cry of the great owl in the rain-forest trees, the scurrying of possums on the roof, or the rustle of the neighbourhood carpet snake, a beautiful multi-coloured python, slithering into or out of the roof-space. I’m used to him (or her. She’s harmless —just another presence in the night.

  13. Childhood night terrors and sleepwalking: diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Ratan Gedam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Night terrors and sleepwalking are arousal disorders that occur during the first third of night. Combined existence of sleep disorders are rare phenomenon and found to be associated with behavioural and emotional problems. It becomes difficult to diagnose among sleep disorders and epilepsy is an important differential diagnosis. Management with combined approach of pharmacotherapy and psychological counselling is safe and effective. Here, we present a case of night terrors and sleepwalking to highlight the importance of diagnosis and treatment in this condition. To conclude, all medical professionals need to be aware of different parasomnias and its treatment options.

  14. Experimental Assessment of Mechanical Night Ventilation on Inner Wall Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Wenhui; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Wang, Houhua

    2016-01-01

    The cooling potential of night ventilation largely depends on the heat exchange at the internal room surfaces. During night time, increased heat transfer on a vertical wall is expected due to cool supply air that flows along the internal wall surface from the top of the wall. This paper presents ...... an experimental study of the cooling of wall surfaces in a test room by mechanical night-time ventilation. Significant improvement of indoor thermal environment is presented resulting from the enhanced internal convection heat transfer....

  15. Light Pollution Awareness through Globe at Night & IYL2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.

    2015-01-01

    The International Astronomical Union (IAU) will be coordinating extensive activities to raise awareness of light pollution through running the Cosmic Light theme of the International Year of Light (IYL2015) and by partnering in particular with the popular Globe at Night program.Globe at Night (www.globeatnight.org) is an international campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by having people measure night-sky brightness and submit observations in real-time with smart phone or later with a computer. In 2015, Globe at Night will run for 10-nights each month, an hour after sunset til before the Moon rises. Students can use the data to monitor levels of light pollution around the world, as well as understand light pollution's effects on energy consumption, plants, wildlife, human health and our ability to enjoy a starry night sky.Since its inception in 2006, more than 115,000 measurements from 115 countries have been reported. The last 9 years of data can be explored with Globe at Night's interactive world map or with the 'map app' to view a particular area. A spreadsheet of the data is downloadable from any year. One can compare Globe at Night data with a variety of other databases to see, for example, how light pollution affects the foraging habits of bats.To encourage public participation in Globe at Night during IYL2015, each month will target an area of the world that habitually contributes during that time. Special concerns for how light pollution affects that area and solutions will be featured on the Globe at Night website (www.globeatnight.org), through its Facebook page, in its newsletter or in the 365DaysofAstronomy.org podcasts.Twice during IYL there will be a global Flash Mob event, one on Super Pi Day (March 14, 2015) and a second in mid-September, where the public will be invited to take night-sky brightness measurements en masse. In April, the International Dark-Sky Week hosted by the International Dark-Sky Association will be

  16. Night-time sedating H1 -antihistamine increases daytime somnolence but not treatment efficacy in chronic spontaneous urticaria: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staevska, M; Gugutkova, M; Lazarova, C; Kralimarkova, T; Dimitrov, V; Zuberbier, T; Church, M K; Popov, T A

    2014-07-01

    Many physicians believe that the most effective way to treat chronic urticaria is to take a nonsedating second-generation H1 -antihistamine in the morning and a sedating first-generation H1 -antihistamine, usually hydroxyzine, at night to enhance sleep. But is this belief well founded? To test this belief by comparing the effectiveness and prevalence of unwanted sedative effects when treating patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) with levocetirizine 15 mg daily plus hydroxyzine 50 mg at night (levocetirizine plus hydroxyzine) vs. levocetirizine 20 mg daily (levocetirizine monotherapy). In this randomized, double-blind, cross-over study, 24 patients with difficult-to-treat CSU took levocetirizine plus hydroxyzine or levocetirizine monotherapy for periods of 5 days each. At the end of each treatment period, assessments were made of quality of life (Chronic Urticaria Quality of Life Questionnaire, CU-Q2 oL), severity of urticaria symptoms (Urticaria Activity Score, UAS), sleep disturbance during the night and daytime somnolence. Both treatments significantly decreased UAS, night-time sleep disturbances and CU-Q2 oL scores (P generation H1 -antihistamine, usually hydroxyzine, at night is not supported. These results are in line with the urticaria guidelines, which state that first-line treatment for urticaria should be new-generation, nonsedating H1 -antihistamines only. © 2014 The Authors. British Association of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Complex sleep apnea after full-night and split-night polysomnography: the Greek experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baou, Katerina; Mermigkis, Charalampos; Minaritzoglou, Aliki; Vagiakis, Emmanouil

    2017-12-08

    Treatment-emergent central sleep apnea (TE-CSA) is defined as the emergence or persistence of central respiratory events during the initiation of positive airway pressure (PAP) without a back-up rate in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients and after significant resolution of obstructive events. Previous studies have estimated a prevalence from 0.56 to 20.3%. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of TE-CSA in a Greek adult population. One thousand fifty nine patients with newly diagnosed OSA, who were referred to the Sleep Disorders Center of Evangelismos Hospital of Athens over an 18-month period, were included in this study. A split-night polysomnography (PSG), or two formal overnight PSGs (diagnostic and continuous PAP (CPAP) titration study), were performed. Patients with OSA were divided in two groups; the first group included 277 patients, who underwent two separate studies (diagnostic and CPAP titration study), and the second group 782 patients, who underwent split-night studies. The prevalence of TE-CSA in the first group was 2.53% (7 patients), and in the second group was 5.63% (44 patients). The prevalence of TE-CSA in Greece was lower compared to most previous reported studies. The significant variation in the prevalence of TE-CSA between different centers throughout the world is mainly associated with the used diagnostic criteria as well as methodological and technical aspects.

  18. POSTERIOR SEGMENT CAUSES OF BLINDNESS AMONG CHILDREN IN BLIND SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is estimated that there are 1.4 million irreversibly blind children in the world out of which 1 million are in Asia alone. India has the highest number of blind children than any other country. Nearly 70% of the childhood blindness is avoidable. There i s paucity of data available on the causes of childhood blindness. This study focuses on the posterior segment causes of blindness among children attending blind schools in 3 adjacent districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIAL & METHODS: This is a cross sectiona l study conducted among 204 blind children aged 6 - 16 years age. Detailed eye examination was done by the same investigator to avoid bias. Posterior segment examination was done using a direct and/or indirect ophthalmoscope after dilating pupil wherever nec essary. The standard WHO/PBL for blindness and low vision examination protocol was used to categorize the causes of blindness. A major anatomical site and underlying cause was selected for each child. The study was carried out during July 2014 to June 2015 . The results were analyzed using MS excel software and Epi - info 7 software version statistical software. RESULTS: Majority of the children was found to be aged 13 - 16 years (45.1% and males (63.7%. Family history of blindness was noted in 26.0% and consa nguinity was reported in 29.9% cases. A majority of them were belonged to fulfill WHO grade of blindness (73.0% and in majority of the cases, the onset of blindness was since birth (83.7%. The etiology of blindness was unknown in majority of cases (57.4% while hereditary causes constituted 25.4% cases. Posterior segment causes were responsible in 33.3% cases with retina being the most commonly involved anatomical site (19.1% followed by optic nerve (14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for mandatory oph thalmic evaluation, refraction and assessment of low vision prior to admission into blind schools with periodic evaluation every 2 - 3 years

  19. Associations between number of consecutive night shifts and impairment of neurobehavioral performance during a subsequent simulated night shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Michelle; Sletten, Tracey L; Ferguson, Sally A; Grunstein, Ronald R; Anderson, Clare; Kennaway, David J; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha Mw

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate sleep and circadian phase in the relationships between neurobehavioral performance and the number of consecutive shifts worked. Thirty-four shift workers [20 men, mean age 31.8 (SD 10.9) years] worked 2-7 consecutive night shifts immediately prior to a laboratory-based, simulated night shift. For 7 days prior, participants worked their usual shift sequence, and sleep was assessed with logs and actigraphy. Participants completed a 10-minute auditory psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) at the start (~21:00 hours) and end (~07:00 hours) of the simulated night shift. Mean reaction times (RT), number of lapses and RT distribution was compared between those who worked 2-3 consecutive night shifts versus those who worked 4-7 shifts. Following 4-7 shifts, night shift workers had significantly longer mean RT at the start and end of shift, compared to those who worked 2-3 shifts. The slowest and fastest 10% RT were significantly slower at the start, but not end, of shift among participants who worked 4-7 nights. Those working 4-7 nights also demonstrated a broader RT distribution at the start and end of shift and had significantly slower RT based on cumulative distribution analysis (5 (th), 25 (th), 50 (th), 75 (th)percentiles at the start of shift; 75th percentile at the end of shift). No group differences in sleep parameters were found for 7 days and 24 hours prior to the simulated night shift. A greater number of consecutive night shifts has a negative impact on neurobehavioral performance, likely due to cognitive slowing.

  20. Frequency Analysis of Extreme Sub-Daily Precipitation under Stationary and Non-Stationary Conditions across Two Contrasting Hydroclimatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaria, E. M.; Goodrich, D. C.; Keefer, T.

    2017-12-01

    Observed sub-daily precipitation intensities from contrasting hydroclimatic environments in the USA are used to evaluate temporal trends and to develop Intensity-Duration Frequency (IDF) curves under stationary and nonstationary climatic conditions. Analyses are based on observations from two United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) experimental watersheds located in a semi-arid and a temperate environment. We use an Annual Maximum Series (AMS) and a Partial Duration Series (PDS) approach to identify temporal trends in maximum intensities for durations ranging from 5- to 1440-minutes. A Bayesian approach with Monte Carlo techniques is used to incorporate the effect of non-stationary climatic assumptions in the IDF curves. The results show increasing trends in observed AMS sub-daily intensities in both watersheds whereas trends in the PDS observations are mostly positive in the semi-arid site and a mix of positive and negative in the temperate site. Stationary climate assumptions lead to much lower estimated sub-daily intensities than those under non-stationary assumptions with larger absolute differences found for shorter durations and smaller return periods. The risk of failure (R) of a hydraulic structure is increased for non-stationary effects over those of stationary effects, with absolute differences of 25% for a 100-year return period (T) and a project life (n) of 100 years. The study highlights the importance of considering non-stationarity, due to natural variability or to climate change, in storm design.

  1. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors.

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkers, M.B.M; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; Steeg, H. van; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable night or shift work, from day work to night or shift work, from night or shift work to day work, and no night or shift work in 2008 and 2009. Regression analyses were used to study association chan...

  2. Disruption of Circadian Rhythms by Light During Day and Night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiro, Mariana G

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to discuss possible reasons why research to date has not forged direct links between light at night, acute melatonin suppression or circadian disruption, and risks for disease. Data suggest that irregular light-dark patterns or light exposures at the wrong circadian time can lead to circadian disruption and disease risks. However, there remains an urgent need to: (1) specify light stimulus in terms of circadian rather than visual response; (2) when translating research from animals to humans, consider species-specific spectral and absolute sensitivities to light; (3) relate the characteristics of photometric measurement of light at night to the operational characteristics of the circadian system; and (4) examine how humans may be experiencing too little daytime light, not just too much light at night. To understand the health effects of light-induced circadian disruption, we need to measure and control light stimulus during the day and at night.

  3. Digital Enhancement of Night Vision and Thermal Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teo, Chek

    2003-01-01

    .... This thesis explores the effect of the Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) process on night vision and thermal images With better contrast, target detection and discrimination can be improved...

  4. Dim light at night increases body mass of female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Taryn G; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-05-01

    During the past century, the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dark at ∼0 lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dim light at ∼5 lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rate of change in body mass compared to LD mice despite reduced total food intake during weeks five and six, suggesting that dLAN disrupted circadian rhythms resulting in deranged metabolism.

  5. European Researchers Night, Students on Shift at ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Fons Rademakers

    2010-01-01

    During European Researchers' Night, on Friday 24 September 2010, from 17:00 to 24:00, pupils from French and Swiss schools visited ALICE and took shifts in the control room, helping the ALICE physicists run the experiment.

  6. A Most Rare Vision: Improvisations on "A Midsummer Night's Dream."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakaim, Charles J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of improvisation, experimentation, and innovation. Discusses numerous techniques for fostering such skills when working with William Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream." (HB)

  7. Measured energy savings from using night temperature setback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Wrench, L.E.; O'Neill, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Data obtained during both single-setting and night-setback operating modes were used to develop models of each building's heat consumption as a function of the difference between inside and outside temperature. These models were used to estimate seasonal savings that could be obtained from the use of night-setback thermostat control. The measured savings in heating energy from using night temperature setback for the six Fort Devens buildings ranged from 14% to 25%; the mean savings was 19.2%. Based on an energy cost of $0.65/therm of natural gas, the estimated average cost savings of using automatic setback thermostats in these buildings is $780 per year per building

  8. Cooling of the Building Structure by Night-time Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai

    In modern, extensively glazed office buildings, due to high solar and internal loads and increased comfort expectations, air conditioning is increasingly applied even in moderate and cold climates, like in Central and Northern Europe. Particularly in these cases, night-time ventilation is often......, without considering any building-specific parameters. A method for quantifying the climatic cooling potential (CCP) was developed based on degree-hours of the difference between building and external air temperature. Applying this method to climatic data of 259 stations shows very high night cooling...... potential over the whole of Northern Europe and still significant potential in Central, Eastern and even some regions of Southern Europe. However, due to the inherent stochastic properties of weather patterns, series of warmer nights can occur at some locations, where passive cooling by night...

  9. Passive Cooling of buildings by night-time ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, Heinrich; Heiselberg, Per

    coefficients below about 4 W/m2K. Heat transfer during night-time ventilation in case of mixing and displacement ventilation was investigated in a full scale test room at Aalborg University. In the experiments the temperature efficiency of the ventilation was determined. Based on the previous re-sults a method...... are still hesitant to apply passive cooling techniques. As night-time ventilation is highly dependent on climatic conditions, a method for quantifying the climatic cooling potential was developed and the impact of climate warming was investigated. Although a clear decrease was found, significant potential...... will remain, especially if night-time ventilation is applied in combination with other cooling methods. Building energy simulations showed that the performance of night-time ventilation is also affected by the heat transfer at internal room surfaces, as the cooling effect is very limited for heat transfer...

  10. The Globe of Science and Innovation at night

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The Globe of Science and Innovation, CERN's exhibition centre is seen lit up at night. This wooden building was given to CERN in 2004 as a gift from the Swiss Confederation to mark 50 years since the Organization's foundation.

  11. Night Shift Work and Risk of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Johnni

    2017-09-01

    Night work is increasingly common and a necessity in certain sectors of the modern 24-h society. The embedded exposure to light-at-night, which suppresses the nocturnal hormone melatonin with oncostatic properties and circadian disruption, i.e., misalignment between internal and external night and between cells and organs, are suggested as main mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis. In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified shift work that involves circadian disruption as probably carcinogenic to humans based on limited evidence from eight epidemiologic studies on breast cancer, in addition to sufficient evidence from animal experiments. The aim of this review is a critical update of the IARC evaluation, including subsequent and the most recent epidemiologic evidence on breast cancer risk after night work. After 2007, in total nine new case-control studies, one case-cohort study, and eight cohort studies are published, which triples the number of studies. Further, two previous cohorts have been updated with extended follow-up. The assessment of night shift work is different in all of the 26 existing studies. There is some evidence that high number of consecutive night shifts has impact on the extent of circadian disruption, and thereby increased breast cancer risk, but this information is missing in almost all cohort studies. This in combination with short-term follow-up of aging cohorts may explain why some cohort studies may have null findings. The more recent case-control studies have contributed interesting results concerning breast cancer subtypes in relation to both menopausal status and different hormonal subtypes. The large differences in definitions of both exposure and outcome may contribute to the observed heterogeneity of results from studies of night work and breast cancer, which overall points in the direction of an increased breast cancer risk, in particular after over 20 years of night shifts. Overall, there is a

  12. Stepping backwards with disability humor? The case of NY Gov. David Paterson’s representation on ‘Saturday Night Live’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Haller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern era, discerning TV viewers know the shows that trade in cheap laughs by making fun of people with disabilities are not tapping into much creativity. So it was a surprise in 2008 when the highly regarded comedy show Saturday Night Live (SNL stooped to that level by ridiculing the blind governor of New York, David Paterson, in a series of sketches lasting two years. This article analyzes the way humor narratives about a high-profile blind politician on television, like those depicted in the SNL skits, may have influenced larger cultural themes about blindness. Because the East Coast news media reported on the SNL skits every time an episode aired, this project undertook a textual analysis of all aspects of the controversy including the content of the SNL skits, the repeated responses from Gov. Paterson and the blindness community, and the news media framing of the SNL-Paterson skit story. This analysis examines the intertextuality of the event, revealing that the blindness community had a very different reading of the SNL skits, due to concerns about continuing media narratives that devalue and stereotype them.   Keywords: blindness, disability humor, TV comedy shows, skit comedy, politicians

  13. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / News Testing Children for Color Blindness Leer en Español: Pruebas para Detectar Daltonismo en ... study shows that kids can be tested for color blindness as soon as age 4, finds Caucasian boys ...

  14. Ad libitum and restricted day and night sleep architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korompeli, Anna St; Muurlink, Olav; Gavala, Alexandra; Myrianthefs, Pavlos; Fildissis, Georgios; Baltopoulos, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    This study represents a first controlled comparison of restricted versus unrestricted sleep in both day and night sleep categories. A repeated measures study of a homogenous group of young women without sleep disorders (n=14) found that stage 1, 2, 3 and REM sleep, as well as sleep latency were not statistically different between day ad libitum sleep (DAL) and day interrupted (DI) sleep categories, while night interrupted (NI) and ad libitum (NAL) sleep showed strikingly different architecture.

  15. Patient Handoffs: Is Cross Cover or Night Shift Better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Alanna; Brannen, Melissa L; Heiman, Heather L; Adler, Mark D

    2017-06-01

    Studies show singular handoffs between health care providers to be risky. Few describe sequential handoffs or compare handoffs from different provider types. We investigated the transfer of information across 2 handoffs using a piloted survey instrument. We compared cross-cover (every fourth night call) with dedicated night-shift residents. Surveys assessing provider knowledge of hospitalized patients were administered to pediatric residents. Primary teams were surveyed about their handoff upon completion of daytime coverage of a patient. Night-shift or cross-covering residents were surveyed about their handoff of the same patient upon completion of overnight coverage. Pediatric hospitalists rated the consistency of information between the surveys. Absolute difference was calculated between the 2 providers' rating of a patient's (a) complexity and (b) illness severity. Scores were compared across provider type. Fifty-nine complete handoff pairs were obtained. Fourteen and 45 handoff surveys were completed by a cross-covering and a night-shift provider, respectively. There was no significant difference in information consistency between primary and night-shift (median, 4.0; interquartile range [IQR], 3-4) versus primary and cross-covering providers (median, 4.0; IQR, 3-4). There was no significant difference in median patient complexity ratings (night shift, 3.0; IQR, 1-5, versus cross cover, 3.5; IQR, 1-5) or illness severity ratings (night shift, 2.0; IQR, 1-4, versus cross-cover, 3.0; IQR, 1-6) when comparing provider types giving a handoff. We did not find a difference in physicians' transfer of information during 2 handoffs among providers taking traditional call or on night shift. Development of tools to measure handoff consistency is needed.

  16. The effects of hot nights on mortality in Barcelona, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royé, D.

    2017-12-01

    Heat-related effects on mortality have been widely analyzed using maximum and minimum temperatures as exposure variables. Nevertheless, the main focus is usually on the former with the minimum temperature being limited in use as far as human health effects are concerned. Therefore, new thermal indices were used in this research to describe the duration of night hours with air temperatures higher than the 95% percentile of the minimum temperature (hot night hours) and intensity as the summation of these air temperatures in degrees (hot night degrees). An exposure-response relationship between mortality due to natural, respiratory, and cardiovascular causes and summer night temperatures was assessed using data from the Barcelona region between 2003 and 2013. The non-linear relationship between the exposure and response variables was modeled using a distributed lag non-linear model. The estimated associations for both exposure variables and mortality shows a relationship with high and medium values that persist significantly up to a lag of 1-2 days. In mortality due to natural causes, an increase of 1.1% per 10% (CI95% 0.6-1.5) for hot night hours and 5.8% per each 10° (CI95% 3.5-8.2%) for hot night degrees is observed. The effects of hot night hours reach their maximum with 100% and lead to an increase by 9.2% (CI95% 5.3-13.1%). The hourly description of night heat effects reduced to a single indicator in duration and intensity is a new approach and shows a different perspective and significant heat-related effects on human health.

  17. Do Wild Great Tits Avoid Exposure to Light at Night?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike de Jong

    Full Text Available Studies of wild populations have provided important insights into the effects of artificial light at night on organisms, populations and ecosystems. However, in most studies the exact amount of light at night individuals are exposed to remains unknown. Individuals can potentially control their nighttime light exposure by seeking dark spots within illuminated areas. This uncertainty makes it difficult to attribute effects to a direct effect of light at night, or to indirect effects, e.g., via an effect of light at night on food availability. In this study, we aim to quantify the nocturnal light exposure of wild birds in a previously dark forest-edge habitat, experimentally illuminated with three different colors of street lighting, in comparison to a dark control. During two consecutive breeding seasons, we deployed male great tits (Parus major with a light logger measuring light intensity every five minutes over a 24h period. We found that three males from pairs breeding in brightly illuminated nest boxes close to green and red lamp posts, were not exposed to more artificial light at night than males from pairs breeding further away. This suggests, based on our limited sample size, that these males could have been avoiding light at night by choosing a roosting place with a reduced light intensity. Therefore, effects of light at night previously reported for this species in our experimental set-up might be indirect. In contrast to urban areas where light is omnipresent, bird species in non-urban areas may evade exposure to nocturnal artificial light, thereby avoiding direct consequences of light at night.

  18. Culture and change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takahiko; Nisbett, Richard E

    2006-03-04

    Research on perception and cognition suggests that whereas East Asians view the world holistically, attending to the entire field and relations among objects, Westerners view the world analytically, focusing on the attributes of salient objects. These propositions were examined in the change-blindness paradigm. Research in that paradigm finds American participants to be more sensitive to changes in focal objects than to changes in the periphery or context. We anticipated that this would be less true for East Asians and that they would be more sensitive to context changes than would Americans. We presented participants with still photos and with animated vignettes having changes in focal object information and contextual information. Compared to Americans, East Asians were more sensitive to contextual changes than to focal object changes. These results suggest that there can be cultural variation in what may seem to be basic perceptual processes. 2006 Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

  19. Effect of repeated gaboxadol administration on night sleep and next-day performance in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Stefan; Zihl, Josef; Steiger, Axel; Lancel, Marike

    2005-04-01

    Aging is associated with dramatic reductions in sleep continuity and sleep intensity. Since gaboxadol, a selective GABA(A) receptor agonist, has been demonstrated to improve sleep consolidation and promote deep sleep, it may be an effective hypnotic, particularly for elderly patients with insomnia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of subchronic gaboxadol administration on nocturnal sleep and its residual effects during the next days in elderly subjects. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover study in 10 healthy elderly subjects without sleep complaints. The subjects were administered either placebo or 15 mg gaboxadol hydrochloride at bedtime on three consecutive nights. Sleep was recorded during each night from 2300 to 0700 h and tests assessing attention (target detection, stroop test) and memory function (visual form recognition, immediate word recall, digit span) were applied at 0900, 1400, and 1700 h during the following days. Compared with placebo, gaboxadol significantly shortened subjective sleep onset latency and increased self-rated sleep intensity and quality. Polysomnographic recordings showed that it significantly decreased the number of awakenings, the amount of intermittent wakefulness, and stage 1, and increased slow wave sleep and stage 2. These effects were stable over the three nights. None of the subjects reported side effects. Next-day cognitive performance was not affected by gaboxadol. Gaboxadol persistently improved subjective and objective sleep quality and was devoid of residual effects. Thus, at the employed dose, it seems an effective hypnotic in elderly subjects.

  20. [Night work, shift work: Breast cancer risk factor?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabu, J-C; Stoll, F; Gonzalez, M; Mathelin, C

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this review was to determine the link between night/shift work and breast cancer. The analysed articles were taken from the PUBMED database between 1996 and 2015. The keywords used were "breast cancer risk", "night work" and "shift work". In total, 25 articles were selected. Night/shift workers are more at risk to develop a breast cancer (relative risk (RR) between 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02-1.20 and 1.48; 95% CI: 1.36-1.61 in the meta-analyses). However, this risk is not found by some cohort and case-control studies. The circadian rhythm disruption, responsible of disorderliness of melatonin secretion, could be one of the mechanisms involved in the increase of that risk. Hormonal status of night/shift workers, their geographic origin, their lifestyle and their vitamin D deficiency appear as other mechanisms potentially responsible for increased risk of cancer in this professional population. Moreover, a dose-effect connection may exist, with an increase of the risk with the number of years of night/shift work. Night/shift work is associated with a moderate increased risk of breast cancer, especially among women who worked over 20 years. Recommendations concerning the breast monitoring in this population could be diffused. The benefit of melatonin supplementation remains to be assessed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  1. Night shift decreases cognitive performance of ICU physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltese, François; Adda, Mélanie; Bablon, Amandine; Hraeich, Sami; Guervilly, Christophe; Lehingue, Samuel; Wiramus, Sandrine; Leone, Marc; Martin, Claude; Vialet, Renaud; Thirion, Xavier; Roch, Antoine; Forel, Jean-Marie; Papazian, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between tiredness and the risk of medical errors is now commonly accepted. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of an intensive care unit (ICU) night shift on the cognitive performance of a group of intensivists. The influence of professional experience and the amount of sleep on cognitive performance was also investigated. A total of 51 intensivists from three ICUs (24 seniors and 27 residents) were included. The study participants were evaluated after a night of rest and after a night shift according to a randomized order. Four cognitive skills were tested according to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. All cognitive abilities worsened after a night shift: working memory capacity (11.3 ± 0.3 vs. 9.4 ± 0.3; p night shift. The cognitive abilities of intensivists were significantly altered following a night shift in the ICU, regardless of either the amount of professional experience or the duration of sleep during the shift. The consequences for patients' safety and physicians' health should be further evaluated.

  2. Glucocorticoid management in rheumatoid arthritis: morning or night low dose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Paolino

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Morning symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA are linked to circadian increase of night inflammation, supported by inadequate cortisol secretion in active disease. Therefore, exogenous glucocorticoid administration in RA is recommended by EULAR and ACR from the beginning of the diagnosis, since may partially act like a “replacement therapy”. In addition, the prevention/treatment of the night up-regulation of the immune/inflammatory reaction has been shown more effective when exogenous glucocorticoid administration is managed with a night-time-release formulation. Despite a considerably higher cost than conventional prednisone (immediate release, chronotherapy with night-time-release prednisone has been recognized a cost-effective option for RA patients not on glucocorticoids who are eligible for therapy with biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs. Interestingly, since different cell populations involved in the inflammatory process are particularly activated during the night (i.e. monocytes, macrophages, other therapeutical approaches used in RA, such as conventional DMARDs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs should follow the same concepts of glucocorticoid chronotherapy. Therefore, bedtime methotrexate chronotherapy was found to better manage RA symptoms, and several available NSAIDs (i.e. indomethacin, aceclofenac, ketoprofen, flurbiprofen, lornoxicam have been recently modified in their formulation, in order to obtain more focused night action.

  3. NIGHT SKY BRIGHTNESS ABOVE ZAGREB 2012.-2017.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Andreić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The night sky brightness at the RGN site (near the centre of Zagreb, Croatia was monitored form January 2012. to December 2017. The gathered data show that the average night sky brightness in this period did not change significantly, apart from differences caused by yearly variations in meteorological parameters. The nightly minima, maxima and mean values of the sky brightness do change considerably due to changes in meteorological conditions, often being between 2 and 3 magnitudes. The seasonal probability curves and histograms are constructed and are used to obtain additional information on the light pollution at the RGN site. They reveal that the night sky brightness clutters around two peaks, at about 15.0 mag/arcsec2 and at about 18.2 mag/arcsec2. The tendency to slightly lower brightness values in spring and summer can also be seen in the data. Two peaks correspond to cloudy and clear nights respectively, the difference in brightness between them being about 3 magnitudes. A crude clear/cloudy criterion can be defined too: the minimum between two peaks is around 16.7 mag/arcsec2. The brightness values smaller than thisare attributed to clear nights and vice-versa. Comparison with Vienna and Hong-Kong indicates that the light pollution of Zagreb is a few times larger.

  4. System identification through nonstationary data using Time-Frequency Blind Source Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanlin; Kareem, Ahsan

    2016-06-01

    Classical output-only system identification (SI) methods are based on the assumption of stationarity of the system response. However, measured response of buildings and bridges is usually non-stationary due to strong winds (e.g. typhoon, and thunder storm etc.), earthquakes and time-varying vehicle motions. Accordingly, the response data may have time-varying frequency contents and/or overlapping of modal frequencies due to non-stationary colored excitation. This renders traditional methods problematic for modal separation and identification. To address these challenges, a new SI technique based on Time-Frequency Blind Source Separation (TFBSS) is proposed. By selectively utilizing "effective" information in local regions of the time-frequency plane, where only one mode contributes to energy, the proposed technique can successfully identify mode shapes and recover modal responses from the non-stationary response where the traditional SI methods often encounter difficulties. This technique can also handle response with closely spaced modes which is a well-known challenge for the identification of large-scale structures. Based on the separated modal responses, frequency and damping can be easily identified using SI methods based on a single degree of freedom (SDOF) system. In addition to the exclusive advantage of handling non-stationary data and closely spaced modes, the proposed technique also benefits from the absence of the end effects and low sensitivity to noise in modal separation. The efficacy of the proposed technique is demonstrated using several simulation based studies, and compared to the popular Second-Order Blind Identification (SOBI) scheme. It is also noted that even some non-stationary response data can be analyzed by the stationary method SOBI. This paper also delineates non-stationary cases where SOBI and the proposed scheme perform comparably and highlights cases where the proposed approach is more advantageous. Finally, the performance of the

  5. Stability of Bifurcating Stationary Solutions of the Artificial Compressible System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Yuka

    2018-02-01

    The artificial compressible system gives a compressible approximation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes system. The latter system is obtained from the former one in the zero limit of the artificial Mach number ɛ which is a singular limit. The sets of stationary solutions of both systems coincide with each other. It is known that if a stationary solution of the incompressible system is asymptotically stable and the velocity field of the stationary solution satisfies an energy-type stability criterion, then it is also stable as a solution of the artificial compressible one for sufficiently small ɛ . In general, the range of ɛ shrinks when the spectrum of the linearized operator for the incompressible system approaches to the imaginary axis. This can happen when a stationary bifurcation occurs. It is proved that when a stationary bifurcation from a simple eigenvalue occurs, the range of ɛ can be taken uniformly near the bifurcation point to conclude the stability of the bifurcating solution as a solution of the artificial compressible system.

  6. Propagation of Boundary-Induced Discontinuity in Stationary Radiative Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagoe, Daisuke; Chen, I.-Kun

    2018-01-01

    We consider the boundary value problem of the stationary transport equation in the slab domain of general dimensions. In this paper, we discuss the relation between discontinuity of the incoming boundary data and that of the solution to the stationary transport equation. We introduce two conditions posed on the boundary data so that discontinuity of the boundary data propagates along positive characteristic lines as that of the solution to the stationary transport equation. Our analysis does not depend on the celebrated velocity averaging lemma, which is different from previous works. We also introduce an example in two dimensional case which shows that piecewise continuity of the boundary data is not a sufficient condition for the main result.

  7. Impact of the updating scheme on stationary states of networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicchi, F; Ahn, Y Y; Meyer-Ortmanns, H

    2008-01-01

    From Boolean networks it is well known that the number of attractors as a function of the system size depends on the updating scheme which is chosen either synchronously or asynchronously. In this contribution, we report on a systematic interpolation between synchronous and asynchronous updating in a one-dimensional chain of Ising spins. The stationary state for fully synchronous updating is antiferromagnetic. The interpolation allows us to locate a phase transition between phases with an absorbing and a fluctuating stationary state. The associated universality class is that of parity conservation. We also report on a more recent study of asynchronous updates applied to the yeast cell-cycle network. Compared to the synchronous update, the basin of attraction of the largest attractor considerably shrinks and the convergence to the biological pathway slows down and is less dominant. Both examples illustrate how sensitively the stationary states and the properties of attractors can depend on the updating mode of the algorithm

  8. Recent development of ionic liquid stationary phases for liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xianzhe; Qiao, Lizhen; Xu, Guowang

    2015-11-13

    Based on their particular physicochemical characteristics, ionic liquids have been widely applied in many fields of analytical chemistry. Many types of ionic liquids were immobilized on a support like silica or monolith as stationary phases for liquid chromatography. Moreover, different approaches were developed to bond covalently ionic liquids onto the supporting materials. The obtained ionic liquid stationary phases show multi-mode mechanism including hydrophobic, hydrophilic, hydrogen bond, anion exchange, π-π, and dipole-dipole interactions. Therefore, they could be used in different chromatographic modes including ion-exchange, RPLC, NPLC and HILIC to separate various classes of compounds. This review mainly summarizes the immobilized patterns and types of ionic liquid stationary phases, their retention mechanisms and applications in the recent five years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-stationary condition monitoring through event alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Larsen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    We present an event alignment framework which enables change detection in non-stationary signals. change detection. Classical condition monitoring frameworks have been restrained to laboratory settings with stationary operating conditions, which are not resembling real world operation....... In this paper we apply the technique for non-stationary condition monitoring of large diesel engines based on acoustical emission sensor signals. The performance of the event alignment is analyzed in an unsupervised probabilistic detection framework based on outlier detection with either Principal Component...... Analysis or Gaussian Processes modeling. We are especially interested in the true performance of the condition monitoring performance with mixed aligned and unaligned data, e.g. detection of fault condition of unaligned examples versus false alarms of aligned normal condition data. Further, we expect...

  10. Non-Stationary Internal Tides Observed with Satellite Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.; Zaron, E. D.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal variability of the internal tide is inferred from a 17-year combined record of Topex/Poseidon and Jason satellite altimeters. A global sampling of along-track sea-surface height wavenumber spectra finds that non-stationary variance is generally 25% or less of the average variance at wavenumbers characteristic of mode-l tidal internal waves. With some exceptions the non-stationary variance does not exceed 0.25 sq cm. The mode-2 signal, where detectable, contains a larger fraction of non-stationary variance, typically 50% or more. Temporal subsetting of the data reveals interannual variability barely significant compared with tidal estimation error from 3-year records. Comparison of summer vs. winter conditions shows only one region of noteworthy seasonal changes, the northern South China Sea. Implications for the anticipated SWOT altimeter mission are briefly discussed.

  11. Non-Stationary Dependence Structures for Spatial Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaël

    2016-03-03

    Max-stable processes are natural models for spatial extremes because they provide suitable asymptotic approximations to the distribution of maxima of random fields. In the recent past, several parametric families of stationary max-stable models have been developed, and fitted to various types of data. However, a recurrent problem is the modeling of non-stationarity. In this paper, we develop non-stationary max-stable dependence structures in which covariates can be easily incorporated. Inference is performed using pairwise likelihoods, and its performance is assessed by an extensive simulation study based on a non-stationary locally isotropic extremal t model. Evidence that unknown parameters are well estimated is provided, and estimation of spatial return level curves is discussed. The methodology is demonstrated with temperature maxima recorded over a complex topography. Models are shown to satisfactorily capture extremal dependence.

  12. Integrity assessment of stationary blade ring for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung Yong; Chung, Yong Keun; Park, Jong Jin; Kang, Yong Ho

    2004-01-01

    The inner side between HP stationary blades in no.1 turbine of nuclear power plant A is damaged by the FAC(Flow Assisted Corrosion) which is exposed to moisture. For many years the inner side is repaired by welding the damaged part, however, the FAC continues to deteriorate the original material of the welded blade ring. In this study, we have two stages to verify the integrity of stationary blade ring in nuclear power plant A. In the stage I, replication of blade ring is performed to survey the microstructure of blade ring. In the stage II, the stress analysis of blade ring is performed to verify the structural safety of blade ring. Throughout the two stages analysis of blade ring, the stationary blade ring had remained undamaged

  13. Inference for local autocorrelations in locally stationary models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhibiao

    2015-04-01

    For non-stationary processes, the time-varying correlation structure provides useful insights into the underlying model dynamics. We study estimation and inferences for local autocorrelation process in locally stationary time series. Our constructed simultaneous confidence band can be used to address important hypothesis testing problems, such as whether the local autocorrelation process is indeed time-varying and whether the local autocorrelation is zero. In particular, our result provides an important generalization of the R function acf() to locally stationary Gaussian processes. Simulation studies and two empirical applications are developed. For the global temperature series, we find that the local autocorrelations are time-varying and have a "V" shape during 1910-1960. For the S&P 500 index, we conclude that the returns satisfy the efficient-market hypothesis whereas the magnitudes of returns show significant local autocorrelations.

  14. Retention of Halogenated Solutes on Stationary Phases Containing Heavy Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Miwa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of weak intermolecular interactions on solid-phase extraction (SPE and chromatographic separation, we synthesized some novel stationary phases with a heavy atom effect layer by immobilizing halogenated aromatic rings and hydroxyl groups onto the surface of a hydrophilic base polymer. Using SPE cartridges packed with the functionalized materials, we found that the heavy atom stationary phases could selectively retain halophenols in organic solvents, such as 1-propanol which blocks the hydrogen bonding, or acetonitrile which blocks the p-p interaction. The extraction efficiency of the materials toward the halophenols depended on the dipole moments of phenoxy groups present as functional groups. On the other hand, the extraction efficiency of solutes toward the functional group depended on their molar refractions, i.e., induced dipole moments. The retention of the solutes to the stationary phase ultimately depended on not only strong intermolecular interactions, but also the effects of weak interactions such as the dispersion force.

  15. Pool boiling from rotating and stationary spheres in liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuan, Winston M.; Schwartz, Sidney H.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented for a preliminary experiment involving saturated pool boiling at 1 atm from rotating 2 and 3 in. diameter spheres which were immersed in liquid nitrogen (LN2). Additional results are presented for a stationary, 2 inch diameter sphere, quenched in LN2, which were obtained utilizing a more versatile and complete experimental apparatus that will eventually be used for additional rotating sphere experiments. The speed for the rotational tests was varied from 0 to 10,000 rpm. The stationary experiments parametrically varied pressure and subcooling levels from 0 to 600 psig and from 0 to 50 F, respectively. During the rotational tests, a high speed photographic analysis was undertaken to measure the thickness of the vapor film surrounding the sphere. The average Nusselt number over the cooling period was plotted against the rotational Reynolds number. Stationary sphere results included local boiling heat transfer coefficients at different latitudinal locations, for various pressure and subcooling levels.

  16. On Maximal Hard-Core Thinnings of Stationary Particle Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Christian; Last, Günter

    2018-02-01

    The present paper studies existence and distributional uniqueness of subclasses of stationary hard-core particle systems arising as thinnings of stationary particle processes. These subclasses are defined by natural maximality criteria. We investigate two specific criteria, one related to the intensity of the hard-core particle process, the other one being a local optimality criterion on the level of realizations. In fact, the criteria are equivalent under suitable moment conditions. We show that stationary hard-core thinnings satisfying such criteria exist and are frequently distributionally unique. More precisely, distributional uniqueness holds in subcritical and barely supercritical regimes of continuum percolation. Additionally, based on the analysis of a specific example, we argue that fluctuations in grain sizes can play an important role for establishing distributional uniqueness at high intensities. Finally, we provide a family of algorithmically constructible approximations whose volume fractions are arbitrarily close to the maximum.

  17. Rotating night shift work, sleep, and colorectal adenoma in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devore, Elizabeth E; Massa, Jennifer; Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Schernhammer, Eva S; Wu, Kana; Zhang, Xuehong; Willett, Walter C; Fuchs, Charles S; Chan, Andrew T; Ogino, Shuji; Giovannucci, Edward; Wei, Esther K

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to investigate the associations of rotating night shift work history and sleep duration with risk of colorectal adenoma. We evaluated 56,275 cancer-free participants of the Nurses' Health Study II, who had their first colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy between 1991 and 2011; rotating night shift work and sleep duration were reported by mailed questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) of colorectal adenoma, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), across categories of rotating night shift work history (none, 1-4, 5-9, and ≥10 years) and sleep duration (≤5, 6, 7, 8, and ≥9 h/day). We found no association between duration of rotating night shift work and occurrence of colorectal adenoma (p-trend across shift work categories = 0.5). Women with the longest durations of rotating night shift work (≥10 years) had a similar risk of adenoma compared to women without a history of rotating night shift work (multivariable-adjusted RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.83-1.11). Similarly, there were no associations of shorter or longer sleep durations with adenoma risk (p-trend = 0.2 across sleep durations of ≤5 through 7 h/day and p-trend = 0.5 across sleep durations of 7 through ≥9 h/day). Results were similar when we examined associations according to adenoma location and subtype. Our results do not support an association between rotating night shift work or sleep duration and risk of colorectal adenoma in women.

  18. A Generalized Framework for Non-Stationary Extreme Value Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragno, E.; Cheng, L.; Sadegh, M.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2017-12-01

    Empirical trends in climate variables including precipitation, temperature, snow-water equivalent at regional to continental scales are evidence of changes in climate over time. The evolving climate conditions and human activity-related factors such as urbanization and population growth can exert further changes in weather and climate extremes. As a result, the scientific community faces an increasing demand for updated appraisal of the time-varying climate extremes. The purpose of this study is to offer a robust and flexible statistical tool for non-stationary extreme value analysis which can better characterize the severity and likelihood of extreme climatic variables. This is critical to ensure a more resilient environment in a changing climate. Following the positive feedback on the first version of Non-Stationary Extreme Value Analysis (NEVA) Toolbox by Cheng at al. 2014, we present an improved version, i.e. NEVA2.0. The upgraded version herein builds upon a newly-developed hybrid evolution Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach for numerical parameters estimation and uncertainty assessment. This addition leads to a more robust uncertainty estimates of return levels, return periods, and risks of climatic extremes under both stationary and non-stationary assumptions. Moreover, NEVA2.0 is flexible in incorporating any user-specified covariate other than the default time-covariate (e.g., CO2 emissions, large scale climatic oscillation patterns). The new feature will allow users to examine non-stationarity of extremes induced by physical conditions that underlie the extreme events (e.g. antecedent soil moisture deficit, large-scale climatic teleconnections, urbanization). In addition, the new version offers an option to generate stationary and/or non-stationary rainfall Intensity - Duration - Frequency (IDF) curves that are widely used for risk assessment and infrastructure design. Finally, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) of the package is provided, making NEVA

  19. EDITORIAL: CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodonov, Victor V.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2010-09-01

    Although time-dependent quantum systems have been studied since the very beginning of quantum mechanics, they continue to attract the attention of many researchers, and almost every decade new important discoveries or new fields of application are made. Among the impressive results or by-products of these studies, one should note the discovery of the path integral method in the 1940s, coherent and squeezed states in the 1960-70s, quantum tunneling in Josephson contacts and SQUIDs in the 1960s, the theory of time-dependent quantum invariants in the 1960-70s, different forms of quantum master equations in the 1960-70s, the Zeno effect in the 1970s, the concept of geometric phase in the 1980s, decoherence of macroscopic superpositions in the 1980s, quantum non-demolition measurements in the 1980s, dynamics of particles in quantum traps and cavity QED in the 1980-90s, and time-dependent processes in mesoscopic quantum devices in the 1990s. All these topics continue to be the subject of many publications. Now we are witnessing a new wave of interest in quantum non-stationary systems in different areas, from cosmology (the very first moments of the Universe) and quantum field theory (particle pair creation in ultra-strong fields) to elementary particle physics (neutrino oscillations). A rapid increase in the number of theoretical and experimental works on time-dependent phenomena is also observed in quantum optics, quantum information theory and condensed matter physics. Time-dependent tunneling and time-dependent transport in nano-structures are examples of such phenomena. Another emerging direction of study, stimulated by impressive progress in experimental techniques, is related to attempts to observe the quantum behavior of macroscopic objects, such as mirrors interacting with quantum fields in nano-resonators. Quantum effects manifest themselves in the dynamics of nano-electromechanical systems; they are dominant in the quite new and very promising field of circuit

  20. Nilpotent orbits in real symmetric pairs and stationary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, Heiko; De Graaf, Willem A.; Ruggeri, Daniele; Trigiante, Mario

    2017-01-01

    In the study of stationary solutions in extended supergravities with symmetric scalar manifolds, the nilpotent orbits of a real symmetric pair play an important role. In this paper we discuss two approaches to determine the nilpotent orbits of a real symmetric pair. We apply our methods to an explicit example, and thereby classify the nilpotent orbits of (SL 2 (R)) 4 acting on the fourth tensor power of the natural 2-dimensional SL 2 (R)-module. This makes it possible to classify all stationary solutions of the so-called STU-supergravity model. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Stationary neoclassical profiles of plasma parameters in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilkin, I.S.; Mineev, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    Peculiarities of neoclassical model of heat and particle transfer, occuring by calculations of plasma stationary profile parameters in stellarators are considered. The main peculiarity out of all consists in ineadequate compatibility with real physical conditions on the boundary, requiring application of supplementary 'anomalous' transfer or special (but technically possible) adjustment of particle and heat sources to achieve solution in form of 'correct' monotonically sloping profile. It is stated, that neoclassical theory does not provide for well-known ambiguity of solutions for ambipolar electrical field by search of monotonous stationary profiles supported by outside sources

  2. Uniqueness of solution to a stationary boundary kinetic problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhykharsky, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    The paper treats the question of uniqueness of solution to the boundary kinetic problem. This analysis is based on the accurate solutions to the stationary one-dimensional boundary kinetic problem for the limited plasma system. In the paper a simplified problem statement is used (no account is taken of the external magnetic field, a simplest form of boundary conditions is accepted) which, however, covers all features of the problem considered. Omitting the details of the conclusion we will write a set of Vlasov stationary kinetic equations for the cases of plane, cylindrical and spherical geometry of the problem. (author) 1 ref

  3. Non-stationary flow of hydraulic oil in long pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hružík Lumír

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with experimental evaluation and numerical simulation of non-stationary flow of hydraulic oil in a long hydraulic line. Non-stationary flow is caused by a quick closing of valves at the beginning and the end of the pipe. Time dependence of pressure is measured by means of pressure sensors at the beginning and the end of the pipe. A mathematical model of a given circuit is created using Matlab SimHydraulics software. The long line is simulated by means of segmented pipe. The simulation is verified by experiment.

  4. Income dynamics with a stationary double Pareto distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Alexis Akira

    2011-04-01

    Once controlled for the trend, the distribution of personal income appears to be double Pareto, a distribution that obeys the power law exactly in both the upper and the lower tails. I propose a model of income dynamics with a stationary distribution that is consistent with this fact. Using US male wage data for 1970-1993, I estimate the power law exponent in two ways--(i) from each cross section, assuming that the distribution has converged to the stationary distribution, and (ii) from a panel directly estimating the parameters of the income dynamics model--and obtain the same value of 8.4.

  5. Power variation for Gaussian processes with stationary increments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Corcuera, J.M.; Podolskij, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We develop the asymptotic theory for the realised power variation of the processes X=•G, where G is a Gaussian process with stationary increments. More specifically, under some mild assumptions on the variance function of the increments of G and certain regularity conditions on the path of the pr......We develop the asymptotic theory for the realised power variation of the processes X=•G, where G is a Gaussian process with stationary increments. More specifically, under some mild assumptions on the variance function of the increments of G and certain regularity conditions on the path...... a chaos representation....

  6. Stationary neoclassical profiles of plasma parameters in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilkin, I.S.; Mineev, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    The properties of the neoclassical model of heat and particle transport are considered in connection with calculations of stationary profiles of the plasma parameters in stellarators. The most important feature is the poor agreement with real physical conditions of the boundary, which imposes the necessity of invoking either an additional anomalous transport or a special (although technically possible) consistency between the particle and heat sources in order to obtain a solution in the form of a correct monotonically decreasing profile. In search for monotonic stationary profiles maintained by external sources, it is ascertained that the neoclassical theory does not give rise to the well-known multivalued solutions for the ambipolar electric field

  7. Randomly forced CGL equation stationary measures and the inviscid limit

    CERN Document Server

    Kuksin, S

    2003-01-01

    We study a complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGL) equation perturbed by a random force which is white in time and smooth in the space variable~$x$. Assuming that $\\dim x\\le4$, we prove that this equation has a unique solution and discuss its asymptotic in time properties. Next we consider the case when the random force is proportional to the square root of the viscosity and study the behaviour of stationary solutions as the viscosity goes to zero. We show that, under this limit, a subsequence of solutions in question converges to a nontrivial stationary process formed by global strong solutions of the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation.

  8. Spin in stationary gravitational fields and rotating frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obukhov, Yuri N.; Silenko, Alexander J.; Teryaev, Oleg V.

    2010-01-01

    A spin motion of particles in stationary spacetimes is investigated in the framework of the classical gravity and relativistic quantum mechanics. We bring the Dirac equation for relativistic particles in nonstatic spacetimes to the Hamiltonian form and perform the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. We show the importance of the choice of tetrads for description of spin dynamics in the classical gravity. We derive classical and quantum mechanical equations of motion of the spin for relativistic particles in stationary gravitational fields and rotating frames and establish the full agreement between the classical and quantum mechanical approaches.

  9. Time-of-night variations in the story-like organization of dream experience developed during rapid eye movement sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolli, Carlo; Guazzelli, Mario; Bellucci, Claudia; Mazzetti, Michela; Palagini, Laura; Rosenlicht, Nicholas; Feinberg, Irwin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the cycles (2nd/4th) and duration-related (5/10 min) variations in the story-like organization of dream experience elaborated during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dream reports were analysed using story grammar rules. Reports were provided by those subjects (14 of 22) capable of reporting a dream after each of the four awakenings provoked in 2 consecutive nights during REM sleep of the 2nd and 4th cycles, after periods of either 5 or 10 min, counterbalanced across the nights. Two researchers who were blind as to the sleep condition scored the dream reports independently. The values of the indicators of report length (measured as value of total word count) and of story-like organization of dream reports were matched taking time-of-night (2nd and 4th cycles) and REM duration (5 versus 10 min) as factors. Two-way analyses of variance showed that report length increased significantly in 4th-cycle REM sleep and nearly significantly for longer REM duration, whereas the number of dream-stories per report did not vary. The indices of sequential (number of statements describing the event structure developed in the story) and hierarchical (number of episodes per story) organization increased significantly only in dream-stories reported after 10 min of 4th-cycle REM sleep. These findings indicate that the characteristics of structural organization of dream-stories vary along with time of night, and suggest that the elaboration of a long and complex dream-story requires a fairly long time and the availability of a great amount of cognitive resources to maintain its continuity and coherence. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  10. Night Shift Work and Its Health Effects on Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Books, Candie; Coody, Leon C; Kauffman, Ryan; Abraham, Sam

    The purpose of this research was to study night shift work and its health effects on nurses. This was a quantitative study using descriptive design; it also incorporated three qualitative open-ended questions to complement the study. The data were collected using Survey Monkey, with an Internet-based confidential data collection tool. The population of relevance to this study was nurses employed in hospital settings in the United States. E-mail addresses and Facebook were used to recruit participants. Results indicated that there is an increased risk of sleep deprivation, family stressors, and mood changes because of working the night shift. Rotating shifts were mentioned as a major concern for night shift nurses. Respondents agreed that complaints about fatigue and fatigue-related illnesses in night shift workers were ignored. There was also a general perception among nurses working the night shift that sleep deprivation leads to negative health consequences including obesity; however, they were not as high a concern as rotating shifts or fatigue.

  11. Night-time warming and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukla, G.; Karl, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of temperature data collected mainly from rural stations in North America, China, the Commonwealth of Independent States, Australia, Sudan, Japan, Denmark, Northern Finland, several Pacific Islands, Pakistan, South Africa and Europe suggest that the reported warming of the Northern Hemisphere since WWII is principally a result of an increase in night-time temperatures. The average monthly maximum and minimum temperatures, as well as the mean diurnal temperature range (DTR), were calculated for various regions from data supplied by 1000 stations from 1951 to 1990. Average and minimum temperatures generally rose during the analysed interval and the rise in night-time temperatures was more pronounced than the increase in daily maximum temperatures. As a result, the mean DTR decreased almost everywhere. The most probable causes of the rise in night-time temperatures are: an increase in cloudiness owing to natural changes in the circulation patterns of oceans and the atmosphere; increased cloud cover density caused by industrial pollution; urban heat islands, generated by cities, which are strongest during the night; irrigation which keeps the surface warmer at night and cooler by day; and anthropogenic greenhouse gases. 18 refs., 3 figs

  12. Delivery outcomes after day and night onset of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Sandeep; Rabindran, Ranjit; Lindow, Stephen W

    2015-11-01

    To describe the outcome of night onset of labour as compared with the day onset of labour to investigate if labour that begins at night is more efficient. Retrospective review of labour and delivery data. A large United Kingdom maternity service. Over the period of 10 years, there were 30,022 deliveries, of which 19,842 were studied. A United Kingdom maternity department database was used to identify deliveries over a 10-year period, and the delivery outcomes were retrieved from these records. The 19,842 labours were divided into two categories: night onset (22.00-06.00 h) and day onset (10.00-18.00 h). Rates of operative intervention, augmentation, epidural usage and labour duration. A significant difference in delivery outcome was noted (P=0.004) with the night-onset labours having more normal deliveries (83.6% vs. 82.5%), fewer caesarean sections (8.7% vs. 10.1%), fewer labour augmentations with syntocinon (14.9% vs. 19.5%, Pnight-onset group and 2414 (30%) in the day-onset group (χ2=1.3, P=NS) Conclusions: Labours that start at night appear to be more efficient than labours that start during the day.

  13. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Night Eating Syndrome and Depression among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sharon H.; DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino

    2010-01-01

    Night eating syndrome criteria include skipping breakfast, night eating, and sleep difficulties. It is associated with mood disturbances, particularly depression, and may contribute to later obesity development. Most research on night eating syndrome has focused on obese persons seeking weight loss treatment, and little is known about night eating…

  14. Night eating and weight change in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Stunkard, Albert J.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2004-01-01

    -94 too. Subjects working night shifts were excluded. MEASUREMENTS: Night eating in 1987-88, 5-y preceding and 6-y subsequent weight change. RESULTS: In total, 9.0% women and 7.4% men reported 'getting up at night to eat'. Obese women with night eating experienced an average 6-y weight gain of 5.2 kg (P=0...

  15. Overview on Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Deaf-Blind Education Transition to Adulthood > Transition Self Determination Person Centered Planning Postsecondary Education Independent Living Employment Customized Employment Sex Education Adult Services Technology Personnel > Intervener Services Support ...

  16. American Foundation for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss Text Size Smaller Type Larger Type Change Colors My AFB Search Donate to AFB Shop AFB ... and More Public Policy and Research Statistics on Blindness DirectConnect: Public Policy and Advocacy News Research Navigator: ...

  17. Efficacy and hypnotic effects of melatonin in shift-work nurses: double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouryaghoub Gholamreza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Night work is associated with disturbed sleep and wakefulness, particularly in relation to the night shift. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are characterized by complaints of insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness that are primarily due to alterations in the internal circadian timing system or a misalignment between the timing of sleep and the 24-h social and physical environment. Methods We evaluated the effect of oral intake of 5 mg melatonin taken 30 minutes before night time sleep on insomnia parameters as well as subjective sleep onset latency, number of awakenings, and duration of sleep. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study with periods of 1 night and washouts of 4 days comparing melatonin with placebo tablets was conducted. We tried to improve night-time sleep during recovery from night work. Participants were 86 shift-worker nurses aged 24 to 46 years. Each participant completed a questionnaire immediately after awakening. Results Sleep onset latency was significantly reduced while subjects were taking melatonin as compared with both placebo and baseline. There was no evidence that melatonin altered total sleep time (as compared with baseline total sleep time. No adverse effects of melatonin were noted during the treatment period. Conclusion Melatonin may be an effective treatment for shift workers with difficulty falling asleep.

  18. Simple pendulum for blind students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, A. M. B.; Cena, C. R.; Alves, D. C. B.; Errobidart, N. C. G.; Jardim, M. I. A.; Queiros, W. P.

    2017-09-01

    Faced with the need to teach physics to the visually impaired, in this paper we propose a way to demonstrate the dependence of distance and time in a pendulum experiment to blind students. The periodic oscillation of the pendulum is translated, by an Arduino and an ultrasonic sensor, in a periodic variation of frequency in a speaker. The main advantage of this proposal is the possibility that a blind student understands the movement without necessity of touching it.

  19. Individual differences in change blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Katharina Verena

    2016-01-01

    The present work shows the existence of systematic individual differences in change blindness. It can be concluded that the sensitivity for changes is a trait. That is, persons differ in their ability to detect changes, independent from the situation or the measurement method. Moreover, there are two explanations for individual differences in change blindness: a) capacity differences in visual selective attention that may be influenced by top-down activated attention helping to focus attentio...

  20. Gearbox Fault Diagnosis in a Wind Turbine Using Single Sensor Based Blind Source Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuning Qian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single sensor based blind source separation approach, namely, the wavelet-assisted stationary subspace analysis (WSSA, for gearbox fault diagnosis in a wind turbine. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT is used as a preprocessing tool to decompose a single sensor measurement data into a set of wavelet coefficients to meet the multidimensional requirement of the stationary subspace analysis (SSA. The SSA is a blind source separation technique that can separate the multidimensional signals into stationary and nonstationary source components without the need for independency and prior information of the source signals. After that, the separated nonstationary source component with the maximum kurtosis value is analyzed by the enveloping spectral analysis to identify potential fault-related characteristic frequencies. Case studies performed on a wind turbine gearbox test system verify the effectiveness of the WSSA approach and indicate that it outperforms independent component analysis (ICA and empirical mode decomposition (EMD, as well as the spectral-kurtosis-based enveloping, for wind turbine gearbox fault diagnosis.

  1. Speed of mental processing in the middle of the night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, T. H.; Carrier, J.

    1997-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether human mental processing actually slows down during the night hours, separately from the previously documented microsleeps, lapses in attention, and general slowing of motor responses. Eighteen healthy young adults were studied during 36 hours of constant wakeful bedrest. Every 2 hours, they performed a logical reasoning task. Items phrased in the negative voice took reliably longer to respond to than items phrased in the positive voice, indicating the need for more mental processing in those items. By subtracting "negative" from "positive" reaction times at each time of day, we were able to plot a circadian rhythm in the time taken for this extra mental processing to be done separately from microsleeps, psychomotor slowing, and inattention. The extra mental processing took longer at night and on the day following sleep loss than it did during the day before the sleep loss, suggesting that human mental processing slows down during the night under sleep deprivation.

  2. Assuring human operator alertness at night in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore-Ede, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The human body is not designed for peak alertness and performance at night, nor is it well-equipped to cope with the frequent day-night inversions required by rotating shift work schedules. As a result, the human operator can become the weak link in a complex technological operation such as a nuclear power plant. The high degree of dependence on human operator vigilance, decision-making ability and performance that is required in nuclear power plant operations can conflict with the human sleepiness and error-proneness which naturally occur during the night shift or after extended periods without adequate sleep. An opportunity to address these problems has come from a series of major research advances in basic circadian physiology

  3. Low Cost Night Vision System for Intruder Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Liang S.; Yusoff, Wan Azhar Wan; R, Dhinesh; Sak, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    The growth in production of Android devices has resulted in greater functionalities as well as lower costs. This has made previously more expensive systems such as night vision affordable for more businesses and end users. We designed and implemented robust and low cost night vision systems based on red-green-blue (RGB) colour histogram for a static camera as well as a camera on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), using OpenCV library on Intel compatible notebook computers, running Ubuntu Linux operating system, with less than 8GB of RAM. They were tested against human intruders under low light conditions (indoor, outdoor, night time) and were shown to have successfully detected the intruders.

  4. At the heart of CERN for one night

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Some 200 young people, mostly from neighbouring Switzerland or France – but also from Italy, Great Britain and Poland – took part in Researchers Night on Friday, 23 September. Interviewed by the Bulletin after they had returned from the control rooms of the LHC and its experiments, the pupils were full of enthusiasm following, by all accounts, an unforgettable evening.   Participants of the 2011 Researchers Night enjoy their visit to CMS. The second edition of CERN Researchers Night was a great success, with international participants as well as a substantial local contingent. Some 200 young people aged 13 to 18 registered on the event’s website and spent two hours in one of the control rooms of the LHC machine and its experiments. Laëtitia Pedroso, a member of the Communication Group who participated in the organisation of this event, noted with satisfaction: “Most of the pupils came from neighbouring France and Switzerland, but we also welcom...

  5. Novice Nurses’ Perception of Working Night Shifts: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Faseleh Jahromi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing is always accompanied by shift working and nurses in Iran have to work night shifts in some stages of their professional life. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe the novice nurses’ perception of working night shifts. Methods: The present qualitative study was conducted on 20 novice nurses working in two university hospitals of Jahrom, Iran. The study data were collected through focus group interviews. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using constant comparative analysis and qualitative content analysis. Results: The study findings revealed five major themes of value system, physical and psychological problems, social relationships, organizational problems, and appropriate opportunity. Conclusion: The study presented a deep understanding of the novice nurses’ perception of working night shifts, which can be used by the managers as a basis for organizing health and treatment systems.

  6. Global Night-Time Lights for Observing Human Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipskind, Stephen R.; Elvidge, Chris; Gurney, K.; Imhoff, Mark; Bounoua, Lahouari; Sheffner, Edwin; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Pettit, Donald R.; Fischer, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We present a concept for a small satellite mission to make systematic, global observations of night-time lights with spatial resolution suitable for discerning the extent, type and density of human settlements. The observations will also allow better understanding of fine scale fossil fuel CO2 emission distribution. The NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey recommends more focus on direct observations of human influence on the Earth system. The most dramatic and compelling observations of human presence on the Earth are the night light observations taken by the Defence Meteorological System Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Beyond delineating the footprint of human presence, night light data, when assembled and evaluated with complementary data sets, can determine the fine scale spatial distribution of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding fossil fuel carbon emissions is critical to understanding the entire carbon cycle, and especially the carbon exchange between terrestrial and oceanic systems.

  7. Night vision and electro-optics technology transfer, 1972 - 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R. W.; Mason, G. F.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of this special report, 'Night Vision and Electro-Optics Technology Transfer 1972-1981,' is threefold: To illustrate, through actual case histories, the potential for exploiting a highly developed and available military technology for solving non-military problems. To provide, in a layman's language, the principles behind night vision and electro-optical devices in order that an awareness may be developed relative to the potential for adopting this technology for non-military applications. To obtain maximum dollar return from research and development investments by applying this technology to secondary applications. This includes, but is not limited to, applications by other Government agencies, state and local governments, colleges and universities, and medical organizations. It is desired that this summary of Technology Transfer activities within Night Vision and Electro-Optics Laboratory (NV/EOL) will benefit those who desire to explore one of the vast technological resources available within the Defense Department and the Federal Government.

  8. Numerical Clifford Analysis for the Non-stationary Schroedinger Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faustino, N.; Vieira, N.

    2007-01-01

    We construct a discrete fundamental solution for the parabolic Dirac operator which factorizes the non-stationary Schroedinger operator. With such fundamental solution we construct a discrete counterpart for the Teodorescu and Cauchy-Bitsadze operators and the Bergman projectors. We finalize this paper with convergence results regarding the operators and a concrete numerical example

  9. Detection of Multiple Stationary Humans Using UWB MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulai Liang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Remarkable progress has been achieved in the detection of single stationary human. However, restricted by the mutual interference of multiple humans (e.g., strong sidelobes of the torsos and the shadow effect, detection and localization of the multiple stationary humans remains a huge challenge. In this paper, ultra-wideband (UWB multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO radar is exploited to improve the detection performance of multiple stationary humans for its multiple sight angles and high-resolution two-dimensional imaging capacity. A signal model of the vital sign considering both bi-static angles and attitude angle of the human body is firstly developed, and then a novel detection method is proposed to detect and localize multiple stationary humans. In this method, preprocessing is firstly implemented to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the vital signs, and then a vital-sign-enhanced imaging algorithm is presented to suppress the environmental clutters and mutual affection of multiple humans. Finally, an automatic detection algorithm including constant false alarm rate (CFAR, morphological filtering and clustering is implemented to improve the detection performance of weak human targets affected by heavy clutters and shadow effect. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can get a high-quality image of multiple humans and we can use it to discriminate and localize multiple adjacent human targets behind brick walls.

  10. Conserved quantities for stationary Einstein-Maxwell space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, F.P.; Witten, L.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that every stationary Einstein-Maxwell space-time has eight divergence-free vector fields and these are isolated in general form. The vector fields and associated conserved quantities are calculated for several families of space-times. (Auth.)

  11. Plasma equilibria and stationary flows in axisymmetric systems. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelazny, R.; Stankiewicz, R.; Potempski, S.

    1988-05-01

    Part I of this report described the computational problems connected with the bifurcating solutions to static and extended Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter equations (with stationary flows). Part II is a listing of the computer program for solving the extended Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter equations developed in Part I. (author)

  12. Bipower variation for Gaussian processes with stationary increments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Corcuera, José Manuel; Podolskij, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Convergence in probability and central limit laws of bipower variation for Gaussian processes with stationary increments and for integrals with respect to such processes are derived. The main tools of the proofs are some recent powerful techniques of Wiener/Itô/Malliavin calculus for establishing...

  13. Stationary solutions of multicomponent chiral and gauge models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.; Chudnovsky, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    The authors examine stationary solutions of completely integrable systems in (x, t) dimensions having infinitely many components. Among the cases under investigation are: (1) the infinite-component non-linear Schroedinger equation; (2) infinite component CPsup(Ω) or SU(N) sigma-models; (3) general gauge and chiral completely integrable systems. (Auth.)

  14. DViN - stationary setup for identification of explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystritskij, V.M.; Gerasimov, V.V.; Kadyshevskij, V.G.

    2007-01-01

    A stationary system for identification of hidden explosives has been developed and constructed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR). The results of the examination of the system as well as the operation principle of the system and design of the main elements are presented in this paper

  15. Existence of stationary solutions in the coronal loop problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulshof, J; Terman, D; Verhulst, F

    1988-01-01

    The study of a hot plasma confined to a magnetic loop in the sun's corona leads to a singularly perturbed nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation with rather unusual side conditions. Monotone solutions of the stationary problem appear as fixed points of an iteration map which is contractive if the perturbation parameter is sufficiently small.

  16. PSSGP : Program for Simulation of Stationary Gaussian Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    This report describes the computer program PSSGP. PSSGP can be used to simulate realizations of stationary Gaussian stochastic processes. The simulation algorithm can be coupled with some applications. One possibility is to use PSSGP to estimate the first-passage density function of a given system...

  17. Sigma-convergence of stationary Navier-Stokes type equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nguetseng

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of homogenization theory, the Sigma-convergence method is carried out on stationary Navier-Stokes type equations on a fixed domain. Our main tools are the two-scale convergence concept and the so-called homogenization algebras.

  18. On the nonparametric prediction of conditionally stationary sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Caires; J.A. Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe prove the strong consistency of estimators of the conditional distribution function and conditional expectation of a future observation of a discrete time stochastic process given a fixed number of past observations. The results apply to conditionally stationary processes (a class of

  19. 75 FR 55635 - Restructuring of the Stationary Source Audit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... assurance requirements that would make an additional audit sample redundant. We believe that Method 18 also has sufficient quality assurance measures that make an audit sample unnecessary. This method requires... Stationary Source Audit Program; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 176 / Monday, September 13...

  20. Variance-optimal hedging for processes with stationary independent increments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubalek, Friedrich; Kallsen, J.; Krawczyk, L.

    We determine the variance-optimal hedge when the logarithm of the underlying price follows a process with stationary independent increments in discrete or continuous time. Although the general solution to this problem is known as backward recursion or backward stochastic differential equation, we...

  1. Long time tails in stationary random media. I. Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, M.H.; Machta, J.; Dorfman, J.R.; Beijeren, H. van

    1984-01-01

    Diffusion of moving particles in stationary disordered media is studied using a phenomenological mode-coupling theory. The presence of disorder leads to a generalized diffusion equation, with memory kernels having power law long time tails. The velocity autocorrelation function is found to decay

  2. The spectral analysis of cyclo-non-stationary signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, D.; Baudin, S.; Antoni, J.; Rémond, D.; Eltabach, M.; Sauvage, O.

    2016-06-01

    Condition monitoring of rotating machines in speed-varying conditions remains a challenging task and an active field of research. Specifically, the produced vibrations belong to a particular class of non-stationary signals called cyclo-non-stationary: although highly non-stationary, they contain hidden periodicities related to the shaft angle; the phenomenon of long term modulations is what makes them different from cyclostationary signals which are encountered under constant speed regimes. In this paper, it is shown that the optimal way of describing cyclo-non-stationary signals is jointly in the time and the angular domains. While the first domain describes the waveform characteristics related to the system dynamics, the second one reveals existing periodicities linked to the system kinematics. Therefore, a specific class of signals - coined angle-time cyclostationary is considered, expressing the angle-time interaction. Accordingly, the related spectral representations, the order-frequency spectral correlation and coherence functions are proposed and their efficiency is demonstrated on two industrial cases.

  3. Inertial algorithms for the stationary Navier-Stokes equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Yanren; Mattheij, R.M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Several kind of new numerical schemes for the stationary Navier-Stokes equations based on the virtue of Inertial Manifold and Approximate Inertial Manifold, which we call them inertial algorithms in this paper, together with their error estimations are presented. All these algorithms are constructed

  4. Two Numerical Approaches to Stationary Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Almulla, Noha; Ferreira, Rita; Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we consider numerical methods for stationary mean-field games (MFG) and investigate two classes of algorithms. The first one is a gradient-flow method based on the variational characterization of certain MFG. The second one uses monotonicity properties of MFG. We illustrate our methods with various examples, including one-dimensional periodic MFG, congestion problems, and higher-dimensional models.

  5. Long time tails in stationary random media II: Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machta, J.; Ernst, M.H.; Dorfman, J.R.; Beijeren, H. van

    1984-01-01

    In a previous paper we developed a mode-coupling theory to describe the long time properties of diffusion in stationary, statistically homogeneous, random media. Here the general theory is applied to deterministic and stochastic Lorentz models and several hopping models. The mode-coupling theory

  6. Cointegration and Econometric Analysis of Non-Stationary Data in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is in conformity with the philosophy underlying the cointegration theory. Therefore, ignoring cointegration in non-stationary time series variables could lead to misspecification of the underlying process in the determination of corporate income tax in Nigeria. Thus, the study conclude that cointegration is greatly enhanced ...

  7. Non-Stationary Dependence Structures for Spatial Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaë l; Genton, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    been developed, and fitted to various types of data. However, a recurrent problem is the modeling of non-stationarity. In this paper, we develop non-stationary max-stable dependence structures in which covariates can be easily incorporated. Inference

  8. Methylgroup interaction of hydrocarbon stationary phases and hydrocarbon solutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemenade, van A.W.C.; Groenendijk, H.

    1969-01-01

    The temperature dependency of the retention behaviour of some alkanes with squalane as stationary phase has been measured at a very high precision level, at temperatures from 30 to 90°C. Besides the retention index itself [1], its temperature dependency appears to be a source of information about

  9. Stationary strings near a higher-dimensional rotating black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Stevens, Kory A.

    2004-01-01

    We study stationary string configurations in a space-time of a higher-dimensional rotating black hole. We demonstrate that the Nambu-Goto equations for a stationary string in the 5D (five-dimensional) Myers-Perry metric allow a separation of variables. We present these equations in the first-order form and study their properties. We prove that the only stationary string configuration that crosses the infinite redshift surface and remains regular there is a principal Killing string. A worldsheet of such a string is generated by a principal null geodesic and a timelike at infinity Killing vector field. We obtain principal Killing string solutions in the Myers-Perry metrics with an arbitrary number of dimensions. It is shown that due to the interaction of a string with a rotating black hole, there is an angular momentum transfer from the black hole to the string. We calculate the rate of this transfer in a space-time with an arbitrary number of dimensions. This effect slows down the rotation of the black hole. We discuss possible final stationary configurations of a rotating black hole interacting with a string

  10. Ceramic stationary gas turbine development. Final report, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Solar Turbines Inc. and its subcontractors during the period September 25, 1992 through April 30, 1993. The objective of the work is to improve the performance of stationary gas turbines in cogeneration through implementation of selected ceramic components.

  11. Two Numerical Approaches to Stationary Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Almulla, Noha

    2016-10-04

    Here, we consider numerical methods for stationary mean-field games (MFG) and investigate two classes of algorithms. The first one is a gradient-flow method based on the variational characterization of certain MFG. The second one uses monotonicity properties of MFG. We illustrate our methods with various examples, including one-dimensional periodic MFG, congestion problems, and higher-dimensional models.

  12. Robust Forecasting of Non-Stationary Time Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croux, C.; Fried, R.; Gijbels, I.; Mahieu, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust forecasting method for non-stationary time series. The time series is modelled using non-parametric heteroscedastic regression, and fitted by a localized MM-estimator, combining high robustness and large efficiency. The proposed method is shown to produce reliable

  13. Psychologica and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychologica and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding from two groups of blind people in Ilorin, Nigeria. ... Background: Blindness can cause psychosocial distress leading to maladjustment if not mitigated. Maladjustment is a secondary burden that further reduces quality of life of the blind. Adjustment is often ...

  14. Blinded trials taken to the test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Forfang, E; Haahr, M T

    2007-01-01

    Blinding can reduce bias in randomized clinical trials, but blinding procedures may be unsuccessful. Our aim was to assess how often randomized clinical trials test the success of blinding, the methods involved and how often blinding is reported as being successful....

  15. The impact of short night-time naps on performance, sleepiness and mood during a simulated night shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofanti, Stephanie A; Hilditch, Cassie J; Dorrian, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    Short naps on night shift are recommended in some industries. There is a paucity of evidence to verify the sustained recovery benefits of short naps in the last few hours of the night shift. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the sustained recovery benefits of 30 and 10-min nap opportunities during a simulated night shift. Thirty-one healthy participants (18F, 21-35 y) completed a 3-day, between-groups laboratory study with one baseline night (22:00-07:00 h time in bed), followed by one night awake (time awake from 07:00 h on day two through 10:00 h day three) with random allocation to: a 10-min nap opportunity ending at 04:00 h, a 30-min nap opportunity ending at 04:00 h or no nap (control). A neurobehavioral test bout was administered approximately every 2 h during wake periods. There were no significant differences between nap conditions for post-nap psychomotor vigilance performance after controlling for pre-nap scores (p > 0.05). The 30-min nap significantly improved subjective sleepiness compared to the 10-min nap and no-nap control (p effect.

  16. Seeing Stars: A GLOBE at Night Campaign Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.; Newhouse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The emphasis in the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few 100,000 citizen-scientists. What has done in the last year to contribute to its success? • To promote the campaign via popular social media, GLOBE at Night created Facebook and Twitter pages. • Videos have been created for 4 out of 8 Dark Skies Rangers activities. • Sky brightness measurements can be submitted in real time with smart phones or tablets using the new Web application at www.globeatnight.org/webapp/. The location, date and time register automatically. • As a proto-type, an adopt-a-street program had people in Tucson take measurements every mile for the length of the street. Grid measurements canvassed the town, allowing for comparisons of light levels over time. • The increase to 2 campaigns in 2011 re-enforces these studies. In 2012, the campaign will be offered 4 times for 10 days a month: January 14-23, February 12-21, March 13-22 and April 11-20. • A new Web application (www.globeatnight.org/mapapp/) allows for mapping GLOBE at Night data points within a specified distance around a city or area of choice. The resulting maps are bookmarkable and shareable. • NOAO and Arizona Game and Fish Department started a project with GLOBE at Night data and bat telemetry to examine a dark skies corridor in Tucson where endangered bats fly. While providing these updates to the GLOBE at Night program, the presentation will highlight the education and outreach value of the program's resources and outcomes, lessons learned, successes and pitfalls in communicating awareness with the public and attracting young people to study science.

  17. Night myopia studied with an adaptive optics visual analyzer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Artal

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Eyes with distant objects in focus in daylight are thought to become myopic in dim light. This phenomenon, often called "night myopia" has been studied extensively for several decades. However, despite its general acceptance, its magnitude and causes are still controversial. A series of experiments were performed to understand night myopia in greater detail. METHODS: We used an adaptive optics instrument operating in invisible infrared light to elucidate the actual magnitude of night myopia and its main causes. The experimental setup allowed the manipulation of the eye's aberrations (and particularly spherical aberration as well as the use of monochromatic and polychromatic stimuli. Eight subjects with normal vision monocularly determined their best focus position subjectively for a Maltese cross stimulus at different levels of luminance, from the baseline condition of 20 cd/m(2 to the lowest luminance of 22 × 10(-6 cd/m(2. While subjects performed the focusing tasks, their eye's defocus and aberrations were continuously measured with the 1050-nm Hartmann-Shack sensor incorporated in the adaptive optics instrument. The experiment was repeated for a variety of controlled conditions incorporating specific aberrations of the eye and chromatic content of the stimuli. RESULTS: We found large inter-subject variability and an average of -0.8 D myopic shift for low light conditions. The main cause responsible for night myopia was the accommodation shift occurring at low light levels. Other factors, traditionally suggested to explain night myopia, such as chromatic and spherical aberrations, have a much smaller effect in this mechanism. CONCLUSIONS: An adaptive optics visual analyzer was applied to study the phenomenon of night myopia. We found that the defocus shift occurring in dim light is mainly due to accommodation errors.

  18. Impact of Multi-Night Experimentally Induced Short Sleep on Adolescent Performance in a Simulated Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Dean W; Field, Julie; Milller, Megan M; Miller, Lauren E; LeBlond, Elizabeth

    2017-02-01

    Investigate whether a realistic "dose" of shortened sleep, relative to a well-rested state, causes a decline in adolescents' learning and an increase in inattentive and sleepy behaviors in a simulated classroom setting. Eighty-seven healthy 14.0- to 16.9-year olds underwent a 3-week sleep manipulation protocol, including two 5-night sleep manipulation conditions presented in a randomly counterbalanced within-subjects cross-over design. Wake time was held constant. Bedtimes were set to induce Short Sleep (SS; 6.5 hours in bed) versus Healthy Sleep (HS; 10 hours in bed). During the morning at the end of each condition, participants underwent a simulated classroom procedure in which they viewed lecture-based educational videotapes and completed relevant quizzes. Their behaviors in the simulated classroom were later coded by condition-blind raters for evidence of inattention and sleepiness. Adolescents had a longer average sleep period during HS (9.1 hours) than SS (6.5 hours). Compared to scores during HS, adolescents scored significantly lower on the quiz, showed more behaviors suggestive of inattention and sleepiness in the simulated classroom, and were reported by adolescents themselves and by their parents to be more inattentive and sleepy during SS. However, the impact of the manipulation on quiz scores was not mediated by changes in attention or sleepiness. Although effect sizes were modest, these findings suggest that previously-reported correlations between sleep duration and academic performance reflect true cause-effect relationships. Findings add to the growing evidence that the chronically shortened sleep experienced by many adolescents on school nights adversely impacts their functioning and health. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Public outreach: Multitudes attend the Night of Science

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Night of Science, which took place in the parc de la Perle du Lac in Geneva last weekend, was a great success, with 30000 visitors attending according to the organisers. Many curious people flocked to the stands and animations until late on Saturday night and all afternoon on Sunday. The CERN stand (photo) received a great amount of interest from participants. Both kids and adults discovered the activities of the Laboratory and the data-processing revolution initiated by CERN, from the Web to the Computing Grid. Hats off to the CERN collaborators in the Communication Group and IT Department who made this event a success.

  20. A SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT FOR AUTOMATIC NIGHT DRIVING AND VISUAL CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo Rubio, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    This project consists on developing an automatic night driving system in a simulation environment. The simulator I have used is TORCS. TORCS is an Open Source car racing simulator written in C++. It is used as an ordinary car racing game, as a IA racing game and as a research platform. The goal of this thesis is to implement an automatic driving system to control the car under night conditions using computer vision. A camera is implemented inside the vehicle and it will detect the reflective ...

  1. LHCb: A New Nightly Build System for LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Clemencic, M

    2013-01-01

    The nightly build system used so far by LHCb has been implemented as an extension on the system developed by CERN PH/SFT group (as presented at CHEP2010). Although this version has been working for many years, it has several limitations in terms of extensibility, management and ease of use, so that it was decided to develop a new version based on a continuous integration system. In this paper we describe a new implementation of the LHCb Nightly Build System based on the open source continuous integration system Jenkins and report on the experience on the configuration of a complex build workflow in Jenkins.

  2. "Chrono-functional milk": The difference between melatonin concentrations in night-milk versus day-milk under different night illumination conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, A; Shabtay, A; Brosh, A; Eitam, H; Agmon, R; Cohen-Zinder, M; Zubidat, A E; Haim, A

    2015-01-01

    Pineal melatonin (MLT) is produced at highest levels during the night, under dark conditions. We evaluated differences in MLT-concentration by comparing daytime versus night time milk samples, from two dairy farms with different night illumination conditions: (1) natural dark (Dark-Night); (2) short wavelength Artificial Light at Night (ALAN, Night-Illuminated). Samples were collected from 14 Israeli Holstein cows from each commercial dairy farm at 04:30 h ("Night-milk") 12:30 h ("Day-milk") and analyzed for MLT-concentration. In order to study the effects of night illumination conditions on cows circadian rhythms, Heart Rate (HR) daily rhythms were recorded. MLT-concentrations of Night-milk samples from the dark-night group were significantly (p Night-illuminated conditions (30.70 ± 1.79 and 17.81 ± 0.33 pg/ml, respectively). Interestingly, night illumination conditions also affected melatonin concentrations at daytime where under Dark-Night conditions values are significantly (p Night-Illuminated conditions, (5.36 ± 0.33 and 3.30 ± 0.18 pg/ml, respectively). There were no significant differences between the two treatments in the milk yield and milk composition except somatic cell count (SCC), which was significantly lower (p = 0.02) in the Dark-Night group compared with the Night-Illuminated group. Cows in both groups presented a significant (p night illuminated cows feeding and milking time are the "time keeper", while in the Dark-night cows, HR rhythms were entrained by the light/dark cycle. The higher MLT-concentration in Dark-night cows with the lower SCC values calls upon farmers to avoid exposure of cows to ALAN. Therefore, under Dark-night conditions milk quality will improve by lowering SCC values where separation between night and day of such milk can produce chrono-functional milk, naturally rich with MLT.

  3. Causes of blindness in blind unit of the school for the handicapped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To describe the causes of blindness in pupils and staff in the blind unit of the School for the Handicapped in Kwara State. 2. To identify problems in the blind school and initiate intervention. All the blind or visually challenged people in the blind unit of the school for the handicapped were interviewed and examined using a ...

  4. Recovery and deformation substructures of zircaloy-4 in high temperature plasticity under stationary or non-stationary stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocek, M.; Armas, I.

    1982-01-01

    It was the aim of the present investigation to examine how the recovery rate in creep is influenced by a non-stationary stress. For purposes of phenomenological analysis it is postulated that, irrespective of whether the applied stress is stationary or not, for large strains the mean internal stress sigmasub(i) approaches a stationary value sigmasub(i,s). The stationary recovery rate Rsub(s) for constant load creep turns out be governed by the applied stress indicating that the recovery mechanism is dynamic in nature. For sigma-ramp loading, Rsub(s) is dependent on the stress rate sigma. In tensional stress cycling, Rsub(s) is governed by the maximum stress sigmasub(M) and is also dependent on the ratio of sigmasub(M) to the minimum stress sigma 0 . TEM examination of Zircaloy-4 specimens crept at 800 0 C at constant and cycling load respectively could not reveal any differences in the deformation substructure for the two loading types. Subgrain formation did not appear, individual dislocations were observed only rarely. However, typical networks were formed as well as pileups which perhaps are responsible for the back stress in high temperature plasticity (HTP). (orig.)

  5. Determinants of day-night difference in blood pressure, a comparison with determinants of daytime and night-time blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musameh, M D; Nelson, C P; Gracey, J; Tobin, M; Tomaszewski, M; Samani, N J

    2017-01-01

    Blunted day-night difference in blood pressure (BP) is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, although there is limited information on determinants of diurnal variation in BP. We investigated determinants of day-night difference in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP and how these compared with determinants of daytime and night-time SBP and DBP. We analysed the association of mean daytime, mean night-time and mean day-night difference (defined as (mean daytime-mean night-time)/mean daytime) in SBP and DBP with clinical, lifestyle and biochemical parameters from 1562 adult individuals (mean age 38.6) from 509 nuclear families recruited in the GRAPHIC Study. We estimated the heritability of the various BP phenotypes. In multivariate analysis, there were significant associations of age, sex, markers of adiposity (body mass index and waist-hip ratio), plasma lipids (total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides), serum uric acid, alcohol intake and current smoking status on daytime or night-time SBP and/or DBP. Of these, only age (P=4.7 × 10 -5 ), total cholesterol (P=0.002), plasma triglycerides (P=0.006) and current smoking (P=3.8 × 10 -9 ) associated with day-night difference in SBP, and age (P=0.001), plasma triglyceride (P=2.2 × 10 -5 ) and current smoking (3.8 × 10 -4 ) associated with day-night difference in DBP. 24-h, daytime and night-time SBP and DBP showed substantial heritability (ranging from 18-43%). In contrast day-night difference in SBP showed a lower heritability (13%) while heritability of day-night difference in DBP was not significant. These data suggest that specific clinical, lifestyle and biochemical factors contribute to inter-individual variation in daytime, night-time and day-night differences in SBP and DBP. Variation in day-night differences in BP is largely non-genetic.

  6. THE BARRIERS TO AND DRIVERS OF A CIRCULAR ECONOMY FOR THE BLINDS AND SHUTTERS INDUSTRY IN THE UK

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, D; De Grussa, Z; Chalk, A; Bush, D

    2016-01-01

    Blinds and shutters create privacy in residential and commercial buildings; they can also be used to keep rooms cool when sunny and to minimise heat loss at night or in winter, which reduces use of air conditioning and heating, associated energy inputs, carbon and other outputs and costs. In addition to controlling temperature, they also reduce glare and control light levels, all of which contribute to general health and well-being. In many instances however these products are not used correc...

  7. Auditory cues for orientation and postural control in sighted and congenitally blind people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, R. D.; Greene, A. J.; DiZio, P.; Lackner, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    This study assessed whether stationary auditory information could affect body and head sway (as does visual and haptic information) in sighted and congenitally blind people. Two speakers, one placed adjacent to each ear, significantly stabilized center-of-foot-pressure sway in a tandem Romberg stance, while neither a single speaker in front of subjects nor a head-mounted sonar device reduced center-of-pressure sway. Center-of-pressure sway was reduced to the same level in the two-speaker condition for sighted and blind subjects. Both groups also evidenced reduced head sway in the two-speaker condition, although blind subjects' head sway was significantly larger than that of sighted subjects. The advantage of the two-speaker condition was probably attributable to the nature of distance compared with directional auditory information. The results rule out a deficit model of spatial hearing in blind people and are consistent with one version of a compensation model. Analysis of maximum cross-correlations between center-of-pressure and head sway, and associated time lags suggest that blind and sighted people may use different sensorimotor strategies to achieve stability.

  8. Late-Night Stress on the IT Help Desk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Dan

    2007-01-01

    With more and more students--especially those taking online courses--demanding access to technology help at all hours of the day and night, colleges are responding by extending help-desk hours. More than half are open late into the evening, according to a recent survey by Educause, the educational technology consortium, and a few are available…

  9. Bangalore @ night: Indian IT professionals and the global clock ticking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, M.

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with the question of what the night means to IT (information technology) professionals working in the Indian IT industry in Bangalore. In particular, it argues that the way IT work gets done (in India) demands a type of flexibility of an IT worker that‘forces’ him to rethink

  10. Decreased heart rate variability in surgeons during night shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, Ilda; Toftegård Andersen, Lærke; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used as a measure of stress and mental strain in surgeons. Low HRV has been associated with death and increased risk of cardiac events in the general population. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of a 17-hour night shift on surgeons'...

  11. Day-to-night heat storage in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seginer, Ido; Straten, van Gerrit; Beveren, van Peter J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Day-to-night heat storage in water tanks (buffers) is common practice in cold-climate greenhouses, where gas is burned during the day for carbon dioxide enrichment. In Part 1 of this study, an optimal control approach was outlined for such a system, the basic idea being that the virtual value

  12. Day/Night Cycle: Mental Models of Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiras, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the mental models of primary school children related to the day/night cycle. Semi-structure interviews were conducted with 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade children. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data indicated that the majority of the children were classified as having geocentric models. The results also…

  13. Day Persons, Night Persons, and Time of Birth: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Benjamin; Fisher, Leslie E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents the results from two surveys that explored the relationship between time of birth and being a day or night person. Explains that in survey one, U.S. high school students completed a questionnaire related to daytime or nighttime activity, while in survey two, U.S. college students completed the same questionnaire. (CMK)

  14. Difference in initial dental biofilm accumulation between night and day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dige, Irene; Schlafer, Sebastian; Nyvad, Bente

    2012-12-01

    The study of initial microbial colonization on dental surfaces is a field of intensive research because of the aetiological role of biofilms in oral diseases. Most previous studies of de novo accumulation and composition of dental biofilms in vivo do not differentiate between biofilms formed during day and night. This study hypothesized that there is a diurnal variation in the rate of accumulation of bacteria on solid surfaces in the oral cavity. In situ biofilm from healthy individuals was collected for 12 h during day and night, respectively, subjected to fluorescent in situ hybridization and visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Analysis of the biofilms using stereological methods and digital image analysis revealed a consistent statistically significant difference between both the total number of bacteria and the biovolume in the two 12-h groups (p = 0.012), with the highest accumulation of bacteria during daytime (a factor of 8.8 and 6.1 higher, respectively). Hybridization with probes specific for streptococci and Actinomyces naeslundii indicated a higher proportion of streptococci in biofilms grown during daytime as compared to night-time. No differences could be observed for A. naeslundii. The degree of microbial coverage and the bacterial composition varied considerably between different individuals. The data provide firm evidence that initial biofilm formation decreases during the night, which may reflect differences in the availability of salivary nutrients. This finding is of significant importance when studying population dynamics during experimental dental biofilm formation.

  15. Physiological responses of rice to increased day and night temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Wanju

    2017-01-01

    A more rapid increase in night-time temperature compared with day-time temperature and the increased frequency of heat waves associated with climate change present a serious threat to rice (Oryza sativa L.) production and food security. This thesis aims to understand the impact of high

  16. Fast natural color mapping for night-time imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Toet, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new method to render multi-band night-time imagery (images from sensors whose sensitive range does not necessarily coincide with the visual part of the electromagnetic spectrum, e.g. image intensifiers, thermal camera's) in natural daytime colors. The color mapping is derived from the

  17. Cultural differences: Polish fandom of Welcome to Night Vale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Włodarczyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to Night Vale (2012– is an intertextual podcast in the tradition of popular horror and weird tales. Listeners are meant to be part of a (fictional community, listening to the radio in the small desert town of Night Vale in the Southwestern United States, although neither the state nor the exact time are specified. We follow the host of the program, Cecil Palmer, as he describes the town's community life, although the events presented in the show are far from normal. The first episode was published online June 15, 2012, with no marketing to accompany the event. Many had first heard about Welcome to Night Vale through fan art available via social media, including Tumblr, Soup.io, blog communities, Facebook groups, and deviantArt. Although the production is available in English only, it has a Polish fandom. We describe the difference in perception of this popular text based on differences in the cultural background and literary knowledge of the listeners. We also attend to fan practices such as fan art surrounding Welcome to Night Vale because their content correlates with the creator's culture of origin, as well as the issue of funding the free podcast among fans from different countries and different economies.

  18. Luxurious Buses As Means Of Night Journey In Nigeria: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transfer to discourage robbery cases on our roads. Passengers should also keep their traveling plans secret as much as possible as a way of fostering safety. Keywords: night journey, armed robbers, luxurious buses and police escorts. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 1 (3) 2008: pp. 52-62.

  19. Sleeping position and reported night-time asthma symptoms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 49 years old man, known case of bronchial asthma for 43 years, with history of frequent asthmatic attacks, usually responding to double dose of intravenous Aminophylline and double dose of Hydrocortisone was received at medical emergency care unit at midnight with night-time asthma attack. The attack did not settle ...

  20. Cuff inflations do not affect night-time blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Emilie H; Theilade, Simone; Hansen, Tine W

    2015-01-01

    Discomfort related to cuff inflation may bias 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements, especially during night-time. We accessed the impact of cuff inflations by comparing 24 h BP recorded with a cuff-less tonometric wrist device and an upper-arm oscillometric cuff device. Fifty...

  1. Physiological and Psychological Aspects of Night and Shift Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtczak-Jaroszowa, Jadwiga

    Results of physiological and psychological studies related to night and shift work are reviewed from the standpoint of their possible use by industry in understanding the problems of shift work and finding solutions. (New research data that has appeared since original preparation of the manuscript is presented in a three-part addendum with…

  2. Resident perceptions of the educational value of night float rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luks, Andrew M; Smith, C Scott; Robins, Lynne; Wipf, Joyce E

    2010-07-01

    Night float rotations are being increasingly used in the era of resident physician work-hour regulations, but their impact on resident education is not clear. Our objective was to clarify resident perceptions of the educational aspects of night float rotations. An anonymous survey of internal medicine residents at a university-based residency program was completed. Responses were received from 116 of 163 surveyed residents (71%). Residents attended less residents' report (0.10 +/- .43 vs. 2.70 + 0.93 sessions/week, peducational value of night float, sleep cycle adjustment issues, and impact on their personal lives, which correlated with resident evaluations from the regular program evaluation process. In free responses, residents commented that they liked the autonomy and opportunity to improve triage skills on these rotations and confirmed their negative opinions about the sleep-wake cycle and interference with personal lives. Internal medicine residents at a university-based program have negative opinions regarding the educational value of night float rotations. Further work is necessary to determine whether problems exist across programs and specialties.

  3. Using Process Drama to Deconstruct a Midsummer Night's Dream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltsek, Gustave

    2005-01-01

    Gustave Weltsek, a high school English teacher, has turned to process "A Midsummer Night's Dream" to avoid passing on traditional views and interpretations of the play. He has helped the students to see relevance in William Shakespeare's text by using improvisations to get them talking about issues that are important to them.

  4. Geopolitical location and plot in The Night Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2017-01-01

    The Night Manager. Three perspectives are tested in combining the analysis of location with the development of the plot: the general concepts of universal and real geography; the idea of being located inside or outside a given context; and the associated notion of centre-periphery opposition. A geopolitical...

  5. CMS Virtual Visits @ European Researchers Night, 30 September 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Lapka, Marzena

    2016-01-01

    CMS hosted four virtual visits during European Researchers Night. Audience from Greece (NCRS Demokritos, Athens), Poland (University of Science and Technology in Krakow), Italy (Psiquadro in Perugia & INFN in Pisa) and Portugal (Planetarium Calouste Gulbenkian, organised by LIP) had an occasion to converse with CMS researchers and "virtually" visit CMS Control Room and underground facilities.

  6. Night-shift work is associated with increased pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matre, Dagfinn; Knardahl, Stein; Nilsen, Kristian Bernhard

    2017-05-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine whether shift workers exhibit increased perception of experimentally induced pain after working night shifts. Methods The study was a paired cross-over design with two sleep conditions, after at least two nights of habitual sleep and after two consecutive night shifts at work. Fifty-three nurses in rotating shift work participated. The sensitivity to electrically induced pain, heat pain, cold pain, pressure pain and pain inhibition was determined experimentally in each sleep condition. Sleepiness and vigilance were also assessed. Results Night-shift work (NSW) increased the sensitivity to electrically induced pain and heat pain (P≤0.001). Relative to habitual sleep, electrically induced pain increased by 22.3% and heat pain increased by 26.5%. The sensitivity to cold and pressure pain did not change, changes relative to habitual sleep was 0.5). Pain inhibition was 66.9% stronger after NSW versus after habitual sleep (Peffect sizes and may be an important marker for studies comparing the physiological effects of different shift work schedules. Explanations for the differential effect on different pain modalities should be a focus for future studies.

  7. Data from: Artificial night lighting inhibits feeding in moths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.; Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Fijen, T.P.M.

    2017-01-01

    One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is nocturnal light pollution, which strongly alters habitats of nocturnally active species. Artificial night lighting is often considered as driving force behind rapid moth population declines in severely illuminated countries. To understand

  8. Differential impact of partial cortical blindness on gaze strategies when sitting and walking - an immersive virtual reality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorizzo, Dana B; Riley, Meghan E; Hayhoe, Mary; Huxlin, Krystel R

    2011-05-25

    The present experiments aimed to characterize the visual performance of subjects with long-standing, unilateral cortical blindness when walking in a naturalistic, virtual environment. Under static, seated testing conditions, cortically blind subjects are known to exhibit compensatory eye movement strategies. However, they still complain of significant impairment in visual detection during navigation. To assess whether this is due to a change in compensatory eye movement strategy between sitting and walking, we measured eye and head movements in subjects asked to detect peripherally-presented, moving basketballs. When seated, cortically blind subjects detected ∼80% of balls, while controls detected almost all balls. Seated blind subjects did not make larger head movements than controls, but they consistently biased their fixation distribution towards their blind hemifield. When walking, head movements were similar in the two groups, but the fixation bias decreased to the point that fixation distribution in cortically blind subjects became similar to that in controls - with one major exception: at the time of basketball appearance, walking controls looked primarily at the far ground, in upper quadrants of the virtual field of view; cortically blind subjects looked significantly more at the near ground, in lower quadrants of the virtual field. Cortically blind subjects detected only 58% of the balls when walking while controls detected ∼90%. Thus, the adaptive gaze strategies adopted by cortically blind individuals as a compensation for their visual loss are strongest and most effective when seated and stationary. Walking significantly alters these gaze strategies in a way that seems to favor walking performance, but impairs peripheral target detection. It is possible that this impairment underlies the experienced difficulty of those with cortical blindness when navigating in real life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radio-Oxidation in Polyolefins: Non-Stationary Kinetic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dely, N.

    2006-01-01

    In the last fifty years, many authors have been interested in the radio-oxidation processes occurring in polymers. The polymer degradation under ionising radiations in presence of dioxygen is well described by a radical chemistry. The radio-oxidation process occurs in three steps: the first one is the production of radicals P degree by interaction between the polymer and the ionising radiations; then radicals P degree react spontaneously with O 2 solved in the polymer giving a peroxy radical POO degree which attacks the polymer forming a hydroperoxide POOH and a new radical P degree (propagation). The third step corresponds to the termination step, that is bimolecular reactions between radicals. It is generally assumed that the stationary state is rapidly reached and consequently that the oxidation induced during the built-up period of the radical concentration can be neglected. However, to our best knowledge, the temporal evolution of radical concentrations before reaching the steady state regime has never been studied in details. We recently performed a complete study of oxygen consumption under electron irradiation for an EPDM elastomer. An analysis, as function of dose rate and oxygen pressure, and assuming steady state conditions, allowed extracting all the kinetic constants. Starting for these experimental data, we calculated the build-up of the radical concentration by solving numerically the differential equations with help of the Minichem code. We conclude that, in fact, the oxidation induced during the built-up period is negligible. In this paper we show that [P degree] could present a quasi-stationary plateau before reaching its stationary level. Consequently, the full radical time evolution is essentially determined by two characteristic times for reaching the quasi and stationary levels and three concentrations: [P degree] and [POO degree] at the stationary level and [P degree] at the quasi-stationary plateau. We show that realistic approximations can

  10. Future trends in global blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Resnikoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to discuss the available data on the prevalence and causes of global blindness, and some of the associated trends and limitations seen. A literature search was conducted using the terms "global AND blindness" and "global AND vision AND impairment", resulting in seven appropriate articles for this review. Since 1990 the estimate of global prevalence of blindness has gradually decreased when considering the best corrected visual acuity definition: 0.71% in 1990, 0.59% in 2002, and 0.55% in 2010, corresponding to a 0.73% reduction per year over the 2002-2010 period. Significant limitations were found in the comparability between the global estimates in prevalence or causes of blindness or visual impairment. These limitations arise from various factors such as uncertainties about the true cause of the impairment, the use of different definitions and methods, and the absence of data from a number of geographical areas, leading to various extrapolation methods, which in turn seriously limit comparability. Seminal to this discussion on limitations in the comparability of studies and data, is that blindness has historically been defined using best corrected visual acuity.

  11. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of acquired blindness in Japan. One reason that it often leads to blindness is that it can continue to worsen even after effective medical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), the only evidence-based treatment. The limitations of current treatments make it critical to identify IOP-independent factors that can cause glaucoma and develop new drugs to target these factors. This is a challenging task, as the pathology of glaucoma is thought to be very complex, with different combinations of factors underlying its development and progression in different patients. Additionally, there is a deficiency in methods to efficiently perform clinical evaluations and reliably probe the state of the disease over relatively short periods. In addition, newly developed drugs need to be evaluated with clinical trials, for which human and financial resources are limited, before they can be widely used for treatment. Taking all these issues into consideration, it is evident that there are two urgent issues to consider: the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on its pathology, and the improvement of clinical evaluation methods. In this review, we discuss some of our efforts to develop new neuroprotective agents for glaucoma, with a focus on the following three areas: 1. Clinical research and development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP-independent factors, and the exploration of possibilities for the improvement of clinical evaluation of glaucoma. 2. Pathology-based research and development of new drugs for glaucoma, focusing on comprehensive gene expression analysis and the development of molecule-targeting drugs, using murine optic nerve crush as a disease model. 3. Development of next generation in vivo imaging modalities and the establishment of infrastructure enabling "big-data" analysis. First, we discuss our clinical research and the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP

  12. HOC Based Blind Identification of Hydroturbine Shaft Volterra System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Bai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the quadratic Volterra system simplified from the hydroturbine shaft system, a blind identification method based on the third-order cumulants and a reversely recursive method are proposed. The input sequence of the system under consideration is an unobservable independent identically distributed (i.i.d., zero-mean and non-Gaussian stationary signal, and the observed signals are the superposition of the system output signal and Gaussian noise. To calculate the third-order moment of the output signal, a computer loop judgment method is put forward to determine the coefficient. When using optimization method to identify the time domain kernels, we combined the traditional optimization algorithm (direct search method with genetic algorithm (GA and constituted the hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA. Finally, according to the prototype observation signal and the time domain kernel parameters obtained from identification, the input signal of the system can be gained recursively. To test the proposed method, three numerical experiments and engineering application have been carried out. The results show that the method is applicable to the blind identification of the hydroturbine shaft system and has strong universality; the input signal obtained by the reversely recursive method can be approximately taken as the random excitation acted on the runner of the hydroturbine shaft system.

  13. Operator performance on the night shift: phases 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisseau, Dolores; Beere, Barnaby; Collier, Steve

    1999-04-01

    The objective of the project on operator performance on the night shift is to determine the effects of circadian rhythms on higher order cognitive processes. The project had two preliminary phases. Subjects were operators from the Halden Boiling Water Reactor, (Phase 1: 7 male operators and shift leaders, aged 26 to 35; Phase 2: 8 male operators and shift leaders, aged 26 to 53). The majority of the operators were the same for both studies. The preliminary work established that Norwegian operators' circadian rhythms fall within universal population norms and, thus, they are suitable subjects for such experiments. During Phase 1, two self-assessment instruments, the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) and the Global Vigour and Affect Scale (GVA), were administered every hour on all three shifts at the reactor. During Phase 2, three tests from the Walter Reed Performance Assessment Battery were administered at the beginning, middle, and end of each of the three shifts at the reactor. The tests (Serial Add-Subtract, Two-Column Addition, and Logical Reasoning) were administered using a hand-held computer. Both phases were conducted during regular work shifts for one complete shift rota (six weeks). ANOVA with two repeated measures showed that self-reported sleepiness on the night shift, sleepiness with respect to hours into the shift, and the interaction between them all reached statistical significance at p<.001. Data analyses (ANOVA) from Phase 2 indicate that the main effect of SHIFTNO (morning, afternoon, evening) on response times was significant (p<.002); the interaction between SHIFTNO and TINSHIFT (hours into shift) was also significant (p<.009). None of the effects on correctness of response was significant (Phase 2). While correctness of response was not significant for routine cognitive measures, the significant, progressive slowing of response times on the night shift reinforces the concern for possible performance decrements on the night shift. Thus, it

  14. Astronomy Meets the Environmental Sciences: Using GLOBE at Night Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, D.; Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.

    2011-09-01

    The GLOBE at Night database now contains over 52,000 observations from the five annual two-week campaigns. It can be used as a resource to explore various issues related to light pollution and our environment. Students can compare data over time to look for changes and trends. For example, they can compare the data to population density or with nighttime photography and spectroscopy of lights. The data can be used in a lighting survey, to search for dark sky oases or to monitor ordinance compliance. Students can study effects of light pollution on animals, plants, human health, safety, security, energy consumption, and cost. As an example, we used data from the GLOBE at Night project and telemetry tracking data of lesser long-nosed bats obtained by the Arizona Game and Fish Department to study the effects of light pollution on the flight paths of the bats between their day roosts and night foraging areas around the city of Tucson, AZ. With the visual limiting magnitude data from GLOBE at Night, we ran a compositional analysis with respect to the bats' flight paths to determine whether the bats were selecting for or against flight through regions of particular night sky brightness levels. We found that the bats selected for the regions in which the limiting sky magnitudes fell between the ranges of 2.8-3.0 to 3.6-3.8 and 4.4-4.6 to 5.0-5.2, suggesting that the lesser long-nosed bat can tolerate a fair degree of urbanization. We also compared this result to contour maps created with digital Sky Quality Meter (http://www.unihedron.com) data.

  15. [NIGHT SHIFT WORK AND HEALTH DISORDER RISK IN FEMALE WORKERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhtina, E G; Solionova, L G; Fedichkina, T P; Zykova, I E

    2015-01-01

    There was evaluated the risk to health in females employed in shift work, including night shifts. According to the data of periodical medical examinations health indices of 403 females employed in shift work, including night shifts, were compared with indices of 205 females--workers of administrative units of the same enterprise. Overall relative risk (RR) for the health disorder associated with the night shift was 1.2 (95%; confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.28). A statistically significant increase in risk was observed in relation to uterine fibroids (OR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.06-1.54), mastopathy (OR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6), inorganic sleep disorders (OR 8.8; 95% CI 2.6-29.8). At the boundary of the statistical significance there was the increase in the risk for obesity (OR 1.2; 95% C: 0.97-1.39), hypertension (OR 1.2; 95% CI, 0.9-1.5) and endometriosis (OR 1.5; 95% CI: 0.98-2.16). There was revealed an adverse effect of night shifts on the gestation course: ectopic pregnancy in the experimental group occurred 6.6 times more frequently than in the control group (95% CI: 0.87-50.2), and spontaneous abortion--1.7 times (95% CI: 0.95-3.22). The performed study has once again confirmed the negative impact of smoking on women's reproductive health: smoking women in the experimental group compared with the control group smokers had 2.7 times increased risk of uterine fibroids (within 1.06-7.0), the risk in non-smokers was significantly lower--1.2 (0.98-1.4). The findings suggest about a wide range of health problems related to employment on shift work, including night shifts, which indicates to the need for adoption of regulatory and preventive measures aimed to this professional group.

  16. Heat-transfer characteristics of flowing and stationary particle-bed-type fusion-reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nietert, R.E.

    1983-02-01

    The following five appendices are included: (1) physical properties of materials, (2) thermal entrance length Nusselt number variations, (3) stationary particle bed temperature variations, (4) falling bed experimental data and calculations, and (5) stationary bed experimental data and calculations

  17. New treatments of hereditary blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Rosenberg, Thomas; Larsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life and a structura......Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life...... and a structurally intact retinal tissue to adult life with a complete loss of photoreceptors. It must be assumed that some of the trials will succeed in producing new therapies and action must be taken to refine and accelerate diagnostics and to preserve therapeutic potential in blind people....

  18. Working memory and inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Keith; Simons, Daniel J

    2012-04-01

    Individual differences in working memory predict many aspects of cognitive performance, especially for tasks that demand focused attention. One negative consequence of focused attention is inattentional blindness, the failure to notice unexpected objects when attention is engaged elsewhere. Yet, the relationship between individual differences in working memory and inattentional blindness is unclear; some studies have found that higher working memory capacity is associated with greater noticing, but others have found no direct association. Given the theoretical and practical significance of such individual differences, more definitive tests are needed. In two studies with large samples, we tested the relationship between multiple working memory measures and inattentional blindness. Individual differences in working memory predicted the ability to perform an attention-demanding tracking task, but did not predict the likelihood of noticing an unexpected object present during the task. We discuss the reasons why we might not expect such individual differences in noticing and why other studies may have found them.

  19. 20 CFR 416.983 - How we evaluate statutory blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we evaluate statutory blindness. 416.983... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.983 How we evaluate statutory blindness. We will find that you are blind if you are statutorily blind within the meaning of...

  20. 20 CFR 416.982 - Blindness under a State plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blindness under a State plan. 416.982 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.982 Blindness under a State... plan because of your blindness for the month of December 1973; and (c) You continue to be blind as...

  1. Inferential framework for non-stationary dynamics: theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggento, Andrea; Luchinsky, Dmitri G; McClintock, Peter V E; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N

    2009-01-01

    An extended Bayesian inference framework is presented, aiming to infer time-varying parameters in non-stationary nonlinear stochastic dynamical systems. The convergence of the method is discussed. The performance of the technique is studied using, as an example, signal reconstruction for a system of neurons modeled by FitzHugh–Nagumo oscillators: it is applied to reconstruction of the model parameters and elements of the measurement matrix, as well as to inference of the time-varying parameters of the non-stationary system. It is shown that the proposed approach is able to reconstruct unmeasured (hidden) variables of the system, to determine the model parameters, to detect stepwise changes of control parameters for each oscillator and to track the continuous evolution of the control parameters in the adiabatic limit

  2. On the stationary Einstein-Maxwell-Klein-Gordon equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gegenberg, J.D.

    1981-05-01

    The stationary Einstein-Maxwell-Klein-Gordon (EMKG) equations for interacting gravitational, electromagnetic and meson fields are examined. The theory is cast into the formalism of principal fiber bundles with a connection, wherein its relationship to current trends in theoretical physics is made manifest. The EMKG equations are shown to admit a Higgs-like mechanism for giving mass to the gauge field. A theorem specifying sufficient conditions for the stationarity of the spacetime metric to imply stationarity of the other fields is proved. By imposing additional constraints and symmetries, the EMKG equations are considerably simplified. An attempt is made to apply a solution-generation technique, and this meets with only partial success. Finally, a stationary but non-static solution is found, and the geometric and physical properties are discussed

  3. Nilpotent orbits in real symmetric pairs and stationary black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Heiko [School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, VIC (Australia); De Graaf, Willem A. [Department of Mathematics, University of Trento, Povo (Italy); Ruggeri, Daniele [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Trigiante, Mario [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    In the study of stationary solutions in extended supergravities with symmetric scalar manifolds, the nilpotent orbits of a real symmetric pair play an important role. In this paper we discuss two approaches to determine the nilpotent orbits of a real symmetric pair. We apply our methods to an explicit example, and thereby classify the nilpotent orbits of (SL{sub 2}(R)){sup 4} acting on the fourth tensor power of the natural 2-dimensional SL{sub 2}(R)-module. This makes it possible to classify all stationary solutions of the so-called STU-supergravity model. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. A simple stationary semi-analytical wake model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    We present an idealized simple, but fast, semi-analytical algorithm for computation of stationary wind farm wind fields with a possible potential within a multi-fidelity strategy for wind farm topology optimization. Basically, the model considers wakes as linear perturbations on the ambient non......-linear. With each of these approached, a parabolic system are described, which is initiated by first considering the most upwind located turbines and subsequently successively solved in the downstream direction. Algorithms for the resulting wind farm flow fields are proposed, and it is shown that in the limit......-uniform mean wind field, although the modelling of the individual stationary wake flow fields includes non-linear terms. The simulation of the individual wake contributions are based on an analytical solution of the thin shear layer approximation of the NS equations. The wake flow fields are assumed...

  5. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis from stationary biking: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inklebarger, J; Galanis, N; Kirkos, J; Kapetanos, G

    2010-10-01

    There are several reports concerning exercise and rabdomyolysis. There has been no report in the English literature of exercise induced rabdomyolisis from a stationary bike.A 63-year-old female recreational athlete presented to our hospital seeking treatment for lower back, leg pain and stiffness after exercising on a stationary bicycle one day prior. Blood work showed a raised CK of 38,120 U/L, a myoglobin of 5330 and an AST 495 U/L with normal urea and electrolytes. Urinalysis remained negative. She was admitted for oral and intravenous hydration and fluid balance monitoringThis is a very rare case of rhabdomyolysis due to exercise. This study highlights the difficulties faced by accident and emergency teams in distinguishing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) from exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis, and reinforces the concept that rhabdomyolysis can occur at any level of exercise intensity.

  6. Scaling law of resistance fluctuations in stationary random resistor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennetta; Trefan; Reggiani

    2000-12-11

    In a random resistor network we consider the simultaneous evolution of two competing random processes consisting in breaking and recovering the elementary resistors with probabilities W(D) and W(R). The condition W(R)>W(D)/(1+W(D)) leads to a stationary state, while in the opposite case, the broken resistor fraction reaches the percolation threshold p(c). We study the resistance noise of this system under stationary conditions by Monte Carlo simulations. The variance of resistance fluctuations is found to follow a scaling law |p-p(c)|(-kappa(0)) with kappa(0) = 5.5. The proposed model relates quantitatively the defectiveness of a disordered media with its electrical and excess-noise characteristics.

  7. Learning in Non-Stationary Environments Methods and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lughofer, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Recent decades have seen rapid advances in automatization processes, supported by modern machines and computers. The result is significant increases in system complexity and state changes, information sources, the need for faster data handling and the integration of environmental influences. Intelligent systems, equipped with a taxonomy of data-driven system identification and machine learning algorithms, can handle these problems partially. Conventional learning algorithms in a batch off-line setting fail whenever dynamic changes of the process appear due to non-stationary environments and external influences.   Learning in Non-Stationary Environments: Methods and Applications offers a wide-ranging, comprehensive review of recent developments and important methodologies in the field. The coverage focuses on dynamic learning in unsupervised problems, dynamic learning in supervised classification and dynamic learning in supervised regression problems. A later section is dedicated to applications in which dyna...

  8. On the continuity of the stationary state distribution of DPCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraghi-Pour, Morteza; Neuhoff, David L.

    1990-03-01

    Continuity and singularity properties of the stationary state distribution of differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) are explored. Two-level DPCM (i.e., delta modulation) operating on a first-order autoregressive source is considered, and it is shown that, when the magnitude of the DPCM prediciton coefficient is between zero and one-half, the stationary state distribution is singularly continuous; i.e., it is not discrete but concentrates on an uncountable set with a Lebesgue measure of zero. Consequently, it cannot be represented with a probability density function. For prediction coefficients with magnitude greater than or equal to one-half, the distribution is pure, i.e., either absolutely continuous and representable with a density function, or singular. This problem is compared to the well-known and still substantially unsolved problem of symmetric Bernoulli convolutions.

  9. Stationary density profiles in the Alcator C-mod tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.; Ernst, D.; Hughes, J.; Mumgaard, R.; Shiraiwa, S.; Whyte, D.; Scott, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of an internal particle source, plasma turbulence will impose an intrinsic relationship between an inwards pinch and an outwards diffusion resulting in a stationary density profile. The Alcator C-mod tokamak utilizes RF heating and current drive so that fueling only occurs in the vicinity of the separatrix. Discharges that transition from L-mode to I-mode are seen to maintain a self-similar stationary density profile as measured by Thomson scattering. For discharges with negative magnetic shear, an observed rise of the safety factor in the vicinity of the magnetic axis appears to be accompanied by a decrease of electron density, qualitatively consistent with the theoretical expectations.

  10. Epidemiology of blindness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solebo, Ameenat Lola; Teoh, Lucinda; Rahi, Jugnoo

    2017-09-01

    An estimated 14 million of the world's children are blind. A blind child is more likely to live in socioeconomic deprivation, to be more frequently hospitalised during childhood and to die in childhood than a child not living with blindness. This update of a previous review on childhood visual impairment focuses on emerging therapies for children with severe visual disability (severe visual impairment and blindness or SVI/BL).For children in higher income countries, cerebral visual impairment and optic nerve anomalies remain the most common causes of SVI/BL, while retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and cataract are now the most common avoidable causes. The constellation of causes of childhood blindness in lower income settings is shifting from infective and nutritional corneal opacities and congenital anomalies to more resemble the patterns seen in higher income settings. Improvements in maternal and neonatal health and investment in and maintenance of national ophthalmic care infrastructure are the key to reducing the burden of avoidable blindness. New therapeutic targets are emerging for childhood visual disorders, although the safety and efficacy of novel therapies for diseases such as ROP or retinal dystrophies are not yet clear. Population-based epidemiological research, particularly on cerebral visual impairment and optic nerve hypoplasia, is needed in order to improve understanding of risk factors and to inform and support the development of novel therapies for disorders currently considered 'untreatable'. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Reduction of NOx emission from stationary combustion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental impacts of NO x emission from stationary combustion sources are briefly described. These include the formation of both acid rain and photochemical smog, major environmental problems. The three mechanisms which have been identified for the formation of NO x in combustion (thermal, prompt and fuel) are also briefly outlined. Recently stringent standards have been introduced to control emissions of NO x and the review describes the major primary and secondary measures. 10 refs. 2 tabs., 5 figs

  12. Stationary walking solitons in bulk quadratic nonlinear media

    OpenAIRE

    Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, D; Crasonavn, L C; Torner Sabata, Lluís

    1997-01-01

    We study the mutual trapping of fundamental and second-harmonic light beams propagating in bulk quadratic nonlinear media in the presence of Poynting vector beam walk-off. We show numerically the existence of a two-parameter family of (2 + 1)-dimensional stationary, spatial walking solitons. We have found that the solitons exist at various values of material parameters with different wave intensities and soliton velocities. We discuss the differences between (2 + 1) and (1 + 1)-dimensional wa...

  13. On the dynamics of non-stationary binary stellar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekov, A. A.; Bejsekov, A.N.; Aldibaeva, L.T.

    2005-01-01

    The motion of test body in the external gravitational field of the binary stellar system with slowly variable some physical parameters of radiating components is considered on the base of restricted non-stationary photo-gravitational three and two bodies problem. The family of polar and coplanar solutions are obtained. These solutions give the possibility of the dynamical and structure interpretation of the binary young evolving stars and galaxies. (author)

  14. Stationary solution of a time dependent density matrix formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohyama, Mitsuru

    1994-01-01

    A stationary solution of a time-dependent density-matrix formalism, which is an extension of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory to include the effects of two-body correlations, is obtained for the Lipkin model hamiltonian, using an adiabatic treatment of the two-body interaction. It is found that the obtained result is a reasonable approximation for the exact solution of the model. (author)

  15. Occurence of stationary waves in angiography of peripheral vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, H.D.; Schmilowski, G.M.; Haverkamp, U.; Wagner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Among 229 angiographies of periphal vascular occlusions performed in 1981 and during the first half of 1982 at the Radiologic Clinic of Muenster University, stationary waves developed in one case in the vascular band before the occlusion. This phenomenon can be a pointer towards assuming that over long distances before the occlusion there is no satisfactory outflow provided for by collaterals, intact arterio-arterial or arterio-venous connections. (orig.) [de

  16. On the instability increments of a stationary pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bud'ko, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    The stability of stationary pinch to helical modes is numerically studied. It is shown that in the case of a rather fast plasma pressure decrease to the pinch boundary, for example, for an isothermal diffusion pinch with Gauss density distribution instabilities with m=0 modes are the most quickly growing. Instability increments are calculated. A simple analytical expression of a maximum increment of growth of sausage instability for automodel Gauss profiles is obtained

  17. Real Time Indoor Robot Localization Using a Stationary Fisheye Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Delibasis , Konstantinos ,; Plagianakos , Vasilios ,; Maglogiannis , Ilias

    2013-01-01

    Part 7: Intelligent Signal and Image Processing; International audience; A core problem in robotics is the localization of a mobile robot (determination of the location or pose) in its environment, since the robot’s behavior depends on its position. In this work, we propose the use of a stationary fisheye camera for real time robot localization in indoor environments. We employ an image formation model for the fisheye camera, which is used for accelerating the segmentation of the robot’s top ...

  18. Ultrastrong Stationary Double Layers in a Nondischarge Magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, N.; Hatakeyama, R.; Iizuka, S.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrastrong stationary double layers are generated in a magnetoplasma by simply applying potential differences between two plasma sources. The potential drop ϕD of the double layer is increased up to eϕD/Te≃2×103 (Te is the electron temperature in eV) with no difficulties caused by gas discharge....... There are always large spiky fluctuations on the low-potential tail of the double layers....

  19. Stationary spectra in a quasi neutral current-carrying plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakulenko, M.O.

    1992-01-01

    The low-frequency short-wave equilibrium spectra of electromagnetic fluctuations are obtained, accounting for cross-field correlations. The statistical analysis shows that a longitudinal current in a dense quasi neutral (α e ≡4πnomec 2 /Bo 2 >>1) plasma destroys the stationary of fluctuation spectra corresponding to zero fluxes of motion invariants, and may alter also the anomalous electron heat conductivity. 2 refs. (author)

  20. Robust Forecasting of Non-Stationary Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Croux, C.; Fried, R.; Gijbels, I.; Mahieu, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust forecasting method for non-stationary time series. The time series is modelled using non-parametric heteroscedastic regression, and fitted by a localized MM-estimator, combining high robustness and large efficiency. The proposed method is shown to produce reliable forecasts in the presence of outliers, non-linearity, and heteroscedasticity. In the absence of outliers, the forecasts are only slightly less precise than those based on a localized Least Squares estima...